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Sample records for beneath north-west iberia

  1. Achievements in emergency medical rescue service, North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-08-28

    Aug 28, 2006 ... In North-West province this process of provincialisation took place in ... Emergency Medical Rescue Service, Department of Health, North-West. Victor R .... recovery after CPR treatment should be started as soon as possible ...

  2. Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North West Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Augier, Lucrecia; Gastaminza, Gerardo; Lizondo, Marcelo; Argañaraz, Manuel; Willink, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is expanded to North West Argentina.

  3. Building an infrastructure project performance in the North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    projects are numerous, and it is believed that the inputs and views of as many participants ... all companies listed. ..... Inadequate contingency allowance by the contractor; .... facing small contractors in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  4. SRP Meeting: North west regional conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Annette [NNC Limited, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2002-06-01

    The SRP North West Regional Conference was held in the Education Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust in Manchester on the subject of Ionising Regulations 1999 (IRR99) two years on. The Chairman for the morning session was David Abbott from BNFL and for the afternoon was Anne Walker from Christie Hospital. Dr Joanne Nettleton, a HM Principal Specialist Inspector (Radiation) in the Field Operations Directorate, explained the view of the HSE. She outlined that the IRR99 have been in force since January 2000 after a comprehensive consultation exercise. The results that have been seen to date are, not surprisingly, no increase in exposure levels, an increased profile of radiation protection and an improved standing of RPAs. The SRP run a Continuing Professional Development scheme as a personal aid to maintain an adequate level of professionalism, demonstrate competence and as a guide to employers for them to maintain a professional Radiation Protection Service. There are currently over 300 people using the SRPs CPD scheme. They have also detailed a new mentoring system. In conclusion RPA 2000 is successfully meeting the needs of RPAs in the UK and the portfolios of evidence are improving. Overall, the SRP CPD scheme is effective and cheap. David Owen, Radiological Protection Manager responsible for policy and strategy issues in this field, gave a summary of the operation of the BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme, of which he is Secretary to the Management Board. The BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme is recognised by the HSE and has a number of subtle differences from the RPA 2000 scheme. RPAs advise on the restriction of exposure, designation of area, local rules, selection of the RPS, the training of the RPS and other staff, hazard identification, risk assessment, facility design, contingency planning, waste management and transport and any other matters relating to ionising radiation. Becoming an RPA within the medical sector is not easy. Firstly there is two years basic training

  5. SRP Meeting: North west regional conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, Annette

    2002-01-01

    The SRP North West Regional Conference was held in the Education Centre, Christie Hospital NHS Trust in Manchester on the subject of Ionising Regulations 1999 (IRR99) two years on. The Chairman for the morning session was David Abbott from BNFL and for the afternoon was Anne Walker from Christie Hospital. Dr Joanne Nettleton, a HM Principal Specialist Inspector (Radiation) in the Field Operations Directorate, explained the view of the HSE. She outlined that the IRR99 have been in force since January 2000 after a comprehensive consultation exercise. The results that have been seen to date are, not surprisingly, no increase in exposure levels, an increased profile of radiation protection and an improved standing of RPAs. The SRP run a Continuing Professional Development scheme as a personal aid to maintain an adequate level of professionalism, demonstrate competence and as a guide to employers for them to maintain a professional Radiation Protection Service. There are currently over 300 people using the SRPs CPD scheme. They have also detailed a new mentoring system. In conclusion RPA 2000 is successfully meeting the needs of RPAs in the UK and the portfolios of evidence are improving. Overall, the SRP CPD scheme is effective and cheap. David Owen, Radiological Protection Manager responsible for policy and strategy issues in this field, gave a summary of the operation of the BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme, of which he is Secretary to the Management Board. The BNFL RPA Assessment Scheme is recognised by the HSE and has a number of subtle differences from the RPA 2000 scheme. RPAs advise on the restriction of exposure, designation of area, local rules, selection of the RPS, the training of the RPS and other staff, hazard identification, risk assessment, facility design, contingency planning, waste management and transport and any other matters relating to ionising radiation. Becoming an RPA within the medical sector is not easy. Firstly there is two years basic training

  6. Earliest occupation of north-west Europe: A coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  7. Inventory of North-West European algae initiatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 an inventory of North-West European (NWE) algae initiatives was carried out to get an impression of the market and research activities on algae production and refinery, especially for bioenergy purposes. A questionnaire was developed that would provide the EnAlgae project with information on

  8. The North West cyber security industry : export potential assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Prince, Daniel David Campbell; Fitton, Oliver James

    2016-01-01

    Cyber Security businesses in the North West of England form an industry which is growing. This study has taken an in depth analysis of the industry to determine its size, make up and readiness to export and is the first of its kind classifying business within the framework identified by the UKTI cyber export strategy. This report presents the findings of the research undertaken independently by Lancaster University commissioned by the UKTI.

  9. North West Surrey's locality hubs - delivering integrated care

    OpenAIRE

    Compton, Lisa; Wilkinson, Peter; Lawn, Liz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: North West Surrey CCG (NWSCCG) is establishing Locality Hubs – physical buildings offering a fully integrated GP-led, multi-disciplinary ‘one-stop-shop’ services in the community for a defined cohort of frail elderly patients with multiple core morbidities. Hubs will ultimately deliver proactive and reactive care, available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.The key drivers are;Ageing population, people living longer & more people living with chronic conditionsCost & demand...

  10. Effects of ozone on crops in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, Muhammad Nauman; Büker, Patrick; Khalid, Sofia; Van Den Berg, Leon; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Wahid, Abdul; Emberson, Lisa; Power, Sally A.; Ashmore, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Although ozone is well-documented to reduce crop yields in the densely populated Indo-Gangetic Plain, there is little knowledge of its effects in other parts of south Asia. We surveyed crops close to the city of Peshawar, in north-west Pakistan, for visible injury, linking this to passive measurements of ozone concentrations. Foliar injury was found on potato, onion and cotton when mean monthly ozone concentrations exceeded 45 ppb. The symptoms on onion were reproduced in ozone fumigation experiments, which also showed that daytime ozone concentrations of 60 ppb significantly reduce the growth of a major Pakistani onion variety. Aphid infestation on spinach was also reduced at these elevated ozone concentrations. The ozone concentrations measured in April–May in Peshawar, and used in the fumigation experiment, are comparable to those that have been modelled to occur over many parts of south Asia, where ozone may be a significant threat to sensitive crops. -- Highlights: ► Visible ozone injury to onion, cotton and potato was identified in north-west Pakistan. ► The symptoms on onion were reproduced by exposure to elevated ozone. ► Elevated ozone levels also significantly reduced onion growth. ► Levels of aphid infestation on spinach were lower under elevated ozone. ► These effects were observed at ozone levels that have been modelled to occur widely across south Asia. -- Ozone concentrations in NW Pakistan have adverse effects on sensitive crop species

  11. Inter-specific and seasonal comparison of the niches occupied by small cetaceans off north-west Iberia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Garcia, Rut; MacLeod, C. D.; Pierce, G. J.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of species' ecological niches can be used to assess ecological interactions between different taxa. Sixteen species of cetaceans have been recorded in Galician waters and niche partitioning is expected to occur among these species in order to allow them to co-exist. In this study, the n...

  12. Sarcomas in north west England: I. Histopathological peer review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M; Hartley, A L; Blair, V; Birch, J M; Banerjee, S S; Freemont, A J; McClure, J; McWilliam, L J

    1991-08-01

    A total of 468 cases of bone, soft tissue and visceral sarcomas (and certain other tumours) diagnosed during the years 1982-84 in North West England were entered in a study of histopathological peer review, incidence and survival. This paper describes the effects of peer review. Material was reviewed by a panel of five pathologists for 413 of the 450 cases originally registered as sarcomas with the Regional Cancer Registry. The diagnosis of sarcomas was confirmed in 76% cases and and there was agreement on sub-type for 53% cases. Measures of agreement were lowest for the two sub-types most commonly diagnosed i.e. malignant fibrous histiocytoma and leiomyosarcoma. Degree of agreement between individual pathologists and final panel diagnosis was also very variable but never less than 65%. It is concluded that second opinion is essential in cases of presumed sarcomas for studies of incidence and aetiology and to ensure that appropriate treatment is selected.

  13. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwat, K.B.; Hashim, S.; Ali, H.

    2010-01-01

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  14. Weed management: a case study from north-west Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marwat, K B; Hashim, S; Ali, H [KPK Agriculture University, Peshawar (Pakistan). Dept. of Weed Science

    2010-12-15

    Alien and exotic plant invasions are threatening the floral diversity around the globe and affect ecological processes. Weed invasion has been documented in North-West Pakistan. A total of 16 weeds were reported as invasive. These were Xanthium strumarium, Ipomoea eriocarpa, Alternanthera pungens, Trianthema portulacastrum, Tagetes minuta, Imperata cylindrica, Amaranthus hybridus subsp. hybridus, Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera, Ailanthus altissima, Pistia stratiotes, Phragmites australis, Parthenium hysterophorus, Cannabis sativa, Galium aparine and Emex spinosus. Among these Robinia pseudo-acacia, Broussonetia papyrifera and Ailanthus altissima are trees and were purposely introduced as they later became invasive. They were aggressive in nature and replaced or suppressed the local vegetation. Their distribution, history of invasion and management has been discussed here. The behaviour and association of the 36 problem weeds with different crops has also been outlined as they perspired from the farmers. (author)

  15. Public information - North West region of Russian Federation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saiapina, A.

    2000-01-01

    Center of Public Information (CPI) in North West region of Russian Federation is a part of the State Regional Educational Center of Ministry of the Russian Federation on atomic energy. The premises of the Centre (about 500 sq. rn.) include the exposition hall, video hall, the hall for press conferences, rooms for meetings, conferences. CPI provides the visitor with the wide range of information dealing with the nuclear power. It was opened in the structure of State Regional Educational Centre in 1997. Regional Centre of Public Information of MINATOM of Russia in Saint Petersburg was created according to the agreement with the European Union Commission in the framework of the TACIS program with the participation of French companies EDF, COGEMA, STEPFER. The objectives of the CPI are discussed (authors)

  16. The North West Sturgeon Upgrader: Good Money after Bad?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Ted Morton

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The North West Upgrader (NWU project illustrates the risks of government-led efforts to diversify Alberta’s economy. What began as a low-risk, low-cost project to encourage domestic bitumen upgrading has morphed into a multi-billion dollar boondoggle with high risks for Alberta taxpayers. Originally, the Government of Alberta (GOA intended to collect bitumen from producers in lieu of royalties and sell it to provincial upgraders, adding value to the commodity and creating jobs and revenues in Alberta. The private sector was to build and finance the new upgraders, as well as assume the market risks of low margins. The 2008 financial collapse effectively killed that plan. With just one prospect (NWU remaining, the Stelmach government decided to be more than the middleman. The GOA committed to retain ownership of the bitumen up to the point of sale, pay NWU a toll for the processing, and then sell the upgraded product. Under a new “take or pay” arrangement, the GOA assumed liabilities estimated at $19 billion over the 30-year contract with NWU, as well as the market risk of having to sell the upgraded product at below costs. As four different premiers and six different energy ministers cycled through Edmonton, construction costs soared to over $8 billion. The original $6.5 billion cap on the GOA’s liability for construction costs disappeared, and the GOA—and by extension, Alberta taxpayers— are now on the hook for $26 billion in processing payments — the equivalent of $63 per barrel. Falling oil prices are further undermining the prospects for the investment to break even. Written from a rare insider’s perspective, this paper analyzes the lack of effective government oversight and due diligence surrounding the North West Upgrade. Rather than being an exception, NWU fits the larger and longer pattern of failed “forced-growth” diversification initiatives in Alberta and other provinces. Alberta politicians should think long and

  17. North-West Russia in the context of European integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  18. Salience Effects in the North-West of England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Jansen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of how we can define salience, what properties it includes and how we can quantify it have been discussed widely over the past thirty years but we still have more questions than answers about this phenomenon, e. g. not only how salience arises, but also how we can define it. However, despite the lack of a clear definition, salience is often taken into account as an explanatory factor in language change. The scientific discourse on salience has in most cases revolved around phonetic features, while hardly any variables on other linguistic levels have been investigated in terms of their salience. Hence, one goal of this paper is to argue for an expanded view of salience in the sociolinguistic context. This article investigates the variation and change of two groups of variables in Carlisle, an urban speech community in the north west of England. I analyse the variable (th and in particular the replacement of /θ/ with [f] which is widely known as th-fronting. The use of three discourse markers is also examined. Both groups of features will then be discussed in the light of sociolinguistic salience.

  19. Exploring Childcare: A North West of Ireland Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen O'Hara

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to explore and examine if the provision of full day care improves the quality of life for children and their parents. There are now 60.8% of women employed in the workforce (CSO, 2008. This means many changes for children, parents and families. Twenty-seven childcare managers in the north west of Ireland were interviewed. Also, 325 questionnaires were completed by working parents. Babies as young as four months are being cared for in childcare facilities from 6.45am until 6pm daily, five days per week. Some children are spending up to 11 hours per day in childcare facilities. The study concluded that full day care can have both positive and negative effects for children. Childcare facilities are providing good quality childcare encompassing various services. Parents are finding it difficult to manage work life balance. Health dominated quality of life issues. Two hundred and thirty five (235 (73% parents reported being stressed. The study also found that 315 (97% working parents feel that the government is not doing enough to support working parents. On a positive note, 241 (74% parents said they are happy in general with the quality of life for them, their family and their children.

  20. Primary sinonasal tuberculosis in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, G.; Khan, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To record the frequency of primary involvement of nose and paranasal sinuses with tuberculosis in today's situation in the north-west region of Pakistan. Patients and Methods: A total of ten cases of primary sinonasal tuberculosis were included. The inclusion criteria were biopsy and acid-fast bacilli (AFB) examination after Ziel Neelsen (ZN) staining. Patients were put on anti-tuberculous chemotherapy. Response to the therapy and compliance of the patients were studied through follow up. Patients were admitted and offered surgical treatment wherever needed. Results: The primary sinonasal tuberculosis affected mainly young adults (18-60 years), both genders almost equally. Majority (80%) of the patients belonged to far-flung rural areas and all (100%) were poor. More frequent presenting features were granular lesion and mass in the nose (40%), epistaxis (30%), septal perforation (30%), external deformity (30%), palpable cervical lymph nodes (30%) and others. All the cases were diagnosed microscopically. Compliance to treatment was not good. Conclusion: The incidence of primary tuberculosis of nose and paranasal sinuses has risen in the recent past. The patients manifested no evidence of pulmonary tuberculosis. (author)

  1. Secondary markets for transmission rights in the North West European Market. Position Paper of the North West European Market Parties Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Haaster, G.

    2006-06-01

    The most important way to acquire cross border transmission rights in the North West European electricity market is through explicit auctions. Although market driven flexibility and therefore efficiency can be further enhanced. One way to this is to introduce a secondary market for transmission rights. In this paper the North West European Market Parties Platform (NWE MPP) proposes a model that is developed and preferred by the market parties. The paper will provide a converging contribution to the congestion management discussions in the North Western European region

  2. Burnout and health of primary school educators in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erna Kinsey

    job characteristics, burnout, and ill-health for primary school educators in the North West Province. ...... stress, satisfaction and absenteeism. Journal of .... supervising research on burnout, work engagement and work-life balance. She.

  3. THE NATURAL MOVEMENT OF POPULATION IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANUELA-DORA ORBOI

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available From the perspective of human development indicators during the past 15 years, Region North-West has undergone a series of negative processes, which are the most significant demographic decline due to negative natural growth and increased migration of people, especially those assets. Region North-West faces a negative demographic trend, with life expectancy of 71.38 years, the national average (72.22 years with high external migration, especially of highly qualified workforce. Analysis of employment trends of population in Region North-West shows a downward trend and projections for the development for years emphasized the decrease in employment. Estimates on the evolution of the population in Region North-West during 2005-2013 reveals a total population decreased by 4.2%.

  4. DYNAMICS ECONOMIC DISPARITIES IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florea Adrian

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Even though over the years has enjoyed wide media coverage, with highlighted aspects, discrepancies and inequalities of economic potential between different regions of the world, or even parts of the same countries always remained topical. Difficulties arising from these differences were always felt, extremely painful by humans. Analyzing distinctly, participation of each county to the GDP of the Northwest Region and the composition of all indicators, we can identify significant discrepancies between counties, regions and municipalities. This is one of the reasons that led us trying to identify the causes that generated the current situation. From the perspective of the contribution of each county in the Northwest Region to Region's domestic product composition, the first place is taken by Cluj county 32.3%, followed by Bihor with 24.3%, Maramures, with 14.9% Satu-Mare, 12.1%, Bistrita-Nasaud, 9.1% and 7.2% Salaj. Consulting of the Regional Operational Programme 2007-2013 indicates that the poorest areas in the Northwest Region are in Maramures and Bistrita-Nasaud. An important part of the active population of North-West Region was employed in public enterprises and an increase of unemployment in the counties of Salaj, Satu Mare and Maramures became predictable, imminent amid restructuring of public enterprises with losses. Studies of employed population by sectors of the economy, shows a high rate of population employed in services in the counties of Cluj and Bihor and high employment in agriculture on other four counties. In a modern market economy, services are most concentrated labors, and how the workforce is distributed in the Northwest region also shows an imbalance. How Northwest Region is participating in international economic cycle has major effects on the population's living standards. Relevant for the inter-district disparities analysis is the human and agents behavior analysis and the savings and loan relationships. How people

  5. Biomass energy - large potential in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, Hans

    2000-01-01

    Changing from oil or coal to bio fuel is a high priority in all European countries. The potential for such a transition is largest in North-West Russia, where several factors point to biomass energy: large bio fuel resources, large need for heating because of the cold climate, and almost 100% coverage of district heating. Here, the largest continuous coniferous forest in Europe supplies the raw material for a considerable forest industry, including some of the biggest sawmills and paper- and cellulose factories in the world. The fraction of the timber that cannot go into this production is suitable as bio fuel. About 15% of the raw material in this industry is bark and sawdust which can be used for energy production. In addition, 10% of the biomass of the trees remains on the forest floor as twigs, treetops etc. If all this sawdust and felling waste was used to replace heating oil, the corresponding reduction of CO2 emission would amount to 25 mill m3 per year. The forest industry in Russia is currently in full production, and an increasing mass of sawdust and wood waste is accumulating in depositories that cover larger and larger areas. Depositories are often set on fire to keep down the masses; at the same time, the district heating plants are fired with expensive oil or coal. This paradoxical situation is due to the economical crises in the 1990s. Neither private companies nor the local governments could invest in bio fueled boilers. Bio fuel projects are cost-effective and easy to document and perfectly suitable for joint implementations under the Kyoto Protocol

  6. North west cape-induced electron precipitation and theoretical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen-xia; Li, Xin-qiao; Wang, Chen-Yu; Chen, Lun-Jin

    2016-11-01

    Enhancement of the electron fluxes in the inner radiation belt, which is induced by the powerful North West Cape (NWC) very-low-frequency (VLF) transmitter, have been observed and analyzed by several research groups. However, all of the previous publications have focused on NWC-induced > 100-keV electrons only, based on observations from the Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions (DEMETER) and the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) satellites. Here, we present flux enhancements with 30-100-keV electrons related to NWC transmitter for the first time, which were observed by the GOES satellite at night. Similar to the 100-300-keV precipitated-electron behavior, the low energy 30-100-keV electron precipitation is primarily located east of the transmitter. However, the latter does not drift eastward to the same extent as the former, possibly because of the lower electron velocity. The 30-100-keV electrons are distributed in the L = 1.8-2.1 L-shell range, in contrast to the 100-300-keV electrons which are at L = 1.67-1.9. This is consistent with the perspective that the energy of the VLF-wave-induced electron flux enhancement decreases with higher L-shell values. We expand upon the rationality of the simultaneous enhancement of the 30-100- and 100-300-keV electron fluxes through comparison with the cyclotron resonance theory for the quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. In addition, we interpret the asymmetry characteristics of NWC electric power distribution in north and south hemisphere by ray tracing model. Finally, we present considerable discussion and show that good agreement exists between the observation of satellites and theory. Supported by the China Seismo-Electromagnetic Satellite Mission Ground-Based Verification Project of the Administration of Science, Technology, and Industry for National Defense and Asia-Pacific Space Cooperation Organization Project (APSCO-SP/PM-EARTHQUAKE).

  7. Class ranking of secondary schools in the North West province of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The model also provides for the construction of a step-by-step improvement plan for underperforming schools. The suggested framework was applied to 54 secondary schools in one of the four major municipal districts in the North West province of South Africa. Results are contrasted with the application of an ordinary DEA ...

  8. Challenges to the occupation of North-West Europe during the late Middle Pleistocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ashton, Nicholas Mark

    2010-01-01

    This thesis examines the challenges and human responses to changes in climate and environment in occupying north-west Europe from MIS 11 to MIS 5e (c. 420–125 ka). The first part studies human habitats and environments in Britain during MIS 11 and concludes that humans were attracted to the more

  9. The earliest occupation of north-west Europe: a coastal perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, K.M.; MacDonald, K.; Joordens, J.C.A.; Roebroeks, W.; Gibbard, P.L.

    Recent discoveries from Pakefield and Happisburgh (Britain) have provided clear evidence for an unexpectedly early hominin occupation of north-west Europe. The sites, found in the deposits of interglacial rivers and estuaries on the southern rim of the ancient North Sea coast, span the older and

  10. Intestinal helminths of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magi M.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A total of 180 foxes (Vulpes vulpes from an area scarcely investigated of north-west Italy, were examined for intestinal helminths using sedimentation and counting technique (SCT. Faecal samples were submitted to centrifugation with 50 % zinc sulphate used as flotation solution.

  11. Anthropogenic vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visschedijk, A.H.J.; Denier van der Gon, H.A.C.; Hulskotte, J.H.J.; Quass, U.

    2013-01-01

    An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were

  12. Registration and management of community patients with tuberculosis in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, X.; Cai, J.; Wang, D.; Wang, Q.; Liang, H.; Ma, A.; Schouten, E.G.; Kok, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the registration, management and characteristics of patients with tuberculosis (TB) in north-west China, and investigate whether patients with TB were diagnosed and treated in a timely manner.STUDY DESIGN: Health-facility-based retrospective data were collected from district

  13. Evaluation of primary mental health care in North West province – a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Owing to many complaints by health care workers and patients and a perceived poor standard of care, the mental health care services in North West province were assessed using quantitative and qualitative methods. The Mental Health Care Act of 2002 makes provision for the integration of services into ...

  14. Classification of low-resource livestock producers in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Classification of low-resource livestock producers in the North West Province. I.V. Nsahlai, A.T. Sedumedi. Abstract. (South African J of Animal Science, 2000, 30, Supplement 1: 109-110). Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  15. Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker (Fabaceae, a New Record for Central and North-West Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lal Babu Chaudhary

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus kongrensis Benth. Ex Baker is reported for the first time from Central (Nepal and North-West Himalayas (India. Earlier the species was known from East Himalaya (Sikkim-India, Bhutan and China. The description and illustrations of the species are provided.

  16. The 2010-2011 excavation season at Al Zubarah, north-west Qatar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Tobias; al-Naimi, Faisal; Yeomans, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly summarizes the results of the 2010–2011 archaeological fieldwork at the late eighteenth–twentieth-century abandoned city of al-Zubarah in north-west Qatar. The excavations in five areas inside the town, covering courtyard houses, a suq, a palatial compound, and a midden...

  17. Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2016-08-16

    Sarah Gregory reads an abridged version of the article, Scarlet Fever Upsurge in England and Molecular-Genetic Analysis in North-West London, 2014.  Created: 8/16/2016 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/16/2016.

  18. Burnout and health of primary school educators in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burnout and health of primary school educators in the North West Province. Amanda Montgomery, Karina Mostert, Leon Jackson. Abstract. No Abstract. South African journal of Education Vol. 25(4) 2005: 266-272. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL ...

  19. Groundwater quota versus tiered groundwater pricing : two cases of groundwater management in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarnoudse, Eefje; Qu, Wei; Bluemling, B.; Herzfeld, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Difficulties in monitoring groundwater extraction cause groundwater regulations to fail worldwide. In two counties in north-west China local water authorities have installed smart card machines to monitor and regulate farmers’ groundwater use. Data from a household survey and in-depth interviews are

  20. Declining trends of water requirements of dry season Boro rice in the north-west Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharjee, Tapos Kumar; Halsema, van Gerardo; Ludwig, Fulco; Hellegers, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The drought prone North-West Bangladesh is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly because of less water availability in the dry period and high water requirement for crop production. Improved understanding of recent changes in crop water demand in the dry season is important

  1. Non-communicable diseases among prison inmates in North-West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There is paucity of data on prevalence of non-communicable diseases in prison inmates. The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and pattern of non-communicable diseases in inmates of Sokoto Central Prison, North-West Nigeria. Methodology: Cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out.

  2. Functional multilingualism at the North-West University as part of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this article is to explore the link between language management and the sociopolitical environment in which institutions of higher learning, particularly the North-West University, operate. Along the lines set by Candlin (1991: vi–vii), it is argued that language management should take due cognisance of the ...

  3. Motor proficiency profile of Grade 1 learners in the North West ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to establish a comprehensive profile of the motor proficiency of Grade 1 learners in the North West Province of South Africa, taking into account gender and racial differences and strengths and weaknesses. A stratified randomised sample of 816 Grade 1 learners (419 boys, 397 girls, mean age 6.84 years ...

  4. ECONOMIC SITUATION OF THE TOURIST ACCOMMODATION CAPACITY ON NORTH-WEST AND CENTER OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Aurelia Duma

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we continue the research work that we intended it over the years on regional tourism in recent years, the evolution of certain regions and understanding economic phenomena and disparities between regions. As such, they work in computing capacity and activity status of tourist accommodation in the North West and Centre regions known to me (the author who also develop in terms of tourism quite similar. We used comparative methods to analyze statistical data taken from the Statistical Yearbook of Romania, the study stretching over a period of several years, and last but not least, analysis of land proposed in the two study regions (North-West and Central region.

  5. A Profile of the North West Province: Demographics, Poverty, Inequality and Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Pauw, Kalie

    2005-01-01

    This paper forms part of a series of papers that present profiles of South Africa's provinces, with a specific focus on key demographic statistics, poverty and inequality estimates, and estimates of unemployment. In this volume comparative statistics are presented for agricultural and non-agricultural households, as well as households from different racial groups, locations (metropolitan, urban and rural areas) and district municipalities of the North West. Most of the data presented are draw...

  6. A real-options analysis of wine grape farming in north west Victoria

    OpenAIRE

    Seyoum, Emayenesh; Chan, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports a use of a real-options valuation methodology to analyse wine grape farm investment under price and yield uncertainty. Revenue levels to incentivise entry and exit were calculated for three different sizes of wine grape farms in North West Victoria. The modelling identified lower exit and higher entry triggers than indicated by conventional net present value calculation. The wide gap of estimated indeterminacy in farm investment highlights the intertwined influence of numer...

  7. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Esmail Fatehifar; Sakineh Jadidi; Bahram Vosugh; Fazel Khaleghi; Mohammad Mosaferi; Behzad Hajalilou

    2011-01-01

    Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water sa...

  8. Non-timber forest products of the North-West District of Guyana

    OpenAIRE

    Andel, T.R. van

    2000-01-01

    This thesis describes the use of non-timber forest products (NTFPs) by indigenous peoples of northwest Guyana. Part I contains a general analysis of NTFP harvesting in northwest Guyana Part II is an illustrated field guide of the useful plants encountered. Chapter 1: introduction Chapter 2: floristic composition and vegetation structure of well-drained mixed forest and 20- and 60-year old secondary forests. Previous forest inventories predicted a general low diversity for the North-West Distr...

  9. Early hominins in north-west Europe: A punctuated long chronology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosfield, Rob; Cole, James

    2018-06-01

    In light of changing views regarding the identity and evolutionary positions of Europe's Lower Palaeolithic hominins, a re-consideration of the hominin occupation of north-west Europe from c. 1 million years ago (mya) to c. 400 thousand years ago (kya) is timely. A change in the scale and character of the overall European Palaeolithic record around c. 800-600 kya has been well documented and argued over since the mid-1990s. Hominin expansion into the European north-west, potentially from southern Europe, Africa or south-western Asia, has been linked to the introduction of a new lithic technology in the form of the biface. We evaluate three potential drivers for this northern range expansion: changing palaeo-climatic conditions, the emergence of an essentially modern human life history, and greater hominin behavioural plasticity. Our evaluation suggests no major changes in these three factors during the c. 800-600 kya period other than enhanced behavioural plasticity suggested by the appearance of the biface. We offer here a model of hominin occupation for north-west Europe termed the 'punctuated long chronology' and suggest that the major changes in the European Lower Palaeolithic record that occur at a species-wide level may post-date, rather than precede, the Anglian Glaciation (marine isotope stage (MIS) 12).

  10. Study of Four Common Mutations of Familial Mediterranean Fever in North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Karimi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives : Familial Mediterranean Fever, an autosomal recessive disorder, is the most common and well known periodical fevers syndrome. Disease is mainly prevalent among non-Ashkenazi Jews, Arabs, Turks and Armenia. According to the geographical location of North-West of Iran, neighboring with two high risk FMF population (Turkey and Armenia, the prevalence of FMF in this region of Iran is not unlikely. The aim of this study was to estimate the carriers rate of FMF common mutations in healthy control people. Results can be potentially useful to estimate prevalence of disease.   Methods : Randomly 200 samples from healthy people [non-FMF] from North-West of Iran selected. After taking consent, DNA was extracted from blood samples of these groups. Then mutations were evaluated using ARMS-PCR and RFLP-PCR techniques.   Results : from 400 studied alleles, 44 and 7 mutant alleles were found for E148Q and V726A respectively. For 2 other mutations, no mutant alleles were found. The total allelic frequency for these four common mutations was 0.132. The carriers rate was 23.4%.   Conclusion : This study showed that E148Q has high mutation frequency relative to other mutations in North-West of Iran.

  11. THE INFLUENCE OF DOUBLE IMMUNIZATION ON MORBIDITY OF MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA IN THE NORTH-WEST REGION OF RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Lyalina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The influence of double immunization on measles, mumps and rubella incidence in the North-West Federal District (North-West Russia has been analyzed. Due to the vaccination of the population morbidity of these infections in the region has decreased significantly. The necessity to improve the surveillance system due to changes in the manifestations of the epidemic process particularly connected with increasing of proportion of adults among patients has been proposed.

  12. Exon Deletion Pattern in Duchene Muscular Dystrophy in North West of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    BARZEGAR, Mohammad; HABIBI, Parinaz; BONYADY, Mortaza; TOPCHIZADEH, Vahideh; SHIVA, Shadi

    2015-01-01

    How to Cite This Article: Barzegar M, Habibi P, Bonyady M, Topchizadeh V, Shiva Sh. Exon Deletion Pattern in Duchene Muscular Dystrophy in North West of Iran. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter; 9(1): 42-48.AbstractObjectiveDuchene and Becker Muscular Dystrophy (DMD/ BMD) are x-linked disorders that both are the result of heterogeneous mutations in the dystrophin gene. The frequency and distribution of dystrophin gene deletions in DMD/ BMD patients show different patterns among different popula...

  13. Radioactivity of soils from north-west side of Stara planina mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momcilovic, M.; Dragovic, S.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper specific activities of 238U, 232Th, 40K and 137Cs in soil samples collected from north-west side of Stara planina in 2006 are presented. Specific activities varied between 15.1 and 34.0 Bq/kg for 238U; 16.8 and 44.6 Bq/kg for 232Th; 358 and 765 Bq/kg for 40K and 3.89 and 58.7 Bq/kg for 137Cs. The wide ranges of specific activities are influenced by a variety of geological and ecological features of the investigated area. (author) [sr

  14. Neogene to recent contraction and basin inversion along the Nubia-Iberia boundary in SW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Adrià; Fernández, Oscar; Terrinha, Pedro; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2017-02-01

    The SW of Iberia is currently undergoing compression related to the convergence between Nubia and Iberia. Multiple compressive structures, and their related seismic activity, have been documented along the diffuse Nubia-Iberia plate boundary, including the Gorringe bank west of the Gulf of Cadiz, and the Betic-Rif orogen to the east. Despite seismic activity indicating a dominant compressive stress along the Algarve margin in the Gulf of Cadiz, the structures at the origin of this seismicity remain elusive. This paper documents the contractional structures that provide linkage across the Gulf of Cadiz and play a major role in defining the present-day seismicity and bathymetry of this area. The structures described in this paper caused the Neogene inversion of the Jurassic oblique passive margin that formed between the central Atlantic and the Ligurian Tethys. This example of a partially inverted margin provides insights into the factors that condition the inversion of passive margins.

  15. The Contribution of the Topo-Iberia Project to the Knowledge of the Western Mediterranean Geodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.

    2012-12-01

    The large scale research program Topo-Iberia aims to unravel the complex structure and mantle processes in the area of interaction between the African and European continental plates in the western Mediterranean. The project, funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Education, started in 2007 and will be active till Fall 2013. Topo-Iberia has gathered expertise of different fields of the Earth Sciences. One of the key assets of the project involves the deploying of a technological observatory platform, IberArray, with unprecedented resolution and coverage. This platform is currently building up a comprehensive, multidisciplinary data set, stored by the SIGEOF database, which includes seismological, GPS and magnetotelluric data. Using also other analytical methodologies included in the Topo-Iberia program (potential fields, quantitative analysis of the topography, dating methods) the final scope of the project is to study the relationship between superficial and deep-rooted processes. Topo-Iberia has also benefited from the interaction with other projects investigating the same area, as the American program PICASSO, the French Pyrope or the Portuguese WILAS. This interaction includes sharing the available data to better assess the key geological questions. This contribution will present the current state of the most significant scientific results which are arising from the data acquired using the Iberarray platform. -. SKS splitting analysis has provided a spectacular image of the anisotropic pattern over the area, including a clear rotation of the fast velocity direction along the Gibraltar Arc. -. Receiver functions have revealed the crustal thickness variations beneath the Rif and southern Iberia, including a crustal root beneath the Rif not clearly documented previously. The 410-km and 660-km upper mantle discontinuities have been investigated using novel cross-correlation/stacking techniques. -. Surface wave tomography using both earthquakes and ambient

  16. Emissions of acidifying air pollutants in the North West region of England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Lindley, S.J.; Conlan, D.E. [Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Environmental and Geographical Sciences

    1995-12-01

    Most estimates of emission are concerned with the nation state level. This paper discusses methods utilised in the estimates of emissions to the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen from a densely populated and heavily industrialised region of the United Kingdom. Data on power generation from coal, industrial plant, fuel usage, air, sea and road transportation, and human population statistics have been integrated into a method to provide regional emission estimates. The resulting emission patterns are described in terms of sources and emission density. Spatial and temporal patterns are identified and major sources of emissions discussed in terms of national control programmes. Transportation is the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen emissions whilst power generation is the dominant source of sulphur dioxide. The relative importance of the North West as an emission source within the UK is assessed. The change in the strengths of acidifying emissions between 1987 and 1992 is discussed and the rate of change in emission magnitudes between the North West region and the UK as a whole compared. 9 refs., 4 tabs.

  17. Antileishmanial potential of medicinal plant extracts from the North-West of Morocco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhakim Bouyahya

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the antileishmanial activity of selected medicinal plants from the North-West of Morocco. Plant extracts were prepared by maceration using methanol, ethanol, and n-hexane. The antileishmanial activity was evaluated against Leishmania major, Leishmania tropica, and Leishmania infantum using MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2yl-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All plant extracts showed a reducing in cell promastigotes viability with variability depending on tested strains and type of extracts. The n-hexane extract showed the highest antileishmanial activity and L. infantum was the most sensitive parasite. The best growth inhibition was observed with Cistus crispus n-hexane extract against L. major (IC50 = 47.29 ± 2.25 μg/mL, Arbutus unedo n-hexane extract against L. infantum (IC50 = 64.05 ± 1.44 μg/mL and Arbutus unedo n-hexane extract against L. tropica (IC50 = 79.57 ± 2.66 μg/mL. Considering these results, medicinal plants from the North-West of Morocco could constitute a promoter source for antileishmanial compounds.

  18. Characterization of gut bacterial flora of Apis mellifera from north-west Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Ishtiaq Anjum

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Gut microbiota has been recognized to play a beneficial role in honey bees (Apis mellifera. Present study was designed to characterize the gut bacterial flora of honey bees in north-west Pakistan. Total 150 aerobic and facultative anaerobic bacteria from guts of 45 worker bees were characterized using biochemical assays and 16S rDNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis. The gut isolates were classified into three bacterial phyla of Firmicutes (60%, Proteobacteria (26% and Actinobacteria (14%. Most of the isolates belonged to genera and families of Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Enterococcus, Ochrobactrum, Sphingomonas, Ralstonia, Enterobacteriaceae, Corynebacterium and Micrococcineae. Many of these bacteria were tolerant to acidic environments and fermented sugars, hence considered beneficial gut inhabitants and involved the maintenance of a healthy microbiota. However, several opportunistic commensals that proliferate in the hive environment including members Staphylococcus haemolyticus group and Sphingomonas paucimobilis were also identified. This is the first report on bee gut microbiota from north-west Pakistan geographically situated at the crossroads of Indian subcontinent and central Asia.

  19. A profile of technology-assisted children and young people in north west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, Susan

    2008-11-01

    To obtain a profile of children and young people in north west England who needed the ongoing support of medical technology. As part of a larger study, 28 community children's nursing teams in the north west of England were asked to profile the children and young people on their caseloads who needed the ongoing support of medical technology. Twenty-five teams returned data, from which a total of 591 children and young people were identified. The most prevalent technology used was gastrostomy/jejunostomy, which was used by more than two-thirds of the sample. Over a quarter of the children/young people were supported by more than one technology. The majority of the children/young people were seven years old or younger Although most had used the technology for five years or less (71 per cent), there were 164 children/ young people who had been technology-assisted for six or more years. Although there are limitations in this study, the data is nevertheless useful for planning future services and support, including identifying the numbers of young people who will be transferring to adult services. A more efficient means of collecting these data would be to systematically record long-term conditions and technology assistance in electronic health records.

  20. Emissions of acidifying air pollutants in the North West region of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, J.W.S.; Lindley, S.J.; Conlan, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    Most estimates of emission are concerned with the nation state level. This paper discusses methods utilised in the estimates of emissions to the atmosphere of sulphur dioxide, volatile organic compounds and oxides of nitrogen from a densely populated and heavily industrialised region of the United Kingdom. Data on power generation from coal, industrial plant, fuel usage, air, sea and road transportation, and human population statistics have been integrated into a method to provide regional emission estimates. The resulting emission patterns are described in terms of sources and emission density. Spatial and temporal patterns are identified and major sources of emissions discussed in terms of national control programmes. Transportation is the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen emissions whilst power generation is the dominant source of sulphur dioxide. The relative importance of the North West as an emission source within the UK is assessed. The change in the strengths of acidifying emissions between 1987 and 1992 is discussed and the rate of change in emission magnitudes between the North West region and the UK as a whole compared. 9 refs., 4 tabs

  1. Understanding of research, genetics and genetic research in a rapid ethical assessment in north west Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne-Ouafo, Jonas A; Millard, James D; Nji, Theobald M; Tantoh, William F; Nyoh, Doris N; Tendongfor, Nicholas; Enyong, Peter A; Newport, Melanie J; Davey, Gail; Wanji, Samuel

    2016-05-01

    There is limited assessment of whether research participants in low-income settings are afforded a full understanding of the meaning of medical research. There may also be particular issues with the understanding of genetic research. We used a rapid ethical assessment methodology to explore perceptions surrounding the meaning of research, genetics and genetic research in north west Cameroon. Eleven focus group discussions (including 107 adults) and 72 in-depth interviews were conducted with various stakeholders in two health districts in north west Cameroon between February and April 2012. Most participants appreciated the role of research in generating knowledge and identified a difference between research and healthcare but gave varied explanations as to this difference. Most participants' understanding of genetics was limited to concepts of hereditary, with potential benefits limited to the level of the individual or family. Explanations based on supernatural beliefs were identified as a special issue but participants tended not to identify any other special risks with genetic research. We demonstrated a variable level of understanding of research, genetics and genetic research, with implications for those carrying out genetic research in this and other low resource settings. Our study highlights the utility of rapid ethical assessment prior to complex or sensitive research. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  2. Evaluating Adaptive Governance Approaches to Sustainable Water Management in North-West Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Julian R. A.; Semmahasak, Chutiwalanch

    2013-04-01

    Adaptive governance is advanced as a potent means of addressing institutional fit of natural resource systems with prevailing modes of political-administrative management. Its advocates also argue that it enhances participatory and learning opportunities for stakeholders over time. Yet an increasing number of studies demonstrate real difficulties in implementing adaptive governance `solutions'. This paper builds on these debates by examining the introduction of adaptive governance to water management in Chiang Mai province, north-west Thailand. The paper considers, first, the limitations of current water governance modes at the provincial scale, and the rationale for implementation of an adaptive approach. The new approach is then critically examined, with its initial performance and likely future success evaluated by (i) analysis of water stakeholders' opinions of its first year of operation; and (ii) comparison of its governance attributes against recent empirical accounts of implementation difficulty and failure of adaptive governance of natural resource management more generally. The analysis confirms the potentially significant role that the new approach can play in brokering and resolving the underlying differences in stakeholder representation and knowledge construction at the heart of the prevailing water governance modes in north-west Thailand.

  3. Genetic differentiation and population structure of five ethnic groups of Punjab (North-West India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S

    2016-12-01

    The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The F ST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping

  4. Recent trends in rainfall and temperature over North West India during 1871-2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Rani; Mathur, Prasoon

    2018-03-01

    Rainfall and temperature are the most important environmental factors influencing crop growth, development, and yield. The northwestern (NW) part of India is one of the main regions of food grain production of the country. It comprises of six meteorological subdivisions (Haryana, Punjab, West Rajasthan, East Rajasthan, Gujarat and Saurashtra, Kutch and Diu). In this study, attempts were made to study variability and trends in rainfall and temperature during 30-year climate normal periods (CN) and 10-year decadal excess or deficit rainfall frequency during the historical period from 1871 to 2016. The Mann-Kendall and Spearman's rank correlation (Spearman's rho) tests were used to determine significance of trends. Least square linear fitting method was adopted to find out the slopes of the trend lines. The long-term mean annual rainfall over North West India is 587.7 mm (standard deviation of 153.0 mm and coefficient of variation 26.0). There was increasing trend in minimum and maximum temperatures during post monsoon season in entire study period and current climate normal period (1991-2016) due to which the sowing of rabi season crops may be delayed and there may be germination problem too. There was a non-significant decreasing trend in rainfall during monsoon season and an increasing trend in rainfall during post monsoon over North West India during entire study period. During current CN5 (1991-2016), all the subdivision (except the Saurashtra region) showed a decreasing trend in rainfall during monsoon season which is a matter of concern for kharif crops and those rabi crops which are grown as rainfed on conserved soil moisture. The decadal annual and seasonal frequencies of excess and deficit years results revealed that the annual total deficit rainfall years (24) exceeded total excess rainfall years (22) in North West India during the entire study period. While during the current decadal period (2011 to 2016), single year was the excess year and 2 years were

  5. Gas Regional Initiative. North West Regional Energy Market. Transmission Transparency Project. First Implementation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to comment on the implementation of the TSO Transmission Transparency Project. In December 2007 sixteen TSOs presented a project plan which committed them to publishing information on capacity availability and gas flows at crossborder interconnection points in the North-West gas region. The data types to be published were agreed between TSOs and network users. It was agreed that TSOs would release new information on capacity and actual gas flows at crossborder interconnection points. The TSOs have committed to publishing the agreed information by three project milestones May, September or December 2008. At the end of May 2008 the TSOs submitted initial data to Ofgem (Office of the Gas and Electricity Markets) on implementation. This report presents the data submitted by the TSOs, provides comment on implementation progress and explains the next steps. This report does not approve or guarantee the accuracy of the data submitted by TSOs

  6. LATE DEVONIAN-TOURNAISIAN CONODONTS FROM THE EASTERN KHYBER REGION, NORTH-WEST PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PETER D. MOLLOY

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Conodonts (62 species and subspecies from acid-leaching of 226 samples from four sections through the Ali Masjid Formation west of Misri Khel in the former South Khyber Agency, north-west Pakistan, are documented by illustrations and distributional data. These indicate that most of this unit, at least in that area, spans the interval Middle crepida Zone (low in the Famennian to at least Early crenulata Zone (mid-Tournaisian, though a fauna from low in one of the sections produced conodonts indicative of the Late falsiovalis Zone (early Frasnian. Two major hiatuses are inferred: between the Late falsiovalis and Middle crepida zones, and between the Late expansa and Early duplicata zones. Coherence of the conodont biostratigraphy accords with lithologic alignments between the sections.  

  7. [Epidemiological studies on Echinococcus multilocularis in red foxes in north-west Poland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramisz, A; Eckert, J; Balicka-Ramisz, A; Bieńko, R; Pilarczyk, B

    1999-01-01

    The studies were carried out in 15 provinces of North-West part of Poland in the years 1994 - 1997 under a regime of strict laboratory safety regulation. The intestine of 1909 red foxes were examined for the presence of Echinococcus multilocularis according to the method of Eckert et al (1991). The intestines were divided finto four to six sections and fifteen smears were prepared from each animal under study. Foxes infected with E. multilocularis were detected in 8 provinces. The average prevalence rate in these provinces was 1.20 per cent. Of special interest fis the finding in Slupsk and Gdafisk regions, where 9.6 per cent of foxes were infected with E. multilocularis. In comparison with some other European endemic regions the prevalence rates of E. multilocularis in Poland was low, except for the Stupsk-Gdańsk area.

  8. Level of literacy and dementia: A secondary post-hoc analysis from North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Kumar Raina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: A relation between literacy and dementia has been studied in past and an association has been documented. This is in spite of some studies pointing to the contrary. The current study was aimed at investigating the influence of level of literacy on dementia in a sample stratified by geography (Migrant, Urban, Rural and Tribal areas of sub-Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: The study was based on post-hoc analysis of data obtained from a study conducted on elderly population (60 years and above from selected geographical areas (Migrant, Urban, Rural and Tribal of Himachal Pradesh state in North-west India. Results: Analysis of variance revealed an effect of education on cognitive scores [F = 2.823, P =0.01], however, post-hoc Tukey′s HSD test did not reveal any significant pairwise comparisons. Discussion: The possibility that education effects dementia needs further evaluation, more so in Indian context.

  9. A review of EIA report quality in the North West province of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandham, Luke A.; Pretorius, Hester M.

    2008-01-01

    The revised EIA regulations implemented on 3 July 2006 focused attention on the question of EIA effectiveness in South Africa. EIR quality review is one of the quality control functions contributing to EIA effectiveness within any EIA system, therefore the EIR quality review package developed by Lee and Colley was adapted and used to review the quality of a sample of 28 EIRs in the North West province of South Africa. Overall, 86% of the reports achieved satisfactory grades, with the descriptive and presentational elements of the EIRs more satisfactorily addressed, and the analytical components such as impact significance, addressed to a less satisfactory degree. EIR quality appears to be on par with international standards, but there are areas of distinct weakness. Further research is required to optimise quality review, and to reveal whether the new regulations have succeeded in addressing these weaknesses and made positive contributions to EIR quality, as a component of EIA effectiveness in South Africa

  10. Soya and isoflavone intakes associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Xu, Fenglian; Zhang, Taotao; Lei, Jun; Binns, Colin W

    2015-01-01

    To ascertain the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk in remote north-west China, where the incidence of oesophageal cancer is known to be high. Case-control study. Information on habitual consumption of soya foods and soya milk was obtained by personal interview. The intakes of isoflavones were then estimated using the US Department of Agriculture nutrient database. Logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association between soya consumption, isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Urumqi and Shihezi, Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, China. Participants were 359 incident oesophageal cancer patients and 380 hospital-based controls. The oesophageal cancer patients consumed significantly less (P soya foods (mean 57·2 (sd 119·0) g/d) and soya milk (mean 18·8 (sd 51·7) ml/d) than the controls (mean 93·3 (sd 121·5) g/d and mean 35·7 (sd 73·0) ml/d). Logistic regression analyses showed an inverse association between intake of soya products and the risk of oesophageal cancer. The adjusted odds were OR = 0·33 (95 % CI 0·22, 0·49) and OR = 0·48 (95 % CI 0·31, 0·74) for consuming at least 97 g of soya foods and 60 ml of soya milk daily (the highest tertiles of consumption), respectively, relative to the lowest tertiles of consumption. Similarly, inverse associations with apparent dose-response relationships were found between isoflavone intakes and oesophageal cancer risk. Habitual consumption of soya products appears to be associated with reduced risk of oesophageal cancer in north-west China.

