Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.
Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pre...
Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the
M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; Bastida, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.
Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...
Krustrup, Peter; Hansen, P R; Randers, M B;
The present study examined the cardiovascular health effects of 16 weeks of recreational football training in untrained premenopausal women in comparison with continuous running training. Fifty healthy women were matched and randomized to a football (FG, n=25) or a running (RG, n=25) group and......, regular recreational football training has significant favorable effects on the cardiovascular risk profile in untrained premenopausal women and is at the least as efficient as continuous running....
Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to air pollution is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and is associated with increased blood pressure, reduced heart rate variability, endothelial dysfunction and myocardial ischaemia. Our objectives were to assess the cardiovascular effects of reducing air pollution exposure by wearing a facemask. Methods In an open-label cross-over randomised controlled trial, 15 healthy volunteers (median age 28 years walked on a predefined city centre route in Beijing in the presence and absence of a highly efficient facemask. Personal exposure to ambient air pollution and exercise was assessed continuously using portable real-time monitors and global positional system tracking respectively. Cardiovascular effects were assessed by continuous 12-lead electrocardiographic and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Results Ambient exposure (PM2.5 86 ± 61 vs 140 ± 113 μg/m3; particle number 2.4 ± 0.4 vs 2.3 ± 0.4 × 104 particles/cm3, temperature (29 ± 1 vs 28 ± 3°C and relative humidity (63 ± 10 vs 64 ± 19% were similar (P > 0.05 for all on both study days. During the 2-hour city walk, systolic blood pressure was lower (114 ± 10 vs 121 ± 11 mmHg, P vs 88 ± 11/min; P > 0.05. Over the 24-hour period heart rate variability increased (SDNN 65.6 ± 11.5 vs 61.2 ± 11.4 ms, P vs 816 ± 340 ms2, P Conclusion Wearing a facemask appears to abrogate the adverse effects of air pollution on blood pressure and heart rate variability. This simple intervention has the potential to protect susceptible individuals and prevent cardiovascular events in cities with high concentrations of ambient air pollution.
Full Text Available En los últimos años numerosos estudios han avalado los efectos beneficiosos de la ingesta de polifenoles sobre la salud, especialmente sobre el sistema cardiovascular. Esto es importante, porque las enfermedades cardiovasculares son la principal causa de muerte en el mundo. Los efectos de los polifenoles son fundamentalmente consecuencia de sus propiedades antioxidantes. Estos compuestos presentan efectos vasodilatadores, son capaces además de mejorar el perfil lipídico y atenúan la oxidación de las lipoproteínas de baja densidad (LDL. Presentan claros efectos antiinflamatorios y estos compuestos son a su vez capaces de modular los procesos de apoptosis en el endotelio vascular. Esta revisión define desde el punto de vista estructural, los distintos grupos de polifenoles que pueden formarse en los vegetales y actualiza los conocimientos sobre su biodisponibilidad. En ella se recopilan asimismo algunos de los estudios recientes que establecen sus propiedades beneficiosas a nivel cardiovascular.In recent years, a number of studies have endorsed the beneficial effects of polyphenols intake on health, especially on the cardiovascular system. This is important since cardiovascular diseases are the main death cause worldwide. The effects of polyphenols are mainly due to their antioxidant properties. These compounds present vasodilating effects, and they can improve the lipid profile and lessen the oxidation of low-density lipoproteins (LDL. They show clear antiinflammatory effects and they can modulate the apoptotic pathways in the vascular endothelium. This review defines from the structural viewpoint the different groups of polyphenols that may occur in vegetables, and updates the knowledge on their bioavailability. Some of the recent studies establishing their beneficial properties at a cardiovascular level are also included.
Full Text Available In addition to lipid-lowering and cardiovascular protective actions, statins may have beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of simvastatin therapy on insulin resistance and on leptin, adiponectin, and C-reactive protein (CRP levels, as compared to metformin, in overweight pre-diabetic subjects. Forty-one subjects with BMI >25 kg/m² and impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to take simvastatin, 20 mg/day (N = 20 or metformin, 1.7 g/day (N = 21 for 16 weeks. Blood samples for the determination of metabolic, hormonal, and inflammatory parameters were obtained at baseline and after each treatment. After metformin therapy, significant reductions in mean BMI and waist circumference were observed, and after simvastatin treatment LDL and triglyceride levels were significantly reduced. Insulin resistance determined by the homeostasis model assessment decreased only with metformin. Independently of the type of medication, a significant decrease in CRP levels was detected from baseline to the end of the study. CRP showed a mean reduction of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg/dL (P = 0.002 over time. No change in leptin or adiponectin levels was induced by any therapy. The data suggest that a low dose of simvastatin does not affect insulin resistance in overweight pre-diabetic subjects and has no effect on leptin or adiponectin levels. Further studies including a larger sample size, higher doses of statins, and a placebo control group are necessary to confirm the present data.
FONOBEROVA, MARIA; Mezić, Igor; Buckman, Jennifer F.; Fonoberov, Vladimir A.; Mezić, Adriana; Vaschillo, Evgeny G.; Mun, Eun-Young; Vaschillo, Bronya; Bates, Marsha E.
Heart rate variability biofeedback intervention involves slow breathing at a rate of ∼6 breaths/min (resonance breathing) to maximize respiratory and baroreflex effects on heart period oscillations. This intervention has wide-ranging clinical benefits and is gaining empirical support as an adjunct therapy for biobehavioral disorders, including asthma and depression. Yet, little is known about the system-level cardiovascular changes that occur during resonance breathing or the extent to which ...
Romain, Cindy; Gaillet, Sylvie; Carillon, Julie; Vidé, Joris; Ramos, Jeanne; Izard, Jean-Claude; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Rouanet, Jean-Max
We evaluated the effect of the intake of a grapevine-shoot phenolic extract (Vineatrol 30) on early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed a hyperlipidic diet. Golden Syrian hamsters received for 13 weeks either a standard diet, a high-fat (HF) diet, or the HF diet plus Vineatrol 30 at 0.04, 0.2, or 1.0 mg/(kg body weight/d). We measured plasma lipids and glucose, insulin, leptin and adiponectin, as well as liver TNF-α and IL-6 levels. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring plasma paraoxonase activity (PON) and liver superoxide anion production (O(2)(•-)). The aortic fatty streak area (AFSA) was also determined. In comparison with HF group, we demonstrated that the highest dose of Vineatrol 30 was capable of decreasing AFSA (67%), insulinemia (40%), and leptinemia (8.7%), which were increased by the HF diet. We also showed increased O(2)(•-) production (35%) and a rise in levels of the liver proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α (22%) and IL-6 (21%), accompanied by a fall in PON activity (56%) due to the HF diet versus the standard diet. In contrast, except plasma adiponectin levels that are not changed, Vineatrol 30 treatment lowered AFSA (67%), O(2)(•-) production (36%), insulin resistance (42%), leptinemia (9%), liver TNF-α (18%) and IL-6 (15%), while it rose PON activity (29%). These findings demonstrate the preventive effects of polyphenols present in Vineatrol 30 in managing cardiovascular, metabolic, and inflammatory risk factors. PMID:23078520
Hansson Anita; Pålsson Gunvor; Branell Ulla-Carin; Ahrén Bo; Granfeldt Yvonne; Jönsson Tommy; Söderström Margareta; Lindeberg Staffan
Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age') diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accorda...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Our aim was to compare the effects of a Paleolithic ('Old Stone Age' diet and a diabetes diet as generally recommended on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with type 2 diabetes not treated with insulin. Methods In a randomized cross-over study, 13 patients with type 2 diabetes, 3 women and 10 men, were instructed to eat a Paleolithic diet based on lean meat, fish, fruits, vegetables, root vegetables, eggs and nuts; and a Diabetes diet designed in accordance with dietary guidelines during two consecutive 3-month periods. Outcome variables included changes in weight, waist circumference, serum lipids, C-reactive protein, blood pressure, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c, and areas under the curve for plasma glucose and plasma insulin in the 75 g oral glucose tolerance test. Dietary intake was evaluated by use of 4-day weighed food records. Results Study participants had on average a diabetes duration of 9 years, a mean HbA1c of 6,6% units by Mono-S standard and were usually treated with metformin alone (3 subjects or metformin in combination with a sulfonylurea (3 subjects or a thiazolidinedione (3 subjects. Mean average dose of metformin was 1031 mg per day. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleolithic diet resulted in lower mean values of HbA1c (-0.4% units, p = 0.01, triacylglycerol (-0.4 mmol/L, p = 0.003, diastolic blood pressure (-4 mmHg, p = 0.03, weight (-3 kg, p = 0.01, BMI (-1 kg/m2, p = 0.04 and waist circumference (-4 cm, p = 0.02, and higher mean values of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (+0.08 mmol/L, p = 0.03. The Paleolithic diet was mainly lower in cereals and dairy products, and higher in fruits, vegetables, meat and eggs, as compared with the Diabetes diet. Further, the Paleolithic diet was lower in total energy, energy density, carbohydrate, dietary glycemic load, saturated fatty acids and calcium, and higher in unsaturated fatty acids, dietary cholesterol and several vitamins. Dietary GI
Full Text Available It is well established that exercise increases energy levels and mood state. At least 20 published studies, indicate a link between physical activity and signs of prosperity. There is much medical evidence showing the beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease, obesity and diabetes. Currently there is growing interest to see ifphysical activity can also improve symptoms of mental illness
Pleun C M van Poppel
Full Text Available Danshen is the dried root extract of the plant Salvia Miltiorrhiza and it is used as traditional Chinese medicinal herbal product to prevent and treat atherosclerosis. However, its efficacy has not been thoroughly investigated. This study evaluates the effect of Danshen on hyperlipidemia and hypertension, two well known risk factors for the development of atherosclerosis.This was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind crossover study performed at a tertiary referral center. Participants were recruited by newspaper advertisement and randomized to treatment with Danshen (water-extract of the Salvia Miltiorrhiza root or placebo for 4 consecutive weeks. There was a wash out period of 4 weeks. Of the 20 analysed participants, 11 received placebo first. Inclusion criteria were: age 40-70 years, hyperlipidemia and hypertension. At the end of each treatment period, plasma lipids were determined (primary outcome, 24 hours ambulant blood pressure measurement (ABPM was performed, and vasodilator endothelial function was assessed in the forearm.LDL cholesterol levels were 3.82±0.14 mmol/l after Danshen and 3.52±0.16 mmol/l after placebo treatment (mean±SE; p<0.05 for treatment effect corrected for baseline. Danshen treatment had no effect on blood pressure (ABPM 138/84 after Danshen and 136/87 after placebo treatment. These results were further substantiated by the observation that Danshen had neither an effect on endothelial function nor on markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, glucose metabolism, hemostasis and blood viscosity.Four weeks of treatment with Danshen (water-extract slightly increased LDL-cholesterol without affecting a wide variety of other risk markers. These observations do not support the use of Danshen to prevent or treat atherosclerosis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01563770.
Cleiton Silva Correa
Full Text Available Development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD has been linked with changes to the lipid profile that can be observed during the postprandial period, a phenomenon known as postprandial lipemia (PL. Physical exercise is currently the number one non-pharmacological intervention employed for prevention and reduction of risk factors for the development of CVD. This in turn has created a growing interest in the effects of physical exercise on regulation and equilibrium of lipid metabolism. In this review we compare the results of studies that have investigated the beneficial effects of strength training on PL. We analyzed articles identified in the PubMed, Scopus and EBSCO databases published from 1975 to 2013 in international journals. Studies were selected for review if they covered at least two of four keywords. The results of these studies lead to the conclusion that strength training is effective for reduction of postprandial lipemia because it increases baseline energy expenditure. This type of training can be prescribed as an important element in strategies to treat chronic diseases, such as atherosclerosis.
Non-invasive quick diagnosis of cardiovascular problems from visible and invisible abnormal changes with increased cardiac troponin I appearing on cardiovascular representation areas of the eyebrows, left upper lip, etc. of the face & hands: beneficial manual stimulation of hands for acute anginal chest pain, and important factors in safe, effective treatment.
Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn K; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu; Rodriques, Aaron
Our previous study indicated that there are at least 7 cardiovascular representation areas on the face, including the "Eyebrows", both sides of the "Nose", "Lelt Upper Lip" and the "Outside of the corner of both sides of the mouth," in addition to 2 areas in each hand. When there are cardiovascular problems, some of the heart representation areas of these areas often show the following changes: 1) Most distinctive visible changes such as the initial whitening with or without long white hair, then hair loss and complete disappearance of the hairs of the heart representation area of "Eyebrows" 2) Invisible biochemical changes that happen in heart representation areas at the "Left Upper Lips", 3) "Nose" below eye level as well as 4) "3rd segment of Middle Finger of Hands." Most distinctive visible & invisible changes are found in heart representation areas on the "Eyebrow", located nearest to the midline of face, where the color of the hairs becomes white compared with the rest of the Eyebrow. Then the cardiovascular problem advances, and hair starts disappearing. When there are no hairs at the heart representation areas of the Eyebrow, usually Cardiac Troponin I is increased to a very serious, abnormal high value. Most of the cardiovascular representation areas of the face show, regardless of presence or absence of visible change. When there is a cardiovascular problem, not only simple Bi-Digital O-Ring Test can detect without using any instrument in several minutes but also, corresponding biochemical changes of abnormally increased Cardiac Troponin I level can often be detected non-invasively from these Organ Representation Areas of Face & Hands, although changes in Eyebrows, L-Upper Lip & 3rd segment of middle fingers are clinically the most reliable changes & easy to identify the locations. Manual Stimulation of Hand's heart representation areas often eliminated acute anginal chest pain before medical help became available. Important factors for safe, effective
Biondi Zoccai, Giuseppe; Giordano, Gabriele; Guarini, Pasquale; Ferrari, Patrizio; Schiavone, Beniamino; Giordano, Arturo
Abstract BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES : Meat is a good source of proteins and irons, yet its consumption has been associated with unfavorable cardiovascular effects. Whether this applies to all types of meat is unclear. We thus aimed to appraise the impact of water buffalo meat consumption on car?diovascular risk profile with an observational longitudinal study. METHODS: Several key cardiovascular risk features were appraised at baseline and at 12-month follow-up in 300 adult subjects ...
Full Text Available Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (--epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, type II diabetes, and cardiovascular risk factors. Long-term consumption of tea catechins could be beneficial against high-fat diet-induced obesity and type II diabetes and could reduce the risk of coronary disease. Further research that conforms to international standards should be performed to monitor the pharmacological and clinical effects of green tea and to elucidate its mechanisms of action.
Corzo, N; Alonso, J L; Azpiroz, F; Calvo, M A; Cirici, M; Leis, R; Lombó, F; Mateos-Aparicio, I; Plou, F J; Ruas-Madiedo, P; Rúperez, P; Redondo-Cuenca, A; Sanz, M L; Clemente, A
Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients (oligosaccharides) that reach the colon and are used as substrate by microorganisms producing energy, metabolites and micronutrients used for the host; in addition they also stimulate the selective growth of certain beneficial species (mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli) in the intestinal microbiota. In this article, a multidisciplinary approach to understand the concept of prebiotic carbohydrates, their properties and beneficial effects in humans has been carried out. Definitions of prebiotics, reported by relevant international organizations and researchers, are described. A comprehensive description of accepted prebiotics having strong scientific evidence of their beneficial properties in humans (inulin-type fructans, FOS, GOS, lactulose and human milk oligosaccharides) is reported. Emerging prebiotics and those which are in the early stages of study have also included in this study. Taken into account that the chemical structure greatly influences carbohydrates prebiotic properties, the analytical techniques used for their analysis and characterization are discussed. In vitro and in vivo models used to evaluate the gastrointestinal digestion, absorption resistance and fermentability in the colon of prebiotics as well as major criteria to design robust intervention trials in humans are described. Finally, a comprehensive summary of the beneficial effects of prebiotics for health at systemic and intestinal levels is reported. The research effort on prebiotics has been intensive in last decades and has demonstrated that a multidisciplinary approach is necessary in order to claim their health benefits. PMID:25659062
Chen, Wen; Guo, Junxia; Zhang, Yanzhen; Zhang, Jing
Metabolic syndrome, a cluster of risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease, has become a very serious public health concern. A number of studies have provided evidence that taurine has an efficient action against metabolic syndrome, which includes reducing triglycerides to prevent obesity, improving insulin resistance to regulate glucose metabolism, lowering cholesterol (especially decreasing VLDL + LDL cholesterol and increasing HDL cholesterol) to prevent diet-induced hypercholesterolemia, and regulating the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the kallikrein-kinin system etc. to reduce blood pressure. This review summarizes the data from in vitro, animal and limited human studies of beneficial effects of taurine on obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and addresses the possible metabolic and molecular mechanisms of the prevention of metabolic syndrome by taurine. PMID:26918249
Lee, Byung Mu; Park, Kwang-Kyun
The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents.
The beneficial and adverse effects of some chemopreventive agents, such as Vitamins A, C, E, beta-carotene, indole-3-carbinol, capsaicin, garlic, and aloe are reviewed. Two large randomized trials with a lung cancer endpoint, the Alpha-Tocopherol, Beta-Carotene (ATBC) Prevention Study and the Beta-Carotene and Retinol Efficacy Trial (CARET), suggested that antioxidants might be harmful in smokers. However, the results of the Linxian study and of the ATBC or the CARET studies were significantly different in this respect, and therefore, the relationship between antioxidant and carcinogenesis remains open to debate. Indole-3-carbinol has cancer promoting activities in the colon, thyroid, pancreas, and liver, whereas capsaicin alters the metabolism of chemical carcinogens and may promote carcinogenesis at high doses. Organosulfur compounds and selenium from garlic have no or a little enhancing effect on cancer promotion stage. Information upon chemopreventive mechanisms that inhibit carcinogenesis is imperfect, although the causes and natures of certain human cancers are known. Therefore, definitive preventive guidelines should be carefully offered for various types of tumors, which properly consider ethnic variations, and the efficacies and the safety of chemopreventive agents
Şimşek, Muharrem; ÖZKAN, Cem
Unawares usage of biocidals effects not only natural resources, environment and human health but also can damage beneficial insects which suppresses pests. Herein, the side effects of insecticide efficient biocidals to important beneficial insects was handled and measures on sustainable biocidal usages was discussed. The side effects of Deltamethrin, Azadirachtin, Spinosad and Bacillus thuringinensis biocidals to certain important beneficial insects were evaluated with literature data. Negati...
Full Text Available Edoardo Mannucci,1 Stefano Giannini,2 Ilaria Dicembrini1 1Diabetes Agency, Careggi Teaching Hospital, Florence, 2Section of Endocrinology, Department of Biomedical Clinical and Experimental Sciences, University of Florence and Careggi University Hospital, Florence, Italy Abstract: Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with
Mannucci, Edoardo; Giannini, Stefano; Dicembrini, Ilaria
Basal insulin is an important component of treatment for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. One of the principal aims of treatment in patients with diabetes is the prevention of diabetic complications, including cardiovascular disease. There is some evidence, although controversial, that attainment of good glycemic control reduces long-term cardiovascular risk in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the potential cardiovascular safety of the different available preparations of basal insulin. Current basal insulin (neutral protamine Hagedorn [NPH], or isophane) and basal insulin analogs (glargine, detemir, and the more recent degludec) differ essentially by various measures of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects in the bloodstream, presence and persistence of peak action, and within-subject variability in the glucose-lowering response. The currently available data show that basal insulin analogs have a lower risk of hypoglycemia than NPH human insulin, in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, then excluding additional harmful effects on the cardiovascular system mediated by activation of the adrenergic system. Given that no biological rationale for a possible difference in cardiovascular effect of basal insulins has been proposed so far, available meta-analyses of publicly disclosed randomized controlled trials do not show any signal of increased risk of major cardiovascular events between the different basal insulin analogs. However, the number of available cardiovascular events in these trials is very small, preventing any clear-cut conclusion. The results of an ongoing clinical trial comparing glargine and degludec with regard to cardiovascular safety will provide definitive evidence. PMID:26203281
P. Sushma Reddy
Conclusion: Curcumin showed beneficial effects in Letrozole induced PCOS in female Wistar rats. Its effect was comparable to that of Clomiphene citrate, most widely used treatment for ovulation induction in PCOS condition.
Vivek Kumar Sharma
Conclusion: This study demonstrates that both types of pranayama practice are beneficial in reducing PSS in the healthy subjects but beneficial effect on cardiovascular parameters occurred only after practicing slow pranayama.
In 1991, a small group of citizens from communities near the Savannah River Site (SRS) formed a pro-nuclear education and advocacy group, Citizens for Nuclear Technology Awareness (CNTA). Their purpose was to: (1) counter nuclear misinformation that dominated the nation's news outlets, (2) provide education on nuclear subjects to area citizens, students, elected officials, and (3) provide informed citizen support for potential new missions for SRS when needed. To effectively accomplish these objectives it is also essential to establish and maintain good relations with community leaders and reporters that cover energy and nuclear subjects. The organization has grown considerably since its inception and has expanded its sphere of influence. We believe that our experiences over these fifteen years are a good model for effectively communicating nuclear subjects with the public. This paper describes the structure, operation and some of the results of CNTA. (authors)
Radioactive radon gas is widely considered to be a health hazard by environmental agencies in the United States and in Europe. Yet despite the warnings of these agencies, thousands of people annually expose themselves to radon for therapeutic purposes, in facilities ranging from rustic old mines, to upscale spas and clinics. The inert natural radioactive gas radon has been used since the beginning of the century in the treatment of rheumatic diseases. In many places in the world, radon is used for therapeutic purposes for various diseases. Radon inhalation is applied in a thermal gallery with atmospheric radon concentrations up to 100 kBq/m3, elevated temperature up to 41 EC , and humidity close to 100%, or in the form of radon baths where Rn is emanated from water with high natural Rn activity. Frequently, a combination of both treatment procedures is applied. Evidence from empirical experience and from clinical observational studies suggests that radon has analgesic, anti inflammatory and immune-stimulating effects. Ozone is one of nature's most powerful oxidants. It increases the effectiveness of the antioxidant enzyme system, which scavenge excess free radicals in the body. It is used in water purification and sewage treatment and is now being applied medically to treat many diseases from wounds and colitis to cancer, stroke and AIDS. According to the dosage and concentration range, medical ozone is a pharmaceutical agent that exerts specific properties and a well-defined range of efficacy. This paper describes the medical application of environmental gases: radon and ozone
Guldiken, B; Rémi, J; Noachtar, Soheyl
Phenytoin is an established drug in the treatment of acute repetitive seizures and status epilepticus. One of its main advantages over benzodiazepines is the less sedative effect. However, the possibility of cardiovascular adverse effects with the intravenous use of phenytoin cause a reluctance to its usage, and this has lead to a search for safer anticonvulsant drugs. In this study, we aimed to review the studies which evaluated the safety of phenytoin with respect to cardiovascular adverse effects. The original clinical trials and case reports listed in PUBMED in English language between the years of 1946-2014 were evaluated. As the key words, "phenytoin, diphenylhydantoin, epilepsy, seizure, cardiac toxicity, asystole, arrhythmia, respiratory arrest, hypotension, death" were used. Thirty-two clinical trials and ten case reports were identified. In the case reports, a rapid infusion rate (>50 mg/min) of phenytoin appeared as the major cause of increased mortality. In contrast, no serious cardiovascular adverse effects leading to death were met in the clinical trials which applied the recommended infusion rate and dosages. An infusion rate of 50 mg/min was reported to be safe for young patients. For old patients and patients with a cardiovascular co-morbidity, a slower infusion rate was recommended with a careful follow-up of heart rhythm and blood pressure. No cardiovascular adverse effect was reported in oral phenytoin overdoses except one case with a very high serum phenytoin level and hypoalbuminemia. Phenytoin is an effective and well tolerated drug in the treatment of epilepsy. Intravenous phenytoin is safe when given at recommended infusion rates and doses. PMID:26645393
Full Text Available Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health.
d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch
Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60-80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010
d'El-Rei, Jenifer; Cunha, Ana Rosa; Trindade, Michelle; Neves, Mario Fritsch
Poor eating habits may represent cardiovascular risk factors since high intake of fat and saturated fatty acids contributes to dyslipidemia, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Thus, nutritional interventions are recognized as important strategies for primary prevention of hypertension and as adjuvants to pharmacological therapies to reduce cardiovascular risk. The DASH (Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension) plan is one of the most effective strategies for the prevention and nonpharmacological management of hypertension. The beneficial effects of DASH diet on blood pressure might be related to the high inorganic nitrate content of some food products included in this meal plan. The beetroot and other food plants considered as nitrate sources account for approximately 60–80% of the daily nitrate exposure in the western population. The increased levels of nitrite by nitrate intake seem to have beneficial effects in many of the physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being conducted to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing the bioavailability of nitrite in human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In conclusion, the dietary inorganic nitrate seems to represent a promising complementary therapy to support hypertension treatment with benefits for cardiovascular health. PMID:27088010
Pecháňová, Olga; Rezzani, R.; Babál, P.; Bernátová, I.; Andriantsitohaina, R.
Roč. 55, č. S1 (2006), S17-S30. ISSN 0862-8408 Grant ostatní: VEGA(SK) 2/6148/26; VEGA(SK) 2/4156/26; VEGA(SK) 2/5010/5; VEGA(SK) 1/3429/06; SAV(SK) APVT-51-018004; SAV(SK) APVT-20-025204; SAV(SK) APVV-51-017905 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : red wine polyphenols * nitric oxide * endothelium-dependent relaxation Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.093, year: 2006
Reviews selected research on the beneficial effects of tactile stimulation on infants. Examines the results of studies with animals, preterm infants, cocaine- and HIV-exposed preterm infants, and normal full-term infants. Briefly discusses caregiving implications and offers suggestions on how caregivers can incorporate tactile stimulation in…
Parmelee, Arthur H. Jr.
Discusses potential beneficial effects of children's illnesses on their behavioral development. It is argued, on the basis of clinical experience and related research, that minor illnesses give children many opportunities to increase knowledge of self, other, prosocial behavior, and empathy and to realistically understand the sick role. (Author/RH)
Bælum, Jesper; Enkegaard, Annie; Doekes, Gert;
A three-year study of 579 greenhouse workers in 31 firms investigated the effect of four different beneficial arthropods. It was shown that the thrips mite Amblyseeius cucumeris and the spider mite predator Phytoseiulus persimilis may cause allergy measured by blood tests as well as eye and nose...... symptoms. No effect was seen by the predator wasp Aphidius colemani nor the predator mite Hypoaspis miles and no effect on lung diseases were seen....
Kuttan Ramadasan; Thambi Priya T; Chacko Sabu M; Nishigaki Ikuo
Abstract The health benefits of green tea for a wide variety of ailments, including different types of cancer, heart disease, and liver disease, were reported. Many of these beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, content. There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies on the underlying mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. There are also human studies on using green tea catechins to treat metaboli...
Burgio, Giovanni; Kristensen, Hanne L.; Campanelli, Gabriele; Bavec, Franc; Bavec, Martina; von Fragstein und Niemsdorff, Peter; Depalo, Laura; Lanzoni, Alberto; Canali, Stefano
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cover crops on pest/beneficial dynamics and to test the potential of living mulch on enhancing biological control against insect pests. The research, carried out in the frame of the InterVeg (Core Organic II) project, involved four European countries: Germany, Slovenia, Denmark and Italy. Three crops were tested: cauliflower, leek and artichoke. The preliminary results obtained in Italy on cauliflower, indicated that the living mulch did not...
Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.
Park, Song-Young; Son, Won-Mok; Kwon, Oh-Sung
Whole body vibration training (WBVT) has been used as a supplement to conventional exercise training such as resistance exercise training to improve skeletal muscle strength, specifically, in rehabilitation field. Recently, this exercise modality has been utilized by cardiovascular studies to examine whether WBVT can be a useful exercise modality to improve cardiovascular health. These studies reported that WBVT has not only beneficial effects on muscular strength but also cardiovascular heal...
Kang, Yu Mi; Jung, Chang Hee
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a member of the proglucagon incretin family, and GLP-1 receptor agonists (RAs) have been introduced as a new class of antidiabetic medications in the past decade. The benefits of GLP-1 RAs are derived from their pleiotropic effects, which include glucose-dependent insulin secretion, suppressed glucagon secretion, and reduced appetite. Moreover, GLP-1 RAs also exert beneficial roles on multiple organ systems in which the GLP-1 receptors exist, including the cardiovascular system. Cardiovascular effects of GLP-1 RAs have been of great interest since the burden from cardiovascular diseases (CVD) has been unbearably increasing in a diabetic population worldwide, despite strict glycemic control and advanced therapeutic techniques to treat CVD. Preclinical studies have already demonstrated the beneficial effects of GLP-1 on myocardium and vascular endothelium, and many clinical studies evaluating changes in surrogate markers of CVD have suggested potential benefits from the use of GLP-1 RAs. Data from numerous clinical trials primarily evaluating the antihyperglycemic effects of multiple GLP-1 RAs have also revealed that changes in most CVD risk markers reported as secondary outcomes have been in favor of GLP-1 RAs treatment. However, to date, there is only one randomized clinical trial of GLP-1 RAs (the ELIXA study) evaluating major cardiovascular events as their primary outcomes, and in this study, a neutral cardiovascular effect of lixisenatide was observed in high-risk diabetic subjects. Therefore, the results of ongoing CVD outcome trials with the use of GLP-1 RAs should be awaited to elucidate the translation of benefits previously seen in CVD risk marker studies into large clinical trials with primary cardiovascular outcomes. PMID:27118277
Chandrasekaran, Victor Raj Mohan; Hsu, Dur-Zong; Liu, Ming-Yie
Heavy metals become toxic when they are not metabolized by the body and accumulate in the soft tissue. Chelation therapy is mainly for the management of heavy metal-induced toxicity; however, it usually causes adverse effects or completely blocks the vital function of the particular metal chelated. Much attention has been paid to the development of chelating agents from natural sources to counteract lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal damage. Sesame oil (a natural edible oil) and sesamol (an active antioxidant) are potently beneficial for treating lead- and iron-induced hepatic and renal toxicity and have no adverse effects. Sesame oil and sesamol significantly inhibit iron-induced lipid peroxidation by inhibiting the xanthine oxidase, nitric oxide, superoxide anion, and hydroxyl radical generation. In addition, sesame oil is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediators, and it attenuates lead-induced hepatic damage by inhibiting nitric oxide, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-1β levels. Because metal chelating therapy is associated with adverse effects, treating heavy metal toxicity in addition with sesame oil and sesamol may be better alternatives. This review deals with the possible use and beneficial effects of sesame oil and sesamol during heavy metal toxicity treatment. PMID:23744838
Full Text Available Although selenium metabolism is intricately linked to cardiovascular biology and function, and deficiency of selenium is associated with cardiac pathology, utilization of selenium in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease remains an elusive goal. From a reductionist standpoint, the major function of selenium in vivo is antioxidant defense via its incorporation as selenocysteine into enzyme families such as glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases. In addition, selenium compounds are heterogeneous and have complex metabolic fates resulting in effects that are not entirely dependent on selenoprotein expression. This complex biology of selenium in vivo may underlie the fact that beneficial effects of selenium supplementation demonstrated in preclinical studies using models of oxidant stress-induced cardiovascular dysfunction, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury and myocardial infarction, have not been consistently observed in clinical trials. In fact, recent studies have yielded data that suggest that unselective supplementation of selenium may, indeed, be harmful. Interesting biologic actions of selenium are its simultaneous effects on redox balance and methylation status, a combination that may influence gene expression. These combined actions may explain some of the biphasic effects seen with low and high doses of selenium, the potentially harmful effects seen in normal individuals, and the beneficial effects noted in preclinical studies of disease. Given the complexity of selenium biology, systems biology approaches may be necessary to reach the goal of optimization of selenium status to promote health and prevent disease.
Roberto Berni Canani, Margherita Di Costanzo, Ludovica Leone, Monica Pedata, Rosaria Meli, Antonio Calignano
Full Text Available The multiple beneficial effects on human health of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, synthesized from non-absorbed carbohydrate by colonic microbiota, are well documented. At the intestinal level, butyrate plays a regulatory role on the transepithelial fluid transport, ameliorates mucosal inflammation and oxidative status, reinforces the epithelial defense barrier, and modulates visceral sensitivity and intestinal motility. In addition, a growing number of studies have stressed the role of butyrate in the prevention and inhibition of colorectal cancer. At the extraintestinal level, butyrate exerts potentially useful effects on many conditions, including hemoglobinopathies, genetic metabolic diseases, hypercholesterolemia, insulin resistance, and ischemic stroke. The mechanisms of action of butyrate are different; many of these are related to its potent regulatory effects on gene expression. These data suggest a wide spectrum of positive effects exerted by butyrate, with a high potential for a therapeutic use in human medicine.
In spite of the extensive research carried out during the past century, intense controversy continues over the health effects of low-level radiation. This controversy is largely due to political, social and economic issues among scientists and analysts in a variety of disciplines. These issues cloud objectivity and strengthen paradigms. Over the past ten years, in 14 universities and two research institutes, Japanese scientists have conducted exceptional research which clearly demonstrates beneficial effects of low-level radiation and cancer cures following therapy with low doses of radiation. Assessment, replication and extension of this work in North America could lead to greater appreciation of its significance. Cancer patients would demand such treatments, leading to universal acceptance of these bio-positive effects and reducing public fear of nuclear technology. (author)
Yong CHENG; Zheng FENG; Qing-zhu ZHANG; Jun-tian ZHANG
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive degenerative disorder, is characterized by the presence of amyloid deposits, neurofibrillary tangles and neuron loss.Emerging evidence indicates that antioxidants could be useful either for the prevention or treatment of AD. It has been shown that melatonin is a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger. Additionally, melatonin stimulates several antioxidative enzymes and improves mitochondrial energy metabolism. These findings led us to study amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice, ovariectomized rats, and pheochromocytoma and astroglioma cell lines, to observe whether melatonin had any effect on Alzheimer's symptoms or pathological changes. We found that melatonin had many beneficial effects in experimental models of AD, including improvement of cognitive function, anti-oxidative injury, anti-apoptosis, inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and Aβ fiber formation. Several groups have shown that melatonin has an inhibitory effect on tau protein hyperphosphorylation.These actions may potentially slow down or stop the progression of dementia.
Full Text Available Herbal medicine can be a valuable source of assistance for traditional medicine. There are a number of herbs that can beused in conjunction with modern medicine. Herbs can also be taken to aid recovery from serious diseases. Although one should never aim to treat diseases such as cardiovascular disease solely with herbal medicine, the value of herbs used in tandem with modern medicine cannot be ignored. Saffron has been reported to help lower cholesterol and keep cholesterol levels healthy.Animal studies have shown saffron to lower cholesterol by as much as 50%. Saffron has antioxidant properties; it is, therefore,helpful in maintaining healthy arteries and blood vessels. Saffron is also known to have anti-inflammatory properties, which are beneficial to cardiovascular health. The people of Mediterranean countries, where saffron use is common, have lower than normal incidence of heart diseases. From saffron's cholesterol lowering benefits to its anti inflammatory properties,saffron may be one of the best supplements for cardiac health. This paper reviews the studies regarding the beneficial effects of saffron in cardiovascular health.
Full Text Available Brown adipose tissue has gained interest as a potential target to treat obesity and metabolic diseases. Irisin is a newly identified hormone secreted from skeletal muscle enhancing browning of white fat cells, which improves systemic metabolism by increasing energy expenditure in mice. The discovery of irisin raised expectations of its therapeutic potential to treat metabolic diseases. However, the effect of irisin in humans is unclear. Analyses of genomic DNA, mRNA and expressed sequence tags revealed that FNDC5, the gene encoding the precursor of irisin, is present in rodents and most primates, but shows in humans a mutation in the conserved start codon ATG to ATA. HEK293 cells transfected with a human FNDC5 construct with ATA as start codon resulted in only 1% full-length protein compared to human FNDC5 with ATG. Additionally, in vitro contraction of primary human myotubes by electrical pulse stimulation induced a significant increase in PGC1α mRNA expression. However, FNDC5 mRNA level was not altered. FNDC5 mRNA expression in muscle biopsies from two different human exercise studies was not changed by endurance or strength training. Preadipocytes isolated from human subcutaneous adipose tissue exhibited differentiation to brite human adipocytes when incubated with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP 7, but neither recombinant FNDC5 nor irisin were effective. In conclusion, our findings suggest that it is rather unlikely that the beneficial effect of irisin observed in mice can be translated to humans.
Di Lorenzo Chiara
Full Text Available Vine is widely cultivated due to the economic value of wine and other grape derivatives. The grape berry is character- ized by the presence of a wide variety of flavonoids, which have been investigated for their health promoting properties. Several epidemiological studies have shown that a moderate consumption of wine is associated with a J-shaped effect on some risk fac- tors for chronic diseases. On the other hand, the wine market has shown a decreasing trend due to the frequent abuse of alcoholic beverages also by young people, as denounced by WHO. Accordingly, the scientific research in the field of non-alcoholic grape products has been further stimulated. The aim of this paper was a preliminary collection of data on human studies supporting the beneficial properties of unfermented grape products. The most convincing positive effects, observed in humans, consisted in the reduction of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension and oxidative stress. Other human trials have been published in the area of: immune system, diabetes, cognitive functions, oral health, and cancer. Generally speaking, the findings listed in this review support the use of non-alcoholic grape derivatives, as a source of beneficial compounds for the human diet, even though further studies are necessary.
Full Text Available Dice la Ley de Hierro de la Epidemiología que todo el que nace muere. Por ello el fin de la Medicina no es evitar la muerte en sí, sino evitar las muertes, las enfermedades y el sufrimiento médicamente evitables.Al final, todos nuestros pacientes morirán – y nosotros mismos moriremos también, obviamente. “Los cuerpos encuentran una forma de morir” y si la causa no es el hambre ni la deshidratación, ni es congénita, ni infecciosa, ni por lesiones, ni por cáncer, ni por suicidio, tenemos que esperar que sea por ‘causa cardiovascular’, enfermedad pulmonar, insuficiencia renal o hepática, demencia u otras enfermedades degenerativas. Pero de algo tenemos que morir.Morir por causa cardiovascular ni es deshonroso, ni implica defectuosa atención clínica. Que la primera causa de muerte sea la cardiovascular no dice nada respecto a los cuidados clínicos, ni debería asustar.Sin embargo, son evitables muchas muertes de causa cardiovascular. Así, se puede evitar mucha mortalidad cardiovascular disminuyendo la desigualdad social, por ejemplo (con mejor re-distribución de la riqueza, mejor educación y demás. Los médicos saben que los factores adversos psicosociales asociados a la pertenencia a la clase baja responden del 35% del riesgo atribuible a la hipertensión en la incidencia del infarto de miocardio (en otra formulación, que pertenecer a la clase baja multiplica por 2,7 dicho riesgo1.También deberíamos saber que contra las muertes cardiovasculares no hay nada como las políticas de salud pública sobre el tabaquismo (restricciones de lugares en los que fumar, aumento del precio del tabaco, campañas de información, y demás.En lo clínico, las muertes cardiovasculares evitables se deben ver en perspectiva, según lo que se puede lograr2. Así, por 100.000 habitantes y año, el tratamiento con inhibidores de la enzima convertidora de angiotensina (IECA en la insuficiencia cardíaca puede evitar 308 muertes; el consejo m
Collier, Nora B; Hardy, Michelle A; Millard-Stafford, Mindy L; Warren, Gordon L
Collier, NB, Hardy, MA, Millard-Stafford, ML, and Warren, GL. Small beneficial effect of caffeinated energy drink ingestion on strength. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1862-1870, 2016-Because caffeine ingestion has been found to increase muscle strength, our aim was to determine whether caffeine when combined with other potential ergogenic ingredients, such as those in commercial energy drinks, would have a similar effect. Fifteen young healthy subjects were used in a double-blind, repeated-measures experimental design. Each subject performed 3 trials, ingesting either a caffeinated energy drink, an uncaffeinated version of the drink, or a placebo drink. The interpolated twitch procedure was used to assess maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) strength, electrically evoked strength, and percent muscle activation during MVIC of the knee extensors both before and after drink ingestion, and after a fatiguing bout of contractions; electromyographic (EMG) amplitude of the knee extensors during MVIC was also assessed. The mean (±SE) change in MVIC strength from before to after drink ingestion was significantly greater for the caffeinated energy drink compared with placebo [+5.0 (±1.7) vs. -0.5 (±1.5)%] and the difference between the drinks remained after fatigue (p = 0.015); the strength changes for the uncaffeinated energy drink were not significantly different from those of the other 2 drinks at any time. There was no significant effect of drink type on the changes in electrically evoked strength, percent muscle activation, and EMG from before to after drink ingestion. This study indicates that a caffeinated energy drink can increase MVIC strength but the effect is modest and the strength increase cannot be attributed to increased muscle activation. Whether the efficacy of energy drinks can be attributed solely to caffeine remains unclear. PMID:26670991
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sudarshana kriya is a Sanskrit term meaning ―proper vision, purified action by controlling the breath. Kri means to act with awareness. It normalizes breathing by concentrating on it systematically. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 40 subjects with type II diabetes 20 males, 20 females with age group of 40-60 were chosen. They underwent sudarshana kriya training for 6 days organized in Bangalore. A written consent was taken from subjects. They participated in 6 day Sudarshana kriya training held at Bangalore by a trained teacher. This 6 day training includes Sudarshana kriya and meditation. Our Study is designed to study the glycemic control and antilipemic effect of Sudarshana kriya in TypeII Diabetes Mellitus. RESULTS: Sudarshana kriya appears to be specialized pranayamic breathing capable of inducing series of beneficial changes besides causing significant fall of sugar levels, total cholesterol, triglyceride levels (p<0.001 and a raise in HDL cholesterol (p<0.001 CONCLUSION: Sudarshan Kriya can be used along with oral hypoglycemic agents as a holistic adjunct approach for a better glycemic and lipid profile control. Regular practice of Sudarshana Kriya reduces symptoms of mental depression for treating stress and anxiety in post- traumatic stress disorder. Sudarshana Kriya leaves one more alert aware, attentive and focused
Russo, Matteo A; Sansone, Luigi; Polletta, Lucia; Runci, Alessandra; Rashid, Mohammad M; De Santis, Elena; Vernucci, Enza; Carnevale, Ilaria; Tafani, Marco
The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet (MD) had been first observed about 50 years ago. Consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits, cereals, red wine, nuts, legumes, etc. has been regarded as the primary factor for protection from many human pathologies by the Mediterranean diet. Subsequently, this was attributed to the presence of polyphenols and their derivatives that, by exerting an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effect, can be involved in the prevention of many diseases. Clinical trials, observational studies and meta-analysis have demonstrated an antiageing effect of MD accompanied by a reduced risk of age-related pathologies, such as cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cancer. The scientific explanation of such beneficial effects was limited to the reduction of the oxidative stress by compounds present in the MD. However, recently, this view is changing thanks to new studies aimed to uncover the molecular mechanism(s) activated by components of this diet. In particular, a new class of proteins called sirtuins have gained the attention of the scientific community because of their antiageing effects, their ability to protect from cardiovascular, metabolic, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and to extend lifespan in lower organisms as well as in mammals. Interestingly, resveratrol a polyphenol present in grapes, nuts and berries has been shown to activate sirtuins and such activation is able to explain most of the beneficial effects of the MD. In this review, we will highlight the importance of MD with particular attention to the possible molecular pathways that have been shown to be influenced by it. We will describe the state of the art leading to demonstrate the important role of sirtuins as principal intracellular mediators of the beneficial effects of the MD. Finally, we will also introduce how Mediterranean diet may influence microbioma composition and stem cells function. PMID:25008762
Jennifer W. MacAdam; Villalba, Juan J.
The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT) that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF). Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot tref...
Piperi, Christina; Kalofoutis, C; Skenderi, Katerina; Economidou, Olga; Kalofoutis, A
Selective oestrogen receptor modulators (raloxifene) and statins (atorvastatin) have been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease associated with the postmenopausal status. Their beneficial effects may be mediated partly by favourable changes in serum lipids and particular on HDL phospholipid composition. In the present study, individual administration of either raloxifene (Group A) or atorvastatin (Group B) or both (Group C) was compared for a period of 3 months and their effects on total lipids and HDL phospholipids were evaluated. The combined treatment of raloxifene and atorvastatin resulted in profound changes in the majority of serum lipids, including a significant reduction in total cholesterol and triglycerides (P<0.001), a rise in total phospholipids (P<0.01) and a reduction in LDL-C and Apo B levels (P<0.001). Furthermore, Apo A-I was elevated (P<0.001) whereas total HDL phospholipids were significantly increased (P<0.05). Specifically, HDL phosphatidylcholine levels were markedly increased (P<0.001) and HDL lysophosphatidylcholine, sphingomyelin and phosphatidylinositol levels were reduced (P<0.05). A further attempt to evaluate each treatment group was performed and the significance of these results is discussed. PMID:15203583
Jennifer W. MacAdam
Full Text Available The two temperate forage legumes containing condensed tannins (CT that promote ruminant production are birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT and sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia Scop.; SF. Both are well-adapted to the cool-temperate climate and alkaline soils of the Mountain West USA. Condensed tannins comprise a diverse family of bioactive chemicals with multiple beneficial functions for ruminants, including suppression of internal parasites and enteric methane. Birdsfoot trefoil contains 10 to 40 g·CT·kg−1 dry matter (DM, while SF contains 30 to 80 g·CT·kg−1 DM. Our studies have focused on these two plant species and have demonstrated consistently elevated rates of gain for beef calves grazing both BFT and SF. Novel results from our BFT research include carcass dressing percentages and consumer sensory evaluations equivalent to feedlot-finished steers and significantly greater than grass-finished steers, but with omega-3 fatty acid concentrations equal to grass-finished beef. We have further demonstrated that ruminants fed BFT or SF will consume more endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb. Dumort. forage or seed than ruminants fed a non-CT forage legume. There is great potential value for sustainable livestock production in the use of highly digestible, nitrogen-fixing legumes containing tannins demonstrated to improve ruminant productivity.
Devarshi, Prasad P.; Jangale, Nivedita M.; Ghule, Arvindkumar E.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.; Harsulkar, Abhay M.
Dietary omega-3 fatty acids have been demonstrated to have positive physiological effects on lipid metabolism, cardiovascular system and insulin resistance. Type-2 diabetes (T2DM) is known for perturbations in fatty acid metabolism leading to dyslipidemia. Our objective was to investigate beneficial effects of dietary flaxseed oil and fish oil in streptozotocin–nicotinamide induced diabetic rats. Thirty-six adult, male, Wistar rats were divided into six groups: three diabetic and three non-di...
antioxidants in vitro by scavenging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and chelating redox-active transition metal ions. Among the health-promoting effects of tea and tea polyphenols, the cancer-chemopreventive effects in various animal model systems have been intensively investigated; meanwhile, the hypolipidemic and antiobesity effects in animals and humans have also become a hot issue for molecular nutrition and food research. In vitro and animal studies provide strong evidence that tea polyphenols may possess the bioactivity to affect the pathogenesis of several chronic diseases, especially cardiovascular disease and cancer. Research conducted in recent years reveals that both black and green tea have very similar beneficial attributes in lowering the risk of many human diseases, including several types of cancer and heart diseases.
Márcio R. V. Santos; Flávia V. Moreira; Byanka P. Fraga; Damião P. de Souza; Leonardo R. Bonjardim; Lucindo J. Quintans-Junior
The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were relate...
Williamson, C.E.; Neale, P.J.; Grad, G.; Lange, de H.J.; Hargreaves, B.R.
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) may have beneficial as well as detrimental effects on living systems. For example, UV-B radiation (280¿320 nm) is generally damaging, while UV-A radiation (320¿400 nm) may cause damage or stimulate beneficial photorepair of UV-B damage. The nature of both direct and
Maulik Subir; Banerjee Sanjay
Abstract Garlic and its preparations have been widely recognized as agents for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and other metabolic diseases, atherosclerosis, hyperlipidemia, thrombosis, hypertension and diabetes. Effectiveness of garlic in cardiovascular diseases was more encouraging in experimental studies, which prompted several clinical trials. Though many clinical trials showed a positive effect of garlic on almost all cardiovascular conditions mentioned above, however a number...
Full Text Available Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, probiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other beneficial functions of yeasts are improvement of bioavailability of minerals through the hydrolysis of phytate, folate biofortification and detoxification of mycotoxins due to surface binding to the yeast cell wall.
Mohammad Hassan Ghadiani
Full Text Available Cocaine is used by more than 14 million people worldwide, about 0.3 percent of the global population age is 15 to 64 years. After alcohol, cocaine is the most common cause of acute drug-related emergency department visits in the United States. Cocaine consumption is more frequently associated with acute cardiovascular illness. Cocaine stimulates α1, α2, β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors through increased levels of norepinephrine and a lesser extent epinephrine. The cardiovascular effects of cocaine are thought to be similar and regardless to the route of consumption. An acute coronary syndrome is the most common cardiac problem including myocardial ischemia and infarction even in young persons without atherosclerosis, aortic dissection and rupture, arrhythmias, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation, asystole and finally sudden death. Other cardiovascular effects that caused by cocaine include coronary artery aneurysm, palpitation, sinus tachycardia, increased systemic vascular resistance and hypertension crisis, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocarditis, cardiomyopathy, myocardial fibrosis, bundle branch block, heart block, supraventricular arrhythmia, accelerated atherosclerosis, hypotension, bradycardia and infective endocarditis among intravenous users.Cocaine by three mechanisms cause ischemia: 1. increased myocardial oxygen demand, 2. decreased coronary blood flow due to coronary artery vasoconstriction and spasm and 3. Coronary artery thrombosis via activation of platelets, stimulation of platelet aggregation and potentiation of thromboxane production.
Li, J.; Hong, Y.; Chan, K.
Objectives—To assess the characteristic effects of Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) exercise on metabolism and cardiorespiratory response, and to measure its effect on cardiorespiratory function, mental control, immune capacity, and the prevention of falls in elderly people.
Hollman, P.C.H.; Cassidy, A.; Comte, B.; Heinonen, M.; Richelle, M.; Richling, E.; Serafini, M.; Scalbert, A.; Sies, H.; Vidry, S.
Human studies provide evidence for beneficial effects of polyphenol-rich foods on cardiovascular health. The antioxidant activity of polyphenols potentially explains these effects, but is the antioxidant activity a reliable predictor for these effects? An International Life Sciences Institute Europe
Van Cauwenberghe, Caroline; Vandendriessche, Charysse; Libert, Claude; Vandenbroucke, Roosmarijn E
Dietary interventions such as caloric restriction (CR) extend lifespan and health span. Recent data from animal and human studies indicate that CR slows down the aging process, benefits general health, and improves memory performance. Caloric restriction also retards and slows down the progression of different age-related diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease. However, the specific molecular basis of these effects remains unclear. A better understanding of the pathways underlying these effects could pave the way to novel preventive or therapeutic strategies. In this review, we will discuss the mechanisms and effects of CR on aging and Alzheimer's disease. A potential alternative to CR as a lifestyle modification is the use of CR mimetics. These compounds mimic the biochemical and functional effects of CR without the need to reduce energy intake. We discuss the effect of two of the most investigated mimetics, resveratrol and rapamycin, on aging and their potential as Alzheimer's disease therapeutics. However, additional research will be needed to determine the safety, efficacy, and usability of CR and its mimetics before a general recommendation can be proposed to implement them. PMID:27240590
Mecca, Jensen T.; Mumford, Michael D.
Prior studies examining imitation of exemplar solutions have produced a mixed pattern of findings with some studies indicating that exemplar imitation contributes to creative problem-solving and other studies indicating that it may inhibit creative problem-solving. In the present effort, it is argued that the effects of exemplar imitation on…
Alsunni, Ahmed Abdulrahman
Consumption of energy drinks has been increasing dramatically in the last two decades, particularly amongst adolescents and young adults. Energy drinks are aggressively marketed with the claim that these products give an energy boost to improve physical and cognitive performance. However, studies supporting these claims are limited. In fact, several adverse health effects have been related to energy drink; this has raised the question of whether these beverages are safe. This review was carri...
Tais Malysz; Jocemar Ilha; Patrícia Severo do Nascimento; Katia De Angelis; Beatriz D'Agord Schaan; Matilde Achaval
OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks) on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Wistar rats (n = 64) were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush....