  11. Incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella in poultry products in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseline Y. Olobatoke

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS serotypes in raw and ready-to-eat (RTE broiler products in the North West Province of South Africa. A total of 120 raw broiler samples, 40 samples of polonies and 20 samples of smoked viennas were obtained from retail points in major cities and towns in the province. Samples were subjected to aerobic plate count and later screened for the presence of NTS using phenotypic and genotypic techniques. The average bacterial count in raw products was 3.1 x 105 cfu/g whereas bacterial contamination of RTE products was 1.8 x 103 cfu/g. The average recovery rate of NTS species from raw broiler products was 12.5% and the serotypes identified were S. typhimurium (46.4%, S. enteritidis (30.9% and S. newport (22.9%. No NTS was recovered from the RTE products. However, S. typhimurium was the predominant serotype in whole carcasses whereas S. enteritidis and S. newport were prevalent in chicken parts. Out of the 160 presumptive NTS isolates screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR, 140 (87.5% were confirmed for the presence of the Salmonella-specific invA gene. In addition, 115 (82.4% of the confirmed isolates harboured the plasmid spvC gene. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD fingerprinting of isolates using RAPD 1 and RAPD 3 primers, revealed some inter- and intra-serotype genetic diversity among isolates, suggesting varying sources of contamination. The results of this study represent the first report on the incidence and prevalent serotypes of NTS in chicken products in the North West Province of South Africa.

  12. Clinicopathological Analysis of Malignant Eyelid Tumours in north-west Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, I.; Khan, F. M.; Alam, M.; Khan, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the demography, mode of presentation, gross morphology, histopathological diagnosis and subsequent course of malignant eyelid tumours in north-west Pakistan. Methods: The retrospective observational study was performed at the Department of Ophthalmology, Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar, from January 2007 to July 2010, and comprised data related to 222 patients. Charts of patients with malignant eyelid tumours admitted to the department during study period were reviewed. Patients' demographic data, gross and microscopic features of the tumours and their subsequent course of treatments were recorded. SPSS 14 was used for statistical analysis. Results: Of the total, 122 (54.1%) patients were male and 102 (45.9%) were female. Mean age of all patients was 59.3+-14.2 years. Among the patients, 73 (32.9%) had the involvement of the lower lid; 57 (25.7%) the upper lid; 18 (8.11%) the medial canthus; 2 (0.9%) the lateral canthus; and 72 (32.4%) had more than one region involved. On histopathology, basal cell carcinoma was the most common (n= 131; 59%), followed by squamous cell carcinoma in 70 (31.5%), sebaceous gland carcinoma in 15 (6.8%), malignant melanoma in 3 (1.3%) and undifferentiated carcinoma in 3 (1.3%) cases. Of the total tumours, 164 (73.87%) did not spread, and 58 (26.13%) spread either locally or distantly. Conclusion: Basal cell carcinoma was is the most common malignant eyelid tumour in the study. Squamous cell carcinoma, which was second, was found to be more common in north-west Pakistan than in any other part of Asia, while the sebaceous gland carcinoma was relatively less common. (author)

  13. Prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrite, Silvia; Mactaggart, Islay; Kuper, Hannah; Oye, Joseph; Polack, Sarah

    2017-04-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of hearing impairment in Fundong Health District, North-West Cameroon. We selected 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) through probability proportionate to size sampling. Initial hearing screening was undertaken through an otoacoustic emission (OAE) test. Participants aged 4+ years who failed this test in both ears or for whom an OAE reading could not be taken underwent a manual pure-tone audiometry (PTA) screening. Cases of hearing impairment were defined as those with pure-tone average ≥41 dBHL in adults and ≥35 dBHL in children in the better ear, or children under age 4 who failed the OAE test in both ears. Each case with hearing loss was examined by an ear, nose and throat nurse who indicated the main likely cause. We examined 3567 (86.9%) of 4104 eligible people. The overall prevalence of hearing impairment was 3.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.8-4.6). The prevalence was low in people aged 0-17 (1.1%, 0.7-1.8%) and 18-49 (1.1%, 0.5-2.6%) and then rose sharply in people aged 50+ (14.8%, 11.7-19.1%). Among cases, the majority were classified as moderate (76%), followed by severe (15%) and profound (9%). More than one-third of cases of hearing impairment were classified as unknown (37%) or conductive (37%) causes, while sensorineural causes were less common (26%). Prevalence of hearing impairment in North-West Cameroon is in line with the WHO estimate for sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of cases with known causes are treatable, with impacted wax playing a major role. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. What are reasonable expectations? Healthcare student perceptions of their programmes in the North West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamshire, Claire; Willgoss, Thomas G; Wibberley, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    Concerns about current levels of attrition from some healthcare programmes have emphasised the need to gain a greater insight into students' expectations and experiences. The aim of this study was to determine how students in the North West of England perceived their studies and to identify the factors that could contribute to students' dissatisfaction. A mixed methods sequential exploratory study. Nine universities in the North West of England. Phase one used narrative interviews with a purposive sample of 24 students to investigate their expectations and experiences. Data from these interviews were analysed using a thematic framework and direct quotes from key themes were incorporated into online survey for phase 2. Survey respondents were asked to rate their agreement to statements on a four-point Likert-type response format. There was also an opportunity to leave comments through open questions relating to each theme. A total of 1080 respondents completed the online survey in phase 2. The majority of students reported positive experiences of their course. There was strong agreement in the importance of the role of the personal tutor and of a supportive placement mentor. Some students indicated that the workload and academic level were a shock at first. Students identified difficulties around the cost of placement travel and the impact of placements on family life. Financial hardship was a frequently cited issue that students attributed to thoughts of discontinuation. Most students had positive learning experiences which meet their expectations. Students who have unmet expectations report poor placement experiences, lack of support, unexpectedly high workloads and financial difficulties. Clear guidance on the role of personal tutor and placement mentor is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Topo-Iberia GPS network: installation complete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaradze, G.

    2009-04-01

    As part of the project, titled "Geociencias en Iberia: Estudios integrados de topografía y evolución 4D: Topo-Iberia", we have established a network of 26 continuous GPS stations, covering the Spanish part of the Iberian Peninsula (22 stations) and Morocco (4 stations). A major objective behind the establishment of this array is to monitor millimeter level deformation of the crust due to the collision of African and Eurasian (including Iberian) tectonic plates. More specific goals of the project include the identification of the areas and/or specific seismic faults which exhibit higher deformation rates, which could imply an increased seismic hazard in these specific areas. The network has been designed as two X-shaped transects crossing the peninsula from NE to SW and NW to SE, with relatively coarse distribution of the stations, superimposed with denser coverage in the seismically active areas of the Betics, Pyrenees and Cantabrian chains. The majority of the built monuments consist of 1.5-1.8 m tall concrete pillars of 40 cm in diameter anchored to the bedrock using iron rebars. One station in Huesca was built according the UNAVCO's short drilled braced monument (SDBM) specifications. All the monuments were equipped with the SCIGN leveling mounts to ensure the precise antenna alignment and re-alignment in case of the antenna replacement, as well as, tamper resistance of the monument mark. In places were the snow accumulation was possible the antennas were covered with plastic radomes. The instrumentation used is Trimble NetRS dual-frequency receivers with choke-ring antennas. The communication is mainly via cellular telephone system. As of December 2008, the network installation has been competed and all the stations are fully operational. Here we report the milestones of the installation of the network and, as well as, present the first preliminary results of the analysis of the data. Besides the newly established Topo-Iberia CGPS stations, we have included

  16. Genetic variation in yield and chemical composition of wide range of sorghum accessions grown in north-west China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.S.; Wang, M.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Liu, Z.; Han, L.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Sorghum can be grown on marginal and waste lands as a versatile feedstock for biofuel production in the vast areas of north-west China. Fifty-six sorghum accessions were grown in 2009 at the experimental station of Xinjiang Agricultural University, located at Urumchi, Xinjiang, China. A total of 31

  17. Deep saltwater in Chalk of North-West Europe: origin, interface characteristics and development over geological time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnesen, Ellen Prip; Larsen, F.; Sonnenborg, T.O.

    2009-01-01

    High-concentration saltwaters occur in many places in the regional Chalk aquifers of North-West Europe; to investigate deep occurrences, profiles of interstitial porewater chemistry have been studied from three 250-450m deep cores drilled in the eastern parts of Zealand, Denmark. At the studied...

  18. Occupational Stress and Strain of Support Staff at a Higher Education Institution in the North West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahomed, F. E.; Naude, J. L. P.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the occupational stressors and strains for support staff at a higher education institution in the North West Province, and to assess the differences between the stressors and strains of different biographical groups. A cross-sectional survey design (N = 315) was used. The ASSET and a biographical…

  19. Motivational factors affecting informal women entrepreneurs in North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchen Henning

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of North-West strive to progress from poverty to prosperity. There is a growing appreciation that the conditions that support women’s ability to start and grow ventures may be different from those that help men and therefore there is a need to examine the motivational factors affecting women’s enterprise development. Aim: The study aimed to identify the motivational factors of women in the Mahikeng area to start informal enterprises, the barriers they experience and their developmental business needs. Setting: The study focussed on informal women entrepreneurs in the rural villages of Mahikeng in the North-West province. Methods: In total, 80 face-to-face questionnaires were completed with women entrepreneurs. A principal component analysis of 15 items of the total questionnaire was performed on the data to determine which items could be reduced and transformed into new components. Results: ‘Destitute conditions’, ‘Entrepreneurial Spirit’ and ‘Passion for Product’ emerged as the three underlying motivational factors. The component ‘Destitute conditions’ was ranked as the most important reason for starting an informal business. The need to transcend impoverished conditions (a push factor and the need for self-determination (a pull factor were almost equally strong amongst the 80 participants. ‘Lack of financial and business skills’ was ranked as the biggest obstacle to keeping the business running. Ninety-one per cent of the women entrepreneurs reported that they had never received any training from the government or the private sector. Conclusions: Access to basic infrastructure, training, funding and business networks will enable self-efficacy behaviour of women entrepreneurs in the Mahikeng district to move beyond poverty. Recommendations included the establishment of a regional database of informal women entrepreneurs, the improvement of basic

  20. From the Atlas to the Variscan Core of Iberia: Progress on the Knowledge of Mantle Anisotropy from SKS Splitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Cusi, J.; Grevemeyer, I.; Thomas, C.; Harnafi, M.

    2012-12-01

    The data provided by the dense Iberarray broad-band seismic network deployed in the framework of the large-scale TopoIberia project, as well as from permanent broad-band stations operating in Morocco, Portugal and Spain has allowed to get a large scale view of the anisotropic properties of the mantle beneath the western termination of the Mediterranean region and its transition to the Atlantic ocean. In this contribution we will gather the previously presented results with the analysis of the data provided by IberArray stations in the central part of Iberia, broad-band OBSs deployments in the Alboran Sea and the Gulf of Cadiz and new seismic networks deployed in the High Atlas and the Moroccan Meseta. The High Atlas has been investigated using data from a broad-band network installed by the Univ. of Munster with a primary focus on the study of the properties of the deep mantle. Additionally, up to 10 Iberarray stations have been shifted southward to complete the survey along the Atlas and to investigate the Moroccan Meseta. In agreement with the results presented by the Picasso team along a profile crossing the Atlas northward, the anisotropy observed in this area is small (0.6 - 0.9 s) with a fast polarization direction (FPD) oriented roughly E-W. It is important to note that there is a very significant number of high quality events without evidence for anisotropy. This may be the result of the combined effect of two or more anisotropic layers or of the presence of a large vertical component of flow in the upper mantle. Moving northwards, the first TopoIberia-Iberarray deployment in the Betics-Alboran zone has evidenced a spectacular rotation of the FPD along the Gibraltar arc following the curvature of the Rif-Betic chain, from roughly N65E beneath the Betics to close to N65W beneath the Rif chain. To complete this image, we have now processed data from two OBS deployments in the Alboran Sea and Gulf of Cadiz installed by Geomar as part of the TopoMed project

  1. Malnutrition and intestinal parasitic infections in school children of Gondar, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worku, Netsanet; Erko, Berhanu; Torben, Workineh; Belay, Mulugeta; Kasssu, Afework; Fetene, Teshome; Huruy, Kahsay

    2009-01-01

    In developing countries, malnutrition is a considerable health problem with prevalence ranges of 4-46%, with 1-10% severely malnourished. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of malnutrition and intestinal parasitoses and identify risk factors of malnutrition in schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study was carried out on 322 schoolchildren, of age 6 to 14 years, attending private and government primary schools, in Gonder town, North West Ethiopia. The study was conducted from December 2006 to February 2007. Nutritional status of these children was determined using anthropometric parameters (weight-for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height). Epi Info 2000 software was used to evaluate anthropometric results of each individual and formol-ether concentration technique was employed to identify parasites. The prevalence of underweight, stunting, wasting and intestinal parasitoses was 34.8%, 27%, 50% and 55.6%, respectively. Parasites encountered during the study were Ascaris lumbricoides (17.8%), Trichuiris trichiura (3.4%), hookworm (4.3%), Giardia lamblia (9%), Entamoeba histolytica (2.1%), Schistosoma mansoni (2.4%), Hymenolepis nana (4.7%) and Enterobius vermicularis (0.31%), respectively, in single infections. Only two cases of Strongyloides stercoralis was found in multiple infections and none in single infections. The prevalence of multiple parasitoses was 10.9%. Maternal literacy status, sex and age of the child were significantly associated with malnutrition (p intestinal parasitoses in children of the study area.

  2. Survey of the livestock ticks of the North West province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur M. Spickett

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Ticks, as vectors of disease and damage agents, impact directly and indirectly on the economy of the livestock industry in southern Africa. This study surveyed the occurrence and distribution of ticks infesting livestock across the North West province, South Africa. During three phases in consecutive years, officers of the provincial Veterinary Department collected specimens monthly from livestock hosts at specified sites across the province. Data analysis constituted the fourth phase of the study. A total of 1090 collections from 265 sites yielded 42 566 tick specimens, comprising 22 different tick species (18 ixodids, 4 argasids. The specimens represent all of the major tick vectors of disease that occur in South Africa. The major tick-borne diseases (i.e. heartwater, both African and Asiatic bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis were found to be prevalent mainly in the north-eastern region of the province, which also displayed the highest tick species diversity. The central region appears transitory to some of the major vectors. Although some tick species were contained within specific regions, others were widespread across the province. Associated serology data show that most herds sampled in areas endemic for babesiosis and anaplasmosis in the north-eastern region are endemically unstable and at risk to these tick-borne diseases should vector control measures become ineffective.

  3. Modelling desertification risk in the north-west of Jordan using geospatial and remote sensing techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad T. Al-Bakri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing, climate, and ground data were used within a geographic information system (GIS to map desertification risk in the north-west of Jordan. The approach was based on modelling wind and water erosion and incorporating the results with a map representing the severity of drought. Water erosion was modelled by the universal soil loss equation, while wind erosion was modelled by a dust emission model. The extent of drought was mapped using the evapotranspiration water stress index (EWSI which incorporated actual and potential evapotranspiration. Output maps were assessed within GIS in terms of spatial patterns and the degree of correlation with soil surficial properties. Results showed that both topography and soil explained 75% of the variation in water erosion, while soil explained 25% of the variation in wind erosion, which was mainly controlled by natural factors of topography and wind. Analysis of the EWSI map showed that drought risk was dominating most of the rainfed areas. The combined effects of soil erosion and drought were reflected on the desertification risk map. The adoption of these geospatial and remote sensing techniques is, therefore, recommended to map desertification risk in Jordan and in similar arid environments.

  4. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.   Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.  Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes. Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  5. Fever prevalence and management among three rural communities in the North West Zone, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, R M; Alegana, V A; Amran, J; Noor, A M; Snow, R W

    2010-06-01

    Between March and August 2008 we undertook 2 cross-sectional surveys among 1375 residents of 3 randomly selected villages in the district of Gebiley in the North-West Zone, Somalia. We investigated for the presence of malaria infection and the period prevalence of self-reported fever 14 days prior to both surveys. All blood samples examined were negative for both species of Plasmodium. The period prevalence of 14-day fevers was 4.8% in March and 0.6% in August; the majority of fevers (84.4%) were associated with other symptoms including cough, running nose and sore throat; 48/64 cases had resolved by the day of interview (mean duration 5.4 days). Only 18 (37.5%) fever cases were managed at a formal health care facility: 7 within 24 hours and 10 within 24-72 hours of onset. None of the fevers were investigated for malaria; they were treated with antibiotics, antipyretics and vitamins.

  6. Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox Vulpes vulpes in north-west Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magi, M; Guardone, L; Prati, M C; Mignone, W; Macchioni, F

    2015-07-01

    Extraintestinal nematodes of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes) are a wide group of parasites that infect wild and domestic carnivores and occasionally humans. Nematodes in the cardiopulmonary system, stomach, urinary apparatus and muscle tissue of 165 red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) from north-west Italy (Liguria and Piedmont) were investigated between 2009 and 2012. Of the cardiopulmonary nematodes, a high prevalence of Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus (syn. Capillaria aerophila) was found, 78.2% and 41.8% respectively; Crenosoma vulpis (15.8%) and Filaroides spp. (4.8%) were also found. Spirocerca lupi (23.5%), Aonchotheca putorii (syn. Capillaria putorii) (8.6%) and Physaloptera spp. (2.5%) were detected in the stomach and Pearsonema plica (syn. Capillaria plica) (56.8%) in the bladder. Eucoleus boehmi (syn. Capillaria boehmi) was also detected in the nasal cavities of one of the two foxes examined. A coprological examination revealed eggs of E. aerophilus, A. putorii, S. lupi, Physaloptera spp. and eggs of intestinal parasites. Filarial worms were absent in all the 165 animals examined, nor was there evidence of Trichinella spp. in any of the foxes. The foxes were found to host a high prevalence of many species of extraintestinal nematodes. The prevalence of A. vasorum in foxes found in the present study is among the highest in Europe. In addition, to the best of our knowledge, E. boehmi and Filaroides spp. have never been reported before in this host in Italy.

  7. The gastropod Phorcus sauciatus (Koch, 1845) along the north-west Iberian Peninsula: filling historical gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubal, Marcos; Veiga, Puri; Moreira, Juan; Sousa-Pinto, Isabel

    2014-03-01

    The intertidal gastropod Phorcus sauciatus is a subtropical grazer that reaches its northern boundary in the Iberian Peninsula. Distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula shows, however, gaps in its distribution. The present study was aimed at detecting possible recent changes on the population structure and distribution of P. sauciatus along the north-west Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. To achieve this aim, we adopted a qualitative sampling design to explore the presence of P. sauciatus along a region within its historical gap of distribution (north Portuguese coast). In addition, a quantitative sampling design was adopted to test hypotheses about the abundance and size structure of P. sauciatus populations among regions with different historical records of its abundance and among shores with different exposure. Results showed that P. sauciatus was present along the north Portuguese coast. However, the abundance and size structure of the newly settled populations were significantly different to those of the historically recorded populations. Moreover, P. sauciatus was able to establish populations at sheltered shores. Considering these results, we propose models for the distribution of P. sauciatus along the Iberian Peninsula, based on effects of sea surface temperature, and to explain the size-frequency of their populations based on their density.

  8. The Tourist and Recreation Potential of Historical Cities in North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodachek V. M.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the development of historical cities has been high on research agenda. This is explained by the growing role of tourism and recreation in socioeconomic development and the persisting problem of the national economy’s spatial organisation amidst the absence of a clear-cut regional policy. The authors stress the discrepancy between the distribution of economic activities and the established system of settlement. This is particularly true for many historical cities, whose economic resources have been curtailed. This study provides a rationale for a more efficient use of the tourist and recreational potential to boost the socio-economic development of Russia’s historical cities. The article describes problems of the cities’ development using the country’s North-West as an example. The authors explore factors behind the formation of a new development strategy for historical cities and analyse conditions necessary for the efficient exploitation of the historical cities’ tourism and recreation potential. The findings obtained suggest that strategic areas of tourism and recreation development in Russia’s historical cities should be identified depending on city type, development conditions and other relevant factors.

  9. Effects of Abandoned Arsenic Mine on Water Resources Pollution in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmail Fatehifar

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health andwelfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environmentof mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to waterresources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine effectson drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of miningarea in the North West of Iran.Methods: Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of miningarea were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according tostandard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace AtomicAbsorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS and for wheat samples X – Ray Fluorescence(XRF and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP were used. Information about possiblehealth effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villagesand health center of Herris City.Results: The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000μg/L in Valiloo mine opening water. With increasing distance from the mine, concentrationwas decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no healtheffects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic.Conclusion: Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around environmentof the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater andalso downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  10. Investigation of Polluted Zones by Lead in North West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodadadi A.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available National project of Important Heavy Metals Identification of Iran (IHMI, following the UNDP and supported by Department of Environment of Iran (DOE, has been completed by Modares Environmental Research Center (MERC. Due to this project the pollution potential sources was investigated by overall distribution maps of any parameters that may cause the lead pollution. Then the sampling points was determined by some geo-statistical analysis and the sampling process was done according to standard methods of sampling, preserving, transferring to lab, measuring and analyzing etc through the 3 months in three phases of materials (effluent and discharges, solid waste, water, soil and sediment samples from natural sources like river etc.. After gathering the final results, overlaying the potential sources and polluted positions (according to violation of national and international standards of sampled points by Geographic Information Systems (GIS led the research to closing to the pollutant sources in north west provinces (Eastern Azerbaijan, Western Azerbaijan, Ardabil and Zanjan. The synthetic and natural pollution sources observed were 17 and 20 respectively. Abir River, Niroo Gostar Taban Industrial Complex and Copper Industries were the most important pollution sources in material phases of Natural, effluent and solid waste respectively.

  11. Modelling the impacts of projected future climate change on water resources in north-west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the frequency of water resource drought in the UK, coupled with the more recent pan-European drought of 2003, has increased concern over changes in climate. Using the UKCIP02 Medium-High (SRES A2 scenario for 2070–2100, this study investigates the impact of climate change on the operation of the Integrated Resource Zone (IRZ, a complex conjunctive-use water supply system in north-western England. The results indicate that the contribution of individual sources to yield may change substantially but that overall yield is reduced by only 18%. Notwithstanding this significant effect on water supply, the flexibility of the system enables it to meet modelled demand for much of the time under the future climate scenario, even without a change in system management, but at significant expense for pumping additional abstraction from lake and borehole sources. This research provides a basis for the future planning and management of the complex water resource system in the north-west of England.

  12. Efficacy of Aggression Replacement Training among Children from North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Koposov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess whether the Aggression Replacement Training (ART programme is effective in increasing social skills and decreasing problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 232 children (mean age 10.9 yrs, SD = 2.32, their parents and teachers. The study had a quasi-experimental design with intervention and control groups. Children were recruited from six schools and four social institutions from four regions in North-West Russia from 2010 to 2013. Social skills and externalizing behaviour were assessed with the Social Skills Rating Scale and analyzed by repeated measures ANOVA (GLM. In a pre and post-test assessment, the 30-hour ART programme was associated with a significant increase in social skills when assessed by children’s self-reports. The most reliable effects of the intervention were demonstrated in the two age groups of 6-9 and 10-14 years old. When both pre and post-test were assessed by parents and teachers, children from both the intervention and control groups demonstrated more social skills and less problem behaviour. Overall results point to a significant improvement of social skills among children from the intervention groups, but an improvement in social skills and reduction of problem behaviour have also been indicated among children from the control group. Findings are discussed in view to possible diffusion of treatment from children participating in an intervention to children from control groups.

  13. Leaf lipids of some edible plants from north-west pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imran, M.; Khan, R.; Talpur, F.N.

    2009-01-01

    The total lipid contents and distribution of fatty acids were determined in the leaves of 14 plant species, collected from north-west Pakistan. The amount of lipid, on fresh weight basis, varied from 0.26 +- 0.02 to 0.78 +- 0.06 %. The principal saturated fatty acid among all of the species was palmitic acid (15.55 +- 1.64 to 29.84 +- 2.32 %), while oleic acid; 18:1 omega9 (0.99 +- 0.04 to 10.30 +- 1.19 %) was highest in monounsaturated series. The presence of cis-trans isomers of 18:1 omega 9 were demonstrated in Stellaria media. The major polyenoic acids were linoleic; 18:2 omega 6 (6.17 +- 0.86 to 37.39 +- 1.31 %) and a linolenic; 18:3 omega3 (12.16 +- 1.89 to 45.60+- 2.80 %) acids but their relative proportions varied. Most of the plant species were low with regard to their saturated/18:3 omega3 while high in 18:3 omega3/18:3 omega 6 ratios. The green leafy vegetables studied in the present work were found to be good sources of essential fatty acids and are thus better supplements of these acids for human and animal nutrition. (author)

  14. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menz, Hylton B; Gill, Tiffany K; Taylor, Anne W; Hill, Catherine L

    2008-08-19

    Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure). Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  15. Predictors of podiatry utilisation in Australia: the North West Adelaide Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Anne W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foot problems are highly prevalent in the community; however no large population-based studies have examined the characteristics of those who do and do not access podiatry services in Australia. The aim of this study was to explore patterns of podiatry utilisation in a population-based sample of people aged 18 years and over living in the northwest region of Adelaide, South Australia. Methods The North West Adelaide Health Study is a representative longitudinal cohort study of 4,060 people randomly selected and recruited by telephone interview. The interview included questions regarding healthcare service utilisation in the past year. Data were also collected on education, income and major medical conditions. Results Overall, 9.5% of the total sample and 17.7% of those who reported foot pain had attended a podiatrist in the past year. Participants who had accessed podiatry treatment were more likely to be female, be aged over 45 years, be obese, and have major chronic medical conditions (osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and high blood pressure. Those who reported foot pain but had not accessed a podiatrist were more likely to be male and be aged 20 to 34 years. Conclusion Only a small proportion of people who report foot pain have accessed podiatry services in the past year. There is a need to further promote podiatry services to the general community, particularly to men and younger people.

  16. The transfer of reprocessing wastes from north-west Europe to the Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Peter; Baxter, Amanda

    The discharge of radioactive waste, from nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities, into the coastal waters of north-west Europe has resulted in a significant increase in the inventories of a number of artificial radionuclides in the North Atlantic. Radiocaesium, 90Sr and 99Tc, which behave conservatively in seawater, have been used widely as tracers of water movement through the North Sea, Norwegian Coastal Current, Barents Sea, Greenland Sea, Fram Strait, Eurasian Basin, East Greenland Current and Denmark Strait overflow. These studies are summarised in the present paper. It has been estimated that 22% of the 137Cs Sellafield discharge has passed into the Barents Sea, en route to the Nansen Basin, via the Bjomoya-Fugloya Section, with another 13% passing through the Fram Strait. This amounts to 14 PBq 137Cs. Quantifying the influx of other radionuclides has been more problematic. The inflowing Atlantic water now appears to be diluting waters in the Arctic Basin, which were contaminated in the late 1970s and early 1980s as a result of the substantial decrease in the discharge of reprocessing wastes. Sellafield (U.K.) has dominated the supply of 134Cs, 137Cs, 90Sr, 99Tc and Pu, whereas La Hague (France) has contributed a larger proportion of 129I and 125Sb.

  17. Prevalence of cattle flukes infection at Andassa Livestock Research Center in north-west of Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asressa Yeneneh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross sectional study was carried out from October 2010 to March 2011 at Andassa Livestock Research Center, North-West Ethiopia. The objective was to determine the prevalence of cattle flukes infection. Faecal samples were collected from a total of 384 cattle, cross breed (n= 39 and Fogera breed (n=345 of all age groups and sex. Sedimentation technique was employed for the recovery of fluke eggs from freshly collected fecal sample. The results indicated that the overall prevalence of bovine flukes infection was 60.42%. In this study, the highest prevalence was recorded from Paramphistomosis (45.83% followed by Fasciolosis (23.96%, and Schistosomosis (9.89%. The prevalence of flukes infection was higher in age group 1- 2 years old. There was significant difference in case of Paramphistomosis among age groups. No significant association was found between crossed breeds and sex groups for fluke’s infection. The prevalence of Paramphistomosis was high in cross breed (58.97% than Fogera breed (44.35%. However, in both cases, there was no significant difference. The result of the present study revealed that the prevalence of major bovine fluke infection in the study area was relatively low and is the definite proof of active infection.

  18. Prevalence of Linguatula serrata Nymph in Goat in Tabriz, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacob Garedaghi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Linguatula serrata is one of well-known members of Pentastomida which infects both humans and animals. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of L. serrata in mesenteric lymph nodes, livers and lungs of goats slaughtered in Tabriz area, Iran. Mesenteric lymph nodes (MLNs, livers and lungs of 280 goats slaughtered in Tabriz, North-west of Iran were investigated for nymphs of L. serrata from September 2009 to September 2010. The organs were examined macroscopically and then a tissue digestion method was also done for investigation of liver and lung of the goats that were infected MLN. The liver and lung samples were mostly taken from the condemned and rejected part of organs. The infection rate of L. serrata nymphs in MLNs, livers and lungs was 27.1 %, 2.8 % and 2.8 % respectively. The number of isolated nymph in infected lymph nodes varied from 1 to 22 with a mean of 7. Only one nymph was isolated from each infected livers and lungs. The infection rate increased with age (P 0.05. Linguatula infection occurs as an endemic zoonosis in the study area and has an active transmission life cycle.

  19. North by north-west: climate change and directions of density shifts in birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehikoinen, Aleksi; Virkkala, Raimo

    2016-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that climate change shifts species distributions towards poles and mountain tops. However, most studies are based on presence-absence data, and either abundance or the observation effort has rarely been measured. In addition, hardly any studies have investigated the direction of shifts and factors affecting them. Here, we show using count data on a 1000 km south-north gradient in Finland, that between 1970-1989 and 2000-2012, 128 bird species shifted their densities, on average, 37 km towards the north north-east. The species-specific directions of the shifts in density were significantly explained by migration behaviour and habitat type. Although the temperatures have also moved on average towards the north north-east (186 km), the species-specific directions of the shifts in density and temperature did not correlate due to high variation in density shifts. Findings highlight that climate change is unlikely the only driver of the direction of species density shifts, but species-specific characteristics and human land-use practices are also influencing the direction. Furthermore, the alarming results show that former climatic conditions in the north-west corner of Finland have already moved out of the country. This highlights the need for an international approach in research and conservation actions to mitigate the impacts of climate change. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Village-based indigenous chicken production system in north-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halima, H; Neser, F W C; Van Marle-Koster, E; De Kock, A

    2007-04-01

    Surveys using both purposive and random sampling methods was carried out in four zones of north-west Ethiopia to describe the village-based poultry production systems and constraints in order to design future improvement and conservation strategies. The majority of the respondents were female (74.16%). This indicated that most of the time the women, whether in male-headed or female-headed households, are responsible for chicken rearing while the men are responsible for crop cultivation and other off-farm activities. About 99% of the respondents gave supplementary feeds to their chickens. Almost all farmers provided night shelter for their chickens, in part of the kitchen (1.36%), in the main house (39.07%), in hand-woven baskets (7.29%), in bamboo cages (1.51%) or in a separate shed purpose-made for chickens (50.77%). The major causes of death of chickens during the study were seasonal outbreaks of Newcastle disease (locally known as fengele) and predation. It is important to collect and conserve local poultry breeds before they are fully replaced by the so-called improved breeds. As most of the poultry production is managed by women, focusing on training and education of women will enable not only the improvement of poultry production but also family planning and the overall living standards of the family and the community.

  1. Analysis of the Public Servants' Needs. Case Study: Romania, the North-West Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Claudia CREȚA

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering that individuals can fulfill some of their needs at the workplace, we may assume that, from the moment people choose a job, they are oriented toward those organizations that ease needs’ satisfaction and quitting that job is less likely when the dominant work needs are met. This paper aims to identify and analyze the needs of public servants from the North-West Region of Romania. The research was conducted in two distinct parts: the identification of needs was made using interviews and the analysis was based on data collected by self-administrated questionnaires. Specific needs of public servants were identified, along with general needs which are expressed by employees from other sectors. 77 needs were analyzed and they were grouped in 22 dimensions following the application of a questionnaire to 343 employees. The results showed that there are three major needs that public servants have namely the need for an optimal organizational climate, the need to have a career and the need to have specific work characteristics.

  2. Integrated care pilot in north west London: a mixed methods evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Curry

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: This paper provides the results of a year-long evaluation of a large-scale integrated care pilot in North West London. The pilot aimed to integrate care across primary, acute, community, mental health and social care for people with diabetes and those over 75 years through: care planning; multidisciplinary case reviews; information sharing; and project management support.    Methods: The evaluation team conducted qualitative studies of change at organisational, clinician, and patient levels (using interviews, focus groups and a survey; and quantitative analysis of change in service use and patient-level clinical outcomes (using patient-level data sets and a matched control study.   Results: The pilot had successfully engaged provider organisations, created a shared strategic vision and established governance structures. However, engagement of clinicians was variable and there was no evidence to date of significant reductions in emergency admissions. There was some evidence of changes in care processes.   Conclusion: Although the pilot has demonstrated the beginnings of large-scale change, it remains in the early stages and faces significant challenges as it seeks to become sustainable for the longer term. It is critical that NHS managers and clinicians have realistic expectations of what can be achieved in a relatively short period of time.

  3. Occurrence of Emerging Micropollutants in Water Systems in Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West Provinces, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M M; Nyoni, Hlengilizwe; Mamba, Bhekie B; Msagati, Titus A M

    2017-01-13

    The ubiquitous occurrence of emerging micropollutants (EMPs) in water is an issue of growing environmental-health concern worldwide. However, there remains a paucity of data regarding their levels and occurrence in water. This study determined the occurrence of EMPs namely: carbamazepine (CBZ), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), tonalide (AHTN), 4-nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Gauteng, Mpumalanga, and North West provinces, South Africa using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to high resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-HRTOFMS). Kruskal-Wallis test and ANOVA were performed to determine temporal variations in occurrence of the EMPs. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Surfer Golden Graphics software for surface mapping were used to determine spatial variations in levels and occurrence of the EMPs. The mean levels ranged from 11.22 ± 18.8 ng/L for CAF to 158.49 ± 662 ng/L for HHCB. There was no evidence of statistically significant temporal variations in occurrence of EMPs in water. Nevertheless, their levels and occurrence vary spatially and are a function of two principal components (PCs, PC1 and PC2) which controlled 89.99% of the variance. BPA was the most widely distributed EMP, which was present in 62% of the water samples. The detected EMPs pose ecotoxicological risks in water samples, especially those from Mpumalanga province.

  4. Irish (Republic) versus British (North West) orthopaedic trainees: what are the differences?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Banks, L N

    2012-02-01

    British Trainees have gradually had their working week curtained over the last 8 years. The Republic of Ireland Trainees have not been subjected to the European Working Time Directive prior to 2009 and have therefore worked on average, more hours than their British counterparts. We wanted to see if the differing schemes had an impact on recruiting and training orthopaedic surgeons. We surveyed Republic of Ireland orthopaedic specialist registrars (SpRs) and North West (NW) British SpRs\\/specialist trainees (ST3 and above) to see if there were any discernable differences in working patterns and subsequent training exposure. A standard proforma was given to Irish Trainees and to NW SpRs\\/STs at their National or regional teaching (January\\/February 2009). 62% of Irish and 47% of British NW Trainees responded. Irish trainees were more likely to have obtained a post-graduate degree (p = 0.03). The Irish worked more hours per week (p < 0.001) doing more trauma operative lists (p = 0.003) and more total cases per 6 months than the NW British (p = 0.003). This study suggests that more hours worked, equals more operative exposure, without detriment to the academic side of training. Obviously it is not possible to say whether fewer operations make for a poorer surgeon, but the evidence suggests that it may be true.

  5. Poisons Implicated in Homicidal, Suicidal and Accidental Cases in North-West Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, A.; Khan, M. T. H.; Khan, M. J.; Fatima, S.; Khan, T. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pakistan has one of the highest prevalence of poisoning in the world. However, limited data exist on the frequency of poisons implicated in homicidal, suicidal, and accidental cases in North-West Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). Methods: This retrospective study of 353 cases and biological specimens of poisoning received at the department of Forensic medicine and toxicology, Khyber Medical College Peshawar from 13 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Frequency of poisoning was assessed by testing each specimen for 17 different poisons. Results: Of all the specimens, 250 (70.8 percent) specimens tested positive and the rest did not show any indication of poisoning (n=103, 29.2 percent). The most frequent poisons detected were benzodiazepines (total n=75), organophosphates (total n=58), phencyclidine (total n=30) and morphine (total n=23). Gender had a significant association with benzodiazepines (p=0.011), tricyclic antidepressants (p=0.001), and organophosphates (p<0.001). Organophosphates were the most common cause of poisoning in females while benzodiazepines were the most common cause of poisoning in males. Conclusion: Poisoning by benzodiazepines, organophosphates and phencyclidine are the most common causes of intoxication in population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Source of poisoning varies with gender for organophosphates, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants. (author)

  6. Anthropogenic Vanadium emissions to air and ambient air concentrations in North-West Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Visschedijk A. H. J.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available An inventory of Vanadium emissions for North-West Europe for the year 2005 was made based on an identification of the major sources. The inventory covers Belgium, Germany, Denmark, France, United Kingdom, Luxembourg, Netherlands and the OSPAR region of the North Sea. Vanadium emission were calculated bottom-up using energy use activity data and collected fuel and sector-specific emissions factors, taking into account various emission control measures. The NW European emissions were dominated by combustion of heavy fuel oil and petroleum cokes. Total emissions for 2005 amounted to 1569 tons/yr. The major sources are sea going ships (39%, petroleum refineries (35% and industry (19%. Emission is strongly concentrated at the densely populated cities with major sea ports. The location of sources at or near the major port cities was confirmed by observational data, as was the downward trend in emissions due to emission control, fuel switches in industry and fuel quality improvement. The results show the positive impact of lower sulphur fuels on other possible health relevant air pollutants such as particle bound Vanadium. The emission inventory can be expanded to the full European domain and can be used to for air quality modeling and particularly for the tracing of source contributions from certain types of fossil fuels (petroleum coke and residual fuel oil. Moreover, it will allow the monitoring of changes in fuel use over time.

  7. Poisons Implicated In Homicidal, Suicidal And Accidental Cases In North-West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Adil; Khan, Muhammad Jaffar; Humayun Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Masood Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Fatima, Sadia

    2016-01-01

    Pakistan has one of the highest prevalence of poisoning in the world. However, limited data exist on the frequency of poisons implicated in homicidal, suicidal, and accidental cases in North-West Pakistan (Khyber Pakhtunkhwa). This retrospective study of 353 cases and biological specimens of poisoning received at the department of Forensic medicine and toxicology, Khyber Medical College Peshawar from 13 districts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Frequency of poisoning was assessed by testing each specimen for 17 different poisons. Of all the specimens, 250 (70.8%) specimens tested positive and the rest didn't show any indication of poisoning (n=103, 29.2%). The most frequent poisons detected were benzodiazepines (total n=75), organophosphates (total n=58), phencyclidine (total n=30) and morphine (total n=23). Gender had a significant association with benzodiazepines (p=0.011), tricyclic antidepressants (p=0.001), and organophosphates (ppoisoning in females while benzodiazepines were the most common cause of poisoning in males. Poisoning by benzodiazepines, organophosphates and phencyclidine are the most common causes of intoxication in population of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Source of poisoning varies with gender for organophosphates, benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants.

  8. Hepatic and renal histology and mercury concentrations of North West and North East Greenland narwhals (Monodon monoceros)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Leifsson, Pall S.; Sondergaard, Jens

    2018-01-01

    subadult females, 8 adult females, 3 subadult males, and 1 adult male) and compare data with previous observations of 12 North West Greenland specimens (1 subadult female, 4 adult females, 1 subadult male, and 6 adult males). The zoological length was significantly larger and hepatic and renal...... of glomerular lesions (capillary dilatation [0–100%], membrane thickening [0–100%], dilatation of space [0–80%], and sclerosis [0–70%]) and two tubular lesions (atrophy/hyalinization [0–40%] and casts [0–60%]). Hepatic tissues exhibited three portal lesions (fibrosis [0–33%], cell infiltrates [0–40%], and bile...... duct proliferation [0–40%]) and two parenchymal lesions (steatosis [83–100%] and lipid-filled Ito cells [0–33%]). All 12 lesions were found in adult whales from North West Greenland while eight were present in adult whales from North East Greenland. Six lesions were detected in subadults from North...

  9. NURE [National Uranium Resource Evaluation] HSSR [Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance] Quadrangle Summary Tables, North West Region: Volume 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This volume presents a summary of the distribution of elemental concentrations for water and sediment samples across quadrangles located in the North West Regional File. The next section briefly outlines the approach used by ISP in preparing these data tables. This is followed by an Alphabetical Index to the quadrangles contained in the North West Regional File and a Quadrangle Map; both the Index and Map present a record count for each quadrangle. The last section presents the data summary tables organized by sample type (water or sediments) and displaying elements within quads and quads within elements. These data summary tables show the general ranges of values present in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance sample data in each quadrangle or state. As with all summaries, they represent the data according to the best judgement of the professionals doing the analysis. This section gives a general description of the procedures used to produce the quadrangle summary percentiles

  10. Heavy metal contamination in the environs of the Zn-pB Mine in North-West of Tunisia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Guirat, S.; Ben Aissa, N.; Mhiri, A.

    2009-01-01

    The impact of industrial heavy metals (HM) pollution on soil quality and plant growth has become a public concern. To evaluate heavy metals concentration a Zn-Pb mine site was selected, as source of pollution, localized in BouGrine (BG) region at 120 km North-west of Tunis characterized by calcareous soils. Soils of the imine site are occupied by forest pine. (Author)

  11. Choosing between agricultural development projects in the North-West Province of South Africa: a multiple criteria analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cloete, Philippus Christoffel; Van der Merwe, Johannes Daniël; Van Schalkwyk, Herman Daniël

    2012-01-01

    In the light of past development failures, coupled with the pressure on government to deliver on their promises made towards agricultural development, a need was developed for a framework to assist government in choosing between agricultural development projects in the North West Province, consequently assisting government with their budget allocation towards agricultural development. Consequently, detailed agricultural development plans were drafted with the intent to provide a framework or ...

  12. The contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province, South Africa / Senye Monica Kedibone

    OpenAIRE

    Senye, Monica Kedibone

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the contribution of women entrepreneurs to the economic growth of the North West Province. The aim of the study was to identify the contribution of women entrepreneurs in the economic growth, to determine forces driving women to become entrepreneurs. The study also aimed at examining future challenges for women entrepreneurs as well as strategies to advance women entrepreneurs . The Quantitative research method was chosen for the study and the targeted populat...

  13. Notes on the fishes collected by the R.V. “TRIDENS” on the North West African shelf, 19-25 January 1969

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de S.J.; Nijssen, H.

    1971-01-01

    On the North West African shelf 98 species of fishes were collected of which a classification is given. Three species have hitherto been recorded only farther South. The status of Platophrys podas africanus (Nielsen, 1961) is discussed.

  14. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  15. Environmental and host-related determinants of tuberculosis in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesema C

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cheru Tesema,1 Takele Tadesse,2 Mulat Gebrehiwot,2 Azanaw Tsegaw,3 Fitsum Weldegebreal4 1College of Medical and health science, Debremarkos Universitty, Debremarkos, 2Institute of Public Health, College of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, 3College of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, 4Haramaya University, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Department of Medical laboratory Science, Harar, Ethiopia Background: Each year, one third of the world's population is estimated to be infected with tuberculosis (TB. Globally in 2011, there were an estimated 8.7 million TB cases that resulted in 1.4 million deaths. In Ethiopia, TB is the leading cause of morbidity and the third most common cause of hospital admission. The aim of this study is to assess environmental and host-related determinants of TB in Metema district, north-west Ethiopia.Methods: A community-based unmatched case-control study was conducted from March 12 to April 5, 2013. The study population included 655 subjects (218 cases and 437 controls in a ratio of 1:2. Cases were TB patients selected from a total of 475 cases registered and treated from March 2012 to February 2013 at the Metema District Hospital DOTS (direct observation therapy, short-course clinic and selected randomly using a lottery method. Controls were people who had had no productive cough for at least 2 weeks previously and were selected from the community.Results: A total of 655 respondents (218 cases and 437 controls participated in the study. In multivariate analysis, being illiterate (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.65, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.31–5.76, households containing more than four family members (AOR 3.09, 95% CI 2.07–4.61, living space <4 m2 per person (AOR 3.11, 95% CI 2.09–4.63, a nonseparated kitchen (AOR 3.27, 95% CI 1.99–5.35, history of contact with a TB patient (AOR 2.05, 95% CI 1.35–3.12, a house with no ceiling (AOR 1.46, 95% CI 1.07–2

  16. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovsky, I.; Baklanov, A.; Jacovlev, V.; Prutskov, V.; Bergman, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: 'Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia' is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: 'Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: 'Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.' Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  17. Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisovsky, I. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Baklanov, A. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Jacovlev, V. [St. Petersburg State Technical Univ. (Russian Federation); Prutskov, V. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). First Central Research Inst. of Naval Shipbuilding; Tarasov, I. [Ministry of Defence (Russian Federation). 23 State Marine Project Inst.; Blecher, A. [State Unitary Enterprise (Russian Federation). Research Inst. of Industrial and Marine Medicine; Zvonariev, B.; Kuchin, N.; Rubanov, S.; Sergeiev, I. [State Scientific Centre (Russian Federation). Central Research Inst. of A. Krylov; Morozov, S.; Koshkin, V.; Fedorenko, Yu.; Rigina, O. [Inst. of the Northern Ecology Problems (INEP) (Russian Federation); Bergman, R. [ed.] [Defence Research Establishment, Umeaa (Sweden). Div. of NBC Defence

    1999-05-01

    This Technical Report, being part of the INTAS project 96-1802, constitutes a comprehensive presentation - covering basic results from separate contributions as specified below - of work performed during the first period (February 1998- February 1999). The aim of the INTAS project 96-1802: `Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia` is to assess the potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination from nuclear units in north-west Russia and resulting impacts on population and terrestrial ecosystems in the north. The work focuses mainly on airborne radioactive contamination, but some case studies also deal with accidental leakage from terrestrial nuclear sites to soil and coastal waters. The present material comprises in more detail the contributions from participants no.4 and no.5 based on the four internal reports referred to below: (1) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in north-west Russia: `Determination of the list of typical sources of danger emergency radioactive releases in an environment in connection with military activity in the North of Russia.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.5. St.-Petersburg State Technical University, St.-Petersburg. July 1998. 43 p.; (2) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in North-west Russia: `Analysis and description of source-term characteristics for accident linked with airborne radioactive releases from Kola Nuclear Power Plant. Establishing a network facility at INEP for communication among the INTAS Project participants.` Technical report no.1 of the team no.4. Kola Science Centre, Apatity. August 1998. 56 p.; (3) Assessment of potential risk of environmental radioactive contamination in Northern Europe from terrestrial nuclear units in

  18. Preliminary Investigations on the Distribution of Leptospira Serovars in Domestic Animals in North-west Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkirane, A; Noury, S; Hartskeerl, R A; Goris, M G A; Ahmed, A; Nally, J E

    2016-04-01

    Leptospirosis is a neglected zoonosis of global importance with a complex epidemiology that affects humans, domestic and wild mammals. However, due to the diversity of clinical signs and difficulties of establishing a confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, the disease remains poorly investigated, particularly in the developing world. In Morocco, a descriptive study of the seroprevalence of Leptospira infection in animals has never been undertaken. To fill this gap, the current study was conducted on a subset of animals in north-west Morocco as a preliminary step towards understanding the epidemiological patterns of animal leptospirosis in the country. The study was conducted on 289 serum samples collected between January and April 2012 from dogs, cattle, sheep, goats and donkeys in the areas of Rabat-Temara, Sidi Kacem and Oulmes. All serum samples were tested by the MAT with 14 reference strains of the most prevalent pathogenic serovars of Leptospira and two serovars of non-pathogenic Leptospira. The overall seroprevalence of Leptospira in cattle, sheep, goats, dogs and donkeys was 15%, 18%, 20%, 21% and 20%, respectively. The most prevalent serogroups found in each species were Ballum, Sejroe, and Australis in cattle, Ballum, Australis and Sejroe in sheep, Australis and Ballum in goats, Javanica and Australis in donkey and Australis, Ballum and Canicola in dogs. Of all the serogroups tested in this study, Icterohaemorrhagiae, the only serogroup which has been previously reported in humans in Morocco, was rarely reactive. The majority of reactive sera were collected from low land areas. A large number of sera samples classified as seronegative when tested against pathogenic leptospires were positive when tested against non-pathogenic leptospires; this is suggestive of possible novel, as yet unclassified, Leptospira serovars in Morocco. Eleven of thirteen sheep urine samples were positive by real-time PCR confirming their role as Leptospira carriers in Morocco. © 2014

  19. Mixed messages: An evaluation of NHS Trust Social Media policies in the North West of England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scragg, B.; Shaikh, S.; Robinson, L.; Mercer, C.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Despite National Health Service (NHS) information strategy promoting the use of Social Media (SoMe) to encourage greater engagement between service users and providers, a team investigating online SoMe interaction between breast screening practitioners and clients found that practitioners alleged discouragement from employers' policies. This study aimed to investigate whether this barrier was genuine, and illuminate whether local policy differed from national strategy. Method: The study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to generate a theory. Nine policies from the North West of England were analysed. A framework was derived from the data, and an analysis of policy tone followed by a detailed coding of policy content was undertaken. Comparative analysis continued by reviewing the literature, and a condensed framework revealed five broad categories that policies addressed. Results: The analysis revealed the policies varied in content, but not in tone, which was mostly discouraging. Coding the content revealed that the most frequently addressed point was that of protecting the employers' reputation, and after further analysis, the resultant condensed framework showed that policies were imbalanced and heavily skewed towards Security, Conduct & Behaviour and Reputation. Conclusion: Practitioners within breast screening services are discouraged by overly prohibitive and prescriptive SoMe policies; with these varying tremendously in comprehensiveness, but with a narrow focus on security and employers reputation; in contrast with national strategy. Recommendations are that policy revision is undertaken with consultation by more than one stakeholder, and SoMe training is offered for all members of NHS staff. - Highlights: • Practitioners are discouraged from using SoMe by employers' policies. • This is at odds with national strategy of engagement with all stakeholders. • Policies are skewed towards protecting reputation and

  20. Clinical aspects of paediatric visceral leishmaniasis in North-west Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diro, Ermias; Lynen, Lutgarde; Gebregziabiher, Berhane; Assefa, Abraham; Lakew, Wubishet; Belew, Zewdu; Hailu, Asrat; Boelaert, Marleen; van Griensven, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in north-west Ethiopia is causing an overwhelming case load among adult migrant workers that masked the disease burden in children. This study describes the clinical profile and explores comorbidities in paediatric VL patients. A prospective study at two hospitals in this region (Gondar and Humera) was conducted in a year period, 2011-2012. The clinical manifestations and comorbidities such as malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency and HIV infection were assessed, and treatment outcomes noted. A total of 122 children with VL were detected during the study period with median age of 8.5 years (IQR 5-12 years); 23% were under 5 years. Eighty-five (69.7%) cases were male. The clinical manifestations were similar to the adult patients. High rates of malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis (47.5%) and hypovitaminosis D (56.4%) were detected. The proportion of stunting and wasting was 63% and 22.2% in children aged under five years, and 50.5% and 75.9% in 5-year and older children, respectively, using WHO standard growth curves. Only one child had HIV infection. In 95% of the cases, sodium stibogluconate (20 mg/kg/day for 30 days) was used for treatment. The treatment success rate at end of therapy was 98.3%, but the definitive outcome at 6 months could not be determined because of a high loss to follow-up (80.2%). While HIV co-infection was rare, malnutrition, intestinal parasitosis and vitamin D deficiency were frequent indicating the need for further research on their role in the pathophysiology. Meanwhile, systematic assessment and management of malnutrition and intestinal parasitosis in VL programmes is recommended. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Physicians' knowledge and practice on death certification in the North West Bank, Palestine: across sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qaddumi, Jamal A S; Nazzal, Zaher; Yacoub, Allam; Mansour, Mahmoud

    2018-01-08

    Mortality data are essential for many aspects of everyday public health practices at both national and international levels. Despite the current developments in various aspects of the medical field, the apparent inability of physicians to complete death notification forms (DNF) accurately is still worldwide concern. The aim of this study is to assess the physicians' knowledge and practice on completing the DNF. A self-administered questionnaire was distributed to 200 physicians in governmental and non-governmental hospitals in the North West-Bank in Palestine. Furthermore, a case scenario was included in the questionnaire and physicians were asked to fill the cause of death section. The percentage of errors committed while completing the cause of death section were computed. A Chi square test was used to assess the association between physicians' characteristics and their responses. Only 40.6% of the participants completed the cause of death section correctly. The immediate and underlying causes of death were correctly identified by 48.7% and 71.3% of physicians, respectively. Almost one-fifth (17.3%) of physicians wrote the mechanism of death without reporting the underlying cause of death and 14.7% of them reported the sequence of events leading to death incorrectly. Physicians' knowledge and practice on completing the DNF is poor and insufficient, which may seriously affect the accuracy of mortality data. Complicated cases, problems in the current design of the DNFs and lack of training were the most common factors contributing to inaccuracy in death certification. We recommend offering periodical training workshops on completing the DNF to all physicians, and developing a manual on completing the DNFs with clear instructions and guidelines.