Low doses in the mGy range cause a dual effect on cellular DNA. One effect concerns a relatively low probability of DNA damage per energy deposition event and it increases proportional with dose, with possible bystander effects operating. This damage at background radiation exposure is orders of magnitudes lower than that from endogenous sources, such as ROS. The other effect at comparable doses brings an easily obeservable adaptive protection against DNA damage from any, mainly endogenous sources, depending on cell type, species, and metabolism. Protective responses express adaptive responses to metabolic perturbations and also mimic oxygen stress responses. Adaptive protection operates in terms of DNA damage prevention and repair, and of immune stimulation. It develops with a delay of hours, may last for days to months, and increasingly disappears at doses beyond about 100 to 200 mGy. Radiation-induced apoptosis and terminal cell differentiation occurs also at higher doses and adds to protection by reducing genomic instability and the number of mutated cells in tissues. At low doses, damage reduction by adaptive protection against damage from endogenous sources predictably outweighs radiogenic damage induction. The analysis of the consequences of the particular low-dose scenario shows that the linear-no-threshold (LNT) hypothesis for cancer risk is scientifically unfounded and appears to be invalid in favor of a threshold or hormesis. This is consistent with data both from animal studies and human epidemiological observations on low-dose induced cancer. The LNT hypothesis should be abandoned and be replaced by a hypothesis that is scientifically justified. The appropriate model should include terms for both linear and non-linear response probabilities. Maintaining the LNT-hypothesis as basis for radiation protection causes unressonable fear and expenses. (author)
Vivek Kumar Sharma; Madanmohan Trakroo,; Velkumary Subramaniam; Rajajeyakumar, M.; Bhavanani, Anand B; Ajit Sahai
Context: Perceived stress is higher for students in various healthcare courses. Previous studies have shown that pranayama practice is beneficial for combating stress and improve cardiovascular functions but both fast and slow pranayama practice produce different physiological responses. Aim: Present study was conducted to compare the effects of commonly practiced slow and fast pranayama on perceived stress and cardiovascular functions in young health-care students. Materials and Method...
Abbas Bahador; Simin Lesan; Narges Sadat Kashi
Background/purpose Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis. Material and Methods Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28) harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mit...
Official value of the effects of public-beneficial functions of forest was determined on the basis of mean representation of economic sets of forest types and their rotation age. The value of the effects of public-beneficial functions of forest was established pursuing the Regulation of the Government of the Slovak Republic No. 1/1994 of Coll. on the tariffs of levies for exclusion of the forest plots from the forest land fund per 1 hectare and year. (authors)
Mackowiak, C. L.; Grossl, P. R.; Bugbee, B. G.
Humic acid (HA) is a relatively stable product of organic matter decomposition and thus accumulates in environmental systems. Humic acid might benefit plant growth by chelating unavailable nutrients and buffering pH. We examined the effect of HA on growth and micronutrient uptake in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown hydroponically. Four root-zone treatments were compared: (i) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate N-(4-hydroxyethyl)ethylenediaminetriacetic acid (C10H18N2O7) (HEDTA at 0.25 mM C); (ii) 25 micromoles synthetic chelate with 4-morpholineethanesulfonic acid (C6H13N4S) (MES at 5 mM C) pH buffer; (iii) HA at 1 mM C without synthetic chelate or buffer; and (iv) no synthetic chelate or buffer. Ample inorganic Fe (35 micromoles Fe3+) was supplied in all treatments. There was no statistically significant difference in total biomass or seed yield among treatments, but HA was effective at ameliorating the leaf interveinal chlorosis that occurred during early growth of the nonchelated treatment. Leaf-tissue Cu and Zn concentrations were lower in the HEDTA treatment relative to no chelate (NC), indicating HEDTA strongly complexed these nutrients, thus reducing their free ion activities and hence, bioavailability. Humic acid did not complex Zn as strongly and chemical equilibrium modeling supported these results. Titration tests indicated that HA was not an effective pH buffer at 1 mM C, and higher levels resulted in HA-Ca and HA-Mg flocculation in the nutrient solution.
SUN Yuan-shui; YE Zai-yuan; ZHANG Qin; ZHANG Wei; WANG Yuan-yu; L(U) Zhen-ye; XU Ji
Background The ideal post-gastrectomy reconstruction procedure should maintain the normal digestive function and restore intestinal transit to improve the patient quality of life.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of integral continual jejunal interposition after subtotal gastrectomy on the nutritional status,glucose levels,and gastric-intestinal motility.Methods The study investigated the effects of the integral continual jejunal interposition,the Billroth Ⅰ and Billroth Ⅱ operations,and the isolated jejunal interposition following subtotal distal gastrectomy on the blood glucose,insulin,routine blood parameters,liver function,and myoelectrical activity in Beagle dogs.Results The weights of the dogs decreased during the first post-operative weeks.Dogs in the integral continual jejunal interposition,Billroth Ⅰ,and Billroth Ⅱ groups gained significantly more weight by 8 weeks.The prognosis nutrition index of the dogs decreased in the first 2 post-operative weeks and increased significantly by 4 weeks in the integral continual jejunal interposition and Billroth Ⅰ groups.The group with duodenal exclusion (Billroth Ⅱ) had significantly higher glucose levels compared to the normal control group.The insulin curve was much higher in dogs that underwent the Billroth Ⅰ,continual jejunal interposition,and isolated jejunal interposition than the Billroth Ⅱ and normal groups.The frequencies of fasting and postprandial jejunal pacesetter potentials (PPs) were greater in the continual jejunal interposition and Billroth Ⅰ groups than that in the isolated jejunal interposition and Billroth Ⅱ groups.The percentage of aboral propagation of PPs was greater in the continual jejunal interposition group than the Billroth Ⅰ,isolated jejunal interposition,and Billroth Ⅱ groups.Conclusion Continual jejunal interposition after subtotal gastrectomy avoids jejunal transection,maintains the duodenal passage and food storage bags,and reduces the influence
Xi Jin; Yidan Zhang; Qiaoying Li; Jianjun Zhao
The proprietary Chinese medicine preparation Kaiyu Granule is made of bupleurum, nutgrass ga-lingale rhizome, szechwan lovage rhizome, turmeric root tuber, white peony alba, cape jasmine fruit, fried semen ziziphi jujubae, and prepared liquorice root. It is a common recipe for the clinical treatment of depression in China. In this study, after 21 days of unpredictable stress exposure, Wistar rats exhibited similar behavioral changes to patients with depression. Moreover, G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+channel 1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. However, G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+channel 1 mRNA, protein expression, and rat behavior were clearly better after administration of 12, 8, or 4 g/kg of Kaiyu Granule when depression model rats underwent stress. 12 g/kg of Kaiyu Granule had the most obvious effects on the increased expression of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K+channel 1 mRNA and protein in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. These results suggested that Kaiyu Granule improved depression by affecting G-protein-coupled inwardly fying K+channel 1 expression in the rat hippocampus.
Jin, Xi; Zhang, Yidan; Li, Qiaoying; Zhao, Jianjun
The proprietary Chinese medicine preparation Kaiyu Granule is made of bupleurum, nutgrass galingale rhizome, szechwan lovage rhizome, turmeric root tuber, white peony alba, cape jasmine fruit, fried semen ziziphi jujubae, and prepared liquorice root. It is a common recipe for the clinical treatment of depression in China. In this study, after 21 days of unpredictable stress exposure, Wistar rats exhibited similar behavioral changes to patients with depression. Moreover, G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 1 mRNA and protein expression were significantly reduced in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. However, G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 1 mRNA, protein expression, and rat behavior were clearly better after administration of 12, 8, or 4 g/kg of Kaiyu Granule when depression model rats underwent stress. 12 g/kg of Kaiyu Granule had the most obvious effects on the increased expression of G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 1 mRNA and protein in rat hippocampal CA1 and CA3 regions. These results suggested that Kaiyu Granule improved depression by affecting G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying K(+) channel 1 expression in the rat hippocampus. PMID:25206645
A 15-day course of Naloxone treatment was given to a patient with intestinal pseudoobstruction who had previously undergone subtotal colectomy with terminal ileostomy for invalidating constipation. The effects of the drug were assessed according to symptoms, by recording the myoelectric activity of the stomach, and by measuring gastric emptying of a radiolabeled solid-liquid meal and the intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers. All tests were performed 1) at baseline; 2) after 2 wk with Naloxone 1.6 mg subcutaneous per day; and 3) after 8 days of placebo. Results showed that before treatment gastric emptying of solids was delayed, emptying of liquids was normal, myoelectric activity of the stomach was normal, small intestinal transit time of radiopaque markers was considerably increased while ileal output was markedly decreased. After Naloxone, gastric emptying of solids was markedly accelerated, emptying of liquids remained normal, gastric electrical spiking activity increased, small intestinal transit time strikingly decreased, and ileal output increased. After placebo, a tendency to return to pretreatment values was observed. This observation suggests that Naloxone may be helpful in the treatment of some patients with intestinal pseudoobstruction
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We investigated the effects of treadmill training (10 weeks on hindlimb motor function and nerve morphometric parameters in diabetic rats submitted to sciatic nerve crush. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Wistar rats (n = 64 were divided into the following groups: non-diabetic; trained non-diabetic; non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush; diabetic; trained diabetic; diabetic with sciatic nerve crush or trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin injection (50 mg/kg, iv. Hindlimb motor function was evaluated weekly by assessing sciatic functional indices, and the proximal and distal portions of the sciatic nerve were used for morphometric analysis. RESULTS: At 13 weeks post-injury, the distal nerve portion of all injured groups and the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group presented altered morphometric parameters such as decreased myelinated fiber diameter (~7.4 + 0.3μm vs ~4.8 + 0.2μm, axonal diameter (~5 + 0.2μm vs ~3.5 + 0.1μm and myelin sheath thickness (~1.2 + 0.07μm vs ~0.65 + 0.07μm and an increase in the percentage of area occupied by endoneurium (~28 + 3% vs ~60 + 3%. In addition, in the non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush group the proximal nerve portion showed a decreased myelinated fiber diameter (7.4+0.3μm vs 5.8 + 0.3μm and myelin sheath thickness (1.29 + 0.08μm vs 0.92 + 0.08μm. The non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, trained non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush, diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and trained diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups showed normal sciatic functional index from the 4th,4th,9th and 7th week post-injury, respectively. Morphometric alterations in the proximal nerve portion of the diabetic with sciatic nerve crush and non-diabetic with sciatic nerve crush groups were either prevented or reverted to values similar to the non-diabetic group by treadmill training. CONCLUSION
Bester, D; Esterhuyse, A J; Truter, E J; van Rooyen, J
Edible oils form an essential part of the modern diet. These oils play a role as an energy source, and provide the diet with many beneficial micronutrients. Although a popular conception may be that fat should be avoided, certain edible oils as a dietary supplement may play an important role in the improvement of cardiovascular health. CVD has become one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Dietary supplementation with different oils may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. While olive oil and sunflower-seed oil are known to reduce serum cholesterol, fish oil has become well known for reducing potentially fatal cardiac arrhythmias. Recently, red palm oil research has shown beneficial effects on cardiac recovery from ischaemia-reperfusion injury. It is clear that dietary supplementation with edible oils may play a vital role in reducing the mortality rate due to heart disease. The specific benefits and disadvantages of these oils should, however, be explored in greater depth. The present review will attempt to identify the benefits and shortcomings of four popular edible oils, namely olive oil, sunflower-seed oil, fish oil and palm oil. Additionally the present review will aim to reveal potential areas of research which could further enhance our understanding of the effects of edible oils on cardiovascular health. PMID:20849681
Moslehi Jenabian, Saloomeh; Pedersen, Line Lindegaard; Jespersen, Lene
Besides being important in the fermentation of foods and beverages, yeasts have shown numerous beneficial effects on human health. Among these, propiotic effects are the most well known health effects including prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases and immunomodulatory effects. Other...
The enzyme phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5), widely distributed in the heart, smooth muscle, and blood vessels, catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator, and is also a nitric oxide (NO) donor. Tadalafil is the first PDE 5 inhibitor approved by FDA for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE-5 inhibitors in patients with cardiovascular diseases (coronary heart disease, hypertension, heart failure, and pulmonary arterial hypertension) and diabetes mellitus. It has been demonstrated that tadalafil can not only improve sexual function, but also elevate the endothelial cell-derived NO level, activate protein kinase A, upregulate the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, and improve hemodynamic indexes. Thus, the PDE-5 inhibitor tadalafil, with its cardiovascular-protective effect, can be a therapeutic option for the treatment of ED patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:24432631
Schreier, Barbara; Rabe, Sindy; Winter, Sabrina; Ruhs, Stefanie; Mildenberger, Sigrid; Schneider, Bettina; Sibilia, Maria; Gotthardt, Michael; Kempe, Sabine; Mäder, Karsten; Grossmann, Claudia; Gekle, Michael
Non-physiological activation of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), e.g. by aldosterone under conditions of high salt intake, contributes to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases, although beneficial effects of aldosterone also have been described. The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) contributes to cardiovascular alterations and mediates part of the MR effects. Recently, we showed that EGFR is required for physiological homeostasis and function of heart and arteries in adult animals. We hypothesize that moderate high aldosterone/NaCl, at normal blood pressure, affects the cardiovascular system depending on cardiovascular EGFR. Therefore we performed an experimental series in male and female animals each, using a recently established mouse model with EGFR knockout in vascular smooth muscle cells and cardiomyocytes and determined the effects of a mild-high aldosterone-to-NaCl constellation on a.o. marker gene expression, heart size, systolic blood pressure, impulse conduction and heart rate. Our data show that (i) cardiac tissue of male but not of female mice is sensitive to mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment, (ii) EGFR knockout induces stronger cardiac disturbances in male as compared to female animals and (iii) mild aldosterone/NaCl treatment requires the EGFR in order to disturb cardiac tissue homeostasis whereas beneficial effects of aldosterone seem to be independent of EGFR. PMID:25503263
Full Text Available Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including inability to drive a car, dry mouth, constipation, and sexual dysfunction. As a therapeutic alternative, effective herbal drugs may offer advantages in terms of safety and tolerability, possibly also improving patient compliance. The advent of the first antidepressants, Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs and Tricyclic Antidepressants (TCAs, in the 1950s and 1960s represented a dramatic leap forward in the clinical management of depression. The subsequent development of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs and the Serotonin Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitor (SNRI venlafaxine in the past decade and a half has greatly enhanced the treatment of depression by offering patients medications that are as effective as the older agents but are generally more tolerable and safer in an overdose. The introduction of atypical antidepressants, such as bupropion, nefazadone, and mirtazapine, has added substantially to the available pharmacopoeia for depression. Nonetheless, rates of remission tend to be low and the risk of relapse and recurrence remains high. One of the concerns regarding the safety of antidepressant is its potential risk of cardiotoxicity and cardiovascular side effects. In this review, we will focus on the cardiovascular side effects of different types of antidepressants.
Jumar, Agnes; Schmieder, Roland E
The protective cardiovascular (CV) effect of cocoa flavanol has been a target of many recent clinical prospective and retrospective investigations. Epidemiological data in different patient cohorts revealed an association between higher intake of flavanol-rich foods and decreased incidence of CV events, especially stroke and myocardial infarction. Cocoa flavanol has been shown to reduce systolic (2.8 mm Hg) and diastolic (2.2 mm Hg) office blood pressure (BP). Greater BP reduction has been found in hypertensive patients and people younger than 50 years. Cocoa flavanol intake exerts beneficial effects on pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypertension-related organ damage, such as improved endothelial function, anti-inflammatory potency, inhibition of platelet activation, and increased vasodilatory capacity. Recent clinical trials have focused on establishing a potential link between epidemiology and pathophysiology of flavanol and identified possible mechanisms for prevention of end-organ damage in patients at CV risk. This review summarizes the available data on the antihypertensive effects of cocoa flavanol beyond BP-BP lowering lowering effects, accentuates subgroup-specific protective actions of cocoa according to patients' different CV risk profile, and outlines potential cocoa flavanol-associated clinical implications. PMID:26514936
Full Text Available
A Lei de Ferro da Epidemiologia (Ley de Hierro de La Epidemiología diz que todos que nascem, morrem. Por isso, o propósito da Medicina não é evitar a morte por si só, mas evitar as mortes, as doenças e o sofrimento que podem ser medicamente evitáveis.
No final, todos nossos pacientes morrerão – e nós também, obviamente, morreremos. “Os corpos encontram uma forma de morrer”, e se a causa não for por fome ou desidratação, por motivo congênito e infeccioso, por lesões, câncer ou suicídio, temos que esperar que seja por ‘motivo cardiovascular’, doença pulmonar, insuficiência renal ou hepática, demência ou outras doenças degenerativas. Mas temos que morrer por alguma coisa.
Morrer por causa cardiovascular não é desonroso, nem refere-se à atenção clínica imperfeita. O fato de a primeira causa de morte ser a cardiovascular não tem nenhuma relação com os cuidados clínicos e nem deveria assustar.
Entretanto, muitas das mortes por motivo cardiovascular poderiam ser evitadas. Assim, poder-se-ia evitar mortalidade cardiovascular, diminuindo a desigualdade social, por exemplo, com melhor redistribuição da riqueza, melhor educação etc. Os médicos sabem que os fatores adversos psicossociais associados ao fato de pertencer à classe baixa correspondem a 35% do risco atribuído à hipertensão na incidência do infarto do miocárdio (em outra hipótese, pertencer à classe baixa duplica 2,7 tal risco1.
Também deve-se saber que, contra as mortes cardiovasculares, não há nada como as políticas de saúde pública quanto ao tabagismo (restrições dos lugares onde fumar, aumento do preço do tabaco, campanhas de informação, entre outras.
Na parte clínica, as mortes cardiovasculares evitáveis devem ser vistas em perspectiva, de acordo com o que seja possível conseguir2. Portanto, por 100.000 habitantes ao ano, o tratamento com inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina (IECA
Potočnjak, Ines; Degoricija, Vesna; Vukičević Baudoin, Dina; Čulig, Josip; Jakovljević, Miro
WHO defined in 1976 psychopharmaca as drugs affecting psychological functions, behaviour and self-perception. Psychopharmacology is the study of pharmacological agents that affect mental and emotional functions. Creative approach to psychopharmacotherapy reflects a transdisciplinary, integrative and person-centered psychiatry. Psychiatric disorders often occur in cardiac patients and can affect the clinical presentation and morbidity. Cardiovascular (CV) side effects (SE) caused by psychopharmaceutic agents require comprehensive attention. Therapeutic approach can increase placebo and decrease nocebo reactions. The main purpose of this review is to comprehend CV SE of psychotropic drugs (PD). Critical overview of CV SE of PD will be presented in this review. Search was directed but not limited to CV effects of psychopharmacological substances, namely antipsychotics, anxiolytics, hypnotics, sedatives, antidepressants and stimulants. Literature review was performed and data identified by searches of Medline and PubMed for period from 2004 to 2015. Only full articles and abstracts published in English were included. SE of PD are organized according to the following types of CV effects: cardiac and circulatory effects, abnormalities of cardiac repolarisation and arrhythmias and heart muscle disease. There is wide spectrum and various CV effects of PD. Results of this review are based on literature research. The reviewed data came largely from prevalence studies, case reports, and cross-sectional studies. Psychopharmacotherapy of psychiatric disorders is complex and when concomitantly present with CV disease, presentation of drug SEs can significantly contribute to illness course. Further development of creative psychopharmacotherapy is required to deal with CV effects of PD. PMID:27352209
In this thesis, the possible protective effect of frequent blood donation on cardiovascular disease was studied. Previous research has shown that high iron stores could have damaging effects on developing cardiovascular disease, and that blood donation lowers iron stores. Lowering iron stores throug
The methods of mass spectrometry, gas chromatography - mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography were used in the analytical studies performed in order to establish the effects of ionizing radiation on the main beneficial free radical (C Phycocyanin, a-chlorophylls, b-chlorophylls, carotenoids and unsaturated fatty acids) in Spirulina platensis biomass. (author)
Weight loss is recommended for overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes on the basis of short-term studies, but long-term effects on cardiovascular disease remain unknown. We examined whether an intensive lifestyle intervention for weight loss would decrease cardiovascular morbidity and mor...
Roig, Marc; Thomas, Richard; Mang, Cameron S;
We present new evidence supporting the hypothesis that the effects of cardiovascular exercise on memory can be regulated in a time-dependent manner. When the exercise stimulus is temporally coupled with specific phases of the memory formation process, a single bout of cardiovascular exercise may be...
Full Text Available Post-reproductive lifespan is a common trait among mammals and is usually considered to be neutral; i.e. with no influence on population dynamics. Here, we explore the role of post-reproductive lifespan in the fixation probability of beneficial genetic variation. We compare two separate, stationary populations living in a constant environment that are equivalent except for the average time their respective members spend in the post-reproductive stage of life. Using a recently derived approximation, we show that fixation of a beneficial mutation is more likely in the population with greater post-reproductive longevity. This finding is surprising, as the population with more prolonged post-reproductive lifespan has smaller effective size and the classic population-genetic model would suggest that decreasing effective size reduces fixation chances of beneficial mutations. Yet, as we explain, in the age-structured case, when effective size gets smaller because of longer post-reproductive lifespan but census size is kept equal, a beneficial mutation has a higher likelihood to get fixed because it finds itself at higher initial frequency.
Zheng, Hang; Liu, Yanyou; Li, Wei; Yang, Bo; Chen, Dengbang; Wang, Xiaojia; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Hongxing; Wang, Zhengrong; Cornelisson, G.; Halberg, F.
Exercise showed the beneficial effects on mental health in depressed sufferers, whereas, its underlying mechanisms remained unresolved. This study utilized the chronic unpredictable stress (CNS) animal model of depression to evaluate the effects of exercise on depressive behaviors and spatial performance in rats. Furthermore, we tested the hypothesis that the capacity of exercise to reverse the harmful effects of CNS was relative to the hypothalamo–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) system and brain-der...
Peters, Christian D; Kjaergaard, Krista D; Jensen, Jens D;
patients in a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled 1-year intervention trial using a predefined systolic blood pressure target of 140 mm Hg (SAFIR study). Each group of 41 patients did not differ in terms of age, blood pressure, comorbidity, antihypertensive treatment, dialysis parameters, and......Agents blocking the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system are frequently used in patients with end-stage renal disease, but whether they exert beneficial cardiovascular effects is unclear. Here the long-term effects of the angiotensin II receptor blocker, irbesartan, were studied in hemodialysis...
Fosgerau, Keld; Ristagno, Giuseppe; Jayatissa, Magdalena Niepsuj; Axelsen, Mads; Gotfredsen, Jacob W; Weber, Uno J; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Videbaek, Charlotte
Survivors of a cardiac arrest often have persistent cardiovascular derangements following cardiopulmonary resuscitation including decreased cardiac output, arrhythmias and morphological myocardial damage. These cardiovascular derangements may lead to an increased susceptibility towards the external...... and internal environment of the cardiovascular system as compared to the healthy situation....
Jordan, Jens; Astrup, Arne; Engeli, Stefan;
approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration as an adjunct to lifestyle intervention for the chronic treatment of overweight/obese adults. This review summarizes and evaluates the cardiovascular risk/benefit profile associated with phentermine and topiramate, individually and in combination...
Feugang, Jean M; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Juan C; Dillard, Darby S; Crenshaw, Mark A; Willard, Scott T.; Ryan, Peter L.
Background Relaxin is detected in seminal plasma of many species and its association with sperm motility may be beneficial in some aspects of assisted reproduction. Here, we immunolocalized relaxin receptors and investigated the effects of exogenous relaxin on motility characteristics, viability, and cAMP content of boar spermatozoa after storage. Methods Commercial doses of boar semen were obtained on the collection day (Day 0) and kept in shipping containers at room temperature for up to 4 ...
Padmavathy Anbarashan; Poyyamoli Gopalswamy
The usage of synthetic fertilizers/insecticides in conventional farming has dramatically increased over the past decades. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bio-pesticides and insecticides/pesticides on selected beneficial non targeted arthropods. Orders Collembola, Arachinida/Opiliones, Oribatida and Coleoptera were the main groups of arthropods found in the organic fields and Coleoptera, Oribatida, Gamasida and Collembola in conventional fields. Pesticides/insecticides...
An analysis of the therapy of breast cancer was conducted with regard to the following: the control of local and regional disease; the treatment of potential metastatic disease; the psychological impact of a treatment course; and the potential beneficial or detrimental effect of therapy on immunity. The data revealed that lymphopenia was induced by radiotherapy and the significance of this for immune responses is discussed
Fryburg, G. C.; Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.
X-ray diffraction and electron microprobe analyses were used to examine a prominent NaTaO3 pattern formed in a number of nickel-base superalloys. It is found that a beneficial effect of tantalum with respect to hot corrosion attack arises from the ability of Ta2O5 to tie up Na2O and prevent the formation of a molten Na2MoO4 phase.
Basant M Morsy, Ayman M Mahmoud* Mohamed I Zanaty, Adel Abdel-Moneim and Mohamed A Abo-Seif
The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of milk kefir in Egyptian hepatitis C virus (HCV) patients. Thirty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. Th...
Mohammad Naser Shafei
Full Text Available Objective: Rosa damascena mill L. (R. damascena is a well-known plant with fragrant effects. Several therapeutic effects of this plant on respiratory, gastrointestinal and nervous systems have been reported. It is also suggested to have beneficial effect on cardiovascular system especially blood pressure regulation. The present study was carried out to evaluate acute cardiovascular effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n= 8 for each group. After anesthesia, a catheter was inserted into the femoral artery and blood pressure and heart rate (HR were continuously recorded by a power lab system. Animals received three doses of hydro-alcoholic extract (250, 500, and 1000 mg/kg via peritoneal (i.p. After 30 min, systolic blood pressure (SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP and HR were recorded and maximal changes were compared to control group. Results: Injection of all doses of the extract did not significantly change HR compare to control group. The SBP, dose dependently, was decreased by all doses of the extract and the maximal response was significant compared to saline group (p Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a hypotensive effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of R. damascena with no significant effect on HR. Therefore, R. damascena is suggested to have beneficial effect to control blood pressure. However, it needs to be more investigated.
Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Wright, David C
The polyphenol compound resveratrol (RSV) has attracted attention due to its reputed beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity. Our lab has previously identified protective effects of RSV against the development of type 2 diabetes in rats. These effects occurred in a manner similar to thiazolidinedione's (TZDs), a class of insulin sensitizing drugs. TZDs are commonly prescribed in combination with metformin (MET) and thus we sought to examine the combined effects of RSV and MET in treating insulin resistance. Male C57BL6 mice were fed a low- (LFD; 10% Kcal from fat) or high-fat diet (HFD; 60% Kcal from fat) for 9 weeks to induce glucose and insulin intolerance. HFD mice were then assigned to control (HFD), MET (231.28 ± 12.24 mg/kg/day), RSV (93.68 ± 3.51 mg/kg/day), or combined (COM; MET 232.01 ± 17.12 mg/kg/day and RSV 92.77 ± 6.92 mg/kg/day) treatment groups. Changes in glucose and insulin tolerance and tissue-specific insulin signaling were measured 4 weeks post-treatment. RSV or MET alone did not have beneficial effects on glucose tolerance, although MET significantly improved insulin tolerance compared to HFD Glucose and insulin tolerance were significantly improved in COM compared to HFD and this was mirrored by enhanced insulin-stimulated AKT phosphorylation in triceps muscle and inguinal subcutaneous adipose tissue in COM compared to HFD mice. Improvements with COM treatment were not explained by differences in body weight, adiposity, or markers of adipose tissue inflammation. In summary, this study provides evidence of beneficial effects of combined RSV and MET therapy in treating impairments in glucose homeostasis. PMID:27482073
Stephen D.Anton; Kacey Heekin; Carrah Simkins; Andres Acosta
According to the classic "diet-heart" hypothesis,high dietary intake of saturated fats and cholesterol combined with low intake of polyunsaturated fats can increase levels of serum cholesterol and lead to the development of atherogenic plaques and ultimately cardiovascular diseases.Recently,the beneficial health effects of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids,particularly linoleic acid (LA),on cardiovascular health have been called into question with some scientists suggesting that consumption of LA should be reduced in Western countries.The focus of this critical review is on the controversy surrounding the effects of dietary intake of LA on cardiovascular health.Specifically,we critically examined the effects of both unadulterated and adulterated forms of LA on cardiovascular health outcomes based on findings from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials.Additionally,we address common concerns surrounding dietary intake of LA regarding its relationship with arachidonic acid,the ratio of omega-6 to omega-3 fatty acids,and its relationship with inflammation.Our critical review indicates that unadulterated forms of LA are cardioprotective and should be consumed as part of a healthy diet.In contrast,abundant evidence now indicates that adulterated forms of LA,predominantly hydrogenated vegetable oils,are atherogenic and should not be considered part of a healthy diet.The ability to adulterate the natural omega-6 fatty acid,LA,has contributed to mixed findings regarding the effects of this fatty acid on cardiovascular health.Thus,it is critical that the source of LA be taken into account when drawing conclusions about the physiological effects of this fatty acid.The findings of the present review are in line with current dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.
Roopa B Ankad
Full Text Available Context: Asana, pranayama, and meditation are three main techniques of yoga practiced in India over thousands of years to attain functional harmony between the body and mind. Recent studies on long-term yogic practices have shown improvements in cardiovascular functions. Aim: The present study was conducted to ascertain if a short-term practice of pranayama and meditation had improvements in cardiovascular functions in healthy individuals with respect to age, gender, and body mass index (BMI. Settings and Design: This interventional study was conducted in the Department of physiology of S.N. Medical College, Bagalkot. Patients and Methods: Fifty healthy subjects (24 males and 26 females of 20−60 years age group, fulfilling the inclusion and exclusion criteria underwent two hours daily yoga program for 15 days taught by a certified yoga teacher. Pre and post yoga cardiovascular functions were assessed by recording pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean blood pressure. Statistical analysis used: The parameters were analyzed by Student′s t test. Results: There was significant reduction in resting pulse rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and mean arterial blood pressure after practicing pranayama and meditation for 15 days. The response was similar in both the genders, both the age groups, 40 yrs and both the groups with BMI, 25 kg/m2 . Conclusion: This study showed beneficial effects of short term (15 days regular pranayama and meditation practice on cardiovascular functions irrespective of age, gender, and BMI in normal healthy individuals.
Bahador, A; Lesan, S; Kashi, N
Background/purpose Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis. Material and Methods Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28) harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mitis participated in the randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The experimental chewing gum (1.5 g/pellet) contained 70% xylitol w/w while the control gum contained 63% sorbitol w/w. Saliva samples were collected before and after two three-week test periods with a four-week washout interval. Colony-forming units (CFU)/ml were enumerated for the estimation of S. mutans levels on Mitis Salivarius-Mutans valinomycin (MS-MUTV), S. sobrinus on Mitis Salivarius-Sobrinus (MS-SOB), S. sanguinis on Modified Medium 10-Sucrose (MM10-S) and S. mitis on Mitis Salivarius Agar with Tellurite (MSAT) media. Results The S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts of the saliva samples decreased significantly (p = 0.01 and p = 0.011, respectively) in the xylitol gum group but not in the sorbitol gum group. The salivary S. sanguinis and S. mitis counts did not decrease in both xylitol and sorbitol gum groups. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, xylitol consumption reduced S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts in saliva but appeared not to effect numbers of S. sanguinis and S. mitis in saliva. So, habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels without any effect on beneficial sterptococci for the oral cavity. PMID:22973473
Full Text Available Background/purpose: Although habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels, its effect on beneficial oral streptococci is less clear. The main aim of the study is to investigate the effect of short-term xylitol consumption on the oral beneficial streptococci level of saliva, Streptococcus sanguinis and S. mitis.Material and Methods: Twenty four volunteers with a median age of 23.7 years (range: 20-28 harboring Streptococcus mutans, S. sobrinus, S. sanguinis and S. mitis participated in the randomized, double-blind, cross-over study. The experimental chewing gum (1.5 g/pellet contained 70% xylitol w/w while the control gum contained 63% sorbitol w/w. Saliva samples were collected before and after two three-week test periods with a four-week washout interval. Colony-forming units (CFU/ml were enumerated for the estimation of S. mutans levels on Mitis Salivarius-Mutans valinomycin (MS-MUTV, S. sobrinus on Mitis Salivarius- Sobrinus (MS-SOB, S. sanguinis on Modified Medium 10 -Sucrose (MM10-S and S. mitis on Mitis Salivarius Agar with Tellurite (MSAT media.Results: The S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts of the saliva samples decreased significantly (p=0.01 and p=0.011, respectively in the xylitol gum group but not in the sorbitol gum group. The salivary S. sanguinis and S. mitis counts did not decrease in both xylitol and sorbitol gum groups.Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, xylitol consumption reduced S. mutans and S. sobrinus counts in saliva but appeared not to effect numbers of S. sanguinis and S. mitis in saliva. So, habitual consumption of xylitol reduces cariogenic streptococci levels without any effect on beneficial sterptococci for the oral cavity.
Xiao, Xudong; Zhu, Yu; Zhen, Danyang; Chen, Xiao Ming; Yue, Wu; Liu, Liangming; Li, Tao
Arginine vasopressin (AVP) and its analog, terlipressin (TP), were all demonstrated beneficial for septic shock. What advantages and disadvantages that AVP and TP have for septic shock as well as the mechanism, however, are not completely known. With cecal ligation and puncture-induced septic shock rats and lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock rabbits, we systematically compared the beneficial and side effects of AVP and TP, in septic shock and the sex difference, and investigated their relationship to Rho kinase and calcium sensitivity. The results indicated that low dose of TP (2.6 μg/kg/h) in combination with norepinephrine (NE) improving vascular reactivity and animal survival were superior to a small dose of AVP (0.03 U/kg/h) in septic shock rats and rabbits. This improving effect of AVP and TP on vascular reactivity was closely related to the activation of Rho-kinase and Rho-kinase-mediating vascular calcium sensitization. A small dose of TP did not result in hyponatremia, did not increase blood bilirubin and decrease platelet count, whereas AVP did. Animal survival and vascular reactivity in female rats after TP or AVP administration were slightly better than male rats, while there were no significant differences. It was suggested that a small dose of TP has better beneficial effect and less side effects on septic shock than AVP. AVP and TP improving vascular reactivity is closely related to Rho-kinase activation and calcium sensitivity improvement. TP or plus NE may be more appropriate for early emergency care for severe septic shock than AVP. PMID:25769491
Barreto, George E.; Iarkov, Alexander; Moran, Valentina Echeverria
Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder, which is characterized by neuroinflammation, dopaminergic neuronal cell death and motor dysfunction, and for which there are no proven effective treatments. The negative correlation between tobacco consumption and PD suggests that tobacco-derived compounds can be beneficial against PD. Nicotine, the more studied alkaloid derived from tobacco, is considered to be responsible for the beneficial behavioral and neurological effects of tobacco use in PD. However, several metabolites of nicotine, such as cotinine, also increase in the brain after nicotine administration. The effect of nicotine and some of its derivatives on dopaminergic neurons viability, neuroinflammation, and motor and memory functions, have been investigated using cellular and rodent models of PD. Current evidence shows that nicotine, and some of its derivatives diminish oxidative stress and neuroinflammation in the brain and improve synaptic plasticity and neuronal survival of dopaminergic neurons. In vivo these effects resulted in improvements in mood, motor skills and memory in subjects suffering from PD pathology. In this review, we discuss the potential benefits of nicotine and its derivatives for treating PD. PMID:25620929
Mantle, D; Gok, M A; Lennard, T W
Plants are of relevance to dermatology for both their adverse and beneficial effects on skin and skin disorders respectively. Virtually all cultures worldwide have relied historically, or continue to rely on medicinal plants for primary health care. Approximately one-third of all traditional medicines are for treatment of wounds or skin disorders, compared to only 1-3% of modern drugs. The use of such medicinal plant extracts for the treatment of skin disorders arguably has been based largely on historical/anecdotal evidence, since there has been relatively little data available in the scientific literature, particularly with regard to the efficacy of plant extracts in controlled clinical trials. In this article therefore, adverse and beneficial aspects of medicinal plants relating to skin and skin disorders have been reviewed, based on recently available information from the peer-reviewed scientific literature. Beneficial aspects of medicinal plants on skin include: healing of wounds and burn injuries (especially Aloe vera); antifungal, antiviral, antibacterial and acaricidal activity against skin infections such as acne, herpes and scabies (especially tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) oil); activity against inflammatory/immune disorders affecting skin (e.g. psoriasis); and anti-tumour promoting activity against skin cancer (identified using chemically-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mice). Adverse effects of plants on skin reviewed include: irritant contact dermatitis caused mechanically (spines, irritant hairs) or by irritant chemicals in plant sap (especially members of the Ranunculaceae, Euphorbiaceae and Compositae plant families); phytophotodermatitis resulting from skin contamination by plants containing furocoumarins, and subsequent exposure to UV light (notably members of the Umbelliferae and Rutaceae plant families); and immediate (type I) or delayed hypersensitivity contact reactions mediated by the immune system in individuals sensitized to plants
Nielsen, Forrest H; Stoecker, Barbara J
An experiment was performed to determine whether boron deprivation would adversely affect vertebra (trabecular) bone microarchitecture, and whether any adverse effect would be modified by dietary fatty acid composition. Female rats were fed diets containing 0.1mg (9 micromol) boron/kg in a factorial arrangement with variables of supplemental boron at 0 (boron-deprived) or 3 (boron-adequate) mg (278 micromol)/kg and fat sources of 75 g safflower oil/kg or 65 g fish (menhaden)oil/kg plus 10 g linoleic acid/kg. After 6 weeks, six females per treatment were bred. Dams and pups continued on their respective diets through gestation, lactation, and after weaning. At age 21 weeks, the microarchitecture of the fourth lumbar vertebrae from 12 randomly selected pups from each treatment was determined by microcomputed tomography. Boron deprivation decreased bone volume fraction and increased trabecular separation and structural model index. Boron deprivation decreased trabecular thickness when the dietary oil was safflower. A three-point bending test for bone strength found that boron deprivation decreased the maximum force needed to break the femur. Feeding fish oil instead of safflower oil decreased connectivity density in vertebrae of boron-deficient but not in boron-adequate rats. Fish oil instead of safflower oil increased the maximum force to break and the bending moment of the femur, especially in rats fed adequate boron. The findings confirm that boron and fish oil are beneficial to cortical bone strength, and show that nutritional intakes of boron are beneficial for trabecular bone microarchitecture and influence the beneficial effects of fish oil on bone. PMID:19486829
The Effects of drinking green tea (GT) extract (made from non-irradiated or irradiated GT leaves) on certain physiological and biochemical parameters in adult rats were measured. Rats (n = 10 per treatment group) drank either water or GT extract (hot water extract of GT leaves that were either non-irradiated or irradiated at 10, 20 or 30 kGy) ad libitum for 5 week duration of the test. Neither control nor- irradiated GT extract had any effect on body wt, total body wt gain or relative internal organs wt. Both control and irradiated GT extract had beneficial effects on total plasma lipids. Consumption of GT extract (made from leaves irradiated to doses of 0, 10, 20 or 30 kGy) lowered blood glucose level by 24.3 %, 25.7 %, 24.3 % and 24.1 % respectively, compared to the control group that received only water (glucose in water control groups 107 mg dl ). The corresponding values for blood cholesterol were reduced by 23.0 %, 22.6 %, 21.3 % and 21.3 %, respectively, compared to the water control group (= 115.17 mg dl-1). The present study indicates that consumption of GT extract, either control or irradiated, raised the high density lipoprotein cholesterol in adult rats and subsequently lowered the atherogenic index. In conclusion, the present work demonstrates that consumption of GT extracts, from either control or irradiated GT leaves, beneficially affects the heart risk factors of disease in adult rats
Seth, S; Mukherjee, D; Choudhary, A K; Sinha, J N; Gurtu, S
The cardiovascular responses to ketamine injected intracisternally were examined in chloralose anaesthetized cats. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded at different time intervals after intracisternal injection of drug or saline vehicle. The low doses of ketamine (0.5 or 1.0 mg) elicited dose dependent increase in blood pressure and heart rate. In contrast the high dose of ketamine (4 mg), produced a fall in blood pressure and heart rate. The cardiovascular response elicited by the low dose was naloxone insensitive and completely blocked by haloperidol, but not by dopamine antagonist pimozide. The vasodepressor and bradycardiac effect of the 4 mg dose was naloxone antagonizable. These data show that excitatory cardiovascular effects of the low dose result from a naloxone resistant site while in high doses an inhibitory effect is elicited by action at naloxone sensitive opiate receptors. PMID:1965327
Qiu, T. S.; Zhang, W. X.; Fang, X. H.; Gao, G. K.
This paper focused on Oolitic hematite ore which consists of extremely unequal disseminated particles that are fine-grained and easy to become muddy, It presents the effect of particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time and other variables on the beneficiation of this ore. The effect of particle fineness on the concentrate quality was also studied after magnetic roasting, the so-called process of "magnetic roasting-stage grinding-low intensity magnetic separation-cationic reverse flotation" was adopted to treat the raw ore under various experimental conditions including particle fineness, roasting temperature and roasting time, etc. it is found the concentrate grade of TFe of raw ore can be increased from 48.32%(original) to 61.30% at a recovery rate of 80.73%. Results show that the effect of particle fineness on mineral processing indexes is significant.
Piddocke, Maya Petrova; Fazio, Alessandro; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa;
Background: Addition of sugar syrups to the basic wort is a popular technique to achieve higher gravity in beer fermentations, but it results in dilution of the free amino nitrogen (FAN) content in the medium. The multicomponent protease enzyme Flavourzyme has beneficial effect on the brewer...... and transcriptome analysis allowed mapping the effect of the wort sugar composition on the nitrogen uptake. Conclusion: Both the transcriptome and the metabolome analysis revealed that there is a significantly higher impact of protease addition for maltose syrup supplemented fermentations, while addition of glucose...... syrup to increase the gravity in the wort resulted in increased glucose repression that lead to inhibition of amino acid uptake and hereby inhibited the effect of the protease addition....
The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial
lifestyle intervention had a beneficial effect on some cardiovascular risk factors. In the present era of cardiovascular therapy and with the increasing numbers of overweight and physically inactive patients, this study confirms the importance of risk factor control through lifestyle modification as a supplement to more intensified drug treatment in patients with CVD. Trial registration ISRCTN69776211 at http://www.controlled-trials.com
Field experiments were performed between 1994 and 1997 to evaluate the effect of chlorpyrifos insecticide on arthropods in maize agroecosystem. The experiments were carried out in Boaco (Central zone) and Managua (Pacific zone) areas. Experiments were set up according to randomized block design, with large plots (750 m2) and four replications. The treatments were 1L/ha Lorsban 4E (containing 480 g a.i../L) and control. Visual sampling, pitfall traps and yellow traps were used to estimate numbers of pest insects and beneficial arthropods. Chlorpiryfos had a measureable affect on fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and Dalbulus maidis. The plots sprayed with the insecticide had the lowest population of S. frugiperda and the highest population of D. maidis. Beneficials insects, mainly parasitoids were more affected than pests by the insecticide sprays. The highest parasitism was found in the unsprayed plots. Overall, the lowest population of arthropods was found in the sprayed plots, except that in Managua the highest number of D. maidis were found in the sprayed plots. (author)
Stephens, Christine; Breheny, Mary; Mansvelt, Juliana
Social policy applications of 'active ageing' ideals have recently focussed on volunteering as a beneficial and valuable contribution that older people can make to their communities. In this paper we draw attention to the positive and negative effects of a general imperative to contribute. Understanding the benefits of contribution in terms of the moral force of reciprocity recognises that older people do need and want to contribute to society and these contributions are beneficial for their sense of identity and wellbeing. However, older people vary greatly in their health, financial resources, and social networks and should not be seen as a homogenous group whose members must contribute in the same way. A policy focus on the imperative to contribute as a participating citizen can be oppressive and lead to withdrawal from social engagement by those who are the most in need of support to participate. Priorities for social and organisational policies must include support for the many ways older people are able to be involved in their communities and to provide structures necessary to support their preferences. A focus on individual responsibility for active engagement in society, which does not take account of individual circumstances or past contributions, can be harmful. PMID:25841726
Nileshkumar H Patel, Hasmukh D Shah, Wasim A Shaikh, Sushil K Singh
Full Text Available "Background: Exercise is a potent stimulus for sympathetic nervous system activation. But the compliance of people for routine form of exercise for BP control has not been very encouraging. Objective of the study was to determine the short-term effects of isotonic handgrip exercise on cardiovascular autonomic reactivity in healthy adolescents and to find a user friendly exercise which help in reducing blood pressure. Method and Materials: Present study was conducted on 50 young healthy adolescents in the age group of 17–19 years. Isotonic handgrip exercise was performed for 20 minutes at the rate 12 contractions per minute (2 sec contraction/3 sec relaxation at an intensity of 30%MVC using Ball-Squeeze Dynamometer. Vascular sympathetic reactivity and cardiac parasympathetic reactivity were tested at baseline and during recovery period (Immediate- post-exercise and 1 hour–post-exercise. Result: There were no changes in the parameters (Expiration: Inspiration ratio and Valsalva Ratio measuring parasympathetic reactivity. Sympathetic reactivity as evaluated by diastolic blood pressure responses to isometric handgrip test (HGT and cold pressor test (CPT showed no significant decreases. No significant difference was observed in cardiovascular autonomic reactivity during immediate and 1 hr post-exercise recovery in both boys and girls. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the exercise regime under consideration could not produce any short-term beneficial effects with respect to cardiovascular autonomic reactivity."
Full Text Available Though diabetic neuropathy produces high impact on quality of life, annual cost and morbidities, the therapeutic efficacy is still not in a satisfaction level. Based on the crucial role of oxidative stress on the pathophysiology of diabetic neuropathy and the improvement of this condition induced by antioxidant, we hypothesized that asiaticoside, a substance possessing antioxidant activity, could provide beneficial effect. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of asiaticoside on the recovery of sciatic nerve in experimental neuropathy in diabetic rats. Young adult male Wistar rats at 8 weeks old, weighing approximate 180-220 g, were orally given asiaticoside at doses of 0.1 and 1 mg kg-1 BW at a period of 5 days before and 3 weeks after sciatic nerve crush injury. Motor and sensory functions were observed every 3 day until the end of the experiment by using Deminacelli method, walking pattern, muscle power and foot reflex withdrawal test, respectively. Our results showed that both doses of asiaticoside could significantly reverse the enhanced withdrawal threshold intensity elicited by electrical stimuli. However, the rats received asiaticoside at dose of 1 mg kg-1 BW provided optimum benefit. However, no other significant effects were observed. Asiaticoside administration in an experimental model of neuropathy in diabetic rats mitigates some functional impairment of sciatic nerve. Though our data show only the beneficial effect of asiaticoside on the foot withdrawal reflex, it is very much important because it involve the protective mechanism against painful stimuli. Therefore, it is worth for further investigation in order to confirm the improvement of sensori-motor functions and determined the both therapeutic window and possible underlying mechanism."
Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: email@example.com; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Li, Jia, E-mail: email@example.com
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome
Elevated heart rate is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The inhibitor of funny current (Ⅰ (f)), a hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel current, ivabradine is a new agent selectively reduc-ing heart rate devoid of other cardiovascular effects, which has come into the market in Europe for more than 3 years. It has been approved that pure heart rate reduction by ivabradine can improve myocardial ischemia, endothelial function and myocardial contractile function. Long-term administration will not increase all-cause mortality. Its therapeutic value in stable coronary artery disease has been verified in clinical practice, while in other fields of cardiovascular diseases still needs more evidence-based medical research. This article is a review about its recent research advances in experi-mental and clinical studies.
F.M. van der Veen; L.J.M. Mulder; G. Mulder
Effects of maintaining an alert state on event-related brain potentials (ERPs) and evoked cardiovascular responses were examined in an auditory detection task. Subjects were instructed to detect a possible difference in frequency between two successively presented tones in 5 s periods. Two types of
Full Text Available High concentrations of particulate matter (PM air pollution have been associated with death and hospital admissions due to cardiovascular morbidity. However, it is not clear a whether high levels of non-anthropogenic PM from dust storms constitute a health risk; and b whether these health risks are exacerbated in a particular demographic.This study comprised all patients above 18 years old admitted to Soroka University Medical Center (1000 bed tertiary hospital, Be'er-Sheva, Israel, 2001-2010 with a primary diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS. Data on meteorological parameters and PM10 (particulate matter <10 μm in aerodiameter were obtained from monitoring stations in the city of Be'er-Sheva. Data were analyzed using a case crossover analysis to examine the effect of dust exposure on hospitalization due to ACS and the interaction with co-morbidities and demographic factors.There were 16,734 hospitalizations due to ACS during the study period. The estimated odds of hospitalization due to ACS was significantly associated with PM10 during non dust storm days at the same day of the exposure (lag0; OR = 1.014 (95%CI 1.001-1.027 for a 10 μg/m3 increase, while a delayed response (lag1 was found during the dust storm days; OR = 1.007 (95%CI 1.002-1.012. The effect size for the dust exposure association was larger for older (above the age of 65, female or Bedouin patients.Exposure to non-anthropogenic PM is associated with cardiovascular morbidity. Health risk associated dust exposure is gender and age specific with older women and Bedouin patients being the most vulnerable groups.
Full Text Available In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A. Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several experimental and epidemiological studies have been performed or are ongoing. Most of the studies on cardiovascular outcomes have been related to noise from road or aircraft traffic. Few studies have included railway noise. The outcomes under study include morning saliva cortisol, treatment for hypertension, self-reported hypertension, and myocardial infarction. The Swedish studies on road traffic noise support the hypothesis of an association between long-term noise exposure and cardiovascular disease. However, the magnitude of effect varies between the studies and has been shown to depend on factors such as sex, number of years at residence, and noise annoyance. Two national studies have been performed on the cardiovascular effects of aircraft noise exposure. The first one, a cross-sectional study assessing self-reported hypertension, has shown a 30% risk increase per 5 dB(A noise increase. The second one, which to our knowledge is the first longitudinal study assessing the cumulative incidence of hypertension, found a relative risk (RR of 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 - 1.19 per 5 dB(A noise increase. No associations have been found between railway noise and cardiovascular diseases. The findings regarding noise-related health effects and their economic consequences should be taken into account in future noise abatement policies and community planning.
Sara R Robertson
Full Text Available Surface-adherent biofilm growth is a common trait of bacteria and other microorganisms in nature. Within biofilms, organisms are present in high density and are enmeshed in an organic matrix containing polysaccharides and other molecules. The close proximity of organisms within biofilms facilitates microbial interactions and signaling, including many metabolic processes in which consortia rather than individual organisms participate. Biofilm growth also enables microorganisms to withstand chemical and biological stresses. Here, we review some current literature and document representative beneficial aspects of biofilms using examples from wastewater treatment, microbial fuel cells, biological repair (biocementation of stonework, and biofilm protection against Candida albicans infections. Finally, we address a chemical ecology strategy whereby desired microbial succession and beneficial biofilm formation can be encouraged via manipulation of culture conditions and bacterial signaling.
Seong, Pil-Nam; Seo, Hyun-Woo; Kang, Sun-Moon; Kim, Yoon-Seok; Cho, Soo-Hyun; Kim, Jin-Hyoung; Hoa, Van-Ba
Though traditional seasonings are widely used in many dishes, however, no attention has been paid to the investigation of their effects on quality characteristics of food products. The present investigation was undertaken to study the effects of incorporating several traditional seasonings including doenjang (fermented soybean paste), gochu-jang (red pepper paste), fresh medium-hot, and hot peppers, and fresh garlic on the lipid oxidation, cholesterol content and sensory characteristics of fermented sausages. Six fermented sausage treatments (5 with 1% (w/w) each test seasoning and 1 without added test seasoning (control) were prepared. The addition of seasonings generally had beneficial effects on the improvement of fermented sausage's quality however the effects differed depending on the each type of seasonings added. Significant lower pH values were found in all fermented sausages made with the seasonings while, lower levels of lipid oxidation were found in the treatments with hot peppers and garlic as compared with the control (pcontrol. Noticeably, incorporating doenjang, medium-hot peppers, hot peppers and garlic resulted in reduction of 26.50, 32.54, 47.04, and 48.54 mg cholesterol/100 g samples, respectively (p<0.05). Higher scores for the sensory traits such as aroma, taste, color and acceptability were also given for the sausages made with seasonings. The current work demonstrates that the test seasonings represent potentially natural ingredients to be used for producing healthier fermented sausages. PMID:26954136
Conclusion:Cardiac effects of OP poisoning can be life-threatening. Prompt diagnosis, early supportive and definitive therapies with atropine and oximes along with vigilant monitoring of the patients for prominent cardiac effects such as QT prolongation, VT or VF during hospital stay can definitely save lives of the victims.
Basant M Morsy, Ayman M Mahmoud* Mohamed I Zanaty, Adel Abdel-Moneim and Mohamed A Abo-Seif
Full Text Available The current study was designed to evaluate the beneficial therapeutic effects of milk kefir in Egyptian hepatitis C virus (HCV patients. Thirty volunteer patients with proven HCV and fifteen age matched healthy subjects were included in this study. Exclusion criteria included patients on interferon therapy, infection with hepatitis B virus, drug-induced liver diseases, advanced cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma or other malignancies, blood picture abnormalities and major severe illness. The included subjects were divided into three groups as follows: Group 1 served as healthy, Group 2 served as HCV control and Group 3 HCV patients received 250 ml freshly prepared milk kefir twice daily for one month. Liver function enzymes, albumin, total bilirubin, prothrombin time and concentration, international normalized ratio, lipid profile and viral load were all assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. Milk kefir exhibited marked therapeutic benefits in HCV patients through decreasing viral load, alleviating the altered liver function and improvement of lipid profile. The ameliorative effects of milk kefir in HCV patients may be attributed to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and immune-stimulatory effects.
Nathan T. Jenkins
Full Text Available The purpose was to test the hypothesis that adipocytes from obese rats would exert pro-atherogenic paracrine effects on cultured endothelial cells compared to adipocytes from lean rats, and that the adverse obesity-associated paracrine effects of adipocytes would be more pronounced in visceral than subcutaneous adipose tissue. Epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissues were harvested from 32-wk old obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF and lean Long Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO rats. Cultured rat aortic endothelial cells were treated for 24 h with media conditioned with LETO subcutaneous adipocytes (LSA, OLETF subcutaneous adipocytes (OSA, LETO epididymal adipocytes (LEA, and OLETF epididymal adipocytes (OEA. The amount of key adipokines secreted by ATs was measured in the supernatant fluid with ELISA and mRNA levels of a number of pro- and anti-atherogenic genes were assessed in treated endothelial cells via quantitative real-time PCR. Compared to adipocytes from other depots, secretion of leptin and TNFα was highest and vaspin secretion was lowest from OEA. However, endothelial cells treated with OEA conditioned media exhibited lower expression of several pro-atherogenic genes. These data suggest that adipocytes isolated from obese visceral adipose tissue secrete some as-yet unidentified factor(s that confers a beneficial effect on transcription of pro- and anti-atherogenic genes of endothelial cells.
Full Text Available Sang Mi Han,1 In Phyo Hong,1 Soon Ok Woo,1 Sung Nam Chun,2 Kwan Kyu Park,3 Young Mee Nicholls,4 Sok Cheon Pak5 1Department of Agricultural Biology, National Academy of Agricultural Science, Wanju, 2Dong Sung Pharmaceuticals Co Ltd, Seoul, 3Department of Pathology, School of Medicine, Catholic University of Daegu, Daegu, South Korea; 4Manuka Doctor Ltd, Auckland, New Zealand; 5School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Bathurst, NSW, Australia Abstract: Facial wrinkles are an undesirable outcome caused by extrinsic photodamage and intrinsic aging processes. Currently, no effective strategies are known to prevent facial wrinkles. We assessed the beneficial effects of bee-venom serum on the clinical signs of aging skin. Our results show that bee-venom serum treatment clinically improved facial wrinkles by decreasing total wrinkle area, total wrinkle count, and average wrinkle depth. Therefore, bee-venom serum may be effective for the improvement of skin wrinkles. Keywords: bee venom, wrinkle, area, count, depth
Caridad Peraza Martínez
ophthalmology offices, and many of drugs used for these conditions may cause undesirable effects on the eyeball. The objective of this research was to determine the adverse reactions caused by the consumption of these drugs in the visual organ, and highlight their contraindications in people affected by eye disease. Method: A literature search was performed using specialized texts, and the drugs that could produce ocular adverse reactions were identified, as well as those that were contraindicated in ophthalmic diseases. Results: A total of 276 medications were reviewed and 72 (26.08% were selected. Blurred vision (38/72, decreased visual acuity (21/72 and dizziness (16/72 were the most common adverse reactions associated with the use of cardiovascular drugs. The six medications that are contraindicated in these patients are exposed, as well as the 14 that should be prescribed with extreme caution in diseases such as glaucoma, optic atrophy, hypertensive retinopathy and migraine, among others. Conclusions: It was found that 72 drugs (26.08% used in cardiovascular disease may produce some ocular symptoms as an adverse reaction. Blurred vision, decreased visual acuity and dizziness were predominant. It is extremely important to conduct a good medical interview to know the patient´s medical history and avoid the use of drugs that are useful for a disease but harmful for another one. The doctor, knowingly, will weigh the risk / benefit of those drugs that are essential.
Jorige Archana et al
Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia...
Gösta Bluhm; Charlotta Eriksson
In Sweden, as in many other European countries, traffic noise is an important environmental health issue. At present, almost two million people are exposed to average noise levels exceeding the outdoor national guideline value (55 dB(A)). Despite efforts to reduce the noise burden, noise-related health effects, such as annoyance and sleep disturbances, are increasing. The scientific interest regarding more serious health effects related to the cardiovascular system is growing, and several exp...
I. Mohammed Salman
Full Text Available Background: The present study aimed at evaluating the effect of gliclazide on cardiovascular risk factors involved in type 2 diabetes mellitus using n-STZ rat model on a long term basis. Methods: The diabetic model was developed using a split dose of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg intraperitoneally on 2nd and 3rd postnatal days. The diabetic rats were treated orally with gliclazide suspension at the dose of 10 mg/kg for 90 days. Cardiovascular risk factors such as systolic blood pressure, heart rate, lipid profile, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated at regular intervals along with fasting blood glucose (FBG and oral glucose tolerance test. Results: Gliclazide did not alter FBG however improved the impaired glucose tolerance. The gliclazide treated rats did not develop hypertension and there was a significant difference (p<0.001 at the end of treatment when compared to the diabetic group which could be due to free radical scavenging property of gliclazide. Gliclazide treatment in n-STZ model was found to be effective in preventing hypertension, creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activity. Also gliclazide was found to have beneficial effects on the impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidaemia, adiposity index and total fat pad weight. Conclusions: To improve and prevent the cardiovascular risk factors involved in Type II diabetic patients, gliclazide could be clinically beneficial. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2012; 1(3.000: 196-201
Full Text Available The survival rate of 19 patients who underwent living-related kidney transplantation after donor-specific blood transfusions (DST was compared with that of 32 historical controls receiving transplants without DST. The graft survival rate of the DST group was 82% after two and three years. The graft survival rate of the DST group was significantly better than the 53% rate after two years obtained with the 32 historical controls (p less than 0.05. We tested sera from 16 DST-treated recipients to study the beneficial effect of DST on kidney allograft survival using the mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC serum inhibition test. The results demonstrated that MLC inhibitory factors were induced in the serum of the recipient after completion of DST. This inhibition of MLC was observed by treatment of responder lymphocytes with serum obtained three weeks after DST plus rabbit complement. The inhibitory effect was also specific for responder cells in anti-donor MLC. Regarding the correlation with rejection episodes, these MLC inhibitory factors were often observed in the non-rejection group (p less than 0.05. The data suggest that such factors may be anti-idiotypic antibodies and be associated with prolonged graft survival.
Marasco, Valeria; Boner, Winnie; Heidinger, Britt; Griffiths, Kate; Monaghan, Pat
Repeated exposure to stressful circumstances is generally thought to be associated with increased pathology and reduced longevity. However, growing lines of evidence suggest that the effects of environmental stressors on survival and longevity depend on a multitude of factors and, under some circumstances, might be positive rather than negative. Here, using the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), we show that repeated exposure to stressful conditions (i.e. unpredictable food availability), which induced no changes in body mass, was associated with a decrease in mortality rate and an increase in the age of death. As expected, the treated birds responded to the unpredictable food supply by increasing baseline glucocorticoid stress hormone secretion and there were no signs of habituation of this hormonal response to the treatment across time. Importantly, and consistent with previous literature, the magnitude of hormone increase induced by the treatment was significant, but relatively mild, since the baseline glucocorticoid concentrations in the treated birds were substantially lower than the peak levels that occur during an acute stress response in this species. Taken together, these data demonstrate that protracted exposure to relatively mild stressful circumstances can have beneficial lifespan effects. PMID:26093051
Full Text Available Recent toxicological studies on carbon nanomaterials, including fullerenes, have led to concerns about their safety. Functionalized fullerenes, such as polyhydroxy fullerenes (PHF, fullerols, or fullerenols, have attracted particular attention due to their water solubility and toxicity. Here, we report surprisingly beneficial and/or specific effects of PHF on model organisms representing four kingdoms, including the green algae Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, the fungus Aspergillus niger, and the invertebrate Ceriodaphnia dubia. The results showed that PHF had no acute or chronic negative effects on the freshwater organisms. Conversely, PHF could surprisingly increase the algal culture density over controls at higher concentrations (i.e., 72% increase by 1 and 5 mg/L of PHF and extend the lifespan and stimulate the reproduction of Daphnia (e.g. about 38% by 20 mg/L of PHF. We also show that at certain PHF concentrations fungal growth can be enhanced and Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exhibit longer hypocotyls, while other complex physiological processes remain unaffected. These findings may open new research fields in the potential applications of PHF, e.g., in biofuel production and aquaculture. These results will form the basis of further research into the mechanisms of growth stimulation and life extension by PHF.
Ebringer, L; Ferencík, M; Krajcovic, J
Milk is a complex physiological liquid that simultaneously provides nutrients and bioactive components that facilitate the successful postnatal adaptation of the newborn infant by stimulating cellular growth and digestive maturation, the establishment of symbiotic microflora, and the development of gut-associated lymphoid tissues. The number, the potency, and the importance of bioactive compounds in milk and especially in fermented milk products are probably greater than previously thought. They include certain vitamins, specific proteins, bioactive peptides, oligosaccharides, organic (including fatty) acids. Some of them are normal milk components, others emerge during digestive or fermentation processes. Fermented dairy products and probiotic bacteria decrease the absorption of cholesterol. Whey proteins, medium-chain fatty acids and in particular calcium and other minerals may contribute to the beneficial effect of dairy food on body fat and body mass. There has been growing evidence of the role that dairy proteins play in the regulation of satiety, food intake and obesity-related metabolic disorders. Milk proteins, peptides, probiotic lactic acid bacteria, calcium and other minerals can significantly reduce blood pressure. Milk fat contains a number of components having functional properties. Sphingolipids and their active metabolites may exert antimicrobial effects either directly or upon digestion. PMID:19085072
Münzel, Thomas; Gori, Tommaso; Babisch, Wolfgang; Basner, Mathias
The role of noise as an environmental pollutant and its impact on health are being increasingly recognized. Beyond its effects on the auditory system, noise causes annoyance and disturbs sleep, and it impairs cognitive performance. Furthermore, evidence from epidemiologic studies demonstrates that environmental noise is associated with an increased incidence of arterial hypertension, myocardial infarction, and stroke. Both observational and experimental studies indicate that in particular nig...
Shahin Akhondzadeh; Javad Maleki
Depression is a serious disorder in today’s society, with the estimates of lifetime prevalence being as high as 21% of the general population in some developed countries. As defined by the American Psychiatric Association, depression is a heterogeneous disorder often manifested with symptoms at the psychological, behavioral, and physiological levels. Such patients are often reluctant to take synthetic antidepressants in their appropriate doses due to their anticipated side effects including i...
Lin, Yi-Ling; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Yang, Deng-Jye; Tzang, Bor-Show; Chen, Yi-Chen
Polyphenols in noni juice (NJ) are mainly composed of phenolic acids, mainly gentisic, p-hydroxybenoic, and chlorogenic acids. To investigate the beneficial effects of NJ on the liver, hamsters were fed with two diets, normal-fat and high-fat diets. Furthermore, high-fat dietary hamsters were received distilled water, and 3, 6, and 9 mL NJ/kg BW, respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, the increased (p<0.05) sizes of liver and visceral fat in high-fat dietary hamsters compared to the control hamsters were ameliorated (p<0.05) by NJ supplementation. NJ also decreased (p<0.05) serum/liver lipids but enhanced (p<0.05) daily faecal lipid/bile acid outputs in the high-fat dietary hamsters. High-fat dietary hamsters supplemented with NJ had higher (p<0.05) liver antioxidant capacities but lowered (p<0.05) liver iNOS, COX-2, TNF-α, and IL-1β expressions, gelatinolytic levels of MMP9, and serum ALT values compared to those without NJ. Hence, NJ protects liver against a high-fat dietary habit via regulations of antioxidative and anti-inflammatory responses. PMID:23578611
Dai, Qi; Shan, Qifeng; Lam, Hien; Hao, Luoxi; Lin, Yi; Cui, Zhe
Optimization of solid-state lighting spectra is performed to achieve beneficial and tunable circadian effects. First, the minimum spectral circadian action factor (CAF) of 2700 K white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is studied for applications where biologically active illumination is undesirable. It is found that white-LEDs based on (i) RGB chips, (ii) blue & red chips plus green phosphor, and (iii) blue chip plus green & red phosphors are the corresponding minimum-CAF solutions at color-rendering index (CRI) requirements of 80, 90, and 95, respectively. Second, maximum CAF tunability of LED clusters is studied for dynamic daylighting applications. A dichromatic phosphor-converted blue-centered LED, a dichromatic phosphor-converted green-centered LED, and a monochromatic red LED are grouped to obtain white spectra between 2700 K and 6500 K. A maximum CAF tunability of 3.25 times is achieved with CRI above 90 and luminous efficacy of radiation of 313 - 373 lm/W. We show that our approaches have advantages over previously reported solutions on system simplicity, minimum achievable CAF value, CAF tunability range, and light source efficacy. PMID:27607613
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes and obesity are increasing worldwide and linked to periodontitis, a chronic disease which is characterized by the irreversible destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues, that is, periodontium. The mechanisms underlying the association of diabetes mellitus and obesity with periodontal destruction and compromised periodontal healing are not well understood, but decreased plasma levels of adiponectin, as found in diabetic and obese individuals, might be a critical mechanistic link. The aim of this in vitro study was to examine the effects of adiponectin on periodontal ligament (PDL cells under normal and regenerative conditions, and to study the regulation of adiponectin and its receptors in these cells. Adiponectin stimulated significantly the expression of growth factors and extracellular matrix, proliferation, and in vitro wound healing, reduced significantly the constitutive tumor necrosis factor-α expression, and caused a significant upregulation of its own expression. The beneficial actions of enamel matrix derivative on a number of PDL cell functions critical for periodontal regeneration were partially enhanced by adiponectin. The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis inhibited the adiponectin expression and stimulated the expression of its receptors. In conclusion, reduced levels of adiponectin, as found in type 2 diabetes and obesity, may compromise periodontal health and healing.
Nancy Alker Craigmyle
Full Text Available Abstract During fMRI studies of meditation the cortical salience detecting and executive networks become active during awareness of mind wandering, shifting and sustained attention. The anterior cingulate (AC is activated during awareness of mind wandering.The AC modulates both the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS and the central locus coeruleus (LC norepinephrine systems, which form the principal neuromodulatory system, regulating in multiple ways both neuronal and non-neuronal cells to maximize adaptation in changing environments. The LC is the primary source of central norepinephrine (C-NE and nearly the exclusive source of cortical norepinephrine. Normally activated by novel or salient stimuli, the AC initially inhibits the SNS reflexively, lowering peripheral norepinephrine (P-NE and activates the LC, increasing C-NE.Moderate levels of C-NE enhance working memory through alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, while higher levels of C-NE, acting on alpha 1 and beta receptors, enhance other executive network functions such as the stopping of ongoing behavior, attentional set shifting and sustained attention. The actions of the AC on both the central and peripheral noradrenergic systems are implicated in the beneficial effects of meditation. This paper will explore some of the known functions and interrelationships of the AC, SNS and LC with respect to their possible relevance to meditation.
Full Text Available Reflexology is based on the digital pressure on certain reflex points situated on the sole of the foot, which represents a “map” of the entire body. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of reflexology in low back pain treatment. To accomplish the objectives of this paper, a lot of 12 patients, of both genders, with low back pain, was formed. Out of these patients, 66.67% were male and 33.33% were female, the majority coming from an urban area (75%. The average age ± the standard deviation of the patients was 43.58±13.02 years. The group of patients was subdivided into an experimental group, composed of 7 patients (58.33%, who, besides the classic drug treatment, also underwent reflexology, and a control group, composed of 5 patients (41.67%, who underwent only drug treatment. The treatment linked to reflexology was conducted by a single practitioner of reflexology, using the Morrell technique. Both in the case of the experimental group and in the control one there was a statistically significant reduction in finger to ground index (p < 0.01, respectively p< 0.05. Also, there was a highly statistically significant reduction of pain (p<0.01. Due to the small number of patients involved in the study, the data obtained cannot be generalised, as further studies are required to highlight the beneficial effect of reflexology in the case of low back pain.
Full Text Available Previous studies addressing preoperative steroid treatment have revealed that control of myasthenia gravis (MG with steroids prior to surgery appeared to stabilize postoperative status. The purpose of our study was to clarify the clinical benefits of the preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment on the long-term outcomes of MG patients. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 171 MG patients who were followed up after undergoing thymectomy in our hospital between 1988 and 2006. One hundred and thirteen patients in the programmed treatment group had received preoperative steroid treatment, while 58 patients received no steroid treatment during the preoperative period. Clinical remission, which was defined as the achievement of the modified pharmacologic remission (PR for at least 1 year, and clinical benefits were compared between the two groups. With regard to the remission after thymectomy, Kaplan-Meier life-table curves for patients in the preoperative steroid treatment group versus those for patients in the no steroid preoperative treatment group revealed a significantly higher probability of the PR in the preoperative steroid treatment group (log-rank test, P<0.01. This study might be the first, as per our knowledge, to indicate that preoperative programmed high-dose steroid treatment has long-term beneficial effects for MG patients.
Ibrahim A. Majeed
Full Text Available Objective: Survivors of myocardial infarction (MI are at increased risk of cardiac remodeling and heart failure. Activated neurohormones, including histamine, play a critical role in this regard. Data from experimental animals indicated that blocking the activity of histamine served as a rational choice in treatment of this disease. The study was designed to evaluate the effect of famotidine in management of patients with acute MI. Method: The present study was a multicenter prospective randomized trial carried out at Al-Sader Teaching Hospital and Al-Fayhaa’ General Hospital, Basra, Iraq during the period from August 2010 to August 2011. Sixty patients were allocated into two groups. Group 1 (31 patients received famotidine (40 mg/day and group 2 (29 patients received placebo formula in addition to the currently used drugs. All patients underwent initial echocardiographic evaluation at admission and 30 days after randomization along with measurement of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Nt-proBNP levels. Results: Famotidine decreased the dilation of the left ventricle compared to placebo (P < 0.05, with an absolute decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.05. Famotidine treated patients also had a lower level of Nt-proBNP after completion of the study. Conclusion: Famotidine appears to have a beneficial role in management of patients who survive myocardial infarction. [J Exp Integr Med 2012; 2(3.000: 219-224
prolongation was statistically significant in both the control and acute varenicline groups. Caspase-9 activity was also significantly increased by chronic exposure. Moreover, histopathological observations revealed severe morphological heart damage in both groups.Conclusion: Adverse effects of chronic varenicline exposure on cardiovascular tissue were confirmed by our electrocardiographic, biochemical, and histopathological analyses. This issue needs to be investigated with new experimental and clinical studies to evaluate the exact mechanism(s of the detrimental effects of varenicline. Physicians should bear in mind the toxic effects of varenicline on the cardiovascular system when prescribing it for smoking cessation.Keywords: varenicline, smoking, cardiovascular, rat, electrocardiogram, histopathological evaluation
Peter Lercher; Dick Botteldooren; Ulrich Widmann; Ulrich Uhrner; Ewald Kammeringer
Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs) after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail) during the last 35 years....
Full Text Available Leptin is an endocrine hormone synthesized by adipocytes. It plays a key role in the energy homeostasis in central and peripheral tissues and has additional roles are attributed to it, such as the regulation of reproduction, immune function, bone homeostasis, and angiogenesis. The plasma concentration of leptin significantly increases in obese individuals. In the present review, we give an introduction concerning leptin, its receptors, signaling pathways, and its effect on cardiovascular system, especially on angiogenesis.
Choi, Anna Lai; Weihe, Pal; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Jørgensen, Poul J.; Jukka T Salonen; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Murata, Katsuyuki; Nielsen, Hans Petur; Petersen, Maria Skaalum; Askham, Jórun; Grandjean, Philippe
Background: Methylmercury (MeHg), a worldwide contaminant found in fish and seafood, has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality. Objective: We examined 42 Faroese whaling men (30–70 years of age) to assess possible adverse effects within a wide range of MeHg exposures from consumption of pilot whale meat. Methods: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 yea...
Chue, Colin D; Townend, Jonathan N; Moody, William E.; Zehnder, Daniel; Wall, Nadezhda A.; Harper, Lorraine; Edwards, Nicola C.; Steeds, Richard P.; Ferro, Charles J
Serum phosphate independently predicts cardiovascular mortality in the general population and CKD, even when levels are in the normal range. Associations between serum phosphate, arterial stiffness, and left ventricular (LV) mass suggest a possible pathophysiological mechanism, potentially mediated by the phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23). To what extent the phosphate binder sevelamer modulates these effects is not well understood. In this single-center, randomized, do...
Chong, Y H; Ng, T K
A major public health concern of affluent nations is the excessive consumption of dietary fats which are now closely linked to coronary heart disease. Against this scenario, the tropical oils and palm oil in particular, have been cast as major villains in the U.S.A., despite the fact that palm oil consumption there is negligible. The unsuspecting public may not realise that the call to avoid palm oil is nothing more than a trade ploy since in recent years palm oil has been very competitive and has gained a major share of the world's edible oils and fats market. Many also lose sight of the fact that, palm oil, like other edible oils and fats, is an important component of the diet. The allegation that palm oil consumption leads to raised blood cholesterol levels and is therefore atherogenic is without scientific foundation. Examination of the chemical and fatty acid composition of palm oil or its liquid fraction should convince most nutritionists that the oil has little cholesterol-raising potential. The rationale for these are: it is considered cholesterol free. its major saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid (16:0) has recently been shown to be neutral in its cholesterolaemic effect, particularly in situations where the LDL receptors have not been down-regulated by dietary means or through a genetic effect. palm oil contains negligible amounts (less than 1.5%) of the hypercholesterolemic saturated fatty acids, namely lauric acid (12:0) and myristic acid (14:0). it has moderately rich amounts of the hypocholesterolaemic, monounsaturated oleic acid (18:1, omega-9) and adequate amounts of linoleic acid. (18:2, omega-6). It contains minor components such as the vitamin E tocotrienols which are not only powerful antioxidants but are also natural inhibitors of cholesterol synthesis. Feeding experiments in various animal species and humans also do not support the allegation that palm oil is atherogenic. On the contrary, palm oil consumption reduces blood cholesterol in
Turillazzi, E; Bello, S; Neri, M; Pomara, C; Riezzo, I; Fineschi, V
Cocaine is a widely abused drug responsible for the majority of deaths ascribed to drug overdose. Many mechanisms have been proposed in order to explain the various cocaine associated cardiovascular complications. Conventionally, cocaine cardiotoxicity has been thought to be mediated indirectly through its sympathomimetic effect, i.e., by inhibiting the reuptake and thus increasing the levels of neuronal catecholamines at work on adrenoceptors. Increased oxidative stress, reactive oxygen species, and cocaine-induced apoptosis in the heart muscle have suggested a new way to understand the cardiotoxic effects of cocaine. More recent studies have led the attention to the interaction of cocaine and some metabolites with cardiac sodium, calcium and potassium channels. The current paper is aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of cocaine cardiotoxicity which have a specific clinical and forensic interest. From a clinical point of view the full knowledge of the exact mechanisms by which cocaine exerts cardio - vascular damage is essential to identify potential therapeutic targets and improve novel strategies for cocaine related cardiovascular diseases. From a forensic point of view, it is to be underlined that cocaine use is often associated to sudden death in young, otherwise healthy individuals. While such events are widely reported, the relationship between cardiac morphological alterations and molecular/cellular mechanisms is still controversial. In conclusion, the study of cocaine cardiovascular toxicity needs a strict collaboration between clinicians and pathologists which may be very effective in further dissecting the mechanisms underlying cocaine cardiotoxicity and understanding the cardiac cocaine connection. PMID:22856657
Vestergaard, Esben Thyssen; Andersen, Niels Holmark; Hansen, Troels Krarup;
Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied the cardio......Ghrelin infusion improves cardiac function in patients suffering from cardiac failure, and bolus administration of ghrelin increases cardiac output in healthy subjects. The cardiovascular effects of more continuous intravenous ghrelin exposure remain to be studied. We therefore studied...... the cardiovascular effects of a constant infusion of human ghrelin at a rate of 5 pmol/kg per minute for 180 min. Fifteen healthy, young (aged 23.2 ± 0.5 yr), normal-weight (23.0 ± 0.4 kg/m2) men volunteered in a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study. With the subjects remaining fasting, peak...... myocardial systolic velocity S′, tissue tracking TT, left ventricular ejection fraction EF, and endothelium-dependent flow-mediated vasodilatation were measured. Ghrelin infusion increased S′ 9% (P = 0.002) and TT 10% (P
Michelsen, Charlotte Frydenlund
, a number of beneficial fungal-inhibiting bacteria were isolated from a Rhizoctonia solani suppressive potato soil in Inneruulalik, South Greenland. Especially one bacterium, Pseudomonas fluorescens In5, showed high antifungal activity against ascomycetes, basidiomycetes, and oomycetes, and it was...... able to protect tomato seedlings against R. solani infection. Various molecular and biochemical methods, such as PCR and sequence analysis, genome mining, gene knock-out, heterologous recombination, TLC and HPLC analyses were used in order to assess the antifungal mechanisms of P. fluorescens In5. In...... addition, the fairly new technology, Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization-Time Of Flight Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF IMS) combined with genome mining were conducted to detect, identify and characterize antifungal compounds produced by P. fluorescens In5. Novel bioactive compounds from P...
Svensson, Jannet; Sildorf, Stine Møller; Pipper, Christian B.;
Aim: Gluten-free diet has shown promising effects in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) in animals as well as beneficial effects on the immune system. Gluten-free diet at diabetes onset may alter the natural course and outcome of autoimmune diseases such as T1D. Methods: In a 12-month study, 15...
A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.
Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini
The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360
Fitó, Montserrat; Konstantinidou, Valentini
The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data. PMID:27089360
Full Text Available The synergies and cumulative effects among different foods and nutrients are what produce the benefits of a healthy dietary pattern. Diets and dietary patterns are a major environmental factor that we are exposed to several times a day. People can learn how to control this behavior in order to promote healthy living and aging, and to prevent diet-related diseases. To date, the traditional Mediterranean diet has been the only well-studied pattern. Stroke incidence, a number of classical risk factors including lipid profile and glycaemia, emergent risk factors such as the length of telomeres, and emotional eating behavior can be affected by genetic predisposition. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet could exert beneficial effects on these risk factors. Our individual genetic make-up should be taken into account to better prevent these traits and their subsequent consequences in cardiovascular disease development. In the present work, we review the results of nutritional genomics explaining the role of the Mediterranean diet in human cardiovascular disease. A multidisciplinary approach is necessary to extract knowledge from large-scale data.
Dutkiewicz, Jacek; Mackiewicz, Barbara; Lemieszek, Marta Kinga; Golec, Marcin; Milanowski, Janusz
Pantoea agglomerans, a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others) which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of P. agglomerans isolated by them and described as 'Immunopotentiator from Pantoea agglomerans 1 (IP-PA1)' reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that P. agglomerans occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the Plasmodium parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-Plasmodium effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. Pantoea agglomerans has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic production, competition mechanisms or induction of plant resistance. Its use as
Full Text Available [i][/i][i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i], a gammaproteobacterium of plant origin, possesses many beneficial traits that could be used for the prevention and/or treatment of human and animal diseases, combating plant pathogens, promotion of plant growth and bioremediation of the environment. It produces a number of antibiotics (herbicolin, pantocins, microcin, agglomerins, andrimid, phenazine, among others which could be used for combating plant, animal and human pathogens or for food preservation. Japanese researchers have demonstrated that the low-molecular-mass lipopolysaccharide of [i]P. agglomerans[/i] isolated by them and described as ‘Immunopotentiator from [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] 1 (IP-PA1’ reveals the extremely wide spectrum of healing properties, mainly due to its ability for the maintenance of homeostasis by macrophage activation. IP-PA1 was proved to be effective in the prevention and treatment of a broad range of human and animal disorders, such as tumours, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, ulcer, various infectious diseases, atopic allergy and stress-induced immunosuppression; it also showed a strong analgesic effect. It is important that most of these effects could be achieved by the safe oral administration of IP-PA1. Taking into account that [i]P. agglomerans[/i] occurs commonly as a symbiont of many species of insects, including mosquitoes transmitting the [i]Plasmodium[/i] parasites causing malaria, successful attempts were made to apply the strategy of paratransgenesis, in which bacterial symbionts are genetically engineered to express and secrete anti-[i]Plasmodium[/i] effector proteins. This strategy shows prospects for a successful eradication of malaria, a deadly disease killing annually over one million people, as well as of other vector-borne diseases of humans, animals and plants. [i]Pantoea agglomerans[/i] has been identified as an antagonist of many plant pathogens belonging to bacteria and fungi, as a result of antibiotic
Full Text Available Over the last several years, new evidence has kept pouring in about the remarkable effect of caloric restriction (CR on the conspicuous bedfellows- aging and cancer. Through the use of various animal models, it is now well established that by reducing calorie intake one can not only increase life span but, also, lower the risk of various age related diseases such as cancer. Cancer cells are believed to be more dependent on glycolysis for their energy requirements than normal cells and, therefore, can be easily targeted by alteration in the energy-metabolic pathways, a hallmark of CR. Apart from inhibiting the growth of transplantable tumors, CR has been also shown to inhibit the development of spontaneous, radiation and chemically induced tumors. The question regarding the potentiality of the anti-tumor effect of CR in humans has been in part answered by the resistance of a cohort of women, who had suffered from anorexia in their early life, to breast cancer. However, human research on the beneficial effect of CR is still at an early stage and needs further validation. Though the complete mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of CR is far from clear, the plausible involvement of nutrient sensing pathways or IGF-1 pathways proposed for its anti-aging action cannot be overruled. In fact, cancer cell lines, mutant for proteins involved in IGF-1 pathways, failed to respond to CR. In addition, CR decreases the levels of many growth factors, anabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and oxidative markers that are deregulated in several cancers.In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor effect of CR, describing experiments done in vitro in tumor models and in vivo in mouse models in which the tumor was induced by means of radiation or chemical exposure, expressing oncogenes or deleting tumor suppression genes. We also discuss the proposed mechanisms of CR anti-tumor action. Lastly, we argue the necessity of gene expression studies in cancerous versus
Giaimo, Stefano; Baudisch, Annette
Post-reproductive lifespan is a common trait among mammals and is usually considered to be neutral; i.e. with no influence on population dynamics. Here, we explore the role of post-reproductive lifespan in the fixation probability of beneficial genetic variation. We compare two separate, stationary...... populations living in a constant environment that are equivalent except for the average time their respective members spend in the post-reproductive stage of life. Using a recently derived approximation, we show that fixation of a beneficial mutation is more likely in the population with greater post...
Koenders, Manja A; Spijker, Annet T; Hoencamp, Erik; Haffmans, Judith P M; Zitman, Frans G; Giltay, Erik J
A relatively small number of studies have been dedicated to the differential effects of the current mood state on cognition in patients with a bipolar disorder (BD). The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of current mood state on divided attention (DA) performance, and specifically examine possible beneficial effects of the (hypo-) manic state. Over a maximum period of 24 months, medication use, divided attention test (a subtest of the Test for Attentional Performance (TAP)) was assessed every 6 months in 189 outpatients with BD. Data were analyzed with multilevel regression analysis (i.e. linear mixed models). DA performance varied considerable over time within patients. Corrected for psychotropic medication a significant quadratic relationship between manic symptoms and DA performance was found, with mild hypomanic symptoms having a positive influence on divided attention scores and moderate to severe manic symptoms having a negative influence. No association between depressive symptoms and DA performance was found. In future research on mania and cognition as well as in the clinical practice both the beneficial and negative effects of mania should be taken into account. PMID:25129563
Li, Xiang; Lee, Yun Jung; Kim, Hye Yoom; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub
We have reported that ethanol extracts of the root from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi (ESB) relax cavernous smooth muscles via the NO/cGMP system and Ca[Formula: see text]-sensitive K[Formula: see text] channels in the rabbit corpus cavernosum. In the present study, erectile function was assessed by intracavernous pressure (ICP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during electrical stimulation of the cavernous nerve. The ICP/MAP ratio was dose-dependently increased by the treatment of ESB in normal SD rats ([Formula: see text]). To investigate the beneficial effect of ESB on erectile dysfunction in a diabetic animal model, male SD rats were injected with streptozotocin (60[Formula: see text]mg/kg) and then 300[Formula: see text]mg/kg/day ESB was administered daily for eight weeks. In our in vivo study, administration of ESB in STZ rats significantly increased the ICP, ICP/MAP ratio, area under the curve (AUC), as well as the cavernous cGMP levels. Morphometric analyses showed that ESB administration increased both smooth muscle volume and the regular arrangement of collagen fibers compared to the STZ group. The protein expression levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and SM [Formula: see text]-actin from penile tissues were also significantly increased in the ESB-treated rats. Taken together, these results suggest that ESB ameliorates penile erectile dysfunction via the activation of the NO/cGMP pathways of the penile corpus cavernosum in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model. PMID:27080943
Zou, L Y; Wu, F; Altura, B T; Barbour, R L; Altura, B M
Although alcohol has long been known to induce cardiac depression and cardiomyopathy, it is not known whether drug therapy or pharmacologic manipulation can be used to prevent or reverse these toxicities. With this in mind, high levels (15 mM) of magnesium (Mg) were investigated for their potential antialcohol effects on perfused rat hearts. A high concentration of ethanol (135 mM) was used to induce rapid cardiac failure as assessed by hemodynamic and metabolic parameters. During ethanol perfusion in normal 1.2 mM [Mg2+]o physiologic salt solution, coronary flow decreased immediately, and all of the hemodynamic parameters studied (except for heart rate) were depressed significantly. After 10 min of 135 mM ethanol perfusion, only 60% of the hearts kept beating; at 15 min, only 42% of the hearts continued to beat. Myocardial metabolism under such conditions as assessed by examination of coronary effluent concentrations of lactic acid (LA), lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) was rapidly and severely compromised. Although 15 mM MgSO4 alone did not alter coronary flow and systolic pressure under the conditions studied, it did decrease cardiac output, heart rate and total pressure developed. However, when 15 mM MgSO4 was given 10 min before ethanol, and continued during ethanol perfusion, the usual depression in all assessed cardiac hemodynamic parameters (except heart rate) caused by ethanol was not observed. During 15 min of high [Mg2+]o perfusion, coronary flow recovered from 19.1 +/- 6.8% (ethanol alone) to 68.1 +/- 9.9% of control values (p CPK all went from elevated values towards normal levels. There were similar hemodynamic and metabolic responses to high [Mg2+]o given during ethanol perfusion to that given before ethanol perfusion. The hemodynamic and metabolic beneficial effects between groups pretreated or treated with high [Mg2+]o exhibited no significant differences. These results suggest that high [Mg2+]o (15 mM) given either
Jorige Archana et al
Full Text Available Tinospora cordifolia is known for a wide range of medicinal properties. In this study, cardiovascular and antimicrobial properties of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Tinospora cordifolia were evaluated. Dose dependent negative ionotropic and chronotropic effects were observed with both aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The effects were antagonized by atropine indicating involvement of muscarinic receptors. Maximum antimicrobial activity was found with ethanolic extract of Tinospora cordifolia (15mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The organism showed resistance to aqueous extract giving an inhibition zone of 0.3mm. The data suggest that Tinospora cordifolia could be of benefit in arrhythmias and microbial infections.
Full Text Available Pulse pressure (PP, a marker of arterial system properties, has been linked to cardiovascular (CV complications. We examined (a association between unit changes of PP and (i composite CV outcomes and (ii development of left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH and (b effect of mean arterial pressure (MAP control on rate of change in PP. We studied 1094 nondiabetics with nephrosclerosis in the African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension. Subjects were randomly assigned to usual MAP goal (102–107 mmHg or a lower MAP goal (≤92 mmHg and randomized to beta-blocker, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, or calcium channel blocker. After covariate adjustment, a higher PP was associated with increased risk of CV outcome (RR = 1.28, CI = 1.11–1.47, P<0.01 and new LVH (RR = 1.26, CI = 1.04–1.54, P=0.02. PP increased at a greater rate in the usual than in lower MAP groups (slope ± SE: 1.08 ± 0.15 versus 0.42 ± 0.15 mmHg/year, P=0.002, but not by the antihypertensive treatment assignment. Observations indicate that control to a lower MAP slows the progression of PP, a correlate of cardiovascular remodeling and complications, and may be beneficial to CV health.
Girdhar, Gaurav; Bluestein, Danny
Altered and highly dynamic shear stress conditions have been implicated in endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease, and in thromboembolic complications in prosthetic cardiovascular devices. In addition to vascular damage, the pathological flow patterns characterizing cardiovascular pathologies and blood flow in prosthetic devices induce shear activation and damage to blood constituents. Investigation of the specific and accentuated effects of such flow-induced perturbations ...
Zhang, Hong-Mei; Wang, Xuan; Wu, Zhao-Hong; Liu, Hui-Ling; Chen, Wei; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Chen, Dan; Zeng, Tian-Shu
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is an important regulator of glucose and lipid homeostasis. However, the exact role of FXR in diabetes remains to be fully elucidated. The present study examined the effects of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA), an agonist of FXR, on metabolism profile in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Male Wistar rats (8‑week‑old; n=40) were randomized into the following four groups (n=10): Untreated control, CDCA‑treated, T2DM, and CDCA‑treated T2DM. To establish the T2DM model, the rats were fed a high‑fat diet (HFD) for 4 weeks and received a single low‑dose intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (30 mg/kg), followed by an additional 4 weeks of HFD feeding. CDCA was administrated (10 mg/kg/d) intraperitoneally for 10 days. Reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting assays were performed to determine the RNA and protein expression of FXR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, G6Pase, proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ coactivator‑1 and short heterodimer partner in rat liver tissue. The results revealed that FXR activation by CDCA did not reduce body weight, but it lowered the plasma levels of fasting glucose, insulin and triglycerides in the T2DM rats. CDCA administration reversed the downregulation of the mRNA and protein expression of FXR in the T2DM rat liver tissue samples. Furthermore, treatment with CDCA reduced the mRNA and protein expression levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, glucose 6‑phosphatase and peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor‑γ coactivator‑1 in the liver tissue samples of the T2DM rats. By contrast, CDCA treatment increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of short heterodimer partner in the liver tissue samples of the T2DM rats. In conclusion, FXR agonist treatment induces beneficial effects on metabolism in the rat T2DM model. In conclusion, the present study indicated that the FXR agonist may be useful for the treatment
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH on the intestinal mucosa barrier of septic rats and explore its possible mechanism. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into three groups: control, Escherichia coli-induced sepsis (S and treatment (T groups. Groups S and T were subdivided into subgroups 1d and 3d, respectively. Expression of liver insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 mRNA, Bcl-2 and Bax protein levels and the intestinal Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and plasma GH and IGF-1 levels were determined. Histological examination of the intestine was performed and bacterial translocation was determined. rhGH significantly attenuated intestinal mucosal injuries and bacterial translocation in septic rats, markedly decreased Bax protein levels, inhibited the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and maintained the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in the intestine. rhGH given after sepsis significantly improved levels of plasma GH (T1d: 1.28 ± 0.24; T3d: 2.14 ± 0.48 µg/L vs S1d: 0.74 ± 0.12; S3d: 0.60 ± 0.18 µg/L; P < 0.05 and IGF-1 (T1d: 168.94 ± 65.67; T3d: 201.56 ± 64.98 µg/L vs S1d: 116.72 ± 13.96; S3d: 107.50 ± 23.53 µg/L; P < 0.05 and expression of liver IGF-1 mRNA (T1d: 0.98 ± 0.20; T3d: 1.76 ± 0.17 vs S1d: 0.38 ± 0.09; S3d: 0.46 ± 0.10; P < 0.05. These findings indicate that treatment with rhGH had beneficial effects on the maintenance of the integrity of the intestinal mucosa barrier in septic rats.
Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in susceptible populations with cardiovascular disease. Stress tests are useful in assessing cardiovascular risk and manifesting latent effects of exposure. The goal of this study w...
Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C
This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances. PMID:26760038
Full Text Available Abstract Background Immunological arguments and historical examples have shown that treatment with cord blood for non-hematopoietic activities, such as growth factor production and stimulation of angiogenesis, may not require matching or immune suppression. Methods To study the benefit of blood mononuclear cell therapy, 8 patients with idiopathic osteoporosis were given intermittent treatments with non-matched allogeneic cord blood mononuclear cells for 3 months. Morning fasting samples were collected for measuring urine N telopeptide of type-1 collagen, serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, and insulin-like growth factor 1 during one-year study. Results Clinical response was striking. Serum insulin-like growth factor 1 significantly increased in all patients at 3 months compared with baseline values, from 264.1 ± 107.0 to 384.4 ± 63.1 ng/mL (P = 0.002, with a tendency to return to baseline values at 12 months (312.9 ± 75.5 ng/mL, P = 0.083. In contrast, differences in serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and urine N telopeptide of type-1 collagen were not significant at 3 (P = 0.765, P = 0.057 or 12 months (P = 0.889, P = 0.122. A beneficial effect on bone density was observed in all patients at the lumbar spine. The mean bone mineral density calculated during therapy (0.6811 ± 0.1442 g/cm2 tended higher than baseline values (0.6239 ± 0.1362 g/cm2, P Conclusions The findings indicate that for these patients with idiopathic osteoporosis, treatment with cord blood mononuclear cells led to a significant increase in insulin-like growth factor 1 levels, which favors the increase in bone mineral density.
Dias de Macedo LD
Full Text Available Liliane Dias E Dias de Macedo,1 Thaís Cristina Galdino De Oliveira,1 Fernanda Cabral Soares,1 João Bento-Torres,1,2 Natáli Valim Oliver Bento-Torres,1,2 Daniel Clive Anthony,3 Cristovam Wanderley Picanço-Diniz1 1Laboratory of Investigations in Neurodegeneration and Infection, Institute of Biological Sciences, University Hospital João de Barros Barreto, Federal University of Pará, 2College of Physical Therapy and Occupational Therapy, Federal University of Para, Belem, Para, Brazil; 3Laboratory of Experimental Neuropathology, Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Oxford, England, UKAbstract: We previously demonstrated the beneficial effects of a multisensory and cognitive stimulation program, consisting of 48 sessions, twice a week, to improve the cognition of elderly subjects living either in long-term care institutions (institutionalized – I or in communities with their families (noninstitutionalized – NI. In the present study, we evaluated these subjects after the end of the intervention and compared the rate of age-related cognitive decline of those living in an enriched community environment (NI group, n=15, 74.1±3.9 years old with those living in the impoverished environment of long-term care institutions (I group, n=20, 75.1±6.8 years old. Both groups participated fully in our stimulation program. Over 1 year, we conducted revaluations at five time points (2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 8 months, and 12 months after the completion of the intervention. Both elderly groups were evaluated with the mini-mental state examination and selected language tests. Progressive cognitive decline was observed in both groups over the period. Indeed, it took only 4–6 months after the end of the stimulation program for significant reductions in language test scores to become apparent. However, earlier reductions in test scores were mainly associated with I group, and linguistic prosody test scores were significantly
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The M(5 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor is known to play a crucial role in mediating acetylcholine dependent dilation of cerebral blood vessels. Previously, we reported that male M(5 muscarinic acetylcholine knockout mice (M5R(-/- mice suffer from a constitutive constriction of cerebral arteries, reduced cerebral blood flow, dendritic atrophy, and short-term memory loss, without necrosis and/or inflammation in the brain. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We employed the Magnetic Resonance Angiography to study the area of the basilar artery in male and female M5R(-/- mice. Here we show that female M5R(-/- mice did not show the reduction in vascular area observed in male M5R(-/- mice. However, ovariectomized female M5R(-/- mice displayed phenotypic changes similar to male M5R(-/- mice, strongly suggesting that estrogen plays a key role in the observed gender differences. We found that 17beta-estradiol (E2 induced nitric oxide release and ERK activation in a conditional immortalized mouse brain cerebrovascular endothelial cell line. Agonists of ERalpha, ERbeta, and GPR30 promoted ERK activation in this cell line. Moreover, in vivo magnetic resonance imaging studies showed that the cross section of the basilar artery was restored to normal in male M5R(-/- mice treated with E2. Treatment with E2 also improved the performance of male M5R(-/- mice in a cognitive test and reduced the atrophy of neural dendrites in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. M5R(-/- mice also showed astrocyte swelling in cortex and hippocampus using the three-dimensional reconstruction of electron microscope images. This phenotype was reversed by E2 treatment, similar to the observed deficits in dendrite morphology and the number of synapses. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings indicate that M5R(-/- mice represent an excellent novel model system to study the beneficial effects of estrogen on cerebrovascular function and cognition. E2 may offer new therapeutic
Akadiri Yessoufou; Nekoua, Magloire P.; Adam Gbankoto; Yohana Mashalla; Kabirou Moutairou
Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering ...
Suceveanu Mihaela; Pop Dana; Suceveanu Paul; Sitar Tǎut Adela Viviana; Zdrenghea Dumitru; Hâncu Nicolae
Background. Cardiovascular rehabilitation is an important objective of the treatment of cardiovascular patients in general, and ischemic heart disease patients in particular. The aim of the study is to monitor the effects of long-term cardiovascular rehabilitation in patients readmitted to the “Dr Benedek Geza” Hospital of Rehabilitation in Cardiovascular Diseases Covasna. Material and methods. The study included 92 patients with a mean age of 66.31±9 years, of which 63% women, who had...
Caroux, Loïc; Vibert, Nicolas; Le Bigot, Ludovic
In user interface design, spatial proximity between areas of interest is considered beneficial for user's performance. This study aimed at investigating the impact of split visual attention on players' performance in a video game. The first experiment showed that closer proximity of an important element of a video game user interface, namely the score, with the most watched area of the game screen did not lead to significantly better performance. The second experiment showed that the players'...
Sarah B Joseph
Full Text Available Most of our knowledge of dominance stems from studies of deleterious mutations. From these studies we know that most deleterious mutations are recessive, and that this recessivity arises from a hyperbolic relationship between protein function (i.e., protein concentration or activity and fitness. Here we investigate whether this knowledge can be used to make predictions about the dominance of beneficial and deleterious mutations in a single gene. We employed a model system--the bacteriophage φ6--that allowed us to generate a collection of mutations in haploid conditions so that it was not biased toward either dominant beneficial or recessive deleterious mutations. Screening for the ability to infect a bacterial host that does not permit infection by the wildtype φ6, we generated a collection of mutations in P3, a gene involved in attachment to the host and in phage particle assembly. The resulting collection contained mutations with both deleterious and beneficial effects on fitness. The deleterious mutations in our collection had additive effects on fitness and the beneficial mutations were recessive. Neither of these observations were predicted from previous studies of dominance. This pattern is not consistent with the hyperbolic (diminishing returns relationship between protein function and fitness that is characteristic of enzymatic genes, but could have resulted from a curve of increasing returns.
Al-Okbi, S. Y.; Mohamed, D. A.; Kandil, E.; Ahmed, E. K.; Mohammed, S. E.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO) in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs) and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP) were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the...
Fox, J S; Whitehead, E M; Shanks, R.G.
1. The effect of oral doses of cromakalim 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 mg on several cardiovascular parameters was studied in healthy male volunteers. 2. In the first study, no dose of cromakalim reduced systolic or diastolic blood pressure in the supine or standing position. Reductions of diastolic blood pressure after exercise (P less than 0.01) were observed 4 h after administration of 2.0 mg. 3. There was a trend towards increased heart rate after 2.0 mg at all time intervals, and significant ch...
Fitó, Montserrat; Melander, Olle; Martínez, José Alfredo; Toledo, Estefanía; Carpéné, Christian; Corella, Dolores
Intervention with Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) has provided a high level of evidence in primary prevention of cardiovascular events. Besides enhancing protection from classical risk factors, an improvement has also been described in a number of non-classical ones. Benefits have been reported on biomarkers of oxidation, inflammation, cellular adhesion, adipokine production, and pro-thrombotic state. Although the benefits of the MedDiet have been attributed to its richness in antioxidants, the mechanisms by which it exercises its beneficial effects are not well known. It is thought that the integration of omics including genomics, transcriptomics, epigenomics, and metabolomics, into studies analyzing nutrition and cardiovascular diseases will provide new clues regarding these mechanisms. However, omics integration is still in its infancy. Currently, some single-omics analyses have provided valuable data, mostly in the field of genomics. Thus, several gene-diet interactions in determining both intermediate (plasma lipids, etc.) and final cardiovascular phenotypes (stroke, myocardial infarction, etc.) have been reported. However, few studies have analyzed changes in gene expression and, moreover very few have focused on epigenomic or metabolomic biomarkers related to the MedDiet. Nevertheless, these preliminary results can help to better understand the inter-individual differences in cardiovascular risk and dietary response for further applications in personalized nutrition. PMID:27598147
Nicoll, Rachel; Howard, John McLaren; Henein, Michael Y.
Cardiovascular (CV) calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day) and phylloquinone (500 μg/day) proved protective, as did a serum 25(OH)D concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine) were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification. PMID:25906474
Full Text Available Cardiovascular (CV calcification is known as sub-clinical atherosclerosis and is recognised as a predictor of CV events and mortality. As yet there is no treatment for CV calcification and conventional CV risk factors are not consistently correlated, leaving clinicians uncertain as to optimum management for these patients. For this reason, a review of studies investigating diet and serum levels of macro- and micronutrients was carried out. Although there were few human studies of macronutrients, nevertheless transfats and simple sugars should be avoided, while long chain ω-3 fats from oily fish may be protective. Among the micronutrients, an intake of 800 μg/day calcium was beneficial in those without renal disease or hyperparathyroidism, while inorganic phosphorus from food preservatives and colas may induce calcification. A high intake of magnesium (≥380 mg/day and phylloquinone (500 μg/day proved protective, as did a serum 25(OHD concentration of ≥75 nmol/L. Although oxidative damage appears to be a cause of CV calcification, the antioxidant vitamins proved to be largely ineffective, while supplementation of α-tocopherol may induce calcification. Nevertheless other antioxidant compounds (epigallocatechin gallate from green tea and resveratrol from red wine were protective. Finally, a homocysteine concentration >12 µmol/L was predictive of CV calcification, although a plasma folate concentration of >39.4 nmol/L could both lower homocysteine and protect against calcification. In terms of a dietary programme, these recommendations indicate avoiding sugar and the transfats and preservatives found in processed foods and drinks and adopting a diet high in oily fish and vegetables. The micronutrients magnesium and vitamin K may be worthy of further investigation as a treatment option for CV calcification.
Pedersen, Susan H; Lokkegaard, Ellen; Ottesen, Bent
cardiovascular outcomes. Recent, large-scale, randomized clinical studies did not confirm a beneficial cardiovascular effect of HT. On the contrary, an increased risk was found with continuous combined estrogen-progestagen regimens. The progestagen used in these trials was medroxyprogesterone acetate and other...
Arrigo FG Cicero
Full Text Available Arrigo FG Cicero1, Sibel Ertek21Internal Medicine, Aging and Kidney Diseases Department, Sant’Orsola-Malpighi Hospital, University of Bologna, Bologna, Italy; 2Ufuk University, Medical Faculty, Dr Ridvan Ege Hospital, Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Diseases, Ankara, TurkeyAbstract: Berberine is a plant alkaloid with numerous biological activities. A large body of preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies support different pharmacological actions of berberine that could be potentially useful in the management of metabolic diseases associated with high cardiovascular disease risk, such as mixed hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it seems that berberine also exerts anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative effects that could play a role in the development of atherosclerosis and its clinical consequences. Recently, the metabolic effects of berberine have been demonstrated in humans, opening new perspectives for the use of this molecule in patient therapy. Larger and longer clinical studies need to be carried out to implement the definition of the therapeutic role of berberine in humans.Keywords: berberine, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cholesterol
Music may not only improve quality of life but may also effect changes in heart rate and heart rate variability. It has been shown that cerebral flow was significantly lower when listening to 'Va pensiero' from Verdi's 'Nabucco' (70.4±3.3 cm/s) compared with 'Libiam nei lieti calici' from Verdi's 'La Traviata' (70.2±3.1 cm/s) (pflow during rest (67.6±3.3 cm/s) or when listening to Beethoven's Ninth Symphony (69.4±3.1 cm/s). It was reported that relaxing music significantly decreases the level of anxiety of patients in a preoperative setting (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)-X-1 score 34)-to a greater extent even than orally administered midazolam (STAI-X-1 score 36) (pmusic group (STAI-X-1 score 30) compared with the midazolam group (STAI-X-1 score 34) (pmusic a useful alternative to midazolam for premedication. In addition, there is sufficient practical evidence of stress reduction suggesting that a proposed regimen of listening to music while resting in bed after open-heart surgery is important in clinical use. After 30 min of bed rest, there was a significant difference in cortisol levels between the music (484.4 mmol/l) and the non-music group (618.8 mmol/l) (pmusic produce significantly better correlations between cardiovascular or respiratory signals compared with music with a more uniform emphasis (pmusic and meditation music, whereas heavy metal music or techno are not only ineffective but possibly dangerous and can lead to stress and/or life-threatening arrhythmias. The music of many composers most effectively improves quality of life, will increase health and probably prolong life, particularly music by Bach, Mozart or Italian composers. PMID:21062776
Anandita Roy; Samarendra K Singh; P C Banerjee; Kausik Dana; Swapan Kumar Das
Presence of iron compounds as impurities in kaolin and feldspar, impart reddish colour to ceramic products manufactured using these minerals. The quality of kaolin and feldspar was enriched mainly through iron removal by biological methods. Bacteria isolated from kaolin of Indian origin were used for bioleaching. Biotreatment of kaolin and feldspar using indigenous bacteria not only lowered the iron content of the minerals but also improved their whiteness. The porcelain prepared with these biobeneficiated minerals was compared to that prepared with non-beneficiated one. Physico-mechanical properties of porcelain were distinctly improved by using biobeneficiated kaolin and feldspar, without affecting the individual mineralogical compositions of kaolin and feldspar.