  2. Limitations of the Parsonnet score for measuring risk stratified mortality in the north west of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynne-Jones, K; Jackson, M; Grotte, G; Bridgewater, B; North, W

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To study the use of the Parsonnet score to predict mortality following adult cardiac surgery.
DESIGN—Prospective study.
SETTING—All centres performing adult cardiac surgery in the north west of England.
SUBJECTS—8210 patients undergoing surgery between April 1997 and March 1999.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—Risk factors and in-hospital mortality were recorded according to agreed definitions. Ten per cent of cases from each centre were selected at random for validation. A Parsonnet score was derived for each patient and its predictive ability was studied.
RESULTS—Data collection was complete. The operative mortality was 3.5% (95% confidence interval 3.1% to 3.9%), ranging from 2.7% to 3.8% across the centres. On validation, the incidence of discrepancies ranged from 0% to 13% for the different risk factors. The predictive ability of the Parsonnet score measured by area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.74. The mean Parsonnet score for the region was 7.0, giving an observed to expected mortality ratio of 0.51 (range 0.4 to 0.64 across the centres). A new predictive model was derived from the data by multivariate analysis which includes nine objective risk factors, all with a significant association with mortality, which highlights some of the deficits of the Parsonnet score.
CONCLUSIONS—Risk stratified mortality data were collected on 100% of patients undergoing adult cardiac surgery in two years within a defined geographical region and were used to set an audit standard. Problems with the Parsonnet score of subjectivity, inclusion of many items not associated with mortality, and the overprediction of mortality have been highlighted.


Keywords: risk stratification; cardiac surgery; Parsonnet score; audit PMID:10862595

  3. A spatial and seasonal assessment of river water chemistry across North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, J J; Dise, N B; Taylor, K G; Allott, T E H; Scholefield, P; Davies, H; Neal, C

    2010-01-15

    This paper presents information on the spatial and seasonal patterns of river water chemistry at approximately 800 sites in North West England based on data from the Environment Agency regional monitoring programme. Within a GIS framework, the linkages between average water chemistry (pH, sulphate, base cations, nutrients and metals) catchment characteristics (topography, land cover, soil hydrology, base flow index and geology), rainfall, deposition chemistry and geo-spatial information on discharge consents (point sources) are examined. Water quality maps reveal that there is a clear distinction between the uplands and lowlands. Upland waters are acidic and have low concentrations of base cations, explained by background geological sources and land cover. Localised high concentrations of metals occur in areas of the Cumbrian Fells which are subjected to mining effluent inputs. Nutrient concentrations are low in the uplands with the exception sites receiving effluent inputs from rural point sources. In the lowlands, both past and present human activities have a major impact on river water chemistry, especially in the urban and industrial heartlands of Greater Manchester, south Lancashire and Merseyside. Over 40% of the sites have average orthophosphate concentrations >0.1mg-Pl(-1). Results suggest that the dominant control on orthophosphate concentrations is point source contributions from sewage effluent inputs. Diffuse agricultural sources are also important, although this influence is masked by the impact of point sources. Average nitrate concentrations are linked to the coverage of arable land, although sewage effluent inputs have a significant effect on nitrate concentrations. Metal concentrations in the lowlands are linked to diffuse and point sources. The study demonstrates that point sources, as well as diffuse sources, need to be considered when targeting measures for the effective reduction in river nutrient concentrations. This issue is clearly important

  4. Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2012-05-01

    Research purpose: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-à-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success. Motivation for the study: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace. Research design, approach and method: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees. Main findings: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively. Practical/managerial implications: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace. Contribution/value-add: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of the host culture do not always favour multiculturalism.

  5. Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Khisroon, Muhammad; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-10-01

    North West Pakistan (NWP) is characterized by four eco-zones: Northern Montane Region, North Western Hills, Submontane Region and Indus Plains. Present study identified 1037 cases of traumatic myiasis in the region during 2012-2015. Screw worm larvae were classified as 12 species: Chrysomya bezziana (Villeneuve), Chryomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart), Sarchophaga species. Among these C. bezziana, L. cuprina and W. magnifica with approximately 882 case reports were the principal agents of traumatic myiasis. The species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. In order to investigate spatial distribution of these dominant species we used MaxEnt niche model. Our results revealed a well-established occurrence of C. bezziana and L. cuprina in the four eco-regions while W. magnifica is currently contained in the Submontane Region. Several hot spot areas of infestation were detected all characterized by high human population density showing synanthropic nature of these species. Wohlfahrtia magnifica was excluded from Northern Montane Region with severe winters and Southern Indus Plains with harsh summers revealing that invasive species are initially sensitive to extreme of temperatures. Presence of L. cuprina in the wet areas of North Humid Belt (Maximum annual precipitation: 1641mm) depicted a moisture preference of the species. In perspective of changing climate and future predictions of severe events such as droughts and flooding in NWP, W. magnifica can potentially alter the species composition. Considering these findings in an eco-geographically dynamic region of Pakistan we predict that two factors (1) Growing human population (2) Climatic conditions, equally contribute to range

  6. Phylogeographic structure and demographic patterns of brown trout in North-West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoj, Aleš; Marić, Saša; Bajec, Simona Sušnik; Berrebi, Patrick; Janjani, Said; Schöffmann, Johannes

    2011-10-01

    The objectives of the study were to determine the phylogeographic structure of brown trout (Salmo trutta) in Morocco, elucidate their colonization patterns in North-West Africa and identify the mtDNA lineages involved in this process. We also aimed to resolve whether certain brown trout entities are also genetically distinct. Sixty-two brown trout from eleven locations across the Mediterranean and the Atlantic drainages in Morocco were surveyed using sequence analysis of the mtDNA control region and nuclear gene LDH, and by genotyping twelve microsatellite loci. Our study confirms that in Morocco both the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins are populated by Atlantic mtDNA lineage brown trout only, demonstrating that the Atlantic lineage (especially its southern clade) invaded initially not only the western part of the Mediterranean basin in Morocco but also expanded deep into the central area. Atlantic haplotypes identified here sort into three distinct groups suggesting Morocco was colonized in at least three successive waves (1.2, 0.4 and 0.2-0.1 MY ago). This notion becomes more pronounced with the finding of a distinct haplotype in the Dades river system, whose origin appears to coalesce with the nascent stage of the basal mtDNA evolutionary lineages of brown trout. According to our results, Salmo akairos, Salmo pellegrini and "green trout" from Lake Isli do not exhibited any character states that distinctively separate them from the other brown trout populations studied. Therefore, their status as distinct species was not confirmed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Positive acculturation conditions and well-being in a mine in the North-West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon T.B. Jackson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Multiculturalism seemed to have become the dominant strategy for dealing with pluralism in the South African public sphere.Research purpose: The authors addressed the relationship between conditions that are considered to be conducive to multiculturalism and the practices perceived to accomplish this, vis-à-vis multiculturalism and well-being, as measured by ill-health and subjective work success.Motivation for the study: Although multiculturalism has been recommended as an effective way of dealing with diversity at societal and local levels, little is known about its effects in the workplace.Research design, approach and method: Following a quantitative approach, the authors utilised a cross-sectional design with a convenience sample of 241 Black employees and White employees from a mine in North-West Province for the research. Exploratory factor analyses and Cronbach alpha coefficients were used to test scale validity and reliability. Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA and effect sizes were used to determine the effect of race on the experiences of miners, and multigroup path analysis (AMOS was used to investigate whether or not identical relations between multiculturalism, work success, and ill-health could be found for Black employees and White employees.Main findings: Multiculturalism and mainstream tolerance coupled with ethnic integration demands at home and at work were associated with success at work but not with ill-health. Black employees experienced the workplace slightly more positively.Practical/managerial implications: Multiculturalism and integration are related to subjective experiences of work success and, as such, should be supported in the workplace.Contribution/value-add: Our findings suggest that multiculturalism is relatively well supported by both groups in the workplace. This positive finding should not be regarded as obvious because empirical research has suggested that the majority of members of

  8. Effects of abandoned arsenic mine on water resources pollution in north west of iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajalilou, Behzad; Mosaferi, Mohammad; Khaleghi, Fazel; Jadidi, Sakineh; Vosugh, Bahram; Fatehifar, Esmail

    2011-01-01

    Pollution due to mining activities could have an important role in health and welfare of people who are living in mining area. When mining operation finishes, environ-ment of mining area can be influenced by related pollution e.g. heavy metals emission to wa-ter resources. The present study was aimed to evaluate Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine ef-fects on drinking water resources quality and possible health effects on the residents of min-ing area in the North West of Iran. Water samples and some limited composite wheat samples in downstream of min-ing area were collected. Water samples were analyzed for chemical parameters according to standard methods. For determination of arsenic in water samples, Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometric Method (GFAAS) and for wheat samples X - Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Method (ICP) were used. Information about possible health effects due to exposure to arsenic was collected through interviews in studied villages and health center of Herris City. The highest concentrations of arsenic were measured near the mine (as high as 2000 µg/L in Valiloo mine opening water). With increasing distance from the mine, concentration was decreased. Arsenic was not detectable in any of wheat samples. Fortunately, no health effects had been reported between residents of studied area due to exposure to arsenic. Valiloo abandoned arsenic mine has caused release of arsenic to the around en-vironment of the mine, so arsenic concentration has been increased in the groundwater and also downstream river that requires proper measures to mitigate spread of arsenic.

  9. Mixed messages: An evaluation of NHS Trust Social Media policies in the North West of England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scragg, B; Shaikh, S; Robinson, L; Mercer, C

    2017-08-01

    Despite National Health Service (NHS) information strategy promoting the use of Social Media (SoMe) to encourage greater engagement between service users and providers, a team investigating online SoMe interaction between breast screening practitioners and clients found that practitioners alleged discouragement from employers' policies. This study aimed to investigate whether this barrier was genuine, and illuminate whether local policy differed from national strategy. The study used a qualitative grounded theory approach to generate a theory. Nine policies from the North West of England were analysed. A framework was derived from the data, and an analysis of policy tone followed by a detailed coding of policy content was undertaken. Comparative analysis continued by reviewing the literature, and a condensed framework revealed five broad categories that policies addressed. The analysis revealed the policies varied in content, but not in tone, which was mostly discouraging. Coding the content revealed that the most frequently addressed point was that of protecting the employers' reputation, and after further analysis, the resultant condensed framework showed that policies were imbalanced and heavily skewed towards Security, Conduct & Behaviour and Reputation. Practitioners within breast screening services are discouraged by overly prohibitive and prescriptive SoMe policies; with these varying tremendously in comprehensiveness, but with a narrow focus on security and employers reputation; in contrast with national strategy. Recommendations are that policy revision is undertaken with consultation by more than one stakeholder, and SoMe training is offered for all members of NHS staff. Copyright © 2017 The College of Radiographers. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Patience Manzana

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1 A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2 An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3 A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  11. Optimal feeding systems for small-scale dairy herds in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzana, N Patience; McCrindle, Cheryl M E; Sebei, P Julius; Prozesky, Leon

    2014-07-09

    Land redistribution was legislated in 1994; it was designed to resolve historical imbalances inland ownership in South Africa. Between 2002 and 2006, a longitudinal observational studywas conducted with 15 purposively selected small-scale dairy farmers in a land redistributionproject in Central North West Province. Four farmers left the project over the period. For thepurposes of this study, a small-scale dairy farm was defined as a farm that produces less than500 L of milk a day, irrespective of the number of cows or size of the farm. The study wasconducted in three phases. In the first phase, situational analysis using participatory ruralappraisal (PRA) and observation was used to outline the extent of the constraints and designappropriate interventions. Feeds that were used were tested and evaluated. In the secondphase, three different feeding systems were designed from the data obtained from PRA. Thesewere: (1) A semi-intensive farm-based ration using available crops, pastures and crop residueswith minimal rations purchased. (2) An intensive, zero-grazing dairy system using a totalmixed ration. (3) A traditional, extensive or dual-purpose system, where the calf drank fromthe cow until weaning and milking was done only once a day. In the third phase, adoptionwas monitored. By July 2006, all remaining farmers had changed to commercially formulatedrations or licks and the body condition score of the cows had improved. It was concluded thatveterinary extension based on PRA and a holistic systems approach was a good option forsuch complex problems. Mentoring by commercial dairy farmers, veterinary and extensionservices appeared to be viable. Further research should be done to optimise the traditionalmodel of dairy farming, as this was relatively profitable, had a lower risk and was less labourintensive.

  12. Experiences of mothers of sexually abused children in North-West province, post disclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaboipolelwe M. Masilo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sexual violence against children is increasing at an alarming rate in South Africa. In 2010 the South African Police Service (SAPS reported 21 538 rape cases of children under 18 years. In the North-West province (NWP 5039 incidents of rape cases were reported in 2009. Mothers often experience emotional pain following child sexual abuse disclosure. It is seldom acknowledged that these mothers experience trauma and need support, post disclosure. The researcher has no known evidence of research conducted on the experiences of these mothers in NWP. Objective: The objective of the study was to explore and describe the experiences of mothers of sexually abused children post disclosure of the abuse. Method: The research design was qualitative, exploratory, descriptive and contextual. Purposive sampling was used to select mothers of sexually abused children aged 23 to 59 years whose children ranged from 0 to 16 years. Permission to conduct the study was sought from the Provincial Department of Health and informed consent was obtained from the mothers. Interviews were conducted with a sample of n = 17 until data saturation. Data were collected through in-depth interviews using a voice recorder and field notes to enhance triangulation. Tesch’s method of open coding was used to analyse data. Results: Findings indicated that mothers experienced emotional pain post sexual abuse. They expressed shock, anger and guilt for not noticing the abuse. They showed significant depression as a result of lack of support by stakeholders. Conclusion: Mothers experienced secondary trauma that poses social and psychological challenges with far-reaching implications.

  13. Phytoplankton Distribution in Relation to Environmental Drivers on the North West European Shelf Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemering, Beatrix; Bresnan, Eileen; Painter, Stuart C; Daniels, Chris J; Inall, Mark; Davidson, Keith

    2016-01-01

    The edge of the North West European Shelf (NWES) is characterised by a steep continental slope and a northward flowing slope current. These topographic/hydrographic features separate oceanic water and shelf water masses hence potentially separate phytoplankton communities. The slope current may facilitate the advective transport of phytoplankton, with mixing at the shelf edge supporting nutrient supply and therefore phytoplankton production. On the west Scottish shelf in particular, little is known about the phytoplankton communities in and around the shelf break and adjacent waters. Hence, to improve our understanding of environmental drivers of phytoplankton communities, biological and environmental data were collected on seven cross-shelf transects across the Malin and Hebridean Shelves during autumn 2014. Density profiles indicated that shelf break and oceanic stations had a 100 m deep mixed surface layer while stations on the shelf were generally well mixed. Analysis of similarity and multidimensional scaling of phytoplankton counts revealed that phytoplankton communities on the shelf were significantly different to those found at the shelf break and at oceanic stations. Shelf stations were dominated by dinoflagellates, with diatoms contributing a maximum of 37% of cells. Shelf break and oceanic stations were also dinoflagellate dominated but displayed a lower species diversity. Significant difference between shelf and shelf break stations suggested that the continental slope limited cross shelf phytoplankton exchange. Northern and southern phytoplankton communities on the shelf were approximately 15% dissimilar while there was no latitudinal gradient for stations along the slope current, suggesting this current provided south to north connectivity. Fitting environmental data to phytoplankton ordination showed a significant relationship between phytoplankton community dissimilarities and nutrient concentrations and light availability on the shelf compared to

  14. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  15. Prevalence of insulin resistance in siblings of type 2 diabetics of north west punjabi population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Sukhraj; Mahajan, Mridula; Bal, B S

    2014-08-01

    Insulin resistance a physiological condition is marked by hyperglycemia and failure of cells to respond to normal action thus hyperinsulinemia. It is prevalent in individuals having genetic predisposition and family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Physically inactive individuals having sedentary life style are also at a risk of developing insulin resistance. The present study was planned to observe the prevalence of insulin resistance or pre diabetes in various age groups of North West Punjabi population. A total of 400 families comprising of 1159 offsprings of diabetic patients and siblings amongst each were included in the present study. All these 400 families had history of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the present or past generation. Written consent was taken from the head of the family for inclusion in the study. Fasting samples were collected and analysed for Glucose, Glycosylated Hb, complete lipid profile, Insulin and c-peptide. Body mass index, waist hip ratio and HOMA-IR were calculated. Comparison of mean of various parameters was done using student t-test. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for comparison between groups followed by Bonferroni post hoc analysis. Pearson's correlation method was used for quantitative variables. Statistical significance was defined as p18-35 years were more prone to insulin resistance as compared to other age groups. Insulin resistance at a young age of 18-35 years predisposes these individuals to coronary events. Females in reproductive years are more prone to insulin resistance or pre diabetes as compared to males of the same age group.

  16. Modelling temporal and spatial dynamics of benthic fauna in North-West-European shelf seas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, Gennadi; Bruggeman, Jorn; Artioli, Yuri; Butenschön, Momme; Blackford, Jerry

    2017-04-01

    Benthic zones of shallow shelf seas receive high amounts of organic material. Physical processes such as resuspension, as well as complex transformations mediated by diverse faunal and microbial communities, define fate of this material, which can be returned to the water column, reworked within sediments or ultimately buried. In recent years, numerical models of various complexity and serving different goals have been developed and applied in order to better understand and predict dynamics of benthic processes. ERSEM includes explicit parameterisations of several groups of benthic biota, which makes it particularly applicable for studies of benthic biodiversity, biological interactions within sediments and benthic-pelagic coupling. To assess model skill in reproducing temporal (inter-annual and seasonal) dynamics of major benthic macrofaunal groups, 1D model simulation results were compared with data from the Western Channel Observatory (WCO) benthic survey. The benthic model was forced with organic matter deposition rates inferred from observed phytoplankton abundance and model parameters were subsequently recalibrated. Based on model results and WCO data comparison, deposit-feeders exert clear seasonal variability, while for suspension-feeders inter-annual variability is more pronounced. Spatial distribution of benthic fauna was investigated using results of a full-scale NEMO-ERSEM hindcast simulation of the North-West European Shelf Seas area, covering the period of 1981-2014. Results suggest close relationship between spatial distribution of biomass of benthic faunal functional groups in relation to bathymetry, hydrodynamic conditions and organic matter supply. Our work highlights that it is feasible to construct, implement and validate models that explicitly include functional groups of benthic macrofauna. Moreover, the modelling approach delivers detailed information on benthic biogeochemistry and food-web at spatial and temporal scales that are unavailable

  17. Early human occupation of a maritime desert, Barrow Island, North-West Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veth, Peter; Ward, Ingrid; Manne, Tiina; Ulm, Sean; Ditchfield, Kane; Dortch, Joe; Hook, Fiona; Petchey, Fiona; Hogg, Alan; Questiaux, Daniele; Demuro, Martina; Arnold, Lee; Spooner, Nigel; Levchenko, Vladimir; Skippington, Jane; Byrne, Chae; Basgall, Mark; Zeanah, David; Belton, David; Helmholz, Petra; Bajkan, Szilvia; Bailey, Richard; Placzek, Christa; Kendrick, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Archaeological deposits from Boodie Cave on Barrow Island, northwest Australia, reveal some of the oldest evidence for Aboriginal occupation of Australia, as well as illustrating the early use of marine resources by modern peoples outside of Africa. Barrow Island is a large (202 km2) limestone continental island located on the North-West Shelf of Australia, optimally located to sample past use of both the Pleistocene coastline and extensive arid coastal plains. An interdisciplinary team forming the Barrow Island Archaeology Project (BIAP) has addressed questions focusing on the antiquity of occupation of coastal deserts by hunter-gatherers; the use and distribution of marine resources from the coast to the interior; and the productivity of the marine zone with changing sea levels. Boodie Cave is the largest of 20 stratified deposits identified on Barrow Island with 20 m3 of cultural deposits excavated between 2013 and 2015. In this first major synthesis we focus on the dating and sedimentology of Boodie Cave to establish the framework for ongoing analysis of cultural materials. We present new data on these cultural assemblages - including charcoal, faunal remains and lithics - integrated with micromorphology, sedimentary history and dating by four independent laboratories. First occupation occurs between 51.1 and 46.2 ka, overlapping with the earliest dates for occupation of Australia. Marine resources are incorporated into dietary assemblages by 42.5 ka and continue to be transported to the cave through all periods of occupation, despite fluctuating sea levels and dramatic extensions of the coastal plain. The changing quantities of marine fauna through time reflect the varying distance of the cave from the contemporaneous shoreline. The dietary breadth of both arid zone terrestrial fauna and marine species increases after the Last Glacial Maximum and significantly so by the mid-Holocene. The cave is abandoned by 6.8 ka when the island becomes increasingly distant

  18. A 6-YEAR EXPERIENCE OF HEART TRANSPLANTATION IN FEDERAL ALMAZOV NORTH-WEST MEDICAL RESEARCH CENTRE

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    E. V. Shlyakhto

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To estimate the results of 6-year experience of heart transplantation (HT in Federal Almazov North-West Medical Research Centre. Methods. From 2010 to 2015 we have performed 65 HT. Mean age was 44.3 ± 14 years old (from 10 to 64 years old. We used biventricular assist device (BIVAD, Berlin Heart Excor support in 7 heart transplant candidates before HT. 19 patients (29% received thymoglobulin, whereas 46 patients (71% had basiliximab to induce immunosuppression.Results. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation machines were implanted in 5 patients (7.7% after HT due to acute right ventricular failure. Suture annuloplasty (the Batista procedure for tricuspid valve repair was carried out in 3 cases (4.6%. Venovenous hemodiafi ltration was used in 11 patients (16.9%. A total of 598 endomyocardial biopsies (EMB were performed after HT. Evidence of cellular rejection (R1 and R2 was presented in 286 biopsies (48%. The 30-day in-hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. The 6-month survival rate after HT was 92%, 1-year – 91% and overall survival for the 6-year period of observation – 89.2%. Maximum observation period was 71 months.Conclusions. The 6-year experience of HT in our Center has shown a high level of survival. BIVAD Excor support can be effectively used as a «bridge» to HT. Prevention of graft loss due to acute rejection in heart transplant recipients can be achieved only through regular EMB monitoring. The rate of viral infection increased in 2 months after HT.

  19. Understanding the evolution of multimorbidity: evidences from the North West Adelaide Health Longitudinal Study (NWAHS.

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    Guillaume Ruel

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to describe the evolution of multimorbidity. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Data from 1854 South Australians who participated in the North West Adelaide longitudinal Health Study (NWAHS was collected between baseline (2000-2002 and follow-up (2008-2010. Status for eight chronic diseases (CDs was determined by biomedical measurement or self-report. Chronic disease (CD mean age of occurrence and order of appearance was investigated. RESULTS: The prevalence of multimorbidity increased from 32% to 64% during the 7.8±1.1 years of follow-up. The estimated mean age of onset of a new CD was significantly older for hypertension, cardiovascular disease (CVD and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and younger for hypercholesterolemia, asthma and other mental problem. Hypercholesterolemia was more likely to develop as a first than as a subsequent CD (39%vs.16%, p<0.0001 while CVD (1%vs.5%, p<0.0001, diabetes (5%vs.11%, p<0.001 and COPD (6%vs.16%, p<0.0001 were less likely. The presence of mood disorders at baseline was associated with an increased risk of developing other mental disorders (36%vs.12%, p<0.0001, diabetes (18%vs.9%, p<0.01 and asthma (30%vs.21%, p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Longitudinal data could be used to study the evolution of multimorbidity and could provide information on CDs mean age of occurrence, order of appearance and impact on the development of future CDs.

  20. Traffic accident injuries in a referral Orthopedic Hospital in North West of Iran during summer 2009

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    Amir Mohammad Navali

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Road traffic injuries are a major public health problem, requiring huge efforts for effective and sustainable prevention. Because of the high occurrence of traffic accidents in Iran, basic data acquisition is highly needed to implement prevention plans. The present research is conducted as an epidemiological study of the traffic accident victims referred to a referral orthopedic center in North West of Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted during a 3 months period from June to September 2009 in Tabriz, Iran. A total of 16681 patients were admitted to the emergency ward, and 3246 patients (19.5% were hospitalized during this period because of traffic related injuries. After randomization, 630 cases were selected to be enrolled in the study. The location of an accident, position of road users, type of crashed vehicle, cause of accident, type of injury, time interval from accident to hospitalization and treatment outcome were recorded. Statistical analyses were carried out using SPSS software. Results: The mean age of the patients was 31 years (range, 6 months to 98 years and 77.0% of patients (468 cases were men. A total of 193 (36.6% patients sustained traffic accident in open roads and 335 (63.4% in urban corridors. In 67 (12.9% of accidents, there was only a single occupant in the vehicle. The time interval between the accident and admission was 6.6 ± 3.2 hours. Of the 608 cases, 45.7% were drivers, 30.3% passengers, and 24.0% pedestrians. Most cases of the car accident happened in urban areas, and the male victims were largely in the driver group. The most frequent type of injury was knee, leg and head trauma. Conclusion: The large number of traffic-related injuries admitted to our emergency ward that comprise mostly young adults should be considered as an alarming signal to policy makers and health providers in our province. Strict control on drivers’ behavior should be taken into account if increasing human

  1. Nutritional status of mentally retarded children in north-west Spain. I. Anthropometric indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Lastres, J; Eirís-Puñal, J; Otero-Cepeda, J L; Pavón-Belinchón, P; Castro-Gago, M

    2003-06-01

    To evaluate the nutritional status of mentally retarded children in the region of Galicia in north-west Spain, on the basis of anthropometric variables. The following variables were determined in a sample of 128 mentally retarded children (81 M, 47 F): birthweight, bodyweight, height/length, head circumference, mid-arm circumference, mid-arm muscle circumference, triceps skinfold thickness, subscapular skinfold thickness, arm area, arm muscle area, arm fat area, arm lean-to-fat ratio, Shukla's nutrition index and Quetelet's body mass index (BMI). A preliminary statistical analysis indicated that most information content could be maintained considering only eight of these variables. A factor analysis of the resulting 8 x 128 (variables by subjects) data matrix was performed, identifying two factors (FA1 and FA2) that together explained 82% of total variance. Taking these factors as indicators of nutritional status, the data were analysed for possible effects of age, gender, socioeconomic and family environment, intelligence quotient (IQ), presence/absence of cerebral palsy, quality of diet, appetite and antiepileptic use. The analysis suggested that most subjects were in the normal nutrition range, but about 33% showed either borderline or definite malnutrition. Mean score on FA2 showed a significant negative correlation with age. Children with cerebral palsy had lower mean scores on both factors, and scores on both factors varied with IQ. Children with definite malnutrition had a significantly lower IQ than those in the normal nutrition range. Mean score on both factors varied with appetite and quality of diet. The mean FAI score of children from inland-rural areas was significantly lower than that of children from coastal or urban areas. Mean FA1 score increased with increasing age of the parents. The prevalence of obesity was 13% when obesity was defined on the basis of Shukla's nutrition index, and 19% when defined on the basis of FA1 score. Malnutrition as

  2. Ground Level Ozone Regional Background Characteristics In North-west Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, C.; Fan, J.; Chang, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    Understanding the ground level ozone regional background characteristics is essential in understanding the contribution of long-range transport of pollutants from Asia Mainland to air quality in downwind areas. In order to understand this characteristic in north-west Pacific Rim, we conducted a coupled study using ozone observation from regional background stations and 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model simulations. We used O3, CO, wind speed and wind direction data from two regional background stations and ¡§other stations¡¨ over a ten year period and organized several numerical experiments to simulate one spring month in 2003 to obtain a deeper understanding. The so called ¡§other stations¡¨ had actually been named as background stations under various governmental auspices. But we found them to be often under strong influence of local pollution sources with strong diurnal or slightly longer time variations. We found that the Yonagunijima station (24.74 N, 123.02 E) and Heng-Chuen station (21.96 N,120.78 E), about a distance of 400 km apart, have almost the same ozone time series pattern. For these two stations in 2003, correlation coefficients (R2) for annual observed ozone concentration is about 0.64, in the springtime it is about 0.7, and in a one-month period at simulation days it is about 0.76. These two stations have very little small scale variations in all the variables studied. All variations are associated with large scale circulation changes. This is especially so at Yonagunijima station. Using a 3-D regional-scale chemical transport model for East Asia region including contribution from Asia continental outflow and neighboring island pollution areas we found that the Yonagunijima and HengChuen station are indeed free of pollutants from all neighboring areas keeping in mind that pollutants from Taiwan area is never far away. Ozone concentrations in these two stations are dominated by synoptic scale weather patterns, with diffused

  3. Value addition of wild apricot fruits grown in North-West Himalayan regions-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rakesh; Gupta, Anil; Abrol, G S; Joshi, V K

    2014-11-01

    Wild apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) commonly known as chulli is a potential fruit widely distributed in North-West Himalayan regions of the world. The fruits are good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals besides having attractive colour and typical flavour. Unlike table purpose varieties of apricots like New Castle, the fruits of wild apricot are unsuitable for fresh consumption because of its high acid and low sugar content. However, the fruits are traditionally utilized for open sun drying, pulping to prepare different products such as jams, chutney and naturally fermented and distilled liquor. But, scientific literature on processing and value addition of wild apricot is scanty. Preparation of jam with 25 % wild apricot +75 % apple showed maximum score for organoleptic characteristics due to better taste and colour. Osmotic dehydration has been found as a suitable method for drying of wild type acidic apricots. A good quality sauce using wild apricot pulp and tomato pulp in the ratio of 1:1 has been prepared, while chutney of good acceptability prepared from wild apricot pulp (100 %) has also been documented. Preparation of apricot-soy protein enriched products like apricot-soya leather, toffee and fruit bars has been reported, which are reported to meet the protein requirements of adult and children as per the recommendations of ICMR. Besides these processed products, preparation of alcoholic beverages like wine, vermouth and brandy from wild apricot fruits has also been reported by various researchers. Further, after utilization of pulp for preparation of value added products, the stones left over have been successfully utilized for oil extraction which has medicinal and cosmetic value. The traditional method of oil extraction has been reported to be unhygienic and result in low oil yield with poor quality, whereas improved mechanical method of oil extraction has been found to produce good quality oil. The apricot kernel oil and press cake have

  4. Understanding communication pathways to foster community engagement for health improvement in North West Pakistan

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    Monique Lhussier

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper describes the community engagement process undertaken to ascertain the focus, development and implementation of an intervention to improve iodised salt consumption in rural communities in North West Pakistan. The Jirga is a traditional informal structure, which gathers men respected within their community and acts in a governing and decision-making capacity in the Pukhtoon culture. The Jirga system had a dual purpose for the study: to access men from the community to discuss the importance of iodised salt, and as an engagement process for the intervention. Methods A number of qualitative data collection activities were undertaken, with Jirga members and their wives, male and female outreach workers and two groups of women, under and over 40 years old. The aim of these was to highlight the communication channels and levers of influence on health behaviour, which were multiple and complex and all needed to be taken into consideration in order to ensure successful and locally sensitive community engagement. Results Communication channels are described within local families and the communities around them. The key influential role of the Jirga is highlighted as linked both to the standing of its members and the community cohesion ethos that it embodies. Engaging Jirga members in discussions about iodised salt was key in designing an intervention that would activate the most influential levers to decision making in the community. Gendered decision-making processes within the household have been highlighted as restricting women’s autonomy. Whilst in one respect our data confirm this, a more complex hierarchy of decisional power has been highlighted, whereby the concept of ‘wisdom’- an amalgamation of age, experience and education- presents important possibilities. Community members with the least autonomy are the youngest uneducated females, who rely on a web of socially and culturally determined ways to influence

  5. Air Pollution over North-West Bay of Bengal in the Early Post-Monsoon Season Based on NASA MERRAero Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishcha, Pavel; DaSilva, Arlindo M.; Starobinets, Boris; Alpert, Pinhas

    2013-01-01

    The MERRA Aerosol Reanalysis (MERRAero) has been recently developed at NASA's Global Modeling Assimilation Office (GMAO). This reanalysis is based on a version of the GEOS-5 model radiatively coupled with GOCART aerosols, and it includes assimilation of bias-corrected Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) from the MODIS sensor on both Terra and Aqua satellites. Our main finding is that, in October, in the absence of aerosol sources in north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB), MERRAero showed increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB exceeding those over the east of the Ganges basin. The Ganges basin is characterized by significant population growth accompanied by developing industry, agriculture, and increasing transportation: this has resulted in declining air quality. MERRAero data for the period 2002-2009 was used to study AOT trends over north-west Bay of Bengal (BoB) in the early post-monsoon season. This season is characterized by aerosol transport from the Ganges basin to north-west BoB by prevailing winds; and still significant rainfall of over 150 mmmonth. Different aerosol components showed strong increasing AOT trends over north-west BoB. The following factors contributed to the increasing AOT trend over the area in question in October: an increasing number of days when prevailing winds blew from land to sea, resulting in a drier environment and an increase in air pollution over north-west BoB; wind convergence was observed over north-west BoB causing the accumulation of aerosol particles over that region, when prevailing winds blew from land to sea. MERRAero aerosol reanalysis can be used on a global scale.

  6. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auger, P.A.; Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N.; Waeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes

  7. Comparative study of potential transfer of natural and anthropogenic cadmium to plankton communities in the North-West African upwelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auger, P.A., E-mail: pierreamael.auger@gmail.com [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Machu, E.; Gorgues, T.; Grima, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans (LPO), UMR-CNRS 6523/IFREMER/IRD/UBO, BP70, 29280 Plouzané (France); Waeles, M. [Université de Bretagne Occidentale (UBO), Laboratoire de l' Environnement Marin (LEMAR), UMR-CNRS 6539/IRD/UBO, place N. Copernic, 29280 Plouzané (France)

    2015-02-01

    A Lagrangian approach based on a physical–biogeochemical modeling was used to compare the potential transfer of cadmium (Cd) from natural and anthropogenic sources to plankton communities (Cd-uptake) in the North-West African upwelling. In this region, coastal upwelling was estimated to be the main natural source of Cd while the most significant anthropogenic source for marine ecosystem is provided by phosphate industry. In our model experiment, Cd-uptake (natural or anthropogenic) in the North-West African upwelling is the result of an interplay between the Cd dispersion (by advection processes) and the simulated biological productivity. In the Moroccan waters, advection processes limit the residence time of water masses resulting in a low natural Cd-uptake by plankton communities while anthropogenic Cd-uptake is high. As expected, the situation is reversed in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling where natural Cd-uptake is higher than anthropogenic Cd-uptake. Based upon an estimate of Cd sources, our modeling study shows, unexpectedly, that the anthropogenic signal of potential Cd-bioaccumulation in the Moroccan upwelling is of the same order of magnitude as the natural signal mainly present in the Senegalo-Mauritanian upwelling region. A comparison with observed Cd levels in mollusk and fishes, which shows overall agreement with our simulations, is confirming our estimates. - Highlights: • We model the physical–biogeochemical dynamics in the North-West African upwelling. • We model the transport of cadmium from natural and anthropogenic sources. • We derive proxies of potential cadmium absorption and bioaccumulation in the plankton food chain. • The anthropogenic signal off Morocco at least equals the natural upwelling signal off Mauritania. • We compare our results with observed cadmium levels in mollusks and fishes.

  8. Condom use as part of the wider HIV prevention strategy: experiences from communities in the North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versteeg, Marije; Murray, Montagu

    2008-07-01

    Correct and consistent condom usage remains a pivotal strategy in reaching the target set by the South African government to reduce new HIV infections by 50% in the next 5 years. Studies have found that there has been an increase in condom usage by some categories of the population, but usage has not yet reached the desired levels in order to meet the target. This article reports on the findings of a study on condom usage in eight communities in the North West Province, which was part of a wider HIV and AIDS programme evaluation commissioned by the North West Provincial Department of Health. The main aim was to assess accessibility to condoms, and knowledge, attitudes and practices around condom use by four sampled communities in the North West Province. Eight focus group discussions were held and 50 households were interviewed. The study found positive results regarding accessibility and awareness of condoms. However, this often did not lead to the desired behavioural change of using condoms in risky sexual interactions. The majority of respondents still resisted condom usage, used condoms inconsistently, or were not in a position to negotiate protected sexual intercourse. The main reasons reported for this were: reduced pleasure, perceived and real physical side-effects, myths, lack of information, status, financial reasons, distrust in the efficacy of condoms, family planning, cultural reasons, gender-related reasons and trust. Many of the barriers to consistent condom use cannot be overcome by strategies that target the individual. Interventions need to address underlying developmental factors such as the non-biological factors that increase the susceptibility of women to HIV infection. As this falls outside of the scope of the mandate of the Department of Health, various partnerships with other key role players need to be established and/or strengthened, such as with local government, non-governmental organisations and faith-based organisations.

  9. Exchanges between the open Black Sea and its North West shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Georgy; Wobus, Fred; Zhou, Feng

    2014-05-01

    Exchanges between the vast NW shelf and the deep basin of the Black Sea play a significant role in maintaining the balance of nutrients, heat content and salinity of the shelf waters. Nearly 87 % of the Black Sea is entirely anoxic below 70 to 200m and contains high levels of hydrogen sulphide (Zaitsev et al, 2001), and this makes the shelf waters particularly valuable for maintaining the Black Sea ecosystem in good health. The increase in salinity of shelf waters occurs partially due to exchanges with more saline open sea waters and represents a threat to relics and endemic species. The shelf-break is commonly considered the bottle-neck of the shelf-deep sea exchanges (e.g. (Huthnance, 1995, Ivanov et al, 1997). Due to conservation of potential vorticity, the geostrophic currents flow along the contours of constant depth. However the ageostrophic flows (Ekman drift, mesoscale eddies, filaments, internal waves) are not subject to the same constraints. It has been shown that during the winter well mixed cold waters formed on the North West shelf propagate into the deep sea, providing an important mechanism for the replenishment of the Cold Intermediate Layer ( Staneva and Stanev, 1997). However, much less is known about exchanges in the warm season. In this study, the transports of water, heat and salt between the northwestern shelf and the adjacent deep basin of the Black Sea are investigated using a high-resolution three-dimensional primitive equation model, NEMO-SHELF-BLS (Shapiro et al, 2013). It is shown that during the period from April to August, 2005, both onshore and offshore cross-shelf break transports in the top 20 m were as high as 0.24 Sv on average, which was equivalent to the replacement of 60% of the volume of surface shelf waters (0 - 20 m) per month. Two main exchange mechanisms are studied: (i) Ekman transport, and (ii) transport by mesoscale eddies and associated meanders of the Rim Current. The Ekman drift causes nearly uniform onshore or

  10. Drought impacts on cereal yields in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Russo, Ana; Montero, Irene

    2014-05-01

    In the present context of climate change, land degradation and desertification it becomes crucial to assess the impact of droughts to determine the environmental consequences of a potential change of climate. Large drought episodes in Iberian Peninsula have widespread ecological and environmental impacts, namely in vegetation dynamics, resulting in significant crop yield losses. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012 Iberia was affected by two extreme drought episodes (Garcia-Herrera et al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). This work aims to analyze the spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales using spatially distributed time series of drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature. We have used CRU TS3 dataset to compute SPEI and the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Results will be analyzed in terms of the mechanisms that are responsible by these drought events and will also be used to assess the impact of droughts in crops. Accordingly an analysis is performed to evaluate the large-scale conditions required for a particular extreme anomaly of long-range transport of water vapor from the subtropics. We have used the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ERA Interim reanalyses, namely, the geopotential height fields, temperature, wind, divergence data and the specific humidity at all pressure levels and mean sea level pressure (MSLP) and total column water vapor (TCWV) for the Euro-Atlantic sector (100°W to 50°E, 0°N-70°N) at full temporal (six hourly) and spatial (T255; interpolated to 0.75° regular horizontal grid) resolutions available to analyse the large-scale conditions associated with the drought onset. Our analysis revealed severe impacts on cereals crop productions and yield (namely wheat) for Portugal and

  11. Procedures for the estimation of regional scale atmospheric emissions—An example from the North West Region of England

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, S. J.; Longhurst, J. W. S.; Watson, A. F. R.; Conlan, D. E.

    This paper considers the value of applying an alternative pro rata methodology to the estimation of atmospheric emissions from a given regional or local area. Such investigations into less time and resource intensive means of providing estimates in comparison to traditional methods are important due to the potential role of new methods in the development of air quality management plans. A pro rata approach is used here to estimate emissions of SO 2, NO x, CO, CO 2, VOCs and black smoke from all sources and Pb from transportation for the North West region of England. This method has the advantage of using readily available data as well as being an easily repeatable procedure which provides a good indication of emissions to be expected from a particular geographical region. This can then provide the impetus for further emission studies and ultimately a regional/local air quality management plan. Results suggest that between 1987 and 1991 trends in the emissions of the pollutants considered have been less favourable in the North West region than in the nation as a whole.

  12. Rewards: A predictor of well-being and service quality of school principals in the North-West province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamohelo Nthebe

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: School principals have an important role to play in the quality of service delivery in schools. Evidence suggests that school principals are generally poorly compensated, which has an adverse impact on their well-being and subsequent service quality orientation. Research purpose: This study investigated whether rewards are a predictor of well-being and service orientation of school principals in the North-West province. Motivation for the study: Effective school principals are fundamental to the success of any school, which necessitates the establishment of an effective reward and remuneration system. Research design, approach and method: Quantitative research was carried out among school principals (N = 155 in four districts of the North-West province. The Total Rewards Scale, Maslach’s Burnout Inventory – General Survey, the Utrecht Work Engagement Scale and the SERVQUAL measure were administered among the principals. Main findings: The results showed that rewards are a significant predictor of the well-being and service quality of school principals. The results further showed that burnout significantly reduces the service quality of school principals. No significant relationships were found between work engagement and the service quality of school principals. Practical/managerial implications: An effective total rewards system enhances the well-being of school principals and, subsequently, their willingness and commitment to delivering quality services. Contribution: The results of this study point out some key elements that need to be considered by the Department of Education to enable quality service delivery in South African schools.

  13. Late Quaternary pollen records from the Lower Cobb Valley and adjacent areas, north-west Nelson, New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shulmeister, J.; McLea, W.L.; Singer, C.; McKay, R.M.; Hosie, C.

    2003-01-01

    Ten pollen records from the Cobb Valley and adjacent areas in North-West Nelson are described. Collectively they provide a vegetation record extending from the Last Glacial Maximum to the present day. During the Last Glacial Maximum the uplands of North-West Nelson were glaciated. By about 17,000 radiocarbon years BP ice had retreated some distance up the Cobb River Valley and a podocarp heath and tussockland vegetation covered non-glaciated areas. By 14,000 radiocarbon years BP, the valley floor and adjacent lower ridges were occupied by montane podocarp forest dominated by Phyllocladus and Halocarpus. Beech forest expanded into some sites as early as 13,000 yr BP but the modern beech cover was not established until the Holocene. Forest cover has fluctuated in response to disturbance over the Holocene, but the most significant recent change, which is related to clearing for pastoralism in the last two centuries, has had surprisingly little impact on the pollen records. (author). 40 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  14. Geology Structure Identification Using Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM Method of Tomography Result in North West Java Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudra Irawan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available North West Java Basin is a tertiary sedimentary basin which is located in the right of the western part of the Java island. North West Java Basin is geodynamic where currently located at the rear position of the path of the volcanic arc of Java that is the result of the India-Australia plate subduction to the south towards the Eurasian plate (Explanation of Sunda in the north. Geology structure observation is difficult to be conducted at Quaternary volcanicfield due to the classical problem at tropical region. In the study interpretation of fault structures can be done on a cross-section of Pre-Stack Depth Migration (PSDM used prayer namely Hardware Key Device, ie Central Processing Unit: RedHat Enterprise Linux AS 5.0, prayer Monitor 24-inch pieces, Server: SGI altix 450/SuSe Linux Enterprise Server 9.0, 32 GB, 32 X 2,6 GHz Procesor, network: Gigabyte 1 Gb/s, and the software used is paradigm, product: Seismic Processing and Imaging. The third fault obtained in this study in accordance with the geological information derived from previous research conducted by geologists. The second general direction is northwest-southeast direction represented by Baribis fault, fault-fault in the Valley Cimandiri and Gunung Walat. This direction is often known as the directions Meratus (Meratus Trend. Meratus directions interpreted as directions that follow the pattern of continuous arc Cretaceous age to Meratus in Kalimantan.