Chrysant, Steven G
Phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE 5) inhibitors are selective inhibitors of the enzyme PDE 5, which catalyzes the hydrolysis of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), a potent vasodilator and nitric oxide (NO) donor, to its corresponding metabolites (monophosphates). The enzyme PDE 5 is widely distributed in the body, including the heart and blood vessels. Because of its distribution, it was hypothesized that its inhibition could lead to significant coronary vasodilation, which would benefit patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This hypothesis led to the development of PDE 5 inhibitors with the first being sildenafil citrate. Subsequent studies with sildenafil in patients with CAD demonstrated a modest cardiovascular effect, but a potent action on penile erection in men, resulting in sildenafil becoming a first-line therapy of erectile dysfunction (ED). Subsequently, two more PDE 5 inhibitors (vardenafil and tadalafil) were developed and approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of ED. Recent studies have shown several pleiotropic beneficial effects of PDE 5 inhibitors in patients with CAD, hypertension, heart failure, pulmonary arterial hypertension, diabetes mellitus and Raynaud's phenomenon. Side effects and interactions of PDE 5 inhibitors with other drugs have been minimal, with the exception of their coadministration with nitrates, which could lead to severe vasodilation and hypotension and therefore, their coadministration is prohibited. All these pleiotropic cardiovascular effects of PDE 5 inhibitors and their drug interactions will be discussed in this concise review in the context of the American College of Cardiology / American Heart Association guidelines and the recent developments in this field. PMID:23917809
Full Text Available Dyslipidemia and its consequences are emerging as epidemics with deleterious consequences on cardiovascular (CV health. The beneficial effects of omega-3-fatty acids on cardiac and extra cardiac organs have been extensively studied in the last two decades, and continue to show great promise in the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs. Omega-3-fatty acid supplementation has been proven to have beneficial action on lipid profile, cytokine cascade, oxidant-anti-oxidant balance, parasympathetic and sympathetic tone and nitric oxide synthesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the basis of its cardiac and non-cardiac benefits, present results from clinical trials and the recommendations for its use in cardiac diseases and dyslipidemias.
O'Keefe, James H; Bhatti, Salman K; Patil, Harshal R; DiNicolantonio, James J; Lucan, Sean C; Lavie, Carl J
Coffee, after water, is the most widely consumed beverage in the United States, and is the principal source of caffeine intake among adults. The biological effects of coffee may be substantial and are not limited to the actions of caffeine. Coffee is a complex beverage containing hundreds of biologically active compounds, and the health effects of chronic coffee intake are wide ranging. From a cardiovascular (CV) standpoint, coffee consumption may reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension, as well as other conditions associated with CV risk such as obesity and depression; but it may adversely affect lipid profiles depending on how the beverage is prepared. Regardless, a growing body of data suggests that habitual coffee consumption is neutral to beneficial regarding the risks of a variety of adverse CV outcomes including coronary heart disease, congestive heart failure, arrhythmias, and stroke. Moreover, large epidemiological studies suggest that regular coffee drinkers have reduced risks of mortality, both CV and all-cause. The potential benefits also include protection against neurodegenerative diseases, improved asthma control, and lower risk of select gastrointestinal diseases. A daily intake of ∼2 to 3 cups of coffee appears to be safe and is associated with neutral to beneficial effects for most of the studied health outcomes. However, most of the data on coffee's health effects are based on observational data, with very few randomized, controlled studies, and association does not prove causation. Additionally, the possible advantages of regular coffee consumption have to be weighed against potential risks (which are mostly related to its high caffeine content) including anxiety, insomnia, tremulousness, and palpitations, as well as bone loss and possibly increased risk of fractures. PMID:23871889
Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Kim, Sung Hoon; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yiru C; Zhang, Hui; Chambliss, Ken L; Carlson, Kathryn E; Mayne, Christopher G; Shaul, Philip W; Korach, Kenneth S; Katzenellenbogen, John A; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S
There is great medical need for estrogens with favorable pharmacological profiles that support desirable activities for menopausal women, such as metabolic and vascular protection, but that lack stimulatory activities on the breast and uterus. We report the development of structurally novel estrogens that preferentially activate a subset of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways and result in favorable target tissue-selective activity. Through a process of structural alteration of estrogenic ligands that was designed to preserve their essential chemical and physical features but greatly reduced their binding affinity for ERs, we obtained "pathway preferential estrogens" (PaPEs), which interacted with ERs to activate the extranuclear-initiated signaling pathway preferentially over the nuclear-initiated pathway. PaPEs elicited a pattern of gene regulation and cellular and biological processes that did not stimulate reproductive and mammary tissues or breast cancer cells. However, in ovariectomized mice, PaPEs triggered beneficial responses both in metabolic tissues (adipose tissue and liver) that reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation and in the vasculature that accelerated repair of endothelial damage. This process of designed ligand structure alteration represents a novel approach to develop ligands that shift the balance in ER-mediated extranuclear and nuclear pathways to obtain tissue-selective, non-nuclear PaPEs, which may be beneficial for postmenopausal hormone replacement. The approach may also have broad applicability for other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PMID:27221711
Full Text Available Background: Muslims abstain from food and drink from dawn to sunset every day during Ramadan - the holiest month in Islamic lunar calendar. Methods: The effect of Ramadan fast on body mass index (BMI, blood pressure (BP, fasting blood glucose (FBG and lipid profile were studied on 100 healthy male, adult Muslim volunteers. All parameters were recorded one week before the onset and then in the last week of Ramadan month and compared. Results: There was no statistically significant effect on BMI, and systolic or diastolic blood pressures (p>0.05. However, fasting blood glucose (FBG, serum total cholesterol (TC, serum triglycerides (TG were significantly decreased (p = 0.000 and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C level was significantly (p=0.000 increased in last week of Ramadan fasting compared to pre fasting levels. Conclusion: Our results show beneficial effects of Ramadan fasting on FBG and serum lipid profile.
Full Text Available Carbonated water baths represent a method used for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases in some spa resorts in Romania. Carbonated mineral waters are the result of the filtration of depth waters through volcanic soils that contain carbon dioxide. The most important effect is the direct effect of carbon dioxide, which is absorbed through the skin, with an absorption coefficient of 30-35 ml/min/sqm body surface area. An excitation of vascular receptors and a dilation of dermal papillae, responsible for skin erythema, occur. The effects of the carbonated water bath on the cardiovascular system are the following: decrease of peripheral resistance by the direct action of carbon dioxide on arterioles and arteriovenous anastomoses; increase of both systolic and diastolic cardiac output, not by central mechanism as in the case of hot baths, but initially, by passive peripheral vasodilation, without increased venous return; subsequently, by accumulation in the cutaneous venous system, venous return towards the right heart will be increased, with a higher diastolic filling and a higher stroke volume. Carbonated water baths increase arteriolar blood flow in the skin, the vasodilator effect being directly proportional to the carbon dioxide concentration in the mineral bath. The effect of external carbonated water treatment is based on mechanical and thermal action, as well as on the chemical properties of carbon dioxide, its influence being either local or postabsorptive. Carbonated water baths are a therapeutic method that is also used in the treatment facilities of the Baile Tusnad spa resort, under the supervision of qualified medical experts, in a pleasant environment close to nature.
Thyfault, John P; Wright, David C
It has been known for centuries that regularly performed exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic health. Owing to its central role in locomotion and the fact that it accounts for a large majority of whole-body glucose disposal and fatty acid oxidation, the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle has been a central focus in exercise physiology research. With this being said it is becoming increasingly well recognized that both adipose tissue and liver metabolism are robustly modified by exercise, especially in conditions of obesity and insulin resistance. One of the difficult questions to address is if the effects of exercise are direct or occur secondary to exercise-induced weight loss. The purpose of this review is to highlight recent work that has attempted to tease out the protective effects of exercise, or intrinsic aerobic capacity, against metabolic and inflammatory challenges as it relates to the treatment and prevention of obesity and insulin resistance. Recent studies reporting improvements in liver and adipose tissue insulin action following a single bout of exercise will also be discussed. The research highlighted in this review sheds new insight into protective, anti-inflammatory effects of exercise that occur largely independent of changes in adiposity and body weight. PMID:27512815
Júlia Niehues da Cruz
Full Text Available Several behavioral mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of ethanol or physical exercise on anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute administration of ethanol on swimming exercise in mice, sequentially submitted to the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. In the first experiment, sedentary or physical exercise groups received chronic treatment with ethanol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2 or 4 g ethanol/kg/day by oral gavage for 14 days before the tests. In the second experiment, groups received a single dose of ethanol (ip: 0.6, 0.8, 1.0 or 1.2 g/kg, ten minutes before the start of behavioral tests. The present study found an anxiolytic-like effect after chronic ethanol treatment or swimming exercise, evidence of beneficial effects. Moreover, we conclude that exercise can increase behavioral sensitivity to ethanol in acute treatment. The experiments described here show that the effects of ethanol on the behavior displayed in the elevated plus-maze and open-field are not only dose-dependent but also modified by swimming exercise. These results may provide valuable insights into possible molecular mechanisms governing these adaptations.
Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B
Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects....
Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J. Steven; Spiegelman, Donna; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S.; Willett, Walter C; Rimm, Eric B
Exposure to methylmercury from fish consumption has been linked to a potentially increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but evidence from prior studies is equivocal. Beneficial effects of the ingestion of fish and selenium may also modify such effects.
Full Text Available Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic road traffic noise exposure were further examined in humans with the help of epidemiological studies. More epidemiological aircraft noise studies followed in the 1970s and thereafter. The sample size was increased, relevant confounding factors were taken into account, and the exposure and health outcomes were investigated objectively and with higher quality measures. To date, more than 20 German epidemiological traffic noise studies have focused on noise-induced health effects, mainly on the cardiovascular system. In particular, the newer German noise studies demonstrate a clear association between residential exposure to traffic noise (particularly night noise and cardiovascular outcomes. Nevertheless, additional research is needed, particularly on vulnerable groups and multiple noise exposures. The epidemiological findings have still not been fully considered in German regulations, particularly for aircraft noise. The findings, however, were taken into account in national recommendations. The Federal Environment Agency recommends noise rating levels of 65 dB(A for the day and 55 dB(A for the night, as a short-term goal. In the medium term, noise rating levels of 60 / 50 (day, night should be reached and noise rating levels of 55 / 45 in the long run.
Agashe, Deepa; Sane, Mrudula; Phalnikar, Kruttika; Diwan, Gaurav D; Habibullah, Alefiyah; Martinez-Gomez, Norma Cecilia; Sahasrabuddhe, Vinaya; Polachek, William; Wang, Jue; Chubiz, Lon M; Marx, Christopher J
Contrary to previous understanding, recent evidence indicates that synonymous codon changes may sometimes face strong selection. However, it remains difficult to generalize the nature, strength, and mechanism(s) of such selection. Previously, we showed that synonymous variants of a key enzyme-coding gene (fae) of Methylobacterium extorquens AM1 decreased enzyme production and reduced fitness dramatically. We now show that during laboratory evolution, these variants rapidly regained fitness via parallel yet variant-specific, highly beneficial point mutations in the N-terminal region of fae These mutations (including four synonymous mutations) had weak but consistently positive impacts on transcript levels, enzyme production, or enzyme activity. However, none of the proposed mechanisms (including internal ribosome pause sites or mRNA structure) predicted the fitness impact of evolved or additional, engineered point mutations. This study shows that synonymous mutations can be fixed through strong positive selection, but the mechanism for their benefit varies depending on the local sequence context. PMID:26908584
Bergström, Anders; Borg, Birgitte; Marin, Eduvigis Roldán;
Regular onion consumption may have many beneficial effects on human health due mainly to well documented probiotic and antioxidant effects. Health effects comprise e.g. anti-inflammatory, anti-tumorigenic, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal properties. However little is known of the specific me...
Fotschki, Bartosz; Juśkiewicz, Jerzy; Jurgoński, Adam; Kołodziejczyk, Krzysztof; Milala, Joanna; Kosmala, Monika; Zduńczyk, Zenon
The administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) beneficially modulates gastrointestinal functions and may enhance the metabolism of polyphenols. However, different polyphenolic components in the diet may have different influences on the activities of the digestive enzymes and microbiota in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, a 4-week study of forty-eight male Wistar rats was conducted to investigate the physiological response of the rat cecal environment to diets without and with FOS that contained two different strawberry polyphenolic extracts, specifically EP (polyphenolic profile 60, 35, 5, and 0% ellagitannins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, anthocyanins, respectively) and EPA (polyphenolic profile: 50, 35, 6, and 9%, respectively). When combined with FOS, both extracts beneficially enhanced the acidification of the cecal digesta (P≤0.05 vs the groups without extracts), but the dietary combination of EPA and FOS elicited the greatest reduction in putrefactive short-chain fatty acid production and the lowest fecal β-glucuronidase activity in the cecum (P≤0.05 vs group EP). Moreover, the addition of dietary FOS elevated the metabolism of the examined strawberry extracts in the cecum and thereby increased the concentrations of the metabolites in the cecal digesta and urine (P≤0.05 vs the group with cellulose). Overall, both strawberry extracts modulated the effects of FOS in the gastrointestinal tract; however, the combination with EPA extract that contained anthocyanins exhibited greater beneficial effects in the lower gut environment than the EP extract. PMID:26882456
Full Text Available Cardiovascular effects of noise rank second in terms of disability-adjusted life year (DALYs after annoyance. Although research during the past decade has consolidated the available data base, the most recent meta-analysis still shows wide confidence intervals - indicating imprecise information for public health risk assessment. The alpine area of Tyrol in the Austrian part of the Alps has experienced a massive increase in car and heavy goods traffic (road and rail during the last 35 years. Over the past 25 years small-, middle-, and large-sized epidemiological health surveys have been conducted - mostly within the framework of environmental health impact assessments. By design, these studies have emphasized a contextually driven environmental stress perspective, where the adverse health effects on account of noise are studied in a broader framework of environmental health, susceptibility, and coping. Furthermore, innovative exposure assessment strategies have been implemented. This article reviews the existing knowledge from these studies over time, and presents the exposure-response curves, with and without interaction assessment, based on standardized re-analyses and discusses it in the light of past and current cardiovascular noise effects research. The findings support relevant moderation by age, gender, and family history in nearly all studies and suggest a strong need for consideration of non-linearity in the exposure-response analyses. On the other hand, air pollution has not played a relevant role as a moderator in the noise-hypertension or the noise-angina pectoris relationship. Finally, different noise modeling procedures can introduce variations in the exposure response curves, with substantive consequences for public health risk assessment of noise exposure.
Abdelali Agouni; Anne-Hélène Lagrue-Lak-Hal; Hadj Ahmed Mostefai; Angela Tesse; Paul Mulder; Philippe Rouet; Franck Desmoulin; Christophe Heymes; Maria Carmen Martínez; Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina
Background Obesity is associated with increased risks for development of cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies report an inverse association between dietary flavonoid consumption and mortality from cardiovascular diseases. We studied the potential beneficial effects of dietary supplementation of red wine polyphenol extract, Provinols™, on obesity-associated alterations with respect to metabolic disturbances and cardiovascular functions in Zucker fatty (ZF) rats. Methodology/Princip...
Chen, S; Sun, P; Wang, S; Lin, G; Wang, T
Autonomic dysfunction is implicated in prehypertension, and previous studies have suggested that therapies that improve modulation of sympathovagal balance, such as biofeedback and slow abdominal breathing, are effective in patients with prehypertension at rest. However, considering that psychophysiological stressors may be associated with greater cardiovascular risk in prehypertensives, it is important to investigate whether heart rate variability biofeedback (HRV-BF) results in equivalent effects on autonomic cardiovascular responses control during stressful conditions in prehypertensives. A total of 32 college students with prehypertension were enrolled and randomly assigned to HRV-BF (n=12), slow abdominal breathing (SAB, n=10) or no treatment (control, n=10) groups. Then, a training experiment consisting of 15 sessions was employed to compare the effect of each intervention on the following cardiovascular response indicators before and after intervention: heart rate (HR); heart rate variability (HRV) components; blood volume pulse amplitude (BVPamp); galvanic skin response; respiration rate (RSP); and blood pressure. In addition, the cold pressor test and the mental arithmetic challenge test were also performed over two successive days before and after the invention as well as after 3 months of follow-up. A significant decrease in HR and RSP and a significant increase in BVPamp were observed after the HRV-BF intervention (P<0.001). For the HRV analysis, HRV-BF significantly reduced the ratio of low-frequency power to high-frequency power (the LF/HF ratio, P<0.001) and increased the normalized high-frequency power (HFnm) (P<0.001) during the stress tests, and an added benefit over SAB by improving HRV was also observed. In the 3-month follow-up study, similar effects on RSP, BVPamp, LF/HF and HFnm were observed in the HRV-BF group compared with the SAB group. HRV-BF training contributes to the beneficial effect of reducing the stress-related cardiovascular
Roig, Marc; Nordbrandt, Sasja; Geertsen, Svend Sparre;
We reviewed the evidence for the use of cardiovascular exercise to improve memory and explored potential mechanisms. Data from 29 and 21 studies including acute and long-term cardiovascular interventions were retrieved. Meta-analyses revealed that acute exercise had moderate (SMD=0.26; 95% CI=0...
Sturgeon, Kathleen M.; Ky, Bonnie; Libonati, Joseph R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.
Asymptomatic cardiotoxicity following breast cancer treatment is a significant issue for many patients, as these patients typically face an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise has well established benefits to improve and maintain cardiovascular function across patients with and without CVD. However, there is a dearth of information on the effects of exercise on cardiovascular outcomes in breast cancer patients. While pre-clinical studies support the use of exercise in mit...
Arsenic exposure is associated with cardiovascular and other health effects. The study objectives were to investigate the mode of action and to assess dose-response relationships of arsenic on cardiovascular, diabetic and carcinogenic effects in Ba Men, Inner Mongolia. Ba Men res...
Ribeiro-Filho, Helder Veras; de Souza Silva, Camila Meirelles; de Siqueira, Rodrigo JoséBezerra; Lahlou, Saad; Dos Santos, Armênio Aguiar; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas
β-Citronellol is a monoterpene found in the essential oil of various plants with antihypertensive properties. In fact, β-citronellol possesses hypotensive actions due to its vasodilator abilities. Here we aimed to show that β-citronellol recruits airway sensory neural circuitry to evoke cardiorespiratory effects. In anesthetized rats, intravenous injection of β-citronellol caused biphasic hypotension, bradycardia and apnea. Bilateral vagotomy, perivagal capsaicin treatment or injection into the left ventricle abolished first rapid phase (named P1) but not delayed phase P2 of the β-citronellol effects. P1 persisted after pretreatment with capsazepine, ondansetron, HC-030031 or suramin. Suramin abolished P2 of apnea. In awake rats, β-citronellol induced biphasic hypotension and bradycardia being P1 abolished by methylatropine. In vitro, β-citronellol inhibited spontaneous or electrically-evoked contractions of rat isolated right or left atrium, respectively, and fully relaxed sustained contractions of phenylephrine in mesenteric artery rings. In conclusion, chemosensitive pulmonary vagal afferent fibers appear to mediate the cardiovascular and respiratory effects of β-citronellol. The transduction mechanism in P1 seems not to involve the activation of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1), transient receptor potential ankyrin subtype 1 (TRPA1), purinergic (P2X) or 5-HT3 receptors located on airways sensory nerves. P2 of hypotension and bradycardia seems resulting from a cardioinhibitory and vasodilatory effect of β-citronellol and the apnea from a purinergic signaling. PMID:26872991
Full Text Available Although the auditory effects of noise on humans have been established, the non-auditory effects are not so well established. The emerging links between noise and cardiovascular disease (CVD have potentially important implications on public health and policy. In the United Kingdom (UK, noise from transport is a problem, where more than half of the population is exposed to more than the recommended maximum day-time noise level and just under three-quarters of the population live in areas where the recommended night-time noise level is exceeded. This review focuses on findings from studies conducted in the UK that examined environmental noise and cardiovascular disease. There were statistically no significant associations between road traffic noise and incident ischemic heart disease in the Caerphilly and Speedwell studies, but there was a suggestion of effects when modifying factors such as length of residence, room orientation, and window opening were taken into account. In a sample stratified by pre-existing disease a strongly increased odds of incident ischemic heart disease for the highest annoyance category was found compared to the lowest among men without pre-existing disease (OR = 2.45, 95%1.13 - 5.31, which was not found in men with pre-existing disease. In the Hypertension and exposure to noise near airports (HYENA study, night time aircraft noise exposure (L night was associated with an increased risk of hypertension, in fully adjusted analyses. A 10-dB increase in aircraft noise exposure was associated with an odds ratio of 1.14 (95%CI, 1.01 - 1.29. Aircraft noise was not consistently related to raised systolic blood pressure in children in the road traffic and aircraft noise exposure and children′s cognition and health (RANCH study. There is some evidence of an association among environmental noise exposure and hypertension and ischemic heart disease in the UK studies; further studies are required to explore gender differences, the
Full Text Available Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs are increasingly being used to prevent cardiovascular diseases, including diabetes and obesity. In this paper, we report data on the observed effects of omega-3 PUFA on major metabolic disorders and immune system disruption during gestational diabetes and their consequences on macrosomia. While controversies still exist about omega-3 PUFA effects on antioxidant status regarding the level of omega-3 PUFA in diet supplementation, their lipid-lowering effects are unanimously recognized by researchers. Animal studies have shown that omega-3 PUFA contributes to the maintenance of the immune defense system by promoting the differentiation of T helper (Th cell to a Th2 phenotype in diabetic pregnancy and by shifting the Th1/Th2 ratio from a deleterious proinflammatory Th1 phenotype to a protective anti-inflammatory Th2 phenotype in macrosomia and in adulthood obesity that results from macrosomia at birth. Based on the available evidence, international nutritional and food agencies recommend administration of omega-3 PUFA as triglyceride-lowering agents, for the prevention of cardiovascular disease risk and during human pregnancy and lactation. Furthermore, studies targeting humans are still required to explore application of the fatty acids as supplement in the management of gestational diabetes and inflammatory and immune diseases.
Chakravarthi, Kosuri Kalyan; Avadhani, Ramakrishna
Background: In the traditional system of medicine, the roots and rhizomes of Glycyrrhiza glabra (Gg) (family: Leguminosae) have been studied for their ability to improve a variety of health ailments. Aims: The present study was designed to investigate the beneficial effects of Gg root extract on learning and memory in 1-month-old male Wistar albino rats. Four doses (75, 150, 225, and 300 mg/kg) of aqueous extract of root of Gg was administered orally for six successive weeks. Materials and Me...
Yang, Bo; Wang, Xudong; Li, Zhonghua; Qu, Qi; Qiu, Yan
Objective: To assess the beneficial effects of silver foam dressing on the healing of wounds with ulcers and infection control of burn patients. Methods: Eighty-four second-degree burn patients were selected and divided into a study group and a control group (n=42). After disinfection and cleaning, wound beds of the study group were covered with silver-containing soft-silicone foam dressing, and wound surfaces of the control group were wiped with 1% silver sulfadiazine cream (60 g/100 cm2). T...
Full Text Available A number of epidemiological studies have reported an association between serum uric acid levels and a wide variety of high-risk conditions including hypertension, insulin resistance, and kidney and cerebro-cardiovascular disease. All things considered, serum uric acid may induce cardiovascular and kidney events both directly and indirectly by promoting other well-known mechanisms of damage. While asymptomatic hyperuricemia is currently not considered to be an indication for urate lowering therapy, there is growing evidence indicating a linear relationship between pharmacological reduction in serum uric acid and incidence of cardiovascular and renal events.
Michael Doumas; Alexandros Tsakiris; Stella Douma; Alkiviadis Grigorakis; Angelos Papadopoulos; Athina Hounta; Sotirios Tsiodras; Dimitrios Dimitriou; Helen Giamarellou
Aim: To investigate the effect of substituting β-blockers with nebivolol on the erectile function of patients suffering from essential hypertension. Methods: Forty-four young and middle-aged men (31-65 years) with essential hypertension visited our outpatient clinic and took β-blocker treatment (atenolol, metoprolol or bisoprolol) for more than 6months. All the patients completed a questionnaire regarding erectile function (International Index for Erectile Function).Patients were then switched to an equipotent dose of nebivolol for 3 months and, at the end of this time period, filled out the same questionnaire. Results: Twenty-nine out of the 44 (65.9%) patients who took β-blockers (atenolol,metoprolol or bisoprolol) had exhibited erectile dysfunction (ED). Their systolic and diastolic blood pressure did not change significantly with the treatment switch. In 20 out of these 29 (69%) patients, a significant improvement in the erectile function score was exhibited after 3 months of nebivolol administration, and in 11 of these 20 patients, erectile function was normalized. Conclusion: Nebivolol seems to have a beneficial effect on ED (possibly due to increased nitric oxide availability); however, further prospective, randomized, placebo-controlled studies are needed to confirm the beneficial effects of nebivolol.
Imessaoudene, Asmahan; Merzouk, Hafida; Berroukeche, Farid; Mokhtari, Nassima; Bensenane, Bachir; Cherrak, Sabri; Merzouk, Sid Ahmed; Elhabiri, Mourad
Obesity is characterized by iron deficiency, carbohydrate and fat alterations as well as oxidative stress. Iron status monitoring is recommended because of the conventional oral iron preparations that frequently exacerbate the already present oxidative stress. Iron complexation by natural antioxidants can be exploited. We herein investigated the metabolic effects of quercetin (25mg/kg/day), iron (2.5mg Fe/kg/day) or quercetin-iron complexes (molar ratio 5:1; 25mg/2.5mg/kg/day) in animal models of obesity. Our results emphasized that obese rats displayed metabolic alterations that were worsened by iron supplementation. In contrast, quercetin used alone or as iron complex clearly prevented adipose fat accumulation and alleviated the hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, liver steatosis and oxidative stress. In addition, it induced a modulation of lipase activities in obese rats. Interestingly, quercetin-iron complexes showed enhanced beneficial effects such as a corrected iron deficiency in obese rats when compared to quercetin alone. In conclusion, antianemic, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidative effects of the quercetin-iron complexes shed a light on their beneficial use against obesity-related metabolic alterations. PMID:26895671
Full Text Available Previous studies have showed that wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH has the anti-oxidative property. In the present study, we examined the possible safety property of WGH and the beneficial effects of WGH to extend lifespan and induce stress resistance using nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the in vivo assay system. We found that WGH at concentrations of 0.1-1 mg/mL did not cause lethality, influence development, alter locomotion behavior and brood size, and induce significant intestinal autofluorescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS production in young adults. Treatment with 0.1-1 mg/mL of WGH significantly extended lifespans of nematodes under the normal conditions. Moreover, WGH treatment significantly inhibited the induction of intestinal autofluorescence and suppressed the decrease in locomotion behavior during the aging process of nematodes. Furthermore, pre-treatment with 1 mg/mL of WGH significantly suppressed the adverse effects caused by heat-stress or oxidative stress on nematodes as indicated by the alterations of both lifespan and intestinal ROS production. Therefore, WGH treatment is relatively safe and has beneficial effects on nematodes under both the normal conditions and the stress conditions.
Full Text Available Garlic has been used since time immemorial as a culinary spice and medicinal herb. Garlic has been cultivated in the Middle East for more than 5,000 years and has been an important part of traditional Chinese medicine. The region with the largest commercial garlic production is central California. China is also a supplier of commercial garlic. The bulb is used medicinally. Garlic has been touted as an herb with numerous health benefits, from treating the common cold to serving as an anticancer agent. Research has proven that garlic is beneficial for those with hypertension. By thinning the blood garlic can lower blood pressure by 5 to 10 percent. It can also lower cholesterol and discourage clot formation. The sulfur compound allicin, produced by crushing or chewing fresh garlic or by taking powdered garlic products with allicin potential, in turn produces other sulfur compounds: ajoene, allyl sulfides, and vinyldithiins. Aged garlic products lack allicin, but may have activity due to the presence of S-allylcysteine. In this review, we focused on the cardiovascular effects of garlic.
Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD is rapidly becoming one of the leading causes of disability and mortality in the elderly. As life-expectancy increases, an increasing number of people will rely on modern medicines to treat age-associated disorders. Among these medications, some might benefit, while others might exacerbate, the pathogenesis of AD. We screened 1,600 FDA approved drugs for β-amyloid (Aβ-modifying activity and identified drugs that can potentially influence amyloid precursor protein processing. In this study, we focused on cardiovascular drugs and demonstrated that some hypertensive medication can differentially modulate Aβ, both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that some commonly prescribed drugs might exert unintended effects and modulate AD and provides the basis for continuing investigation of the role of individual drugs on a case-by-case basis. This line of investigation will lead to the identification of common medications that are potentially beneficial or detrimental to AD as a reference for physicians to consider when prescribing the most appropriate drugs for their patients, particularly for treating chronic disorders among the growing geriatric population.
Elise van Kempen
Full Text Available The impact of environmental noise on public health, in The Netherlands, is limited: Less than 1% of the myocardial infarction cases per year are attributable to long-term exposure to road traffic noise. Furthermore, although the Dutch noise policy is not directed to prevent cardiovascular disease due to noise exposure, health does play a role in Dutch noise policy. These are the main conclusions of a systematic review of Dutch observational studies, investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Since 1970, 14 Dutch studies were published investigating the possible impact of road traffic and aircraft noise exposure on the cardiovascular system. Within these studies a large variety of outcomes were investigated, ranging from blood pressure changes to cardiovascular mortality. The results of the studies were not consistent and only weak associations were found.
Moody, William E.; Ferro, Charles J.; Edwards, Nicola C.; Colin D Chue; Lin, Erica Lai Sze; Taylor, Robin J; Cockwell, Paul; Steeds, Richard P; Townend, Jonathan N.; ,
Abstract— There is a robust inverse graded association between glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and cardiovascular risk, but proof of causality is lacking. Emerging data suggest living kidney donation may be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality although the mechanisms are unclear. We hypothesized that the reduction in GFR in living kidney donors is associated with increased left ventricular mass, impaired left ventricular function, and increased aortic stiffness. This was a mult...
Sheila A Engi
Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.
Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia
This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. PMID:25308605
Rana Keyhanmanesh; Fariba Mirzaei Bavil; Morteza Ghojazadeh; Hadi Ebrahimi; Hossein Mazouchian; Mohammad Ali Ebrahimi Saadatlou
Introduction: Previous studies have shown that study guides are effective tools that recognize students’ educational needs and help teachers to attain satisfactory results. Unfortunately, this effective learning tool has not been used in the coursework and teaching of basic sciences in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. Therefore, this study was proposed to evaluate the effects of a study guide in an applied physiology course on the overall learning quality of dental students.Methods: In ...
Yao, Jianhua; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong
Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.
Al-Okbi, S. Y.
Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cardiovascular protective effect of Egyptian and European umpkin seed oil (PSO in hypercholesterolemic rats. Tocopherols, fatty acids (FAs and unsaponifiable matter (UNSAP were assessed in both oils. The results showed that α-tocopherol was 108 and 273, γ-tocopherol was 3.95 and 0 and d-tocopherol was 0 and 1.58 mg·100 g-1 oil of the Egyptian and European, respectively. GLC analysis of FAs revealed the presence of linoleic acid as the major fatty acid in both oils. Feeding a hypercholesterolemic diet produced a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol (T-Ch, triglycerides (TGs, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL-Ch and malondialdehyde and a significant reduction in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-Ch, vitamin E, and adiponectin. Rats fed on hypercholesterolemic diet with either oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical parametersEl objetivo fue evaluar el efecto protector cardiovascular de aceites de semilla de calabaza (PSO de variedades egipcia y europea en ratas con hipercolesterolemia. Se evaluó tocoferoles, ácidos grasos (FAs y materia insaponificable (UNSAP en ambos aceites. Los resultados mostraron valores de α-tocoferol de 108 y 273, γ-tocoferol 3,95 y 0 y δ-tocoferol de 0 y 1,58 mg·100 g-1 en las variedades egipcia y europea, respectivamente. El análisis por GLC de los ácidos grasos (FAS mostró al linoleico como mayoritario en ambos aceites. La alimentación con una dieta hipercolesterolémica produjo en plasma un aumento significativo de colesterol total (T-Ch, triglicéridos (TG, colesterol en lipoproteínas de baja densidad, T-Ch/HDL-Ch, TGs/HDL- ch y malondialdehído y una reducción significativa en el colesterol de lipoproteínas de alta densidad (HDL-cH, vitamina E, y adiponectina. Las ratas alimentadas con una dieta hipercolesterolémica y con ambos aceites, mostraron mejoras significativas en todos los par
Chen, Lei; Ma, Xiaocong; Jin, Miao; Wang, Jianfeng; Long, Hongjun; Mao, Tianqiao
S segregation at the α/ γ interface remains in duplex stainless steel with only 10 ppm S. The interfacial brittle tearing appears during hot deformation due to S segregation. Minor rare earth additions can effectively eliminate the S contamination. In particular, RE enrichment at the α/ γ interface indicating its microalloying effect is an important cause.
Navntoft, Søren; Kristensen, Kristian; Johnsen, Ib;
* Weed harrowing is an alternative to herbicides but it may have negative effects on epigaeic arthropods. We assessed the effects of frequent (four) versus two harrowings during the growing season on the density and diversity of generalist arthropods and the weed flora. Collection by flooding was...
The Impact of Escitalopram on Vagally Mediated Cardiovascular Function to Stress and the Moderating Effects of Vigorous Physical Activity: A Randomised Controlled Treatment Study in Healthy Participants
Camilla S Hanson
Full Text Available Recent concerns over the impact of antidepressant medications, including the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, on cardiovascular function highlight the importance of research on the moderating effects of specific lifestyle factors such as physical activity. Studies in affective neuroscience have demonstrated robust acute effects of SSRIs, yet the impact of SSRIs on cardiovascular stress responses and the moderating effects of physical activity remain to be determined. This was the goal of the present study, which involved a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial of a single-dose of escitalopram (20mg in 44 healthy females; outcomes were heart rate and its variability. Participants engaging in at least 30 minutes of vigorous physical activity at least 3 times per week (regular exercisers showed a more resilient cardiovascular stress response than irregular vigorous exercisers, a finding associated with a moderate effect size (Cohen’s d=0.48. Escitalopram attenuated the cardiovascular stress response in irregular exercisers only (heart rate decreased: Cohen’s d=0.80; heart rate variability increased: Cohen’s d=0.33. Heart rate during stress under escitalopram in the irregular exercisers was similar to that during stress under placebo in regular exercisers.. These findings highlight that the effects of regular vigorous exercise during stress are comparable to the effects of an acute dose of escitalopram, highlighting the beneficial effects of this particular antidepressant in irregular exercisers. Given that antidepressant drugs alone do not seem to protect patients from cardiovascular disease, longitudinal studies are needed to evaluate the impact of exercise on cardiovascular stress responses in patients receiving long-term antidepressant treatment.
Full Text Available The human genome encodes nine functional voltage-gated Na+ channels. Three of them, namely Nav1.5, Nav1.8, and Nav1.9, are resistant to nanomolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (TTX; IC50 ≥ 1 μM. The other isoforms, which are predominantly expressed in the skeletal muscle and nervous system, are highly sensitive to TTX (IC50 ~ 10 nM. During the last two decades, it has become evident that in addition to the major cardiac isoform Nav1.5, several of those TTX sensitive isoforms are expressed in the mammalian heart. Whereas immunohistochemical and electrophysiological methods demonstrated functional expression in various heart regions, the physiological importance of those isoforms for cardiac excitation in higher mammals is still debated. This review summarizes our knowledge on the systemic cardiovascular effects of TTX in animals and humans, with a special focus on cardiac excitation and performance at lower concentrations of this marine drug. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that TTX sensitive Na+ channels, detected more recently in various heart tissues, are not involved in excitation phenomena in the healthy adult heart of higher mammals.
Mubaraki, Murad A.; Hafiz, Taghreed A.; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh
Background Multiple drug-resistant malaria parasites have been widely detected, which has encouraged research studies focused on discovering alternative therapies. Medicinal plants such as pomegranate, Punica granatum, have been proven to exhibit antiprotozoal effects and therefore, we examined its effects on murine malaria-induced splenic injury and oxidative stress in this study. Methods Mice were divided into three groups, a vehicle control and two groups that were infected with 106 Plasmo...
Abdel-Sater Khaled A.
Full Text Available Smoking is known to adversely affect many organs and systems in human, where the cardiovascular system is one of the important targets. However, the exact mechanisms by which cigarette smoke alters myocardial and endothelial cells function and induces cardiovascular pathology are not clear. There are no reports especially with nitric oxide (NO•, uric acid and hemodynamics after acute exercise in smokers up to date. This study is designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress, NO• and uric acid in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking- induced cardiovascular diseases.40 apparently healthy subjects were studied. Depending on their previous physical conditioning status subjects were divided into equal four groups (n=10, physically active nonsmokers, physically active smokers, sedentary nonsmokers and sedentary smokers. Exercise tolerance was evaluated for each subject by using a running race (3 kilometers after a worming up period of 5 minutes.The obtained data revealed that regular exercise significantly decreased the plasma malonaldehyde, total cholesterol, LDL and uric acid levels below sedentary levels. Pre and post race plasma level of malonaldehyde and uric acid levels were significantly increased, while, plasma glutathione and NO• were decreased in sedentary smokers than the sedentary non smokers, physically active smokers and physically active non smokers.These findings point to the role of NO•, uric acid and lipid peroxide in the pathophysiologic mechanisms of smoking induced cardiovascular diseases. Sedentary smokers may be at an even greater risk of oxidative stress-related cardiovascular diseases. Finally, every body should include in a regular exercise.
Døssing, H; Bennedbaek, F N; Hegedüs, L
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of combined cyst aspiration and ultrasound-guided interstitial laser photocoagulation (ILP) on recurrence rate and the volume of benign cystic thyroid nodules. 10 euthyroid outpatients with a solitary and cytologically benign partially cystic thyroid...
Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Meuller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia
Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated carbon dioxide and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find carbon dioxide effects increase global CWP by 10[0;47]%-27[7;37]% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rain fed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated carbon dioxide could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modeling the effects of rising carbon dioxide across crop and hydrological modeling communities.
Erythropoietin protects many organs against the tissue injury and dysfunction caused by ischaemia/reperfusion and excessive inflammation. This editorial comment discusses the effects of erythropoietin in preclinical models of septic shock, endotoxemia, hemorrhagic shock, spinal cord trauma and zymosan-induced multiple organ failure.
Asexual, vertically transmitted fungal endophytes of the genus Neotyphodium are considered to enhance growth, stress resistance and competitiveness of agronomic grasses, but have been suggested to have neutral or deleterious effects on wild grasses. We studied whether the associations between Bromus...
Full Text Available The use of an implantable cardiac defibrillator has been advocated as the only effective treatment for the management of ventricular fibrillation (VF in patients with Brugada Syndrome (BrS. However, this device is only useful for terminating VF. Intermittent and/or recalcitrant VF for which lifesaving cardioversion occurs is a problematic situation in this patient population. The immediate use of appropriate antiarrhythmics in the acute setting has proven to be lifesaving. Quinidine has been well established as an effective antiarrhythmic in BrS, while isoproterenol (ISP has had some recognition as well. The addition of drug therapy to prevent the induction of these arrhythmias has been shown to reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with BrS. It was proven to be especially effective in the presence of early repolarization, evidenced by the reduction or normalization of the early repolarization pattern on ECG. Thus, for the prophylactic management and long term suppression of VF in BrS, further prospective studies should be performed to determine the effectiveness of quinidine and ISP in this patient population.
Deryng, Delphine; Elliott, Joshua; Folberth, Christian; Müller, Christoph; Pugh, Thomas A. M.; Boote, Kenneth J.; Conway, Declan; Ruane, Alex C.; Gerten, Dieter; Jones, James W.; Khabarov, Nikolay; Olin, Stefan; Schaphoff, Sibyll; Schmid, Erwin; Yang, Hong; Rosenzweig, Cynthia
Rising atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) are expected to enhance photosynthesis and reduce crop water use. However, there is high uncertainty about the global implications of these effects for future crop production and agricultural water requirements under climate change. Here we combine results from networks of field experiments and global crop models to present a spatially explicit global perspective on crop water productivity (CWP, the ratio of crop yield to evapotranspiration) for wheat, maize, rice and soybean under elevated [CO2] and associated climate change projected for a high-end greenhouse gas emissions scenario. We find CO2 effects increase global CWP by 10%-27% (median[interquartile range] across the model ensemble) by the 2080s depending on crop types, with particularly large increases in arid regions (by up to 48[25;56]% for rainfed wheat). If realized in the fields, the effects of elevated [CO2] could considerably mitigate global yield losses whilst reducing agricultural consumptive water use (4-17%). We identify regional disparities driven by differences in growing conditions across agro-ecosystems that could have implications for increasing food production without compromising water security. Finally, our results demonstrate the need to expand field experiments and encourage greater consistency in modelling the effects of rising [CO2] across crop and hydrological modelling communities.
Conclusion: The findings provide for the first time experimental support for beneficial effects of a ketogenic diet during the prenatal and early postnatal periods on the brain development of PDC-deficient mammalian progeny.
Full Text Available Research on the cardiovascular effects of noise in Serbia started in the year 2002, including experimental studies on humans and epidemiological studies on the adult and children population of Belgrade and Pancevo. Experimental exposure to noise [L eq = 89 dB (A] had a hypodynamic effect, significantly lowering the cardiac index, cardiac work, and pump performance (P 45 dB (A] and quiet areas [(L night , 8h ≤ 45 dB (A] were 23.6% and 17.5%, respectively. The adjusted odds ratio (OR for hypertension of the exposed group was 1.58 (95% CI = 1.03 - 2.42, P = 0.038, where men living in quiet streets were taken as a reference category. Associations between road traffic noise and blood pressure were also investigated in 328 preschool children in Belgrade. The systolic blood pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy residences and kindergartens, compared to children from both quiet environments (97.30 ± 8.15 and 92.33 ± 8.64 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01. As a continuation of the study on preschool children, investigations were also carried out on 856 school children, aged between seven and eleven years, in Belgrade. It was found that systolic pressure was significantly higher among children from noisy schools and quiet residences, compared to children from both quiet environments (102.1 ± 9,3 and 100.4 ± 10.4 mmHg, respectively, P < 0.01.
Full Text Available Intravenous contrast media used for coronary angiography are iodine-based and could induce thyroid gland dysfunction. We present the case of a 58-year-old woman with coronary artery disease who developed hyperthyroidism after percutaneus coronary intervention. Treatment with thiamazole induced agranulocytosis, complicated with severe tonsillitis. During recurrence of hyperthyroidism, after careful assessment of available methods of treatment, she was recommended to undergo radioiodine therapy (131I. The patient received lithium carbonate as pre-treatment. After 13 days of pre-treatment, patient received the therapeutic dose of 131I. Neither thyrotoxicosis progression nor acute coronary syndrome occurred. After 3 weeks, her thyroid hormones were found to be within normal ranges. Lithium therapy could be used as an effective treatment in patients who developed serious side-effects due to previous treatment with thionamides. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 92-94
The effect of H2 post-metallization annealing (PMA) on the electrical behaviour of sputtered Ta2O5 layers on nitrogen ion implanted Si is investigated. Capacitance-voltage and current-voltage measurements at various temperatures (20-110 0C) are performed to analyse the electrically active defects and leakage currents before and after PMA. The high densities of oxide charge, interface and slow states typical of as-deposited stacks are found to be strongly reduced by one to two orders of magnitude after annealing. H2 treatment affects both bulk Ta2O5 and interfacial layers but is more efficient in annealing electrically active defects in the nitrided layer. The effect of defect annealing on the leakage currents and conduction mechanisms is also discussed
Evren Kose; Hilal Irmak Sapmaz; Ediz Sarihan; Nigar Vardi; Yusuf Turkoz; Nihat Ekinci
The effects of montelukast against methotrexate-induced liver damage were investigated. 35 Wistar albino female rats were divided into 5 groups as follows: group I: control; group II: montelukast (ML); group III: methotrexate (Mtx); group IV: montelukast treatment after methotrexate application (Mtx + ML); group V: montelukast treatment before methotrexate application (ML + Mtx). At the end of the experiment, the liver tissues of rats were removed. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO)...
Objective To investigate the effect of antioxidant probucol on endothelial function in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods A total of 49 ACS patients randomly received standard therapy plus probucol (P,n=24) or standard therapy (C,n=25). Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) , nitric oxide (NO) and circulating endothelial cells (CEC) were measured. The brachial arterial hyperemia-induced flow mediated dilation (FMD) and sublingual nitroglyc-
Petersen, Pernille Lykke; Stjernholm, Pia; Kristiansen, Viggo B;
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is associated with postoperative pain of moderate intensity in the early postoperative period. Recent randomized trials have demonstrated the efficacy of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block in providing postoperative analgesia after abdominal surgery. We hypothesi...... hypothesized that a TAP block may reduce pain while coughing and at rest for the first 24 postoperative hours, opioid consumption, and opioid side effects in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy in day-case surgery....
Sotoudeh G; Siassi F; Mirdamadi SR; Mohammad K; Golestan B; Chamari M "
Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain...
Antman, E; Gunther, S.; Barry, W
A case is described of the successful use of intravenous glyceryl trinitrate in controlling ischaemia-induced high-grade ventricular ectopic activity occurring in a patient during a Prinzmetal angina attack. The intravenous form of glyceryl trinitrate is probably more effective than the sublingual form in controlling arrhythmias arising during acute ischaemic episodes because of prompt delivery of the drug to the coronary circulation where vasodilation occurs. In addition,the ability to contr...
Shibagaki, Keiichi; Okamoto, Kazuyoshi; Katsuta, Osamu; Nakamura, Masatsugu
We investigated the effects of pramipexole, a potent dopamine receptor D2/D3 agonist, on light-induced retinal damage in mice, H2O2-induced retinal pigment epithelium ARPE-19 cell injury in humans, and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity in a cell-free system. Pramipexole (0.1 and 1 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to mice 1 h before light exposure (5000 lux, 2 h). Electrophysiological and morphologic studies were performed to evaluate the effects of the pramipexole on light-induced retinal damage in mice. Pramipexole significantly prevented the reduction of the a- and b-wave electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes caused by light exposure in a dose-dependent manner. In parallel, damage to the inner and outer segments (IS/OS) of the photoreceptors, loss of photoreceptor nuclei, and the number of Tdt-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the outer nuclear layer (ONL) caused by light exposure were notably ameliorated by pramipexole. Additionally, pramipexole suppressed H2O2-induced ARPE-19 cell death in vitro in a concentration-dependent manner. The effect of pramipexole was significant at concentrations of 10(-6) M or higher. Pramipexole also significantly prevented H2O2-induced activation of caspases-3/7 and the intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a concentration-dependent manner ranging from 10(-5) to 10(-3) M. Furthermore, pramipexole increased the scavenging activity toward a hydroxyl radical generated from H2O2 in a Fenton reaction. Our results suggest that pramipexole protects against light-induced retinal damage as an antioxidant and that it may be a novel and effective therapy for retinal degenerative disorders, such as dry age-related macular degeneration. PMID:26213307
Hu, Hui-Min; Chen, Li; Frary, Charles Edward;
with 100 patients who were randomized equally into 2 groups (Batroxobin and placebo). Patients received either 2 ku IV 15 min before surgery and followed 1 ku IM of Batroxobin following surgery, or an equivalent volume of placebo (normal saline). Cost of Batroxobin treatment is amounted to 84.75 euros...... use of Batroxobin for patients undergoing one-level PLIF surgery safely and effectively reduced the total amount of perioperative blood loss...
Mehlsen, J; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup; Haedersdal, C;
The objective of this study was to analyze the long-term hemodynamic effects of the calcium antagonist isradipine in mild hypertension compared with those of the beta 1-selective adrenoceptor antagonist atenolol, focusing in particular on the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Ten male patients...... isradipine (254 +/- 55 g). The results indicate that antihypertensive treatment with isradipine as monotherapy may prevent the development of left ventricular hypertrophy whereas treatment with atenolol as monotherapy does not appear to offer this possibility....
Comelli, Francesca; Bettoni, Isabella; Colleoni, Mariapia; Giagnoni, Gabriella; Costa, Barbara
Abstract Neuropathy is the most common complication of diabetes and it is still considered to be relatively refractory to most of the analgesics. The aim of the present study was to explore the antinociceptive effect of a controlled cannabis extract (eCBD) in attenuating diabetic neuropathic pain. Repeated treatment with cannabis extract significantly relieved mechanical allodynia and restored the physiological thermal pain perception in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats w...
Older adults' decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information makes them especially susceptible to the negative effects of simultaneously occurring distraction. For example, older adults are more likely than young adults to process distraction presented during a task, which can result in delayed response times, decreased reading comprehension, disrupted problem solving, and reduced memory for target information. However, there is also some evidence that the tendency to process distraction...
Weeks, Jennifer C.; Hasher, Lynn
Older adults’ decreased ability to inhibit irrelevant information makes them especially susceptible to the negative effects of simultaneously occurring distraction. For example, older adults are more likely than young adults to process distraction presented during a task, which can result in delayed response times, decreased reading comprehension, disrupted problem solving, and reduced memory for target information. However, there is also some evidence that the tendency to process distraction...
Juzeniene, Asta; Moan, Johan
Most of the positive effects of solar radiation are mediated via ultraviolet-B (UVB) induced production of vitamin D in skin. However, several other pathways may exist for the action of ultraviolet (UV) radiation on humans as focused on in this review. One is induction of cosmetic tanning (immediate pigment darkening, persistent pigment darkening and delayed tanning). UVB-induced, delayed tanning (increases melanin in skin after several days), acts as a sunscreen. Several human skin diseases,...
Full Text Available Cocoa consumption began in America and in the mid 16th Century it quickly spread to Europe. Beyond being considered a pleasant habit due to its rich sweet lingering taste, chocolate was considered a good nutrient and even a medicine. Traditionally, health benefits of cocoa have been related with the high content of antioxidants of Theobroma cocoa beans. However, the direct psychoactive effect due to methylxanthines in cocoa is notable. Theobromine and caffeine in the proportions found in cocoa are responsible for the liking of the food/beverage. These compounds influence in a positive way our moods and our state of alertness. Theobromine, which is found in higher amounts than caffeine, seems to be behind several effects attributed to cocoa intake. The main mechanisms of action are inhibition of phosphodiesterases and blockade of adenosine receptors. Further mechanisms are being explored to better understand the health benefits associated to theobromine consumption. Unlike what happens in other mammals –pets included-, theobromine is safe for humans and has fewer unwanted effects than caffeine. Therefore, theobromine deserves attention as one of the most attractive molecules in cocoa.
Raúl E. Cian
Full Text Available Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid” and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR, Toll-like receptors (TLR and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function.
Cian, Raúl E.; Drago, Silvina R.; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga
Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain “cellulose binding domains”, phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and “dl-hybrid”) and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function. PMID:26308006
Cian, Raúl E; Drago, Silvina R; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez; Martínez-Augustin, Olga
Based on their composition, marine algae, and namely red seaweeds, are good potential functional foods. Intestinal mucosal barrier function refers to the capacity of the intestine to provide adequate containment of luminal microorganisms and molecules. Here, we will first outline the component of seaweeds and will summarize the effects of these on the regulation of mucosal barrier function. Special attention will be paid to unique components of red seaweeds: proteins and derived peptides (e.g., phycobiliproteins, glycoproteins that contain "cellulose binding domains", phycolectins and the related mycosporine-like amino acids) together with polysaccharides (e.g., floridean starch and sulfated galactans, such as carrageenans, agarans and "dl-hybrid") and minerals. These compounds have been shown to exert prebiotic effects, to regulate intestinal epithelial cell, macrophage and lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation and to modulate the immune response. Molecular mechanisms of action of peptides and polysaccharides are starting to be elucidated, and evidence indicating the involvement of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGFR), Toll-like receptors (TLR) and signal transduction pathways mediated by protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPK) will also be summarized. The need for further research is clear, but in vivo experiments point to an overall antiinflammatory effect of these algae, indicating that they can reinforce membrane barrier function. PMID:26308006
Ponderomotive forces at fast wave launching lead in the vicinity of the launching structure in tokamaks at lower hybrid frequencies typically to a boundary plasma density increase. This results in a decrease of the reflection coefficient, and in cases of detached plasmas, to an appearance of a local electric field maximum at a distance of several centimeters from the launching grill structure; this electric field maximum is connected to the reversal of the plasma density gradient near the grill mouth because of ponderomotive force effects. (author) 3 figs., 20 refs
Mehlsen, J; Himmelstrup, H; Himmelstrup, Bodil;
patients participated in an open trial investigating the possible effects of the treatment on platelet aggregation and fibrinolysis. Pain-free and maximal walking distances were measured on a treadmill, and systolic blood pressure was measured on the upper limb, the ankle, and the first toe bilaterally....... The threshold for adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced platelet aggregation was tested, and the fibrinolytic activity was estimated from the euglobulin clot lysis time. Active treatment resulted in significant improvements in pain-free and maximal walking distances, whereas no changes could be found...
Gesing, Adam; Al-Regaiey, Khalid A.; Bartke, Andrzej; Masternak, Michal M.
Disruption of the growth hormone (GH) axis promotes longevity and delays aging. In contrast, GH over-expression may lead to accelerated aging and shorter life. Calorie restriction (CR) improves insulin sensitivity and may extend lifespan. Long-lived Ames dwarf (df/df) mice have additional extension of longevity when subjected to 30% CR. The aim of the study was to assess effects of CR or GH replacement therapy separately and as a combined (CR+GH) treatment in GH-deficient df/df and normal mic...
Full Text Available Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activity of protein fractions with hypolipidemic effects was detected in a free radical scavenging experiment. The buckwheat protein fraction with the most obvious hypolipidemic activity and free radical scavenging activity was named as WSBWP. Its molecular weight was estimated by SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to be 38 kDa. It could become a potential candidate in the treatment of atherosclerosis.
Pattyn, Nele; Cornelissen, Véronique A; Eshghi, Saeed R. Toghi; Vanhees, Luc
Background Numerous meta-analyses have investigated the effect of exercise in different populations and for single cardiovascular risk factors, but none have specifically focused on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and the concomitant effect of exercise on all associated cardiovascular risk factors. Objective The aim of this article was to perform a systematic review with a meta-analysis of randomized and clinical controlled trials (RCTs, CTs) investigating the effect of exercise on car...
Luke J. Janssen
Full Text Available Airflow within the airways is determined directly by the lumenal area of that airway. In this paper, we consider several factors which can reduce airway lumenal area, including thickening and/or active constriction of the airway smooth muscle (ASM. The latter cell type can also contribute in part to inflammation, another feature of asthma, through its ability to take on a synthetic/secretory phenotype. The ASM therefore becomes a strategically important target in the treatment of asthma, given these key contributions to the pathophysiology of that disease. Pharmacological approaches have been developed to elicit relaxation of the ASM, but these are not always effective in all patients, nor do they address the long-term structural changes which impinge on the airway lumen. The recent discovery that thermal energy can be used to ablate smooth muscle has led to the development of a novel physical intervention—bronchial thermoplasty—in the treatment of asthma. Here, we review the evolution of this novel approach, consider some of the possible mechanisms that account for its salutary effects, and pose new questions which may lead to even better therapies for asthma.
Introduction Music is known to reduce pain, anxiety and fear in several stressful conditions in both males and females. Further, listening to preferred music enhances the endurance during running performance of women rather than listening to non-preferred music. In recent years Heart Rate Variability (HRV) has been used as an indicator of autonomic nervous activity. Aim This study was aimed to assess the effectiveness of preferential music on HRV after moderate exercise. Materials and Methods This was an experimental study done in 30 healthy students aged between 20-25 years, of either sex. HRV was measured at rest, 15 minutes of exercise only and 15 minutes of exercise with listening preferential music in same participants. Data was analysed by One-Way ANOVA and Tukey HSD Post-hoc Test. Statistical significance was taken to be a p-value of less than 0.05. Results Low frequency and high frequency component was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music minimized increase in both high and low frequency component followed by exercise. However, only high frequency change was statistically significant. LF/HF ratio was significantly increased followed by only exercise. Music significantly minimized increase in LF/HF ratio. Conclusion This study provides the preliminary evidence that listening to preferential music could be an effective method of relaxation, as indicated by a shift of the autonomic balance towards the parasympathetic activity among medical students. PMID:27437208
Bisphenol-A is a chemical compound which is used primarily as a monomer in the manufacture of numerous chemical products. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential harmful effects of bisphenol-A on reproductive system of male rats and was designed to clarify the ability of zinc or selenium to improve this perturbation in the reproductive function of rats.As a result of bisphenol-A treatment, number of sperms, testis total protein, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase were decreased significantly. This effect was concomitant with a significant decrease in serum testosterone level. On the other hand, bisphenol-A caused a significant elevation in the abnormality of sperm (sperm malformed head or tail or head and tail) and testis total lipid. However, a significant increment was obtained in serum FSH, LH, PRL, E2 and progesterone levels when compared with their corresponding normal control rats.Moreover, the administration of zinc or selenium to treated rats with bisphenol-A rats led to a remarkable amelioration in all previous parameters
Full Text Available Osamu Kano1,2, Ken Ikeda2, Tetsuhito Kiyozuka2, Konosuke Iwamoto2, Hirono Ito2, Yuji Kawase2, Ryuta Sato2, Toshiki Fujioka2, Yo Araki2, Shigeji Baba2, Yasuo Iwasaki21Department of Neurology, Methodist Neurological Institute, Houston, TX, USA; 2Department of Neurology, Toho University Omori Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: We examined whether pramipexole (PPX can influence depressive scale in normal and mild depressive parkinsonian patients. In an open study of PPX as an add-on to L-dopa therapy or single administration, 36 nondemented outpatients with Parkinson’s disease (PD were entered first. All were in the stage II or III of Hoehn and Yahr scale (H&Y. PPX were started at 0.125 mg/day and daily doses were increased to 1.5 mg/day. At 3 months after PPX treatment, patients were re-evaluated. Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale III, H&Y stage, and freezing of gait questionnaire were compared in patients before and after PPX treatment. These scores were significantly improved after PPX administration. There were no correlations between HAM-D and those motor functions. We suggest that PPX treatment has antidepressant effects in depressive PD patients and also ameliorates HAM-D score in nondepressive PD patients in addition to motor function.Keywords: Parkinson disease, pramipexole, motor function, depression, antidepressant effect
Nasrin, Sweety; Osano, Ayaka; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo
The aim of this study was to characterize pharmacological effects of gosha-jinki-gan (GJG) and green tea extract (GTE), on urodynamic parameters, bladder receptors, and urinary cytokines in rats with cyclophosphamide (CYP)-induced cystitis. Urodynamic parameters in CYP-treated rats were measured using the cystometric method. Muscarinic and purinergic receptors in rat tissues were measured by radioreceptor assays. Urinary cytokine levels were measured with ELISA kits. GJG and GTE were orally administered to rats once a day for 7 days. The GJG treatment significantly ameliorated changes in urodynamic parameters in CYP-treated rats. Similar treatment with GTE slightly attenuated changes in urodynamic parameters. The maximal number of binding sites for [³H]NMS and [³H]αβ-MeATP in the bladder was significantly lower in CYP-treated rats than in sham rats. Such a reduction in receptor density was significantly attenuated by the GJG treatment. GTE treatment also significantly attenuated the down-regulation of muscarinic receptors, but not P2X receptors in bladders of rats with CYP-induced cystitis. The elevation in urinary cytokine levels in CYP-treated rats was effectively attenuated by GJG treatment. The elevation in cytokine levels in CYP-treated rats was alleviated by GTE treatment. In conclusion, GJG may be a pharmacologically useful plant extract for cystitis. PMID:23842285
Schultz, Alini; Mendonca, Leonardo S; Aguila, Marcia B; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos A
The study aimed to investigate the effect of swimming training in reducing the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and associated comorbidities, including the hepatic expression of fatty acid synthesis and peroxisome proliferator receptor activity-alpha. Male C57BL/6 mice were separated into two major groups according to their nutrition and studied during 22 weeks: standard chow (10% fat, SC) or high-fat chow (60% fat, HF), characterizing the sedentary groups SC-Sed and HF-Sed. In the last 10 weeks of the experiment, half of the sedentary groups were submitted to a swimming training with a progressive increase in duration, characterizing the exercised groups: SC-Ex and HF-Ex. At the end of the experiment, considering the findings in the SC-Sed group, HF-Sed group had significantly higher body mass, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia with insulin resistance, hypertrophy of the adipocytes (with inflammatory infiltrate), hypertrophy of the pancreatic islets, dyslipidemia, altered liver enzymes and inflammatory cytokines, and NAFLD with changes in gene expression of hepatic lipogenic and oxidative proteins. The swimming program, even concomitant with the high-fat diet, reduced overweight and all the other worst findings, especially NAFLD. In conclusion, the swimming training can attenuate the morbid effects of a high-fat diet combined with sedentary lifestyle in mice. These data reinforce the notion that swimming exercise can be considered an efficient nonpharmacologic therapy in the treatment of NAFLD, obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:20869214
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Long-term exposure to high levels of fatty acids impairs insulin secretion and exaggerates glucagon secretion. The aim of this study was to explore if the antihyperglycemic agent, Isosteviol (ISV, is able to counteract palmitate-induced α-cell dysfunction and to influence α-cell gene expression. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Long-term incubation studies with clonal α-TC1-6 cells were performed in the presence of 0.5 mM palmitate with or without ISV. We investigated effects on glucagon secretion, glucagon content, cellular triglyceride (TG content, cell proliferation, and expression of genes involved in controlling glucagon synthesis, fatty acid metabolism, and insulin signal transduction. Furthermore, we studied effects of ISV on palmitate-induced glucagon secretion from isolated mouse islets. Culturing α-cells for 72-h with 0.5 mM palmitate in the presence of 18 mM glucose resulted in a 56% (p<0.01 increase in glucagon secretion. Concomitantly, the TG content of α-cells increased by 78% (p<0.01 and cell proliferation decreased by 19% (p<0.05. At 18 mM glucose, ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M reduced palmitate-stimulated glucagon release by 27% (p<0.05 and 27% (p<0.05, respectively. ISV (10(-6 M also counteracted the palmitate-induced hypersecretion of glucagon in mouse islets. ISV (10(-6 M reduced α-TC1-6 cell proliferation rate by 25% (p<0.05, but ISV (10(-8 and 10(-6 M had no effect on TG content in the presence of palmitate. Palmitate (0.5 mM increased Pcsk2 (p<0.001, Irs2 (p<0.001, Fasn (p<0.001, Srebf2 (p<0.001, Acaca (p<0.01, Pax6 (p<0.05 and Gcg mRNA expression (p<0.05. ISV significantly (p<0.05 up-regulated Insr, Irs1, Irs2, Pik3r1 and Akt1 gene expression in the presence of palmitate. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ISV counteracts α-cell hypersecretion and apparently contributes to changes in expression of key genes resulting from long-term exposure to palmitate. ISV apparently acts as a glucagonostatic drug with potential as a
During the period between 1978 and 1983 a total of 156 patients showing different types of tumours were subjected to high-dosage radiotherapy. The patients were treated repeatedly for primary or recurrent tumours using a radiation dose of >79 Gy. Each of the three largest groups, which were mammary carcinomas (33), cerebral tumours (25) and orohypopharyngeal tumours (22), was analysed individually. In the majority of patients the local effects of this radiotherapy were such that total or at least partial remission of the primary or recurrent tumour appeared most likely. In the groups receiving doses in the lower range the results were just as good as those achieved in subjects exposed to high doses. The survival times determined here for bearers of mammary or cerebral carcinomas were better than the relevant values given in the literature. (orig./MG)
Zhi-fei WANG; Emily Bame FESSLER; De-Maw CHUANG
The mood stabilizers lithium,valproate and lamotrigine are traditionally used to treat bipolar disorder.However,accumulating evidence suggests that these drugs have broad neuroprotective properties and may therefore be promising therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases,including stroke.Lithium,valproate and lamotrigine exert protective effects in diverse experimental stroke models by acting on their respective primary targets,ie,glycogen synthase kinase-3,histone deacetytases and voltage-gated sodium channels,respectively.This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the underlying mechanisms of these phenomena,which will pave the way for clinical investigations that use mood stabilizers to treat stroke.We also propose several future research avenues that may extend our understanding of the benefits of lithium,valproate and lamotrigine in improving stroke outcomes.
Hata, Seiichiro (Osaka Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)
A 81-year-old male had perioral radiodermatitis of 50 years' duration which was associated with Bowen's disease and basal cell epitheliomas since age 59 years. One of those basal cell epitheliomas treated with topical 5-FU and bleomycin ointments increased to form an ulcer of 25 x 15mm in size nearby the right side of nose, accompanying with a fistule to the oral cavity while he hesitated to visit the hospital. 5-FU was intralesionally injected into the tumor. After the injections in total dose of 6,550mg the ulcer got epithelized and the biopsy could not reveal the tumor cell. The case proves the effectiveness of intralesional injection of 5-FU for basal cell epithelioma which avoids the surgical excision.
Spiers, A S; DeVita, S F; Allar, M J; Richards, S; Sedransk, N
To investigate the effects of concurrent administration of an anabolic steroid upon hematopoiesis and metabolism in patients with cancer who were receiving cytotoxic chemotherapy, a randomized trial was conducted. Thirty-three evaluable patients received intensive multiple-agent chemotherapy: 17 received in addition nandrolone decanoate ("Deca-Durabolin"), 200 mg intramuscularly each week. The nandrolone-treated patients showed significantly better maintenance of hemoglobin concentrations and body weight, and a highly significant reduction in number of blood transfusions. Improved survival in the androgen-treated patients did not achieve significance. There were no differences in neutrophil or platelet counts or in tolerance of cytotoxic drugs. Toxicity from nandrolone therapy was minimal. PMID:7033426
Muchammad, Tauviqirrahman, Mohammad; Pratomo, Ariawan Wahyu; Jamari, J.; Schipper, Dirk J.
Recently, superhydrophobic materials got a lot of attention for special applications, such as anti stiction and energy conversion. In this paper, a theoretical investigation was carried out to study the effect of adding a superhydrophobic layer on the tribological performance of bearings and further compared it to textured bearings. In doing so, different texture depths were also studied and compared to each other to find the optimal textured bearing. The superhydrophobic behaviour was characterized by the Navier slip model. The results showed that the presence of a superhydrophobic layer in a bearing could result in a significant improvement in the hydrodynamic pressure distribution as well as the shear stress compared to a textured bearing.
Liu, Su; Liu, Ying; Deng, Shukun; Guo, Aisong; Wang, Xiubing; Shen, Guangyu
Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy helps alleviate secondary injury following brain trauma [traumatic brain injury (TBI)], although the mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we assessed recovery of post-TBI spatial learning and memory in rats using the Morris water maze (MWM) and measured changes in apparent diffusion coefficient in the hippocampus by diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to evaluate possible therapeutic effects of HBO on TBI-associated brain edema. DWIs were obtained 8, 24, 48 h, 7 days, and 14 days post-TBI. Daily HBO therapy significantly improved post-TBI MWM performance and reduced edema in the ipsilateral hippocampus, suggesting that the therapeutic efficacy of HBO is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in brain edema. PMID:26267487
Hao, Ning; Ku, Yixuan; Liu, Meigui; Hu, Yi; Bodner, Mark; Grabner, Roland H; Fink, Andreas
The present study aimed to explore the neural correlates underlying the effects of idea evaluation on idea generation in creative thinking. Participants were required to generate original uses of conventional objects (alternative uses task) during EEG recording. A reflection task (mentally evaluating the generated ideas) or a distraction task (object characteristics task) was inserted into the course of idea generation. Behavioral results revealed that participants generated ideas with higher originality after evaluating the generated ideas than after performing the distraction task. The EEG results revealed that idea evaluation was accompanied with upper alpha (10-13 Hz) synchronization, most prominent at frontal cortical sites. Moreover, upper alpha activity in frontal cortices during idea generation was enhanced after idea evaluation. These findings indicate that idea evaluation may elicit a state of heightened internal attention or top-down activity that facilitates efficient retrieval and integration of internal memory representations. PMID:26808451
Chhetri, Manjeet; Gupta, Uttam; Yadgarov, Lena; Rosentsveig, Rita; Tenne, Reshef; Rao, C N R
Electrochemical generation of hydrogen by non-precious metal electrocatalysts at a lower overpotential is a focus area of research directed towards sustainable energy. The exorbitant costs associated with Pt-based catalysts is the major bottleneck associated with commercial-scale hydrogen generation. Strategies for the synthesis of cost-effective and stable catalysts are thus key for a prospective 'hydrogen economy'. In this report, we highlight a novel and general strategy to enhance the electrochemical activity of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) in a fullerene structure (IF-). In particular, pristine (undoped) and rhenium-doped nanoparticles of MoS2 with fullerene-like structures (IF-MoS2) were studied, and their performance as catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was compared to that of 2H-MoS2 particles (platelets). The current density of the IF-MoS2 was higher by one order of magnitude than that of few-layer (FL-) MoS2, due to the enhanced density of the edge sites. Furthermore, Re doping of as low as 100 ppm in IF-MoS2 decreased the onset potential by 60-80 mV and increased the activity by 60 times compared with that of the FL-MoS2. The combined synergistic effect of Re doping and the IF structure not only changes the intrinsic nature of the MoS2 but also increases its reactivity. This strategy highlights the potential use of the IF structure and Re doping in electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution using MoS2-based catalysts. PMID:26308554
Maya-Soriano, M J; Taberner, E; Sabés-Alsina, M; Piles, M; Lopez-Bejar, M
The generation of reactive oxygen species associated with cryopreservation could be responsible for mammalian sperm damage and the limitable value of stored semen in artificial insemination. The aim of this study was to assess several antioxidant agents supplemented in a commercial freezing extender (Gent B®) in order to improve post-thaw rabbit sperm quality. Ejaculates of 26 New Zealand White rabbit bucks were collected, evaluated and frozen using a conventional protocol. Antioxidant agents were tested at different concentrations: bovine serum albumin (BSA; 5, 30 or 60 mg/ml), retinol (RO; 50, 100 or 200 μM) and retinyl (RI; 0.282 or 2.82 μg/ml). Per cent viability, morphological abnormalities and intact acrosomes were determined using eosin-nigrosin staining. Motility and progressivity were analyzed by computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA). In general, all sperm quality parameters were negatively affected by the cryopreservation process, the largest effect seen was for total motility. The addition of antioxidant agents did not improve thaw sperm quality. Furthermore, for RI groups a significant decrease in sperm quality parameters was recorded. In conclusion, rabbit sperm quality is negatively affected by the cryopreservation process. To our knowledge this report is the first using these antioxidants to supplement rabbit freezing extender. BSA and RO at concentrations used in the study did not improve sperm quality parameters after thawing, whereas RI supplementation appeared to be toxic. More studies are required to find the appropriate antioxidants necessary and their most effective concentrations to improve rabbit post-thaw sperm quality. PMID:23965603
HE Rong-rong; CHEN Ling; LIN Bing-hui; MATSUI Yokichi; YAO Xin-sheng; KURIHARA Hiroshi
Objective: To determine the anti-obesity effects of oolong tea on diet-induced overweight or obesity. Methods: A total of 8 g of oolong tea a day for 6 weeks was ingested by 102 diet-induced overweight or obese subjects. The body fat level of the subjects was determined at the same time by taking body weight, height and waist measurements. The thickness of the subcutaneous fat layer was also determined on the abdomen 3 cm to the right of the navel by the ultrasonic echo method. On the other hand, effects of oolong tea ingestion on plasma triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were determined. Inhibitions of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins in vitro were also determined. Results: A total of 70% of the severely obese subjects did show a decrease of more than 1 kg in body weight, including 22% who lost more than 3 kg. Similarly, 64% of the obese subjects and 66% of the overweight subjects lost more than 1 kg during the experiment, and the subcutaneous fat content decreased in 12% of the subjects. The correlation between weight loss and subcutaneous fat decrease in men (r=0.055) was obviously lower than that in women (r=0.440, P0.05). Moreover, the plasma levels of TG and TC of the subjects with hyperlipidemia were remarkably decreased after ingesting oolong tea for 6 weeks. In vitro assays for the inhibition of pancreatic lipase by oolong tea extract and catechins suggest that the mechanism for oolong tea to prevent hyperlipidemia may be related to the regulative action of oolong tea catechins in lipoprotein activity. Conclusions: Oolong tea could decrease body fat content and reduce body weight through improving lipid metabolism. Chronic consumption of oolong tea may prevent against obesity.
Datta, Swati; Jamwal, Sumit; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kumar, Puneet
Tardive Dyskinesia is a severe side effect of chronic neuroleptic treatment consisting of abnormal involuntary movements, characterized by orofacial dyskinesia. The study was designed to investigate the protective effect of lycopene against haloperidol induced orofacial dyskinesia possibly by neurochemical and neuroinflammatory modulation in rats. Rats were administered with haloperidol (1mg/kg, i.p for 21 days) to induce orofacial dyskinesia. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) was given daily 1hour before haloperidol treatment for 21 days. Behavioral observations (vacuous chewing movements, tongue protrusions, facial jerking, rotarod activity, grip strength, narrow beam walking) were assessed on 0th, 7th(,) 14th(,) 21st day after haloperidol treatment. On 22nd day, animals were killed and striatum was excised for estimation of biochemical parameters (malondialdehyde, nitrite and endogenous enzyme (GSH), pro-inflammatory cytokines [Tumor necrosis factor, Interleukin 1β, Interleukin 6] and neurotransmitters level (dopamine, serotonin, nor epinephrine, 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), Homovanillic acid, 3,4- dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Haloperidol treatment for 21 days impaired muscle co-ordination, motor activity and grip strength with an increased in orofacial dyskinetic movements. Further free radical generation increases MDA and nitrite levels, decreasing GSH levels in striatum. Neuroinflammatory markers were significantly increased with decrease in neurotransmitters levels. Lycopene (5 and 10mg/kg, p.o) treatment along with haloperidol significantly attenuated impairment in behavioral, biochemical, neurochemical and neuroinflammatory markers. Results of the present study attributed the therapeutic potential of lycopene in the treatment (prevented or delayed) of typical antipsychotic induced orofacial dyskinesia. PMID:26712377
Pişkin, Ahmet; Altunkaynak, Berrin Zuhal; Tümentemur, Gamze; Kaplan, Süleyman; Yazıcı, Ozgür Bülent; Hökelek, Murat
Momordica charantia (MC; bitter gourd) is a traditional herbal commonly used for its antidiabetic, antioxidant, contraceptive and antibacterial properties. In the current study, the authors aim to observe the topical effect of MC cream on the wound-healing process in rabbits. Moreover, they compare the healing potential with conventional creams used therapeutically. Towards this aim, 28 New Zealand rabbits were divided into four groups and excision wounds (7 cm²) were made on their backs. Open wound dressing was carried out daily for 28 days among the experimental groups with the application of dekspanthenol (Bepanthen®; BP group, n = 7), nitrofurazon (Furacin®; FR group, n = 7) and olive oil extract of MC (MC group, n = 7). No application was made to the control group. At the end of day 28, areas of the skin with initial wound area were en bloc dissected and prepared for histopathological and stereological analysis. Inflammatory cells were abundant in the control group and cream application led to a decrease in the number of these cells, especially in the MC group. The highest number of fibroblasts was detected in the MC group. Furthermore, the MC group displayed the highest fractions of epidermis to papillary dermis, fibroblasts to reticular dermis and collagen fibres to reticular dermis. The MC group also presented a high density of blood vessels, moderate density of collagen fibres and mature fibroblasts. The BP group showed better epithelialisation compared with the FR group, but the latter provided more effective reorganisation of the dermis. Different cream supplements caused healthy and fast wound healing according to untreated controls and the results show that administration of the MC extract improves and accelerates the process of wound healing in rabbits in comparison with the BP and FR extracts. PMID:22812507
Kwiatkowski, Klaudia; Piotrowska, Anna; Rojewska, Ewelina; Makuch, Wioletta; Jurga, Agnieszka; Slusarczyk, Joanna; Trojan, Ewa; Basta-Kaim, Agnieszka; Mika, Joanna
Targeting chemokine signaling pathways is crucial in neuropathy development. In this study, we investigated the influence of chronic administration of maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist) on nociception and opioid effectiveness during neuropathy, which develops as a result of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. To investigate the mechanism of action of maraviroc, we measured the expression of glial cell markers, CCR5 and certain CCR5 ligands (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5, CCL7, CCL11), in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of vehicle- and maraviroc-treated, CCI-exposed rats. Our results demonstrate that chronic intrathecal administration of maraviroc diminished neuropathic pain symptoms on day 7 post-CCI. Western blot analysis showed that maraviroc diminished protein level of Iba-1 and GFAP and reversed the up-regulated CCR5 expression observed in spinal cord and DRG after CCI. Additionally, using qRT-PCR, we demonstrated that CCR5 and some of its pronociceptive ligands (CCL3, CCL4, CCL5) increased in the spinal cord after nerve injury, and maraviroc effectively diminished those changes. However, CCL11 spinal expression was undetectable, even after injury. In vitro primary culture studies showed that CCL3, CCL4, CCL5 and CCL7 (but not CCL11) were of microglial and astroglial origin and were up-regulated after LPS stimulation. Our results indicate that maraviroc not only attenuated the development of neuropathic pain symptoms due to significant modulation of neuroimmune interactions but also intensified the analgesic properties of morphine and buprenorphine. In sum, our results suggest the pharmacological modulation of CCR5 by maraviroc as a novel therapeutic approach for co-treatment of patients receiving opioid therapy for neuropathy. PMID:26190414
Efeitos da sauna sobre doenças cardiovasculares e doenças relacionadas com o estilo de vida Efectos de la sauna sobre las enfermedades cardiovasculares y las relacionadas al estilo de vida Effects of sauna on cardiovascular and lifestyle-related diseases
the impact of the sauna on diseases and on health in general. Sauna can be beneficial or dangerous depending on its use. In the past few years the sauna is being considered beneficial for the cardiovascular diseases' patients, as the heart failure and lifestyle-related diseases, mainly by improving the peripheral endothelial function, through the increase of the cardiac output and peripheral vasodilation. The endothelial dysfunction is present in most of the cardiovascular diseases. The present article intends to review the sauna effects on the cardiovascular system in healthy individuals and in some cardiovascular diseases.
Rana Gopal Singh
Full Text Available The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of the herbal drug Salacia oblonga on reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. Sixty patients were randomized in four groups; group A1 = non-diabetic CKD given trial drug Salacia oblonga for six months, group A 2 = non-diabetic CKD intended to receive placebo, group B1 = diabetic CKD treated with Salacia oblonga for six months and group B 2 = diabetic CKD patients intended to receive placebo. Estimation of renal function tests including blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance was performed at baseline and after that at monthly intervals. Lipid profile, interleukin-6 (IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP were measured at baseline and were repeated at three months and six months. After six months of treatment, Salacia oblonga could reduce the triglyceride levels by 23.66% (P = 0.008 in non-diabetic and by 17.45% (P = 0.01 in diabetic CKD patients. In comparison with placebo, both non-diabetic and diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga showed significant reduction in CRP levels (P = 0.002 and 0.03, respectively, while significant reduction in IL-6 (P-value = 0.0003 and serum cholesterol levels (P-value = 0.0001 was seen only in diabetic CKD patients treated with Salacia oblonga. Stabilization of creatinine clearance with Salacia oblonga was observed in both non-diabetic (P = 0.05 and diabetic CKD (P = 0.04 patients in comparison with placebo. Salacia oblonga has significant beneficial effects on lipid profile and markers of inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CKD patients. Salacia oblonga also seems to have a reno-protective effect, as reflected by stabilization of creatinine clearance at six months in this study.
Stefano Ginanni Corradini; Edoardo Poli; Adriano De Santis; Aldo Roda; Carolina Colliva; Patrizia Simoni; Adolfo Francesco Attili; Flaminia Ferri; Michela Mordenti; Luigi Iuliano; Maria Siciliano; Maria Antonella Burza; Bruno Sordi; Barbara Caciotti; Maria Pacini
AIM:To investigate the effect of drinking sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium thermal water (TW) on risk factors for atherosclerosis and cholesterol gallstone disease.METHODS:Postmenopausal women with functional dyspepsia and/or constipation underwent a 12 d cycle of thermal (n =20) or tap (n =20) water controlled drinking.Gallbladder fasting volume at ultrasound,blood vitamin E,oxysterols (7-β-hydroxycholesterol.and 7-ketocholesterol),bile acid (BA),triglycerides,total/low density lipoprotein and high density lipoprotein cholesterol were measured at baseline and at the end of the study.Food consumption,stool frequency and body weight were recorded daily.RESULTS:Blood lipids,oxysterols and vitamin E were not affected by either thermal or tap water consumption.Fasting gallbladder volume was significantly (P ＜0.005) smaller at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (15.7 ± 1.1 mL vs 20.1 ± 1.7 mL) but not in the tap water group (19.0 ± 1.4 mL vs 19.4 ± 1.5 mL).Total serum BA concentration was significantly (P ＜0.05) higher at the end of the study than at baseline in the TW (5.83-1.24 μmol vs 4.25 ± 1.00 μmol) but not in the tap water group (3.41 ± 0.46 μmol vs 2.91 ± 0.56 μmol).The increased BA concentration after TW consumption was mainly accounted for by glycochenodeoxycholic acid.The number of pasta (P ＜ 0.001),meat (P ＜ 0.001) and vegetable (P ＜ 0.005) portions consumed during the study and of bowel movements per day (P ＜ 0.05) were significantly higher in the TW than in the tap water group.Body weight did not change at the end of the study as compared to baseline in both groups.CONCLUSION:Sulphate-bicarbonate-calcium water consumption has a positive effect on lithogenic risk and intestinal transit and allows maintenance of a stable body weight despite a high food intake.
Full Text Available Hyperandrogenism affects 2-6% of all women. Hypertension is one of disturbances which is related to androgen excess. Higher intakes of vitamin C and vitamin E have been associated with lower blood pressure. Tho investigate the effect of these vitamin supplementation on blood pressure in hyperandrogenic women, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was designed on 56 women 18-54 years old. Women were randomly allocated to one of four treatment groups: spironolactone plus vitamain C and viamin E (SCE, spironolactone plus vitamins placebo (SP, vitamin C plus vitamin E (CE, vitamins placebo (P. The treatment consisted of oral administration of 100 mg spironolactone, 1000 mg vitamin C and 900 mg vitamin E (alpha-tocopherol acetate daily for about 3 months. Results indicated that compared to pretreatment, vitamins supplementation significantly lowered systolic (119.1±12.6 vs. 112.6±15.4 mmHg and mean blood pressure (97.4±11.5 vs. 92. ±12.1 mmHg SCE group (P<0.05, diastolic (87.3±12.7 vs. 80±12 mmHg and mean group (P<0.05. Blood levels of vitamin C and alpha-tocopherol increased in all SCE and CE subjects. In conclusion, vitamin C and vitamin E supplementation reduced blood pressure in hperandrogenic women who are at risk of hypertension.
LI Li-xin; CHEN DA-zhi; HE Qiang
Background Bone marrow cell transplantation has been shown to induce angiogenesis and thus improve ischemic disease.This study evaluated the effect of bone marrow mononuclear cell (BM-MNCs) implantation on neovascularization in rats with ischemic bile duct.Methods We established an animal model for ischemic biliary stenosis by clamping manipulation.There were 10 rats in each group:BM-MNCs implantation group,control group and normal group.Rat femur BM-MNCs were isolated using density gradient centrifugation.BM-MNCs or phosphate buffered saline were injected into three points around bile duct tissue in the three groups (25 μl/point).Control rats received injections of saline under similar conditions.At the 21 days after operation,cholangiography was performed.Differentiation of the engrafted cells and capillary density in the bile duct were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining.Results Engrafted cells could differentiate into endothelial cells.The stricture rate in the implantation group was 40%,significantly lower than that in the control group (100%).The capillary density in the implantation group was significantly higher than in the control group or the normal group.Conclusions The implantation of BM-MNCs induced neovascularization in the ischemic bile duct.It improved the blood supply of the ischemic bile duct to prevent or decrease biliary ischemic stricture.
Jahnke Vanessa E
Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy is a genetic disease involving a severe muscle wasting that is characterized by cycles of muscle degeneration/regeneration and culminates in early death in affected boys. Mitochondria are presumed to be involved in the regulation of myoblast proliferation/differentiation; enhancing mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics (AMPK and PPAR-delta agonists increases muscle function and inhibits muscle wasting in healthy mice. We therefore asked whether metabolic remodeling agents that increase mitochondrial activity would improve muscle function in mdx mice. Methods Twelve-week-old mdx mice were treated with two different metabolic remodeling agents (GW501516 and AICAR, separately or in combination, for 4 weeks. Extensive systematic behavioral, functional, histological, biochemical, and molecular tests were conducted to assess the drug(s' effects. Results We found a gain in body and muscle weight in all treated mice. Histologic examination showed a decrease in muscle inflammation and in the number of fibers with central nuclei and an increase in fibers with peripheral nuclei, with significantly fewer activated satellite cells and regenerating fibers. Together with an inhibition of FoXO1 signaling, these results indicated that the treatments reduced ongoing muscle damage. Conclusions The three treatments produced significant improvements in disease phenotype, including an increase in overall behavioral activity and significant gains in forelimb and hind limb strength. Our findings suggest that triggering mitochondrial activity with exercise mimetics improves muscle function in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice.
Al Dohayan Abdullah
Full Text Available Liver, a unique organ, is the only organ which has the ability to regenerate after partial hepatectomy. It can return to normal mass several weeks after 70% partial hepatectomy. The exact mechanism responsible for regeneration is yet to be known. This needs further investigation. The aim of this study is to examine the role of oxygen free radicals (OFRs such as superoxide (0 - 2 , hydroxyl radicals (H202 or OH - in liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (< 70%. To evaluate the effect of antioxidant on liver regeneration, rats were pre-treated intramuscularly with α-tocopherol (vitamin E daily for 3 weeks, and continued for 3 weeks post partial hepatectomy (< 70% liver weight, rat body weight were determined in both control (untreated and treated groups. The present results showed significant increase in liver weight in vitamin E treated group compared to control. The results of this paper might be useful in throwing some light on the role of oxygen free radical scavengers and antioxidants upon liver regeneration. This would have a therapeutic utilization in patients with liver problems.
Alain B. Legrand
Full Text Available Alkylglycerols (alkyl-Gro are ether lipids abundant in the liver of some elasmobranch fish species such as ratfishes and some sharks. Shark liver oil from Centrophorus squamosus (SLO, or alkyl-Gro mix from this source, have several in vivo biological activities including stimulation of hematopoiesis and immunological defences, sperm quality improvement, or anti-tumor and anti-metastasis activities. Several mechanisms are suggested for these multiple activities, resulting from incorporation of alkyl-Gro into membrane phospholipids, and lipid signaling interactions. Natural alkyl-Gro mix from SLO contains several alkyl-Gro, varying by chain length and unsaturation. Six prominent constituents of natural alkyl-Gro mix, namely 12:0, 14:0, 16:0, 18:0, 16:1 n-7, and 18:1 n-9 alkyl-Gro, were synthesized and tested for anti-tumor and anti-metastatic activities on a model of grafted tumor in mice (3LL cells. 16:1 and 18:1 alkyl-Gro showed strong activity in reducing lung metastasis number, while saturated alkyl-Gro had weaker (16:0 or no (12:0, 14:0, 18:0 effect. Multiple compounds and mechanisms are probably involved in the multiple activities of natural alkyl-Gro.
Acute pancreatitis （AP） is a disorder characterizedby parenchymal injury of the pancreas controlled byimmune cell-mediated inflammation. AP remains asignificant challenge in the clinic due to a lack of specificand effective treatment. Knowledge of the complexmechanisms that regulate the inflammatory response inAP is needed for the development of new approachesto treatment, since immune cell-derived inflammatorycytokines have been recognized to play critical roles inthe pathogenesis of the disease. Recent studies haveshown that interleukin （IL）-22, a cytokine secreted byleukocytes, when applied in the severe animal modelsof AP, protects against the inflammation-mediatedacinar injury. In contrast, in a mild AP model, endogenousIL-22 has been found to be a predominantly antiinflammatorymediator that inhibits inflammatory cellinfiltration via the induction of Reg3 proteins in acinarcells, but does not protect against acinar injury in theearly stage of AP. However, constitutively over-expressedIL-22 can prevent the initial acinar injury caused byexcessive autophagy through the induction of the antiautophagicproteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Thus IL-22 playsdifferent roles in AP depending on the severity of the APmodel. This review focuses on these recently reportedfindings for the purpose of better understanding IL-22＇sregulatory roles in AP which could help to develop anovel therapeutic strategy.
Facial aging is a major indication for minimal invasive esthetic procedures. Dermal fillers are a cornerstone in the approach for facial sculpturing. But where to start? Our concept is midfacial volume restoration in first place. This will result in a healthy and youthful appearance creating a facial V-shape. But midfacial filler injection does not only improve the malar area. It has also beneficial effects on neighboring esthetic units. We report on such improvements in periocular and nasolabial region, upper lips and perioral tissue, and the jaw line and discuss anatomical background. We hypothesize that midfacial deep filler injections also may activate subdermal white adipose tissue stem cells contributing to longer lasting rejuvenation. PMID:26304759
Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moderate intensity exercise on kidney in an animal model of high consumption of cola soft drinks.Forty-eight Wistar Kyoto rats (age: 16 weeks; weight: 350-400 g were assigned to the following groups: WR (water runners drank water and submitted to aerobic exercise; CR (cola runners drank cola and submitted to aerobic exercise; WS (water sedentary and CS (cola sedentary, not exercised groups. The aerobic exercise was performed for 5 days per week throughout the study (24 weeks and the exercise intensity was gradually increased during the first 8 weeks until it reached 20 meters / minute for 30 minutes. Body weight, lipid profile, glycemia, plasma creatinine levels, atherogenic index of plasma (AIP and systolic blood pressure (SBP were determined. After 6 months all rats were sacrificed. A kidney histopathological score was obtained using a semiquantitative scale. Glomerular size and glomerulosclerosis were estimated by point-counting. The oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status were explored by immunohistochemistry. A one way analysis of variance (ANOVA with Tukey-Kramer post-hoc test or the Kruskal-Wallis test with Dunn's post-hoc test was used for statistics. A value of p < 0.05 was considered significant.At 6 months, an increased consumption of cola soft drink was shown in CS and CR compared with water consumers (p<0.0001. Chronic cola consumption was associated with increased plasma triglycerides, AIP, heart rate, histopathological score, glomerulosclerosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory status. On the other hand, moderate exercise prevented these findings. No difference was observed in the body weight, SBP, glycemia, cholesterol and plasma creatinine levels across experimental groups.This study warns about the consequences of chronic consumption of cola drinks on lipid metabolism, especially regarding renal health. Additionally, these findings emphasize the protective
Toth-Manikowski, Stephanie M; Sozio, Stephen M
The use of cooled dialysate temperatures first came about in the early 1980s as a way to curb the incidence of intradialytic hypotension (IDH). IDH was then, and it remains today, the most common complication affecting chronic hemodialysis patients. It decreases quality of life on dialysis and is an independent risk factor for mortality. Cooling dialysate was first employed as a technique to incite peripheral vasoconstriction on dialysis and in turn reduce the incidence of intradialytic hypotension. Although it has become a common practice amongst in-center hemodialysis units, cooled dialysate results in up to 70% of patients feeling cold while on dialysis and some even experience shivering. Over the years, various studies have been performed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of cooled dialysate in comparison to a standard, more thermoneutral dialysate temperature of 37 °C. Although these studies are limited by small sample size, they are promising in many aspects. They demonstrated that cooled dialysis is safe and equally efficacious as thermoneutral dialysis. Although patients report feeling cold on dialysis, they also report increased energy and an improvement in their overall health following cooled dialysis. They established that cooling dialysate temperatures improves hemodynamic tolerability during and after hemodialysis, even in patients prone to IDH, and does so without adversely affecting dialysis adequacy. Cooled dialysis also reduces the incidence of IDH and has a protective effect over major organs including the heart and brain. Finally, it is an inexpensive measure that decreases economic burden by reducing necessary nursing intervention for issues that arise on hemodialysis such as IDH. Before cooled dialysate becomes standard of care for patients on chronic hemodialysis, larger studies with longer follow-up periods will need to take place to confirm the encouraging outcomes mentioned here. PMID:26981441
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hard Ni-based alloy powder as matrix in diamond composite coating was studied. • The influence of laser on diamond distribution of composite coating was analyzed. • The graphitization of diamond was prohibited in supersonic laser deposition process. • The abrasion mechanisms of diamond/Ni60 composite coating were discussed. - Abstract: Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating
Yao, Jianhua, E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Yang, Lijing; Li, Bo; Li, Zhihong
Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The hard Ni-based alloy powder as matrix in diamond composite coating was studied. • The influence of laser on diamond distribution of composite coating was analyzed. • The graphitization of diamond was prohibited in supersonic laser deposition process. • The abrasion mechanisms of diamond/Ni60 composite coating were discussed. - Abstract: Although cold spray process has many unique advantages over other coating techniques, it has difficulties in depositing hard materials. This article presents a study in the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the fabrication process of diamond/Ni60 composite coating using cold spray. The focus of this research is on the comparison between the composite coatings produced with laser cladding (LC) and with supersonic laser deposition (SLD), with respect to diamond graphitization and tribological properties, thus to demonstrate the beneficial effects of laser irradiation on the cold spray process. The influence of deposition temperature on the coating characteristics, such as deposition efficiency, diamond volume fraction, microstructure and phase is also investigated. The tribological properties of the diamond/Ni60 composite coating produced with SLD are determined using a pin-on-disc tribometer, along with the diamond/Ni60 coating produced using LC with the optimal process parameters for comparison. The experimental results show that with the assistance of laser irradiation, diamond/Ni60 composite coating can be successfully deposited using cold spray; the obtained coating is superior to that processed with LC, because SLD can suppress the graphitization of the diamond particles. The diamond/Ni60 composite coating fabricated with SLD has much better tribological properties than the LC coating.
Grizard, D; Barthomeuf, C
Prebiotic agents are food ingredients that are potentially beneficial to the health of consumers. The main commercial prebiotic agents consist of oligosaccharides and dietary fibres (mainly inulin). They are essentially obtained by one of three processes: 1) the direct extraction of natural polysaccharides from plants; 2) the controlled hydrolysis of such natural polysaccharides; 3) enzymatic synthesis, using hydrolases and/or glycosyl transferases. Both of these enzyme types catalyse transglycosylation reactions, allowing synthesis of small molecular weight synthetic oligosaccharides from mono- and disaccharides. Presently, in Europe, inulin-type fructans, characterised by the presence of fructosyl units bound to the beta-2,1 position of sucrose, are considered as one of the carbohydrate prebiotic references. Prebiotics escape enzymatic digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and enter the caecum without change to their structure. None are excreted in the stools, indicating that they are fermented by colonic flora so as to give a mixture of short-chain fatty acids (acetate, propionate and butyrate), L-lactate, carbon dioxide and hydrogen. By stimulating bifidobacteria, they may have the following implications for health: 1) potential protective effects against colorectal cancer and infectious bowel diseases by inhibiting putrefactive bacteria (Clostridium perfringens ) and pathogen bacteria (Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Listeria and Shigella ), respectively; 2) improvement of glucid and lipid metabolisms; 3) fibre-like properties by decreasing the renal nitrogen excretion; 4) improvement in the bioavailability of essential minerals; and 5) low cariogenic factor. These potential beneficial effects have been largely studied in animals but have not really been proven in humans. The development of a second generation of oligosaccharides and the putative implication of a complex bacterial trophic chain in the intestinal prebiotic fermentation process are also
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cyclosporine (CyA nephrotoxicity is partly due to some oxidative stress. Ubiquinol, the reduced form of coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10, has recently gained attention for its anti-oxidative potential. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of rCoQ10 on a CyA nephrotoxic rat model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Six-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into three groups (five animals each. Group 1 received a medium only. Group 2 received 30 mg/kg/day of CyA only. Group 3 received both the same dose of CyA and 600 mg/kg/day of rCoQ10. CyA and rCoQ10 were both given orally for four weeks. Systolic blood pressure (BP, daily urinary albumin secretion (u-Alb, serum creatinine (s-Cr level, and super-oxide anion (SO level in the renal tissue were measured and compared among those three groups. Immunohistochemistry using an antibody for the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta was also examined. RESULTS: BPs, u-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels of groups 1, 2, and 3 were 114 ± 3, 132 ± 4, and 129 ± 5 mmHg, 2.6 ± 0.5, 42.1 ± 7.2, and 22.8 ± 3.4 micro-g/day, 1.1 ± 0.2, 1.7 ± 0.2, and 1.3 ± 0.2 mg/dl, and 224 ± 84, 1251 ± 138, and 512 ± 109 RLU/g kidney respectively. U-Albs, s-Crs, and SO levels were significantly ameliorated by rCoQ10. Micro-vacuolar changes and TGF-beta positive deposits in the proximal renal tubular cells of CyA group rats disappeared in those of CyA and rCoQ10 group rats. CONCLUSION: RCoQ10, an antioxidants, may have potential for preventing CyA nephrotoxicity.
illustrate that the dietary influence of omega-3 and omega-6 on protein expression is eminent with the proteins directly responsible for catalytic activity in the “Molecular Function” category, totaling 192 proteins, of Gene Ontology designation. In a similar analysis with regard to the “Cellular Localization” category, protein expression changed the most in the sub-categories of “Cytoplasm”, “Membrane”, “Nucleus”, and “Mitochondrion”, totaling 221 proteins. The same analysis with regard to “Biological Process”considering the top four categories, i.e., “Metabolic process”, “Regulation of biological (process”, “Response to stimulus”, and “Transport” also indicated significant alteration of 182 proteins. These results illustrate a robust influence of dietary elements, omega-3 or omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids, on the protein expression in mouse liver.Conclusions: Application of nutritional proteomics to the dietary effect of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared to that of omega-6 on mouse liver revealed; 1 significant number of proteins are altered between the two diets dependent on the classes of polyunsaturated fatty acids, omega-3 or omega-6, in the diet. The change of protein expression is likely to carry the molecular information that we could possibly decipher, leading to a better understanding of the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in inflammatory/anti-inflammatory process. The results corroborate the concept and utility of nutritional proteomics that should be developed as a part of functional food studies with regard to other dietary types.Keywords: Nutritional proteomics, functional foods, mass spectrometry, genome database, cellular signaling, omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Liu, Zhenhai; Wang, Fei; Wang, Weizhi; LUO, YANHUA
The aim of this study was to calculate the median effective concentration (EC50) of remifentanil (Rem) for the inhibition of laryngoscope-induced cardiovascular responses, and to observe its effects on the cardiovascular system and stress system. The study included 20 patients, who underwent time-scheduled vocal cord polyp resection with monitoring of heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP) and auditory evoked potential (AEP)-based A-line ARX Index (AAI). The Rem concentration was initiall...
Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro; Paulo Hilário Nascimento Saldiva; Joel Schwartz; Antonella Zanobetti
OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were u...
Guven, Aytekin; Tolun, Fatma
Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels. Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Mar...
Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun
Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants ...
Milliat, F.; Benderitter, M.; Gaugler, M.H. [Institut de radioprotection et de surete nucleaire, DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire de radiopathologie et de therapies experimentales (LRTE), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)
Radiotherapy treatment for cancer of the chest, mediastinal area or the neck area is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. With the increasing number of cancer patients and the increased treatment efficiency, the number of cancer survivors is increasing exponentially. The cancer survivors live longer and their long-term follow-up must be considered. The cardiovascular toxicity is mainly associated with the treatment of breast cancer, Hodgkin's lymphoma and head and neck cancer. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects are insidious and chronic. Their occurrence is linked to numerous factors including the age of the patient at the beginning of the radiotherapy schedule, the number of years following radiotherapy, the doses (and volume) to the heart and the large vessels (coronary and carotid arteries), and the association with the traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Pathophysiological mechanisms remain unclear and, even if similarities with age-related atherosclerosis were established, the specificities of the radiation-induced atherosclerosis for high doses remain to be discovered. For low/moderate doses of ionising radiation, recent epidemiological studies provide evidence of increased risk of cardiovascular pathologies. A better knowledge of the mechanisms associated with the radiation-induced cardiovascular pathologies and the more precise identification of the populations at risk in the future should allow a more effective care of these patients with cardiovascular risk. (authors)
Martínez, Rosario; López-Jurado, María; Wanden-Berghe, Carmina; Sanz-Valero, Javier; Porres, Jesús María; Kapravelou, Garyfallia
Legume consumption plays a pivotal role in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). This systematic review aimed to highlight the beneficial effects of legume interventions for the prevention and/or improvement of parameters related to the MetS and the implicated metabolic pathways so far reported. The methodology involved a search in four electronic databases (Medline, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane Library) from January 2007 to December 2014, considering as descriptors 'Metabolic Syndrome' and 'Fabaceae' and adequately adjusting the equation in each one of them. In total, forty-one studies were finally included. The majority of the studies described a regulating effect on glucose and lipid metabolism due to legume administration, whereas effects on blood pressure and renal parameters are not fully described. Regarding the metabolic pathways involved, they include the up-regulation of genes related to β-oxidation and acetyl-CoA degradation and the down-regulation of glycolytic and lipogenesis genes, as well as those associated with the acetyl-CoA synthesis. The ameliorating effects of legume consumption on the alterations associated with the MetS are clearly reported and coincide with changes in the expression of protein and genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. More research needs to be conducted including more legume species that are highly consumed as part of a healthy dietary pattern. PMID:27221057
Full Text Available Progressive Aging induces several structural and functional alterations in the cardiovascular system, among whom particularly important are a reduced number of myocardial cell and of increased interstitial collagen fibers, which result in impaired LV diastolic function. Even in the absence of cardiovascular disease, aging is strongly associated to a age-related reduced maximal aerobic capacity. This is due to a variety of physiological changes both at central and at peripheral level; among central factors, a reduced maximal heart rate (HR response to exercise due to beta1 receptors down-regulation plays a major role; among peripheral factors, progressive aging is associated to peripheral muscle cell biochemical and functional changes including reduction of skeletal muscle cells, decrease of Myosin Heavy Chain (MHC I and IIa muscle fibers and impaired muscle oxidative capacity
Shahin Akhondzadeh; Maryam Kamalipour
Herbal medicine can be a valuable source of assistance for traditional medicine. There are a number of herbs that can be used in conjunction with modern medicine. Herbs can also be taken to aid recovery from serious diseases. Although one should never aim to treat diseases such as cardiovascular disease solely with herbal medicine, the value of herbs used in tandem with modern medicine cannot be ignored. Saffron has been reported to help lower cholesterol and keep cholesterol levels healthy. ...
Full Text Available Objective. The aim of the study was to screen eight species of berries for their ability to prevent obesity and metabolic abnormalities associated with type 2 diabetes. Methods. C57BL/6J mice were assigned the following diets for 13 weeks: low-fat diet, high-fat diet or high-fat diet supplemented (20% with lingonberry, blackcurrant, bilberry, raspberry, açai, crowberry, prune or blackberry. Results. The groups receiving a high-fat diet supplemented with lingonberries, blackcurrants, raspberries or bilberries gained less weight and had lower fasting insulin levels than the control group receiving high-fat diet without berries. Lingonberries, and also blackcurrants and bilberries, significantly decreased body fat content, hepatic lipid accumulation, and plasma levels of the inflammatory marker PAI-1, as well as mediated positive effects on glucose homeostasis. The group receiving açai displayed increased weight gain and developed large, steatotic livers. Quercetin glycosides were detected in the lingonberry and the blackcurrant diets. Conclusion. Lingonberries were shown to fully or partially prevent the detrimental metabolic effects induced by high-fat diet. Blackcurrants and bilberries had similar properties, but to a lower degree. We propose that the beneficial metabolic effects of lingonberries could be useful in preventing obesity and related disorders.