  15. AMM15: a new high-resolution NEMO configuration for operational simulation of the European north-west shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jennifer A.; O'Dea, Enda; Holt, Jason; Polton, Jeff; Hewitt, Helene T.; Furner, Rachel; Guihou, Karen; Brereton, Ashley; Arnold, Alex; Wakelin, Sarah; Castillo Sanchez, Juan Manuel; Mayorga Adame, C. Gabriela

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the next-generation ocean forecast model for the European north-west shelf, which will become the basis of operational forecasts in 2018. This new system will provide a step change in resolution and therefore our ability to represent small-scale processes. The new model has a resolution of 1.5 km compared with a grid spacing of 7 km in the current operational system. AMM15 (Atlantic Margin Model, 1.5 km) is introduced as a new regional configuration of NEMO v3.6. Here we describe the technical details behind this configuration, with modifications appropriate for the new high-resolution domain. Results from a 30-year non-assimilative run using the AMM15 domain demonstrate the ability of this model to represent the mean state and variability of the region.Overall, there is an improvement in the representation of the mean state across the region, suggesting similar improvements may be seen in the future operational system. However, the reduction in seasonal bias is greater off-shelf than on-shelf. In the North Sea, biases are largely unchanged. Since there has been no change to the vertical resolution or parameterization schemes, performance improvements are not expected in regions where stratification is dominated by vertical processes rather than advection. This highlights the fact that increased horizontal resolution will not lead to domain-wide improvements. Further work is needed to target bias reduction across the north-west shelf region.

  16. ["I am but mad north-north-west"--Hamlet's portrayed delusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte Herbrüggen, H

    1996-01-01

    Whereas science refers to the real world existing independently and conditioned by cause and effect, the world of literature is fictitious, created by the artist in our imagination by means of language, an artefact conditioned by aesthetic laws, a world sui generis. Accordingly, Hamlet is no person, but a literary figure, doing, saying, thinking and feeling only what the poet dictated him word for word. The essential difference between the two worlds is often overlooked. That "blind spot" has a long-standing tradition in European intellectual history and goes back i.a. to the German "Hamlet experience" in the eighteenth, the "Hamlet fever" and the felt spiritual kinship (Seelenverwandtschaft) in the nineteenth century. Teleological literary criticism, centering around Hamlet's "character" and isolating his psychologically evaluated monologues (e.g. Bradley), refrained from Hamlet's fictionality and role-play and led to blurring beyond recognition the boundaries between real person and literary figure (e.g. Freud, Jones) and assisted in reducing a dramatic role to a medical case history. Speaking of Hamlet, one has to start from Shakespeare's text, our subject matter. A dramatic play being a plot turned into dialogue, the poet's vocabulary used (but indirectly also the vocabulary not used) is particularly informative. When referring to Hamlet's "antic disposition", Shakespeare uses a wide range of over 20 different terms, the most frequented being mad/madness (44 times). Evidence of primary importance are the five occasions after the apparition of his father's ghost, when Hamlet speaks of hist "madness" as an assumed role. In Act I "madness occurs first as a mere possibility when Hamlet informs his friends, he might "put an antic disposition on"; in Act II vis-a-vis Rosencrantz and Guildenstern ("I am but mad north-north-west") it is his deliberate action under certain conditions; in Act III it occurs thrice, first in his declaration of intent ("They are coming to

  17. Impact of drought on wildfires in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia M.; DaCamara, Carlos; Sousa, Pedro; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2015-04-01

    months in August. In the Eastern and Northwestern regions the correlation was most significant for the SPI for 3 and 6 months. Thus, the relation between wildfires and drought is better explained in the Northern and Southwestern regions by the temperature influence and on the Northwestern and Eastern by the precipitation influence. Gouveia C.M., Bastos A., Trigo R.M., DaCamara C.C. (2012) "Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula". Natural Hazards and Earth System Sciences, 12, 3123-3137, 2012. Vicente-Serrano S.M., Santiago Beguería, Juan I. López-Moreno (2010) "A Multi-scalar drought index sensitive to global warming: The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index - SPEI". Journal of Climate 23: 1696-1718. Trigo R.M., Sousa P., Pereira M., Rasilla D., Gouveia C.M. (2013) "Modelling wildfire activity in Iberia with different Atmospheric Circulation Weather Types". International Journal of Climatology, DOI: 10.1002/joc.3749 Sousa PM, Trigo RM, Pereira MG, Bedia J, Gutiérrez JM, 2014. Different approaches to model future burnt area in the Iberian Peninsula. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 202, 11-25. doi:10.1016/j.agrformet.2014.11.018 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAGGLO/4155/2012).

  18. Cogema experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague north west pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, Ph.

    2000-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (authors)

  19. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu Thule, North-West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strodl Andersen, J.

    2011-10-01

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241 Am is 2.8x10 5 Bq m -2 . Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241 Am is 1.9Oe10 4 Bq m -2 . Prediction of the overall amount of 241 Am and 239,240 Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241 Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240 Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  20. The Spatial Recourses and Limitations of the Russian Economy Modernization: the Example of the North-West Macro Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valentinovich Kuznetsov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the research dedicated to the role of space in the modernization of the economy of the North-West maсro-region of Russia conducted in 2012–2014, within the framework of the Presidium of Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS №31 "The role of space in the modernization of Russia: natural and socio-economic potential." The analysis is based on the methodology, which was developed at the Institute of Regional Economy of RAS. Possibilities of modernization of the Russian economy are due to competitive advantages, "inherited characteristics" and public policy of regions and major macro-regions development. Recourses of modernization have a spatial component, which significantly affects the positioning of the region, its companies, firms and projects in the globalized geo-economic space. It is noted that the characteristics of multi-factor situation, taking into account the “inherited characteristics” of spatial development, the nature of geopolitical and geo-economic situation, transformation of the socio-economic area, evaluation the role of internal and external factors, including the impact of globalization and the state regional policy, as well as assessment of the role of internal spatial inversion of macro-region and innovation potential of regional development mostly define the corridors for modernization of the economy of the regions. It is found that four groups of factors highlighted in this study allow to take into account the wide range of opportunities and constraints for the modernization of the economy of the North-West macro region. On the basis of interdisciplinary synthesis within the geospatial paradigms, taking into account the developments of domestic economists-regionalists, economic geographers and western views in the framework of the space science, the idea of A. I. Tatarkin about "new sources of territorial competitiveness" was confirmed, by the example of a model region of the North-West

  1. Ectoparasites of dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 344 dogs belonging to people in resource-poor communities in North West Province, South Africa, was examined for ectoparasites, and all visible arthropods were collected from the left side of each dog. By doubling these numbers it was estimated that the dogs harboured 14 724 ixodid ticks, belonging to 6 species, 1028 fleas, belonging to 2 species, and 26 lice. Haemaphysalis leachi accounted for 420 and Rhipicephalus sanguineus for 14 226 of the ticks. Pure infestations of H. leachi were present on 14 dogs and of R. sanguineus on 172 dogs. Small numbers of Amblyomma hebraeum, R. appendiculatus, R. evertsi evertsi and R. simus were also collected. The predominance of R. sanguineus accounts for the high prevalence of canine ehrlichiosis (Ehrlichia canis within the survey region, compared to canine babesiosis (Babesia canis, which is transmitted by H. leachi, and is a much rarer disease.

  2. Spatial statistical analysis of contamination level of 241Am and 239Pu, Thule, North-West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strodl Andersen, J. (JSA EnviroStat (Denmark))

    2011-10-15

    A spatial analysis of data on radioactive pollution on land at Thule, North-West Greenland is presented. The data comprises levels of 241Am and 239,240Pu on land. Maximum observed level of 241Am is 2.8x105 Bq m-2. Highest levels were observed near Narsaarsuk. This area was also sampled most intensively. In Groennedal the maximum observed level of 241Am is 1.9-104 Bq m-2. Prediction of the overall amount of 241Am and 239,240Pu is based on grid points within the range from the nearest measurement location. The overall amount is therefore highly dependent on the model. Under the optimal spatial model for Narsaarsuk, within the area of prediction, the predicted total amount of 241Am is 45 GBq and the predicted total amount of 239,240Pu is 270 GBq. (Author)

  3. Job Satisfaction and Work Performance of Public Secondary School Teachers In Akoko North West Local Government Area Of Ondo State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aroge Stephen Talabi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the relationship between job satisfaction and work performance of secondary school teachers in Akoko North West Local Government Area of Ondo-State, Nigeria. The study population consisted of all secondary school teachers, while two hundred of them were randomly selected for the study. Regular payment of salary, opportunities for promotion, rapport with school authority, in-service training, job security, career prospect and retirement benefits were the variables considered. The questionnaire titled “Workers Opinion Survey Inventory (WOSI” and the Productivity Rating Scale (PRS which was in line with Annual Performance Evaluation Report (APPER was used to obtain information for the study. The data was analyzed using Pearson Product Correlation Moment.  One of the recommendations made include the onward review of policies, remuneration and work conditions of teachers in the public secondary schools in Nigeria for optimum productivity.

  4. Relations between red beds times and uranic mineralization at the area of north-west China, Shaanxi and Inner Mongolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Qiaosheng; Quan Zhigao

    1989-04-01

    Rad beds played an important role in the uranic mineralization. After analyzing the geological evolution in North-West China, Saanxi and Inner Mongolia the red beds is divided into six periods. The evolution rules at each period are studied. The authors found that the time of uranic mineralication and formation of red beds (basin) is simultaneously, the uranic deposits and red beds are accompanying minerals in all places existing deposits. Uranic mineralization is bound up with the continental red beds which was formed under dry and hot climate, but has no relations with the marine red beds. The place where the deposits exist, the red beds must exist, conversely it is not true. In the section, a big uranic deposit is generated only under or above the red beds. The relations between red beds and rich deposit are also explored. The mineralization theory and the model of uranic mineralization in red beds times are presented

  5. Perception of Business Education Lecturers in Colleges of Education on the Influence of Retail Store Location and Design on Impulse Buying Behaviour of Consumers in North-West Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asuquo, Effiong Edet; Ukpong, Okon U.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the perception of Business Education Lecturers in Colleges of Education on the influence of retail store location and design on the impulse buying behaviour of consumers in north-west Nigeria. A survey research design was used for the study. The study was carried out in the North-west zone of Nigeria. The…

  6. Prevalence of cleft lip and palate among four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Jalilevand

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common anomalies in newborn infants is cleft lip and/or cleft palate (CL/P. In spite of several studies about the prevalence of this, no investigation evaluated this prevalence in the West and North-West of Iran. With due attention to different ethnic groups in this area, the aim of this study is to investigate whether the distribution of CL/P live births varies regionally in this area of Iran. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using hospital registry records to identify all children born with CL/P. The hospitals with a maternity unit were selected in the capital cities of four provinces in the West and North-West of Iran, East Azarbaijan, Kurdestan, Gilan, and Markazi. The population under study included all infants born alive from 2008 to 2012. Results: During the study period, 107,317 live births were registered in the hospitals with a maternity unit of four cities, and 52 infants (0.485/1000 live births were born with CL/P. The prevalence in Rasht, Arak, Sanandaj, and Tabriz cities was 0.557, 0.352, 0.503, and 0.559/1000 live births, respectively (P 0.05, whereas the prevalence of CL/P based on sex was statistically different among the four provinces (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This study shows regional variations in the birth prevalence of clefts and various cleft types. The different effects of gender on the birth prevalence of CL/P from city-to-city may be explained environmentally and/or by genetic factors affecting the development of oral clefts.

  7. Monitoring of uranium concentrations in water samples collected near potentially hazardous objects in North-West Tajikistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoriy, P; Schläger, M; Murtazaev, K; Pillath, J; Zoriy, M; Heuel-Fabianek, B

    2018-01-01

    The water contamination near ecologically problematic objects was investigated between 2009 and 2014 in North-West Tajikistan as a part of a joint project between Forschungszentrum Jülich and Khujand State University. The main part of this work was the determination of uranium in water samples collected near the Degmay tailings dump, the Taboshar pit lake and the Syr Darya river. More than 130 water samples were collected and analyzed to monitor the uranium concentration near the investigated areas. Two different mass spectrometers and an ion chromatograph were used for element concentration measurements. Based on the results obtained, the uranium influence of the Degmay tailings on the rivers Khoja-Bakyrgan-Say and Syr Darya and surrounding water was not found. The uranium concentration in water samples was monitored for a lengthy period at seven locations Great differences in the uranium concentration in waters collected in 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 for each location were not observed. Drinking water samples from the region of North-West Tajikistan were analyzed and compared with the World Health Organization's guidelines. Seven out of nine drinking water samples near Taboshar exceeded the WHO guideline value for uranium concentrations (30 μg/L). The average uranium concentration of water samples from Syr Darya for the period from 2009 to 2014 was determined to be 20.1 (±5.2) μg/L. The uranium contamination of the Syr Darya was determined from the western border to the eastern border and the results are shown in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Kilometric Scale Modeling of the North West European Shelf Seas: Exploring the Spatial and Temporal Variability of Internal Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guihou, K.; Polton, J.; Harle, J.; Wakelin, S.; O'Dea, E.; Holt, J.

    2018-01-01

    The North West European Shelf break acts as a barrier to the transport and exchange between the open ocean and the shelf seas. The strong spatial variability of these exchange processes is hard to fully explore using observations, and simulations generally are too coarse to simulate the fine-scale processes over the whole region. In this context, under the FASTNEt program, a new NEMO configuration of the North West European Shelf and Atlantic Margin at 1/60° (˜1.8 km) has been developed, with the objective to better understand and quantify the seasonal and interannual variability of shelf break processes. The capability of this configuration to reproduce the seasonal cycle in SST, the barotropic tide, and fine-resolution temperature profiles is assessed against a basin-scale (1/12°, ˜9 km) configuration and a standard regional configuration (7 km resolution). The seasonal cycle is well reproduced in all configurations though the fine-resolution allows the simulation of smaller scale processes. Time series of temperature at various locations on the shelf show the presence of internal waves with a strong spatiotemporal variability. Spectral analysis of the internal waves reveals peaks at the diurnal, semidiurnal, inertial, and quarter-diurnal bands, which are only realistically reproduced in the new configuration. Tidally induced pycnocline variability is diagnosed in the model and shown to vary with the spring neap cycle with mean displacement amplitudes in excess of 2 m for 30% of the stratified domain. With sufficiently fine resolution, internal tides are shown to be generated at numerous bathymetric features resulting in a complex pycnocline displacement superposition pattern.

  9. Determination of the water quality index ratings of water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2016-04-01

    This study reports on the water quality index (WQI) of wastewater and drinking water in the Mpumalanga and North West provinces of South Africa. The WQI is one of the most effective tools available to water sustainability researchers, because it provides an easily intelligible ranking of water quality on a rating scale from 0 to 100, based on the ascription of different weightings to several different parameters. In this study the WQI index ratings of wastewater and drinking water samples were computed according to the levels of pH, electrical conductivity (EC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), E. coli, temperature, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen and phosphates) found in water samples collected from the two provinces between June and December, 2014. This study isolated three groups of WQ-rated waters, namely: fair (with a WQI range = 32.87-38.54%), medium (with a WQI range = 56.54-69.77%) and good (with a WQI range = 71.69-81.63%). More specifically, 23%, 23% and 54% of the sampled sites registered waters with fair, medium and good WQ ratings respectively. None of the sites sampled during the entire period of the project registered excellent or very good water quality ratings, which would ordinarily indicate that no treatment is required to make it fit for human consumption. Nevertheless, the results obtained by the Eerstehoek and Schoemansville water treatment plants in Mpumalanga and North West provinces, respectively, suggest that substantial improvement in the quality of water samples is possible, since the WQI values for all of the treated samples were higher than those for raw water. Presence of high levels of BOD, low levels of dissolved oxygen (DO), E. coli, nitrates and phosphates especially in raw water samples greatly affected their overall WQ ratings. It is recommended that a point-of-use system should be introduced to treat water intended for domestic purposes in the clean-water-deprived areas.

  10. Oral health-related quality of life among 12-year-olds in Northern Norway and North-West Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koposova, Natalia; Eriksen, Harald M; Widstrãm, Eeva; Eisemann, Martin; Opravin, Alexander; Koposov, Roman

    2012-12-01

    To assess self-perceived oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) in 12-year-olds living in two areas in the Barents region: North-West Russia (Arkhangelsk) and Northern Norway (Tromsø). Sampling was performed according to a stratified cluster design and consisted of 590 Russian and 264 Norwegian 12-year-olds and their parents. After written consent from their parents, 514 Russian (87% attendance) and 124 Norwegian (47% attendance) children entered the study. The study included clinical examination (children) and questionnaires (children and parents). Dental caries and the aesthetic dental appearance were recorded under field conditions. Self-reports on background variables and oral health-related quality of life questions (CPQ11-14) were completed in classroom settings by children and at home by parents. OHRQoL was found to vary depending on country of origin, with higher scores of CPQ11-14 domains among 12-year-olds from Russia. OHRQoL was found to be associated with dental caries, with higher scores among 12-year olds with caries. Inferior emotional and social well-being were established as having the strongest association with quality of life. Dental caries showed an independent effect on OHRQoL scores, but this effect disappeared when controlling for background variables, with country of origin, family economy, parental education and aesthetic appearance as the most influential (R²=0.14). Norwegian 12-year-olds had better oral health and OHRQoL than their Russian counterparts. The impact of dental caries on OHRQoL was weak and aesthetic dental appearance and socio-economic determinants were found to be more important, probably reflecting the great differences in the standards of living between Northern Norway and North-West Russia.

  11. NORTH-EAST ROMANIA AS A FUTURE SOURCE OF TREES FOR URBAN PAVED ENVIRONMENTS IN NORTH-WEST EUROPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJÖMAN HENRIK

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Trees are an important feature of the urban environment. The problem today lies not in finding a wide range of well-adapted tree species for park environments, but in finding species suitable for urban paved sites. In terms of north-west Europe, it is unlikely that the limited native dendroflora will provide a large variety of tree species with high tolerance to the environmental stresses characterising urban paved sites in the region. However, other regions with a comparable climate but with a rich dendroflora can potentially provide new tree species and genera well-suited to the growing conditions at urban sites in north-west Europe. This paper examines the potential of a geographical area extending over north-east Romania and the Republic of Moldavia to supply suitable tree species for urban paved sites in Central and Northern Europe (CNE. The study involved comparing the temperature, precipitation, evapotranspiration and water runoff in the woodland area of Iasi, Romania, with those the current inner-city climate of Copenhagen, Denmark and those predicted for Copenhagen 2100. The latter included urban heat island effects and predicted global climate change. The results revealed similar pattern in summer water deficit and temperature between natural woodlands in Iasi and inner-city environment of Copenhagen today. On the other hand, there is a weak match between Iasi and the future Copenhagen. In order to match the future scenario of Copenhagen with the present situation in Iasi, a greater understanding in a early phase that the solution not only depends on suitable tree species, but also on technical solutions being developed in order to have trees in paved environments in the future. On the basis of precipitation and temperature data, natural woodlands in north-east Romania have the potential to be a source of suitable trees for urban paved environments in the CNE region, even for a future climate if other aspects in the planning of trees

  12. Micropalaeontological revision and typing of localities in North West Germany. 'Die Foraminiferen des norddeutschen Hils und Gault' (A. E. Reuss, 1863)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyn, H.; Vespermann, J.

    1987-06-01

    The first description of foraminifers in 1863 (A.E. Reuss) started a flood of scientific publications which are all based on the first analysis of the North West German Lower Cretaceous. The original samples and documents, however, have been lost. The authors of the article attempted to remedy this in a cooperative study. (orig./RB)

  13. A measure for the efficiency of water use and its determinants, a case study of small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Buysse, J.; Haese, D' L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses the efficiency with which water is used in small-scale irrigation schemes in North-West Province in South Africa and studies its determinants. In the study area, small-scale irrigation schemes play an important role in rural development, but the increasing pressure on water

  14. Capricious, or tied to history’s apron strings? Floristic regions in north-west European brambles (Rubus subgenus Rubus, Rosaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, R.; Bijlsma, R.J.; Ronde, de I.; Schaminee, J.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aim
    To classify and describe distributional patterns in apomictic Rubus subgenus Rubus in north-west Europe and to characterize the major regions by statistically derived character species.

    Location
    North-western Europe, in particular Ireland, the United Kingdom, the Netherlands,

  15. A key to the Soricidae, Macroscelididae, Gliridae and Muridae of Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christia H. Newbery

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available A practical key to the shrews, elephant-shrews, dormice, rats and mice based on external field characteristics is presented. Size, tail features and lengths, dorsal and ventral body colour, etc. are the important characteristics, while habitat and distribution are also incorporated. The small mammals included in the key are from Gauteng, North West Province, Mpumalanga and the Northern Province.

  16. Simulation of efficiency impact of drainage water reuse: case of small-scale vegetable growers in North West Province, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Speelman, S.; Haese, D' M.F.C.; Haese, D' L.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on estimating the effect of drainage water reuse on the technical efficiency of small-scale vegetable growers in South Africa applying a data envelopment analysis (DEA). In the semi-arid North West Province of South Africa water scarcity and the soon to be implemented water

  17. Reality of Educational Technology Use in Primary Level Social Studies Teaching in North West Badiya Education District Schools in Mafraq Governorate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menazel, Basil H.

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to identify the use of educational technology in social studies teaching and the obstacles to availability and use of educational technology in teaching social studies at schools in the North West Badiya Education Directorate in Mafraq governorate, the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan. The study population comprised of 137 male and…

  18. Regional governance assessment for drought adaptation in North-West Europe: case study results from the analysis with a governance assessment tool in the DROP-project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Troeltzsch, Jenny; Stein, Ulf; Vidaurre, Rodrigo; Bressers, Johannes T.A.; Özerol, Gül; Furusho, Carina; La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Andreu, Joaquin; Solera, Abel; Paredes-Qrquiola, Javier; Haro-Monteagudo, David; van Lanen, Henny

    2015-01-01

    North-West Europe will increasingly face drought periods that may se-riously affect inter alia agricultural production, natural ecosystems and fresh water supplies. In addition to implementing hard adaptation measures, enhancing regional water governance is crucial for effective drought adaptation.

  19. Genomic diversity and affinities in population groups of North West India: an analysis of Alu insertion and a single nucleotide polymorphism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, J S; Kumar, A; Matharoo, K; Sokhi, J; Badaruddoza; Bhanwer, A J S

    2012-12-15

    The North West region of India is extremely important to understand the peopling of India, as it acted as a corridor to the foreign invaders from Eurasia and Central Asia. A series of these invasions along with multiple migrations led to intermixture of variable populations, strongly contributing to genetic variations. The present investigation was designed to explore the genetic diversities and affinities among the five major ethnic groups from North West India; Brahmin, Jat Sikh, Bania, Rajput and Gujjar. A total of 327 individuals of the abovementioned ethnic groups were analyzed for 4 Alu insertion marker loci (ACE, PV92, APO and D1) and a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) rs2234693 in the intronic region of the ESR1 gene. Statistical analysis was performed to interpret the genetic structure and diversity of the population groups. Genotypes for ACE, APO, ESR1 and PV92 loci were found to be in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups, while significant departures were observed at the D1 locus in every investigated population after Bonferroni's correction. The average heterozygosity for all the loci in these ethnic groups was fairly substantial ranging from 0.3927 ± 0.1877 to 0.4333 ± 0.1416. Inbreeding coefficient indicated an overall 10% decrease in heterozygosity in these North West Indian populations. The gene differentiation among the populations was observed to be of the order of 0.013. Genetic distance estimates revealed that Gujjars were close to Banias and Jat Sikhs were close to Rajputs. Overall the study favored the recent division of the populations of North West India into largely endogamous groups. It was observed that the populations of North West India represent a more or less homogenous genetic entity, owing to their common ancestral history as well as geographical proximity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The socio-political conceptualization of Serengeti landscapes in Europe: The case of 'Western Iberia'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjaan Pellis; Martijn Felder; Rene van der Duim

    2015-01-01

    This paper reflects on the socio-political conceptualization of ‘Western Iberia', one of Rewilding Europe's first pilot areas. Drawing from Actor Network Theory and social theories discussing Politics of Scale, we illustrate how ‘Western Iberia' is continuously being negotiated through practices in different sites within / outside its geographical...

  1. Level of job satisfaction amongst nurses in the North-West Province, South Africa: Post occupational specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisinyana H. Khunou

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Job satisfaction and burnout have been recurring problems amongst nurses in the Republic of South Africa (RSA. As a result, nurses are still leaving the rural public sector in search of lucrative work at the urban and private sectors and in developed countries. Accordingly, Occupational Specific Dispensation (OSD was introduced as a strategy to ircumvent the problem. However, since the implementation of OSD in 2007, there have been no studies conducted regarding the level of job satisfaction amongst nurses after the implementation of OSD in the North-West Province, especially because each province has its own challenges that are unique to the area. Objectives: The study had two objectives: to describe the level of job satisfaction amongstprofessional and other category nurses (OCNs at a public hospital in the North-West Provinceand describe the perceptions of nurses about OSD and their intention to continue working inthe hospital. Method: A quantitative descriptive cross-sectional design was used. Stratified random sampling was used to select a sample of 92 professional nurses (PNs, 90 enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants (Nursing Act 2005, which made a total of 182 participants. For the purpose of the study, the enrolled nurses and enrolled nursing assistants were referred to as OCNs. Data were collected using the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire–short form and OSD statements and analysed with Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS, version 18. Results: The majority of PNs (79.3%, n = 73 and OCNs (86.7%, n = 77 were dissatisfied with the working conditions and salary: PNs (80.4%, n = 74 and OCNs (87.8%, n = 79. The nurses mostly discredited the current state of the OSD implementation. Majority of the PNs (84%, n = 77 and OCNs (91%, n = 82 disagreed with the statement that ‘level of job satisfaction has improved after the implementation of OSD’. Conclusions: The National Department of Health should consider

  2. Urban nature conservation: vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom municipal area, North West Province, South Africa

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    S.S. Cilliers

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available This study on the natural and degraded natural vegetation of natural areas in the Potchefstroom Municipal Area, forms part of a research programme on spontaneous vegetation in urban open spaces in the North West Province, South Africa. Using a numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN as a first approximation, the classification was refined by applying Braun-Blanquet procedures. The result is a phytosociological table from which 6 plant communities were recognised, which are subdivided in sub-communities and variants, resulting in 18 vegetation units. Some of these vegetation units are similar to communities described previously in natural areas. The presence of degraded natural communities suggests huge anthropogenic influences in certain areas. An ordination (DECORANA scatter diagram shows the distribution of the plant communities along gradients which could be related to vegetation structure, altitude, soil depth, rockiness of soil surface, wetness or dryness of the habitat and number of introduced species. This study contributes to the compilation of a guideline for a conservation orientated management plan for the area, but also created a wealth of new knowledge of the reaction of indigenous plant species under disturbed conditions.

  3. Dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in North-West Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leseyane, Monicca; Mandende, Peter; Makgato, Mary; Cekiso, Madoda

    2018-01-01

    Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners' experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa. The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used a phenomenology research design. The sample was purposively selected and comprised nine dyslexic learners. All the learners were in public schools previously and were later moved to a special school after being diagnosed as dyslexic. The participants were aged 9-12 years. The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the participants and content-analysed the data. The findings revealed that in public schools the dyslexic learners were exposed to ill-treatment by other learners who despised, ridiculed, bullied and undermined them. The findings further revealed that teachers in public schools were not patient with dyslexic learners, did not give them extra attention and that some teachers used negative comments that embarrassed them. The article spells out the barriers experienced by dyslexic learners in public schools and also recommends training of teachers so that they know how to deal with dyslexic learners, thereby eliminating the barriers. The study further recommended awareness campaigns among the student body about dyslexia.

  4. Dyslexic learners’ experiences with their peers and teachers in special and mainstream primary schools in North-West Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Background Inclusive education requires that the framework within which education is delivered should be broad enough to accommodate equally the needs and circumstances of every learner in the society. This includes learners with disabilities like dyslexia who have been excluded from the formal education system. This article reports the findings of a qualitative study that explored and described the dyslexic learners’ experiences with their peers and teachers in special and public schools in North-West Province of South Africa. Methods The study adopted a qualitative methodology and used a phenomenology research design. The sample was purposively selected and comprised nine dyslexic learners. All the learners were in public schools previously and were later moved to a special school after being diagnosed as dyslexic. The participants were aged 9–12 years. The researchers conducted one-on-one interviews with the participants and content-analysed the data. Findings The findings revealed that in public schools the dyslexic learners were exposed to ill-treatment by other learners who despised, ridiculed, bullied and undermined them. The findings further revealed that teachers in public schools were not patient with dyslexic learners, did not give them extra attention and that some teachers used negative comments that embarrassed them. Conclusion The article spells out the barriers experienced by dyslexic learners in public schools and also recommends training of teachers so that they know how to deal with dyslexic learners, thereby eliminating the barriers. The study further recommended awareness campaigns among the student body about dyslexia. PMID:29535918

  5. The outlier sample effects on multivariate statistical data processing geochemical stream sediment survey (Moghangegh region, North West of Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, Y.; Habibnia, A.; Memar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In geochemical stream sediment surveys in Moghangegh Region in north west of Iran, sheet 1:50,000, 152 samples were collected and after the analyze and processing of data, it revealed that Yb, Sc, Ni, Li, Eu, Cd, Co, as contents in one sample is far higher than other samples. After detecting this sample as an outlier sample, the effect of this sample on multivariate statistical data processing for destructive effects of outlier sample in geochemical exploration was investigated. Pearson and Spear man correlation coefficient methods and cluster analysis were used for multivariate studies and the scatter plot of some elements together the regression profiles are given in case of 152 and 151 samples and the results are compared. After investigation of multivariate statistical data processing results, it was realized that results of existence of outlier samples may appear as the following relations between elements: - true relation between two elements, which have no outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - false relation between two elements which one of them has outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - complete false relation between two elements which both have outlier frequency in the outlier sample

  6. Effect of race, gender and age on thyroid and thyroid stimulating hormone levels in north west frontier province, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Z.; Khan, M.A.; Haq, A.U.

    2009-01-01

    Thyroid is one of the ductless endocrine gland, which is located immediately below the larynx on either side of and anterior to the trachea. The principal hormones of thyroid gland are thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). The current study was carried out to investigate the impact of race, gender and area on the levels of Thyroxine (T4), Triiodothyronine (T3) and Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) in normal healthy individuals. Methods: Serum levels of T4, T3 and TSH in 498 normal healthy individuals belonging to different districts of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan, were examined. Serum T4 and T3 were analysed by Radio Immuno Assay (RIA) method whereas TSH was estimated by Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) method. Results: Levels of T4, T3 and TSH ranged from 53 to 167 m mu mol/L and 0.3-4.8 mu mol/L respectively. The levels of these hormones show significant change from the reference values that are used in clinical laboratories as well as in Institute of Rauclear Medicine (IRNUM), Peshawar, Pakistan. Conclusion: It is concluded that the age, gender, race and area, all have an appreciable effect on the levels T4, T3 and TSH. (author)

  7. Hydro engineering Feasibility Study of Surface Runoff Water Harvesting in Al-Ajeej Basin, North West Iraq

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    Thair M. Al-Taiee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The hydro engineering  characteristics of Al-Ajeej basin which was located within south Sinjar plain north west Iraq was analyzed to predict the possibility of surface runoff harvesting during rainfall season in the upstream sites in this basin using watershed modeling system (WMS. The hydrological feasibility of constructing small dam on Al-Ajeej valley with some preliminary design calculations were presented. The best optimum dam site was selected to be located (3.95 km downstream the confluence of Al-Badee branch with Al-Ajeej valley (35° 46¢ 6² Latitude and Longitude 41° 36¢ 11² having a catchment's area of (3043km2. The proposed dam  height was (12.5 meter with a dam length of (1277m, while the normal storage volume of the reservoir is (38.8 million m3. Construction a dams in such sites characterized by water shortage during all  around the year will give an aid in the sustainable development of such area by increasing  the cultivation lands, the agricultural products and also modify the income of the villagers living  in this area leading to prevent them leaving their lands to other places

  8. Severo-Zapad Rossii v kontekste obshheevropejskoj integracii [North-West Russia in the context of European integration

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    Kochegarova Tamara

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Integration is one of the main consequences of globalization. Elements of microsystems are growing closer, which brings to the foreground problems of interaction and — in a longer perspective — those of close cooperation between different social systems. The article considers the case of North-West Russia, the only territory having a common border with the EU, in order to examine the issue of Russia using the geographical factor, which Otto von Bismarck called the most powerful and intrinsic factor in history. The significance of this factor increased after the Cold War. It was then when the independent Baltic States became a platform for emergence and recognition of the Baltic Sea region. The author focuses on the social and cultural integrity of the region and considers the traditional Nordic countries and the Baltic Sea states as interrelated components of a single region, different from other European regions in terms of economic interests, as well as its natural and sociocultural landscape.

  9. Assimilation of ocean colour to improve the simulation and understanding of the North West European shelf-sea ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciavatta, Stefano; Brewin, Robert; Skakala, Jozef; Sursham, David; Ford, David

    2017-04-01

    Shelf-seas and coastal zones provide essential goods and services to humankind, such as fisheries, aquaculture, tourism and climate regulation. The understanding and management of these regions can be enhanced by merging ocean-colour observations and marine ecosystem simulations through data assimilation, which provides (sub)optimal estimates of key biogeochemical variables. Here we present a range of applications of ocean-colour data assimilation in the North West European shelf-sea. A reanalysis application illustrates that assimilation of error-characterized chlorophyll concentrations could provide a map of the shelf sea vulnerability to oxygen deficiency, as well as estimates of the shelf sea uptake of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) in the last decade. The interannual variability of CO2 uptake and its uncertainty were related significantly to interannual fluctuations of the simulated primary production. However, the reanalysis also indicates that assimilation of total chlorophyll did not improve significantly the simulation of some other variables, e.g. nutrients. We show that the assimilation of alternative products derived from ocean colour (i.e. spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient and phytoplankton size classes) can overcome this limitation. In fact, these products can constrain a larger number of model variables, which define either the underwater light field or the structure of the lower trophic levels. Therefore, the assimilation of such ocean-colour products into marine ecosystem models is an advantageous novel approach to improve the understanding and simulation of shelf-sea environments.

  10. Exploring perceptions of the Mexican sugar-sweetened beverage tax among adolescents in north-west Mexico: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Avila, Ana G; Papadaki, Angeliki; Jago, Russell

    2018-02-01

    To explore awareness and perceptions of the sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) tax implemented in Mexico in 2014 among a sample of Mexican adolescents, and to investigate how the tax has affected their purchases and intake of SSB. Qualitative. Semi-structured interviews were conducted in April-May 2016. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Adolescents residing in north-west Mexico (n 29, 55·2 % females), aged 15-19 years. Four main themes emerged: awareness of taxation; perceptions of how the tax has affected SSB intake; reasons why the tax was not perceived to have affected SSB intake; and preferences for substitution of the taxed SSB. Participants were mostly unaware of the tax and perceived that it would not cause reductions in their intake of SSB; they felt that the price increase was low and insufficient to affect intake. Taste preferences and 'addiction' to SSB were highlighted as the main reasons why participants perceived taxation would not affect intake. If SSB prices were to increase further via a higher tax, participants would consider substituting SSB with other beverages, namely home-made drinks (e.g. 100 % fruit juices), non-caloric, instant-flavoured drinks and water. These findings provide important insights into the views of this sample of Mexican adolescents regarding the taxation of SSB, by pointing out several possible limitations of the tax policy in Mexico. These results could inform the design of future interventions directed at Mexican youth that would complement and strengthen the current SSB taxation.

  11. Insights on stock structure of round sardinella Sardinella aurita off north-west Africa based on otolith shape analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, M; Jeyid, A M; Jaafour, S; Yahyaoui, A; Diop, M; Amara, R

    2016-10-01

    This study examines the geographic variability in otolith shape of round sardinella Sardinella aurita as a tool for stock discrimination. Fish were analysed from six sampling locations from Senegal to the Mediterranean coast of Morocco. A combination of otolith shape indices and elliptic Fourier descriptors was investigated by multivariate statistical procedures. Within the studied area, three distinct groups were identified with an overall correct classification of 78%. Group A: Nador (Alboran Sea), group B: Casablanca (northern Morocco) and group C: Senegalese-Mauritanian. The results of this study confirm the absence of an Atlantic Ocean-Mediterranean Sea transition for this species, the Gibraltar Strait acting as an efficient barrier for S. aurita population separation. Off north-west Africa, fish from northern Morocco form a single group which is clearly isolated from Senegalese-Mauritanian waters, confirming the existence of a distinct stock in this area. Among group C, some discontinuity exists and suggests the existence of a sedentary fraction of S. aurita in northern Mauritania (Arguin Bank). The results are discussed in relation to oceanographic features and physical barriers to dispersal and fish management strategy in the study area. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Prevalence and Causes of Visual Impairment in Fundong District, North West Cameroon: Results of a Population-Based Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oye, Joseph; Mactaggart, Islay; Polack, Sarah; Schmidt, Elena; Tamo, Violet; Okwen, Marvice; Kuper, Hannah

    2017-12-01

    To estimate the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in Fundong Health District, North West Cameroon. A total of 51 clusters of 80 people (all ages) were sampled with probability proportionate to size and compact segment sampling. Visual acuity (VA) was measured with a tumbling "E" chart. An ophthalmic nurse examined people with VAimpairments were assessed using clinical examination, and self-reported visual problems using the Washington Group Short Set. In total, 4080 people were enumerated of whom 3567 were screened (response rate 87%). The overall prevalence of visual impairment was 2.3% (95% CI 1.8-3.0%) and blindness was 0.6% (0.3-1.0%). The prevalence of both blindness and visual impairment increased rapidly with age, so that the vast majority of cases of visual impairment (84%) and blindness (82%) were in people aged 50+. Posterior segment disease and cataract were the main causes of blindness and visual impairment, with refractive error also an important cause of visual impairment. Cataract surgical coverage (proportion of all cataracts that had received surgery) was relatively high (87% of people at VAvisual impairment, 22% had a physical impairment or epilepsy and 30% had a hearing impairment. Self-reported difficulties in vision were relatively closely related to clinical measures of visual impairment. Ophthalmic programmes in Cameroon need to incorporate control of posterior segment diseases while also working to improve outcomes after cataract surgery.

  13. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

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    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  14. Emergency contraception: Knowledge and attitude toward its use among medical students of a medical college in North-West India

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    Rajiv Kumar Gupta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Emergency contraception (EC is use of drug or device to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse. Unlike other regular methods of contraception which are taken prior to the sexual act, EC is used after the unprotected sex. Aim: To assess the knowledge and attitude toward use of emergency contraceptives among medical students. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted among all the medical students in the Government Medical College in North-West India. Subjects and Methods: A questionnaire seeking information on knowledge and attitude of undergraduate medical students was administered over a period of 4 weeks in the month of February and March 2014. Statistical Analysis: The data were entered in MS excel and expressed using percentages. Chi-square test was used as a test of statistical significance. Results: About 61.6% (247/401 of the participants were aware about the timing of use of EC. Audio visual media (76.6%; 307/401 was the most common source of information for of these medical students. Conclusions: The lack of appropriate in-depth knowledge of EC among future health care professional should alarm the medical teaching system as EC is the only method that can be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive accident.

  15. Earthquake precursory studies in Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, with special emphasis on radon emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Surinder; Mahajan, Sandeep; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Kalia, Rajeev; Dhar, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    The continuous soil gas radon monitoring is carried out at Palampur and the daily monitoring of radon concentration in water is carried out at Dharamshala region of Kangra valley of North West Himalayas, India, a seismic zone V, to study the correlation of radon anomalies in relation to seismic activities. In this study, radon monitoring in soil was carried out by using barasol probe manufactured by Algade France, whereas the radon content in water was recorded using RAD 7 radon monitoring system of Durridge Company USA. The effect of meteorological parameters viz. temperature, pressure, wind velocity, rainfall, and humidity on radon emission has been studied. The seasonal average value and standard deviation of radon in soil and water is calculated to find the radon anomaly to minimize the effect of meteorological parameters on radon emission. The radon anomalies observed in the region have been correlated with the seismic events of M≥2 reported by Wadia Institute of Himalayas Geology Dehradoon and Indian Meteorological Department, New Delhi in NW Himalayas within 250 km distance from the monitoring stations.

  16. In search of a merged identity: the case of multi-campus North-West University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Kamsteeg

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s post–apartheid governments have taken far–reaching policy measures to transform the system of higher education, do away with its strongly segregated character, and develop an efficient and internationally recognised system that provides equal chances for all ethnic groups. Since 2002 higher education has become the explicit target of a government policy, geared to cultural development and intervention, including the enforcement of a series of mergers between traditionally white and black universities and former technikons (currently universities of technology. This process has caused intense debate at the level of leadership and among policy makers in these institutions, but little is known of how this ideological battle over educational development has affected daily academic practice. This paper gives a first, somewhat tentative discussion on the current effects of the changes in higher education in South Africa, and in particular at one of the institutions affected: the newly merged North-West University (NWU. The article is based on documentary research and three personal visits to the university; in the process a joint research project was initiated between the VU University of Amsterdam (VUUA and NWU. This paper attempts to shed some early light on how efficiency and social equity goals are met within NWU’s institutional merger, beginning from a cultural perspective that focuses on the construction of ‘merger narratives’. The paper also gives a voice to critical reactions, narratives of resistance that have emerged from the university shop floor.

  17. Case-Control Study of Risk Factors for Sporadic Giardiasis and Parasite Assemblages in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minetti, Corrado; Lamden, Kenneth; Durband, Caroline; Cheesbrough, John; Platt, Katherine; Charlett, Andre; O'Brien, Sarah J; Fox, Andrew; Wastling, Jonathan M

    2015-10-01

    Giardia duodenalis is a major cause of infectious gastroenteritis worldwide, and it is diversified into eight genetic assemblages (A to H), which are distinguishable only by molecular typing. There is some evidence that the assemblages infecting humans (assemblages A and B) may have different transmission routes, but systematically acquired data, combining epidemiological and molecular findings, are required. We undertook a case-control study with Giardia genotyping in North West England, to determine general and parasite assemblage-specific risk factors. For people without a history of foreign travel, swimming in swimming pools and changing diapers were the most important risk factors for the disease. People infected with assemblage B reported a greater number of symptoms and higher frequencies of vomiting, abdominal pain, swollen stomach, and loss of appetite, compared with people infected with assemblage A. More importantly, keeping a dog was associated only with assemblage A infections, suggesting the presence of a potential zoonotic reservoir for this assemblage. This is the first case-control study to combine epidemiological data with Giardia genotyping, and it shows the importance of integrating these two levels of information for better understanding of the epidemiology of this pathogen. Copyright © 2015, Minetti et al.

  18. Psychological strengths, coping and suicide ideation in the South African Police Services In The North West Province

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    S. Rothmann

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Relatively high numbers of suicides occur in the South African Police Services. The objective of this research was to determine the relationship between sense of coherence, generalised self-efficacy, locus of control and coping on the one hand and suicide ideation among police personnel on the other hand. The study population (N = 287 consisted of uniformed police personnel in the North West Province. The results showed that sense of coherence and generalised self-efficacy are related to suicide ideation of police members. A discriminant analysis showed that sense of coherence, coping strategies and medical status correctly classified 81,48% of participants who scored high on suicide ideation. Opsomming ‘n Relatiewe hoë getal selfmoorde kom in die Suid-Afrikaanse Polisiediens voor. Die doelstelling van hierdie navorsing was om die verband tussen koherensiesin, algemene selfdoeltreffendheid, lokus van beheer en coping enersyds en selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming van polisiepersoneel andersyds te bepaal. Die studiepopulasie (N = 287 het bestaan uit polisiepersoneel in die Noordwes-Provinsie. Die resultate het aangetoon dat koherensiesin en algemene selfdoeltreffendheid verband hou met selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming by polisieper-soneel. ‘n Diskriminantontleding het aangetoon dat koherensiesin, coping-strategieë en mediese toestand 81,48% van die deelnemers met hoë tellings ten opsigte van selfmoorddenkbeeldvorming korrek geklassifiseer het.

  19. COGEMA experience on retrieving and conditioning solid radwaste previously stored in pits. The La Hague North-West pit case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodin, F.; Alexandre, D.; Fournier, P.

    1999-01-01

    Short lived, low and medium level waste called 'technological waste' produced by the La Hague Reprocessing Plant have been stored in the La Hague North-West concrete-lined pits until implementation at ANDRA's Centre de Stockage de la Manche (CSM). COGEMA decided to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of humid solid radwaste, stored in bulk in pits. On account of the variety of radwaste kinds, retrieving and conditioning operations represented real challenge. One goal of these operations was to ensure that the work was performed in complete safety towards environment with optimum containment and with the best radiation protection for the personnel involved. COGEMA decided to split the work into two phases. The feedback from the first phase was very helpful to the second phase. This report describes the experience gained from February 1990 to December 1998, taking into account radwaste and integrated dose rate results conditioning such waste. The procedures and means used and improved by COGEMA to comply with ANDRA's storage standards and the ever-decreasing financial costs generated by the workers, allowed to retrieve and condition 11,000 m 3 of old solid radwaste with competitive costs and in complete safety and protection of the environment. (author)

  20. The Relationship between Emotional Intelligence and Perception of Job Performance among Nurses in North West of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahidi, Maryam; Namdar Areshtanab, Hossein; Arshadi Bostanabad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Emotional intelligence skills help nurses to cope with the emotional demands of healthcare environment. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between emotional intelligence and perception of job performance among nurses. Using a correlational descriptive design with stratified random sampling, 338 registered nurses from teaching hospitals in North West of Iran were surveyed. Emotional intelligence and perception of job performance were measured using validated self-report measures. The collected data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential methods using SPSS/13. The mean of nurses' emotional intelligence and their perception of job performance was, respectively, 235.83 ± 37.98 and 157.63 ± 33.23. There was no significant relationship between nurses' emotional intelligence and their perception of job performance. Although there was a significant relationship between intrapersonal subscale of emotional intelligence and job performance, there was none with other subscales. In order to get rid of the physical and psychological effects of stressful work in wards, it seems that nurses just do routine activities and refuse working closely with the patients. It seems that fitting the patient to nurse ratio, dividing work between nurses, and supporting each other are necessary.

  1. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soori Nnko

    Full Text Available Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda.Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs and in-depth interviews (IDIs in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs.We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years. CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD, diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management.Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services.

  2. Exposure of birds to radionuclides and other contaminants in Special Protection Areas (SPAs) in North-West England

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, K.; Watson, S.; McDonald, P.; Copplestone, D.; Watts, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    There has been a decline in the population of some bird species at Morecambe Bay and the Solway Firth Special Protected Areas in North-West England during the last fifty years. It was suggested that the declines were caused, in part, by contaminants in the food and environment, primarily from the radioactive effluent discharge from the Sellafield Ltd nuclear fuel reprocessing plant in Cumbria. This study analysed bird feathers and tissues, vegetation and sediment for radionuclides, metals and persistent organic compounds. The non-radionuclide results were all low compared to relevant action limits. The ERICA model was used with field data to estimate the radiological dose to birds from exposure to 137 Cs and 241 Am with results between 1.26 to 3.83 μGy h -1 , below the ERICA screening level of 10 μGy h -1 and within the IAEA 40 μGy h -1 guideline value below which potential adverse impacts on biota are unlikely. The study showed no link between bird population decline and anthropogenic discharges to the SPAs.

  3. Assessing patients’ experience of integrated care: a survey of patient views in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Despite the importance of continuity of care and patient engagement, few studies have captured patients’ views on integrated care. This study assesses patient experience in the Integrated Care Pilot in North West London with the aim to help clinicians and policy makers understand patients’ acceptability of integrated care and design future initiatives. Methods: A survey was developed, validated and distributed to 2029 randomly selected practice patients identified as having a care plan. Results: A total of 405 questionnaires were included for analysis. Respondents identified a number of benefits associated with the pilot, including increased patient involvement in decision-making, improved patient-provider relationship, better organisation and access to care, and enhanced inter-professional communication. However, only 22.4% were aware of having a care plan, and of these only 37.9% had a copy of the care plan. Knowledge of care plans was significantly associated with a more positive experience. Conclusions: This study reinforces the view that integrated care can improve quality of care and patient experience. However, care planning was a complex and technically challenging process that occurred more slowly than planned with wide variation in quality and time of recruitment to the pilot, making it difficult to assess the sustainability of benefits.

  4. A database of archived drilling records of the drill cuttings piles at the North West Hutton oil platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marsh, Roy

    2003-01-01

    Drill cuttings piles are found underneath several hundred oil platforms in the North Sea, and are contaminated with hydrocarbons and chemical products. This study characterised the environmental risk posed by the cuttings pile at the North West Hutton (NWH) oil platform. Data on the drilling fluids and chemical products used over the platform's drilling history were transferred from archived well reports into a custom database, to which were added toxicological and safety data. Although the database contained many gaps, it established that only seven chemical products used at NWH were not in the lowest category of the Offshore Chemicals Notification Scheme, and were used in only small quantities. The study therefore supports the view that the main environmental risk posed by cuttings piles comes from hydrocarbon contamination. The (dated) well records could help future core sampling to be targeted at specific locations in the cuttings piles. Data from many platforms could also be pooled to determine generic 'discharge profiles.' Future study would benefit from the existence, in the public domain, of a standardised, 'legacy' database of chemical products

  5. On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Yulia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cooperation between the constituent entities of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation and the Baltic countries (Finland, Estonia, and Norway in the field of innovations at national and regional levels, as well as at the level of corporate cooperation. The author reviews successful implementation of innovation projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes. The most significant projects focus on the development of information and communications technologies in healthcare, the development of networks uniting innovation centres in the Baltic Sea region, and the transnational network of business incubators in the Baltic Sea region. The author identifies promising areas of cooperation between North-West Russia, Finland, Norway, and Estonia in the field of innovations, including telecommunications, information and, space; biological, environmental and nanotechnologies; software, medicine, education, culture, energy efficiency and ecological construction, as well as the development of creative industries. The article pays attention to large-scale national projects, such as “St. Petersburg Corridor — Two Model Open Innovation Platform” and “Partnership in commercialization of Russian innovations”.