Fernandes, Maria E S; Alves, Flávia M; Pereira, Renata C; Aquino, Leonardo A; Fernandes, Flávio L; Zanuncio, José C
Lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides on target and non-target arthropods are a concern of pest management programs. Cycloneda sanguinea, Orius insidiosus and Chauliognathus flavipes are important biological control agents for aphids, whiteﬂy, lepidopterus eggs, thrips and mites. All three test species were subjected to a toxicity study using the insecticides acephate, bifenthrin, chlorantraniliprole, chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam. Experiments were done in the lab and field. In the laboratory we evaluated the mortality and sublethal effects of the concentration that killed 20% of the population (LC20) on feeding, repellence and reproduction of the species tested. The lethal effects of these insecticides at the recommended doses was evaluated in the field. Concentration-response bioassays indicated chlorantraniliprole had the lowest toxicity, while chlorpyrifos and acephate were the most toxic. Test species exposed to filter paper surfaces treated with pyrethroids, neonicotinoids and organophosphates were repelled. On the other hand, test species were not repelled from surfaces treated with chlorantraniliprole. Chlorantraniliprole therefore seemed to be the least dangerous insecticide for these three beneficial arthropod test species. PMID:27160634
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antioxidant vitamin (vitamin E, beta-carotene, and vitamin C are widely used for preventing major cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular events remains unclear. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We searched PubMed, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the proceedings of major conferences for relevant literature. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials that reported on the effects of antioxidant vitamin on cardiovascular outcomes as compared to placebo. Outcomes analyzed were major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, cardiac death, total death, and any possible adverse events. We used the I(2 statistic to measure heterogeneity between trials and calculated risk estimates for cardiovascular outcomes with random-effect meta-analysis. Independent extraction was performed by two reviewers and consensus was reached. Of 293 identified studies, we included 15 trials reporting data on 188209 participants. These studies reported 12749 major cardiovascular events, 6699 myocardial infarction, 3749 strokes, 14122 total death, and 5980 cardiac deaths. Overall, antioxidant vitamin supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.96-1.03, myocardial infarction (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.92-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.99; 95%CI, 0.93-1.05, total death (RR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.98-1.07, cardiac death (RR, 1.02; 95%CI, 0.97-1.07, revascularization (RR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.95-1.05, total CHD (RR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.87-1.05, angina (RR, 0.98; 95%CI, 0.90-1.07, and congestive heart failure (RR, 1.07; 95%CI, 0.96 to 1.19. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Antioxidant vitamin supplementation has no effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, stroke, total death, and cardiac death.
Hansen, D.; DENDALE, PAUL; Leenders, M; Berger, J.; Raskin, A.; Vaes, J.; Meeusen, R.
Objective - In coronary artery disease, the implementation of a cardiac rehabilitation (CR) programme favourably affects cardiovascular prognosis. However, it remains uncertain whether patients benefit to a similar extent from CR after coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this study, we have assessed whether CR is equally effective for suppressing the two-year cardiovascular event incidence after CABG or PCI. Methods and results - 194 PCI...
Sachin Wankhede; Vishwaraman Mohan; Prasad Thakurdesai
Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of the glycoside fraction of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) seeds (Fenu-FG) on physiologi-cal parameters related to muscle anabolism, androgenic hormones, and body fat in healthy male subjects during an 8-week resistance training program using a prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled design. Methods: Sixty healthy male subjects were randomized to ingest capsules of Fenu-FG (1 capsule of 300 mg, twice per day) or the matching placebo at a 1:1 ratio. The subjects participated in a supervised 4-day per week resistance-training program for 8 weeks. The outcome measurements were recorded at recruitment (baseline) and at the end of the treatment (8 weeks). The efficacy outcome included serum testosterone (total and free) levels, muscle strength and repetitions to failure, metabolic markers for anabolic activity (serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen), and % body fat. The standard safety measurements such as adverse events monitoring, vital signs, hematology, biochemistry, and urinalysis were performed. Results: Fenu-FG supplementation demonstrated significant anabolic and androgenic activity as compared with the placebo. Fenu-FG treated subjects showed significant improvements in body fat without a reduction in muscle strength or repetitions to failure. The Fenu-FG supplemen-tation was found to be safe and well-tolerated. Conclusion: Fenu-FG supplementation showed beneficial effects in male subjects during resistance training without any clinical side effects.
de Burgos-Lunar Carmen
Full Text Available Abstract Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus and depression are highly prevalent diseases that are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. There is evidence about a bidirectional association between depressive symptoms and type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, prognostic implications of the joint effects of these two diseases on cardiovascular morbidity and mortality are not well-known. Method/design A three-year, observational, prospective, cohort study, carried out in Primary Health Care Centres in Madrid (Spain. The project aims to analyze the effect of depression on cardiovascular events, all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to estimate a clinical predictive model of depression in these patients. The number of patients required is 3255, all them with type 2 diabetes mellitus, older than 18 years, who regularly visit their Primary Health Care Centres and agree to participate. They are chosen by simple random sampling from the list of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus of each general practitioner. The main outcome measures are all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and cardiovascular morbidity; and exposure variable is the major depressive disorder. There will be a comparison between depressed and not depressed patients in all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, coronary artery disease and stroke using the Chi-squared test. Logistic regression with random effects will be used to adjust for prognostic factors. Confounding factors that might alter the effect recorded will be taken into account in this analysis. To assess the effect of depression on the mortality, a survival analysis will be used comparing the two groups using the log-rank test. The control of potential confounding variables will be performed by the construction of a Cox regression model. Discussion Our study’s main contribution is to evaluate the increase in the risk of
Horváth, Viktor József; Tabák, Gy Ádám; Szabó, Gergely; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Koós, Csaba Géza; Lakatos, Péter
Among their beneficial effects, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may also exert several side effects which depend on the dosage and the type of these medications. The most frequent gastrointestinal side effects usually develop shortly after the beginning of their administration, but others such as cardiovascular interactions (which are present much less frequently than gastrointestinal side effects) can also occur after the beginning of drug administration without a latency period. For a long-term treatment, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most frequently used in the elderly population where patients typically have high cardiovascular risk and take other medicines, e.g. low dose acetylsalicylic acid that can interact with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; in this aspect diclofenac may cause less side effects. In this review, the authors briefly review cardiovascular side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the processes which potentially influence them, therapeutic consequences and their interaction with acetylsalicylic acid. PMID:25796279
Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna;
BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy......-induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate....... However, the excellent cancer-specific survival comes at considerable costs, as individuals with a history of germ cell cancer experience serious long-term complications, including markedly increased risk of cardiovascular morbidities and premature cardiovascular death. The factors responsible, as well as...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In vitro and animal studies have suggested that plant sterols and stanols increase cytokine production by T-helper-1 cells. This may be beneficial for patient groups characterized by a T-helper-2 dominant immune response, e.g. asthma patients. (1 to evaluate whether sitostanol induces a T-helper-1 shift in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs from asthma patients, and (2 to unravel the role of regulatory T-cells in this respect. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from 10 asthma patients and 10 healthy subjects were isolated and incubated with 1.2 µM sitostanol, while stimulated with 5 µg/ml PHA. Similar amounts of cholesterol were used to determine whether effects were specific for plant stanols or for sterols in general. Changes in cytokine production were measured using antibody arrays and ELISAs. Changes in regulatory T-cell population size were measured by flow cytometry, using intracellular Foxp3 staining. Sitostanol increased production of IFNγ by 6.5% and IL-2 by 6.0% compared to cholesterol (p<0.01. No changes in IL-4 and IL-13 were found. Interestingly, this effect was only present in PBMCs from asthma patients. The number of Foxp3+ cells tended to increase and their activity, measured by IL-10 production, increased after sitostanol treatment in PBMCs from asthma patients compared to controls by 32.3% (p = 0.077 and 13.3% (p<0.05, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Altogether, the sitostanol-induced Thelper-1 shift in PBMCs from asthma patients and the stimulating effects of sitostanol on Treg cell numbers and activity indicate a possible novel approach for plant stanol ester enriched functional foods in the amelioration of asthmatic symptoms. Functional effects, however, require further evaluation.
Full Text Available Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (eNSPCs proliferate and differentiate into neurons and glial cells after spinal cord injury (SCI. We have previously shown that melatonin (MT plus exercise (Ex had a synergistic effect on functional recovery after SCI. Thus, we hypothesized that combined therapy including melatonin and exercise might exert a beneficial effect on eNSPCs after SCI. Melatonin was administered twice a day and exercise was performed on a treadmill for 15 min, six days per week for 3 weeks after SCI. Immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR analysis were used to determine cell population for late response, in conjunction with histological examination and motor function test. There was marked improvement in hindlimb function in SCI+MT+Ex group at day 14 and 21 after injury, as documented by the reduced size of the spinal lesion and a higher density of dendritic spines and axons; such functional improvements were associated with increased numbers of BrdU-positive cells. Furthermore, MAP2 was increased in the injured thoracic segment, while GFAP was increased in the cervical segment, along with elevated numbers of BrdU-positive nestin-expressing eNSPCs in the SCI+MT+Ex group. The dendritic spine density was augmented markedly in SCI+MT and SCI+MT+Ex groups.These results suggest a synergistic effect of SCI+MT+Ex might create a microenvironment to facilitate proliferation of eNSPCs to effectively replace injured cells and to improve regeneration in SCI.
Gencel, V B; Benjamin, M M; Bahou, S N; Khalil, R A
Phytoestrogens are estrogenic compounds of plant origin classified into different groups including isoflavones, lignans, coumestans and stilbenes. Isoflavones such as genistein and daidzein are the most studied and most potent phytoestrogens, and are found mainly in soy based foods. The effects of phytoestrogens are partly mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs): ERα, ERβ and possibly GPER. The interaction of phytoestrogens with ERs is thought to induce both genomic and non-genomic effects in many tissues including the vasculature. Some phytoestrogens such as genistein have additional non-ER-mediated effects involving signaling pathways such as tyrosine kinase. Experimental studies have shown beneficial effects of phytoestrogens on endothelial cells, vascular smooth muscle, and extracellular matrix. Phytoestrogens may also affect other pathophysiologic vascular processes such as lipid profile, angiogenesis, inflammation, tissue damage by reactive oxygen species, and these effects could delay the progression of atherosclerosis. As recent clinical trials showed no vascular benefits or even increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and CV events with conventional menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), phytoestrogens are being considered as alternatives to pharmacologic MHT. Epidemiological studies in the Far East population suggest that dietary intake of phytoestrogens may contribute to the decreased incidence of postmenopausal CVD and thromboembolic events. Also, the WHO-CARDIAC study supported that consumption of high soybean diet is associated with lower mortalities from coronary artery disease. However, as with estrogen, there has been some discrepancy between the experimental studies demonstrating the vascular benefits of phytoestrogens and the data from clinical trials. This is likely because the phytoestrogens clinical trials have been limited in many aspects including the number of participants enrolled, the clinical end points investigated, and the lack of
Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Grann, Martin; Andersen, Charlotte;
The prevalence of obesity increases and is associated with increases in co-morbidities e.g. type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnea, heart disease, stroke, asthma, several forms of cancer, depression, and may result in reduction of expected remaining lifespan. We have...... to be investigated. For type 2 diabetes, new drug classes with possible advantageous cardiovascular profiles, e.g. GLP-1 analogues and sodium-glucose co-transport type 2 inhibitors, are associated with weight loss and are currently being evaluated as anti-obesity drugs....
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Folic acid is widely used to lower homocysteine concentrations and prevent adverse cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effect of folic acid on cardiovascular events is not clear at the present time. We carried out a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of folic acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We systematically searched Medline, EmBase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, reference lists of articles, and proceedings of major meetings for relevant literature. We included randomized placebo-controlled trials that reported on the effects of folic acid on cardiovascular events compared to placebo. Of 1594 identified studies, we included 16 trials reporting data on 44841 patients. These studies reported 8238 major cardiovascular events, 2001 strokes, 2917 myocardial infarctions, and 6314 deaths. Folic acid supplementation as compared to placebo had no effect on major cardiovascular events (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.93-1.04, stroke (RR, 0.89; 95% CI,0.78-1.01, myocardial infarction (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.93-1.07, or deaths from any cause (RR, 1.00;95% CI, 0.96-1.05. Moreover, folic acid as compared to placebo also had no effect on the following secondary outcomes: risk of revascularization (RR, 1.05; 95%CI, 0.95-1.16, acute coronary syndrome (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15, cancer (RR, 1.08; 95%CI, 0.98-1.21, vascular death (RR, 0.94; 95%CI,0.88-1.02, or non-vascular death (RR, 1.06; 95%CI, 0.97-1.15. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Folic acid supplementation does not effect on the incidence of major cardiovascular events, stroke, myocardial infarction or all cause mortality.
Lee, Jung-Han; Hyun, Chang-Kee
Inonotus obliquus has been traditionally used for treatment of metabolic diseases; however, the mechanism remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that the water-soluble melanin complex extracted from I. obliquus improved insulin sensitivity and reduced adiposity in high fat (HF)-fed obese mice. When the melanin complex was treated to 3T3-L1 adipocytes, insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was increased significantly, and its phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent action was proven with wortmannin treatment. Additionally, dose-dependent increases in Akt phosphorylation and glucose transporter 4 translocation into the plasma membrane were observed in melanin complex-treated cells. Adiponectin gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells incubated with melanin complex increased which was corroborated by increased AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation in HepG2 and C2C12 cells treated with conditioned media from the 3T3-L1 culture. Melanin complex-treated 3T3-L1 cells showed no significant change in expression of several lipogenic genes, whereas enhanced expressions of fatty acid oxidative genes were observed. Similarly, the epididymal adipose tissue of melanin complex-treated HF-fed mice had higher expression of fatty acid oxidative genes without significant change in lipogenic gene expression. Together, these results suggest that the water-soluble melanin complex of I. obliquus exerts antihyperglycemic and beneficial lipid-metabolic effects, making it a candidate for promising antidiabetic agent. PMID:24615848
Rijkers, Ger T; Bengmark, Stig; Enck, Paul; Haller, Dirk; Herz, Udo; Kalliomaki, Marko; Kudo, Satoshi; Lenoir-Wijnkoop, Irene; Mercenier, Annick; Myllyluoma, Eveliina; Rabot, Sylvie; Rafter, Joseph; Szajewska, Hania; Watzl, Bernhard; Wells, Jerry; Wolvers, Danielle; Antoine, Jean-Michel
Probiotic bacteria are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. There is a growing interest in probiotics within the scientific community, with consumers, and in the food industry. The interactions between the gut and intestinal microbiota and between resident and transient microbiota define a new arena in physiology, an understanding of which would shed light on the "cross-talk" between humans and microbes. The different beneficial effects of specific probiotic strains may be translated into different health claims. However, there is a need for comprehensive and harmonized guidelines on the assessment of the characteristics and efficacy of probiotics and of foods containing them. An international expert group of ILSI has evaluated the published evidence of the functionality of different probiotics in 4 areas of (human) application: 1) metabolism, 2) chronic intestinal inflammatory and functional disorders, 3) infections, and 4) allergy. Based on the existing evidence, concrete examples of demonstration of benefits and gaps are listed, and guidelines and recommendations are defined that should help design the next generation of probiotic studies. PMID:20130080
Frank H Comhaire; Wim Decleer
Objective:To assess the possible benefit of food supplementation with the nutriceuticalImprove® for the treatment of the infertile couple.Methods:The treatment of diseases causing male or female infertility should be completed by the prescription of a judiciously formulated composite nutriceutical(Improve®NutriphytInc,Oostkamp,Belgium) which counteracts the pathogenic mechanisms involved in sperm and oocyte dysfunction, enhances cellular energy production, corrects oxidation-induced damage to the cell membrane and toDNA, and repairs mitochondrial insufficiency.The efficiency of this nutraceutical was tested in controlled trials and in assisted reproduction, including1888 infertile couples.Results:Complementary food supplementation with the nutriceuticalImprove® plus linseed oil improved the quantity and functional quality of spermatozoa, significantly increasing their fertilizing potential.This supplement with added fish oil enhanced female fertility with higher probablity of natural conception and ongoing pregnancy using techniques of assisted reproduction.Conclusions:Complementary food supplementation with the nutriceuticalImprove® has significant beneficial effects for the treatment of the infertile couple and reduces the cost per delivery.
A simple, novel method for improving the electrochemical response of Sn in lithium cells is proposed that involves preparing Sn by a reduction procedure in the presence of Mo powders. Four different Mo xSn1-x mixtures (0 < x < 0.26) were electrochemically tested and their structural and textural properties determined by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the resulting composites in lithium cells were studied by galvanostatic, step potential electrochemical spectroscopy (SPES) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. The mixtures were found to consist of crystalline Sn and Mo; however, the presence of the latter element modified the Sn habit in two ways, namely, by significantly decreasing particle size and increasing the reactivity towards oxygen. Although Mo is inert towards lithium, it increased both the discharge capacity and the capacity retention of the electrode in relation to pure Sn. The improved interparticle connectivity, reduced electrolyte decomposition and decreased charge-transfer resistance observed in the Mo-containing samples appear to be beneficial effects of the addition of Mo
Nasiruddin Khan; Olha Khymenets; Mireia Urpí-Sardà; Sara Tulipani; Mar Garcia-Aloy; María Monagas; Ximena Mora-Cubillos; Rafael Llorach; Cristina Andres-Lacueva
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of ca...
Connor, E E; Evock-Clover, C M; Wall, E H; Baldwin, R L; Santin-Duran, M; Elsasser, T H; Bravo, D M
Numerous endocrine cell subtypes exist within the intestinal mucosa and produce peptides contributing to the regulation of critical physiological processes including appetite, energy metabolism, gut function, and gut health. The mechanisms of action and the extent of the physiological effects of these enteric peptides are only beginning to be uncovered. One peptide in particular, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) produced by enteroendocrine L cells, has been fairly well characterized in rodent and swine models in terms of its ability to improve nutrient absorption and healing of the gut after injury. In fact, a long-acting form of GLP-2 recently has been approved for the management and treatment of human conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and short bowel syndrome. However, novel functions of GLP-2 within the gut continue to be demonstrated, including its beneficial effects on intestinal barrier function and reducing intestinal inflammation. As knowledge continues to grow about GLP-2's effects on the gut and its mechanisms of release, the potential to use GLP-2 to improve gut function and health of food animals becomes increasingly more apparent. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize: (1) the current understanding of GLP-2's functions and mechanisms of action within the gut; (2) novel applications of GLP-2 (or stimulators of its release) to improve general health and production performance of food animals; and (3) recent findings, using dairy calves as a model, that suggest the therapeutic potential of GLP-2 to reduce the pathogenesis of intestinal protozoan infections. PMID:27345324
De Angelis Kátia
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although exercise training has well-known cardiorespiratory and metabolic benefits, low compliance with exercise training programs is a fact, and the harmful effects of physical detraining regarding these adaptations usually go unnoticed. We investigated the effects of exercise detraining on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity, and GLUT4 expression in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY. Methods Studied animals were randomized into sedentary, trained (treadmill running/5 days a week, 60 min/day for 10 weeks, 1 week of detraining, and 2 weeks of detraining. Blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (kITT, and GLUT4 (Western blot in heart, gastrocnemius and white fat tissue were measured. Results Exercise training reduced blood pressure (19%, improved insulin sensitivity (24%, and increased GLUT4 in the heart (+34%; gastrocnemius (+36% and fat (+22% in SHR. In WKY no change in either blood pressure or insulin sensitivity were observed, but there was an increase in GLUT4 in the heart (+25%, gastrocnemius (+45% and fat (+36% induced by training. Both periods of detraining did not induce any change in neither blood pressure nor insulin sensitivity in SHR and WKY. One-week detraining reduced GLUT4 in SHR (heart: -28%; fat: -23% and WKY (heart: -19%; fat: -22%; GLUT4 in the gastrocnemius was reduced after a 2-week detraining (SHR: -35%; WKY: -25%. There was a positive correlation between GLUT4 (gastrocnemius and the maximal velocity in the exercise test (r = 0.60, p = 0.004. Conclusions The study findings show that in detraining, despite reversion of the enhanced GLUT4 expression, cardiorespiratory and metabolic beneficial effects of exercise are preserved.
Cleophas, Ton J.M.; Niemeyer, Menco G.; van Der Wall, Ernst E.
BACKGROUND: Nitrates, although important for the management of angina pectoris, cause significant headache in many patients. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind crossover study, 89 patients with stable angina pectoris were used to compare two different dosage strategies of isosorbide-5-mononitrate (5-ISMN). Patients were randomized to either 60 mg 5-ISMN once daily (o.d.) for 2 weeks or 30 mg 5-ISMN o.d. for 1 week followed by 60 mg 5-ISMN o.d. for 1 week. A 2-week placebo wash-out ensued, after which the alternative treatment was given. We assessed the occurrence of angina pectoris and headache by diary cards while taking into account the numbers of isosorbide dinitrate sublingual puffs and paracetamole tables required. Data were assessed for carryover and time effects. RESULTS: The two dosage regimens were equally efficient for the relief of angina pectoris without development of tolerance. Thirty percent of the patients never experienced headache from the given dosages. The remainder showed a highly significant time-effect: The total numbers of headache attacks in the 1st period of active treatment were 2,380 vs 1,400 attacks is the 2nd period (p < 0.003), yet significantly fewer patients had headaches on low dosages than high ones (45 vs 57, p < 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Starting on a low dosage was associated with reduced frequency and severity of headache and did not notably influence the beneficial effect of nitrates on angina pectoris. One in three patients never experienced headache from the given dosages. The overall number of headache attacks in the 1st period of active treatment was significantly higher than that of the 2nd period, irrespective of the dosages given. PMID:11862241
Lim, Youn-Hee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Ho
The effects of heat and cold waves have been studied as risk factors for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. However, few studies have examined the effect of diurnal temperature changes on health. We hypothesized that the diurnal temperature range (DTR) may affect the rate of hospital admissions for cardiovascular- and respiratory-related diseases, and therefore investigated the risk of hospital admissions of cardiovascular (stroke, myocardial infarction, ischemic heart disease, cardiac failure, cardiac disease, and arrhythmia) and respiratory (asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and pneumonia) diseases attributable to DTR in four metropolitan areas in Korea during 2003-2006. The area-combined effects of DTR on some cardiovascular and respiratory diseases were significantly increased by an increment of DTR. In particular, the effects on cardiac failure and asthma were significant with the percentage change of hospital admissions per 1 °C increment of DTR at 3.0% (95% CI, 1.4-4.6) and 1.1% (95% CI, 0.1-2.0), respectively, among 9 diseases. For those 75 years and older, the DTR effect on asthma admissions was greater than in those aged under 75 years. These results support the hypothesis of a positive association between DTR and cardiovascular and respiratory hospital admission. PMID:22281041
De Filippis, Bianca; Chiodi, Valentina; Adriani, Walter; Lacivita, Enza; Mallozzi, Cinzia; Leopoldo, Marcello; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Fuso, Andrea; Laviola, Giovanni
Rett syndrome (RTT) is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2) cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R). This member of the serotonin receptor family-crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes-can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days) rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test), spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test) and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation) in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein (rp) S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to 2 months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R. PMID:25926782
Full Text Available AIMS: Patients with Marfan syndrome have an increased risk of life-threatening aortic complications, mostly preceded by aortic dilatation. In the FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mouse model, losartan decreases aortic root dilatation. We recently confirmed this beneficial effect of losartan in adult patients with Marfan syndrome. The straightforward translation of this mouse model to man is reassuring to test novel treatment strategies. A number of studies have shown signs of inflammation in aortic tissue of Marfan patients. This study examined the efficacy of anti-inflammatory therapies in attenuating aortic root dilation in Marfan syndrome and compared effects to the main preventative agent, losartan. METHODS AND RESULTS: To inhibit inflammation in FBN1(C1039G/+ Marfan mice, we treated the mice with losartan (angiotensin II receptor type 1 inhibitor, methylprednisolone (corticosteroid or abatacept (T-cell-specific inhibitor. Treatment was initiated in adult Marfan mice with already existing aortic root dilatation, and applied for eight weeks. Methylprednisolone- or abatacept-treated mice did not reveal a reduction in aortic root dilatation. In this short time frame, losartan was the only treatment that significantly reduced aorta inflammation, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling and aortic root dilatation rate in these adult Marfan mice. Moreover, the methylprednisolone-treated mice had significantly more aortic alcian blue staining as a marker for aortic damage. CONCLUSION: Anti-inflammatory agents do not reduce the aortic dilatation rate in Marfan mice, but possibly increase aortic damage. Currently, the most promising therapeutic drug in Marfan syndrome is losartan, by blocking the angiotensin II receptor type 1 and thereby inhibiting pSmad2 signaling.
MacIntyre, Olathe; Stasiak, Michael; Cottenie, Karl; Trevors, Jack; Dixon, Mike
An assembled microbial community in the hydroponics solution of an advanced life support system may improve plant performance and productivity in three ways: (1) exclusion of plant pathogens from the initial community, (2) resistance to infection, and (3) plant-growth promotion. However, the plant production area is likely to have a hypobaric (low pressure) and hypoxic (low oxygen) atmosphere to reduce structural mass and atmosphere leakage, and these conditions may alter plant-microbe interactions. Plant performance and productivity of radish (Raphanus sativus L. cv. Cherry Bomb II) grown under hypobaric and hypoxic conditions were investigated at the University of Guelph's Controlled Environment Systems Research Facility. Changes in the microbial communities that routinely colonized the re-circulated nutrient solution, roots, and leaves of radishes in these experiments were quantified in terms of similarity in community composition, abundance of bacteria, and community diversity before and after exposure to hypobaric and hypoxic conditions relative to communities maintained at ambient growth conditions. The microbial succession was affected by extreme hypoxia (2 kPa oxygen partial pressure) while hypobaria as low as 10 kPa total pressure had little effect on microbial ecology. There were no correlations found between the physiological profile of these unintentional microbial communities and radish growth. The effects of hypobaric and hypoxic conditions on specific plant-microbe interactions need to be determined before beneficial gnotobiotic communities can be developed for use in space. The bacterial strains Tal 629 of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and WCS417 of Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the plant pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. raphani will be used in future experiments. B. japonicum Tal 629 promotes radish growth in hydroponics systems and P. fluorescens WCS417 induces systemic resistance to fusarium wilt (F. oxysporum f. sp. raphani) in radish under ambient
Bianca eDe Filippis
Full Text Available Rett syndrome (RTT is a rare neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by severe behavioral and physiological symptoms. Mutations in the methyl CpG binding protein 2 gene (MECP2 cause more than 95% of classic cases, and currently there is no cure for this devastating disorder. Recently we have demonstrated that specific behavioral and brain molecular alterations can be rescued in MeCP2-308 male mice, a RTT mouse model, by pharmacological stimulation of the brain serotonin receptor 7 (5-HT7R. This member of the serotonin receptor family – crucially involved in the regulation of brain structural plasticity and cognitive processes – can be stimulated by systemic repeated treatment with LP-211, a brain-penetrant selective 5-HT7R agonist. The present study extends previous findings by demonstrating that the LP-211 treatment (0.25 mg/kg, once per day for 7 days rescues RTT-related phenotypic alterations, motor coordination (Dowel test, spatial reference memory (Barnes maze test and synaptic plasticity (hippocampal long-term-potentiation in MeCP2-308 heterozygous female mice, the genetic and hormonal milieu that resembles that of RTT patients. LP-211 also restores the activation of the ribosomal protein S6, the downstream target of mTOR and S6 kinase, in the hippocampus of RTT female mice. Notably, the beneficial effects on neurobehavioral and molecular parameters of a seven-day long treatment with LP-211 were evident up to two months after the last injection, thus suggesting long-lasting effects on RTT-related impairments. Taken together with our previous study, these results provide compelling preclinical evidence of the potential therapeutic value for RTT of a pharmacological approach targeting the brain 5-HT7R.
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review.
Khan, Nasiruddin; Khymenets, Olha; Urpí-Sardà, Mireia; Tulipani, Sara; Garcia-Aloy, Mar; Monagas, María; Mora-Cubillos, Ximena; Llorach, Rafael; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina
Epidemiological studies have demonstrated the beneficial effect of plant-derived food intake in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The potential bioactivity of cocoa and its polyphenolic components in modulating cardiovascular health is now being studied worldwide and continues to grow at a rapid pace. In fact, the high polyphenol content of cocoa is of particular interest from the nutritional and pharmacological viewpoints. Cocoa polyphenols are shown to possess a range of cardiovascular-protective properties, and can play a meaningful role through modulating different inflammatory markers involved in atherosclerosis. Accumulated evidence on related anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols is summarized in the present review. PMID:24566441
Pusceddu, Matteo M; Kelly, Philip; Ariffin, Nurbazilah; Cryan, John F; Clarke, Gerard; Dinan, Timothy G
Stressful life events, especially those in early life, can exert long-lasting changes in the brain, increasing vulnerability to mental illness especially in females. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) play a critical role in the development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). Thus, we investigated the influence of an eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (80% EPA, 20% DHA) n-3 PUFAs mixture on stress-related behavioural and neurobiological responses. Sprague-Dawley female rats were subjected to an early-life stress, maternal separation (MS) procedure from postnatal days 2 to 12. Non-separated (NS) and MS rats were administered saline, EPA/DHA 0.4g/kg/day or EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day, respectively. In adulthood, EPA/DHA treated animals had a dose dependent reduction in anxiety in NS rats. Furthermore, cognitive performance in the novel object recognition task (NOR) was improved by EPA/DHA treatment in NS animals only. EPA/DHA 1g/kg/day decreased behavioural despair in the forced swim test. Notably, EPA/DHA high dose increased the translocation of GRs into the nucleus of NS rat hippocampus. However, the levels of mBDNF remained unchanged in all the experimental groups. The corticosterone response to an acute stress was blunted in MS rats and this was further attenuated by pre-treatment with EPA/DHA. Immune response and monoamine neurotransmission were significantly altered by early-life stress. In conclusion, our study supports the view that n-3 PUFAs are beneficial in neurodevelopmentally normal animals but have little positive benefit in animals exposed to early life stress. PMID:25965872
Ananda Balayogi Bhavanani
Full Text Available Introduction : Recent studies have reported differential physiological and psychological effects produced by exclusive right and left nostril breathing and clinical research is required to prove immediate and sustained efficacy of these techniques in various psychosomatic conditions such as hypertension (HT. The present study was designed to determine immediate effects of 27 rounds of exclusive left nostril breathing, a yogic pranayama technique known as chandra nadi pranayama (CNP on cardiovascular parameters in patients of essential HT. Materials and Methods : Twenty two patients of essential HT under regular standard medical management were individually taught to perform CNP by a qualified yoga instructor with a regularity of 6 breaths/min throughout a performance of 27 rounds of CNP. Pre and post intervention heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP measurements were recorded using non-invasive semi-automatic BP monitor and Students t test for paired data used to determine significant differences. Results : Twenty seven rounds of CNP produced an immediate decrease in all the measured cardiovascular parameters with the decrease in HR, systolic pressure (SP, pulse pressure, rate-pressure product and double product being statistically significant. Further, gender-based sub-analysis of our data revealed that our male participants evidenced significant reductions in HR and SP with an insignificant decrease in diastolic pressure, while in female participants only HR decreased significantly with an insignificant decrease in SP. Discussion and Conclusion : It is concluded that CNP is effective in reducing HR and SP in hypertensive patients on regular standard medical management. To the best of our knowledge, there are no previously published reports on immediate effects of left UFNB in patients of HT and ours is the first to report on this beneficial clinical effect. This may be due to a normalization of autonomic cardiovascular rhythms with increased
Call, Scott R
During the past 2 decades in health care environments, particularly hospitals, attempts to centralize operational processes have inadvertently bred barriers to interdepartmental communication, resulting in the creation of informational silos and, ultimately, decreases in revenues reported and reimbursement obtained. Overall, operational centralization has reaped process improvement. However, these efficiencies have come at the cost of measurable accuracies that directly affect the bottom line. Cardiovascular managers and administrators should not assume that all the benefits from reviewing claims and information processes within symbiotic departments have already been obtained. Key long-standing services provided to the managers and administrators by departments such as Hospital or Health Information Management/Systems (HIM/HIS), the Business Office (Patient Financial/Account Services), and Information Systems should be periodically reviewed, fine tuned, and overhauled if necessary. The consequence of such reviews and maintenance will be tangible gains in operational efficiency as well as increased financial productivity. PMID:15185625
Purpose: To evaluate the radioprotectant effects of the 21-aminosteroid U-74389G on the rat C6 glioma model after stereotactic radiosurgery. Because radiosurgery causes both tumor cytotoxicity, as well as regional brain edema, we hypothesized that this drug might exhibit advantageous or deleterious effects on healthy and neoplastic tissue. Methods: Rats were implanted with 106 C6 glioma cells into the right frontal brain and randomized to a Control Group (n = 18), radiosurgery on Day 14 (50% isodose = 35 Gy) (n = 15), or radiosurgery preceded by a single 15 mg/kg intravenous dose of 21-aminosteroid (n = 27). All animals were killed by 90 days and evaluated for survival, tumor size, the presence or absence of regional parenchymal edema, or radiation-induced vasculopathy. Results: After tumor implantation, median survival in the Control Group was 23 days. Significant improvements in median survival were noted after RS alone (median, 31 days; p = 0.02), and RS plus 21-aminosteroid (median, 59 days; p < 0.0001). In the Control Group, mean tumor diameter was 5.4 mm. After RS alone, the mean diameter was 3.2 mm (p = 0.002), and after RS plus 21-aminosteroid, 2.9 mm (p = 0.0002). In the Control Group, the tumor grew as a hypercellular, compact mass. Only 3 of 18 animals had peritumoral edema. In contrast, 7 of 15 animals in the RS group had evidence of edema (p = 0.006), but rats that received 21-aminosteroid showed no increase compared to controls (p = 0.38). Similarly, 6 of 15 animals that had radiosurgery alone showed evidence of vasculopathy (p 0.005) compared to no animals in the control group and only 2 of 27 aminosteroid-treated animals. Conclusions: The 21-aminosteroid U-74389G exhibits a radioprotectant effect on normal brain tissue, but does not appear to protect the tumor in an in vivo rat radiosurgery model. We believe that the observed beneficial effects on healthy brain led to significant prolongation of animal survival; perhaps, by limiting the adverse
Kwak, Jung Hyun; Kim, Min Sun; Lee, Jin Hee; Yang, Yoon Jung; Lee, Ki Ho; Kim, Oh Yoen; Lee, Jong Ho
The present study determined the effect of tagatose supplementation on postprandial hyperglycemia in normal (n = 54) and hyperglycemic subjects [n = 40, impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes]. In a double-blind crossover designed study, study subjects were randomly assigned to consume a sucralose-erythritol drink (the placebo) or a tagatose-containing drink (the test) with a seven-day interval. Finally, 85 subjects completed the study (normal, n = 52; hyperglycemic, n = 33). Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min after ingestion and analyzed for fasting and postprandial levels of glucose, insulin and C-peptide. Basic anthropometric parameters and lipid files were also measured. Hyperglycemic subjects were basically older and heavier, and showed higher levels of triglyceride, total- and LDL-cholesterols and apolipoprotein AI and B compared with normal subjects. After consuming the tagatose (5 g)-containing drink, hyperglycemic subjects had a significant reduction in serum levels of glucose at 120 min (p = 0.019) and glucose area under the curve (AUC) (p = 0.017), however these were not observed in normal subjects. When ages were matched between the two groups, the glucose response patterns were shown to be similar. Additionally, normal subjects who received a high-dose of tagatose-containing drinks (10 g) showed significantly lower levels of insulin at 30 min (p = 0.004) and 60 min (p = 0.011), insulin AUC (p = 0.009), and C-peptide at 30 min (p = 0.004), 60 min (p = 0.011) and C-peptide AUC (p = 0.023). In conclusion, a single dietary supplement in the form of a tagatose-containing drink may be beneficial for controlling postprandial glycemic response in Koreans. PMID:23760573
The most common diseases in the US are those involving the cardiovascular system. Exposure to certain environmental chemicals and complex mixtures may be involved in some aspects of cardiovascular disease. They have previously reported that high-boiling coal liquids resulted in several affects related to the cardiovascular system of the rate when exposed via whole-body inhalation to the mixture. The most striking observation was a dose dependent elevation in arterial blood pressure for heavy distillate (HD) exposed rates compared to control animals at 2 weeks. They also noted an increase in heart rate and plasma and blood volume. Additional rats were evaluated 6 weeks after exposure, to determine whether these effects represented permanent changes in cardiovascular function, and the effects appeared to be reversible after this longer period. During the past year they have completed the assays of the studies initiated previously and have addressed some possible factors which could explain the effects that they observed. Electrolytes in plasma of rats exposed to the HD were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). Plasma aldosterone and angiotensin were measured by radioimmunoassays, and plasma cholesterol, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein were evaluated with an Abbott VP bichromatic chemistry analyzer. In addition, a comparison of the blood pressure of control rats and rats fed a restricted diet were made, to determine if the anorexia which resulted from HD exposure could be responsible for the changes they observed in cardiovascular function
Singh, Gitanjali M; Danaei, Goodarz; Farzadfar, Farshad;
The effects of systolic blood pressure (SBP), serum total cholesterol (TC), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and body mass index (BMI) on the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have been established in epidemiological studies, but consistent estimates of effect sizes by age and sex are not availa...
Piek, C.J.; Spil, Van W.E.; Junius, G.; Dekker, A.
Background Azathioprine is used as an immunosuppressant in canine immune-mediated hemolytic anemia (IMHA), but this potentially toxic and carcinogenic drug has not been proven to be beneficial. The aim of this study was to determine the difference in outcome and survival of dogs with idiopathic IMHA
Køber, Lars; Rustom, Rana; Wiedmann, Jonas; Kappelgaard, Anne-Marie; El Nahas, Meguid; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo
The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD.......The high morbidity and mortality rates in hemodialysis (HD) patients are due, at least in part, to their increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This prospective study evaluated the effect of growth hormone (GH) on a number of CVD risk markers in adult patients on HD....
Gross, D R; Kitzman, J V; Adams, H R
Comparisons were made of the acute cardiovascular effects of oxytetracycline, oxytetracycline in propylene glycol, and propylene glycol alone given to conscious dairy calves. The calves were chronically instrumented with intravascular catheters and electromagnetic flowmeter transducers in and on the pulmonary and renal arteries. Injection (IV) of aqueous preparations of oxytetracycline produced no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) cardiocirculatory changes in these calves. Oxytetracycline in propylene glycol and propylene glycol alone both produced transient (1 to 4 minute) periods of cardiovascular depression characterized by cardiac asystole, systemic hypotension, and decreased pulmonary and renal arterial blood flow. The two preparations, in equivalent doses and volumes, produced statistically similar hemodynamic changes in the calves. The data from this study support the conclusion that the monitored cardiovascular effects of the commercially available oxytetracycline in propylene glycol in the intact, awake calves were due to the solvent propylene glycol. This conclusion is consistent with reports of other injectable products containing the same solvent. PMID:475130
Roberto Ferreira Meirelles Junior
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the protective effects of N-acetyl cysteine on the pancreas and kidney after pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury in a rat model. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Pancreatic ischemia reperfusion was performed in Wistar rats for 1 hour. Revascularization was achieved followed by 4 h of reperfusion. A total of 24 animals were divided into four groups: Group 1: sham; Group 2: pancreatic ischemia reperfusion without treatment; Group 3: pancreatic ischemia reperfusion plus N-acetyl cysteine intravenously; and Group 4: pancreatic ischemia reperfusion plus N-acetyl cysteine per os. Blood and tissue samples were collected after reperfusion. RESULTS: There were significant differences in amylase levels between Group 1 (6.11±0.55 and Group 2 (10.30±0.50 [p=0.0002] as well as between Group 2 (10.30±0.50 and Group 4 (7.82±0.38 [p=0.003]; creatinine levels between Group 1 (0.52 ± 0.07 and Group 2 (0.77±0.18 [p=0.035] as well as between Group 2 (0.77±0.18 and Group 3 (0.48±0.13 [p=0.012]; and pancreatic tissue thiobarbituric acid reactive substance levels between Group 1 (1.27±0.96 and Group 2 (2.60±3.01 [p=0.026] as well as between Group 2 (2.60±3.01 and Group 4 (0.52±0.56 [p=0.002]. A decrease in pancreatic tissue GST-α3 gene expression was observed in Group 2 in comparison to Group 1 (p =0.006, and an increase was observed in Groups 3 and 4 when compared to Group 2 (p= 0.025 and p=0.010, respectively. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that N-acetyl cysteine has a beneficial effect on pancreatic ischemia reperfusion injury and renal function in a rat model.
Zhou Xiaoli; Huang Lin; Tang Wen; Zhou Yiming; Wang Qing; Li Zongjie
Buckwheat seeds contain many kinds of functional compounds that are of benefit to patients with cardiovascular disease. In this research, a water-soluble buckwheat protein was isolated and purified through a DEAE-Sepharose anion exchange column and Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography. The isolated buckwheat protein fractions exhibited hypocholesterolemic activity in a HepG2 cell model and demonstrated prominent bile acid salt-binding activity in an in vitro assay. The antioxidative activit...
M.A. Pereira Filho
Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with cardiovascular emergency room visits in a tertiary referral hospital in the city of São Paulo. Using a time-series approach, and adopting generalized linear Poisson regression models, we assessed the effect of daily variations in PM10, CO, NO2, SO2, and O3 on the daily number of emergency room visits for cardiovascular diseases in diabetic and non-diabetic patients from 2001 to 2003. A semi-parametric smoother (natural spline was adopted to control long-term trends, linear term seasonal usage and weather variables. In this period, 45,000 cardiovascular emergency room visits were registered. The observed increase in interquartile range within the 2-day moving average of 8.0 µg/m³ SO2 was associated with 7.0% (95%CI: 4.0-11.0 and 20.0% (95%CI: 5.0-44.0 increases in cardiovascular disease emergency room visits by non-diabetic and diabetic groups, respectively. These data indicate that air pollution causes an increase of cardiovascular emergency room visits, and that diabetic patients are extremely susceptible to the adverse effects of air pollution on their health conditions.
Sands, Charles; Ford, Frances
Background. The Cardiovascular Risk Reduction Clinic (CRRC) in Perry County, Alabama, provides free pharmacist-led services. Clinic goals include improving health outcomes and reducing cardiovascular risk factors. Objective. To investigate the effectiveness of the CRRC in rural Perry County, Alabama. The reduction of the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure and body mass index, was evaluated to measure a decrease from baseline to last clinic date. Methods. This retrospective chart review identified 130 patients with at least two blood pressure and BMI measurements from baseline to June 30, 2010. The patients' paper files were used to collect baseline data and most recent measurements, which were recorded on a data collection sheet. Results. There was a statistically significant reduction in systolic blood pressure of 4.08 mmHg, 3.25 mmHg reduction in diastolic blood pressure, and 0.42 kg/m2 reduction in mean BMI. At their last visit prior to June 30, 2010, 59% of hypertensive patients and 35% of diabetic patients were meeting their blood pressure goals. Conclusion. Pharmacist-led management of patients with cardiovascular risk factors significantly reduced blood pressure and allowed more patients to meet their hypertension treatment goals. Despite being modest, reductions in blood pressure and BMI help reduce overall cardiovascular risks. PMID:27525302
Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for their antimicrobial activity and consequently the particles will become environmental contaminants. This study evaluated in sand and soil matrices the toxicity of 10 nm spherical Ag NPs (1 and 3 mg Ag/L) toward a beneficial soil bacterium, Pseudomonas chlororaphis O6. In sand, both NP doses resulted in loss in bacterial culturability whereas in a loam soil, no cell death was observed. Amendments of sand with clays (30% v/v kaolinite or bentonite) did not protect the bacterium when challenged with Ag NPs. However, culturability of the bacterium was maintained when the Ag NP-amended sand was mixed with soil pore water or humic acid. Imaging by atomic force microscopy revealed aggregation of single nanoparticles in water, and their embedding into background material when suspended in pore water and humic acids. Zeta potential measurements supported aggregation and surface charge modifications with pore water and humic acids. Measurement of soluble Ag in the microcosms and geochemical modeling to deduce the free ion concentration revealed bacterial culturability was governed by the predicted free Ag ion concentrations. Our study confirmed the importance of Ag NPs as a source of ions and illustrated that processes accounting for protection in soil against Ag NPs involved distinct NP- and ion-effects. Processes affecting NP bioactivity involved surface charge changes due to sorption of Ca2+ from the pore water leading to agglomeration and coating of the NPs with humic acid and other organic materials. Removal of bioactive ions included the formation of soluble Ag complexes with dissolved organic carbon and precipitation of Ag ions with chloride in pore water. We conclude that mitigation of toxicity of Ag NPs in soils towards a soil bacterium resides in several interactions that differentially involve protection from the Ag NPs or the ions they produce. - Highlights: ► Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are widely used for
Li, Sheng; Elliott, Jane A; Tiessen, Kevin H D; Yarotski, James; Lobb, David A; Flaten, Don N
Most beneficial management practices (BMPs) recommended for reducing nutrient losses from agricultural land have been established and tested in temperate and humid regions. Previous studies on the effects of these BMPs in cold-climate regions, especially at the small watershed scale, are rare. In this study, runoff and water quality were monitored from 1999 to 2008 at the outlets of two subwatersheds in the South Tobacco Creek watershed in Manitoba, Canada. Five BMPs-a holding pond below a beef cattle overwintering feedlot, riparian zone and grassed waterway management, grazing restriction, perennial forage conversion, and nutrient management-were implemented in one of these two subwatersheds beginning in 2005. We determined that >80% of the N and P in runoff at the outlets of the two subwatersheds were lost in dissolved forms, ≈ 50% during snowmelt events and ≈ 33% during rainfall events. When all snowmelt- and rainfall-induced runoff events were considered, the five BMPs collectively decreased total N (TN) and total P (TP) exports in runoff at the treatment subwatershed outlet by 41 and 38%, respectively. The corresponding reductions in flow-weighted mean concentrations (FWMCs) were 43% for TN and 32% for TP. In most cases, similar reductions in exports and FWMCs were measured for both dissolved and particulate forms of N and P, and during both rainfall and snowmelt-induced runoff events. Indirect assessment suggests that retention of nutrients in the holding pond could account for as much as 63 and 57%, respectively, of the BMP-induced reductions in TN and TP exports at the treatment subwatershed outlet. The nutrient management BMP was estimated to have reduced N and P inputs on land by 36 and 59%, respectively, in part due to the lower rates of nutrient application to fields converted from annual crop to perennial forage. Overall, even though the proportional contributions of individual BMPs were not directly measured in this study, the collective reduction
The first marathon run as an athletic event took place in the context of the Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens, Greece. Today, participation in a 'marathon run' has become a global phenomenon attracting young professional athletes as well as millions of mainly middle-aged amateur athletes worldwide each year. One of the main motives for these amateur marathon runners is the expectation that endurance exercise (EE) delivers profound beneficial health effects. However, with respect to the cardiovascular system, a controversial debate has emerged whether the marathon run itself is healthy or potentially harmful to the cardiovascular system, especially in middle-aged non-elite male amateur runners. In this cohort, exercise-induced increases in cardiac biomarkers-troponin and brain natriuretic peptide-and acute functional cardiac alterations have been observed and interpreted as potential cardiac damage. Furthermore, in the cohort of 40- to 65-year-old males engaged in intensive EE, a significant risk for the development of atrial fibrillation has been identified. Fortunately, recent studies demonstrated a normalization of the cardiac biomarkers and the functional alterations within a short time frame. Therefore, these alterations may be perceived as physiological myocardial reactions to the strenuous exercise and the term 'cardiac fatigue' has been coined. This interpretation is supported by a recent analysis of 10.9 million marathon runners demonstrating that there was no significantly increased overall risk of cardiac arrest during long-distance running races. In conclusion, intensive and long-lasting EE, e.g. running a full-distance Marathon, results in high cardiovascular strain whose clinical relevance especially for middle-aged and older athletes is unclear and remains a matter of controversy. Furthermore, there is a need for evidence-based recommendations with respect to medical screening and training strategies especially in male amateur runners over the age of
Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J; Holtkamp, Frank A; Parving, Hans-Henrik;
intake during treatment, measured as the 24-h urinary sodium/creatinine ratio of 1177 patients with available 24-h urinary sodium measurements. ARB compared to non-RAASi-based therapy produced the greatest long-term effects on renal and cardiovascular events in the lowest tertile of sodium intake....... Compared to non-RAASi, the trend in risk for renal events was significantly reduced by 43%, not changed, or increased by 37% for each tertile of increased sodium intake, respectively. The trend for cardiovascular events was significantly reduced by 37%, increased by 2% and 25%, respectively. Thus...
Gholamhoseinian, Ahmad; Joukar, Farzin; Joukar, Siyavash; Najafipour, Hamid; Shahouzehi, Beydolah
Regarding the role of nicotine in the development of cardiovascular complications of smoking, we investigated whether black tea has a modulatory effect on cardiovascular pathogenesis of nicotine in rat. Animals were randomized to control, tea, nicotine and tea plus nicotine groups. Test groups received black tea brewed (adding 400 ml boiling water to 10 g Lipton black tea for 5 min) orally alone or with nicotine 2 mg/kg/day, s.c. separately or combined for four weeks. On 28th day, lipids p...
Kean, David J.; Peacock, Corey A; SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; John McDaniel; Colvin, Lisa A. C.; GLICKMAN, ELLEN L.
Purpose. The purpose of this study is to determine how cold exposure and lower body negative pressure effected cardiovascular variables. Methods. Eleven males (20.3 years ± 2.7) underwent two 20-minute exposures to LBNP. During the 2 trials, the subjects were exposed to cold air (10°C) (COLD) and to ambient temperature (23°C) (AMB). The trials consisted of a 100-minute pre-LBNP period followed by a 20-minute exposure to LBNP and then a 15-minute recovery period. Cardiovascular variables were ...
Jensen, Peter; Zachariae, Claus; Christensen, Robin;
weeks followed by 8 weeks of reduced food intake reaching 1,200 kcal/day or normal healthy foods (n = 30) for 16 weeks. The intervention group lost significantly more weight than controls, which resulted in significant reductions of diastolic blood pressure, resting heart rate, total cholesterol, VLDL......Psoriasis is associated with obesity and other cardiovascular risk factors including endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to investigate the effects of weight loss on the cardiovascular risk profile of obese patients with psoriasis. A randomised controlled study was conducted in which we measured the...... microvascular endothelial function with peripheral arterial tonometry (PAT), selected plasma markers of endothelial function, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors in 60 obese patients with psoriasis. The participants were randomised to either low-energy diet (n = 30) providing 800-1,000 kcal/day for 8...
Full Text Available Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on cardiovascular diseases based on experimental studies and its underlying mechanisms have not been reviewed systematically. This paper reviewed the pharmacology of PNS and its monomers Rb1, Rg1, and R1 in the treatment for cardiovascular diseases.
Mohammad Reza Heidari
Full Text Available Background and Objective: Today, much attention is being paid to the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In some parts of the world, the rate of cardiovascular disease is low due to a Mediterranean diet containing olive oil. This systematic review examined the verses and traditions in order to express opinions on olive and compare it with the findings of modern medicine. Methods: This is a qualitative systematic review of studies in which data were collected from Qur'an, traditions, and related articles on the internet, limited to English and Persian and without time limitation by using the keywords olive, heart disease and Mediterranean diet. Results: This systematic review demonstrated that olive in the Quran is a clear sign to scientists. Moreover, its use is recommended in the authentic traditions. Conclusion: Based on the results, olive has been found to be effective in reducing mortality and preventing cardiovascular diseases.
Júlia Niehues da Cruz; Daniela Delwing de Lima; Débora Delwing Dal Magro; José Geraldo Pereira da Cruz
Several behavioral mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of ethanol or physical exercise on anxiety. The purpose of the current study was to assess the effects of chronic and acute administration of ethanol on swimming exercise in mice, sequentially submitted to the elevated plus-maze and open-field tests. In the first experiment, sedentary or physical exercise groups received chronic treatment with ethanol (0.1, 0.2, 0.4, 2 or 4 g ethanol/kg/day by ora...
Valenti Vitor E; de Abreu Luiz; Sato Monica A; Ferreira Celso; Adami Fernando; Fonseca Fernando LA; Xavier Valdelias; Godoy Moacir; Monteiro Carlos B; Vanderlei Luiz Carlos M; Saldiva Paulo HN
Abstract Background Cigarette exposure increases brain oxidative stress. The literature showed that increased brain oxidative stress affects cardiovascular regulation. However, no previous study investigated the involvement of brain oxidative stress in animals exposed to cigarette and its relationship with cardiovascular regulation. We aimed to evaluate the effects of central catalase inhibition on baroreflex and cardiovascular responses in rats exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke (SSCS). M...
Background: Many studies have reported associations between PM2.5 and adverse cardiovascular effects. However there is increased concern that ultrafine PM (aerodynamic diameter less than 0.1 micron) may be disproportionately toxic relative to the 0.1 to 2.5 micron fraction of PM2...
Berdahl, Andrew; De Bacco, Caterina; Dumas, Marion; Ferdinand, Vanessa; Grochow, Joshua A; Hébert-Dufresne, Laurent; Kallus, Yoav; Kempes, Christopher P; Kolchinsky, Artemy; Larremore, Daniel B; Libby, Eric; Power, Eleanor A; Stern, Caitlin A; Tracey, Brendan
Pathogens can spread epidemically through populations. Beneficial contagions, such as viruses that enhance host survival or technological innovations that improve quality of life, also have the potential to spread epidemically. How do the dynamics of beneficial biological and social epidemics differ from those of detrimental epidemics? We investigate this question using three theoretical approaches as well as an empirical analysis of concept propagation. First, in evolutionary models, we show that a beneficial horizontally-transmissible element, such as viral DNA, spreads super-exponentially through a population, substantially more quickly than a beneficial mutation. Second, in an epidemiological social network approach, we show that infections that cause increased connectivity lead to faster-than-exponential fixation in the population. Third, in a sociological model with strategic rewiring, we find that preferences for increased global infection accelerate spread and produce super-exponential fixation rates,...