  6. Which is the best solar thermal collection technology for electricity generation in north-west India? Evaluation of options using the analytical hierarchy process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nixon, J.D.; Davies, P.A. [Sustainable Environment Research Group, School of Engineering and Applied Science, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom); Dey, P.K. [Aston Business School, Aston University, Aston Triangle, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2010-12-15

    This study of concentrating solar thermal power generation sets out to evaluate the main existing collection technologies using the framework of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It encompasses parabolic troughs, heliostat fields, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dishes, compound parabolic concentrators and linear Fresnel lenses. These technologies are compared based on technical, economic and environmental criteria. Within these three categories, numerous sub-criteria are identified; similarly sub-alternatives are considered for each technology. A literature review, thermodynamic calculations and an expert workshop have been used to arrive at quantitative and qualitative assessments. The methodology is applied principally to a case study in Gujarat in north-west India, though case studies based on the Sahara Desert, Southern Spain and California are included for comparison. A sensitivity analysis is carried out for Gujarat. The study concludes that the linear Fresnel lens with a secondary compound parabolic collector, or the parabolic dish reflector, is the preferred technology for north-west India. (author)

  7. Which is the best solar thermal collection technology for electricity generation in north-west India? Evaluation of options using the analytical hierarchy process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, J.D.; Dey, P.K.; Davies, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This study of concentrating solar thermal power generation sets out to evaluate the main existing collection technologies using the framework of the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). It encompasses parabolic troughs, heliostat fields, linear Fresnel reflectors, parabolic dishes, compound parabolic concentrators and linear Fresnel lenses. These technologies are compared based on technical, economic and environmental criteria. Within these three categories, numerous sub-criteria are identified; similarly sub-alternatives are considered for each technology. A literature review, thermodynamic calculations and an expert workshop have been used to arrive at quantitative and qualitative assessments. The methodology is applied principally to a case study in Gujarat in north-west India, though case studies based on the Sahara Desert, Southern Spain and California are included for comparison. A sensitivity analysis is carried out for Gujarat. The study concludes that the linear Fresnel lens with a secondary compound parabolic collector, or the parabolic dish reflector, is the preferred technology for north-west India.

  8. The extent of anthelmintic Resistance on Nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goats in a Semi-Arid area of North-west Province (RSA) / Tebogo Stanely Ramotshwane

    OpenAIRE

    Ramotshwane, Tebogo Stanely

    2011-01-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate the occurrence of anthelmintic resistance of nematodes in communally grazed sheep and goat herds in the Zeerust area of the North-West Province, Republic of South Africa. The fecal egg count reduction test (FECR%) tests were used to assess the sheep and goat small holder farmers. Efficacy of albendazole, ivermectin and closantel was done on both the treatment and control animals. Anthelmintic efficacy of 80% was considered a threshold for ...

  9. Working in the UK: Polish migrant worker routes into employment in the north east and north west construction and food processing sectors

    OpenAIRE

    Fitzgerald, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the findings of a TUC-funded project that sought to identify the main routes into employment for Polish migrant workers in the North East and North West construction and food processing sectors. Its findings show that the two sectors offer real opportunities and challenges for trade unions to organise those who most need help. Indeed many unions in the sectors have already taken up the challenge and have started to see real successes in organising groups traditionally see...

  10. WAYS TO DECREASE INFANT MORTALITY IN A LARGE AGRO INDUSTRIAL REGION IN RUSSIAN NORTH WEST BASED ON A PROGRAMMED GOAL ORIENTED APPROACH (MATERIALS FROM VOLOGDA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Orel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors analyze infant mortality situation in a large agroindustrial region to the north west of Russia. Basing on a programmed goal oriented approach and the example of Vologda region, the authors suggest ways to reduce the sickness rate, perinatal, early neonatal and infant mortality, as well as the methods to improve medical aid to early children.Key words: infant mortality, maternity and infant health protection, sickness rate, organization of health services.

  11. Estimates of emissions of SO sub 2 , NO sub x , HCl and NH sub 3 from Greater Manchester and the North-West of England

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.S.; Longhurst, J.W.S.

    1990-11-01

    Estimates of emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, HCl and NH{sub 3} have been made for Greater Manchester and the North West of England. These estimates were made using data on power generation, fuel useage, animal and human population statistics. A large fossil fuel fired power station is the largest known point source for emissions of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and HCl. However, emissions from motor vehicles make the largest contribution to NO{sub x} emissions in the North-West as a whole. The largest contribution to NH{sub 3} emissions in the North-West is from cattle. However in the Metropolitan Counties of Merseyside and Greater Manchester, it has been calculated that humans could contribute 73% and 81%, respectively, to the emissions of NH{sub 3}. The uncertainties in the methodologies used are highlighted, and where possible, recommendations made as to how future emissions estimates might be improved. 33 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. The inception of a Paleotethyan magmatic arc in Iberia

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    M.F. Pereira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a compilation of recent U-Pb (zircon ages of late Carboniferous–early Permian (LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths from Iberia, together with a petrogenetic interpretation of magma generation based on comparisons with Mesozoic and Tertiary Cordilleran batholiths and experimental melts. Zircon U-Pb ages distributed over the range ca. 315–280 Ma, indicate a linkage between calc-alkaline magmatism, Iberian orocline generation and Paleotethys subduction. It is also shown that Iberian LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths present unequivocal subduction-related features comparable with typical Cordilleran batholiths of the Pacific Americas active margin, although geochemical features were partially obscured by local modifications of magmas at the level of emplacement by country rock assimilation. When and how LC–EP calc-alkaline batholiths formed in Iberia is then discussed, and a new and somewhat controversial interpretation for their sources and tectonic setting (plume-assisted relamination is suggested. The batholiths are proposed to have formed during the subduction of the Paleotethys oceanic plate (Pangaea self-subduction and, consequently, they are unrelated to Variscan collision. The origin of the Iberian batholiths is related to the Eurasian active margin and probably represents the inception of a Paleotethyan arc in the core of Pangaea.

  13. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene polymorphisms and breast cancer risk in Punjabi population from North West India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapahi, Ruhi; Guleria, Kamlesh; Sambyal, Vasudha; Manjari, Mridu; Sudan, Meena; Uppal, Manjit Singh; Singh, Neeti Rajan

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association of seven VEGF promoter polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in Punjabi population from North West India. We screened DNA samples of 102 sporadic breast cancer patients and 102 unrelated healthy, gender, and age-matched individuals for seven VEGF promoter polymorphisms [-417 C/T (rs833062), -172 C/A (rs59260042), -165 C/T (rs79469752), -160 C/T, -152 G/A (rs13207351), -141 A/C (rs28357093) and -116 G/A (rs1570360)] by direct sequencing. The frequency of GG, GA, and AA genotype of -152 G/A polymorphism was 26.47 vs 38.34%, 46.08 vs 51.96%, and 27.45 vs 9.80%, in patients and controls, respectively. VEGF -152 AA genotype was significantly associated with increased risk for breast cancer (OR = 4.04, 95%CI, 1.69-9.68, p = 0.001; recessive model OR = 3.48, 95%CI, 1.59-7.63, p = 0.001). For VEGF -116 G/A polymorphism, G and A allele frequencies were 65.2 vs 76.47% and 34.8 vs 23.53% in patients and controls, respectively. Individuals having -116 AA genotype (OR = 3.40; 95%CI, 1.24-9.37; p = 0.014) and A allele (OR = 1.73; 95%CI, 1.12-2.67; p = 0.012) were associated with increased risk for breast cancer. VEGF -165 C/T and -141 A/C polymorphisms were associated with reduced risk for breast cancer. There was significantly decreased frequency of CT genotype (4.90 vs 18.63%; p = 0.002) and T allele (2.45 vs 9.31%; p = 0.003) of -165 C/T polymorphism among breast cancer patients as compared to controls. VEGF -141 A and C allele frequency were 96.57 vs 91.18% and 3.43 vs 8.82% in patients and controls, respectively. Significant reduced risk for breast cancer was observed with AC genotype (OR = 0.34, 95%CI, 0.14-0.86; p = 0.019) and C allele (OR = 0.37; 95%CI, 0.15-0.89; p = 0.023) of -141 A/C polymorphism. We did not observe association of VEGF -417 T/C, -172 C/A, -160 C/T polymorphisms with breast cancer risk in the studied subjects (p > 0.05). The VEGF -152 G/A and -116 G/A polymorphisms were found to be significantly

  14. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot.  Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity. Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described. Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  15. Multidisciplinary group performance – measuring integration intensity in the context of the North West London Integrated Care Pilot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Harris

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Multidisciplinary Group meeting (MDGs are seen as key facilitators of integration, moving from individual to multi-disciplinary decision making, and from a focus on individual patients to a focus on patient groups.  We have developed a method for coding MDG transcripts to identify whether they are or are not vehicles for delivering the anticipated efficiency improvements across various providers and apply it to a test case in the North West London Integrated Care Pilot. Methods:  We defined 'integrating' as the process within the MDG meeting that enables or promotes an improved collaboration, improved understanding, and improved awareness of self and others within the local healthcare economy such that efficiency improvements could be identified and action taken.  Utterances within the MDGs are coded according to three distinct domains grounded in concepts from communication, group decision-making, and integrated care literatures - the Valence, the Focus, and the Level.  Standardized weighted integrative intensity scores are calculated across ten time deciles in the Case Discussion providing a graphical representation of its integrative intensity.Results: Intra- and Inter-rater reliability of the coding scheme was very good as measured by the Prevalence and Bias-adjusted Kappa Score.  Standardized Weighted Integrative Intensity graph mirrored closely the verbatim transcript and is a convenient representation of complex communication dynamics. Trend in integrative intensity can be calculated and the characteristics of the MDG can be pragmatically described.Conclusion: This is a novel and potentially useful method for researchers, managers and practitioners to better understand MDG dynamics and to identify whether participants are integrating.  The degree to which participants use MDG meetings to develop an integrated way of working is likely to require management, leadership and shared values.

  16. Staphylococcal species associated with bovine mastitis in the North West of Iran: Emerging of coagulase-negative staphylococci

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayyeh Hosseinzadeh

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococcal mastitis is a major and costly problem of dairy cattle all over the world. The objective of this study was to isolate and identify the main staphylococcal species causing bovine mastitis in 7 dairy herds located in 4 different areas of East and West Azerbaijan provinces, Iran. Of the 158 mastitic milk samples collected, 113 staphylococcal isolates were identified (71.5% on the basis of cultural and biochemical features as well as by genus specific PCR. Then, species level identification of staphylococcal isolates was carried out using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of the gap gene (933 bp. On the basis of polymerase chain reaction-RFLP, 10 different patterns were identified. Of 113 isolates, 5 (4.4% were Staphylococcus aureus and 108 (95.6% were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS. Overall, nine different species of CoNS were identified as: 44 Staphylococcus haemolyticus (40.7%, 17 Staphylococcus chromogenes (15.7%, 11 Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus warneri and Staphylococcus cohnii each (10.2%, 6 Staphylococcus simulans (5.5%, 4 Staphylococcus hominis (3.7%, 3 Staphylococcus capitis (2.7% and 1 Staphylococcus xylosus (0.9%. S. haemolyticus, S. chromogenes and S. warneri were the only species identified from clinical mastitis. No significant difference in staphylococcal IMI was found among the studied herds and regions. This study demonstrated that CoNS, especially S. haemolyticus and S. chromogenes, were predominant and thus be considered as emerging pathogens causing mastitis in the North West of Iran. Our results also revealed that the gap PCR-RFLP was useful for identifying staphylococcal isolates derived from bovine mastitis at species level.

  17. Timing and factors associated with first antenatal care booking among pregnant mothers in Gondar Town; North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudayu, Temesgen Worku; Woldeyohannes, Solomon Meseret; Abdo, Abdella Amano

    2014-08-25

    Antenatal care service which is among strategies to maintain maternal and fetal wellbeing is strongly recommended to be initiated early during pregnancy. To developing world where there is uncommon practice of pre-pregnancy care and support, timely commencement is crucial in getting potential benefits from some of the elements of the care. Therefore, we sought to assess timing and factors associated with the first antenatal care booking among pregnant mothers attending antenatal care clinics in Gondar town health facilities; North West Ethiopia. Health institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among pregnant mothers from April to June 2012 in Gondar town. A total of 407 pregnant mothers were interviewed at exit from antenatal clinic by using structured and pre-tested questionnaire. Bivariate and multivariate data analysis was performed using SPSS for Windows version 16.0. The study indicated that 35.4% of mothers started antenatal care timely (in the first trimester of pregnancy). The mean time was 4.5 months (17.7 weeks) of pregnancy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that: [(AOR (95% CI)) maternal age ≤ 25 (1.85 (1.10, 3.09)), age at marriage ≥20 years (2.21 (1.33, 3.68)), pregnancy recognition by urine test (2.29 (1.42, 3.71)), mothers who perceived the right time to start antenatal care within first trimester (3.93 (2.29, 6.75)) and having decision power to use antenatal care (2.43 (1.18, 4.99))] were significantly associated with timely commencement to antenatal care. Timely entry to antenatal care was low in the study area. In order to improve the situation, it is important to provide community based information, education and communication on antenatal care and its right time of commencement. In addition, empowering women and implementing the proclamation designed for the age at marriage is mandatory up to the local level.

  18. A 507-year rainfall and runoff reconstruction for the Monsoonal North West, Australia derived from remote paleoclimate archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdon-Kidd, Danielle C.; Hancock, Gregory R.; Lowry, John B.

    2017-11-01

    The Monsoonal North West (MNW) region of Australia faces a number of challenges adapting to anthropogenic climate change. These have the potential to impact on a range of industries, including agricultural, pastoral, mining and tourism. However future changes to rainfall regimes remain uncertain due to the inability of Global Climate Models to adequately capture the tropical weather/climate processes that are known to be important for this region. Compounding this is the brevity of the instrumental rainfall record for the MNW, which is unlikely to represent the full range of climatic variability. One avenue for addressing this issue (the focus of this paper) is to identify sources of paleoclimate information that can be used to reconstruct a plausible pre-instrumental rainfall history for the MNW. Adopting this approach we find that, even in the absence of local sources of paleoclimate data at a suitable temporal resolution, remote paleoclimate records can resolve 25% of the annual variability observed in the instrumental rainfall record. Importantly, the 507-year rainfall reconstruction developed using the remote proxies displays longer and more intense wet and dry periods than observed during the most recent 100 years. For example, the maximum number of consecutive years of below (above) average rainfall is 90% (40%) higher in the rainfall reconstruction than during the instrumental period. Further, implications for flood and drought risk are studied via a simple GR1A rainfall runoff model, which again highlights the likelihood of extremes greater than that observed in the limited instrumental record, consistent with previous paleoclimate studies elsewhere in Australia. Importantly, this research can assist in informing climate related risks to infrastructure, agriculture and mining, and the method can readily be applied to other regions in the MNW and beyond.

  19. Attrition and Opportunities Along the HIV Care Continuum: Findings From a Population-Based Sample, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippman, Sheri A; Shade, Starley B; El Ayadi, Alison M; Gilvydis, Jennifer M; Grignon, Jessica S; Liegler, Teri; Morris, Jessica; Naidoo, Evasen; Prach, Lisa M; Puren, Adrian; Barnhart, Scott

    2016-09-01

    Attrition along the HIV care continuum slows gains in mitigating the South African HIV epidemic. Understanding population-level gaps in HIV identification, linkage, retention in care, and viral suppression is critical to target programming. We conducted a population-based household survey, HIV rapid testing, point-of-care CD4 testing, and viral load measurement from dried blood spots using multistage cluster sampling in 2 subdistricts of North West Province from January to March, 2014. We used weighting and multiple imputation of missing data to estimate HIV prevalence, undiagnosed infection, linkage and retention in care, medication adherence, and viral suppression. We sampled 1044 respondents aged 18-49. HIV prevalence was 20.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7 to 26.2) for men and 26.7% (95% confidence interval: 22.1 to 31.4) for women. Among those HIV positive, 48.4% of men and 75.7% of women were aware of their serostatus; 44.0% of men and 74.8% of women reported ever linking to HIV care; 33.1% of men and 58.4% of women were retained in care; and 21.6% of men and 50.0% of women had dried blood spots viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Among those already linked to care, 81.7% on antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 56.0% of those not on ART were retained in care, and 51.8% currently retained in care on ART had viral loads <5000 copies per milliliter. Despite expanded treatment in South Africa, attrition along the continuum of HIV care is slowing prevention progress. Improved detection is critically needed, particularly among men. Reported linkage and retention is reasonable for those on ART; however, failure to achieve viral suppression is worrisome.

  20. The experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care of AIDS patients in the Bophirima district, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhele, M F; Mulaudzi, F M

    2012-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic put significant strain on healthcare services in the country. Hospitals were no longer coping with the escalating number of AIDS patients. This resulted in the early discharge of patients, with some patients, too ill to be nursed at home, being sent to hospices for continued care. The Batswana had mixed feelings about hospice care, because their beliefs on patient care are based on the ubuntu philosophy, which emphasises the principle of caring for one another. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of Batswana families regarding hospice care for patients in the Thlabane township in the province of the North West as well as to make recommendations to policy-makers to ensure that hospices are accepted by community members and utilised effectively. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive research design was applied. Purposive sampling was applied to select study participants with whom in-depth unstructured interviews were conducted. A qualitative data analysis was done by categorising, ordering, and summarising the data, and describing the findings. The findings indicated that families of patients in hospice care experienced such care as foreign to their culture. These families also experienced stigmatisation, firstly owing to the stigma associated with AIDS and secondly because they opted for hospice care. However, they also observed the high quality of care provided by the hospice and understood its benefits for AIDS patients. The study concluded that hospice care relieved families of terminally ill AIDS patients of the burden of care and enabled them to keep on working and earning a living. Recommendations to policy-makers included enhancing hospice care and ensuring the provisioning of culturally safe hospice care.

  1. Factors affecting food handling Practices among food handlers of Dangila town food and drink establishments, North West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Food borne diseases are major health problems in developed and developing countries including Ethiopia. The problem is more noticeable in developing countries due to prevailing poor food handling and sanitation practices, inadequate food safety laws, weak regulatory systems, lack of financial resources to invest on safer equipments, and lack of education for food handlers. Methods The objective of this study was to assess food handling practice and associated factors among food handlers working in food and drinking establishments of Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Cross-sectional quantitative study design was conducted among 406 food handlers working in 105 food and drink establishments from July to August 2013 in Dangila town. Data were collected using face to face interview with pretested structured questionnaire and physical observation. Result The mean age of the respondents was 22.7 ± 4.2 years of which 62.8% of the food handlers were females. Two hundred thirteen (52.5%) of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status (AOR = 7.52, 95% CI, 1.45-38.97), monthly income (AOR = 0.395, 95% CI, 0.25-0.62), knowledge about food handling (AOR = 1.69, 95% CI, 1.05-2.73), existence of shower facility (AOR = 1.89, 95% CI, 1.12-3.21) and separate dressing room (AOR = 1.97, 95% CI, 1.11-3.49) were found to be significantly associated with good food handling Practices. Conclusion Above half of food handlers had good food handling practices. Marital status, monthly income, knowledge status, existence of shower facility, existence of separate dressing room and presence of insect and rodent were factors associated with food handling Practices. PMID:24908104

  2. X-ray, CT and DXA study of bone loss on medieval remains from North-West Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrè, Alda; Boano, Rosa; Di Stefano, Marco; Castiglione, Anna; Ciccone, Giovannino; Isaia, Giovanni Carlo; Panattoni, Gian Luigi; Faletti, Carlo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the population differences in osteoporosis observed nowadays is a reflection of the times and modern lifestyle factors, or whether they were also present in the past. The study was performed on the skeletal remains of medieval and post-medieval populations from a burial ground in the North-West of Italy. Some individuals had been buried inside the church (privileged subjects), others outside in the parvis (members of rural population), and others still to the north of the church. X-ray, computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry studies were carried out on the lumbar spines and/or femurs of 27 male and 28 female individuals to determine any associations between cortical index, bone mineral density (BMD), gender, age and social status. No statistically significant differences were observed in cortical index values according to gender, age or place of burial. Conversely, statistically significant differences in average BMD values were observed according to place of burial; in particular, among those buried inside the church, a lower BMD was observed compared to the parvis group (1.09 vs. 1.42, p < 0.001) and the north group (1.09 vs. 1.49, p < 0.001). The differences observed in the BMD values may be related to the different lifestyle of the rural population, i.e. more dietary calcium intake, more sun exposure and vigorous physical activity, compared to that of the privileged individuals.

  3. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  4. Characteristics and correlates of alcohol consumption among adult chronic care patients in North West Province, South Africa

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    Arvin Bhana

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background. Alcohol consumption patterns in South Africa (SA tend to be characterised by risky patterns of drinking. Taken together with the large burden of disease associated with HIV and tuberculosis (TB, heavy alcohol consumption patterns with these chronic conditions has the potential to compromise the efficacy of treatment efforts among such patients. Objective. To explore the characteristics, correlates and diagnoses of alcohol use disorders among chronic care patients in SA. Method. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in three public health clinic facilities in the North West Province of SA. A total of 1 322 patients were recruited from non-emergency waiting areas. Results. Proportions of patients with abstinence, hazardous, harmful and dependent consumption were determined using logistic regression. Of the patients screened, nearly half (45% drank alcohol and, of these, 10% were classified as hazardous drinkers, 1.7% as harmful drinkers, and 1.6% as dependent drinkers (overall 3% alcohol use disorder. Abstinence proportions were 60% and 38% among women and men, respectively. Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test scores for men were 63% higher than for women. The lowest patient abstinence proportion (47% and highest dependent drinking (10% was for TB. The highest abstinence proportion was for diabetes (65%, and the highest hazardous and harmful drinking was among TB (14% and HIV (7% patients. Conclusions. The high levels of risky drinking among chronic care patients, particularly among patients receiving treatment for HIV and TB, are concerning. Instituting appropriate screening measures and referral to treatment would be an important first step in mitigating the effects of risky alcohol use among chronic care patients.

  5. Folk knowledge of wild food plants among the tribal communities of Thakht-e-Sulaiman Hills, North-West Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Khalid; Pieroni, Andrea

    2016-04-08

    Indigenous communities of the Thakht-e-Sulamian hills reside in the North-West tribal belt of Pakistan, where disadvantaged socio-economic frames, lack of agricultural land and food insecurity represent crucial problems to their survival. Several studies in diverse areas worldwide have pointed out the importance of wild food plants (WFPs) for assuring food sovereignty and food security, and therefore the current study was aimed at documenting traditional knowledge of WFPs and analyzing how this varies among generations. Ethnobotanical data were collected during 2010-2012. In total of seventy-two informants were interviewed in ten villages via in-depth interviews and group discussions with key informants followed by freelisting. Data were analyzed through descriptive and inferential statistics and novelty was checked by comparing the gathered data with the published literature. A total of fifty-one WFP species belonging to twenty-eight families were documented. Rosaceae was the dominant family with the largest number of species and highest frequency of citation (FC). July was the peak month for availability of WFPs, and fruit was the most commonly consumed part. Among the most cited species, Olea ferrugenia was ranked first with a FC = 1, followed by Amaranthus spinosus (FC = 0.93). Of the documented species about 14 % (7) were marketable and 27 % (14) were reported for the first time to be used as WFP species in Pakistan. WFPs still play an important role in the food and culture of the study area and the folk knowledge attached to them is remarkable in the region, although declining among the younger generations. The recorded species needs to be re-evaluated in local projects aimed at fostering endogenous strategies of food security, as well as re-evaluating cultural heritage and sustaining small-scale food market circuits.

  6. Hydrochemical modelling of water quality in terms of emerging micropollutants in Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanda, Elijah M. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Msagati, Titus A. M.

    2017-08-01

    Emerging micropollutants (EMPs) are ubiquitous in aquatic systems and are associated with a wide range of eco-toxicological effects worldwide. There remains a lack of scientific understanding of the major underlying hydrochemical factors behind variations in concentration heterogeneities of EMPs in time and space. This study was therefore conducted to determine major hydrochemical processes controlling water quality and the occurrence of EMPs mainly, carbamazepine (CBZ), tonalide (AHTN), galaxolide (HHCB), caffeine (CAF), technical 4-nonylphenol (NP) and bisphenol A (BPA) in water from Mpumalanga, Gauteng and North West Provinces in South Africa. Grab water samples were collected bi-monthly between June 2014 and April 2016 from 44 water sources using standard sampling procedures. BPA, NP, CAF, HHCB, AHTN, CBZ were extracted, cleaned and enriched using autotrace-SPE at neutral pH and analyzed using GC × GC-TOFMS. Kruskal Wallis-test was used to test for temporal variations in occurrence of the analytes. The Geochemist's Workbench® Release 11 software, Surfer Golden Graphics for surface mapping, PHREEQC software and bivariate ion plots were used determine the major hydrogeochemical processes. The mean concentrations of EMPs varied from 3.48 μg/L for CAF to 421.53 μg/L for HHCB. Although the Kruskal Wallis test revealed no any statistically significant temporal variations in concentrations of the analytes in water samples at 95% confidence level, their occurrence and distribution vary spatially with BPA being the most widely distributed EMP and was present in 62% of the sampled sites. Municipal waste water inputs, agricultural pollution, ion-exchange reactions, carbonate and silicate weathering were the major processes controlling water quality in the study area. This study may assist water resource managers to ably address and manage water pollution resulting from a number of natural and anthropogenic hydrochemical processes in the study area.

  7. A synthetic map of the north-west European Shelf sedimentary environment for applications in marine science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Robert J.; Speirs, Douglas C.; Sabatino, Alessandro; Heath, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Seabed sediment mapping is important for a wide range of marine policy, planning and scientific issues, and there has been considerable national and international investment around the world in the collation and synthesis of sediment datasets. However, in Europe at least, much of this effort has been directed towards seabed classification and mapping of discrete habitats. Scientific users often have to resort to reverse engineering these classifications to recover continuous variables, such as mud content and median grain size, that are required for many ecological and biophysical studies. Here we present a new set of 0.125° by 0.125° resolution synthetic maps of continuous properties of the north-west European sedimentary environment, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the northern limits of the North Sea and the Faroe Islands. The maps are a blend of gridded survey data, statistically modelled values based on distributions of bed shear stress due to tidal currents and waves, and bathymetric properties. Recent work has shown that statistical models can predict sediment composition in British waters and the North Sea with high accuracy, and here we extend this to the entire shelf and to the mapping of other key seabed parameters. The maps include percentage compositions of mud, sand and gravel; porosity and permeability; median grain size of the whole sediment and of the sand and the gravel fractions; carbon and nitrogen content of sediments; percentage of seabed area covered by rock; mean and maximum depth-averaged tidal velocity and wave orbital velocity at the seabed; and mean monthly natural disturbance rates. A number of applications for these maps exist, including species distribution modelling and the more accurate representation of sea-floor biogeochemistry in ecosystem models. The data products are available from https://doi.org/10.15129/1e27b806-1eae-494d-83b5-a5f4792c46fc.

  8. Parental Midlife Body Shape and Association with Multiple Adult Offspring Obesity Measures: North West Adelaide Health Study.

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    Janet F Grant

    Full Text Available There is compelling evidence that parental weight is a strong determinant of offspring weight status. The study used cross-sectional self-reported and measured data from a longitudinal cohort of Australian adults (n = 2128 from Stage 3 (2008-10 of the North West Adelaide Health Study (1999-2003, baseline n = 4056 to investigate the association between midlife parental body shape and four indicators of obesity and fat distribution. The analysis used measured body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, waist hip ratio (WHR and waist height ratio (WHtR of adult offspring, together with pictograms for recall of parental body shape. Compared to both parents being a healthy weight, offspring were more likely to be overweight or obese if both parents were an unhealthy weight at age 40 (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.67-2.76 and further, those participants whose mother was an unhealthy weight were more likely to be overweight or obese themselves (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.14-1.98. There were similar but lower results for those with an overweight/obese father (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.08-1.93. The effect of one or both parents being overweight or obese tended to be stronger for daughters than for sons across BMI, WC and WHtR. BMI showed the strongest association with parental body shape (OR 2.14, followed by WC (OR 1.78, WHtR (OR 1.71 and WHR (OR 1.45. WHtR (42-45% and BMI (35-36% provided the highest positive predictive values for overweight/obesity from parental body shape. Parental obesity increases the risk of obesity for adult offspring, both for overall body shape and central adiposity, particularly for daughters. Pictograms could potentially be used as a screening tool in primary care settings to promote healthy weight among young adults.

  9. Characterisation of Shigella species isolated from river catchments in the North West province of South Africa

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    Constance Wose Kinge

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence and distribution of Shigella species in water from the five river catchments in the North West province of South Africa were investigated. Shigella is a Gram-negative, non-motile, facultative anaerobic bacillus that causes shigellosis, an important cause of morbidity and mortality in high-risk populations (such as children, the elderly and immuno-compromised individuals that depend on river water. A total of 54 water samples collected in winter (April 2007 to July 2007 and summer (December 2007 to March 2008 were cultured on Salmonella-Shigella agar by the spread-plate method. Suspected Shigella isolates obtained were characterised by primary biochemical (Triple Sugar Iron agar and agglutination and molecular (polymerase chain reactions, PCR tests. Amplification of the invasion plasmid gene (ipaH by PCR was done to confirm the presence of Shigella spp. in water. In total, 214 Shigella boydii, 15 Shigella dysenteriae, 11 Shigella flexneri and 2 Shigella sonnei were confirmed by serotyping in both winter and summer samples. The ipaH gene (606 bp was present in 176 and 49 of the winter and summer isolates, respectively. The presence of Shigella spp. in water was confirmed with over 90% specificity. The need for more effective management of these river catchments and the provision of potable water and sanitation facilities is needed to minimise the occurrence and transmission of water-borne diseases caused by these and other pathogenic bacteria.

  10. A synthetic map of the north-west European Shelf sedimentary environment for applications in marine science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. J. Wilson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seabed sediment mapping is important for a wide range of marine policy, planning and scientific issues, and there has been considerable national and international investment around the world in the collation and synthesis of sediment datasets. However, in Europe at least, much of this effort has been directed towards seabed classification and mapping of discrete habitats. Scientific users often have to resort to reverse engineering these classifications to recover continuous variables, such as mud content and median grain size, that are required for many ecological and biophysical studies. Here we present a new set of 0.125° by 0.125° resolution synthetic maps of continuous properties of the north-west European sedimentary environment, extending from the Bay of Biscay to the northern limits of the North Sea and the Faroe Islands. The maps are a blend of gridded survey data, statistically modelled values based on distributions of bed shear stress due to tidal currents and waves, and bathymetric properties. Recent work has shown that statistical models can predict sediment composition in British waters and the North Sea with high accuracy, and here we extend this to the entire shelf and to the mapping of other key seabed parameters. The maps include percentage compositions of mud, sand and gravel; porosity and permeability; median grain size of the whole sediment and of the sand and the gravel fractions; carbon and nitrogen content of sediments; percentage of seabed area covered by rock; mean and maximum depth-averaged tidal velocity and wave orbital velocity at the seabed; and mean monthly natural disturbance rates. A number of applications for these maps exist, including species distribution modelling and the more accurate representation of sea-floor biogeochemistry in ecosystem models. The data products are available from https://doi.org/10.15129/1e27b806-1eae-494d-83b5-a5f4792c46fc.

  11. Chemical Quality Status of Rivers for the Water Framework Directive: A Case Study of Toxic Metals in North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Neal

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides data from two years of monitoring of the chemical quality of rivers and streams in North West England from the clean headwaters to polluted rivers just above the tidal reach and covers 26 sites including the Ribble, Wyre and the tributary rivers of the Calder and Douglas. Across the basins that include areas of rural, urban and industrial typologies, data is presented for three of the priority substances in the Water Framework Directive i.e., nickel (Ni, cadmium (Cd, and lead (Pb. Average concentrations are low and well below the Environmental Quality Standards values for all three of these substances. Cadmium and Pb appear in approximately equal proportions in the dissolved (0.45 µm whilst Ni occurs predominantly in the dissolved form (92%. Regional inputs of these metals arise mostly from diffuse sources as the storm-flow concentrations are generally greater than at base-flow condition. Greater concentrations of Ni are transported at the headwaters and smaller tributary sites under storm flow condition than for the main stream of the Ribble. For Ni, amounts increase as the river proceeds from its headwaters down towards the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, whilst Cd and Pb show consistent values throughout the catchment. There is annual cycling of dissolved concentrations of Cd, Pb and Ni for the clean headwater streams that gives maxima during the latter half of the year when the river flow is greater. For the impacted sites the pattern is less distinct or absent. Our estimates suggest that the Ribble estuary receives 550 t y−1 of dissolved Ni, 16 t y−1 of dissolved Cd and 240 t y−1 of dissolved Pb.

  12. 78 FR 33051 - Non-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16) Iberia, Jefferson...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Natural Resources Conservation Service Non-Rock Alternatives to...-Rock Alternatives to Shoreline Protection Demonstration Project (LA-16), Iberia, Jefferson, and... and environmental limitations preclude the use of rock structures. The shoreline protection systems...

  13. Determinants of pelvic organ prolapse among gynecologic patients in Bahir Dar, North West Ethiopia: a case–control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asresie A

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ayalnesh Asresie,1 Eleni Admassu,2 Tesfaye Setegn2 1Hamlin Fistula Center, Amhara National Regional State, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia; 2Bahir Dar University, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, School of Public Health, Reproductive Health Department, Amhara National Regional State, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia Introduction: Pelvic organ prolapse (POP is a significant public health problem in developing countries including Ethiopia. However, less has been documented on risk factors of POP. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the determinants factors of POP. Methods: An unmatched case–control study was conducted among gynecologic patients in Bahir Dar city, North West Ethiopia, from July to October 2014. A total of 370 women (selected from outpatient departments were included in the study. Cases (clients with stage III or IV POP and controls (who declared free of any stages of POP were identified by physicians using the Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantitative Examination tool. Data analysis was carried out by SPSS version 20.0. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Statistical differences were considered at P<0.05, and the strength of association was assessed by odds ratio (OR and respective confidence intervals (CIs. Results: This study revealed that determinants such as age of women (>40 years (adjusted OR [AOR] =3.0 [95% CI: 1.59–5.89], sphincter damage (AOR =8.1 [95% CI: 1.67–39.7], family history of POP (AOR =4.9 [95% CI: 1.94–12.63], parity (≥4 (AOR =4.5 [95% CI: 2.26–9.10], nonattendance of formal education (AOR =4.3 [95% CI: 1.25–14.8], carrying heavy objects (AOR =3.1 [95% CI: 1.56–6.30], body mass index (BMI <18.5 kg/m2 (AOR =3.1 [95% CI: 1.22–7.82], and delivery assisted by nonhealth professionals (AOR =2.6 [95% CI: 1.24–5.56] were significantly associated with POP. Conclusion: In our study, sphincter damage, family history of POP, being uneducated, having ≥4 vaginal

  14. Evaluation and comparison of polyphenols and bioactivities of wild edible fruits of North-West Himalaya, India

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    Himani Singh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the polyphenol contents, antioxidant, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities of 13 wild edible fruits [Pyracantha crenulata, Berberis asiatica (B. asiatica, Ficus subincisa (F. subincisa, Morus serrata, Ziziphus nummularia, Leea asiatica (L. asiatica, Dendrobenthamia capitata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Prunus cerasoides, Ampelocissus latifolia (A. latifolia, Vitis jacquemontii, Morus alba and Grewia optiva] of North-West Himalayan Region of India. Methods: Fruits extracts were prepared with 80% aqueous acetone and evaluated for total phenolic contents (TPC and total flavonoid contents (TFC. Free radical scavenging activities [against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, 2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid, linoleate hydroperoxyl and superoxide radicals], ferric reducing ability, ferrous metal chelating capacity, anti-elastase, anti-collagenase, anti-tyrosinase and anti-inflammatory activities were determined by using various in vitro assays. Results: TPC varied from 58.83 to 4 496.39 mg gallic acid equivalents/100 g fruit weight (FW, being highest in A. latifolia and lowest in F. subincisa. TFC ranged from 108.00 to 1 963.75 mg catechin equivalents/100 g FW, standing highest in L. asiatica and lowest in Prunus cerasoides. A. latifolia and L. asiatica possessed the highest antioxidant activities while B. asiatica and L. asiatica owned uppermost anti-elastase and anti-collagenase activities, respectively. B. asiatica revealed the highest anti-tyrosinase activity and F. subincisa demonstrated the highest antiinflammatory activity. The present study revealed differential contribution of TPC and TFC in various antioxidant activities. However, no obvious relationship was visible between antielastase/anti-collagenase/anti-tyrosinase/anti-inflammatory activities and TPC/TFC, suggesting the role of individual or combination of specific phenolics and flavonoids

  15. Onshore wind energy potential over Iberia: present and future projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochinha, Carlos A.; Santos, João A.; Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Onshore grid-connected wind power generation has been explored for more than three decades in the Iberian Peninsula. Further, increasing attention has been devoted to renewable energy sources in a climate change context. While advantages of wind energy are widely recognized, its distribution is not spatially homogeneous and not uniform throughout the year. Hence, understanding these spatial-temporal distributions is critical in power system planning. The present study aims at assessing the potential power output estimated from 10 m wind components simulated by a regional climate model (CCLM), driven by ERA40 reanalysis. Datasets are available on a grid with a high spatial resolution (approximately 20 km) and over a 40-yr period (1961-2000). Furthermore, several target sites, located in areas with high installed wind generation capacity, are selected for local-to-regional scale assessments. The results show that potential wind power is higher over northern Iberia, mostly in Cantabria and Galicia, while Andalucía and Cataluña record the lowest values. With respect to the intra-annual variability, summer is by far the season with the lowest potential energy outputs. Furthermore, the inter-annual variability reveals an overall downward long-term trend over the 40-yr period, particularly in the winter time series. A CCLM transient experiment, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario, is also discussed for a future period (2041-2070), after a model validation/calibration process (bias corrections). Significant changes in the wind power potential are projected for the future throughout Iberia, but their magnitude largely depends on the locations. This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER- 019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  16. Crustal and upper mantle shear velocities of Iberia, the Alboran Sea, and North Africa from ambient noise and ballistic finite-frequency Rayleigh wave tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomeras, I.; Villasenor, A.; Thurner, S.; Levander, A.; Gallart, J.; mimoun, H.

    2013-12-01

    The complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic Alpine deformation in the western Mediterranean extends from the Pyrenees in northern Spain to the Atlas Mountains in southern Morocco. The Iberian plate was accreted to the European plate in late Cretaceous, resulting in the formation of the Pyrenees. Cenozoic African-European convergence resulted in subduction of the Tethys oceanic plate beneath Europe. Rapid Oligocene slab rollback from eastern Iberia spread eastward and southward, with the trench breaking into three segments by the time it reached the African coast. One trench segment moved southwestward and westward creating the Alboran Sea, floored by highly extended continental crust, and building the encircling Betics Rif mountains comprising the Gibraltar arc, and the Atlas mountains, which formed as the inversion of a Jurassic rift. A number of recent experiments have instrumented this region with broad-band arrays (the US PICASSO array, Spanish IberArray and Siberia arrays, the University of Munster array), which, including the Spanish, Portuguese, and Moroccan permanent networks, provide a combined array of 350 stations having an average interstation spacing of ~60 km. Taking advantage of this dense deployment, we have calculated the Rayleigh waves phase velocities from ambient noise for short periods (4 s to 40 s) and teleseismic events for longer periods (20 s to 167 s). Approximately 50,000 stations pairs were used to measure the phase velocity from ambient noise and more than 160 teleseismic events to measure phase velocity for longer periods. The inversion of the phase velocity dispersion curves provides a 3D shear velocity for the crust and uppermost mantle. Our results show differences between the various tectonic regions that extend to upper mantle depths (~200 km). In Iberia we obtain, on average, higher upper mantle shear velocities in the western Variscan region than in the younger eastern part. We map high upper mantle velocities (>4.6 km/s) beneath the

  17. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaidi, Farrah; Fatima, Syeda Hira; Gul, Ayesha

    2016-09-01

    Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921) including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037). A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21%) while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34%) targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882) including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394), Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244) and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244). Others (n=155) including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius), Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart), Lucilia sericata (Meigen), Lucilia illustris (Meigen), Lucilia porphyrina (Walker), Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann), Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy), Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart) and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication "Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan" (Zaidi et al., 2016) [1].

  18. Dataset of traumatic myiasis observed for three dominant screw worm species in North West Pakistan with first report of Wohlfahrtia magnifica (Schiner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farrah Zaidi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Regional surveys were carried out in different parts of North West Pakistan among domestic animals (N=57,921 including pets and livestock identifying cases of traumatic myiasis (n=1037. A total of four surveys focused general livestock population during Eid ul Adha (Eid surveys; incidence=1.21% while another four surveys (Miscellaneous surveys; incidence=7.34% targeted animal population brought to veterinary hospitals and dispensaries. Timeframe spanned four years from 2012 to 2015. Maggots were sampled and location of the wound was recorded for each host. Taxonomic identification used light and electron microscopic techniques. Our dataset shows three species as principle agents of myiasis (n=882 including Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (n=394, Wohlfahrtia magnifica (n=244 and Lucilia cuprina Wiedemann (n=244. Others (n=155 including Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius, Chrysomya rufifacies (Macquart, Lucilia sericata (Meigen, Lucilia illustris (Meigen, Lucilia porphyrina (Walker, Hemipyrellia ligguriens (Wiedemann, Calliphora vicina (Robineau-Desvoidy, Sarcophaga crassipalpalis (Macquart and Sarcophaga species were identified as species of minor importance. The obligatory screwworm species W. magnifica is a first report from Pakistan. The results based on this dataset are presented in a recent publication “Distribution Modeling of three screwworm species in the ecologically diverse landscape of North West Pakistan” (Zaidi et al., 2016 [1].

  19. The meaning and effect of HIV/AIDS stigma for people living with AIDS and nurses involved in their care in the North West Province, South Africa

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    M. Greeff

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The five countries with the highest HIV prevalence rates in the world are situated in southern Africa, and South Africa, with an estimated 4,7 million people living with HIV (PLWA, has more cases of HIV/AIDS than any other country. AIDS stigma and discrimination continue to impact on those living with and affected by the HIV disease and their health-care providers, particularly in southern Africa, where the burden of AIDS is so significant. Stigma has become a major problem in the provision o f care for PLWA in Africa. A five-year multinational African study on perceived AIDS stigma was undertaken. The North West Province in South Africa formed part of this study. The first phase focused on exploring and describing the meaning and effect o f stigma for PLWA and nurses involved in their care. This article focuses on the data for the North West Province, South Africa. An exploratory descriptive qualitative research design was used. Through focus groups the critical incident method was applied to gain respondents’ emic and etic views. The study was conducted in the Potchefstroom district and the Kayakulu area. Purposive voluntary sampling was utilised. The open coding technique was used for data analysis. Three types of stigma (received, internal and associated stigma and several dimensions for each type o f stigma were identified. Recommendations for interventions, a measuring scale and the formulation of a conceptual model were formulated.

  20. Use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa

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    D. Van der Merwe

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Rapid Rural Appraisal (RRA methods were employed to document the use of ethnoveterinary medicinal plants in cattle by Setswana-speaking people in the Madikwe area of the North West Province of South Africa. The study indicated that Setswana-speaking people in the North West Province have a rich heritage of ethnoveterinary knowledge, which includes all aspects of ethnoveterinary medicinal plant use. Information was gathered from informants through individual interviews, group interviews, guided field walks and observations. Ethnoveterinary uses in cattle of 45 plant species representing 24 families were recorded. Plants were used in 84 % of the total number of recorded ethnoveterinary remedies. These plants were used alone (64 % or in mixtures (36 % for 29 indications. The most important indications were retained placenta, diarrhoea, gallsickness, fractures, eye inflammation, general ailments, fertility enhancement, general gastrointestinal problems, heartwater, internal parasites, coughing, redwater and reduction of tick burden. Plant materials were prepared in various ways including infusion, decoction, ground fresh material, sap expressed from fresh material, charred and dried. The most common dosage formwas a liquid for oral dosing. Other dosage forms included drops, licks, ointments, lotions and powders. Liquid remedies for oral dosing were always administered using a bottle. Medicinal plant material was preferably stored in a dried form in a cool place out of direct sunlight and wind. Lack of transfer of ethnoveterinary knowledge to younger generations puts this knowledge at risk. RRA was found to be a successful method of investigation for the study of ethnoveterinary medicine.

  1. Co-Production at the Strategic Level: Co-Designing an Integrated Care System with Lay Partners in North West London, England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Michael; Paice, Elisabeth

    2016-05-03

    In North West London, health and social care leaders decided to design a system of integrated care with the aim of improving the quality of care and supporting people to maintain independence and participation in their community. Patients and carers, known as 'lay partners,' were to be equal partners in co-production of the system. Lay partners were recruited by sending a role profile to health, social care and voluntary organisations and requesting nominations. They formed a Lay Partners Advisory Group from which pairs were allocated to system design workstreams, such as which population to focus on, financial flow, information technology and governance. A larger and more diverse Lay Partners Forum provided feedback on the emerging plans. A key outcome of this approach was the development of an integration toolkit co-designed with lay partners. Lay partners provided challenge, encouraged innovation, improved communication, and held the actions of other partners to account to ensure the vision and aims of the emerging integrated care system were met. Key lessons from the North West London experience for effective co-production include: recruiting patients and carers with experience of strategic work; commitment to the vision; willingness to challenge and to listen; strong connections within the community being served; and enough time to do the work. Including lay partners in co-design from the start, and at every level, was important. Agreeing the principles of working together, providing support and continuously recruiting lay representatives to represent their communities are keys to effective co-production.

  2. Using crustal thickness and subsidence history on the Iberia-Newfoundland margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, Ludovic; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy

    2014-05-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history during continental breakup and seafloor spreading initiation leading to complex OCT architecture with hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust and continental slivers. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events for two profiles across the present-day conjugate Iberia-Newfoundland margins, using forward modelling of continental breakup and seafloor spreading initiation calibrated against observations of crustal basement thickness and subsidence. Flow fields, representing a sequence of lithosphere deformation modes, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the upper 15-20 km of the lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions deform the topmost upper lithosphere, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling, as predicted by Braun et al. (2000) is also kinematically included in the lithosphere deformation model. Melt generation by decompressional melting is predicted using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al. (2003). The distribution of lithosphere deformation, the

  3. Coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia during a stormy winter period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otero, Pablo; Ruiz-Villarreal, Manuel; García-García, Luz; González-Nuevo, Gonzalo; Cabanas, Jose Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The consequences of a stormy winter period (2009/2010) on the shelf and coastal dynamics off Northwest Iberia are analysed by using model results in combination with the set of available observations in the frame of the Iberian Margin Ocean Observatory (RAIA), a cross-border infrastructure among North Portugal and Galicia (Spain). During the study winter, the frequent arrival of weather fronts forced river plumes to flow along the inner shelf in a fast (>1 m s-1) jet-like structure. The buoyant current strongly influenced the outer rías, the name of the estuaries in the region, where a strong decay of surface salinity (15 °C) and salty (>35.9) waters into the rías associated with the Iberian Poleward Current. Finally, some Lagrangian modelling experiments were performed to analyse the transport ability of the plume and the effect that could have had in the biological material trapped on it. The experiments reveal that an overall northward displacement of surface particles will be expected after several alternate wind events.

  4. Climate deteriorations and Neanderthal demise in interior Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, D; Kolb, T; Alcaraz-Castaño, M; Heinrich, S; Baumgart, P; Calvo, R; Sánchez, J; Ryborz, K; Schäfer, I; Bliedtner, M; Zech, R; Zöller, L; Faust, D

    2018-05-04

    Time and circumstances for the disappearance of Neanderthals and its relationship with the advent of Modern Humans are not yet sufficiently resolved, especially in case of the Iberian Peninsula. Reconstructing palaeoenvironmental conditions during the last glacial period is crucial to clarifying whether climate deteriorations or competition and contacts with Modern Humans played the pivotal role in driving Neanderthals to extinction. A high-resolution loess record from the Upper Tagus Basin in central Spain demonstrates that the Neanderthal abandonment of inner Iberian territories 42 kyr ago coincided with the evolvement of hostile environmental conditions, while archaeological evidence testifies that this desertion took place regardless of modern humans' activities. According to stratigraphic findings and stable isotope analyses, this period corresponded to the driest environmental conditions of the last glacial apart from an even drier period linked to Heinrich Stadial 3. Our results show that during Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 4 and 2 climate deteriorations in interior Iberia temporally coincided with northern hemisphere cold periods (Heinrich stadials). Solely during the middle MIS 3, in a period surrounding 42 kyr ago, this relation seems not straightforward, which may demonstrate the complexity of terrestrial climate conditions during glacial periods.