Full Text Available A large body of evidence suggests that thyroid hormones (THs are beneficial for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders. We have shown that 3 days of triiodo-L-thyronine (T3 treatment in myocardial infarction (MI rats increased left ventricular (LV contractility and decreased myocyte apoptosis. However, no clinically translatable protocol is established for T3 treatment of ischemic heart disease. We hypothesized that low-dose oral T3 will offer safe therapeutic benefits in MI.Adult female rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or sham surgeries. T3 (~6 μg/kg/day was available in drinking water ad libitum immediately following MI and continuing for 2 month(s (mo. Compared to vehicle-treated MI, the oral T3-treated MI group at 2 mo had markedly improved anesthetized Magnetic Resonance Imaging-based LV ejection fraction and volumes without significant negative changes in heart rate, serum TH levels or heart weight, indicating safe therapy. Remarkably, T3 decreased the incidence of inducible atrial tachyarrhythmias by 88% and improved remodeling. These were accompanied by restoration of gene expression involving several key pathways including thyroid, ion channels, fibrosis, sympathetic, mitochondria and autophagy.Low-dose oral T3 dramatically improved post-MI cardiac performance, decreased atrial arrhythmias and cardiac remodeling, and reversed many adverse changes in gene expression with no observable negative effects. This study also provides a safe and effective treatment/monitoring protocol that should readily translate to humans.
Stookey, Jodi J. D.
Drinking water has heterogeneous effects on energy intake (EI), energy expenditure (EE), fat oxidation (FO) and weight change in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving adults and/or children. The aim of this qualitative review of RCTs was to identify conditions associated with negative, null and beneficial effects of drinking water on EI, EE, FO and weight, to generate hypotheses about ways to optimize drinking water interventions for weight management. RCT conditions that are associat...
Anna Parachikova; Green, Kim N; Curt Hendrix; LaFerla, Frank M.
BACKGROUND: Dietary supplements have been extensively studied for their beneficial effects on cognition and AD neuropathology. The current study examines the effect of a medical food cocktail consisting of the dietary supplements curcumin, piperine, epigallocatechin gallate, α-lipoic acid, N-acetylcysteine, B vitamins, vitamin C, and folate on cognitive functioning and the AD hallmark features and amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the Tg2576 mouse model of the disease. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study found ...
Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo Pinheiro
Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25 and 1.60% (0.74;2.46, respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of
Pinheiro, Samya de Lara Lins de Araujo; Saldiva, Paulo Hilário Nascimento; Schwartz, Joel; Zanobetti, Antonella
OBJECTIVE To analyze the effect of air pollution and temperature on mortality due to cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. METHODS We evaluated the isolated and synergistic effects of temperature and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter 40 years old due to cardiovascular disease and that of individuals > 60 years old due to respiratory diseases in Sao Paulo, SP, Southeastern Brazil, between 1998 and 2008. Three methodologies were used to evaluate the isolated association: time-series analysis using Poisson regression model, bidirectional case-crossover analysis matched by period, and case-crossover analysis matched by the confounding factor, i.e., average temperature or pollutant concentration. The graphical representation of the response surface, generated by the interaction term between these factors added to the Poisson regression model, was interpreted to evaluate the synergistic effect of the risk factors. RESULTS No differences were observed between the results of the case-crossover and time-series analyses. The percentage change in the relative risk of cardiovascular and respiratory mortality was 0.85% (0.45;1.25) and 1.60% (0.74;2.46), respectively, due to an increase of 10 μg/m3 in the PM10 concentration. The pattern of correlation of the temperature with cardiovascular mortality was U-shaped and that with respiratory mortality was J-shaped, indicating an increased relative risk at high temperatures. The values for the interaction term indicated a higher relative risk for cardiovascular and respiratory mortalities at low temperatures and high temperatures, respectively, when the pollution levels reached approximately 60 μg/m3. CONCLUSIONS The positive association standardized in the Poisson regression model for pollutant concentration is not confounded by temperature, and the effect of temperature is not confounded by the pollutant levels in the time-series analysis. The simultaneous exposure to different levels of environmental factors can
Raisis, A L; Blissitt, Karen; Henley, W.; Rogers, K.; Adams, V; Young, L.E.
Background. Experimental studies in adult horses have shown that general anaesthesia maintained with isoflurane is associated with less depression of cardiovascular function compared with halothane anaesthesia. Adverse effects of intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) have also been demonstrated. Nevertheless, the haemodynamic effects of these agents and the effects of differing modes of ventilation have not been assessed during clinical anaesthesia in horses undergoing surgery.Met...
Mattia P. Arena; Graziano Caggianiello; Daniela Fiocco; Pasquale Russo; Michele Torelli; Giuseppe Spano; Vittorio Capozzi
Currently, the majority of prebiotics in the market are derived from non-digestible oligosaccharides. Very few studies have focused on non-digestible long chain complex polysaccharides in relation to their potential as novel prebiotics. Cereals β-glucans have been investigated for immune-modulating properties and beneficial effects on obesity, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and cholesterol levels. Moreover, β-glucans have been reported to be highly fermentable by the intestinal microbiota...
Full Text Available Anxiety and aggression are part of the behavioral repertoire of humans and animals. However, in their exaggerated form both can become maladaptive and result in psychiatric disorders. On the one hand, genetic predisposition has been shown to play a crucial modulatory role in anxiety and aggression. On the other hand, social experiences have been implicated in the modulation of these traits. However, so far, mainly experiences in early life phases have been considered crucial for shaping anxiety-like and aggressive behavior while the phase of adolescence has mainly been neglected. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to elucidate how levels of anxiety-like and aggressive behavior are shaped by social experiences during adolescence and serotonin transporter (5-HTT genotype. For this purpose, male mice of a 5-HTT knockout mouse model including all three genotypes (wildtype, heterozygous and homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were either exposed to an adverse social situation or a beneficial social environment during adolescence. This was accomplished in a custom-made cage system where mice experiencing the adverse environment were repeatedly introduced to the territory of a dominant opponent but had the possibility to escape to a refuge cage. Mice encountering beneficial social conditions had free access to a female mating partner. Afterwards, anxiety-like and aggressive behavior was assessed in a battery of tests. Surprisingly, unfavorable conditions during adolescence led to a decrease in anxiety-like behavior and an increase in exploratory locomotion. Additionally, aggressive behavior was augmented in animals that experienced social adversity. Concerning genotype, homozygous 5-HTT knockout mice were more anxious and less aggressive than heterozygous 5-HTT knockout and wildtype mice. In summary, adolescence is clearly an important phase in which anxiety-like and aggressive behavior can be shaped. Furthermore, it seems that having to cope with
Shafiee, Seyed Morteza; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Rashidy-Pour, Ali
Hypothyroidism during early development leads to numerous morphological, biochemical and functional changes in developing brain. In this study, we investigated the effects of voluntary and treadmill exercise on learning, memory and hippocampal BDNF levels in both hypothyroid male and female rat pups. To induce hypothyroidism in the mothers, 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) was added to their drinking water (100mg/L) from their embryonic day 6 to their postnatal day (PND) 21. For 14days, from PNDs 31 to 44, the rat pups were trained with one of the two different exercise protocols, namely the mild treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise. On PNDs 45-52, a water maze was used for testing their learning and memory ability. The rats were sacrificed one day later and their BDNF levels were then measured in the hippocampus. The findings of the present study indicate that hypothyroidism during the fetal period and the early postnatal period is associated with the impairment of spatial learning and memory and reduced hippocampal BDNF levels in both male and female rat offspring. Both the short-term treadmill exercise and the voluntary wheel exercise performed during the postnatal period reverse the behavioral and neurochemical deficits induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency in both male and female rat offspring. The findings of this study thus demonstrate a marked reversibility of both behavioral and neurochemical disorders induced by developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency through the performance of exercise. PMID:27181637
Rana, Samir; Pugh, Phyllis C; Katz, Erin; Stringfellow, Sara A; Lin, Chee Paul; Wyss, J Michael; Stauss, Harald M; White, C Roger; Clinton, Sarah M; Kerman, Ilan A
Early-life experience (ELE) can significantly affect life-long health and disease, including cardiovascular function. Specific dimensions of emotionality also modify risk of disease, and aggressive traits along with social inhibition have been established as independent vulnerability factors for the progression of cardiovascular disease. Yet, the biological mechanisms mediating these associations remain poorly understood. The present study utilized the inherently stress-susceptible and socially inhibited Wistar-Kyoto rats to determine the potential influences of ELE and trait aggression (TA) on cardiovascular parameters throughout the lifespan. Pups were exposed to maternal separation (MS), consisting of daily 3-h separations of the entire litter from postnatal day (P)1 to P14. The rats were weaned at P21, and as adults were instrumented for chronic radiotelemetry recordings of blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Adult aggressive behavior was assessed using the resident-intruder test, which demonstrated that TA was independent of MS exposure. MS-exposed animals (irrespective of TA) had significantly lower resting HR accompanied by increases in HR variability. No effects of MS on resting blood pressure were detected. In contrast, TA correlated with increased resting mean, systolic, and diastolic arterial pressures but had no effect on HR. TA rats (relative to nonaggressive animals) also manifested increased wall-to-lumen ratio in the thoracic aorta, increased sensitivity to phenylephrine-induced vascular contractility, and increased norepinephrine content in the heart. Together these data suggest that ELE and TA are independent factors that impact baseline cardiovascular function. PMID:27280432
Research on systematic noise effects started in Germany back in the fifties with basic experimental studies on humans. As a result, noise was classified as a non-specific stressor, which could cause an ergotropic activation of the complete organism. In the light of this background research a hypothesis was proposed that long-term noise exposure could have an adverse effect on health. This hypothesis was further supported by animal studies. Since the sixties, the adverse effects of chronic roa...
Full Text Available Purpose: The present study was carried out to determine if Paljeong-san extract (PJS treatment exerts beneficial effect against the glycerol-induced acute renal failure in rabbits. Material and Method: PJS was selected in the basis of invigorating kidney which can eliminate pathogens. Rabbits were treated with PJS pharmacopuncture on Shin-shu (BL23 point for 5 days right after the injection of 50% concentration of glycerol (5㎖/㎏ body weight. Results and Conclusions: Glycerol injection caused an increase in serum creatinine and BUN level and urine glucose secretion, which were accompanied by a reduction in GFR. PJS Pharmacopuncture treatment combined with peritoneal injection showed beneficial effect on glycerol-induced acute renal failure by inhibition of serum creatinine increase and GFR decrease.
Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Gong, Ping; Zhao, Yiru C.; Zhang, Hui; Chambliss, Ken L.; Carlson, Kathryn E.; Mayne, Christopher G.; Shaul, Philip W.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Katzenellenbogen, John A.; Katzenellenbogen, Benita S.
There is great medical need for estrogens with favorable pharmacological profiles, that support desirable activities for menopausal women such as metabolic and vascular protection but that lack stimulatory activities on the breast and uterus. Here, we report the development of structurally novel estrogens that preferentially activate a subset of estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways and result in favorable target tissue-selective activity. Through a process of structural alteration of estrogenic ligands that was designed to preserve their essential chemical and physical features but greatly reduced their binding affinity for ERs, we obtained “Pathway Preferential Estrogens” (PaPEs) which interacted with ERs to activate the extranuclear-initiated signaling pathway preferentially over the nuclear-initiated pathway. PaPEs elicited a pattern of gene regulation and cellular and biological processes that did not stimulate reproductive and mammary tissues or breast cancer cells. However, in ovariectomized mice, PaPEs triggered beneficial responses both in metabolic tissues (adipose tissue and liver) that reduced body weight gain and fat accumulation and in the vasculature that accelerated repair of endothelial damage. This process of designed ligand structure alteration represents a novel approach to develop ligands that shift the balance in ER-mediated extranuclear and nuclear pathways to obtain tissue-selective, non-nuclear pathway-preferential estrogens, which may be beneficial for postmenopausal hormone replacement. The approach may also have broad applicability for other members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PMID:27221711
Tsangari, H; Paschalidou, A K; Kassomenos, A P; Vardoulakis, S; Heaviside, C; Georgiou, K E; Yamasaki, E N
In many regions of the world, climatic change is associated with increased extreme temperatures, which can have severe effects on mortality and morbidity. In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather on hospital admissions in Cyprus, for inland and coastal areas, through the use of synoptic weather classifications (air mass types). In addition, the effect of particulate air pollution (PM10) on morbidity is examined. Our results show that two air mass types, namely (a) warm, rainy days with increased levels of water vapour in the atmosphere and (b) cold, cloudy days with increased levels of precipitation, were associated with increased morbidity in the form of hospital admissions. This was true both for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions, for all age groups, but particularly for the elderly, aged over 65. Particulate air pollution was also associated with increased morbidity in Cyprus, where the effect was more pronounced for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26519584
Stephanie Hagl; Dirk Berressem; Bastian Bruns; Nadine Sus; Jan Frank; Eckert, Gunter P.
Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE) rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption) has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro ...
Jonathan Myers, PhD; Ramya Gopalan, MS, MPH; Troy Shahoumian, MPH; Jenny Kiratli, PhD
Persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) have heightened risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Multidisciplinary risk reduction programs using case management models have been effective in reducing CVD risk in nondisabled persons, but little is known regarding the effects of such programs in SCI. Twenty-six persons with SCI underwent a pilot 2 yr risk intervention program including frequent telephone contact by a case manager and in-person visits by a dietitian, physical therapist, and exercise...
Nelson, Michael T.; Biltz, George R; Dengel, Donald R
Background Currently, there are few studies on the cardiovascular and fatigue effects of commercially available energy drinks. This study investigated the effects of Monster energy drink (Monster Beverage Corporation, Corona, California), on resting heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV), ride time-to-exhaustion, peak exercise HR, respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and peak rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Methods The study used a double-blind, randomized, placebo controlled, crossov...
Sartini, Claudio; Barry, Sarah J. E.; Wannamethee, S Goya; Whincup, Peter H.; Lennon, Lucy; Ford, Ian; Morris, Richard W.
Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a tr...
Sartini, C.; Barry, S.J.E.; Wannamethee, S. G.; Whincup, P H; Lennon, L; Ford, I; Morris, R W
Objective: To investigate effects of cold weather spells on incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and potential effect modification of socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural and environmental exposures. / Methods: Data from two prospective studies were analysed: the British Regional Heart Study (BRHS), a population-based study of British men aged 60–79 years, followed for CVD incidence from 1998–2000 to 2012; and the PROSPER study of men and women aged 70–82 recruited to a trial of pra...
Jie Wang; Xingjiang Xiong; Bo Feng
Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodelin...
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical research of hyperlipidemia has been commonly pursued using traditional approaches. However, unbiased metabonomics attempts to explore the metabolic signature of hyperlipidemia in a high-throughput manner to understand pathophysiology of the disease process. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: As a new way, we performed (1H NMR-based metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of 2',3',5'-tri-acetyl-N(6- (3-hydroxylaniline adenosine (WS070117 on plasma and liver from hyperlipidemic Syrian golden hamsters. Both plasma and liver profiles provided a clearer distinction between the control and hyperlipidemic hamsters. Compared to control animals, hyperlipidemic hamsters showed a higher content of lipids (triglyceride and cholesterol, lactate and alanine together with a lower content of choline-containing compounds (e.g., phosphocholine, phosphatidylcholine, and glycerophosphocholine and betaine. As a result, metabonomics-based findings such as the PCA and OPLS-DA plotting of metabolic state and analysis of potential biomarkers in plasma and liver correlated well to the assessment of biochemical assays, Oil Red O staining and in vivo ultrasonographic imaging suggesting that WS070117 was able to regulate lipid content and displayed more beneficial effects on plasma and liver than simvastatin. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This work demonstrates the promise of applying (1H NMR metabonomics to evaluate the beneficial effects of WS070117 which may be a good drug candidate for hyperlipidemia.
Full Text Available Background Cardiovascular diseases are the most important chronic diseases with significant negative effects on the individuals’ quality of life and communities’ economic productivity. Objectives The present study aimed to analyze the costs of cardiovascular diseases and identify the related factors in hospitalized patients of Tabriz Shahid Madani hospital in 2015. Patients and Methods This paper was a cross-sectional study. Cost information was obtained by a bottom-up approach from the patients and their families’ perspective. A number of 285 patients were randomly selected to participate in the study. For data collection, the study deployed a researcher-made questionnaire whose validity and reliability were confirmed by statistical tests. First, the collected data were analyzed using descriptive methods. And then, the researchers used t-test and ANOVA to analyze the relationship between demographic variables and the different types of cost. Tukey test was used to compare differences between groups groups, the researchers used. Results The Study findings showed that the total cost of cardiovascular diseases was 13,074,700 Rials (US$462 per patient. The details of the costs of cardiovascular diseases also showed that direct medical costs, direct non-medical costs, and indirect costs were 10,909,100 Rials (US$386, 109’940 Rials (US$38.90, and 1,066,200 Rials (37.73 US$ which were 83.4%, 8.4% and 8.2% of the total costs, respectively. Statistical analyses indicated a significant relationship between gender, marital status, education, job status, location, type of disease, type of admission, and the reason for hospitalization and some types of assessed costs (P < 0.05. Conclusions The study showed that the costs associated with cardiovascular diseases were not reasonable for many of these patients and their families. This certainly requires more consideration by managers and policy makers in the health care sector and the implementation of
Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper;
signaling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2; MAP: 95.8 ± 2.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P <0.05). Resveratrol administration also abolished the positive effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P <0.05). Resveratrol did not potentiate the effect of exercise training on......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1...
Conclusions: Our study suggests favorable protective effects of water hardness, mainly water magnesium content, on CVDs. Water hardness, as well as calcium and magnesium content of drinking water may have a protective role against CVDs. Further experimental studies are necessary to determine the underlying mechanisms and longitudinal studies are required to study the clinical impacts of the current findings.
Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Møller, Søren
the practical applications to benefit people).Edited by ten leading experts in the liver and biliary tract and their diseases, along with outstanding contributions from over 200 international clinicians, this text has global references, evidence and extensive subject matter - giving you the best...... science and clinical practice discussed by the best authors.It includes unique sections on: Symptoms and signs in liver diseaseIndustrial diseases affecting the liverThe effects of diseases of other systems on the liverThe effects of liver diseases on other systemsIt 's bigger and more extensive than...... other books and discusses new areas in more depth such as stem cells, genetics, genomics, proteomics, transplantation, mathematics and much more.Plus, it comes with a fully searchable CD ROM of the entire content....
Smits, P; Thien, T; van T'Laar, A
In a single-blind study the effects of drinking two cups of regular or decaffeinated coffee on blood pressure, heart rate, forearm blood flow and plasma concentrations of caffeine, renin and catecholamines were studied in 12 normotensive subjects. Drinking regular coffee led to a rise of blood pressure, a fall of heart rate and an increase of plasma catecholamines. Decaffeinated coffee induced a smaller increase of diastolic blood pressure without changing other parameters. This study shows t...
Hemodynamic parameters were assessed before and 0.5h after the p.o. of 20 mg of nifedipine (NIF) in 31 patients and 60 mg of dilitiazem (DIL) in 24 patients with radionuclide ventriculography. After oraltherapy, NIF improved the LV pumping function, LVEF increased from 0.56 to 0.63 (P 2 (P 2), respectively, P 2, respectively, P > 0.05. In the group of patients with old myocardial infarction, both negative effect were observed
Many peri- and postmenopausal women suffer from a reduced quality of life due to menopausal symptoms and preventable diseases. The importance of cardiovascular disease in women must be emphasized, as it is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in women. It is well known that female hormones...... contribute to the later onset of cardiovascular disease in women. The effect of estrogens has for decades been understood from observational studies of postmenopausal women treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Later, treatment with HRT was disregarded due to the fear of side......-effects and an ambiguity of the cardiovascular advantages. Accumulating knowledge from the large number of trials and studies has elucidated the cause for the disparity in results. In this paper, the beneficial effects of HRT, with emphasis on cardiovascular disease are explained, and the relative and absolute risks...
Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.
Bestle, M.H.; Olsen, N.V.; Christensen, P.; Jensen, B.V.; Bie, P.
remained below 0.1%. The results indicate that even moderately natriuretic doses of urodilatin exert protracted effects on systemic hemodynamic, endocrine, and renal functions, including decreases in cardiac output and renal blood flow, without changes in arterial pressure or glomerular filtration rate...... highest doses. The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system was inhibited by the three lowest doses but activated by the hypotensive dose of 40 ng. kg-1. min-1. Plasma vasopressin increased by factors of up to 5 during infusion of the three highest doses. Atrial natriuretic peptide immunoreactivity (including...
Gomes, Helena L; Menezes, Thiago N; Carnielli, Juliana B T; Andrich, Filipe; Evangelista, Karla S; Chávez-Olórtegui, Carlos; Vassallo, Dalton V; Figueiredo, Suely G
Venomous fish are often involved in human accidents and symptoms of envenomation include local (intense pain and swelling) and systemic effects (cardiovascular and neurological disorders). However the only commercially available antivenom is against the Indo-Pacific stonefish Synanceja trachynisStonefish Antivenom (SFAV). The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential of SFAV in neutralising the in vivo effects of some toxic activities of scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom (SpV), and the in vitro immuno cross-reactivity. The SpV (7.5-100 μg/animal) caused nociceptive and dose-dependent edematogenic responses in the mice footpad. In rats SpV (300 μg/kg, i.v.) produced immediate and transient increase in arterial blood pressure and decrease in heart rate. Prior incubation of SpV with SFAV (1 μg SpV/1 U SFAV) abolished the inflammatory response, and significantly attenuated the cardiovascular effects induced by SPV. Western blotting analysis on two-dimensional SDS-PAGE of S plumieri venom proteins using SFAV proved that the epitopes recognized by SFAV are shared with the ∼98 kDa proteins. This is the first report of venom similarities between Indo-Pacific and Atlantic venomous fish, suggesting that the SpV compound responsible for inflammatory and cardiovascular effects possesses similar biochemical and antigenic properties to those found in stonefish venom. PMID:21510970
Full Text Available The increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs has stimulated research for substances that could improve cardiovascular health. Among them, resveratrol (RES, a polyphenolic compound notably present in grapes and red wine, has been involved in the “French paradox”. RES is known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and for its ability to upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS. RES was able to scavenge •OH/O2•− and peroxyl radicals, which can limit the lipid peroxidation processes. Moreover, in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC under glucose-induced oxidative stress, RES restored the activity of dimethylargininedimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH, an enzyme that degrades an endogenous inhibitor of eNOS named asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA. Thus, RES could improve •NO availability and decrease the endothelial dysfunction observed in diabetes. Preclinical studies have made it possible to identify molecular targets (SIRT-1, AMPK, Nrf2, NFκB…; however, there are limited human clinical trials, and difficulties in the interpretation of results arise from the use of high-dose RES supplements in research studies, whereas low RES concentrations are present in red wine. The discussions on potential beneficial effects of RES in CVDs (atherosclerosis, hypertension, stroke, myocardial infarction, heart failure should compare the results of preclinical studies with those of clinical trials.
Full Text Available Shashi K AgarwalMedical Director, Agarwal Health Center, NJ, USAAbstract: Regular physical activity during leisure time has been shown to be associated with better health outcomes. The American Heart Association, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine all recommend regular physical activity of moderate intensity for the prevention and complementary treatment of several diseases. The therapeutic role of exercise in maintaining good health and treating diseases is not new. The benefits of physical activity date back to Susruta, a 600 BC physician in India, who prescribed exercise to patients. Hippocrates (460–377 BC wrote “in order to remain healthy, the entire day should be devoted exclusively to ways and means of increasing one's strength and staying healthy, and the best way to do so is through physical exercise.” Plato (427–347 BC referred to medicine as a sister art to physical exercise while the noted ancient Greek physician Galen (129–217 AD penned several essays on aerobic fitness and strengthening muscles. This article briefly reviews the beneficial effects of physical activity on cardiovascular diseases.Keywords: exercise, cardiovascular disease, lifestyle changes, physical activity, good health
Choi, Anna L; Weihe, Pál; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben;
consumption of pilot whale meat. METHODS: We assessed exposure levels from mercury analysis of toenails and whole blood (obtained at the time of clinical examination), and a hair sample collected 7 years previously. Outcome measures included heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure (BP), common carotid...... intima-media thickness (IMT), and brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP). We carried out multiple regression and structural equation model (SEM) analyses to determine the confounder-adjusted effect of mercury exposure. Taking into account correlations among related measures, we categorized exposure...... and outcomes in groups to derive latent exposure and response variables in SEMs. We used multiple regression analysis to compare the predictive validity of individual exposure biomarkers and the latent exposure variable on individual and latent outcomes. RESULTS: The toenail mercury concentrations...
of smooth muscle cell assigned genes indicates that besides intimal atherosclerosis, uremic vasculopathy in apoE-/- mice is characterized by a uremia-specific medial smooth muscle cell degeneration. Oxidative stress could also be important for the development of atherosclerotic lesions in uremia. In...... muscle cell degeneration. Furthermore, the studies suggested that vascular inflammation and systemic oxidative stress may explain some of the proatherogenic effects of uremia in mice. Interestingly, the accelerated atherosclerosis could be prevented by RAS inhibition, or markedly reduced by RAGE blockade......The purpose of this thesis work was to establish an experimental mouse model for studying the pathogenesis and therapy of accelerated atherosclerosis in uremia. Uremia was induced by surgical 5/6 nephrectomy in apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice and led to development of severe aortic...
Mansoor, Nadia; Vinknes, Kathrine J; Veierød, Marit B; Retterstøl, Kjetil
The effects of low-carbohydrate (LC) diets on body weight and cardiovascular risk are unclear, and previous studies have found varying results. Our aim was to conduct a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials (RCT), assessing the effects of LC diets v. low-fat (LF) diets on weight loss and risk factors of CVD. Studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Trials. Studies had to fulfil the following criteria: a RCT; the LC diet was defined in accordance with the Atkins diet, or carbohydrate intake of diets, participants on LC diets experienced a greater reduction in body weight (WMD -2·17 kg; 95% CI -3·36, -0·99) and TAG (WMD -0·26 mmol/l; 95% CI -0·37, -0·15), but a greater increase in HDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·14 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·09, 0·19) and LDL-cholesterol (WMD 0·16 mmol/l; 95% CI 0·003, 0·33). This meta-analysis demonstrates opposite change in two important cardiovascular risk factors on LC diets--greater weight loss and increased LDL-cholesterol. Our findings suggest that the beneficial changes of LC diets must be weighed against the possible detrimental effects of increased LDL-cholesterol. PMID:26768850
Polcwiartek, Christoffer; Sørensen, Kristian Dahl Kragholm; Schjerning, Ole; Graff, Claus; Nielsen, Jimmi
cardiovascular risk factors. Areas covered: This clinical overview summarizes the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics by focusing on the wide range of associated adverse effects. In addition, we also discuss current guidelines regarding routine electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring. Expert opinion: As SCD in......, as this may increase risk of Torsades de Pointes and eventually SCD. However, other serious cardiovascular complications of antipsychotics also include Brugada syndrome phenotype, myocardial infarction, and myocarditis. Increased awareness of the cardiovascular safety of antipsychotics can allow...
Full Text Available Assessment of health effects of a forest environment is an important emerging area of public health and environmental sciences.To demonstrate the long-term health effects of living in a forest environment on subclinical cardiovascular diseases (CVDs and health-related quality of life (HRQOL compared with that in an urban environment.This study included the detailed health examination and questionnaire assessment of 107 forest staff members (FSM and 114 urban staff members (USM to investigate the long-term health effects of a forest environment. Air quality monitoring between the forest and urban environments was compared. In addition, work-related factors and HRQOL were evaluated.Levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and fasting glucose in the USM group were significantly higher than those in the FSM group. Furthermore, a significantly higher intima-media thickness of the internal carotid artery was found in the USM group compared with that in the FSM group. Concentrations of air pollutants, such as NO, NO2, NOx, SO2, CO, PM2.5, and PM10 in the forest environment were significantly lower compared with those in the outdoor urban environment. Working hours were longer in the FSM group; however, the work stress evaluation as assessed by the job content questionnaire revealed no significant differences between FSM and USM. HRQOL evaluated by the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF questionnaire showed FSM had better HRQOL scores in the physical health domain.This study provides evidence of the potential beneficial effects of forest environments on CVDs and HRQOL.
Verratti, Vittore; Falone, S.; Doria, C.; Pietrangelo, T.; Di Giulio, C.
The effect of the combination of trekking and balanced appropriated diet were studied in mountaineers who spent 6 days at an altitude ranging from 900 to 5895 m above sea level (a.s.l.), during the Kilimanjaro Abruzzo Expedition. This study explored whether anthropometric, cardiovascular and blood biochemical parameters were significantly changed by a regular trekking performed at high altitude, with reduced oxygen levels, together with a macronutrient-containing balanced diet (total daily ca...
Platts, Steven H.; Bairey Merz, C. Noel; Barr, Yael; Fu, Qi; Gulati, Martha; Hughson, Richard,; Levine, Benjamin D.; Mehran, Roxana; Stachenfeld, Nina; Wenger, Nanette K
Sex and gender differences in the cardiovascular adaptation to spaceflight were examined with the goal of optimizing the health and safety of male and female astronauts at the forefront of space exploration. Female astronauts are more susceptible to orthostatic intolerance after space flight; the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome predominates slightly in males. Since spaceflight simulates vascular aging, sex-specific effects on vascular endothelium and thrombotic risk warrant e...
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) exhibits considerable variation across agrarian societies, whereas they are virtually absent in non-agrarian societies such as hunter-gatherer and horticultural societies. When looking for lifestyle factors which could promote CVD, it therefore seems logical to focus on the agrarian lifestyle and ways in which it departs from a non-agrarian lifestyle. The aim of this thesis was to evaluate the effect of a hunter-gatherer diet (also called Paleol...
Stahl, Sarah T.; Schulz, Richard
This prospective study examined the effect of widowhood on physical activity by comparing widowed elders to health status-, age-, and sex-matched married controls. Participants included 396 married controls and 396 widows/widowers age 64 to 91 (M age = 72.7 years) who experienced the death of their spouse while participating in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Compared to married controls, widowed men, but not women, were more likely to increase their physical activity...
M.A. Pereira Filho; L.A.A. Pereira; F.F. Arbex; M. Arbex; G.M. Conceição; U.P. Santos; A.C. Lopes; Saldiva, P H N; A.L.F. Braga; S. Cendon
Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of cardiovascular mortality and these patients, even without previous myocardial infarction, run the risk of fatal coronary heart disease similar to non-diabetic patients surviving myocardial infarction. There is evidence showing that particulate matter air pollution is associated with increases in cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of diabetes mellitus on the association of air pollution with ca...
Panax notoginseng saponins (PNS) are one of the most important compounds derived from roots of the herb Panax notoginseng which are traditionally used as a hemostatic medicine to control internal and external bleeding in China for thousands of years. To date, at least twenty saponins were identified and some of them including notoginsenoside R1, ginsenoside Rb1, and ginsenoside Rg1 were researched frequently in the area of cardiovascular protection. However, the protective effects of PNS on c...
Zou C; Hu H
Cong Zou,1 Honglin Hu2 1Department of Endocrinology, Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Urology, Second Affiliated Hospital of Nanchang University, Nanchang, People's Republic of China Abstract: Pioglitazone and other thiazolidinediones (TZDs) initially showed great promise as unique receptor-mediated oral therapy for type 2 diabetes, but a host of serious side effects, primarily cardiovascular, have limited...
F. Mohammadi; M Veissi; Haidari, F; Shahbazian, H.; M mohammad shahi
Introduction: Cardiovascular disease is more prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes. Regarding the role of probiotics in control of inflammation and modulating the lipid profile, this study assess the effect of probiotic and conventional yogurt on inflammatory markers and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: Forty- four subjects with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to two intervention and control groups. The intervention group consumed 300 g/d probiotic yogurt (e...
Imai, K; Nakachi, K
OBJECTIVE--To investigate the association between consumption of green tea and various serum markers in a Japanese population, with special reference to preventive effects of green tea against cardiovascular disease and disorders of the liver. DESIGN--Cross sectional study. SETTING--Yoshimi, Japan. SUBJECTS--1371 men aged over 40 years resident in Yoshimi and surveyed on their living habits including daily consumption of green tea. Their peripheral blood samples were subjected to several bioc...
Rosa Zavoshy; Mostafa Noroozi; Hassan Jahanihashemi
Background: Cardiovascular disease remains the leading cause of death and disability in industrialized and developing countries. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of rice bran oil, with a low-calorie diet, on lipid profiles, in hyperlipidemic patients. Materials and Methods: This study was a parallel groups′ randomized clinical trial with a pre- and post-test design. Fifty hyperlipidemic patients of both sexes and age range of 25 - 65 years had participated. The patients re...
Saliba, E; Nashashibi, M; Vaillant, M C; Nasr, C; Laugier, J
The acute effects of surfactant instillation rate on the cerebral and cardiovascular haemodynamics were studied in a randomised trial of 27 preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV), mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), blood gases and electroencephalogram (EEG) were continuously recorded before, during, and for at least 10 minutes after the administration of surfactant. The measurements were repeated one, three, and six hours later. Left v...
Nordskog, Brian K.; Brown, Buddy G.; Marano, Kristin M.; Campell, Leanne R.; Jones, Bobbette A.; Borgerding, Michael F.
Abstract An age-stratified, cross-sectional study was conducted in the US among healthy adult male cigarette smokers, moist snuff consumers, and non-tobacco consumers to evaluate cardiovascular biomarkers of biological effect (BoBE). Physiological assessments included flow-mediated dilation, ankle-brachial index, carotid intima-media thickness and expired carbon monoxide. Approximately one-half of the measured serum BoBE showed statistically significant differences; IL-12(p70), sICAM-1 and IL...
Resaland, G K; Anderssen, S A; Holme, I M; Mamen, A; Andersen, Lars Bo
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 2-year school-based physical activity (PA) intervention in 9-year-old children on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. One intervention school (I-school) (n=125) and one control school (C-school) (n=131) were included. The children at...... the I-school carried out 60 min of PA daily. The PA lessons were planned, organized and led by expert physical education (PE) teachers. In the C-school, children were offered the normal 45 min of PE twice weekly. The intervention resulted in a greater beneficial development in systolic (P=0.003) and...
Altinbas, Burcin; Topuz, Bora Burak; İlhan, Tuncay; Yilmaz, Mustafa Sertac; Erdost, Hatice; Yalcin, Murat
The aim of this study was to explain the involvement of the central histaminergic system in arachidonic acid (AA)-induced cardiovascular effects in normotensive rats using hemodynamic, immunohistochemistry, and microdialysis studies. Intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) administered AA (0.25, 0.5, and 1.0 μmol) induced dose- and time-dependent increases in mean arterial pressure and decreased heart rate in conscious normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Central injection of AA (0.5 μmol) also increased posterior hypothalamic extracellular histamine levels and produced strong COX-1 but not COX-2 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus of rats. Moreover, the cardiovascular effects and COX-1 immunoreactivity in the posterior hypothalamus induced by AA (0.5 μmol; i.c.v.) were almost completely blocked by the H2 receptor antagonist ranitidine (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.) and partially blocked by the H1 receptor blocker chlorpheniramine (100 nmol; i.c.v.) and the H3-H4 receptor antagonist thioperamide (50 and 100 nmol; i.c.v.). In conclusion, these results indicate that centrally administered AA induces pressor and bradycardic responses in conscious rats. Moreover, we suggest that AA may activate histaminergic neurons and increase extracellular histamine levels, particularly in the posterior hypothalamus. Acting as a neurotransmitter, histamine is potentially involved in AA-induced cardiovascular effects under normotensive conditions. PMID:25065747
Chan Cheuk F
Full Text Available Abstract Background There is recent evidence suggesting that rosiglitazone increases death from cardiovascular causes. We investigated the direct effect of this drug on atheroma using 3D carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Results A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study was performed to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on carotid atherosclerosis in subjects with type 2 diabetes and coexisting vascular disease or hypertension. The primary endpoint of the study was the change from baseline to 52 weeks of carotid arterial wall volume, reflecting plaque burden, as measured by carotid cardiovascular magnetic resonance. Rosiglitazone or placebo was allocated to 28 and 29 patients respectively. Patients were managed to have equivalent glycemic control over the study period, but in fact the rosiglitazone group lowered their HbA1c by 0.88% relative to placebo (P 3 and in the rosiglitazone group was 1354 ± 532 mm3. After 52 weeks, the respective volumes were 1134 ± 523 mm3 and 1348 ± 531 mm3. These changes (-12.1 mm3 and -5.7 mm3 in the placebo and rosiglitazone groups, respectively were not statistically significant between groups (P = 0.57. Conclusion Treatment with rosiglitazone over 1 year had no effect on progression of carotid atheroma in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus compared to placebo.
Although the effects of ageing on cardiovascular control and particularly the response to orthostatic stress have been the subject of many studies, the interaction between the cardiovascular and cerebral regulation mechanisms is still not fully understood. Wavelet cross-correlation is used here to assess the coupling and synchronization between low-frequency oscillations (LFOs) observed in cerebral hemodynamics, as measured using cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and cerebral oxygenation (O2Hb), and systemic cardiovascular dynamics, as measured using heart rate (HR) and arterial blood pressure (ABP), in both old and young healthy subjects undergoing head-up tilt table testing. Statistically significant increases in correlation values are found in the interaction of cerebral and cardiovascular LFOs for young subjects (P 2Hb and ABP–O2Hb), but not in old subjects under orthostatic stress. The coupling between the cerebrovascular and wider cardiovascular systems in response to orthostatic stress thus appears to be impaired with ageing
Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease.
S Aslani; H R Samim Bani Hashemi; F Arianpour
The primary aim of this study is the beneficiation of magnesite ores from eastern part of Iran by reverse flotation process. For this purpose, the mineralogical and microstructural characteristics of the as-received and the processed ores from Iranian Afzal Abad mine were established. The liberation degree of ore was estimated at about 75 m. Then the as-received ore and the processed one were dead burnt to produce magnesia aggregates. These aggregates were used for production of shaped and unshaped refractories. Bricks and monolithic ramming mixes which were made from these aggregates were analysed and their mechanical and physical properties, studied. The results of this investigation showed that the application of reverse flotation process on the magnesite ore of eastern part of Iran causes an acceptable reduction on the amount of its siliceous inclusions, so that this type of the processed magnesia is suitable for utilization in the refractory industries. The magnesia produced from the original calcined ore was not suitable for this industry due to the presence of unacceptable amount of siliceous inclusions, which make its properties very poor.
Parkinson, Lisa; Keast, Russell
Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of many healthful components of the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday dietary pattern. A phenolic compound contained in VOO, named oleocanthal, shares unique perceptual and anti-inflammatory characteristics with Ibuprofen. Over recent years oleocanthal has become a compound of interest in the search for naturally occurring compounds with pharmacological qualities. Subsequent to its discovery and identification, oleocanthal has been reported to exhibit various modes of action in reducing inflammatory related disease, including joint-degenerative disease, neuro-degenerative disease and specific cancers. Therefore, it is postulated that long term consumption of VOO containing oleocanthal may contribute to the health benefits associated with the Mediterranean dietary pattern. The following paper summarizes the current literature on oleocanthal, in terms of its sensory and pharmacological properties, and also discusses the beneficial, health promoting activities of oleocanthal, in the context of the molecular mechanisms within various models of disease. PMID:25019344
Bu Beng Yeap
Full Text Available As men grow older, testosterone (T levels decline and the significance of this change is debated. The evidence supporting a causal role for lower circulating T, or its metabolites dihydrotestosterone (DHT and estradiol, in the genesis of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD in men is limited. Observational studies associate low baseline T levels with carotid atherosclerosis, aortic and peripheral vascular disease, and with the incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality. Studies using mass spectrometry suggest that when total T is assayed optimally, calculation of free T might not necessarily improve risk stratification. There is limited evidence to support an association of estradiol with CVD. Interventional studies of T therapy in men with coronary artery disease have shown beneficial effects on exercise-induced myocardial ischemia. However, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials (RCTs of T therapy in men with the prespecified outcomes of cardiovascular events or deaths are lacking. Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials of T published up to 2010 found no increase in cardiovascular events, mortality, or prostate cancer with therapy. Recently, in a trial of older men with mobility limitations, men randomized to receive a substantial dose of T reported cardiovascular adverse effects. This phenomenon was not reported from a comparable trial where men received a more conservative dose of T, suggesting a prudent approach should be adopted when considering therapy in frail older men with existing CVD. Adequately powered RCTs of T in middle-aged and older men are needed to clarify whether or not hormonal intervention would reduce the incidence of CVD.
Exposure to ambient levels of air pollution increases cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Advanced age is among the factors associated with susceptibility to the adverse effects of air pollution. Dietary fatty acid supplementation has been shown to decrease cardiovascular ris...
Hagl, Stephanie; Berressem, Dirk; Bruns, Bastian; Sus, Nadine; Frank, Jan; Eckert, Gunter P
Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE) rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption) has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084). To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis) in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE's beneficial effects on mitochondrial function. PMID:26378512
Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in the aging processes that ultimately lead to neurodegeneration and the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD. A healthy lifestyle, including a diet rich in antioxidants and polyphenols, represents one strategy to protect the brain and to prevent neurodegeneration. We recently reported that a stabilized hexanic rice bran extract (RBE rich in vitamin E and polyphenols (but unsuitable for human consumption has beneficial effects on mitochondrial function in vitro and in vivo (doi:10.1016/j.phrs.2013.06.008, 10.3233/JAD-132084. To enable the use of RBE as food additive, a stabilized ethanolic extract has been produced. Here, we compare the vitamin E profiles of both extracts and their effects on mitochondrial function (ATP concentrations, mitochondrial membrane potential, mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial biogenesis in PC12 cells. We found that vitamin E contents and the effects of both RBE on mitochondrial function were similar. Furthermore, we aimed to identify components responsible for the mitochondria-protective effects of RBE, but could not achieve a conclusive result. α-Tocotrienol and possibly also γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol might be involved, but hitherto unknown components of RBE or a synergistic effect of various components might also play a role in mediating RBE’s beneficial effects on mitochondrial function.
Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang; Feng, Bo
Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) is a widely used Chinese herb for treatment of gastrointestinal ailments and heart problems and consumed as food. In North America, the role of treatment for heart problems dates back to 1800. Currently, evidence is accumulating from various in vivo and in vitro studies that hawthorn extracts exert a wide range of cardiovascular pharmacological properties, including antioxidant activity, positive inotropic effect, anti-inflammatory effect, anticardiac remodeling effect, antiplatelet aggregation effect, vasodilating effect, endothelial protective effect, reduction of smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, protective effect against ischemia/reperfusion injury, antiarrhythmic effect, lipid-lowering effect and decrease of arterial blood pressure effect. On the other hand, reviews of placebo-controlled trials have reported both subjective and objective improvement in patients with mild forms of heart failure (NYHA I-III), hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. This paper discussed the underlying pharmacology mechanisms in potential cardioprotective effects and elucidated the clinical applications of Crataegus and its various extracts. PMID:24459528
Lugtenberg, B; Kamilova, F.
Among the many bacteria present on and around the root, Pseudomonas bacteria are (among) the best root colonizers and therefore very suitable to apply for beneficial purposes. In this chapter, we discuss the possibilities to use such bacteria for the following purposes: fertilization of the plant, stimulation of plant growth and yield, reduction of plant stress, and reduction of plant diseases. This research was supported by numerous grants, especially from the Dutch Organization for scientif...
Kelsey, R M; Blascovich, J; Tomaka, J; Leitten, C L; Schneider, T R; Wiens, S
The effects of prior task exposure on cardiovascular reactivity to stress were examined in two experiments by randomly assigning participants to repeated exposure groups that performed mental arithmetic pretest and test tasks versus delayed exposure groups that performed only the test task after prolonged rest. Impedance cardiographic and blood pressure measures were recorded continuously from 60 undergraduate men in Experiment 1 and 112 undergraduate men and women in Experiment 2. Task repetition attenuated cardiovascular reactivity and improved task performance in repeated exposure groups (p < .001), suggesting an integrated process of behavioral adaptation. During the test task, delayed exposure groups showed greater cardiac reactivity (p < .01), but not vascular reactivity, than repeated exposure groups. Thus, cardiac reactivity varied as a specific function of prior task exposure, whereas vascular reactivity varied as a general function of time. PMID:10554594
Full Text Available Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT, tomato sauce (TS and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW, 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL cholesterol and interleukine (IL 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1 from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil.
Valderas-Martinez, Palmira; Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Casas, Rosa; Arranz, Sara; Martínez-Huélamo, Miriam; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Torrado, Xavier; Corella, Dolores; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa M; Estruch, Ramon
Epidemiological studies have observed a negative association between tomato intake and the incidence of cardiovascular disease. As tomato sauces are usually cooked with the addition of oil, some studies have pointed out that both processes may increase the bioavailability of the bioactive compounds. However, the effect of consumption of raw tomatoes and tomato sauces on inflammation biomarkers and adhesion molecules related to atherosclerosis remains unknown. The aim of this study was to test the postprandial effects of a single dose of raw tomatoes (RT), tomato sauce (TS) and tomato sauce with refined olive oil (TSOO) on cardiovascular disease risk factors. We performed an open, prospective, randomized, cross-over, controlled feeding trial in 40 healthy subjects who randomly received: 7.0 g of RT/kg of body weight (BW), 3.5 g of TS/kg BW, 3.5 g of TSOO/Kg BW and 0.25 g of sugar solved in water/kg BW on a single occasion on four different days. Biochemical parameters and cellular and circulating inflammatory biomarkers were assessed at baseline and 6 h after each intervention. The results indicate that, compared to control intervention, a single tomato intake in any form decreased plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides and several cellular and plasma inflammatory biomarkers, and increased plasma high density lipoproteins (HDL) cholesterol and interleukine (IL) 10 concentrations. However, the changes of plasma IL-6 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) from T-lymphocytes and CD36 from monocytes were significantly greater after TSOO than after RT and TS interventions. We concluded that tomato intake has beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, especially cooked and enriched with oil. PMID:26999197
Deer, Rachel R; Stallone, John N
In the present study, interactions of age and estrogen in the modulation of cerebrovascular function were examined in small arteries vasoconstriction was attenuated in ovariectomized + estrogen-replaced, multigravid adult rats (5-6 mo; MAE) but potentiated in older ovariectomized + estrogen-replaced, reproductively senescent rats (12-14 mo; RSE). SC560 and NS398 reduced reactivity similarly in ovariectomized multigravid adult rats (5-6 mo; MAO) and ovariectomized reproductively senescent rat (12-14 mo; RSO). In MAE, reactivity to VP was reduced to a greater extent by SC560 than by NS398; however, in RSE, this effect was reversed. VP-stimulated PGI2 was increased by estrogen, yet reduced by age. VP-stimulated TXA2 was increased by estrogen and age in RSE but did not differ in MAO and RSO. Taken together, these data reveal that the vascular effects of estrogen are distinctly age-dependent in F rats. In younger MA, beneficial and protective effects of estrogen are evident (decreased vasoconstriction, increased dilator prostanoid function). Conversely, in older RS, detrimental effects of estrogen begin to be manifested (enhanced vasoconstriction and CP function). These findings may lead to age-specific estrogen replacement therapies that maximize beneficial and minimize detrimental effects of this hormone on small cerebral arteries that regulate blood flow. PMID:26993224
Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P
Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. PMID:25475789
Full Text Available Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms underlying the aging process and the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Selected antioxidants and specific combinations of nutritional compounds could target many biochemical pathways that affect both oxidative stress and mitochondrial function and, thereby, preserve or enhance physical performance.In this study, we evaluated the potential anti-aging benefits of a Q-ter based nutritional mixture (commercially known as Eufortyn mainly containing the following compounds: terclatrated coenzyme Q(10 (Q-ter, creatine and a standardized ginseng extract. We found that Eufortyn supplementation significantly ameliorated the age-associated decreases in grip strength and gastrocnemius subsarcolemmal mitochondria Ca(2+ retention capacity when initiated in male Fischer344 x Brown Norway rats at 21 months, but not 29 months, of age. Moreover, the increases in muscle RNA oxidation and subsarcolemmal mitochondrial protein carbonyl levels, as well as the decline of total urine antioxidant power, which develop late in life, were mitigated by Eufortyn supplementation in rats at 29 months of age.These data imply that Eufortyn is efficacious in reducing oxidative damage, improving the age-related mitochondrial functional decline, and preserving physical performance when initiated in animals at early midlife (21 months. The efficacy varied, however, according to the age at which the supplementation was provided, as initiation in late middle age (29 months was incapable of restoring grip strength and mitochondrial function. Therefore, the Eufortyn supplementation may be particularly beneficial when initiated prior to major biological and functional declines that appear to occur with advancing age.
Turankar, A.V.; Jain, S.; Patel, S.B.; Sinha, S.R.; A. D. Joshi; B N Vallish; Mane, P.R.; Turankar, S.A.
Background & objectives: Regular practice of slow breathing has been shown to improve cardiovascular and respiratory functions and to decrease the effects of stress. This pilot study was planned to evaluate the short term effects of pranayama on cardiovascular functions, pulmonary functions and galvanic skin resistance (GSR) which mirrors sympathetic tone, and to evaluate the changes that appear within a short span of one week following slow breathing techniques. Methods: Eleven normal health...
Bhadada, Shraddha V.; Goyal, R. K.
Tephrosia purpurea has been reported to possess antidiabetic activity, however, its effects on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with diabetes have not been studied. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of Tephrosia purpurea on cardiovascular complications and cataract associated with streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats. Sprague Dawley rats of either sex were made diabetic with streptozotocin (45 mg/kg, i.v.). Treatment of...
Anti-inflamatórios não esteroides: Efeitos cardiovasculares, cérebro-vasculares e renais Antiinflamatorios no esteroides: efectos cardiovasculares, cerebrovasculares y renales Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal effects
inhibitors. In recent years, the safety of NSAID use in clinical practice has been questioned, especially that of the selective COX-2 inhibitors. The evidence on the increase in cardiovascular risk with the use of NSAIDs is still scarce, due to the lack of randomized and controlled studies with the capacity of evaluating relevant cardiovascular outcomes. However, the results of prospective clinical trials and meta-analyses indicate that the selective COX-2 inhibitors present important adverse cardiovascular effects, which include increased risk of myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, heart failure, kidney failure and arterial hypertension. The risk of these adverse effects is higher among patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease or those at high risk to develop it. In these patients, the use of COX-2 inhibitors must be limited to those for which there is no appropriate alternative and, even in these cases, only at low doses and for as little time as possible. Although the most frequent adverse effects have been related to the selective COX-2 inhibition, the absence of selectiveness for this isoenzyme does not completely eliminate the risk of cardiovascular events; therefore, all drugs belonging to the large spectrum of NSAIDs should only be prescribed after consideration of the risk/benefit balance.
Stranges, Paul; Khanderia, Ujjaini
Type 2 diabetes is a well known risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While glycemic control has consistently been shown to prevent microvascular complications, large randomized trials have not demonstrated the same consistent beneficial effects of intensive glycemic control in improving cardiovascular (CV) outcomes. Thus, optimal glucose control alone is not sufficient to reduce CV risk. Aggressive management of CV risk factors such as blood pressure, lipids, and body weight is also ...
Volterrani, Maurizio; Iellamo, Ferdinando; Sposato, Barbara; Romeo, Franco
Recent evidence would indicate that high serum uric acid (SUA) levels can be a significant and independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases, such as ischemic heart disease and heart failure. In the last few years an independent risk relationship between hyperuricemia, cardiovascular disease and mortality has also been reported. Hyperuricemia has been shown as an independent risk factor for acute myocardial infarction and an independent and conjoint association of either gout and SUA with total and cardiovascular mortality has been reported, with mortality impact in gout patients increasing with rising SUA concentrations, even for SUA levels in the normal to high range. These findings prompted a growing research interest on the possible benefits of uric acid lowering drugs in cardiovascular diseases. Indeed, clinical studies have reported on the beneficial effects of uric acid lowering drugs, in particular of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, in hypertension, ischemic heart disease and heart failure. Two main mechanisms have been claimed to explain the dangerous effects of hyperuricemia and, as a consequence, the benefits of uric acid lowering therapy: endothelial dysfunction and systemic inflammation. This brief review aims to summarize current evidence from human studies on the role of acid uric lowering therapy in cardiovascular diseases for practical and clinical purposes. The possible mechanisms underlying the benefits of acid uric lowering therapy are also addressed. PMID:26386814
Full Text Available Background: Androgen deprivation is the basis of treatment for advanced stages of prostate cancer. Cardiovascular disease may be a risk factor for mortality in prostate cancer. Therefore, we decided to evaluate the effect of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT on the cardiovascular risk factors in patients with prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study on 2011, 35 patients suffering from metastatic prostate cancer as candidates for ADT were enrolled. Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS, triglyceride (TG and total cholesterol (TC were measured at the beginning and after the 5 th month of ADT. Results: The mean level of TG increased significantly from 130.82 ± 41.57 mg/dl to 150.05 ± 48.29 mg/dl (P < 0.012. Furthermore, serum level of TC increased from 197.62 ± 40.71 mg/dl to 212.54 ± 38.25 mg/dl, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. A non-significant increase in the serum level of FBS from 96.74 ± 14.04 mg/dl to 99.17 ± 15.23 mg/dl was also seen (P = 0.27. Conclusion: ADT in prostate cancer may lead to an increase in TG and TC levels. In patients with a high risk of cardiovascular disease patient′s lipid profile should be considered during ADT.
The heart and vascular system are susceptible to the harmful effects of alcohol. Alcohol is an active toxin that undergoes widespread diffusion throughout the body, causing multiple synchronous and synergistic effects. Alcohol consumption decreases myocardial contractility and induces arrhythmias and dilated cardiomyopathy, resulting in progressive cardiovascular dysfunction and structural damage. Alcohol, whether at binge doses or a high cumulative lifetime consumption-both of which should be discouraged-is clearly deleterious for the cardiovascular system, increasing the incidence of total and cardiovascular mortality, coronary and peripheral artery disease, heart failure, stroke, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, and diabetes mellitus. However, epidemiological, case-control studies and meta-analyses have shown a U-type bimodal relationship so that low-to-moderate alcohol consumption (particularly of wine or beer) is associated with a decrease in cardiovascular events and mortality, compared with abstention. Potential confounding influences-alcohol-dose quantification, tobacco use, diet, exercise, lifestyle, cancer risk, accidents, and dependence-can affect the results of studies of both low-dose and high-dose alcohol consumption. Mendelian methodological approaches have led to doubts regarding the beneficial cardiovascular effects of alcohol, and the overall balance of beneficial and detrimental effects should be considered when making individual and population-wide recommendations, as reductions in alcohol consumption should provide overall health benefits. PMID:26099843
Schlegel, Todd T.; Wood, Scott J.; Brown, Troy E.; Benavides, Edgar W.; Harm, Deborah L.; Rupert, A. H.
Repeated exposure to +Gz enhances human baroreflex responsiveness and improves tolerance to cardiovascular stress. However, both sustained exposure to +Gx and changes in otolith function resulting from the gravitational changes of space flight and parabolic flight may adversely affect autonomic cardiovascular function and orthostatic tolerance. HYPOTHESES: Baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance are acutely improved by a single sustained (30 min) exposure to +3Gz but not +3Gx. Moreover, after 30 min of +3Gx, any changes that occur in autonomic cardiovascular function will relate commensurately to changes in otolith function. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy human subjects were first exposed to 5 min of +3 Gz centrifugation and then subsequently up to a total of30 min of either +3Gz (n = 15) or +3Gx (n = 7) centrifugation. Tests of autonomic cardiovascular function both before and after both types of centrifugation included: (a) power spectral determinations of beat-to-beat R-R intervals and arterial pressures; (b) carotid-cardiac baroreflex tests; ( c) Valsalva tests; and (d) 30-min head-up tilt (HUT) tests. Otolith function was assessed during centrifugation by the linear vestibulo-ocular reflex and both before and after centrifugation by measurements of ocular counter-rolling and dynamic posturography. RESULTS: All four +3Gz subjects who were intolerant to HUT before centrifugation became tolerant to HUT after centrifugation. The operational point of the carotid-cardiac baroreflex and the Valsalva-related baroreflex were also enhanced in the +3Gz group but not in the +3Gx group. No significant vestibular-autonomic relationships were detected, other than a significant vestibular-cerebrovascular interaction reported previously. CONCLUSIONS: A single, sustained exposure to +3 Gz centrifugation acutely improves baroreflex function and orthostatic tolerance whereas a similar exposure to +3 Gx centrifugation appears to have less effect.
Lizbeth M. Jiménez-Flores
Full Text Available Turmeric (Curcuma longa is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial plant of the ginger family which has been used to treat biliary disorders, anorexia, cough, rheumatism, cancer, sinusitis, hepatic disorders, hyperglycemia, obesity, and diabetes in both Ayurvedic and Traditional Chinese Medicine. Suggested mechanisms of action include the modulation of signal transduction cascades and effects on gene expression, however they remain to be elucidated. In this study, the expression of some proteins responsible for transcription factors, inflammation, and metabolic control were evaluated by western blot in 15-week-old db/db mice livers treated with curcumin 0.75% mixed in their diet for 8 weeks. In addition, nitrosative stress was evaluated. Curcumin increased the expression of AMPK and PPARγ, and diminished NF-κB protein in db/db mice. However, it did not modify the expression of PGC-1α or SIRT1. Nitrosative stress present in db/db mice livers was determined by a unique nitrotyrosylated protein band (75 kDa and was not reverted with curcumin. In conclusion, curcumin regulates the expression of AMPK, PPARγ, and NF-κB; suggesting a beneficial effect for treatment of T2DM complications. In order to observe best beneficial effects it is desirable to administer curcumin in the earlier states of T2DM.
Ravneet K. Boparai
Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 modulates a diverse range of biological functions, including glucose and lipid metabolism, adaptive starvation response, and energy homeostasis, but with limited mechanistic insight. FGF21 treatment has been shown to inhibit hepatic growth hormone (GH intracellular signaling. To evaluate GH axis involvement in FGF21 actions, transgenic mice overexpressing bovine GH were used. Expectedly, in response to FGF21 treatment control littermates showed metabolic improvements whereas GH transgenic mice resisted most of the beneficial effects of FGF21, except an attenuation of the innate hyperinsulinemia. Since FGF21 is believed to exert its effects mostly at the transcriptional level, we analyzed and observed significant upregulation in expression of various genes involved in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis, and antioxidant defense in FGF21-treated controls, but not in GH transgenics. The resistance of GH transgenic mice to FGF21-induced changes underlines the necessity of normal GH signaling for the beneficial effects of FGF21.
Cardiovascular diseases are the most common cause of death among the elderly in the Western world. Resveratrol (3,5,4´-trihydroxystilbene) is a plant-derived polyphenol that was shown to exert diverse anti-aging activity mimicking some of the molecular and functional effects of caloric restriction. This mini-review focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms activated by resveratrol in the vascular system, and explores the links between its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, w...
Full Text Available AIMS: This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL-10, and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.
Rockenstein, Edward; Ubhi, Kiren; Pham, Emiley; Michael, Sarah; Doppler, Edith; Novak, Philipp; Inglis, Chandra; Mante, Michael; Adame, Anthony; Alvarez, X Anton; Moessler, Herbert; Masliah, Eliezer
Neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by the loss of neurotrophic factors, and experimental therapeutical approaches to AD have investigated the efficacy of replacing or augmenting neurotrophic factor activity. Cerebrolysin, a peptide mixture with neurotrophic-like effects, has been shown to improve cognition in patients with AD and to reduce synaptic and behavioral deficits in transgenic (tg) mice overexpressing the amyloid precursor protein (APP). However, it is unclear how long-lasting the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin are and whether or not behavioral and neuropathological alterations will reappear following treatment interruption. The objective of the present study was to investigate the consequences of interrupting Cerebrolysin treatment (washout effect) 3 and 6 months after the completion of a 3-month treatment period in APP tg mice. We demonstrate that, in APP tg mice, Cerebrolysin-induced amelioration of memory deficits in the water maze and reduction of neurodegenerative pathology persist for 3 months after treatment interruption; however, these effects dissipate 6 months following treatment termination. Immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated that the decrease in neocortical and hippocampal amyloid plaque load observed in Cerebrolysin-treated APP tg mice immediately after treatment was no longer apparent at 3 months after treatment interruption, indicating that the beneficial effects of Cerebrolysin at this time point were independent of its effect on amyloid-β deposition. In conclusion, the results demonstrate that the effects of Cerebrolysin persist for a significant period of time following treatment termination and suggest that this prolonged effect may involve the neurotrophic factor-like activity of Cerebrolysin. PMID:21793038
Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated the importance of naturally occurring dietary polyphenols in promoting cardiovascular health and emphasized the significant role these compounds play in limiting the effects of cellular aging. Polyphenols such as resveratrol, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG, and curcumin have been acknowledged for having beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, while some have also been shown to be protective in aging. This review highlights the literature surrounding this topic on the prominently studied and documented polyphenols as pertaining to cardiovascular health and aging.
Lockwood, Nicholas L; Yoshimura, Stephen M
This study examines the uses of humor among cardiovascular patients to test the associations between humor use, satisfaction with companion relationships, and health during recovery. Self-report data were collected from members of two national support groups for patients recovering from cardiovascular disease. As expected, general humorousness associated with social and psychological well-being. Several specific functions of humor in cardiovascular recovery were identified and linked with health perceptions. Antidote humor increased social and psychological health perceptions, whereas conversation regulation humor and distancing humor were negatively related to perceived social and psychological health. Relationship satisfaction mediated most effects. The findings offer new insight into the variability of humor effects, particularly following cardiovascular treatment. PMID:23829386
K. S. Woo
Full Text Available Introduction. Hypertension in association with diabetes (DM, renal impairment (RI, and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH increases the risk of future cardiovascular events. We hypothesize, traditional herbal medicines Danshen and Gegen (D&G have beneficial effects on atherogenesis in these high-risk hypertensive subjects. Subjects and Methods. 90 asymptomatic hypertensive subjects associated with LVH (63.3%, DM (62.2%, or RI (30% were randomized to receive D&G herbal capsules 1 gm/day, 2 gm/day, or identical placebo capsules in double-blind and parallel fashion for 12 months. Brachial flow-mediated dilation (endothelium-dependent dilation, FMD and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT were measured by ultrasound. All data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences in Windows 16.0. Results. Their mean age was 55±8 years, and 74.4% were male. After 12 months of adjunctive therapies and compared with baseline, there were no significant changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hematological, glucose, and creatinine profiles in both placebo and D&G groups. FMD improved significantly during D&G (P=0.0001 and less so after placebo treatment (P=0.001. There was a mild but significant decrease in carotid IMT after D&G (P<0.001 but no significant changes after placebo. A trend of better improvement in FMD after higher versus lower D&G dosages was seen. D&G were well tolerated, with no significant adverse events or blood biochemistry changes. Conclusion. D&G adjunctive treatment was well tolerated and significantly improved atherogenesis in high-risk hypertensive patients, with potential in primary atherosclerosis prevention.
Full Text Available Background The instability of cardiovascular indices and anxiety disorders are common among patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG and could interfere with their recovery. Therefore, improving the cardiovascular indices and anxiety is essential. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of music therapy on anxiety and cardiovascular indices in patients undergoing CABG. Patients and Methods In this randomized controlled trial, 60 patients hospitalized in the cardiovascular surgical intensive care unit of Shahid Beheshti Hospital in Qom city, Iran, in 2013 were selected using a consecutive sampling method and randomly allocated into the experimental and control groups. In the experimental group, patients received 30 minutes of light music, whereas in the control group, patients had 30 minutes of rest in bed. The cardiovascular indices and anxiety were measured immediately before, immediately after and half an hour after the study. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and repeated measures analysis of variance. Results Compared to the immediately before intervention, the mean anxiety scores immediately after and 30 minutes after the intervention were significantly lower in the experimental group (P 0.05. Conclusions Music therapy is effective in decreasing anxiety among patients undergoing CABG. However, the intervention was not effective on cardiovascular indices. Music can effectively be used as a non-pharmacological method to manage anxiety after CABG.
Andersson, Charlotte; Weeke, Peter; Fosbøl, Emil Loldrup;
Low levels of bilirubin are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular adverse events. Weight reduction is known to reduce several cardiovascular risk factors, but effects on bilirubin levels have not been reported. We studied the response of weight loss therapy with sibutramine and life...
Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Regular physical activity is widely accepted as factor that reduces all-cause mortality and improves a number of health outcomes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters, lipid profile and endothelial function in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD. Methods. The study included seventy patients with stable CAD. All the patients were divided into two groups: the group I - 33 patients with CAD and with regular aerobic physical training during cardiovascular rehabilitation program phase II for 3 weeks in our rehabilitation center and 3 weeks after that in their home setting, and the group II (control - 37 patients with CAD and sedentary lifestyle. Exercise training consisted of continual aerobic exercise for 45 minutes on a treadmill, room bicycle or walking, three times a week. We determined lipid and cardiovascular parameters and nitric oxide (NO concentration at the beginning and after a six-week of training. Results. There were no significant differences in body weight, waist circumference and waist/hip ratio at the start and at the end of physical training program. Physical training significantly reduced body mass index after six weeks compared to the initial and control values. Physical training significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate after a six-week training period (p < 0.05. Heart rate was significantly lower after a training period as compared to the control (p < 0.05. A significant reduction of triglyceride and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C concentration after cardiovascular rehabilitation were registered (p < 0.05. The concentration of triglycerides was significantly lower while NO and HDL-C were higher after six weeks in the exercise training group (p < 0.05. Conclusion. Dynamic training can improve blood pressure in patients with moderate to severe hypertension and reduce the
A concern related to the use of insect-resistant Bt-transgenic plants is their potential to harm non-target organisms, especially natural enemies of important crop pests. A few studies purporting to show negative effects of Bt plants on non-target organisms had tremendous negative effects on the per...
Full Text Available Once admired for its supposed safety, nitrous oxide is presently blamed to increase adverse cardiovascular effects through augmenting plasma homocysteine concentrations (1, 2. Hemodynamic alterations following the administration of nitrous oxide are extremely complicated and sometimes contradictory. Enhanced venous return, arterial pressure, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, cardiac output, pupillary dilation and diaphoresis occur under nitrous oxide administration consistent with sympathomimetic properties of nitrous oxide (3. Conversely, reductions in arterial pressure are also probable, especially in patients with coronary artery disease. Nitrous oxide can also depress myocardial contractility due to decreased availability of Ca2+ for contractile activation; yet, myocardial relaxation kinetics remains intact (4. In the presence of a volatile anesthetic, nitrous oxide decreases MVO2 (Myocardial oxygen consumption and myocardial O2 extraction which may exacerbate myocardial ischemia during concomitant reductions in arterial pressure in patients with coronary artery disease. Consequently, it could be conjectured that probable adverse cardiovascular effects following nitrous oxide administration are variable and consequent of a multi-variable phenomenon rather than a single variable such as increased levels of homocysteine. Studied purely focusing on the effects of nitrous oxide are difficult to conduct due to the numerous confounding factors.In a study by Myles et al., hyperhomocysteinemia has been introduced as the source of the adverse cardiovascular effects of nitrous oxide. However, in this study, increased inspired oxygen concentrations were used to overcome arterial desaturation (1. Given the fact that a constant volume and flow rates are used throughout the anesthesia in a particular patient, increasing the concentrations of oxygen would be associated with decreased delivered nitrous oxide and volatile anesthetic concentrations
Deedwania Prakash C
Full Text Available Abstract Although diabetes mellitus is predominantly a metabolic disorder, recent data suggest that it is as much a vascular disorder. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of death and disability in patients with diabetes mellitus. A number of recent reports have emphasized that many patients already have atherosclerosis in progression by the time they are diagnosed with clinical evidence of diabetes mellitus. The increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular complications in diabetic patients is related to the frequently associated dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and endothelial dysfunction. The evolving knowledge regarding the variety of metabolic, hormonal, and hemodynamic abnormalities in patients with diabetes mellitus has led to efforts designed for early identification of individuals at risk of subsequent disease. It has been suggested that insulin resistance, the key abnormality in type II diabetes, often precedes clinical features of diabetes by 5–6 years. Careful attention to the criteria described for the cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome should help identify those at risk at an early stage. The application of nonpharmacologic as well as newer emerging pharmacologic therapies can have beneficial effects in individuals with cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome and/or diabetes mellitus by improving insulin sensitivity and related abnormalities. Early identification and implementation of appropriate therapeutic strategies would be necessary to contain the emerging new epidemic of cardiovascular disease related to diabetes.
Aytekin Guven, Fatma Tolun
Full Text Available Background: Smokeless tobacco use is common in various parts of the world. In Turkey a type of smokeless tobacco called “Maras powder” is widely used in southeastern region. Smoking is known to have an adverse effect on nitric oxide and cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is difference between the effects of Maras powder and cigarette smoking on the cardiovascular risk factors and nitric oxide levels.Methods: In the study, participants were 48 Maras powder users, 50 cigarette smokers and 45 nontobacco user subjects. Blood samples were collected and hematological parameters and lipid parameters were measured. Plasma Nitric oxide level was also detected by using the Griess method.Results: Plasma total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglyceride levels were significantly higher in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001. Plasma HDL-cholesterol levels were significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group than in the nontobacco user group (p<0.001. Plasma Nitric oxide levels were found significantly lower in Maras powder and cigarette smokers group compared to the nontobacco user group (4.9±0.9 µmol/l, 4.8±1 µmol/l, 9.4±3.4 µmol/l, respectively, p<0.001 whereas there was no significant difference between the Maras powder and cigarette smokers group. In multivariate logistic regression model, cigarette smoking (Odds ratio=17.832, p<0.001, Maras powder usage (Odds ratio=12.311, p=0.002 and mean platelet volume (Odds ratio=1.425, p=0.030 remained independently associated with lower Nitric oxide levels.Conclusion: We conclude that Maras powder has similar adverse effects on nitric oxide level and cardiovascular risk parameters and thereby it appears to be harmful as cigarette smoking.
Full Text Available Background/Objectives: Ice application is one of the treatment procedures used in hydrotherapy. Though its various physiological/therapeutic effects were reported, ice bag application (IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes were not reported. Hence, this study aims at evaluating the immediate effect of IBA to head and spine on cardiovascular changes in healthy volunteers. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight subjects were randomized into three sessions ([i] IBA [ii] tap water bag application [TWBA] and [iii] control and intervention was given in one of the 3-different orders. Systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, and pulse rate (PR was assessed before and after 20-min of each intervention. Pulse pressure, mean pressure (MP, rate pressure product (RPP, and double product (Do-P were derived by standard formula. Statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures of analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons with the use of Statistical Package for Social Sciences version-16. Results: The results showed no significant difference between sessions in all variables. Within-group analysis showed significant reductions in SBP, PR, RPP, Do-P in IBA and TWBA sessions; Significant reduction in DBP, MP in IBA unlike TWBA; and no significant changes in all the variables of control session. Conclusions: Result of our study suggest that though both IBA and TWBA to head and spine might be considered as having effect on improving cardiovascular function in healthy volunteers, IBA to head and spine could be considered as a better choice than TWBA.
Hafner, Michael; Trampe, Debra
This study addresses the advertising effectiveness of round and thin models. Integrating previous findings and theories, the authors predict and find that impulsive and reflective product evaluations as responses to thin and round advertisement models diverge. Specifically, four experiments indicate
Nordstoga, Anne Lovise
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the short-term effects of a work-related rehabilitation program on cardiovascular fitness, musculoskeletal symptoms, and cardiac autonomic regulation during sleep, by comparing a group receiving long-stay rehabilitation (3.5 weeks) vs., a group receiving short-stay rehabilitation (4+4 days).Method: Three tests were performed on the patients enrolled for the work-related rehabilitation program: 1) Åstrand/Ryhming cycle test, 2) pressure pain threshold (...
Sivertsen, Jacob; Rosenmeier, Jaya; Holst, Jens Juul;
Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone responsible for amplification of insulin secretion when nutrients are given orally, as opposed to intravenously, and it retains its insulinotropic activity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. GLP-1-based therapies, such as GLP-1 receptor...... on cardiovascular parameters. These effects, possibly independent of the glucose-lowering activity, include changes in blood pressure, endothelial function, body weight, cardiac metabolism, lipid metabolism, left ventricular function, atherosclerosis, and the response to ischemia-reperfusion injury...
Kadhum, Murtaza; Jaffery, Ali; Haq, Adnaan; Bacon, Jenny; Madden, Brendan
Objectives To investigate the acute cardiovascular effects of smoking shisha. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out in six shisha cafes. Participants smoked shisha for a period between 45 min (minimum) and 90 min (maximum). The same brand of tobacco and coal was used. Setting London, UK. Participants Participants were those who had ordered a shisha to smoke and consented to have their blood pressure, heart rate and carbon monoxide levels measured. Excluded subjects were those who had...
Breast milk is the best food for the neonate because it provides a unique combination of proteins , carbohydrates, lipids, minerals and vitamins that ensures the correct growth and development of the infant. In addition, it also contains bioactive compounds responsible for a wide range of beneficial effects such as the promotion of immune system maturation and the protection against infections. Among these bioactive agents , probiotic bacteria have been recently isolated from human milk. The present work reviews the beneficial effects of these bacteria both in animal models and in clinical trials. The promotion of immune system maturation and defence against infections as well as the anti-inflammatory properties are among the main healthy effects of these bacteria. The isolation of probiotic bacteria with beneficial effects for the host provides scientific support for the supplementation of infant formula with these bacteria , in order to advance the pursuit of the main goal of formula:to mimic breast milk and its functional effects as closely as possible.%母乳是新生儿的最佳食品。母乳提供的蛋白质、碳水化合物、脂质、矿物质和维生素的含量和比例最为适宜，能够确保婴幼儿的正确成长和发育。此外，母乳中还含有生物活性物质，具有多种益生作用，例如促进免疫系统成熟，防止感染。最近研究表明，人乳中已经成功分离出益生菌。综述了这些益生菌在动物模型和临床试验中的有益效果。促进免疫系统成熟、抗感染以及抗炎是这些益生细菌的主要健康作用。这些益生菌的成功分离，为婴儿配方奶粉中补充此类有益菌提供了科学参考，可以使婴幼儿配方奶粉更好的模拟母乳的营养和功能效果。
Patel, Zarana; Huff, Janice; Saha, Janapriya; Wang, Minli; Blattnig, Steve; Wu, Honglu; Cucinotta, Francis
Occupational radiation exposure from the space environment may result in non-cancer or non-CNS degenerative tissue diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, cataracts, and respiratory or digestive diseases. However, the magnitude of influence and mechanisms of action of radiation leading to these diseases are not well characterized. Radiation and synergistic effects of radiation cause DNA damage, persistent oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and accelerated tissue aging and degeneration, which may lead to acute or chronic disease of susceptible organ tissues. In particular, cardiovascular pathologies such as atherosclerosis are of major concern following gamma-ray exposure. This provides evidence for possible degenerative tissue effects following exposures to ionizing radiation in the form of the GCR or SPEs expected during long-duration spaceflight. However, the existence of low dose thresholds and dose-rate and radiation quality effects, as well as mechanisms and major risk pathways, are not well-characterized. Degenerative disease risks are difficult to assess because multiple factors, including radiation, are believed to play a role in the etiology of the diseases. As additional evidence is pointing to lower, space-relevant thresholds for these degenerative effects, particularly for cardiovascular disease, additional research with cell and animal studies is required to quantify the magnitude of this risk, understand mechanisms, and determine if additional protection strategies are required.The NASA PEL (Permissive Exposure Limit)s for cataract and cardiovascular risks are based on existing human epidemiology data. Although animal and clinical astronaut data show a significant increase in cataracts following exposure and a reassessment of atomic bomb (A-bomb) data suggests an increase in cardiovascular disease from radiation exposure, additional research is required to fully understand and quantify these adverse outcomes at lower doses (less than 0.5 gray
Full Text Available In the actual debate on refugees in Germany the media’s role was heavily disputed. To understand this controversy, this study examines hostile media perceptions from the audience perspective. Building up on previous research on the hostile media phenomenon and considering literature on pro- and anti-immigrant attitudes, this study explores the effect of positive and negative attitudes towards refugees as well as of mainstream media, social media and interpersonal communication on hostile media perceptions. Using survey data (N=1005 and applying structural equation modelling, several hypotheses on the effects of attitudes and communication variables were tested. The results demonstrate that perceptions of media bias are strongly influenced by people’s negative and positive attitudes towards refugees and the basic hostile media hypothesis was confirmed. Moreover, our findings reveal that the perceived intensity of media coverage on contested aspects of the refugee issue also has an effect on perceptions of hostility. However, the various communication variables did not prove to have direct effects, whereas mainstream media use, social media use, and interpersonal communication with refugees had indirect effects on the hostile media perception.
Full Text Available In this study, beneficiation of beach magnetite sand was investigated by applying high intensity dry magnetic separator. The effect of feed particle size, feed rate, roll rotation speed, induced magnetic field intensity, and separator knife angle on Fe grade and recovery of the magnetite concentrate were investigated. As a result of dry magnetic separation at about 750 Gauss magnetic field conducted with -0.212+0.106 mm size fraction under optimum conditions, a magnetite concentrate assaying 54.41% Fe was obtained with 63.46% recovery where the beach sand sample contained %48.41 Fe.
Full Text Available Occupational exposure to particulate air pollution has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, the risk to welders working today remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the cardiovascular effects of exposure to welding fumes.In a cross-sectional study, structured interviews and biological sampling were conducted for 101 welders and 127 controls (all non-smoking males from southern Sweden. Personal breathing zone sampling of respirable dust was performed. Blood pressure (BP and endothelial function (using peripheral arterial tonometry were measured. Plasma and serum samples were collected from peripheral blood for measurement of C-reactive protein, low-density lipoprotein, homocysteine, serum amyloid A, and cytokines.Welders were exposed to 10-fold higher levels of particles than controls. Welders had significantly higher BP compared to controls, an average of 5 mm Hg higher systolic and diastolic BP (P ≤ 0.001. IL-8 was 3.4 ng/L higher in welders (P=0.010. Years working as a welder were significantly associated with increased BP (β=0.35, 95%CI 0.13 - 0.58, P=0.0024 for systolic BP; β=0.32, 95%CI 0.16 - 0.48, P<0.001 for diastolic BP, adjusted for BMI but exposure to respirable dust was not associated with BP. No clear associations occurred between welding and endothelial function, or other effect markers.A modest increase in BP was found among welders compared to controls suggesting that low-to-moderate exposure to welding fumes remains a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Yaghfoori, Saeed; Razmi, Gholam Reza; Mohri, Mehrdad; Razavizadeh, Ali Reza Taghavi; Movassaghi, Ahmad Reza
The malignant ovine theileriosis is caused by Theileria lestoquardi, which is highly pathogenic in sheep. Theileriosis involves different organs in ruminants, but the effect of the disease on the cardiovascular system is unclear. To understand the pathogenesis of T. lestoquardi on the cardiovascular system, Baluchi breed sheep were infected with the mentioned parasite by releasing unfed adults of Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum, which were infected with T. lestoquardi. The infected sheep were clinically examined on days 0, 2, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 21, and the blood samples were collected for biochemical parameters measurement. At termination of the experiment, the infected sheep were euthanized and pathological examinations of heart tissue were conducted. During experimental infection of sheep with T. lestoquardi, activities of cardiac troponin I (cTnI), lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase, were significantly increased (P˂0.05), while a conspicuous decrease (P˂0.05) was observed in creatine phosphokinase activities. Alterations made in biochemical factors almost coincided with the presence of piroplasm in the blood and schizont in lymph nodes. Maximum and minimum of parasitemia in the sheep stood between 3.3% and 0.28%, respectively. In addition, electrocardiography revealed sinus tachycardia, sinus arrhythmia, sino-atrial block and ST-elevation, atrial premature beat, and alteration in QRS and in T waves' amplitude. Heart histopathological examination showed hyperemia, infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells into interstitial tissue, endocarditis, and focal necrosis of cardiac muscle cells. In addition, in one of the sheep, definite occurrence of infarction was observed. The results indicate that T. lestoquardi infection has devastating pathological impacts on the cardiovascular system of sheep. Furthermore, measurement of the cTnI amount is a useful biochemical factor for diagnosis and for better understanding of the severity and
Rosted, P; Bundgaard, M; Gordon, S; Pedersen, AML
the level of anxiety in patients with dental anxiety and may offer a simple and inexpensive method of treatment. However, the present results need to be tested in a larger randomised clinical trial in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the acupuncture treatment in patients with dental anxiety....
Nardone, Raffaele; De Blasi, Pierpaolo; Zuccoli, Giulio; Tezzon, Frediano; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen
We report a patient showing isolated phonological agraphia after an ischemic stroke involving the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In this patient, we investigated the effects of focal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) given as theta burst stimulation (TBS) over the left SMG, corresponding to the Brodmann area (BA) 40. The patient…
Prebiotics have been shown to enhance bone and gastrointestinal health. Recent data suggest a benefit to weight maintenance as well. However, few data are available in children or adolescents. The interactive effects of prebiotic intake and calcium intake on weight maintenance are unknown. Our objec...
Full Text Available This research was carried out to determine the interaction between some bacteria naturally existing in casing soil and Agaricus bisporus (Sylvan Hauser A15 hypha in laboratory (in vitro and cultivation (in vivo conditions, and to confirm its effects on mushroom yield. Totally 32 bacteria (3 Gram (+ and 29 Fluorescent Pseudomonads was isolated from casing soil and healthy sporophores. As a result of in vitro experiment carried out to determine the effects of bacteria on mycelium growth of A. bisporus, 24 bacterial isolates were found more effective at the rate of 2 to 115% than control treatment. To determine the effects of bacterium, chosen at the end of in vitro experiments, on mushroom yield in cultivation conditions, three experiments were established in March, May and July in 2008. At the end of experiments, bacterial isolates provided 8 – 40 % increase in total yield. Population density and change in population number related to time was observed during growing period, after the inoculation of bacterial isolates into casing soil. According to the results, Pseudomonas fluorescens (T 4/2 and Ş 8, P.putida (Ş 2/1 and Ş 10 and Bacillus mycoides (T 7/2 bacterial isolates were colonized successfully both in casing soil and sporophores.
M. Corr; D.L. Boyle; L.M. Ronacher; B.R. Lew; L.G. van Baarsen; P.P. Tak; G.S. Firestein
Objectives Interferon beta (IFN beta) therapy is effective in multiple sclerosis and murine models of arthritis. Surprisingly, systemic IFN beta treatment induces only minimal improvement in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). To explain this paradox, the authors evaluated the mechanism of IFN beta benefit i
Ji, Xituan; Liu, Wenbo; Xie, Keliang; Liu, Weiping; Qu, Yan; Chao, Xiaodong; Chen, Tao; Zhou, Jun; Fei, Zhou
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of mortality and disability among the young population. It has been shown that hydrogen gas (H(2)) exerts a therapeutic antioxidant activity by selectively reducing hydroxyl radical (OH, the most cytotoxic ROS). Recently, we have found that H(2) inhalation significantly improved the survival rate and organ damage of septic mice. In the present study, we investigated the effectiveness of H(2) therapy on brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown, neurological dysfunction and injury volume in TBI-challenged rats. In addition, we investigated the effects of H(2) treatment on the changes of oxidative products and antioxidant enzymes in brain tissue of TBI-challenged rats. Hydrogen treatment was given by exposure to 2% H(2) from 5 min to 5h after sham or TBI operation, respectively. Here, we found that TBI-challenged rats showed significant brain injuries characterized by the increase of BBB permeability, brain edema and lesion volume as well as neurological dysfunction, which was significantly attenuated by 2% H(2) treatment. In addition, we found that the decrease of oxidative products and the increase of endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activities in the brain tissue may be associated with the protective effects of H(2) treatment in TBI-challenged rats. The present study supports that H(2) inhalation may be a more effective therapeutic strategy for patients with TBI. PMID:20654594
Full Text Available Exercise training (Ex has been recommended for its beneficial effects in hypertensive states. The present study evaluated the time-course effects of Ex without workload on mean arterial pressure (MAP, reflex bradycardia, cardiac and renal histology, and oxidative stress in two-kidney, one-clip (2K1C hypertensive rats. Male Fischer rats (10 weeks old; 150–180 g underwent surgery (2K1C or SHAM and were subsequently divided into a sedentary (SED group and Ex group (swimming 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks. Until week 4, Ex decreased MAP, increased reflex bradycardia, prevented concentric hypertrophy, reduced collagen deposition in the myocardium and kidneys, decreased the level of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS in the left ventricle, and increased the catalase (CAT activity in the left ventricle and both kidneys. From week 6 to week 10, however, MAP and reflex bradycardia in 2K1C Ex rats became similar to those in 2K1C SED rats. Ex effectively reduced heart rate and prevented collagen deposition in the heart and both kidneys up to week 10, and restored the level of TBARS in the left ventricle and clipped kidney and the CAT activity in both kidneys until week 8. Ex without workload for 10 weeks in 2K1C rats provided distinct beneficial effects. The early effects of Ex on cardiovascular function included reversing MAP and reflex bradycardia. The later effects of Ex included preventing structural alterations in the heart and kidney by decreasing oxidative stress and reducing injuries in these organs during hypertension.
Cruz, Fábio C; Duarte, Josiane O; Leão, Rodrigo M; Hummel, Luiz F V; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C
It has been demonstrated that disruption of social bonds and perceived isolation (loneliness) are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Adolescence is proposed as a period of vulnerability to stress. Nevertheless, the impact of chronic social stress during this ontogenic period in cardiovascular function is poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the impact in cardiovascular function of social isolation for 3 weeks in adolescent and adult male rats. Also, the long-term effects of social isolation during adolescence were investigated longitudinally. Social isolation reduced body weight in adolescent, but not in adult animals. Disruption of social bonds during adolescence increased arterial pressure without affecting heart rate and pulse pressure (PP). Nevertheless, social isolation in adulthood reduced systolic arterial pressure and increased diastolic arterial pressure, which in turn decreased PP without affecting mean arterial pressure. Cardiovascular changes in adolescents, but not adults, were followed by facilitation of both baroreflex sensitivity and vascular reactivity to the vasodilator agent acetylcholine. Vascular responsiveness to either the vasodilator agent sodium nitroprusside or the vasoconstrictor agent phenylephrine was not affected by social isolation. Except for the changes in body weight and baroreflex sensitivity, all alterations evoked by social isolation during adolescence were reversed in adulthood after moving animals from isolated to collective housing. These findings suggest a vulnerability of adolescents to the effects of chronic social isolation in cardiovascular function. However, results indicate minimal cardiovascular consequences in adulthood of disruption of social bonds during adolescence. PMID:25914339
Fatma A. Khalil, Amal A. A. EL-Kirsh, Enas Ali Kamel and Nourhan Gamal EL-Rahmany
Keywords: Methotrexate, Propolis extract, Oxidative damage, Liver, Brain, Antioxidant enzymes, Rats Methotrexate (MTX) is an anti-folate drug that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of MTX is often limited by its severe side effects and toxic sequelae. Propolis (bee glue) is a natural bee product rich in polyphenolic compounds known for antioxidant activity. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective role of propolis...
Abstract Dietary xylitol supplementation increases bone calcium and phosphorus concentrations in healthy rats, as well as protects against the decrease of bone minerals and bone density during experimental osteoporosis. This suggests that dietary xylitol might have a favorable effect on the prevention of osteoporosis. However, before any conclusions can be drawn about the usefulness of a compound, studies including structural evaluation and biomechanical testing of ...
Huang, Chi-Chang; Tung, Yu-Tang; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Yi-Ming; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Hsu, Mei-Chich
Background Cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia contain large amounts of polyphenols. Polyphenols are well-known phytochemicals and found in plants, and have modulated physiological and molecular pathways that are involved in energy metabolism, adiposity, and obesity. Methods To evaluate the obesity-lowering effect of a combined extract (comprising cocoa, coffee, green tea and garcinia; CCGG) in high-energy diet (HED)-induced obese rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats (8 weeks old) were randomly d...
Cha, Moon Ho; Eom, Ji Hye; Lee, Yoon Sook; Kim, Woon Young; Park, Young Cheol; Min, Sam Hong; Kim, Jae Hwan
Purpose The aim of this prospective, double-blind, randomized study was to investigate the analgesic effects of low-dose ketamine on intravenous patient-controlled analgesia (IV-PCA) with fentanyl for pain control in pediatric patients following the Nuss procedure for pectus excavatum. Materials and Methods Sixty pediatric patients undergoing the Nuss procedure were randomly assigned to receive fentanyl (Group F, n=30) or fentanyl plus ketamine (Group FK, n=30). Ten minutes before the end of ...
This paper makes an empirical assessment of the relationship between financialisation and real investment by non-financial corporations using panel data composed of 27 European Union countries over 19 years (from 1995 to 2013). On one hand, financialisation leads to a rise in financial investments, deviating funds from real investments (“crowding out” effect). On the other, pressures from shareholders to intensify financial payments restrict the funds available for new real investments. We es...
Full Text Available Adenosine, a catabolite of ATP, displays a wide variety of effects in the heart including regulation of cardiac response to myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. Nonetheless, the precise mechanism of adenosine-induced cardioprotection is still elusive. Isolated Sprague-Dawley rat hearts underwent 30 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion using a Langendorff apparatus. Both adenosine and acetylcholine treatment recovered the post-reperfusion cardiac function associated with adenosine and muscarinic receptors activation. Simultaneous administration of adenosine and acetylcholine failed to exert any additive protective effect, suggesting a shared mechanism between the two. Our data further revealed a cross-talk between the adenosine and acetylcholine receptor signaling in reperfused rat hearts. Interestingly, the selective M(2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist methoctramine significantly attenuated the cardioprotective effect of adenosine. In addition, treatment with adenosine upregulated the expression and the maximal binding capacity of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, which were inhibited by the selective A(1 adenosine receptor antagonist 8-Cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX and the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME. These data suggested a possible functional coupling between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors behind the observed cardioprotection. Furthermore, nitric oxide was found involved in triggering the response to each of the two receptor agonist. In summary, there may be a cross-talk between the adenosine and muscarinic receptors in ischemic/reperfused myocardium with nitric oxide synthase might serve as the distal converging point. In addition, adenosine contributes to the invigorating effect of adenosine on muscarinic receptor thereby prompting to regulation of cardiac function. These findings argue for a potentially novel mechanism behind the adenosine
Lange, Matthias; Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Cox, Robert A.; Nakano, Yoshimitsu; Westphal, Martin; Traber, Lillian D.; Herndon, David N.; Traber, Daniel L.
Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are critically involved in the development of pulmonary failure secondary to acute lung injury. Here we tested the hypothesis that simultaneous blockade of inducible and neuronal nitric oxide synthase effectively prevents the pulmonary lesions in an ovine model of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced by combined burn and smoke inhalation injury. Chronically instrumented sheep were allocated to a sham-injured group (n = 6), an injured a...
Full Text Available Despite its insulin sensitizing effects, pioglitazone may induce weight gain leading to an increased risk of development of insulin resistance. A novel sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2 inhibitor, canagliflozin, provides not only glycemic control but also body weight reduction through an insulin-independent mechanism. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effects of these agents on body weight control and insulin sensitivity.Effects of combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone were evaluated in established diabetic KK-Ay mice and prediabetic Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats.In the KK-Ay mice, the combination therapy further improved glycemic control compared with canagliflozin or pioglitazone monotherapy. Furthermore, the combination significantly attenuated body weight and fat gain induced by pioglitazone and improved hyperinsulinemia. In the ZDF rats, early intervention with pioglitazone monotherapy almost completely prevented the progressive development of hyperglycemia, and no further improvement was observed by add-on treatment with canagliflozin. However, the combination significantly reduced pioglitazone-induced weight gain and adiposity and improved the Matsuda index, suggesting improved whole-body insulin sensitivity.Our study indicates that combination therapy with canagliflozin and pioglitazone improves insulin sensitivity partly by preventing glucotoxicity and, at least partly, by attenuating pioglitazone-induced body weight gain in two different obese diabetic animal models. This combination therapy may prove to be a valuable option for the treatment and prevention of obese type 2 diabetes.
Sherif, El-Sayed M. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Center of Excellence for Research in Engineering Materials (CEREM), College of Engineering, King Saud University, P. O. Box 800, Al-Riyadh 11421 (Saudi Arabia)], E-mail: email@example.com; Potgieter, J.H. [Chemistry and Materials Division, School of Biology, Chemistry and Health Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Oxford Road, Manchester M1 5GD (United Kingdom); Comins, J.D. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Physics, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Cornish, L.; Olubambi, P.A.; Machio, C.N. [DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, Wits 2050 (South Africa)
The effect of varying ruthenium contents of 0.00, 0.14, 0.22, and 0.28% on the corrosion of 22%Cr-9%Ni-3%Mo duplex stainless steel (DSS) after different immersion intervals in 3.5% NaCl solutions has been investigated. The study was carried out using open-circuit potential, potentiodynamic cyclic polarization, chronoamperometry, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and weight-loss measurements. Particular attention was paid to the effect of Ru on the pitting corrosion of DSS in the chloride solutions. Electrochemical measurements indicated that the presence of Ru passivates the DSS alloy by decreasing its corrosion parameters. Furthermore, it shifts the corrosion and pitting potentials to more positive values. This effect was found to increase with increasing Ru content and also with increased immersion time of the alloy in the chloride solution before measurements. Weight-loss time data after varied exposure periods (4-20 days) showed that the weight-loss and corrosion rate of DSS significantly decrease with increasing Ru contents.
Song, Moon-Koo; Um, Jae-Young; Jang, Hyeung-Jin; Lee, Byung-Cheol
Obesity is a major contributor to both glucose intolerance and metabolic syndrome. In this study, we investigated the anti-obesity and anti-hyperglycemic effects of Ephedra sinica on high-fat diet-fed mice. Male ICR mice were divided into four groups; the normal group, the obese and diabetic control group treated with a high-fat diet, the positive control group treated with a high-fat diet containing acarbose, and the experimental group treated with a high-fat diet containing Ephedra sinica. The effects of Ephedra sinica on obesity and glucose intolerance were measured by an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), plasma biochemistry, body and epididymal fat weight; the expression of adiponectin, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α), tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and leptin was also determined. Ephedra sinica reduced weight gain and epididymal fat accumulation, improved glucose intolerance on the OGTT, decreased triglycerides and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared to the controls. Moreover, it reduced weight gain and fasting glucose levels and improved HDL-cholesterol levels more than acarbose. Gene expression analysis revealed that Ephedra sinica upregulated the expression of adiponectin and PPAR-α, and downregulated the expression of TNF-α. From these results, we suggest that Ephedra sinica may reduce obesity and hyperglycemia by increasing PPAR-α and adiponectin and reducing TNF-α, and that it may have the potential to be used clinically as an ingredient in food or drugs effective in obesity-related glucose intolerance treatments. PMID:22969956
Yared Tekabe; Maria Kollaros; Qing Li; Geping Zhang; Chong Li; Ann Marie Schmidt; Johnson, Lynne L.
Objective. Receptor for advanced glycated endproducts (RAGE) plays an important role in atherogenesis in diabetes. We imaged RAGE to investigate the effect of glucose control to suppress RAGE and reduce atherosclerosis in apolipoprotein E null (apoE−/−) diabetic mice. Methods and Results. Thirty-three apoE−/− mice received streptozotocin and 6 weeks later 15 began treatment with insulin implants. Blood glucose measurements during study averaged: 140 ± 23 mg/dL (treated) and 354 ± 14 mg/dL (un...
Ping-pingLI; Yue-tengCHEN; QuanLIU; Su-juanSUN; Zhu-fangSHEN
AIM: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) alpha and PPAR gamma agonists lower lipid accumulation by different mechanisms. We investigated whether benefits could be achieved on insulin sensitivity and lipid metabolism by the dual PPARalpha/gamma agonist chiglitazar in MSG rats. METHODS: Chiglitazar was orally administered in 5, 10, 20 mg-kg-~.d~ dosages in MSG rats for 40 d. The drug therapeutic effect was evaluated by glucose tolerance tests, insulin tolerance tests, and hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamps technique. The level of
Cheng XU; Li-li WANG; Hong-ying LIU; Xing-bo ZHOU; Ying-lin CAO; Song LI
Aim: To examine the effects of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γdual agonist C333H on insulin resistance and lipid metabolism.Methods: An established dual-luciferase reporter gene assay system was used in vitro to test the activity of C333H with respect to the transcription of human PPARα and PPARγ. A preadipocyte differentiation assay and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction were used to detect the functional activities of C333H. In db/db mice, the effects of C333H were investigated with respect to lowering of blood glucose and lipid levels. Results: C333H was determined to be a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist because it strongly induced luciferase activity on human PPARα and PPARγ, promoting the differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, and functioning in upregulating the expression of some glucose and lipid metabolic target genes of the PPAR. In addition, C333H efficiently reduced blood lipid and glucose concentrations in db/db diabetic mice. Conclusion: C333H has dual action on both PPARα and PPARγ, and might be of interest for the amelioration of lipid metabolic disorders and insulin resistance associated with type 2 diabetes.
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Various types of infertility are associated with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and diabetes. Development of oxidative stress is one the most important factors in the alteration of spermatogenesis in diabetic conditions. Consequently, the reduction of oxidative stress with antioxidant compounds can be effective in the reduction of tissue alterations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of coenzyme Q10 in improvement of spermatogenesis in adult diabetic rats. Material and Methods: 32 adult rats were divided into four groups of control and treatment. Coenzyme Q10 (10 mg/kg body weight - b.w. was administrated to one control and one diabetic (intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg b.w. of Streptozotocin groups. Blood concentrations of FSH, LH and Testosterone were measured. Histology of testicular tissue and sperm analysis were considered for evaluation of spermatogenesis. Results: Administration of Coenzyme Q10 led to increase of pituitary gonadotropins levels in diabetic rats. Testosterone levels were not changed significantly. Testicular morphology, spermatogenic indices and sperm analysis were improved in treated diabetic rats. Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that the use of Coenzyme Q10 has positive effects in reduction of spermatogenic alterations following induction of experimental diabetes in rats.
Hashidume, Tsutomu; Kato, Asuka; Tanaka, Tomohiro; Miyoshi, Shoko; Itoh, Nobuyuki; Nakata, Rieko; Inoue, Hiroyasu; Oikawa, Akira; Nakai, Yuji; Shimizu, Makoto; Inoue, Jun; Sato, Ryuichiro
Soy protein β-conglycinin has serum lipid-lowering and anti-obesity effects. We showed that single ingestion of β-conglycinin after fasting alters gene expression in mouse liver. A sharp increase in fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) gene expression, which is depressed by normal feeding, resulted in increased postprandial circulating FGF21 levels along with a significant decrease in adipose tissue weights. Most increases in gene expressions, including FGF21, were targets for the activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), but not for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α. Overexpression of a dominant-negative form of ATF4 significantly reduced β-conglycinin-induced increases in hepatic FGF21 gene expression. In FGF21-deficient mice, β-conglycinin effects were partially abolished. Methionine supplementation to the diet or primary hepatocyte culture medium demonstrated its importance for activating liver or hepatocyte ATF4-FGF21 signaling. Thus, dietary β-conglycinin intake can impact hepatic and systemic metabolism by increasing the postprandial circulating FGF21 levels. PMID:27312476
Nina A Mikirova, Joseph J Casciari, Ronald E Hunninghake, Margaret M Beezley
Full Text Available Being overweight or obese is associated with an increased risk for the development of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia of obesity is characterized by elevated fasting triglycerides and decreased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations. Endothelial damage and dysfunction is considered to be a major underlying mechanism for the elevated cardiovascular risk associated with increased adiposity. Alterations in endothelial cells and stem/endothelial progenitor cell function associated with overweight and obesity predispose to atherosclerosis and thrombosis.In our study, we analyzed the effect of a low calorie diet in combination with oral supplementation by vitamins, minerals, probiotics and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG, 125-180 IUs on the body composition, lipid profile and CD34-positive cells in circulation.During this dieting program, the following parameters were assessed weekly for all participants: fat free mass, body fat, BMI, extracellular/intracellular water, total body water and basal metabolic rate. For part of participants blood chemistry parameters and circulating CD34-positive cells were determined before and after dieting.The data indicated that the treatments not only reduced body fat mass and total mass but also improved the lipid profile. The changes in body composition correlated with the level of lipoproteins responsible for the increased cardiovascular risk factors. These changes in body composition and lipid profile parameters coincided with the improvement of circulatory progenitor cell numbers.As the result of our study, we concluded that the improvement of body composition affects the number of stem/progenitor cells in circulation.
Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated the effects of a forest bathing on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters. Nineteen middle-aged male subjects were selected after they provided informed consent. These subjects took day trips to a forest park in Agematsu, Nagano Prefecture, and to an urban area of Nagano Prefecture as control in August 2015. On both trips, they walked 2.6 km for 80 min each in the morning and afternoon on Saturdays. Blood and urine were sampled before and after each trip. Cardiovascular and metabolic parameters were measured. Blood pressure and pulse rate were measured during the trips. The Japanese version of the profile of mood states (POMS test was conducted before, during, and after the trips. Ambient temperature and humidity were monitored during the trips. The forest bathing program significantly reduced pulse rate and significantly increased the score for vigor and decreased the scores for depression, fatigue, anxiety, and confusion. Urinary adrenaline after forest bathing showed a tendency toward decrease. Urinary dopamine after forest bathing was significantly lower than that after urban area walking, suggesting the relaxing effect of the forest bathing. Serum adiponectin after the forest bathing was significantly greater than that after urban area walking.
The authors have compared the effects of β-adrenergic stimulation on the heart and peripheral vasculature of young (2-mo-old) and older (12-mo-old) rats both in the presence and absence of triiodothyronine (T3)-induced hyperthyroidism. The hemodynamic consequences of T3 treatment were less prominent in the aged hyperthyroid rats compared with young hyperthyroid rats (both in intact and pithed rats). There was a decrease in sensitivity of chronotropic responsiveness to isoproterenol in older pithed rats, which was apparently reversed by T3 treatment. The number and affinity of myocardial β-adrenergic receptor sites measured by [125I]cyanopindolol were not significantly different in young and older control rats; also, β-receptor density increased to a similar extent in both young and older T3-treated rats. The ability of isoproterenol to relax mesenteric arterial rings, markedly blunted in older rats, was partially restored by T3 treatment without their being any change in isoproterenol-mediated relaxation in the arterial preparation from young rats. The number and affinity of the β-adrenergic receptors measured in the mesenteric arteries was unaffected by either aging or T3 treatment. The data suggest that effects of thyroid hormone and age-related alterations of cardiovascular responsiveness to β-adrenergic stimulation are interrelated in a complex fashion with a net result that the hyperkinetic cardiovascular manifestations in hyperthyroidism are attenuated in the older animals
Mahajan, Mridula; Mohan, Gurinder
Background. Menopause, a form of reproductive aging, is marked by many hormonal variations which cause imbalance in the oxidative processes resulting in onset of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to analyze the effect of oxidative stress in an early detection of CVD in all menopausal women both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic. Methods and Results. Study included 523 menopausal women (265 CVD and 258 non-CVD). They were screened for lipid profile, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum LDL carbonyl protein, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pearson's correlation was observed between MDA and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in both normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.207; p < 0.01) CVD group as compared to non-CVD menopausal women. Significant correlation was also observed between LDL carbonyl content and AIP in normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.248; p < 0.01) CVD menopausal women as compared to non-CVD ones. Conclusion. Strong correlation between atherogenic index of plasma and oxidative stress in CVD menopausal women reveals oxidative stress as an effective prognostic tool for an early detection of cardiovascular risk. PMID:27069688
Mersereau, Eric J; Boyle, Cody A; Poitra, Shelby; Espinoza, Ana; Seiler, Joclyn; Longie, Robert; Delvo, Lisa; Szarkowski, Megan; Maliske, Joshua; Chalmers, Sarah; Darland, Diane C; Darland, Tristan
A sizeable portion of the societal drain from cocaine abuse results from the complications of in utero drug exposure. Because of challenges in using humans and mammalian model organisms as test subjects, much debate remains about the impact of in utero cocaine exposure. Zebrafish offer a number of advantages as a model in longitudinal toxicology studies and are quite sensitive physiologically and behaviorally to cocaine. In this study, we have used zebrafish to model the effects of embryonic pre-exposure to cocaine on development and on subsequent cardiovascular physiology and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in longitudinal adults. Larval fish showed a progressive decrease in telencephalic size with increased doses of cocaine. These treated larvae also showed a dose dependent response in heart rate that persisted 24 h after drug cessation. Embryonic cocaine exposure had little effect on overall health of longitudinal adults, but subtle changes in cardiovascular physiology were seen including decreased sensitivity to isoproterenol and increased sensitivity to cocaine. These longitudinal adult fish also showed an embryonic dose-dependent change in CPP behavior, suggesting an increased sensitivity. These studies clearly show that pre-exposure during embryonic development affects subsequent cocaine sensitivity in longitudinal adults. PMID:27258254
Full Text Available Investigation on the effect of phosphorus on vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection, and dual inoculation of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae + rhizobium on growth of white clover under field microplots and pot experiments was conducted on fluvo-aquic soils of semi-arid region in north China. The results showed that 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate was the most favorable phosphorus level for vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal infection ; mycorrhizal infection, nodulation, dry weight of shoots and roots, total uptake of nitrogen, phosphorus and other elements, the final yields and recovery of phosphorus of white clover were significantly increased by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal inoculation and dual inoculation with vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobium. The highest response of inoculation was obtained by adding fertilizer phosphorus at the level of 60 kg P205 ha in form of superphosphate.