  5. RESTORATION AND SUSTAINABLE VALORIZATION OF CULTURAL HERITAGE AND REGIONAL POLICY IN NORTH-WEST REGION OF ROMANIA. CASE STUDY OF REVITALIZATION OF THE ORADEA FORTRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Dodescu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents cultural heritage, cultural tourism potential of North-West Region of Romania face to face with restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage as a major domain of intervention of regional policy in Romania. Due to Romanian regionalization form, the Regional Operational Programme (ROP is currently the only programme of regional policy in Romania in 2007-2013. One of the major domains of intervention of ROP 2007-2013 in Romania was restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage. The first paper specific objective is to explore projects contracted until 31.12.2013 in the field of restoration and sustainable valorization of cultural heritage in North-West Region of Romania and their regional development relevance in the context of existing regional development strategies. The second paper specific objective is to present a model of restoration of cultural heritage in a sustainable way throughout the case study of Revitalization of the Oradea Fortress in order to introduce it in the tourism circuit - that could become an example for other cultural sites around the region and a succes story in the field of cultural tourism based of ROP 2007-2013 experience. Exploring rich cultural heritage of the North-West Region face to face with poor condition of cultural heritage sites and investments required in order to introduce them in touristic circuit, the paper concludes that all contracted projects are relevant for sustainable valorization of regional cultural heritage and cultural tourism potential in the context of existing regional development strategies, but they contributed only partially to regional specific needs. Also, the paper concludes that number of ROP 2007-2013 projects implemented in the field of cultural heritage is surprisingly small, area of interest of these projects is rather narrow and analyzes the most important causes for these gaps. Based on the case study presented, the paper

  6. Using crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history on the Iberia-Newfoundland & Alpine Tethys margins to constrain lithosphere deformation modes during continental breakup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniot, L.; Kusznir, N. J.; Manatschal, G.; Mohn, G.; Beltrando, M.

    2013-12-01

    Observations at magma-poor rifted margins such as Iberia-Newfoundland show a complex lithosphere deformation history and OCT architecture, resulting in hyper-extended continental crust and lithosphere, exhumed mantle and scattered embryonic oceanic crust before continental breakup and seafloor spreading. Initiation of seafloor spreading requires both the rupture of the continental crust and lithospheric mantle, and the onset of decompressional melting. Their relative timing controls when mantle exhumation may occur; the presence or absence of exhumed mantle provides useful information on the timing of these events and constraints on lithosphere deformation modes. A single kinematic lithosphere deformation mode leading to continental breakup and sea-floor spreading cannot explain observations. We have determined the sequence of lithosphere deformation events, using forward modelling of crustal thickness, subsidence and P-T-t history calibrated against observations on the present-day Iberia-Newfoundland and the fossil analogue Alpine Tethys margins. Lithosphere deformation modes, represented by flow fields, are generated by a 2D finite element viscous flow model (FeMargin), and used to advect lithosphere and asthenosphere temperature and material. FeMargin is kinematically driven by divergent deformation in the topmost upper lithosphere inducing passive upwelling beneath that layer; the upper lithosphere is assumed to deform by extensional faulting and magmatic intrusions, consistent with observations of deformation processes occurring at slow spreading ocean ridges (Cannat, 1996). Buoyancy enhanced upwelling is also included in the kinematic model as predicted by Braun et al (2000). We predict melt generation by decompressional melting using the parameterization and methodology of Katz et al., 2003. We use a series of numerical experiments, tested and calibrated against crustal thicknesses and subsidence observations, to determine the distribution of lithosphere

  7. Seasonal and sex-related variations in serum steroid hormone levels in wild and farmed brown trout Salmo trutta L. in the north-west of Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregeneda-Grandes, Juan M; Hernández-Navarro, Salvador; Fernandez-Coppel, Ignacio A; Correa-Guimaraes, Adriana; Ruíz-Potosme, Norlan; Navas-Gracia, Luis M; Aller-Gancedo, J Miguel; Martín-Gil, Francisco J; Martín-Gil, Jesús

    2013-12-01

    Serum steroid profiles were investigated in order to evaluate the potential use of circulating sex steroid levels as a tool for sex identification in brown trout. Changes in the serum concentrations of testosterone (T), progesterone (P), 17-β-estradiol (E2), and cortisol (F) in wild and farmed mature female and male brown trout, Salmo trutta L., were measured in each season (January, May, July, and October) in six rivers and four hatcheries located in the north-west of Spain. Serum cortisol levels in farmed brown trout were significantly higher and showed a seasonal pattern opposite to that found in wild trout. Because levels of the hormones under study can be affected by disruptive factors such as exposure to phytoestrogens (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis) and infection with Saprolegnia parasitica (which alters the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis), both factors are taken into account.

  8. Improving the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse in the North-West Control Area of the Mexican Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calderon-Guizar, J.G.; Inda-Ruiz, G.A.; Tovar, G.E. [Gerencia de Analisis de Redes, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico). Inst. de Investigaciones Eleectricas

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports the application of a static approach for assessing the steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the North-West Control Area (NWCA) of the Mexican Power System. The approach uses both optimal load flow (OLF) and conventional load flow (LF) solutions, and singular value decomposition of the load flow Jacobian matrix (J). Additionally, the approach allows to determine suitable locations for corrective actions such as, the addition of new equipment or load shedding. The results shows that the combination of OLF and LF resulted in a steady-state loading margin to voltage collapse of the NWCA 7.2% higher than the case when only conventional load flow solutions were considered. (author)

  9. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  10. Educational assessment in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province: Practices, Issues, and Challenges for Educating Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirini Gouleta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the case of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KP, Pakistan’s former North-West Frontier Province, and its provincial educational assessment policies and practices. These policies and practices affect millions of Culturally Linguistically Diverse and Exceptional (CLDE children who live in rural and remote areas, and areas afflicted by conflict and insurgency. The article raises questions about political interference, ethical conduct, and fairness in the administration and marking of the assessments. It discusses efforts for systematic administration and collection of learning assessment data, teacher professional development programs to improve assessment practices, policies which address the educational needs of the diverse students in the province, and challenges and barriers to province-wide sustainable education development. In conclusion, the author offers suggestions and recommendations for policy makers and education stakeholders towards capacity building and improvement of assessment practices for all learners while it attempts to shed light and dispel misconceptions about KP and its people.

  11. The development and piloting of a leadership questionnaire for general dental practitioners: preliminary results from the North West of England and Tokyo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, P; O'Malley, L; Hill, H; Ozaki, T; Nomura, M; Matsuda, R

    2014-11-01

    Key reforms in England and Japan have called for greater clinical leadership from general dental practitioners to deliver improvements in the quality of care for patients. In England, the reorganisation of the National Health Service has led to the development of Local Professional Networks to ensure services are clinically led, patient and outcome focused. In Japan, the rapidly changing demographics have led to calls for general dental practitioners to become more active in meeting the emerging population health challenges. Both require engagement at a strategic and a local level. However, little is known about what is meant by clinical leadership in dentistry or what training needs exist. The aim of this study was to develop and pilot a questionnaire to understand what general dental practitioners feel is important about clinical leadership and how they rate themselves. A 61-item questionnaire was developed from the literature, an earlier qualitative study and refined through cognitive interviews. Questionnaires were distributed to general dental practitioners across the North West of England and Tokyo, using random sequence generation. For each item, the participant had to record whether they thought the statement was an important component of clinical leadership and how they rated themselves. Both were rated using a seven-point Likert scale. Data reduction was undertaken using principal component analysis to examine for factor loadings within the questionnaire. Differences in mean scores were also used to highlight substantive differences in how general dental practitioners rated the different components of leadership and how they rated themselves. The response rate for the pilot was low (22.9% and 7.5% for North West and Tokyo respectively). The items that were considered to be important in leadership reduced to two components in the North West (accounting for 62.1% of the total variance): 'How to lead' and 'How not to lead'. In Tokyo, 56.4% of the total

  12. Co-Production at the Strategic Level: Co-Designing an Integrated Care System with Lay Partners in North West London, England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Morton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In North West London, health and social care leaders decided to design a system of integrated care with the aim of improving the quality of care and supporting people to maintain independence and participation in their community. Patients and carers, known as ‘lay partners,’ were to be equal partners in co-production of the system. Lay partners were recruited by sending a role profile to health, social care and voluntary organisations and requesting nominations. They formed a Lay Partners Advisory Group from which pairs were allocated to system design workstreams, such as which population to focus on, financial flow, information technology and governance. A larger and more diverse Lay Partners Forum provided feedback on the emerging plans. A key outcome of this approach was the development of an integration toolkit co-designed with lay partners. Lay partners provided challenge, encouraged innovation, improved communication, and held the actions of other partners to account to ensure the vision and aims of the emerging integrated care system were met. Key lessons from the North West London experience for effective co-production include: recruiting patients and carers with experience of strategic work; commitment to the vision; willingness to challenge and to listen; strong connections within the community being served; and enough time to do the work. Including lay partners in co-design from the start, and at every level, was important. Agreeing the principles of working together, providing support and continuously recruiting lay representatives to represent their communities are keys to effective co-production.

  13. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Penny A; Phillips-Howard, Penelope A; Morleo, Michela; Harkins, Corinne; Briant, Linford; Bellis, Mark A

    2011-08-23

    A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years) of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'). Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking); 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect); and 'price inelastic' (no change for either). Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect) the most common outcome (62%). Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30) or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41) were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57%) while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve public support for policy change. Such policy should also recognise that alcohol is an addictive drug, and the population may be prepared to pay more to drink the amount they now feel they need.

  14. High resolution multi-scalar drought indices for Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Ana; Gouveia, Célia; Trigo, Ricardo; Jerez, Sonia

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula has been recurrently affected by drought episodes and by adverse associated effects (Gouveia et al., 2009), ranging from severe water shortages to losses of hydroelectricity production, increasing risk of forest fires, forest decline and triggering processes of land degradation and desertification. Moreover, Iberia corresponds to one of the most sensitive areas to current and future climate change and is nowadays considered a hot spot of climate change with high probability for the increase of extreme events (Giorgi and Lionello, 2008). The spatial and temporal behavior of climatic droughts at different time scales was analyzed using spatially distributed time series of multi-scalar drought indicators, such as the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) (Vicente-Serrano et al., 2010). This new climatic drought index is based on the simultaneous use of precipitation and temperature fields with the advantage of combining a multi-scalar character with the capacity to include the effects of temperature variability on drought assessment. Moreover, reanalysis data and the higher resolution hindcasted databases obtained from them are valuable surrogates of the sparse observations and widely used for in-depth characterizations of the present-day climate. Accordingly, this work aims to enhance the knowledge on high resolution drought patterns in Iberian Peninsula, taking advantage of high-resolution (10km) regional MM5 simulations of the recent past (1959-2007) over Iberia. It should be stressed that these high resolution meteorological fields (e.g. temperature, precipitation) have been validated for various purposes (Jerez et al., 2013). A detailed characterization of droughts since the 1960s using the 10 km resolution hidncasted simulation was performed with the aim to explore the conditions favoring drought onset, duration and ending, as well as the subsequent short, medium and long-term impacts affecting the environment and the

  15. Crustal structure beneath Eastern Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reiche, Sönke; Thybo, H.; Kaip, G.

    2011-01-01

    is recorded by 350 Reftek Texan receivers for 10 equidistant shot points along the profile. We use forward ray tracing modelling to construct a two-dimensional velocity model from the observed travel times. These results show the first images of the subsurface velocity structure beneath the Greenland ice...

  16. Current issues in late Middle Palaeolithic chronology : New assessments from Northern Iberia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maroto, Julia; Vaquero, Manuel; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro; Baena, Javier; Baquedano, Enrique; Jorda, Jesus; Julia, Ramon; Montes, Ramon; Van Der Plicht, Johannes; Rasines, Pedro; Wood, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    The Iberian Peninsula plays a central role in the current debates on the Middle-Upper Palaeolithic transition and the Neanderthal extinction. This is largely due to the chronological data which some authors have suggested show a clear divide between Northern Iberia, where the Upper Palaeolithic

  17. Dating the last Neanderthals in Central Iberia - New evidence from Abrigo del Molino, Segovia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehl, Martin; Álvarez-Alonso, David; de Andrés-Herrero, María; Díez-Herrero, Andrés; Klasen, Nicole; Rojo-Hernández, Julio; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2017-04-01

    The timing of Neanderthal disappearance in the Iberian Peninsula is a hotly debated subject in Palaeolithic archaeology. Several studies suggested a late survival in South and Central Iberia until about 32,000 year ago (ka), but were probably subject to significant age underestimation due to contamination of dating samples and/or lack of stratigraphic integrity. More recently, Late Neanderthal presence was dated to no later than 38 ka. In Central Iberia, few archaeological sites contain Mousterian levels attesting occupation by Neanderthals. The newly discovered rock shelter of Abrigo del Molino contains chronologically well-constraint Mousterian levels, which, according to radiocarbon dating on bone, place the latest Neanderthal occupation to around 42-44 ka and within Greenland interstadial 11. Accumulation of these levels took place after deposition of fluvial and slope sediments, dated to around 46 ± 3.5 ka using luminescence techniques, and probably correlating with Greenland stadial 13 including Heinrich event 5. Micromorphological evidence of banded sediment fabrics suggests frost dynamics pointing to cold climate conditions during that time in Central Spain. Abrigo del Molino thus provides a detailed and chronologically well-constrained record on Late Neanderthal presence and morphodynamic change in Central Iberia during times of millennial-scale climate changes. The site gives further evidence for an early rather than late disappearance of Neanderthals in Iberia.

  18. Are subduction zones invading the atlantic? Evidence from the southwest iberia margin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duarte, João C.; Rosas, Filipe M.; Terrinha, Pedro; Schellart, Wouter P.; Boutelier, David; Gutscher, Marc André; Ribeiro, António

    Subduction initiation at passive margins plays a central role in the plate tectonics theory. However, the process by which a passive margin becomes active is not well understood. In this paper we use the southwest Iberia margin (SIM) in the Atlantic Ocean to study the process of passive margin

  19. NW Iberia Shelf Dynamics. Study of the Douro River Plume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Iglesias

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available River plumes are one of the most important mechanisms that transport the terrestrial materials to the coast and the ocean. Some examples of those materials are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing modifications on the bathymetry affecting the navigation channels. The mixing between the riverine and the oceanic waters can induce instabilities, which might generate bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the buoyant riverine water could form a front with the oceanic waters often related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor for the complete understanding of sediment transport mechanisms and patterns, and of coastal physics and dynamic processes. On this study the Douro River plume will be simulated. The Douro River is located on the north-west Iberian coast and its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s. This variability impacts the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. This study builds on the long-term objective of generate a Douro River plume forecasting system as part of the RAIA and RAIA.co projects. Satellite imagery was analyzed showing that the river Douro is one of the main sources of suspended particles, dissolved material and chlorophyll in the NW Iberian Shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS model was selected to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion. Whit this model, three types of simulations were performed: (i schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; (ii multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; (iii extreme case simulation, based on the Entre-os-Rios accident situation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the

  20. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Methods Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. Results The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. Conclusions In comparison to previous data in 1985–87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is

  1. Prevalence of subclinical mastitis and associated risk factors at cow and herd level in dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonnen, S A; Koop, G; Melkie, S T; Getahun, C D; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M

    2017-09-15

    Knowledge of mastitis pathogens and their predominance as well as understanding of risk factors are prerequisites to improve udder health in a herd, region or country. In Ethiopia, such information is scarce, despite the fact that mastitis is an important cattle disease in the country. A cross-sectional study that describes prevalence and causative agents of subclinical mastitis (SCM) as well as risk factors at cow and herd level was conducted on 167 dairy farms in North-West Ethiopia. On average, 33% of the quarters and 62% of the cows were California Mastitis Test (CMT) positive, but the within herd quarter level prevalence ranged between 0 and 100%. A total of 1543 milk samples, being 27 quarters that showed signs of CM, 606 CMT positive quarters and 910 CMT negative quarters were cultured, respectively 40%, 67% and 47% was positive on bacteriological culture. Coagulase negative staphylococci (CNS) (31%) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (9%) were the pathogens most frequently isolated. Based on face-to-face questionnaire data, 35 herd level and 13 cow level factors were evaluated for their association with SCM (based on CMT) and with a positive culture for any bacteria, CNS or S. aureus. Cows with a history of CM, of higher parity, >150days in milk (DIM) and herds with owners that have >10th grade level of education had higher odds of SCM. The odds of being culture positive for any bacteria was higher in cows with ≥25% Holstein Friesian blood level (HBL), >150 DIM, housed on cemented floors, and milked by squeezing rather than stripping. Similarly, the odds of culturing CNS was higher in cows with 25-50% HBL, >150 DIM, and milked by squeezing. Staphylococcus aureus was more often found in cows with a history of CM and in larger herds. Checking the udder for mastitis, feeding cows according to their requirements and allowing calves to suckle the cows were negatively associated with SCM, with culturing any bacteria and with culturing CNS, respectively. Higher

  2. The Big Drink Debate: perceptions of the impact of price on alcohol consumption from a large scale cross-sectional convenience survey in north west England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briant Linford

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large-scale survey was conducted in 2008 in north west England, a region with high levels of alcohol-related harm, during a regional 'Big Drink Debate' campaign. The aim of this paper is to explore perceptions of how alcohol consumption would change if alcohol prices were to increase or decrease. Methods A convenience survey of residents (≥ 18 years of north west England measured demographics, income, alcohol consumption in previous week, and opinions on drinking behaviour under two pricing conditions: low prices and discounts and increased alcohol prices (either 'decrease', 'no change' or 'increase'. Multinomial logistic regression used three outcomes: 'completely elastic' (consider that lower prices increase drinking and higher prices decrease drinking; 'lower price elastic' (lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect; and 'price inelastic' (no change for either. Results Of 22,780 drinkers surveyed, 80.3% considered lower alcohol prices and discounts would increase alcohol consumption, while 22.1% thought raising prices would decrease consumption, making lower price elasticity only (i.e. lower prices increase drinking, higher prices have no effect the most common outcome (62%. Compared to a high income/high drinking category, the lightest drinkers with a low income (adjusted odds ratio AOR = 1.78, 95% confidence intervals CI 1.38-2.30 or medium income (AOR = 1.88, CI 1.47-2.41 were most likely to be lower price elastic. Females were more likely than males to be lower price elastic (65% vs 57% while the reverse was true for complete elasticity (20% vs 26%, P Conclusions Lower pricing increases alcohol consumption, and the alcohol industry's continued focus on discounting sales encourages higher drinking levels. International evidence suggests increasing the price of alcohol reduces consumption, and one in five of the surveyed population agreed; more work is required to increase this agreement to achieve

  3. Mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in the regions of Littoral, North-West, South and South-West Cameroon and recommendations for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Dongmo Noumedem, Calvine; Ngassam, Pierre; Kenfack, Christian Mérimé; Gipwe, Nestor Feussom; Dankoni, Esther; Tarini, Ann; Zhang, Yaobi

    2013-12-23

    The previous nationwide mapping of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) in Cameroon was conducted 25 years ago. Based on its results, mass drug administration (MDA) of praziquantel was limited to the three northern regions and few health districts in the southern part of Cameroon. In 2010, we started the process of updating the disease distribution in order to improve the control strategies. Three of the ten regions of Cameroon were mapped in 2010 and the data were published. In 2011, surveys were conducted in four additional regions, i.e. Littoral, North-West, South and South-West. Parasitological surveys were conducted in March 2011 in selected schools in all 65 health districts of the four targeted regions, using appropriate research methodologies, i.e. Kato-Katz and urine filtration. The results showed significant variation of schistosomiasis and STH prevalence between schools, villages, districts and regions. Schistosoma haematobium was the most prevalent schistosome species, with an overall prevalence of 3.2%, followed by S. mansoni (3%) and S. guineensis (1.2%). The overall prevalence of schistosomiasis across the four regions was 7.4% (95% CI: 6.7-8.3%). The prevalence for Ascaris lumbricoides was 19.5% (95% CI: 18.3-20.7%), Trichuris trichiura 18.9% (95% CI: 17.7-20.1%) and hookworms 7.6% (95% CI: 6.8-8.4%), with an overall STH prevalence of 32.5% (95% CI: 31.1-34.0%) across the four regions. STH was more prevalent in the South region (52.8%; 95% CI: 48.0-57.3%), followed by the South-West (46.2%; 95% CI: 43.2-49.3%), the North-West (35.9%; 95% CI: 33.1-38.7%) and the Littoral (13.0%; 95% CI: 11.3-14.9%) regions. In comparison to previous data in 1985-87, the results showed an increase of schistosomiasis transmission in several health districts, whereas there was a significant decline of STH infections. Based on the prevalence data, the continuation of annual or bi-annual MDA for STH is recommended, as well as an extension of

  4. Monitoring diffuse degassing in monogenetic volcanic field during seismic-volcanic unrest: the case of Tenerife North-West Rift Zone (NWRZ), Canary Islands, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, E.; Botelho, A. H.; Regnier, G. S. G.; Rodríguez, F.; Alonso Cótchico, M.; Melián, G.; Asensio-Ramos, M.; Padrón, E.; Hernández, P. A.; Pérez, N. M.

    2017-12-01

    Tenerife North-West Rift-Zone (NWRZ) is the most active volcano of the oceanic active volcanic island of Tenerife and the scenario of three historical eruptions (Boca Cangrejo S. XVI, Arenas Negras 1706 and Chinyero 1909). Since no visible degassing (fumaroles, etc.) at Tenerife NWRZ occurs, a geochemical monitoring program at Tenerife NWRZ was established mainly consisting on performing soil CO2 efflux surveys (50 surveys since 2000) to evaluate the temporal and spatial variations of soil CO2 efflux measurements and the diffuse CO2 emission rate. To do so, about 340 sampling sites were selected for each survey to obtain a homogeneous distribution after taking into consideration the local geology, structure, and accessibility. Measurements of soil CO2 efflux were performed in situ by means of a portable non-dispersive infrared sensor following the accumulation chamber method. The soil CO2 efflux values of the 2017 survey ranged from non-detectable to 46.6 g m-2 d-1. Statistical-graphical analysis of the 2017 data show two different geochemical populations; background (B) and peak (P) represented by 93.3% and 1.9% of the total data, respectively. The geometric means of the B and P populations are 2.4 and 19.1 g m-2 d-1, respectively. Most of the area showed B values while the P values were mainly observed at the N-W side of the volcanic rift. To estimate the diffuse CO2 emission in metric tons per day released from Tenerife NWRZ (75 km2) for the 2017 survey, we ran about 100 sGs simulations. The estimated 2017 diffuse CO2 output released to atmosphere by the Tenerife NWRZ volcano was 297 ± 13 t d-1. This 2017 diffuse CO2 emission rate value is relatively higher than the estimated background value (144 t d-1) and falls within the estimated background range (72 - 321 t d-1) observed for Tenerife NWRZ volcano during the 2000-2017 period. The observed temporal variation in the diffuse CO2 degassing output during this period does not seem to be driven by external

  5. Phase I Marine and Terrestrial Cultural Resources Survey of 13 Project Items Located on Marsh Island, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barr, William

    1999-01-01

    This report presents the results of Phase I cultural resources survey and archeological inventory of two marine and 11 terrestrial project items on and near Marsh Island in Iberia Parish, Louisiana...

  6. A context for the last Neandertals of interior Iberia: Los Casares cave revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Castaño, Manuel; Alcolea-González, Javier; Kehl, Martin; Albert, Rosa-María; Baena-Preysler, Javier; de Balbín-Behrmann, Rodrigo; Cuartero, Felipe; Cuenca-Bescós, Gloria; Jiménez-Barredo, Fernando; López-Sáez, José-Antonio; Piqué, Raquel; Rodríguez-Antón, David; Yravedra, José; Weniger, Gerd-Christian

    2017-01-01

    Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula. In this study we provide new evidence from Los Casares, a cave located in the highlands of the Spanish Meseta, where a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic site was discovered and first excavated in the 1960's. Our main objective is twofold: (1) provide an updated geoarcheological, paleoenvironmental and chronological framework for this site, and (2) discuss obtained results in the context of the time and nature of the last Neandertal presence in Iberia. We conducted new fieldwork in an interior chamber of Los Casares cave named 'Seno A'. Our methods included micromorphology, sedimentology, radiocarbon dating, Uranium/Thorium dating, palinology, microfaunal analysis, anthracology, phytolith analysis, archeozoology and lithic technology. Here we present results on site formation processes, paleoenvironment and the chronological setting of the Neandertal occupation at Los Casares cave-Seno A. The sediment sequence reveals a mostly in situ archeological deposit containing evidence of both Neandertal activity and carnivore action in level c, dated to 44,899-42,175 calendar years ago. This occupation occurred during a warm and humid interval of Marine Isotopic Stage 3, probably correlating with Greenland Interstadial 11, representing one of the latest occurrences of Neandertals in the Iberian interior. However, overlying layer b records a deterioration of local environments, thus providing a plausible explanation for the abandonment of the site, and perhaps for the total disappearance of

  7. A context for the last Neandertals of interior Iberia: Los Casares cave revisited.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Alcaraz-Castaño

    Full Text Available Although the Iberian Peninsula is a key area for understanding the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition and the demise of the Neandertals, valuable evidence for these debates remains scarce and problematic in its interior regions. Sparse data supporting a late Neandertal persistence in the Iberian interior have been recently refuted and hence new evidence is needed to build new models on the timing and causes of Neandertal disappearance in inland Iberia and the whole peninsula. In this study we provide new evidence from Los Casares, a cave located in the highlands of the Spanish Meseta, where a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic site was discovered and first excavated in the 1960's. Our main objective is twofold: (1 provide an updated geoarcheological, paleoenvironmental and chronological framework for this site, and (2 discuss obtained results in the context of the time and nature of the last Neandertal presence in Iberia.We conducted new fieldwork in an interior chamber of Los Casares cave named 'Seno A'. Our methods included micromorphology, sedimentology, radiocarbon dating, Uranium/Thorium dating, palinology, microfaunal analysis, anthracology, phytolith analysis, archeozoology and lithic technology. Here we present results on site formation processes, paleoenvironment and the chronological setting of the Neandertal occupation at Los Casares cave-Seno A.The sediment sequence reveals a mostly in situ archeological deposit containing evidence of both Neandertal activity and carnivore action in level c, dated to 44,899-42,175 calendar years ago. This occupation occurred during a warm and humid interval of Marine Isotopic Stage 3, probably correlating with Greenland Interstadial 11, representing one of the latest occurrences of Neandertals in the Iberian interior. However, overlying layer b records a deterioration of local environments, thus providing a plausible explanation for the abandonment of the site, and perhaps for the total

  8. Ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics among the tribal communities of North-West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood; Khan, M A; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad; Jahan, Sarwat; Sultana, Shahzia

    2010-03-24

    The present investigation is an attempt to find out ethnopharmacological application of medicinal plants to cure skin diseases and in folk cosmetics. We interviewed respondents in 30 remote sites of North-West Frontier Province by a structured interview form in the local language and respondents were queried for the type of herbal cure known to him. A total of 66 plant species belonging to 45 families have been recorded. Seventy-five medications for 15 skin diseases and cosmetics were documented. The mode of application was topical as well as oral administration. Water, milk, ghee, oil, eggs, sulphur and butter are used during administration of herbal remedies. About 15 plant species are known for their use to cure multiple skin diseases. Among these Berberis lyceum, Bergenia ciliata, Melia azedarach, Otostegia limbata, Phyla nodiflora, Prunus persica and Zingiber officinale constitutes major plants. The herbal cosmetics products range from face freshness, removal of ugly spots, hair care, and colouring of palm, feet, gums, and teeth. Most of the reported species are wild and rare; this demands an urgent attention to conserve such vital resources so as to optimize their use in the primary health care system. Since most of the skin diseases are caused by bacteria, viruses and fungi in this context, phytochemical screening for active constituents, biological activities and clinical studies is of global importance. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessing the functional disability of rural elderly population from North-West India using activity of daily living scale: A cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Singh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aging is associated with both physical impairment and functional disability. One of the areas of concerns is a derangement in the activities of daily living (ADL where the elderly people are unable to perform their basic personal care tasks. The present study was planned with the aim to evaluate functional impairment among rural elderly using ADL scale. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted as a cross-sectional population-based survey using multistage randomized sampling technique from August 2015 to October 2015 in Miran Sahib Health Zone of R S Pura health block in Jammu District in North-West India. The study involved 418 elderly individuals above 60 years of age. Results: A higher proportion of elderly (378/418; 90.43% were classified as functionally independent. Among the study participants 9.54% (40/418 were found to have some had some impairment. Among the elderly impaired individuals, 5.26% (22/418 were moderately impaired while 2.64% (11/418 were severely impaired. However, importantly only a small proportion (7/418; 1.67% of elderly individuals was completely dependent on others. Conclusion: The total impairment prevalence reported among the geriatrics in the current study was 9.5%. With the increase in the geriatric population expected in near future, this number will be significant. Policies with a clear focus on geriatric health-care need to be developed to reduce the dependency among elderly.

  10. Cost of initial management of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes: A register-based study from North-West India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhanu Awasthi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is a paucity of information on the actual costs incurred by the family as a result of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crash from our part of India. This study was conducted with the objective to ascertain the costs of initial management of musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes. Materials and Methods: This prospective study was conducted as a register-based descriptive study in a tertiary care teaching hospital in a rural area (with a predominantly mountainous terrain of North-West India. All patients with nonfatal musculoskeletal injuries due to road traffic crashes, presenting between 2014 and 2015 and agreeing to participate in the study were included in the study. Results: Of 313 cases, 116 were managed conservatively, whereas in 189 cases, operative intervention was required. In 8 cases, both the modalities of management were required. The average cost of management was Rs. 20,386 in operative group. The average cost in the conservative group was Rs. 3726. Average cost calculated for patients in whom both modality of treatment was required was Rs. 24,000. It was observed that the indirect cost of management was proportionately higher in conservative group. Conclusions: The initial cost of management for patients managed conservatively is less than those managed by operative intervention. Importantly, however, the indirect cost of management is a major contributor to the total cost of management.

  11. A New Insight into Shale-Gas Accumulation Conditions and Favorable Areas of the Xinkailing Formation in the Wuning Area, North-West Jiangxi, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangru Li

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In north-west Jiangxi, China, most shale-gas exploration has been focused on the Lower Cambrian Hetang and Guanyintang formations, whereas the Upper Ordovician Xinkailing formation shale has been ignored for years due to heavy weathering. This study systematically analyzed gas source conditions, reservoir conditions and gas-bearing ability in order to reveal the shale-gas accumulation conditions of the Xinkailing formation. The results show that the Xinkailing formation is characterized by thick deposition of black shale (10–80 m, high organic content (with total organic carbon between 1.18% and 3.11%, on average greater than 2%, relatively moderate thermal evolution (with vitrinite reflectance between 2.83% and 3.21%, high brittle-mineral content (greater than 40%, abundant nanopores and micro-fractures, very good adsorption ability (adsorption content between 2.12 m3/t and 3.47 m3/t, on average about 2.50 m3/t, and strong sealing ability in the underlying and overlying layers, all of which favor the generation and accumulation of shale gas. The Wuning-Lixi and Jinkou-Zhelin areas of the Xinkailing formation were selected as the most realistic and favorable targets for shale-gas exploration and exploitation. In conclusion, the Wuning area has great potential and can provide a breakthrough in shale gas with further investigation.

  12. Values and the need for a character education programme within the college context in the North-West Province: exploration and preliminary proposals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.E. Freeks

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Values and character education possess the inherent building blocks for the preservation of a healthy society. Values and character education have the potential to address moral issues in society and especially in educational institutions, such as schools, colleges and universities. One of the primary aims of values and character education is to allow students to experience life to the fullest. Values and character education could probably ensure a better life and future for South Africa‟s youth.From the available literature, it is evident that society is experiencing a crisis regarding values, character and morality. The decline of human and societal values portrayed in the media has compelled the current government to initiate values education programmes in colleges and other institutions such as universities.In order to determine the values orientation among students of Further Education and Training Colleges (FET in the North-West Province, an empirical study was done to ascertain students‟ opinions and the contributions of values education and character education. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the student council, the head of support services, as well as an official of student support services.

  13. Detecting and staging podoconiosis cases in North West Cameroon: positive predictive value of clinical screening of patients by community health workers and researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Wanji

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The suitability of using clinical assessment to identify patients with podoconiosis in endemic communities has previously been demonstrated. In this study, we explored the feasibility and accuracy of using Community Health Implementers (CHIs for the large scale clinical screening of the population for podoconiosis in North-west Cameroon. Methods Before a regional podoconiosis mapping, 193 CHIs and 50 health personnel selected from 6 health districts were trained in the clinical diagnosis of the disease. After training, CHIs undertook community screening for podoconiosis patients under health personnel supervision. Identified cases were later re-examined by a research team with experience in the clinical identification of podoconiosis. Results Cases were identified by CHIs with an overall positive predictive value (PPV of 48.5% [34.1–70%]. They were more accurate in detecting advanced stages of the disease compared to early stages; OR 2.07, 95% CI = 1.15–3.73, p = 0.015 for all advanced stages. Accuracy of detecting cases showed statistically significant differences among health districts (χ2 = 25.30, p = 0.0001. Conclusion Podoconiosis being a stigmatized disease, the use of CHIs who are familiar to the community appears appropriate for identifying cases through clinical diagnosis. However, to improve their effectiveness and accuracy, more training, supervision and support are required. More emphasis must be given in identifying early clinical stages and in health districts with relatively lower PPVs.

  14. Prevalence of HIV/AIDS and prediction of future trends in north-west region of India: A six-year ICTC-based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyas Nitya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study was conducted to analyze previous six-year prevalence data of HIV infection in the Northwest region of India and predict future trends for a couple of years. Objectives: The study was conducted to aid SACS and NACO to plan and arrange resources for the future scenario. Materials and Methods: All the attendees of ICTC, Jaipur, from January 2002 to December 2007 were included and variables like age, sex, marital status, occupation, place of residence, pattern of risk behavior and HIV serostatus were studied. As per the strategy and policy prescribed by NACO, tests (E/R/S were performed on the serum samples. Data was collected; compiled and analyzed using standard statistical methods. Future trends of HIV-prevalence in north-west India were anticipated. Results: The overall positivity rates among attendees of ICTC, were found to be 12.2% (386/3161, 11.8% (519/4381, 11.1% (649/5867, 13% (908/6983, 14% (1385/9911 and 17.34% (1756/10133 in the years 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 and 2007 respectively. Future trends for the next couple of years depict further increase in prevalence without any plateau. Conclusion: Epidemiological studies should be carried out in various settings to understand the role and complex relations of innumerable behavioral, social and demographic factors, which will help, interrupt and control the transmission of HIV/ AIDS.

  15. A cultural-spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health--the case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drangert, Jan-Olof; Nawab, Bahadar

    2011-01-01

    The sanitation issue is entering the development discussion and the UN proclaimed 2008 the year of sanitation. The study aims to understand the cultural-spatial dimension among Muslim communities of excreting and recirculating human excreta in North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. Information on local perceptions and cultural understanding was collected through interviews, group discussions and observations in four selected villages. The study identifies a diversity of excreting practices among age groups and sexes, and varied adherence to expressed cultural norms. Interviewees express less resentment towards urine compared to faeces, however, their negative attitude subsides when faecal matter is mixed with water since this changes appearance, odour-and cultural meaning. Religious dictums about excreta and sewage accommodate contradicting routine behaviours to cater for needs of residents and farmers. For example, when mothers pray wearing soiled clothing, and in the use of wastewater as fertiliser for food production. The excreta-related practices are compatible with good hygienic behaviour as outlined by WHO Guidelines, except for children who are allowed to defecate anywhere. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison S Banks

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients' care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care.In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia.Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue.A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and "signpost" patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care.

  17. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Harrison S.; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-01-01

    Background Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients’ care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Results Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. Conclusion A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and “signpost” patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care. PMID:27536772

  18. The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen Eini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization between these clusters, which are rather different but complementary in terms of skills. The research material for this desk study was collected from various sources, including journal articles, media, research reports, and other publications. The results of the study indicate that the increasing cooperation within the triangle of these clusters has a significant potential in terms of combining different areas of expertise and creating a multidimensional maritime industry hub in the region. However, differences in the cluster structure and development stages lead to certain difficulties in achieving these objectives. In conclusion, the authors identify the factors both facilitating and inhibiting networking between the three clusters. This study provides a platform for further research focusing on the factors identified and gives ideas for public discussion on increased inter-cluster cooperation.

  19. SOIL 222Rn CONCENTRATION, CO2 AND CH4 FLUX MEASUREMENTS AROUND THE JWALAMUKHI AREA OF NORTH-WEST HIMALAYAS, INDIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arvind; Walia, Vivek; Yang, Tsanyao Frank; Fu, Ching-Chou; Singh, Surinder; Bajwa, Bikramjit Singh; Arora, Vishal

    2016-10-01

    Soil 222 Rn concentration, CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements were conducted around the Jwalamukhi area of North-West Himalayas, India. During this study, around 37 soil gas points and flux measurements were taken with the aim to assure the suitability of this method in the study of fault zones. For this purpose, RAD 7 (Durridge, USA) was used to monitor radon concentrations, whereas portable diffuse flux meter (West Systems, Italy) was used for the CO 2 and CH 4 flux measurements. The recorded radon concentration varies from 6.1 to 34.5 kBq m -3 with an average value of 16.5 kBq m -3 The anomalous value of radon concentrations was recorded between Jwalamukhi thrust and Barsar thrust. The recorded average of CO 2 and CH 4 flux were 11.8 and 2.7 g m -2 day -1 , respectively. The good correlation between anomalous CO 2 flux and radon concentrations has been observed along the fault zone in the study area, suggesting that radon migration is dependent on CO 2 . © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Using Qualitative Methods to Explore Lay Explanatory Models, Health-Seeking Behaviours and Self-Care Practices of Podoconiosis Patients in North-West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Harrison S; Tsegay, Girmay; Wubie, Moges; Tamiru, Abreham; Davey, Gail; Cooper, Max

    2016-08-01

    Podoconiosis (endemic non-filarial elephantiasis) is a chronic, non-infectious disease resulting from exposure of bare feet to red-clay soil in tropical highlands. This study examined lay beliefs about three under-researched aspects of podoconiosis patients' care: explanatory models, health-seeking behaviours and self-care. In-depth interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken with 34 participants (19 male, 15 female) between April-May 2015 at podoconiosis treatment centres across East and West Gojjam regions in north-west Ethiopia. Explanatory models for podoconiosis included contamination from blood, magic, soil or affected individuals. Belief in heredity or divine punishment often delayed clinic attendance. All participants had tried holy water treatment and some, holy soil. Herbal treatments were considered ineffectual, costly and appeared to promote fluid escape. Motivators for clinic attendance were failure of traditional treatments and severe or disabling symptoms. Patients did not report self-treatment with antibiotics. Self-care was hindered by water being unavailable or expensive and patient fatigue. A pluralistic approach to podoconiosis self-treatment was discovered. Holy water is widely valued, though some patients prefer holy soil. Priests and traditional healers could help promote self-care and "signpost" patients to clinics. Change in behaviour and improving water access is key to self-care.

  1. Compliance with the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women in Mafikeng local municipality, North West province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbhenyane, Xikombiso; Cherane, Matodzi

    2017-09-01

    Anaemia due to iron deficiency is recognized as one of the major nutritional deficiencies in women and children in developing countries. Daily iron supplementation for pregnant women is recommended in many countries. The aim of the study was to investigate the factors that contribute to compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant woman in Mafikeng local municipality, North West Province, South Africa. A mixed method of descriptive, exploratory and cross-sectional design was used. Ten clinics were used as a sample frame where 57 pregnant women and 10 health workers were purposefully and conveniently selected. Quantitative techniques were used to collect data on attendance, consumption and nutrition knowledge using the self-reported questionnaire by pregnant women, and structured interview for health workers. Qualitative design was used to conduct in - depth focus-group discussions to gather information on compliance to the consumption of supplements by pregnant women. The findings of the study revealed good antenatal clinic attendance, availability of supplements and 93% compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements. High compliance to the consumption of iron and folate supplements by pregnant women was reported, and this should be reinforced.

  2. Towards more effective academic liaison between academics, students and practitioners in the field of public administration and management in the North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Nealer

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available In the light of the changing tertiary education arena in South Africa, the Department of Public Management and Governance in the School for Social and Government Studies of the Arts Faculty, North-West University (NWU had to revisit its policy on macro organisational aspects. Issues such as more effective communication mediums, the merging and alignment of the University’s three campuses, the nature of the ever-increasing competition in the tertiary residential and distance teaching environment, the range, variety and quality of its products and the facilitation and rendering of an improved tertiary teaching service were identified. In this article the typical nature of the intra, inter and extra academic liaison regarding the Department at NWU are highlighted and some recommendations on more effective communication and work procedures as a result of academic liaison are presented. Examples being that academics and practitioners need to meet more frequently, upgrade effective communication media among them and undertake joint research in a more cooperative manner.

  3. Using information to deliver safer care: a mixed-methods study exploring general practitioners’ information needs in North West London primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaos Mastellos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background The National Health Service in England has given increasing priority to improving inter-professional communication, enabling better management of patients with chronic conditions and reducing medical errors through effective use of information. Despite considerable efforts to reduce patient harm through better information usage, medical errors continue to occur, posing a serious threat to patient safety.Objectives This study explores the range, quality and sophistication of existing information systems in primary care with the aim to capture what information practitioners need to provide a safe service and identify barriers to its effective use in care pathways.Method Data were collected through semi-structured interviews with general practitioners from surgeries in North West London and a survey evaluating their experience with information systems in care pathways.Results Important information is still missing, specifically discharge summaries detailing medication changes and changes in the diagnosis and management of patients, blood results ordered by hospital specialists and findings from clinical investigations. Participants identified numerous barriers, including the communication gap between primary and secondary care, the variable quality and consistency of clinical correspondence and the inadequate technological integration.Conclusion Despite attempts to improve integration and information flow in care pathways, existing systems provide practitioners with only partial access to information, hindering their ability to take informed decisions. This study offers a framework for understanding what tools should be in place to enable effective use of information in primary care. 

  4. Securing of the spent nuclear fuel stored on Gremikha site - the former Soviet submarine base in north-west of Russia - 59371

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorbatchev, Alexandre; Pillette-Cousin, Lucien; Stepennov, Boris; Eremenko, Valery; Zakharchev, Anatoly

    2012-01-01

    Document available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: In the framework of the G8 Global Partnership the French Commission on Atomic Energy (CEA) is in charge of the French funded projects aimed to secure the materials susceptible to be a subject of the proliferation or a malicious use. The securing of the Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) from the former soviet submarines is of a special importance for CEA and the Russian Rosatom. Our main bilateral project has focused on two kinds of the SNF (alpha cores and VVR assemblies) stored at Gremikha, the former submarine base in the North-West of Russia. As of 2011 a significant results have been achieved: 2/3 of VVR type assemblies have been removed from Gremikha and reprocessed at PO Mayak. Nine alpha cores are unloaded and stored on at Gremikha. The main task now is to prepare the removal from Gremikha of all the remaining SNF and also to set up the needed infrastructure at the sites where this SNF will be moved. Substantial funding and technical assistance both from France and Russia will be required for that. Beyond the operator of the Gremikha site (SevRAO), the CEA and Rosatom involve many expert organizations from both countries such as AREVA, Kurchatov Institute and many others. Their contribution is one of the key elements of the success. (authors)

  5. The potential for expanding inter-cluster cooperation between the ship-building industries of Estonia, Finland, and North-West Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laaksonen Eini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shipbuilding industry clusters in the Eastern Baltic Sea region, i. e. Estonia, Finland and North-West Russia, may benefit significantly from increased mutual cooperation; however, the international networks between the clusters are still poorly developed. The aim of this article is to analyse the preconditions for cluster internationalization between these clusters, which are rather different but complementary in terms of skills. The research material for this desk study was collected from various sources, including journal articles, media, research reports, and other publications. The results of the study indicate that the increasing cooperation within the triangle of these clusters has a significant potential in terms of combining different areas of expertise and creating a multidimensional maritime industry hub in the region. However, differences in the cluster structure and development stages lead to certain difficulties in achieving these objectives. In conclusion, the authors identify the factors both facilitating and inhibiting networking between the three clusters. This study provides a platform for further research focusing on the factors identified and gives ideas for public discussion on increased inter-cluster cooperation.

  6. Antibacterial activity and GC/MS analysis of the essential oils from flower, leaf and stem of Origanum vulgare ssp. viride growing wild in north-west Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaghat, Ali

    2011-09-01

    Essential oils obtained from flowers, leaves and stems of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viride (Boiss.) Hayek., growing wild in Ardabil Province (north-west Iran), were analyzed by GC and GC/MS. beta-Caryophyllene was the major constituent in all three oils (48.1%, 50.1% and 60.2%, respectively). Of the 19 components detected in the flower oil, comprising 96.3% of the total, the major components were 1,8-cineole (11.6%), alpha-pinene (6.9%), and gamma-cadinene (4.8%). 1-Octen-3-ol (23.8%), and 1,8-cineole (8.5%) predominated in the leafoil. In the stem oil, other main constituents were bicyclogermacrene (9.8%), 1,8-cineole (6.4%), borneol (5.1%), and pinocarvone (4.4%). The essential oils were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against 10 selected microorganisms. The data obtained contribute to the future use of certain essential oils as natural preservatives for food products, due to their safety and positive effect on shelf life.

  7. Health behaviour change of people living with HIV after a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention in North-West Province in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidrawi, H Christa; Greeff, Minrie; Temane, Q Michael

    2014-01-01

    Abstract All over the world, health behaviour is considered a complex, far reaching and powerful phenomenon. People's lives are influenced by their own or others' health behaviour on a daily basis. Whether it has to do with smoking, drinking, pollution, global warming or HIV management, it touches lives and it challenges personal and community responses. Health behaviour, and health behaviour change, probably holds the key to many a person's immediate or prolonged life or death outcomes. The same can be said about communities, culture groups and nations. This SANPAD-funded study focused on research questions relating to health behaviour change for people living with HIV (PLWH) in the North-West Province in South Africa. It investigated whether a comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention caused health behaviour change in PLWH. An quantitative single system research design with one pre- and four repetitive post-tests utilizing purposive sampling was used to test change-over-time in the health behaviour of 18 PLWH. The results of the study indicated statistical and/or practical significant change-over-time. The intervention not only addressed the health behaviour of PLWH, but also their HIV stigma experiences, HIV signs and symptoms and their quality of life in the context of being HIV positive. The recommendations include popularization of the comprehensive community-based HIV stigma reduction intervention and extending it to include a second intervention to strengthen health behaviour and quality of life for PLWH in the community at large.

  8. Characterization of fluid inclusions and sulfur isotopes in the Iju porphyry copper deposit, North West of Shahr-e-Babak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malihe Golestani

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Iju porphyry copper deposit is located in the southern part of the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (Dehaj-Sarduieh belt within the Kerman copper belt (Dimitrijevic, 1973. The Porphyry Copper mineralization in the Iranian plate occurs dominantly along the Urumieh-Dokhtar arc, which has resulted from the subduction of the Arabian plate beneath the central Iran and the closure of the Neo-Tethys Ocean during the Alpine orogeny (Hassanzadeh, 1993. The Iju porphyry copper deposit with 25 million tons of ore reserves is one of the main copper deposits within the Kerman copper belt. The mining area is composed of upper Miocene volcanic and subvolcanic rocks (mineralized and barren subvolcanic rocks and quaternary deposits. Two hydrothermal alteration zones of quartz-sericite-pyrite and propylitic zones can be identified in the Iju area. The copper mineralization in the Iju deposit occurs as disseminated, stockwork and hydrothermal breccia. In the hypogene zone, the mineral paragenesis include chalcopyrite, pyrite, with minor occurrences of bornite and magnetite. This paper reports geological, mineralogical, fluid inclusion and S isotope data from the Iju deposit in order to investigate ore-bearing fluids’ characteristics and the mechanisms of ore deposition. Materials and methods Fifteen samples of syngenetic quartz+pyrite bearing veinlets within the quartz-sericite-pyrite zone were selected from different depths across the seven boreholes. Quartz was used for double-polished thin sections and pyrite was used for sulfur isotope analysis. Fluid inclusion studies were performed using the Linkam cooling and heating stage, the THMSG 600 model. The syngenetic pyrite with thermometry quartz sample was used for the sulfur isotope experiments. Stable isotope analysis was performed at the Hatch Stable Isotope Laboratory in the University of Ottawa, Canada. Results The fluid inclusions of the Iju deposit represent a wide range in the

  9. The Role of Competencies in Shaping the Leadership Style of Female Entrepreneurs: An investigation of micro and small businesses in the North West of England, Yorkshire and North Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Bamiatzi, V; Jones, SA; Mitchelmore, S; Nikolopoulos, K

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates linkages between personal competencies and leadership style among female small and micro business owners. Although prior research suggests that leadership style is shaped according to a leader's traits and abilities, few empirical studies corroborate this, particularly among female owners. Using survey data from the North West of England, Yorkshire, and North Wales, we reveal that transformational leadership style is the most dominant style adopted, and it is linked to...

  10. Studying policy implementation using a macro, meso and micro frame analysis: the case of the Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research & Care (CLAHRC) programme nationally and in North West London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Sarah E M; Mays, Nicholas

    2012-10-15

    The publication of Best research for best health in 2006 and the "ring-fencing" of health research funding in England marked the start of a period of change for health research governance and the structure of research funding in England. One response to bridging the 'second translational gap' between research knowledge and clinical practice was the establishment of nine Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRCs). The goal of this paper is to assess how national-level understanding of the aims and objectives of the CLAHRCs translated into local implementation and practice in North West London. This study uses a variation of Goffman's frame analysis to trace the development of the initial national CLAHRC policy to its implementation at three levels. Data collection and analysis were qualitative through interviews, document analysis and embedded research. Analysis at the macro (national policy), meso (national programme) and micro (North West London) levels shows a significant common understanding of the aims and objectives of the policy and programme. Local level implementation in North West London was also consistent with these. The macro-meso-micro frame analysis is a useful way of studying the transition of a policy from high-level idea to programme in action. It could be used to identify differences at a local (micro) level in the implementation of multi-site programmes that would help understand differences in programme effectiveness.

  11. An assessment of wind energy potential in Iberia under climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Santos, João A.; Rochinha, Carlos; Reyers, Mark; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2015-04-01

    Wind energy potential in Iberia is assessed for recent-past (1961-2000) and future (2041-2070) climates. For recent-past, a COSMO-CLM simulation driven by ERA-40 is used. COSMO-CLM simulations driven by ECHAM5 following the A1B scenario are used for future projections. A 2 MW rated power wind turbine is selected. Mean potentials, inter-annual variability and irregularity are discussed on annual/seasonal scales and on a grid resolution of 20 km. For detailed regional assessments eight target sites are considered. For recent-past conditions, the highest daily mean potentials are found in winter over northern and eastern Iberia, particularly on high-elevation or coastal regions. In northwestern Iberia, daily potentials frequently reach maximum wind energy output (50 MWh day-1), particularly in winter. Southern Andalucía reveals high potentials throughout the year, whereas the Ebro valley and central-western coast show high potentials in summer. The irregularity in annual potentials is moderate (2 MWh day-1). The northward displacement of North Atlantic westerly winds (autumn-spring) and the strengthening of easterly flows (summer) are key drivers of future projections. Santos, J.A.; Rochinha, C.; Liberato, M.L.R.; Reyers, M.; Pinto, J.G. (2015) Projected changes in wind energy potentials over Iberia. Renewable Energy, 75, 1: 68-80. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2014.09.026 Acknowledgements: This work was partially supported by FEDER (Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional) funds through the COMPETE (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade) and by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project STORMEx FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-019524 (PTDC/AAC-CLI/121339/2010).

  12. ODP Leg 210 Drills the Newfoundland Margin in the Newfoundland-Iberia Non-Volcanic Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucholke, B. E.; Sibuet, J.

    2003-12-01

    The final leg of the Ocean Drilling Project (Leg 210, July-September 2003) was devoted to studying the history of rifting and post-rift sedimentation in the Newfoundland-Iberia rift. For the first time, drilling was conducted in the Newfoundland Basin along a transect conjugate to previous drill sites on the Iberia margin (Legs 149 and 173) to obtain data on a complete `non-volcanic' rift system. The prime site during this leg (Site 1276) was drilled in the transition zone between known continental crust and known oceanic crust at chrons M3 and younger. Extensive geophysical work and deep-sea drilling have shown that this transition-zone crust on the conjugate Iberia margin is exhumed continental mantle that is strongly serpentinized in its upper part. Transition-zone crust on the Newfoundland side, however, is typically a kilometer or more shallower and has much smoother topography, and seismic refraction data suggest that the crust may be thin (about 4 km) oceanic crust. A major goal of Site 1276 was to investigate these differences by sampling basement and a strong, basinwide reflection (U) overlying basement. Site 1276 was cored from 800 to 1737 m below seafloor with excellent recovery (avg. 85%), bottoming in two alkaline diabase sills >10 m thick that are estimated to be 100-200 meters above basement. The sills have sedimentary contacts that show extensive hydrothermal metamorphism. Associated sediment structural features indicate that the sills were intruded at shallow levels within highly porous sediments. The upper sill likely is at the level of the U reflection, which correlates with lower Albian - uppermost Aptian(?) fine- to coarse-grained gravity-flow deposits. Overlying lower Albian to lower Oligocene sediments record paleoceanographic conditions similar to those on the Iberia margin and in the main North Atlantic basin, including deposition of `black shales'; however, they show an extensive component of gravity-flow deposits throughout.

  13. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Herrera , R.; Diaz , J.; Trigo , R. M.; Hernández , E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal) and Madrid (Spain). Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid). The impact of most intense heat events is very ...

  14. Genetic characterization of uniparental lineages in populations from Southwest Iberia with past malaria endemicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereira, Vania; Gomes, Verónica; Amorim, António

    2010-01-01

    then compared with data from other Portuguese and non-Portuguese populations. In Coruche, the genetic profile was similar to the profile usually found in Portugal. In Alcacer do Sal, the frequency of sub-Saharan mtDNA L lineages was the highest ever reported (22%) in Europe. In Pias, mtDNA diversity revealed...... influence might be traced to ancient contacts with Greeks, Phoenicians, and Carthaginians, who established important trading networks in southern Iberia....

  15. Trophic pathways of phytoplankton size classes through the zooplankton food web over the spring transition period in the north-west Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Brian P. V.; Carlotti, François; Donoso, Katty; Pagano, Marc; D'Ortenzio, Fabrizio; Taillandier, Vincent; Conan, Pascal

    2017-08-01

    Knowledge of the relative contributions of phytoplankton size classes to zooplankton biomass is necessary to understand food-web functioning and response to climate change. During the Deep Water formation Experiment (DEWEX), conducted in the north-west Mediterranean Sea in winter (February) and spring (April) of 2013, we investigated phytoplankton-zooplankton trophic links in contrasting oligotrophic and eutrophic conditions. Size fractionated particulate matter (pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM) and zooplankton (64 to >4000 μm) composition and carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios were measured inside and outside the nutrient-rich deep convection zone in the central Liguro-Provencal basin. In winter, phytoplankton biomass was low (0.28 mg m-3) and evenly spread among picophytoplankton, nanophytoplankton, and microphytoplankton. Using an isotope mixing model, we estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM of 28, 59, and 15%, respectively. In spring, the nutrient poor region outside the convection zone had low phytoplankton biomass (0.58 mg m-3) and was dominated by pico/nanophytoplankton. Estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM were 64, 28 and 10%, respectively, although the model did not differentiate well between pico-POM and nano-POM in this region. In the deep convection zone, spring phytoplankton biomass was high (1.34 mg m-3) and dominated by micro/nano phytoplankton. Estimated average contributions to zooplankton biomass by pico-POM, nano-POM, and micro-POM were 42, 42, and 20%, respectively, indicating that a large part of the microphytoplankton biomass may have remained ungrazed.Plain Language SummaryThe grazing of zooplankton on algal phytoplankton is a critical step in the transfer of energy through all ocean food webs. Although microscopic, phytoplankton span an enormous size range. The smallest picophytoplankton are generally thought to be too

  16. Blood, guts and knife cuts: reducing the risk of swine brucellosis in feral pig hunters in north-west New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, P D; Polkinghorne, B G; Durrheim, D N; Lower, T; Speare, R

    2011-01-01

    Humans who have close contact with livestock, wild or feral animals can risk acquiring zoonotic infections such as brucellosis, Q fever, and leptospirosis. Human infection with Brucella suis (swine brucellosis) usually follows occupational or recreational exposure to infected animals. Worldwide, many cases of human infection follow contact with infected feral pigs. In Australia there is a growing market for the export of 'wild boar' and a considerable number of people are involved in feral pig hunting. However, feral pig hunters are often hard to reach with health strategies. According to Australian authorities the most important means of preventing disease in humans includes covering cuts; wearing gloves; washing hands; and avoiding blood when coming into contact with feral pigs. There has not been an evaluation of the acceptability of these recommended risk-reduction strategies in the settings where feral pig hunting and evisceration occurs. Semi-structured interviews and small focus groups were conducted with feral pig hunters in north-west New South Wales (NSW), Australia, to explore their hunting experiences and views on the brucellosis prevention strategies. Interview and focus group notes were thematically analysed. There was a range of experiences of feral pig hunting, from a very professional approach to a purely recreational approach. The main domains that emerged from participants' experiences during their most recent feral pig hunting activity and their reflections on current swine brucellosis risk reduction strategies were: 'you've gotta be tough to be a feral pig hunter'; 'most of the suggested strategies won't work as they are'; 'reducing risk in the scrub'; and 'how to let pig hunters know'. The recreational nature and prevailing macho perspective of participants demand a pragmatic approach to risk reduction if it is going to prove acceptable to feral pig hunters. The 'you've gotta be tough to be a feral pig hunter' context of the activity and the

  17. Spatial and seasonal variations of pesticide contamination in agricultural soils and crops sample from an intensive horticulture area of Hohhot, North-West China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fujin; He, Jiang; Yao, Yiping; Hou, Dekun; Jiang, Cai; Zhang, Xinxin; Di, Caixia; Otgonbayar, Khureldavaa

    2013-08-01

    The spatial variability and temporal trend in concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), in soils and agricultural corps were investigated on an intensive horticulture area in Hohhot, North-West China, from 2008 to 2011. The most frequently found and abundant pesticides were the metabolites of DDT (p,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDD). Total DDT concentrations ranged from ND (not detectable) to 507.41 ng/g and were higher than the concentration of total HCHs measured for the range of 4.84-281.44 ng/g. There were significantly positive correlations between the ∑DDT and ∑HCH concentrations (r (2)>0.74) in soils, but no significant correlation was found between the concentrations of OCPs in soils and clay content while a relatively strong correlation was found between total OCP concentrations and total organic carbon (TOC). β-HCH was the main isomer of HCHs, and was detected in all samples; the maximum proportion of β-HCH compared to ∑HCHs (mean value 54%) was found, suggesting its persistence. The α/γ-HCH ratio was between 0.89 and 5.39, which signified the combined influence of technical HCHs and lindane. Low p,p'-DDE/p,p'-DDT in N1, N3 and N9 were found, reflecting the fresh input of DDTs, while the relatively high o,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDT ratios indicated the agricultural application of dicofol. Ratios of DDT/(DDE+DDD) in soils do not indicate recent inputs of DDT into Hohhot farmland soil environment. Seasonal variations of OCPs featured higher concentrations in autumn and lower concentrations in spring. This was likely associated with their temperature-driven re-volatilization and application of dicofol in late spring.

  18. Five years review of cases of adult tetanus managed at Gondar University Hospital, North West Ethiopia (Gondar, Sep. 2003-Aug. 2008).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Abilo; Gebre-Selassie, Samuel

    2009-10-01

    Tetanus is a life threatening preventable infection relatively uncommon in the developed world but occurs frequently in developing countries with case fatality rate of 40-60%. We conducted the study as there is no recent review regarding adult tetanus in Ethiopia which looked at the predisposing factors, presenting features and case fatality rate. The study aims to evaluate clinical characteristics of adult tetanus as related to predisposing factors, presenting features and treatment outcome. This is a retrospective review of adult tetanus cases admitted to medical ward of Gondar University Hospital, North West Ethiopia, over a period of 5-years. A total of 29 adults were admitted with the diagnosis of generalized tetanus during the study period. There were more male then female patients (sex ratio 1.9:1) with rural dwellers constituting the majority. The mean age of patients was 35 +/- 14 yrs (range, 18-70 yrs. Majority of patients (72.4%) sustained acute injury preceding symptom onset, often on lower extremity. Three rural mothers, who denied history of trauma, developed puerperal tetanus with in 2 weeks of delivery, genital tract thought to be the portal of entry. Almost all patients, who had sustained acute injury, did not seek medical help for their wounds and missed the chance to receive prophylaxis for tetanus. Over all, 48.3% had severe, 37.9% moderate, and 13.8% mild form of tetanus at presentation. The most common clinical presentation was trismus (100%), followed by stiff neck and back (93.1%) and neck rigidity (86.2).Over all mortality rate was 41.4%. Respiratory failure requiring ventilatory support (66.7%) was the major cause of death. The study recommends a need for tetanus immunization in those who had acute injury and planning to educate individuals at risk to recognise symptoms early, and seek medical care to combat this fatal disease.

  19. Quantifying the need for enhanced case management for TB patients as part of TB cohort audit in the North West of England: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Angela; Mithoo, Jeniffer; Cleary, Paul; Woodhead, Mark; MacPherson, Peter; Wingfield, Tom; Davies, Stefanie; Wake, Carolyn; McMaster, Paddy; Bertel Squire, S

    2017-11-15

    Patients with TB have diverse and often challenging clinical and social needs that may hamper successful treatment outcomes. Understanding the need for additional support during treatment (enhanced case management, or ECM) is important for workforce capacity planning. North West England TB Cohort Audit (TBCA) has introduced a 4-level ECM classification system (ECM 0-3) to quantify the need for ECM in the region. This study describes the data from the first 2 years of ECM classification. Data collected between April 2013 and July 2015 were used to analyse the proportions of patients allocated to each ECM level and the prevalence of social and clinical factors indicating need for ECM. Single variable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between ECM level and treatment outcome. Of 1714 notified cases 99.8% were assigned an ECM level: 31% ECM1, 19% ECM2 and 14% ECM3. The most common factors indicating need for ECM were language barriers (20.3%) and clinical complexity (16.9%). 1342/1493 (89.9%) of drug-sensitive, non-CNS cases completed treatment within 12 months. Patients in ECM2 and 3 were less likely to complete treatment at 12 months than patients in ECM0 (adjusted OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27-0.84] and 0.23 [0.13-0.41] respectively). Use of TBCA to quantify different levels of need for ECM is feasible and has demonstrated that social and clinical complexity is common in the region. Results will inform regional workforce planning and assist development of innovative methods to improve treatment outcomes in these vulnerable groups.

  20. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum L. (sweet basil) from Western Ghats of North West Karnataka, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Rajesh K

    2014-01-01

    Ocimum basilicum L. (Lamiaceae) commonly known as sweet basil, has been used as a traditional medicinal plant for the treatment of headaches, coughs, diarrhea, constipation, warts, worms, and kidney malfunctions. The essential oil of the flowering aerial parts of O. basilicum growing in the Western Ghats region of North West Karnataka, India, was obtained by hydro-distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography equipped with flame ionization detector and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil was tested against six Gram-positive, eight Gram-negative bacteria, and three fungi by the tube-dilution method at a concentration range of 5.00-0.009 mg/mL. Twenty-five constituents were identified in the essential oil of O. basilicum. The major constituents were identified as methyl eugenol (39.3%) and methyl chavicol (38.3%), accounting for 98.6% of the total oil. The oil was found to be active against Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi with minimal bactericidal concentration values in the range of 0.143 ± 0.031 to 0.572 ± 0.127 mg/mL, 0.781 ± 0.382 to 1.875 ± 0.684 mg/mL, and 0.312 ± 0.171 to 0.442 ± 0.207 mg/mL, respectively. The essential oil of O. basilicum of this region contains methyl eugenol/methyl chavicol chemotype and has bactericidal properties.

  1. Effects of wind farm construction and operation on mire and wet heath vegetation in the Monte Maior SCI, north-west Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fagúndez

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available As part of the environmental impact assessment for the construction of a wind farm within the Monte Maior Natura 2000 Site of Community Importance (SCI in Galicia, north-west Spain, a complete analysis of the development site’s important mire and wet heath plant communities was performed. The study included phytosociological characterisation, species-area metrics, calculation of α and β diversity, and analysis of physiognomical characteristics such as life forms, distribution ranges and phenology. Permanent quadrats were monitored for three years after construction of the wind farm in order to identify and describe any changes in floristic composition. Two phytosociological associations were recognised in mire habitat, namely Eleocharitetum multicaulis (Litorelletea uniflorae and Carici durieui-Sphagnetum papillosi subas. ericetosum mackaianae (Oxycocco-Sphagnetea, whilst the wet heath was assigned to Gentiano pneumonanthe-Ericetum mackaianae (Calluno-Ulicetea. The two plant communities shared most physiognomical characteristics and 13–33% of species. Low values were obtained for α and β diversity, with about nine species per square metre for heathland and ten species per square metre for mire habitat. Hemicryptophytes dominated and no therophytes were recorded. The dominant plant families were Poaceae in heathlands and Cyperaceae in mires, and most of the species flowered in early or late summer. Both communities were stable and no change in any of the attributes investigated was observed during the study period. The results indicate that, so long as the traditional land use of low-intensity grazing can be maintained, there are no major hazards for these plant communities. However, some of the data suggest that the improvement of access to the area provided by the wind farm may result in an increase in human activity which could affect environmental conditions and thus the longer-term stability of the plant communities.

  2. Spatial and temporal variations in cadmium concentrations and burdens in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) sampled from the Pacific north-west.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendell, Leah I; Feng, Cindy

    2009-08-01

    Oysters from the north-west coast of Canada contain high levels of cadmium, a toxic metal, in amounts that exceed food safety guidelines for international markets. A first required step to determine the sources of cadmium is to identify possible spatial and temporal trends in the accumulation of cadmium by the oyster. To meet this objective, rather than sample wild and cultured oysters of unknown age and origin, an oyster "grow-out" experiment was initiated. Cultured oyster seed was suspended in the water column up to a depth of 7 m and the oyster seed allowed to mature a period of 3 years until market size. Oysters were sampled bimonthly and at time of sampling, temperature, chlorophyll-a, turbidity and salinity were measured. Oyster total shell length, dry tissue weights, cadmium concentrations (microg g(-1)) and burdens (microg of cadmium oyster(-1)) were determined. Oyster cadmium concentrations and burdens were then interpreted with respect to the spatial and temporal sampling design as well as to the measured physio-chemical and biotic variables. When expressed as a concentration, there was a marked seasonality with concentrations being greater in winter as compared in summer; however no spatial trend was evident. When expressed as a burden which corrects for differences in tissue mass, there was no seasonality, however cadmium oyster burdens increased from south to north. Comparison of cadmium accumulation rates oyster(-1) among sites indicated three locations, Webster Island, on the west side of Vancouver Island, and two within Desolation Sound, Teakerne Arm and Redonda Bay, where point sources of cadmium which are not present at all other sampling locations may be contributing to overall oyster cadmium burdens. Of the four physio-chemical factors measured only temperature and turbidity weakly correlated with tissue cadmium concentrations (r(2)=-0.13; p<0.05). By expressing oyster cadmium both as concentration and burden, regional and temporal patterns were

  3. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremia S. Sojane

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. Methods: A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680 with the sample (n = 204 included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire. Results: RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%. They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5% but were dissatisfied with wages (50%, study leave (40.9% and opportunities for advancement (40.1%. Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00 and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50. Conclusion: The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies. Keywords: Leadership,  job satisfaction, intention to leave, Nurse

  4. Speleology and magnetobiostratigraphic chronology of the GD 2 locality of the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave deposits, North West Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herries, Andy I R; Adams, Justin W; Kuykendall, Kevin L; Shaw, John

    2006-12-01

    Speleological, paleomagnetic, mineral magnetic, and biochronological analyses have been undertaken at the Gondolin hominin-bearing paleocave, North West Province, South Africa. Two fossiliferous but stratigraphically separate sequences, GD2 and GD1/3, which were once part of a large cavern system, have been identified. Although some comparative paleomagnetic samples were taken from the GD 1, 3, and 4 localities that are currently under investigation, the research presented here focuses on the fossil-rich, in situ deposits at locality GD 2, excavated by E.S. Vrba in 1979. The GD 2 deposits are dominated by normal-polarity calcified clastic deposits that are sandwiched between clastic-free flowstone speleothems. The lower flowstone has a sharp contact with the red siltstone deposits and is of reversed polarity. The capping flowstone shows a change from normal to reversed polarity, thereby preserving a polarity reversal. While the paleomagnetic work indicates that the GD 2 fossil material was deposited during a normal-polarity period, the shortness of the sequence made matching of the magnetostratigraphy to the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) impossible without the aid of biochronology. While lacking multiple time-sensitive taxa, the recovery of specimens attributable to Stage III Metridiochoerus andrewsi is consistent with a deposition date between 1.9 and 1.5 Ma. A comparison of the magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS therefore suggests that the fauna-bearing siltstone of GD 2 date to the Olduvai normal-polarity event, which occurred between 1.95 and 1.78 Ma, and that the reversal from normal to reversed polarity identified in the capping flowstone dates to 1.78 Ma. The main faunal layers therefore date to slightly older than 1.78 Ma. Deposits from the GD 1 locality are dominated by reversed directions of magnetization, which show that this deposit is not of the same age as the faunal layers from the GD 2 locality.

  5. Leadership, job satisfaction and intention to leave among registered nurses in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojane, Jeremia S; Klopper, Hester C; Coetzee, Siedine K

    2016-01-01

    The nurse leadership of a hospital is identified as the single most important aspect of the practice environment that impacts nurse outcomes. When nurses are satisfied with their jobs, they tend to remain with their employers and become more productive in their workplaces. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between leadership, job satisfaction and intentions to leave among registered nurses (RNs) working in hospitals in the North West and Free State provinces of South Africa. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted. The population (N = 680) with the sample (n = 204) included RNs in medical–surgical units in both private and public hospitals in the two provinces. Data were collected using the RN4CAST questionnaire. RNs were satisfied with the items pertaining to leadership except for praise and recognition (55.7%). They also indicated high levels of overall job satisfaction (70.5%) but were dissatisfied with wages (50%), study leave (40.9%) and opportunities for advancement (40.1%). Furthermore, 46.1% of the RNs intended to leave their current hospitals. The results indicated a relationship between leadership and job satisfaction (r = 0.47; p = 0.00) and between intention to leave and job satisfaction (d = 0.50). The nurse managers played a significant role influencing RN’s level of job satisfaction, while job satisfaction was highly correlated with intention to leave. The nurse leadership can improve job satisfaction by giving praise and recognition to the RNs for jobs well done, and RNs should be afforded the opportunity to advance their careers through further studies.

  6. Integration of traditional birth attendants into prevention of mother-to-child transmission at primary health facilities in Kaduna, North-West Nigeria

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    Reward O. Nsirim

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the fundamental challenges to implementing successful prevention of mother-tochild transmission (PMTCT programs in Nigeria is the uptake of PMTCT services at health facilities. Several issues usually discourage many pregnant women from receiving antenatal care services at designated health facilities within their communities. The CRS Nigeria PMTCT Project funded by the Global Fund in its Round 9 Phase 1 in Nigeria, sought to increase demand for HIV counseling and testing services for pregnant women at 25 supported primary health centers (PHCs in Kaduna State, North-West Nigeria by integrating traditional birth attendants (TBAs across the communities where the PHCs were located into the project. Community dialogues were held with the TBAs, community leaders and women groups. These dialogues focused on modes of mother to child transmission of HIV and the need for TBAs to refer their clients to PHCs for testing. Subsequently, data on number of pregnant women who were counseled, tested and received results was collected on a monthly basis from the 25 facilities using the national HIV/AIDS tools. Prior to this integration, the average number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results was 200 pregnant women across all the 25 health facilities monthly. After the integration of TBAs into the program, the number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results kept increasing month after month up to an average of 1500 pregnant women per month across the 25 health facilities. TBAs can thus play a key role in improving service uptake and utilization for pregnant women at primary health centers in the community – especially in the context of HIV/AIDS. They thus need to be integrated, rather than alienated, from primary healthcare service delivery.

  7. The prevalence of genital Candida species among pregnant women attending antenatal clinic in a tertiary health center in North-west Nigeria

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    Daniel Chukwunyere Nnadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC is a common genital tract infection that affects the quality of life in many women. It is more prevalent in pregnancy and may lead to complications. Aims and Objectives: The study aimed to determine the prevalence of VVC among pregnant women attending the antenatal clinic of a tertiary health institution in North-West Nigeria and to emphasize the need for accurate diagnosis and adequate treatment. Subjects and Methods: This is a 2-month cross-sectional study performed at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology in association with the Department of Medical Microbiology of the Usmanu Danfodiyo University Teaching Hospital, Sokoto in North-Western Nigeria. It involved pregnant women at various periods of gestation presenting with vaginitis and selected by simple random sampling. A pair of high vaginal swabs was collected aseptically from the study subjects which was used for Gram's staining and inoculation into Sabouraud's dextrose agar (SDA. The samples were then cultured according to standard procedures on sterile SDA. Infection with Candida species was diagnosed by microscopy of a saline wet mount, Gram-stained smear and colony growth on SDA. Results: Of the 288 pregnant women sampled, 175 were positive for candidiasis giving a prevalence rate of 60.8%. The ages of the women ranged from 16 to 45 years with a mean of 26.8 (standard deviation ± 4.93. Pregnant women aged 26–30 years recorded the highest prevalence of 37.1% (65/175. The multigravidae were more affected 41.7% (120/288 than the primigravidae 19.1% (55/288. VVC showed a progressive increase with trimester of pregnancy. Candida albicans was the most prevalent species isolated in 73.7% of the women. Conclusion: There is a high prevalence of VVC among pregnant women in our institution. There is need to educate the women on genital hygiene and practice of regular screening for candidiasis in our antenatal program.

  8. Integration of Traditional Birth Attendants into Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission at Primary Health Facilities in Kaduna, North-West Nigeria.

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    Nsirim, Reward O; Iyongo, Joseph A; Adekugbe, Olayinka; Ugochuku, Maureen

    2015-03-31

    One of the fundamental challenges to implementing successful prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) programs in Nigeria is the uptake of PMTCT services at health facilities. Several issues usually discourage many pregnant women from receiving antenatal care services at designated health facilities within their communities. The CRS Nigeria PMTCT Project funded by the Global Fund in its Round 9 Phase 1 in Nigeria, sought to increase demand for HIV counseling and testing services for pregnant women at 25 supported primary health centers (PHCs) in Kaduna State, North-West Nigeria by integrating traditional birth attendants (TBAs) across the communities where the PHCs were located into the project. Community dialogues were held with the TBAs, community leaders and women groups. These dialogues focused on modes of mother to child transmission of HIV and the need for TBAs to refer their clients to PHCs for testing. Subsequently, data on number of pregnant women who were counseled, tested and received results was collected on a monthly basis from the 25 facilities using the national HIV/AIDS tools. Prior to this integration, the average number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results was 200 pregnant women across all the 25 health facilities monthly. After the integration of TBAs into the program, the number of pregnant women that were counseled, tested and received results kept increasing month after month up to an average of 1500 pregnant women per month across the 25 health facilities. TBAs can thus play a key role in improving service uptake and utilization for pregnant women at primary health centers in the community - especially in the context of HIV/AIDS. They thus need to be integrated, rather than alienated, from primary healthcare service delivery.

  9. Influence of socio-demographic factors on distances travelled to access HIV services: enhanced surveillance of HIV patients in north west England

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    Tocque Karen

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient choice and access to health care is compromised by many barriers including travel distance. Individuals with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV can seek free specialist care in Britain, without a referral, providing flexible access to care services. Willingness to travel beyond local services for preferred care has funding and service implications. Data from an enhanced HIV surveillance system were used to explore geodemographic and clinical factors associated with accessing treatment services. Methods We extracted data on the location, type and frequency of care services utilized by HIV positive persons (n = 3983 accessing treatment in north west England between January 1st 2005 and June 30th 2006. Individuals were allocated a deprivation score and grouped by urban/rural residence, and distance to care services was calculated. Analysis identified independent predictors of distance travelled (general linear modelling and, for those bypassing their nearest clinic, the probability of accessing a specialist service (logistic regression, SPSS ver 14. Inter-relationships between variables and distance travelled were visualised using detrended correspondence analysis (PC-ORD ver 4.1. Results HIV infected persons travelled an average of 4.8 km (95% confidence intervals (CI 4.6–4.9 per trip and had on average 6 visits (95% CI 5.9–6.2 annually for care. Longer trips were made by males (4.8 km vs 4.5 km, white people (6.2 km, the young (>15 years, 6.8 km and elderly (60+ years, 6.3 km, those on multiple therapy (5.3 km vs 4.0 km, and the more affluent living in rural areas (16.1 km, P Conclusion Distance travelled, and type of HIV services used, were associated with socioeconomic status, even after accounting for ethnicity, route of infection and age. Thus despite offering an 'equitable' service, travel costs may advantage those with higher income.

  10. Future Projection with an Extreme-Learning Machine and Support Vector Regression of Reference Evapotranspiration in a Mountainous Inland Watershed in North-West China

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    Zhenliang Yin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to project future variability of reference evapotranspiration (ET0 using artificial intelligence methods, constructed with an extreme-learning machine (ELM and support vector regression (SVR in a mountainous inland watershed in north-west China. Eight global climate model (GCM outputs retrieved from the Coupled Model Inter-comparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5 were employed to downscale monthly ET0 for the historical period 1960–2005 as a validation approach and for the future period 2010–2099 as a projection of ET0 under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios. The following conclusions can be drawn: the ELM and SVR methods demonstrate a very good performance in estimating Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO-56 Penman–Monteith ET0. Variation in future ET0 mainly occurs in the spring and autumn seasons, while the summer and winter ET0 changes are moderately small. Annually, the ET0 values were shown to increase at a rate of approximately 7.5 mm, 7.5 mm, 0.0 mm (8.2 mm, 15.0 mm, 15.0 mm decade−1, respectively, for the near-term projection (2010–2039, mid-term projection (2040–2069, and long-term projection (2070–2099 under the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5 scenario. Compared to the historical period, the relative changes in ET0 were found to be approximately 2%, 5% and 6% (2%, 7% and 13%, during the near, mid- and long-term periods, respectively, under the RCP4.5 (RCP8.5 warming scenarios. In accordance with the analyses, we aver that the opportunity to downscale monthly ET0 with artificial intelligence is useful in practice for water-management policies.

  11. Sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia: a community based study.

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    Azage, Muluken; Abeje, Gedefaw; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2014-07-16

    Sex trafficking is a contemporary issue in both developed and developing countries. The number of trafficked women and young girls has increased globally. Females aged 18-25 are the most targeted group of trafficking. Although the problem is evident in Ethiopia, there are no studies that explored sex trafficking awareness among females. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess sex trafficking awareness and associated factors among youth females in Bahir Dar town, North-West Ethiopia. A community based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from February 1st-30th 2012 from a total of 417 youth females. The participants in the study were selected using systematic random sampling techniques. A structured Amharic questionnaire was used to collect data. Data were entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS 16.0. Descriptive statistics were used to describe data. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with sex trafficking awareness. Two hundred forty-nine (60%) of the participants reported that they had heard or read about sex trafficking. Television (64%), friends (46%) and radio (39%) were the most frequently mentioned sources of information about sex trafficking. About 87% and 74% of the participants mentioned friends and brokers respectively as mediators of sex trafficking. Having TV at home (AOR = 2. 19, 95% CI: 1.31-3.67), completing grade 10 or more (AOR = 2. 22, 95% CI: 1.18-4.17), taking training on gender issues (AOR = 3. 59, 95% CI: 2.11-6.10) and living together with parents (AOR = 3. 65, 95% CI: 1.68-7.93) were factors found associated with sex trafficking awareness. In this study, sex trafficking awareness was low among youth females. Having TV at home, living together with someone and being trained on gender issues were predictors of sex trafficking awareness. Therefore, providing education about sex trafficking will help to increase sex trafficking awareness among youth females.

  12. Classification and description of the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the proposed Highveld National Park, North West Province, South Africa

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    Mahlomola E. Daemane

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the proposed Highveld National Park (HNP is to conserve a considerable area of the poorly conserved Rocky Highveld Grassland and Dry Sandy Highveld Grassveld of the western Grassland Biome in South Africa. The park has not yet been proclaimed, but is currently under the management of the North West Parks and Tourism Board. The main aim of this study was to classify and describe the vegetation in the Spitskop area in the HNP. The areas affected by soil degradation were on the midslopes, footslopes, valley bottomland and the floodplains around the Spitskop hill. The concentrated grazing around the Spitskop area was also influenced by the existing dam in the floodplains. Floristic and soil degradation data were collected and used to classify and describe the plant communities of the Spitskop area. Vegetation sampling was performed by means of the Braun-Blanquet method and a total of twenty plots were sampled. A numerical classification technique (TWINSPAN was applied to the floristic data to derive a first approximation of the main plant communities. Further refinement was achieved by Braun-Blanquet procedures. The final results of the classification procedure were presented in the form of a phytosociological table, with three major communities and three subcommunities being described. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to determine the direct correlation between plant communities and soil degradation types. Soil compaction and sheet erosion were found to be the most significant variables determining plant community composition. Rill and gully erosion were shown to be of lesser significance in explaining the variation in plant communities. Conservation implications: Grasslands are amongst the most threatened biomes in South Africa, yet less than 1.3% are currently being conserved. The HNP has significant value for biodiversity conservation and the protection of this area will contribute to the preservation of the highly

  13. Social network correlates of risky sexual behavior among adolescents in Bahir Dar and Mecha Districts, North West Ethiopia: an institution-based study.

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    Asrese, Kerebih; Mekonnen, Alemtsehay

    2018-04-11

    Behaviors established during adolescence such as risky sexual behaviors have negative effects on future health and well-being. Extant literature indicated that individual attributes such as peer pressure and substance use have impacts on healthy development of young peoples' sexual behavior. The patterns of relationships (social network structure) and the social network content (members' norm regarding sexual practice) established by adolescents' network on adolescents' risky sexual behaviors are not well investigated. This cross-sectional study assessed the roles of social networks on sexual behavior of high school adolescents in Bahir Dar and Mecha district, North West Ethiopia. Data were collected from 806 high school adolescents using a pretested anonymously self administered questionnaire. Hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The results indicated that more than 13% had risky sexual behavior. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of risky sexual behavior over individual attributes. Adolescents embedded within increasing sexual practice approving norm (AOR 1.61; 95%CI: 1.04 - 2.50), increasing network tie strength (AOR 1.12; 95% CI: 1.06 - 1.19), and homogeneous networks (AOR 1.58; 95% CI: .98 - 2.55) were more likely to had risky sexual behavior. Engaging within increasing number of sexuality discussion networks was found protective of risky sexual behavior (AOR .84; 95% CI: .72 - .97). Social networks better predict adolescent's risky sexual behavior than individual attributes. The findings indicated the circumstances or contexts that social networks exert risks or protective effects on adolescents' sexual behavior. Programs designed to reduce school adolescents' sexual risk behavior should consider their patterns of social relationships.

  14. Wellbeing, alcohol use and sexual activity in young teenagers: findings from a cross-sectional survey in school children in North West England

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    Kelly Imogen E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescent health is a growing concern. High rates of binge drinking and teenage pregnancies, documented in the UK, are two measures defining poor wellbeing. Improving wellbeing through schools is a priority but information on the impact of wellbeing on alcohol use, and on sexual activity among schoolchildren is limited. Methods A cross-sectional survey using self-completed questionnaires was conducted among 3,641 schoolchildren aged 11-14 years due to participate in a sex and relationships education pilot programme in 15 high schools in North West England. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted to examine the relationship between wellbeing and alcohol use, and wellbeing and sexual activity. Results A third of 11 year olds, rising to two-thirds of 14 year olds, had drunk alcohol. Children with positive school wellbeing had lower odds of ever drinking alcohol, drinking often, engaging in any sexual activity, and of having sex. General wellbeing had a smaller effect. The strength of the association between alcohol use and the prevalence of sexual activity in 13-14 year olds, increased incrementally with the higher frequency of alcohol use. Children drinking once a week or more had 12-fold higher odds of any sexual activity, and 10-fold higher odds of having sex. Rare and occasional drinkers had a significantly higher odds compared with non-drinkers. Conclusions The relationship between wellbeing and alcohol use, and wellbeing and sexual activity reinforces the importance of initiatives that enhance positive wellbeing in schoolchildren. The association between alcohol use and sexual activity highlights the need for integrated public health programmes. Policies restricting alcohol use may help reduce sexual exposure among young teenagers.

  15. Quantifying the need for enhanced case management for TB patients as part of TB cohort audit in the North West of England: a descriptive study

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    Angela Tucker

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with TB have diverse and often challenging clinical and social needs that may hamper successful treatment outcomes. Understanding the need for additional support during treatment (enhanced case management, or ECM is important for workforce capacity planning. North West England TB Cohort Audit (TBCA has introduced a 4-level ECM classification system (ECM 0–3 to quantify the need for ECM in the region. This study describes the data from the first 2 years of ECM classification. Methods Data collected between April 2013 and July 2015 were used to analyse the proportions of patients allocated to each ECM level and the prevalence of social and clinical factors indicating need for ECM. Single variable and multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to examine the association between ECM level and treatment outcome. Results Of 1714 notified cases 99.8% were assigned an ECM level: 31% ECM1, 19% ECM2 and 14% ECM3. The most common factors indicating need for ECM were language barriers (20.3% and clinical complexity (16.9%. 1342/1493 (89.9% of drug-sensitive, non-CNS cases completed treatment within 12 months. Patients in ECM2 and 3 were less likely to complete treatment at 12 months than patients in ECM0 (adjusted OR 0.47 [95% CI 0.27–0.84] and 0.23 [0.13–0.41] respectively. Conclusions Use of TBCA to quantify different levels of need for ECM is feasible and has demonstrated that social and clinical complexity is common in the region. Results will inform regional workforce planning and assist development of innovative methods to improve treatment outcomes in these vulnerable groups.

  16. Soil erodibility mapping using the RUSLE model to prioritize erosion control in the Wadi Sahouat basin, North-West of Algeria.

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    Toubal, Abderrezak Kamel; Achite, Mohammed; Ouillon, Sylvain; Dehni, Abdelatif

    2018-03-12

    Soil losses must be quantified over watersheds in order to set up protection measures against erosion. The main objective of this paper is to quantify and to map soil losses in the Wadi Sahouat basin (2140 km 2 ) in the north-west of Algeria, using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) model assisted by a Geographic Information System (GIS) and remote sensing. The Model Builder of the GIS allowed the automation of the different operations for establishing thematic layers of the model parameters: the erosivity factor (R), the erodibility factor (K), the topographic factor (LS), the crop management factor (C), and the conservation support practice factor (P). The average annual soil loss rate in the Wadi Sahouat basin ranges from 0 to 255 t ha -1  year -1 , maximum values being observed over steep slopes of more than 25% and between 600 and 1000 m elevations. 3.4% of the basin is classified as highly susceptible to erosion, 4.9% with a medium risk, and 91.6% at a low risk. Google Earth reveals a clear conformity with the degree of zones to erosion sensitivity. Based on the soil loss map, 32 sub-basins were classified into three categories by priority of intervention: high, moderate, and low. This priority is available to sustain a management plan against sediment filling of the Ouizert dam at the basin outlet. The method enhancing the RUSLE model and confrontation with Google Earth can be easily adapted to other watersheds.

  17. Pregnant women's preference and factors associated with institutional delivery service utilization in Debra Markos Town, North West Ethiopia: a community based follow up study.

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    Bayu, Hinsermu; Adefris, Mulatu; Amano, Abdella; Abuhay, Mulunesh

    2015-02-05

    Majority of deaths from obstetric complications are preventable. But every pregnant woman face risks which may not always be detected through the risk assessment approach during antenatal care (ANC). Therefore, the presence of a skilled birth attendant in every delivery is the most critical intervention in reducing maternal mortality and morbidity. In Ethiopia the proportion of births attended by skilled personnel, is very low, even for women who have access to the services. A community-based follow up study was conducted from January 17, 2012 to July 30, 2012, among 2(nd) and 3(rd) trimester's pregnant women in Debre-Markos town, east Gojam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia. Simple random sampling technique was used to get a total sample size of 422 participants. A total of 393 pregnant women were included in the study. The study revealed that 292(74.3%) of the pregnant women planned to deliver in a health institution. Of these 292 pregnant women 234 (80.14%) actually delivered in a health facility. Age range from 15-19 year (AOR = 4.83, 95% CI = 1.562-12.641), college and above education of the pregnant women (AOR = 12.508, 95% CI = 1.082-14.557), ANC visit during the current pregnancy (AOR = 1.975, 95% CI = 1.021-3.392),perceived susceptibility and severity of pregnancy and delivery complication (AOR = 3.208, 95% CI = 1.262-8.155) and intention (preference) of pregnant women for place of delivery (AOR = 7.032, 95% CI = 3.045-10.234) are predictors of institutional delivery service utilization. Preference for institutional delivery is low in the study area. Sociodemographic factors, perception about delivery complication, ANC follow up and their intentions for institutional delivery are among important predictors of institutional delivery.

  18. Genotypic Characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolates from Different Sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, Using Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus PCR Analysis

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    Collins Njie Ateba

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC polymerase chain reaction (PCR typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003 and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I–VIII were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91% between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  19. Genotypic characterization of Escherichia coli O157:H7 isolates from different sources in the North-West Province, South Africa, using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR analysis.

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    Ateba, Collins Njie; Mbewe, Moses

    2014-05-30

    In many developing countries, proper hygiene is not strictly implemented when animals are slaughtered and meat products become contaminated. Contaminated meat may contain Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 that could cause diseases in humans if these food products are consumed undercooked. In the present study, a total of 94 confirmed E. coli O157:H7 isolates were subjected to the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) typing to generate genetic fingerprints. The ERIC fragments were resolved by electrophoresis on 2% (w/v) agarose gels. The presence, absence and intensity of band data were obtained, exported to Microsoft Excel (Microsoft Office 2003) and used to generate a data matrix. The unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) and complete linkage algorithms were used to analyze the percentage of similarity and matrix data. Relationships between the various profiles and/or lanes were expressed as dendrograms. Data from groups of related lanes were compiled and reported on cluster tables. ERIC fragments ranged from one to 15 per isolate, and their sizes varied from 0.25 to 0.771 kb. A large proportion of the isolates produced an ERIC banding pattern with three duplets ranging in sizes from 0.408 to 0.628 kb. Eight major clusters (I-VIII) were identified. Overall, the remarkable similarities (72% to 91%) between the ERIC profiles for the isolate from animal species and their corresponding food products indicated some form of contamination, which may not exclude those at the level of the abattoirs. These results reveal that ERIC PCR analysis can be reliable in comparing the genetic profiles of E. coli O157:H7 from different sources in the North-West Province of South Africa.

  20. Assessment of knowledge, attitude and risk behaviors towards HIV/AIDS and other sexual transmitted infection among preparatory students of Gondar town, north west Ethiopia

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    Shiferaw Yitayal

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The first case of HIV in Ethiopia was reported in 1984. Since then, HIV/AIDS has become a major public health concern in the country, leading the Government of Ethiopia to declare a public health emergency in 2002. Although the epidemic is currently stable, HIV/AIDS remains a major development challenge for Ethiopia. The spread of HIV in any community is in part determined by the knowledge of attitude towards sexuality of its members and by their actual sexual practices. The aim of the study was to assess students' knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding HIV/AIDS and STDs in Gondar, North West Ethiopia. Methods A cross sectional study was conducted between February 1 to March 1, 2009 in preparatory high school students. Pre-tested questioner was used to generate the data and analysis was made by SPSS version 15. Chi -square value was calculated and p-value Results All the students had heard about AIDS before the interview. Knowledge on some aspect of the disease was quite low in the study group. Only half of the students knew that at present, AIDs is incurable and that HIV infection can be acquired through sexual contact with a 'familiar' person. Knowledge about STI was also quite low, 39% knew that pus in the urine is a symptom of STI and 45.4% knew that acquisition of other STIs is increases the chance of HIV transmission following unsafe sex with known cases. 25% of the study group had previous sexual intercourse and exposed at least one risk behavior. About 34% of the respondents had negative attitude towards AIDS and STDs. Conclusion Awareness about STDs and methods of prevention of HIV and STDs was low. More risk behavior was observed in male and those with alcohol and drugs of abuse.

  1. Occurrence of Giardia, Cryptosporidium, and Entamoeba in wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta living in urban and semi-rural North-West India

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    John J. Debenham

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Entamoeba spp. are intestinal protozoa capable of infecting a range of host species, and are important causes of human morbidity and mortality. Understanding their epidemiology is important, both for public health and for the health of the animals they infect. This study investigated the occurrence of these protozoans in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta in India, with the aim of providing preliminary information on the potential for transmission of these pathogens between macaques and humans. Faecal samples (n = 170 were collected from rhesus macaques from four districts of North-West India. Samples were analysed for Giardia/Cryptosporidium using a commercially available direct immunofluorescent antibody test after purification via immunomagnetic separation. Positive samples were characterised by sequencing of PCR products. Occurrence of Entamoeba was investigated first by using a genus-specific PCR, and positive samples further investigated via species-specific PCRs for Entamoeba coli, Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii. Giardia cysts were found in 31% of macaque samples, with all isolates belonging to Assemblage B. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 1 sample, however this sample did not result in amplification by PCR. Entamoeba spp. were found in 79% of samples, 49% of which were positive for E. coli. Multiplex PCR for E. histolytica, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii, did not result in amplification in any of the samples. Thus in 51% of the samples positive at the genus specific PCR, the Entamoeba species was not identified. This study provides baseline information on the potential for transmission of these zoonotic parasites at the wildlife-human interface.

  2. Assessing the effectiveness of a community-based sensitization strategy in creating awareness about HPV, cervical cancer and HPV vaccine among parents in North West Cameroon.

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    Wamai, Richard G; Ayissi, Claudine Akono; Oduwo, Geofrey O; Perlman, Stacey; Welty, Edith; Manga, Simon; Ogembo, Javier Gordon

    2012-10-01

    In 2010, the Cameroon Baptist Convention Health Services (CBCHS) received a donation of HPV vaccine (Gardasil®) to immunize girls of ages 9-13 years in the North West Region of Cameroon. We evaluated the effectiveness of the CBCHS campaign program in sensitizing parents/guardians to encourage HPV vaccine uptake, identified factors that influence parents' decisions to vaccinate girls, and examined the uptake of cervical cancer screening among mothers. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in four healthcare facilities run by CBCHS, churches and other social settings. A total of 350 questionnaires were distributed and 317 were used for the analysis. There were high levels of awareness about cervical cancer, HPV and HPV vaccine. 75.5% understood HPV is sexually transmitted and 90.3% were aware of the use of vaccine as a preventive measure. Effectiveness of the vaccine (31.8%) and side effects/safety (18.4%) were the major barriers for parents to vaccinate their daughters. Bivariate analysis further revealed that the level of education (p = 0.0006), income level (p = 0.0044) and perceived risks (p = 0.0044) are additional factors influencing parents' decisions to vaccinate girls. 35.3% of women had sought a cervical cancer screening, significantly higher than the general estimated rate of screening (<10%) in other parts of Cameroon and sub-Saharan Africa. These results support the viability of a community-tailored sensitization strategy to increase awareness among the targeted audience of parents/guardians, who are critical decision-makers for vaccine delivery to children.

  3. Level of modern health care seeking behaviors among mothers having under five children in Dangila town, north West Ethiopia, 2016: a cross sectional study.

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    Dagnew, Amare Belachew; Tewabe, Tilahun; Murugan, Rajalakshmi

    2018-05-29

    Health seeking behavior is an action taken by an individual who perceive to have a health problem. In most developing countries including Ethiopia the health of the children is strongly dependant on maternal health care behavior. Most childhood morbidities and mortalities are associated with low level of mothers health care seeking behavior. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess level of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers having under five children in Dangila town, North West Ethiopia. Community based quantitative cross-sectional study was conducted from April 15 to May 15, 2016. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select study participants. A total of273 mothers with children less than five years were included in this study. The data was collected from all five Kebeles using interviewer administered questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to present the data. Both bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with level of modern health care seeking behavior. Prevalence of modern health care seeking behavior was 82.1%. Age of mothers (AOR = 2.4(1.1, 5.3), age of the child (AOR = 6.7(2.8, 22.2), severity of illness (AOR = 5.2(1.2, 22.6) and family number (AOR = 6.4(2.1, 20.2) were predictors of modern health care seeking behavior among mothers. Majority of the mothers preferred to take their children to modern health care when they got illness. Age of children, age of mother, number of family and severity of illness were the determinant factors for modern health care seeking behavior. Therefore, health care services should be strengthened at community level through community integrated management of childhood illness, information, education communication / behavioral change communication strategies to improve mothers health care seeking behaviors.

  4. GHG AND AEROSOL EMISSION FROM FIRE PIXEL DURING CROP RESIDUE BURNING UNDER RICE AND WHEAT CROPPING SYSTEMS IN NORTH-WEST INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Acharya

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Emission of smoke and aerosol from open field burning of crop residue is a long-standing subject matter of atmospheric pollution. In this study, we proposed a new approach of estimating fuel load in the fire pixels and corresponding emissions of selected GHGs and aerosols i.e. CO2, CO, NO2, SO2, and total particulate matter (TPM due to burning of crop residue under rice and wheat cropping systems in Punjab in north-west India from 2002 to 2012. In contrasts to the conventional method that uses RPR ratio to estimate the biomass, fuel load in the fire pixels was estimated as a function of enhanced vegetation index (EVI. MODIS fire products were used to detect the fire pixels during harvesting seasons of rice and wheat. Based on the field measurements, fuel load in the fire pixels were modelled as a function of average EVI using second order polynomial regression. Average EVI for rice and wheat crops that were extracted through Fourier transformation were computed from MODIS time series 16 day EVI composites. About 23 % of net shown area (NSA during rice and 11 % during wheat harvesting seasons are affected by field burning. The computed average fuel loads are 11.32 t/ha (±17.4 during rice and 10.89 t/ha (±8.7 during wheat harvesting seasons. Calculated average total emissions of CO2, CO, NO2, SO2 and TPM were 8108.41, 657.85, 8.10, 4.10, and 133.21 Gg during rice straw burning and 6896.85, 625.09, 1.42, 1.77, and 57.55 Gg during wheat burning. Comparison of estimated values shows better agreement with the previous concurrent estimations. The method, however, shows its efficiency parallel to the conventional method of estimation of fuel load and related pollutant emissions.

  5. Seismic evidence of exhumed mantle rock basement at the Gorringe Bank and the adjacent Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallarès, Valentí; Martínez-Loriente, Sara; Prada, Manel; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Ranero, César; Gutscher, Marc-André; Bartolome, Rafael; Gailler, Audrey; Dañobeitia, Juan José; Zitellini, Nevio

    2013-03-01

    The Gorringe Bank is a gigantic seamount that separates the Horseshoe and Tagus abyssal plains offshore SW Iberia, in a zone that hosts the convergent boundary between the Africa and Eurasia plates. Although the region has been the focus of numerous investigations since the early 1970s, the lack of appropriate geophysical data makes the nature of the basement, and thus the origin of the structures, still debated. In this work, we present combined P-wave seismic velocity and gravity models along a transect that crosses the Gorringe Bank from the Tagus to the Horseshoe abyssal plains. The P-wave velocity structure of the basement is similar in the Tagus and Horseshoe plains. It shows a 2.5-3.0 km-thick top layer with a velocity gradient twice stronger than oceanic Layer 2 and an abrupt change to an underlying layer with a five-fold weaker gradient. Velocity and density is lower beneath the Gorringe Bank probably due to enhanced fracturing, that have led to rock disaggregation in the sediment-starved northern flank. In contrast to previous velocity models of this region, there is no evidence of a sharp crust-mantle boundary in any of the record sections. The modelling results indicate that the sediment overlays directly serpentinite rock, exhumed from the mantle with a degree of serpentinization decreasing from a maximum of 70-80% under the top of Gorringe Bank to less than 5% at a depth of ˜20 km. We propose that the three domains were originally part of a single serpentine rock band, of nature and possibly origin similar to the Iberia Abyssal Plain ocean-continent transition, which was probably generated during the earliest phase of the North Atlantic opening that followed continental crust breakup (Early Cretaceous). During the Miocene, the NW-SE trending Eurasia-Africa convergence resulted in thrusting of the southeastern segment of the exhumed serpentinite band over the northwestern one, forming the Gorringe Bank. The local deformation associated to plate

  6. Short wavelength lateral variability of lithospheric mantle beneath the Middle Atlas (Morocco) as recorded by mantle xenoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Messbahi, Hicham; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Vauchez, Alain; Dautria, Jean-Marie; Ouali, Houssa; Garrido, Carlos J.

    2015-05-01

    The Middle Atlas is a region where xenolith-bearing volcanism roughly coincides with the maximum of lithospheric thinning beneath continental Morocco. It is therefore a key area to study the mechanisms of lithospheric thinning and constrain the component of mantle buoyancy that is required to explain the Moroccan topography. Samples from the two main xenolith localities, the Bou Ibalghatene and Tafraoute maars, have been investigated for their mineralogy, microstructures, crystallographic preferred orientation, and whole-rock and mineral compositions. While Bou Ibalghatene belongs to the main Middle Atlas volcanic field, in the 'tabular' Middle Atlas, Tafraoute is situated about 45 km away, on the North Middle Atlas Fault that separates the 'folded' Middle Atlas, to the South-East, from the 'tabular' Middle Atlas, to the North-West. Both xenolith suites record infiltration of sub-lithospheric melts that are akin to the Middle Atlas volcanism but were differentiated to variable degrees as a result of interactions with lithospheric mantle. However, while the Bou Ibalghatene mantle was densely traversed by high melt fractions, mostly focused in melt conduits, the Tafraoute suite records heterogeneous infiltration of smaller melt fractions that migrated diffusively, by intergranular porous flow. As a consequence the lithospheric mantle beneath Bou Ibalghaten was strongly modified by melt-rock interactions in the Cenozoic whereas the Tafraoute mantle preserves the record of extensional lithospheric thinning, most likely related to Mesozoic rifting. The two xenolith suites illustrate distinct mechanisms of lithospheric thinning: extensional thinning in Tafraoute, where hydrous incongruent melting triggered by decompression probably played a key role in favouring strain localisation, vs. thermal erosion in Bou Ibalghatene, favoured and guided by a dense network of melt conduits. Our results lend support to the suggestion that lithospheric thinning beneath the Atlas

  7. Sahel, North-West Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nneka Umera-Okeke

    impact depending on location, adaptation capacity and other socioeconomic factors. The Sudano-Sahel Nigeria is one of the vulnerable regions to climate ..... takes place, whereas, little or no cloud development or precipitation occur to the.

  8. The determinants of patient waiting time in the general outpatient department of Debre Markos and Felege Hiwot hospitals in Amhara regional state, North West, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melesse Belayneh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Patient waiting time is defined as the total time from registration until consultation with a doctor. Experiences of waiting in general are perceived as complex, subjective, and culturally influenced. Registration time, payment process/cash billing, recording classification/triaged time, few human resources and work process are the determinants of patient waiting time in the general outpatient departments. However, the complexity of wait time is poorly understood and has been explored only to a limited extent. The main objective of this study to assess patient waiting time and its determinants in Debre Markos and Felge Hiwot Referral hospitals of Amhara Regional State in North West, Ethiopia. Methods A hospital based comparative cross sectional study design was employed from October 20‐ November 20, 2014. The study population was patients presenting to general outpatient departments, from which 464 patients was selected using systematic random sampling technique. Quantitative Data was collected using structured questionnaire and A check list adopted from studies. Quantitative data was coded, entered, cleaned and analyzed using SPSS Software for windows version 20.0. Linear regression and bivariate logistic regression was applied to identify the determinants of each explanatory variable on outcome (patient waiting time. Finally data was interpreted by referring to the pertinent findings from the relevant literature reviewed. Ethical approval and clearance was obtained from ethical clearance committee of the Jimma University College of Public Health & Medical Sciences Result The measured waiting time in Felge Hiwot referral hospital mean waiting time was and its standard deviation 149.2±72.1 minutes whereas 94.2±58.3 minutes in debere markos referral hospital. The major causes of the long patient waiting time was large numbers of patient with a few doctors 94(40.5%,67(28.9% ,long searching of the cards 67(28.9%,73(31.5,and long

  9. Legal rights to safe abortion: knowledge and attitude of women in North-West Ethiopia toward the current Ethiopian abortion law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzeyen, R; Ayichiluhm, M; Manyazewal, T

    2017-07-01

    To assess women's knowledge and attitude toward Ethiopian current abortion law. A quantitative, community-based cross-sectional survey. Women of reproductive age in three selected lower districts in Bahir Dar, North-West Ethiopia, were included. Multi-stage simple random sampling and simple random sampling were used to select the districts and respondents, respectively. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire comprising questions related to knowledge and attitude toward legal status of abortion and cases where abortion is currently allowed by law in Ethiopia. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data and multivariable logistic regression computed to assess the magnitude and significance of associations. Of 845 eligible women selected, 774 (92%) consented to participate and completed the interview. A total of 512 (66%) women were aware of the legal status of the Ethiopian abortion law and their primary sources of information were electronic media such as television and radio (43%) followed by healthcare providers (38.7%). Among women with awareness of the law, 293 (57.2%) were poor in knowledge, 188 (36.7%) fairly knowledgeable, and 31 (6.1%) good in knowledge about the cases where abortion is allowed by law. Of the total 774 women included, 438 (56.5%) hold liberal and 336 (43.5%) conservative attitude toward legalization of abortion. In the multivariable logistic regression, age had a significant association with knowledge, whereas occupation had a significant association with attitude toward the law. Women who had poor knowledge toward the law were more likely to have conservative attitude toward the law (adjusted odds ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.23-0.61). Though the Ethiopian criminal code legalized abortion under certain circumstances since 2005, a significant number of women knew little about the law and several protested legalization of abortion. Countries such as Ethiopia with high maternal mortality records need to lift

  10. Spatial and temporal variations in cadmium concentrations and burdens in the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) sampled from the Pacific north-west

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bendell, Leah I.; Feng, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    Oysters from the north-west coast of Canada contain high levels of cadmium, a toxic metal, in amounts that exceed food safety guidelines for international markets. A first required step to determine the sources of cadmium is to identify possible spatial and temporal trends in the accumulation of cadmium by the oyster. To meet this objective, rather than sample wild and cultured oysters of unknown age and origin, an oyster 'grow-out' experiment was initiated. Cultured oyster seed was suspended in the water column up to a depth of 7 m and the oyster seed allowed to mature a period of 3 years until market size. Oysters were sampled bimonthly and at time of sampling, temperature, chlorophyll-a, turbidity and salinity were measured. Oyster total shell length, dry tissue weights, cadmium concentrations (μg g -1 ) and burdens (μg of cadmium oyster -1 ) were determined. Oyster cadmium concentrations and burdens were then interpreted with respect to the spatial and temporal sampling design as well as to the measured physio-chemical and biotic variables. When expressed as a concentration, there was a marked seasonality with concentrations being greater in winter as compared in summer; however no spatial trend was evident. When expressed as a burden which corrects for differences in tissue mass, there was no seasonality, however cadmium oyster burdens increased from south to north. Comparison of cadmium accumulation rates oyster -1 among sites indicated three locations, Webster Island, on the west side of Vancouver Island, and two within Desolation Sound, Teakerne Arm and Redonda Bay, where point sources of cadmium which are not present at all other sampling locations may be contributing to overall oyster cadmium burdens. Of the four physio-chemical factors measured only temperature and turbidity weakly correlated with tissue cadmium concentrations (r 2 = -0.13; p < 0.05). By expressing oyster cadmium both as concentration and burden, regional and temporal patterns were

  11. Pilanesberg National Park, North West Province, South Africa: Uniting economic development with ecological design – A history, 1960s to 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Carruthers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the late 1970s, a ground-breaking project began in the Pilanesberg district in what is now the North West Province of South Africa to create a wildlife conservation and eco-tourism venture from degraded marginal farmland in an aesthetically attractive extinct volcanic crater. The establishment of this national park was innovative in a number of respects, including a partnership between landscape and ecological designers, local community development and participation, regional tourist satisfaction, trophy hunting, environmental education, ecological restoration, and wildlife conservation and management. This paper briefly explored the park’s early history, explaining its landscape, its early peopling and historical land use. The narrative then concentrated on the first five years of the park’s existence, from its inception in 1977, under the aegis of Agricor, Bophuthatswana’s rural development agency, to 1984, when responsibility for the park was given over to Bophuthatswana National Parks, a parastatal agency, and a new era began. The article contended that 1984 is an appropriate date on which to conclude the early history of the Pilanesberg National Park (PNP because it was then that the experimental phase of the park ended: its infrastructure was sufficiently developed to offer a satisfactory visitor experience, the management plan was revised, its bureaucratic structures were consolidated and an attitude survey amongst the local community was undertaken. Embedding the originating period of the PNP in its historical, political and socio-economic context, the paper foregrounded those elements in the park’s beginnings that were new in the southern African protected area arena. Thus, elements that relate to socio-politics, landscape and ecological design and restoration, and early relations with neighbouring communities were emphasised. This paper has been written by an historian and is therefore conceptual and historical, conforming

  12. The indigenous Somba cattle of the hilly Atacora region in North-West Benin: threats and opportunities for its sustainable use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dossa, Luc Hippolyte; Vanvanhossou, Fridaïus Ulrich Sèyi

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the declining Somba cattle population in its production system context. Two-hundred-twenty-four (224) cattle farm-households were surveyed in the Boukombe district, the natural habitat of the breed in North-West Benin. Information on their socioeconomic characteristics and on their herd management practices were recorded using a semi-structured questionnaire. In addition, 15 body measurements were recorded from 102 adult cattle. Three types of breeders were distinguished: the owners-herders (54.0 %); the absentee owners (40.2 %) and the professional herders (5.8 %). The average cattle herd sizes were 4.7 ± 3.70 and 58.6 ± 22.83 heads for owner-managed and entrusted herds, respectively. Offtakes were more associated with sociocultural purposes (75.5 %) than market. While crop farming was the main occupation and income source of their owners, the Somba cattle were used for ploughing during the rainy season. In contrast to the widely accepted belief that this indigenous genetic resource is mainly threatened by crossbreeding and/or replacement, our findings suggest high mortalities due to diseases, feed and water shortages and poor reproduction management as the main causes of the decline of this cattle population. Somba cattle generally have short horns and a small body size. However, bulls have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) longer horns (21.2 ± 16.44 cm against 13.9 ± 7.21 cm), higher height at withers (99.7 ± 6.97 cm against 95.9 ± 5.76 cm) and body length (149.7 ± 12.87 cm against 146.8 ± 11.01 cm) than cows. All surveyed farmers expressed their willingness and readiness to participate in and contribute materially or financially to any program towards a sustainable use and preservation of this breed which they perceived as hardy and embedded in their culture. We therefore argue that strategies for its sustainable use and conservation should consist of simultaneously

  13. Integrating community children’s nursing in urgent and emergency care: a qualitative comparison of two teams in North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Richard G

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the policy principle that “children are best cared for at home whenever possible” children continue to have high rates of emergency department (ED attendance and emergency hospital admission. Community Children’s Nursing Teams (CCNTs can care for acutely ill children at home but their potential to provide an alternative to ED attendance and hospitalisation depends on effective integration with other services in the urgent care system, such as EDs and Observation and Assessment Units (OAUs. Although challenges of integrating CCNTs have been identified, there has been no comparative assessment of the factors that facilitate or hinder integration of care of acutely ill children by CCNTs with the urgent care system. The aim of this study was to identify enablers and barriers to integration of CCNTs with urgent and emergency care. Methods Comparative case studies were conducted of two CCNTs serving Primary Care Trusts in North West England. Twenty-two health professionals including CCNT managers and staff; paediatricians; nurses; children’s ward, ED and OAU staff; commissioners of children’s services; GPs and primary care staff were interviewed between June 2009 and February 2010. Qualitative data were analysed thematically using the Framework approach. Results Barriers to integration included paediatricians’ perceived lack of ownership of the CCNT, poor communication between consultants and community children’s nurses (CCNs, and weak personal relationships. This prevented early referral to the CCNT as an alternative to hospital care. Enablers of integration included co-location and rotation of CCNs through urgent care settings including OAUs and EDs. This enabled nurses to develop skills, make decisions about referral to home care and gain the confidence of referring clinicians. Conclusions Integration of CCNTs at multiple points in the urgent care system is required in order to provide an alternative to

  14. Women's social networks and use of facility delivery services for uncomplicated births in North West Ethiopia: a community-based case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrese, Kerebih; Adamek, Margaret E

    2017-12-28

    High maternal mortality has remained an unmet public health challenge in the developing world. Maternal mortality in Ethiopia is among the highest in the world. Since most maternal deaths occur during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period, facility delivery with skilled birth attendants is recommended to reduce maternal mortality. Nonetheless, the majority of women in Ethiopia give birth at home. Individual attributes and availability and accessibility of services deter service utilization. The role of social networks that may facilitate or constrain service use is not well studied. Community-based case-control study was conducted between February and March 2014 in Jabi Tehinan District, North West Ethiopia. Retrospective data were collected from 134 women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 140 women who had uncomplicated births at home within a year preceding the survey. Interviews were held with eight women who had uncomplicated births at health facilities and 11 who had uncomplicated births at home. The quantitative data were entered and analyzed using SPSS for Windows versions 16.0 and hierarchical logistic regression model was used for analysis. The qualitative data were transcribed verbatim and data were used to substantiate the quantitative data. The results indicated that social network variables were significantly associated with the use of health facilities for delivery. Taking social networks into account improved the explanation of facility use for delivery services over women's individual attributes. Women embedded within homogeneous network members (Adjusted OR 2.53; 95% CI: 1.26-5.06) and embedded within high SBA endorsement networks (Adjusted OR 7.97; 95% CI: 4.07-12.16) were more likely to deliver at health facilities than their counterparts. Women living in urban areas (Adjusted OR 3.32; 95% CI: 1.37-8.05) and had better knowledge of obstetric complications (Adjusted OR 3.01; 95% CI: 1.46-6.18) were more likely to

  15. Levels of second hand smoke in pubs and bars by deprivation and food-serving status: a cross-sectional study from North West England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hart Judy

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The UK government proposed introducing partial smokefree legislation for England with exemptions for pubs and bars that do not prepare and serve food. We set out to test the hypothesis that pubs from more deprived areas and non food-serving pubs have higher levels of particulate air pollution. Methods We conducted a cross sectional study in four mainly urban areas of the North West of England. We recruited a stratified random sample of 64 pubs divided into four groups based on whether their local population was affluent or deprived (using a UK area based deprivation measure, and whether or not they served food. The timing of air quality monitoring stratified to ensure similar distribution of monitoring by day of the week and time of evening between groups. We used a portable air quality monitor to collect fine particle (PM2.5 levels over a minimum of 30 minutes in areas where smoking was allowed,, and calculated mean time-time weighted average PM2.5 levels. Results Mean PM2.5 was 285.5 μg/m3 (95% CI 212.7 to 358.3. Mean levels in the four groups were: affluent food-serving pubs (n = 16 188.1 μg/m3 (95%CI 128.1 to 248.1; affluent non food-serving (n = 16 186.8 μg/m3 (95%CI 118.9 to 254.3; deprived food-serving (n = 17 399.4 μg/m3 (95%CI 177.7 to 621.2; and deprived non food-serving (n = 15 365.7 μg/m3 (195.6 to 535.7. Levels were higher in pubs in deprived communities: mean 383.6 μg/m3 (95% CI 249.2 to 518.0 vs 187.4 μg/m3 (144.8 to 229.9; geometric mean 245.2 μg/m3 vs 151.2 μg/m3 (p = 0.03. There was little difference in particulate levels between food and non food-serving pubs. Conclusion This study adds to the evidence that the UK government’s proposals for partial smokefree legislation in England would offer the least protection to the most heavily exposed group - bar workers and customers in non food-serving pubs in deprived areas. The results suggest these proposals would work against the UK government

  16. Characterization of the village goat production systems in the rural communities of the Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Limpopo and North West Provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mdladla, Khanyisile; Dzomba, Edgar Farai; Muchadeyi, Farai Catherine

    2017-03-01

    Expansion of goat improvement programs requires exploration of the factors that influence the production system and breeding initiatives. Characterization of goat breeds or populations is crucial in providing information on prevalent goat types and their attributes and may suffice as a guideline on conservation, development, and selection for improved productivity. This study investigated the existing village goat production system and phenotypic diversity of the different village populations from four South African provinces. The study further investigated the use of phenotypic attributes to classify goats to breeds or populations. Data was collected from 142 households in 26 villages of the Eastern Cape (n = 2 villages), KwaZulu-Natal (n = 6 villages), Limpopo (n = 13 villages), and North West (n = 5 villages) provinces through a survey. Individual interviews and focus group discussions revealed that the mean goat herd size per household was least in Limpopo at 13.2 ± 12.40 and highest in Eastern Cape (34.18 ± 28.36). Flocks had more (p Goats were kept mainly for meat, for selling, and for ritual ceremonies. The goat production system was mainly scavenging. Goat health was a major challenge across households and villages. Qualitative traits such coat, horn, ears, and wattle characteristics were recorded for populations of village goats (n = 319) and a feral Tankwa breed (n = 50). The dominant coat pattern was plain (74.53%) with black as the most common coat color (31.98%). Across breeds, a majority (88.08%) of the goats had horns, and 7.59% had wattles while 56.64% had beard. Adult goats (goats formed their own cluster separated from commercial meat type breeds and the Venda and Zulu ecotypes. The discriminant function analysis correctly classified 90.41% of the Zulu goats and 82.93% of the Xhosa village populations. None of the Savanna goats were correctly classified. The study demonstrated diversity in village goat

  17. The technical processes of quarrying in the Late Iron Age of Western Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús RODRÍGUEZ HERNÁNDEZ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reconstructs the technical processes involved in producing the stone works made by the communities of Western Iberia during the Late Iron Age. For this study, we use both archaeological and ethnographic data. We analyze the characteristics of granite, the extraction process in the quarry, the available means of transport, the tools used and the carving process, focusing analysis on the zoomorphic sculptures known as “verracos”. Assessment of these technical aspects is essential for the analysis of the finished products and constitutes a first step in better understanding the status of stonemasons within the protohistoric societies of the Western Iberian Peninsula.

  18. Middle Palaeolithic flint procurement in Central Mediterranean Iberia: Implications for human mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleix Eixea

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Different flint types from the Middle Palaeolithic site of Abrigo de la Quebrada (Chelva, Valencia are characterized,  both macro- and microscopically, and compared with types found at other localities in the region. Although procurement predominantly concerned the immediate vicinity of sites, our results show the presence of the same types in assemblages separated by distances of up to 120 km. The long distances involved are suggestive of a pattern of North-South mobility of human groups along the coastline of central Mediterranean Iberia.

  19. A Lateglacial archaeological site in the far north-west of Europe at Rubha Port an t-Seilich, Isle of Islay, western Scotland: Ahrensburgian-style artefacts, absolute dating and geoarchaeology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mithen, Steven; Wicks, Karen; Pirie, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The exact pattern, process and timing of the human re-colonization of northern Europe after the end of the last Ice Age remain controversial. Recent research has provided increasingly early dates for at least pioneer explorations of latitudes above 54°N in many regions, yet the far north-west of ......The exact pattern, process and timing of the human re-colonization of northern Europe after the end of the last Ice Age remain controversial. Recent research has provided increasingly early dates for at least pioneer explorations of latitudes above 54°N in many regions, yet the far north...

  20. Impacts of the post-fire erosion processes compared with the agricultural erosion rates for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marisa Santos, Juliana; Nunes, João Pedro; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Gonzalez Pelayo, Oscar; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-05-01

    after forest fires. The last forest fire in August 2011 burned 10% of the total area in the north-west part of the catchment. Post-fire management operations 9 month after the fire (clear-cutting and deep plowing operations) and after plantation of "Quercus robur" left the soil exposed, and relatively mild rainstorms led to large amounts of soil loss, including a large amount of rills and other erosion features. This constituted an opportunity to compare these erosion rates with the ones observed in agricultural fields for similar edapho-climatic conditions, and also observe distinct timing of erosion occurrence which was linked with different periods when soils are exposed. This communication presents the assessment of the impact of this fire on soil erosion rates, where results indicate that soil losses after soil preparation for forest replanting might be equivalent, in long-term, to soil losses in agricultural fields.

  1. Mapping magnetic lineaments and subsurface basement beneath ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    65

    studied the basement structures beneath parts of the Lower Benue Trough (LBT). Anudu et .... order vertical derivatives can be calculated respectively using the relations below: 145. ( ) ... minerals as in the case of the FVD-RTP-TMI (Figure 6).

  2. Elastic and Anelastic Structure Beneath Eurasia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ekstrom, Goran

    1997-01-01

    The primary objective of this work has been to map the variations of elastic mantle properties beneath Eurasia over horizontal length scales of approximately 1000-1500 kilometers and vertial length...

  3. Exploring Institutional Transformations to Address High-End Climate Change in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan David Tàbara

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Either meeting the UNFCCC Paris agreement to limit global average warming below the 2–1.5 °C threshold, or going beyond it entails huge challenges in terms of institutional innovation and transformation. This research describes a participatory integrated assessment process aimed at exploring the options, opportunities, necessary capacities and implications for institutional co-operation and innovation in the Iberian Peninsula under High-End Climate Change (HECC. Using in-depth interviews and a novel participatory research approach, different scenario narratives and pathways about the future of Iberia have been identified using Shared Socio-economic Pathways (SSPs. Special attention is given to the knowledge and policy options needed to implement cross-border organizational changes and co-operation mechanisms that would support the Integrated Climate Governance of the Tagus and Guadiana river basins. We show that a wealth of institutional innovation pathways and specific options and solutions exist not only to reduce GHG emissions (mitigation and the negative impacts of climate change (adaptation, but, above all, to generate new forms of social-ecological system interactions aligned with sustainability (transformation. In particular, and depending on which scenario contexts unfold in the future in Iberia, different kinds of institutional and governance capacities and clusters of solutions may be needed in order to achieve transformation.

  4. Red squirrels from south–east Iberia: low genetic diversity at the southernmost species distribution limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas, J. M.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available South–east Iberia is the southernmost limit of this species in Europe. Squirrels in the region mainly inhabit coniferous forests of Pinus. In this study, we analyzed the pattern of mitochondrial genetic variation of southern Iberian red squirrels. Fragments of two mitochondrial genes, a 350–base pair of the displacement loop (D–loop and a 359–bp of the cytochrome b (Cytb, were sequenced using samples collected from 88 road–kill squirrels. The genetic variation was low, possibly explained by a recent bottleneck due to historical over–exploitation of forest resources. Habitat loss and fragmentation caused by deforestation and geographic isolation may explain the strong genetic subdivision between the study regions. Six new haplotypes for the D–loop and two new haplotypes for the Cytb fragments are described. A Cytb haplotype of south–east Iberia was found to be present in Albania and Japan, suggesting local extinction of this haplotype in intermediate areas. No significant clustering was found for the south–east of Spain or for the other European populations (except Calabria in the phylogenetic analysis.

  5. Anthropogenic impact and lead pollution throughout the Holocene in Southern Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alix, A; Jimenez-Espejo, F J; Lozano, J A; Jiménez-Moreno, G; Martinez-Ruiz, F; García Sanjuán, L; Aranda Jiménez, G; García Alfonso, E; Ruiz-Puertas, G; Anderson, R Scott

    2013-04-01

    Present day lead pollution is an environmental hazard of global proportions. A correct determination of natural lead levels is very important in order to evaluate anthropogenic lead contributions. In this paper, the anthropogenic signature of early metallurgy in Southern Iberia during the Holocene, more specifically during the Late Prehistory, was assessed by mean of a multiproxy approach: comparison of atmospheric lead pollution, fire regimes, deforestation, mass sediment transport, and archeological data. Although the onset of metallurgy in Southern Iberia is a matter of controversy, here we show the oldest lead pollution record from Western Europe in a continuous paleoenvironmental sequence, which suggests clear lead pollution caused by metallurgical activities since ~3900 cal BP (Early Bronze Age). This lead pollution was especially important during Late Bronze and Early Iron ages. At the same time, since ~4000 cal BP, an increase in fire activity is observed in this area, which is also coupled with deforestation and increased erosion rates. This study also shows that the lead pollution record locally reached near present-day values many times in the past, suggesting intensive use and manipulation of lead during those periods in this area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Más sobre Iberia y los topónimos griegos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrados, Francisco R.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which follows a former one in Emerita 68, 2000, pp.1-18, collects and studies the Greek toponymy of Southern and Mediterranean Spain: its origin, dialectal character and chronology. This toponymy offers an insight on the knowledge of this area by the Greeks. Frequently it translates or hellenizes indigenous or Phoenician names. It can be said that the Greek toponymy is one of the witnesses at our disposal for achieving a better understanding of the role the greeks played in Iberia.Este artículo, que continúa uno anterior en Emerita 58, 2000, pp.1-18, recoge y estudia la toponimia griega de la zona meridional y mediterránea de España: su origen, sus características dialectales y su cronología. Este material ofrece una visión del conocimiento que los griegos tenían de esta área. A menudo se trata de traducciones o helenizaciones de topónimos indígenas o fenicios. Puede afirmarse que la toponimia griega es uno de los testimonios de que disponemos para un mejor conocimiento del papel que jugaron los griegos en Iberia.

  7. Iberia and Etruria: notes for a review of relations | Iberia y Etruria: notas para una revisión de las relaciones | Iberia y Etruria: notas para una revisión de las relaciones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique A. Llobregat Conesa

    1982-12-01

    Full Text Available Algunos recientes hallazgos de objetos de posible origen etrusco: un ánfora, un jarro de bronce, encontrados en el litoral meridional valenciano, son el punto de arranque para una revisión de la bibliografía y de las opiniones sobre las relaciones entre Etruria e Iberia, un repaso a los hallazgos hispánicos de carácter etrusco, y una hipótesis sobre paralelismo e influencias en el campo de la plástica mayor y de la arquitectura. | Quelques récents trouvailles d'objets de possible origine étrusque (une amphore, une cruche en bronze apparus en sites du littoral d'Alicante, donnent le point de départ pour une révision de la bibliographie et des différents avis des auteurs espagnols sur les rapports entre l'Etrurie et l'Ibérie, et aussi pour une mise à point de l'état actual de la recherche sur les objets d'origine étrusque apparus en Espagne et pour lancer une hypothèse qui met en valeur les parallèles et les influences étrusques sur la statuaire et l'architecture ibériques.

  8. Dynamical Mechanisms and Variability of Dry and Wet Spells in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, Margarida L. R.; Montero, Irene; Gouveia, Célia

    2014-05-01

    Dry and wet spells in Iberia have widespread ecological and environmental negative impacts resulting in major socioeconomic damages such as crop yield losses or increasing forest fire risk [Gouveia et al. 2009; Amraoui et al. 2013] and flash flooding, urban inundations, landslides and associated human and infrastructure damages [Liberato et al. 2013]. The 20th century was characterized by a negative trend on precipitation and a positive trend on temperature in southern Europe. On the other hand recent results suggest that there are opposite tendencies in the duration of wet and dry spells over the Iberia. At the monthly and seasonal scales, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), the Eastern Atlantic (EA) and the Scandinavian (SCAN) patterns are important large-scale variability modes that control the Iberian precipitation regime. The NAO modulates the westerly atmospheric flow by shifting the polar jet and the associated storm-tracks. At the sub-monthly scale, extratropical cyclones have a significant impact on Iberian climate and are one of the primary causes of extreme events occurrence over the region [Liberato et al. 2011; 2013]. In this work we investigate the connection between midlatitude cyclones and the onset and recurrent character of droughts, heavy precipitation and spell duration in Iberia. Our results confirm the links between unusual circulation patterns with these extreme events. Moreover we show how the frequency on the occurrence of extratropical cyclones on the Euro-Atlantic region is critical in explaining the tails of the precipitation distribution in Iberia. Acknowledgments: This work was partially supported by national funds through FCT (Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia, Portugal) under project QSECA (PTDC/AAG-GLO/4155/2012). References: Amraoui M., M. L. R. Liberato, T. J. Calado, C. C. DaCamara, L. P. Coelho, R. M. Trigo, C. M. Gouveia (2013) Fire activity over Mediterranean Europe based on information from Meteosat-8. Forest

  9. The religious polemics of the Muslims of Late Medieval Christian Iberia : Identity and religious authority in Mudejar Islam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colominas Aparicio, M.

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the politics of identity of the Muslims in Late Medieval Christian Iberia (Mudejars). Mudejars had to endure the pressure exerted by the Christian majority society and also the criticism from their co-religionists in Muslim lands who contested their exceptional

  10. Episodic melting and magmatic recycling along 50 Ma in the Variscan belt linked to the orogenic evolution in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; López-Carmona, A.; García Acera, G.; Martín Garro, J.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; Gärtner, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of a large amount of more precise U-Pb age data on Variscan granitoids from NW Iberia in recent years has provided a more focused picture of the magmatic history of the Western European Variscan belt (WEVB). Based on these data, three main pulses of magmatic activity seem to be well established.

  11. Revalidation of the Malay Version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) Among Malay Postpartum Women Attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West Of Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Wan Mohd. Rushidi Wan; Awang, Amir; Mohamed, Mahmood Nazar

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To reevaluate the psychometric characteristics of the Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale among a sample of postpartum Malay women attending the Bakar Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. Materials and methods: 64 women between 4 to 12 weeks postpartum were recruited for there validation study. They were given questionnaires on socio-demography, the 21-item Malay version of the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) and the 10-item Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). All the participants were later interviewed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS-17) and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). All diagnoses were made based on the Tenth Edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) Results: 9 women (14.1%) were diagnosed to have significant depression (7 mild depressive episodes and 2 moderate depressive episodes according to ICD-10). EPDS was found to have good internal consistency (Cronbach alpha =0.86) and split half reliability (Spearman split half coefficient = 0.83). The instrument also showed satisfactory discriminant and concurrent validity as evidenced by the statistically significant difference in EPDS scores between the depressed group and their non-depressed counterparts (Mann Whitney U test: 2 tailed p value Depression Scale in identifying postpartum depression among recently delivered Malay women attending the Bata Bata Health Center in Alor Setar, Kedah, North West of Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:23386800

  12. Land degradation and improvement trends over Iberia in the last three decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Páscoa, Patrícia; Russo, Ana; Trigo, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    Land degradation and desertification are recognised as an important environmental and social problem in arid and semiarid regions, particularly within a climate change context. In the last three decades the entire Mediterranean basin has been affected by more frequent droughts, covering large sectors and often lasting several months. Simultaneously, the stress imposed by land management practices, such as land abandonment and intensification, highlights the need of a continuous monitoring and early detection of degradation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from GIMMS dataset was used as an indicator of land degradation or improvement over Iberia between 1982 and 2012. The precipitation influence on NDVI was previously removed and the negative/positive trends of the obtained residuals were presumed to indicate land degradation/improvement. Overall the Iberian Peninsula is dominated by widespread land improvement with only a few hot spots of land degradation located in central and southern sectors and also in east Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. Less than 20% of the area presenting land degradation is located within regions where land cover changes were observed, being the new land cover types associated with transitional woodland-shrub, permanent and annual crops and permanently irrigated land areas. Although being a very small fraction, the pixels of land degradation are mainly located on a semi-arid region. The monotonic changes and trend shifts present in the NDVI dataset were also assessed. The major shifts in vegetation trends and the corresponding year of occurrence were associated with the main disturbances observed in Iberia, namely the major wildfires' seasons in Portugal, and also to land abandonment and to new agricultural practices that resulted from the construction of new dams. The results obtained provide a new outlook of the real nature of degradation or improvement of vegetation in Iberia in the last three decades

  13. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valério, P., E-mail: pvalerio@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Silva, R.J.C., E-mail: rjcs@fct.unl.pt [CENIMAT/I3N, Departamento de Ciência dos Materiais, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Monte de Caparica (Portugal); Soares, A.M.M., E-mail: amsoares@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Araújo, M.F., E-mail: faraujo@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Gonçalves, A.P., E-mail: apg@ctn.ist.utl.pt [Centro de Ciências e Tecnologias Nucleares (C2TN), Instituto Superior Técnico, Universidade de Lisboa, Campus Tecnológico e Nuclear, Estrada Nacional 10 (km 139,7), 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Soares, R.M., E-mail: ruigusmao@hotmail.com [UNIARQ, Centro de Arqueologia da Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, Alameda da Universidade, 1600-214 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2015-09-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM–EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu–Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities.

  14. Combining X-ray based methods to study the protohistoric bronze technology in Western Iberia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valério, P.; Silva, R.J.C.; Soares, A.M.M.; Araújo, M.F.; Gonçalves, A.P.; Soares, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    The Phoenician arrival at Iberian coastal regions had an actual influence on indigenous technology. A collection of coeval metallurgical remains and artefacts was studied by EDXRF, micro-EDXRF, SEM–EDS and XRD, to identify certain features of the production and utilisation of metal in protohistoric Western Iberia. The composition of artefacts indicates a prevalence of Cu–Sn alloys with low content of impurities (Pb, As, Sb and Fe) during Late Bronze and Early Iron Ages, while the composition of slags points to a smaller loss of copper in Phoenician smelting operations. Moreover, the amount of iron impurities in metal proved to be a helpful discriminator between indigenous and Phoenician-based metallurgies, showing that later alloys have higher amounts of iron. Besides, the indigenous alloys have higher tin contents that can probably be explained by the easier access to metal sources of local communities

  15. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).

  16. Climate change and population dynamics during the late Mesolithic and the Neolithic transition in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Fernández López de Pablo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores how Early Holocene climate changes in the Western Mediterranean would have affected Late Mesolithic settlement distribution and subsistence strategies in Iberian Peninsula, thereby giving rise to various adaptive scenarios. The current radiocarbon data set concerning the Neolithisation process has revealed the rapidity of the spread of farming in Iberia. Considering both the implications of the last hunter-gatherers’ adaptation strategies and the population dynamics of agro-pastoral communities, we address the migration patterns underlying the Mesolithic- Neolithic transition. In conclusion, we propose that the initial colonization process was the result of two successive and spatially heterogeneous migrations: Maritime Pioneer Colonization and targeted migration to places favorable to the new economic system.

  17. Environmental Assessment for decommissioning the Strategic Petroleum Reserve Weeks Island Facility, Iberia Parish, Louisiana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) Weeks Island site is one of five underground salt dome crude oils storage facilities operated by the Department of Energy (DOE). It is located in Iberia Parish, Louisiana. The purpose of the proposed action is to decommission the Weeks Island crude oil storage after the oil inventory has been transferred to other SPR facilities. Water intrusion into the salt dome storage chambers and the development of two sinkholes located near the aboveground facilities has created uncertain geophysical conditions. This Environmental Assessment describes the proposed decommissioning operation, its alternatives, and potential environmental impacts. Based on this analyses, DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and has issued the Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI)

  18. Post-depositional tectonic modification of VMS deposits in Iberia and its economic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castroviejo, Ricardo; Quesada, Cecilio; Soler, Miguel

    2011-07-01

    The original stratigraphic relationships and structure of VMS deposits are commonly obscured by deformation. This can also affect their economic significance, as shown by several Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB, SW Iberia) examples. The contrasting rheologic properties of the different lithologies present in an orebody (massive sulphide, feeder stockwork, alteration envelope, volcanic and sedimentary rocks) play a major role in determining its overall behaviour. Variscan thin-skinned tectonics led to stacking of the massive pyrite and stockwork bodies in duplex structures, resulting in local thickening and increased tonnage of minable mineralization. Furthermore, differential mechanical behaviour of the different sulphide minerals localised the detachments along relatively ductile sulphide-rich bands. The result was a geochemical and mineralogical reorganisation of most deposits, which now consist of barren, massive pyrite horses, bounded by base metal-rich ductile shear zones. Metal redistribution was enhanced by mobilisation of the base metal sulphides from the initially impoverished massive pyrite, through pressure-solution processes, to tensional fissures within the already ductile shear zones. In NW Iberia, VMS deposits were also strongly overprinted by the Variscan deformation during emplacement of the Cabo Ortegal and Órdenes allochthonous nappe complexes, but no stacking of the orebodies was produced. Original contacts were transposed, and the orebodies, their feeder zones and the country rock acquired pronounced laminar geometry. In lower-grade rocks (greenschist facies, Cabo Ortegal Complex), solution transfer mechanisms are common in pyrite, which remains in the brittle domain, while chalcopyrite shows ductile behaviour. In higher-grade rocks (amphibolite facies, Órdenes Complex), metamorphic recrystallisation overprints earlier deformation textures. The contrasting behaviour of the IPB and NW Iberian deposits is explained by key factors that affect their

  19. Matrilineal Heritage in Southern Iberia Reveals Deep Genetic Links between Continents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Candela L; Calderón, Rosario

    2017-03-01

    Within the Mediterranean Basin, the Iberian Peninsula has been a focus of attraction for several cultures and civilizations from its prehistory and history, making it a target territory for studying human migration patterns and peopling processes using a wide and heterogeneous spectrum of genomic markers. While its Cantabrian fringe represents the most regularly analysed area in terms of its mitochondrial diversity, the absence of monographic surveys on the maternal genetic composition of southern Iberians (i.e., Andalusians) is striking. In this work, we present a comprehensive view of various aspects of the human maternal heritage of the autochthonous Andalusian population regarding specific mitochondrial haplogroups considered key candidates to determine the genetic relationship between Europe and Africa. Data reveal that southern Iberian populations do not have genetically homogeneous mitochondrial DNA profiles, and their observed genetic affinity with north-western African populations represents strong signals of old, sustained and bidirectional human movements between the northern and southern shores of the western Mediterranean. Thorough analyses of African mtDNA haplogroups have shown that the most relevant African contribution within Iberian Peninsula could be explained as a consequence of prehistoric events. The subsequent historic episodes helped to strengthen the ties between both shores. In southern Iberia, mitochondrial and other genetic markers show that the Strait of Gibraltar together with its surrounding maritime areas should be considered a bridge between continents. More broadly, the Mediterranean Sea has acted as a transport surface, that is, as a permeable barrier to human migrations from prehistoric and historic times. In conclusion, this research contributes to our knowledge of processes that have shaped the recent human genetic history in the Mediterranean and, more specifically, of the population dynamics that the inhabitants of southern

  20. Phytosociological description of norite koppies in the Rustenburg area, North-West Province and refinement of the distribution of the Norite Koppies Bushveld on the national vegetation classification map of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. J. H. Lamprecht

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type boasts a distinctive and contrasting topography and species composition easily distinguished from that of surrounding areas. A phytosociological study was done on the leased mining area of the Impala Platinum Mining Company north of Rustenburg in the North-West Province. Similar norite koppies, situated west of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation, and not yet mapped by Mucina & Rutherford (2006, were identified in the study area and phytosociologically described. Six plant communities and two subcommunities were identified. Multivariate statistical analyses (correspondence analyses confirmed that the species composition of these areas corresponds with and does therefore form part of the Norite Koppies Bushveld vegetation type as described by Mucina & Rutherford (2006. Some of these communities contain Boscia albitrunca, a protected plant species, and should therefore be considered as areas with conservation value.

  1. Reliability of AMS and ARM/KARM to reconstruct the relative vigor and variability of sea-bottom currents during the Last Glacial Period in the North-West Iberian Continental Margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, D.; Plaza-Morlote, M.; Mohamed Falcon, K. J.; Pares, J. M.; Bernabeu, A. M.; El Mekadem, N.; Rubio, B.

    2017-12-01

    We explore the potential and reliability of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) to reconstruct the relative vigor of the sea-bottom currents by comparison with the widely-used paleo current proxy `sortable silt' mean (SS) grain size. SS and AMS are used as two independent proxies to determine relative changes in bottom-current speed, and their consistency tested against each other. The suitability of the magnetic grainsize proxy ARM/KARM ratio as a proxy for bottom-current variability is also investigated. The results are based on CI12PC3 core from the Galicia Interior Basin (North West Iberian Continental Margin) spanning the last 80 ka. The majority of AMS ellipsoid minimum axes (K3) in core CI12PC3 are close to vertical (INCmean= 80o) and nearly orthogonal to the bedding plane. Maximum axes (K1) are well-grouped marking two main magnetic lineation directions. Their orientations are consistent with present-day bottom-currents flow directions along the continental margin. Down-core variations in the degree of anisotropy (Pj) showed significantly higher values during Heinrich Stadials (cold) than during interstadials (warm). CI12PC3 also shows systematically lower ARM/KARM values during the stadials than during interstadials, indicating provenance induced coarsening of the magnetic fraction during the cold periods. We have noted that Pj down-core changes are independent of magnetic grain size, and interpreted them as the result of differences in the degree of grain alignment. These changes can be attributed to the variability in the strength of the bottom currents, indicating that they are stronger during stadials, which is consistent with the SS results. Magnetic properties and AMS of core CI12PC3 are climatically modulated on a millennial time scale reflecting the evolution in the near bottom-currents of the North West Iberian Continental Margin. Their variability exposes unchartered links with the AMOC and with the North Atlantic climate variability

  2. The Lower Danube River-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea: A pivotal area of major interest for the past, present and future of its fish fauna--A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bănăduc, Doru; Rey, Sonia; Trichkova, Teodora; Lenhardt, Mirjana; Curtean-Bănăduc, Angela

    2016-03-01

    The complex Danube-Black Sea geoecosystem, created by a unique combination of integrated biotopes and biocoenoses related forces and counter-forces in time and space, forms a rich "ichthyosystem". The equilibrium among the fish species captured in the Danube Delta reveals its structural and functional roles in the connectivity of the Danube and Black Sea. The key role of the delta is evidenced by the fact that 57.26% of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea fish species use two or three of the subsystems in terms of habitats. Therefore, this convergence area can be considered to be a dynamic and rich "ichthyosystem", with three subsystems. All three evolved interdependently, which permits their flexibility and adaptation in an interdependent way. The habitat heterogeneity, native economic and conservation priority fish species of the Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea have decreased significantly, and there are no indications that this trend will be halted soon. The Danube "sub-ichtyosystem" seems to be more directly affected than the others. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North Western Black Sea "ichthyosystem" exhibits a significant level of flexibility, resilience and adaptation over geological time, but has become much more sensitive to environmental perturbations due to the last century of human impact. This "ichthyosystem" is affected by non-native fish species. The study area represents an interdependent ecological net, without which the specific "ichthyosystem" formed over geological time will disappear. The studied ecological net fish fauna is an accurate indicator of various human pressures. The Lower Danube-Danube Delta-North West Black Sea geoecosystem, in which the Danube Delta provides the pivotal habitat element, is the matrix for a unique "ichthyosystem." However, human impacts decrease its resilience and can induce its extinction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The 19 January 2013 windstorm over the North Atlantic: large-scale dynamics and impacts on Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarida L.R. Liberato

    2014-10-01

    Results show that Gong underwent an explosive development with ‘bomb’ characteristics between the Azores and the Iberian Peninsula, with a deepening rate unusually high for these latitudes. The rapid deepening of Gong was supported by the southerly displacement of the polar jet stream; by a pronounced cyclonic potential vorticity streamer which approached Iberia from northwest; and by the presence of an atmospheric river over the western and central subtropical North Atlantic converging into Gong׳s genesis region and then crossing the Atlantic basin, moving along with the storm towards Iberia. Understanding the dynamics of these high impact extreme events may be of relevance in view of improving extreme forecasts as well as of public awareness, policy making and risk assessment and management of severe weather in Portugal.

  4. Crustal Structure beneath Alaska from Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y.; Li, A.

    2017-12-01

    The crustal structure in Alaska has not been well resolved due to the remote nature of much of the state. The USArray Transportable Array (TA), which is operating in Alaska and northwestern Canada, significantly increases the coverage of broadband seismic stations in the region and allows for a more comprehensive study of the crust. We have analyzed P-receiver functions from earthquake data recorded by 76 stations of the TA and AK networks. Both common conversion point (CCP) and H-K methods are used to estimate the mean crustal thickness. The results from the CCP stacking method show that the Denali fault marks a sharp transition from thick crust in the south to thin crust in the north. The thickest crust up to 52 km is located in the St. Elias Range, which has been formed by oblique collision between the Yakutat microplate and North America. A thick crust of 48 km is also observed beneath the eastern Alaska Range. These observations suggest that high topography in Alaska is largely compensated by the thick crust root. The Moho depth ranges from 28 km to 35 km beneath the northern lowlands and increases to 40-45 km under the Books Range. The preliminary crustal thickness from the H-K method generally agrees with that from the CCP stacking with thicker crust beneath high mountain ranges and thinner crust beneath lowlands and basins. However, the offshore part is not well constrained due to the limited coverage of stations. The mean Vp/Vs ratio is around 1.7 in the Yukon-Tanana terrane and central-northern Alaska. The ratio is about 1.9 in central and southern Alaska with higher values at the Alaska Range, Wrangell Mountains, and St. Elias Range. Further data analyses are needed for obtaining more details of the crustal structure in Alaska to decipher the origin and development of different tectonic terranes.

  5. Atmospheric forcing in the occurrence of precipitation extremes in Iberia: comparison between the eastern and western sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, J. A.; Mendes, A. R.

    2009-09-01

    The occurrence of severe precipitation deficits in the Iberian Peninsula has major socio-economic and environmental impacts. Several previous studies emphasized the leading role of the large-scale atmospheric flow in the occurrence of long periods with significant precipitation lacks. However, due to the high complexity of the Iberian orography, the sensitivity of the local rain-generating mechanisms to large-scale anomalies is remarkably different from region to region. A principal component analysis of the annual precipitation amounts recorded at a network of meteorological stations over the entire peninsula for the period 1961-1998 corroborates this heterogeneity. With particular significance is the contrast between the western and eastern sectors of the peninsula. In fact, taking into account earlier studies, precipitation in western Iberia is strongly related to large-scale atmospheric patterns over the North Atlantic. On the contrary, precipitation over eastern Iberia is much less associated with these large-scale forcing patterns, but much more linked to local/regional mechanisms. In order to test these hypotheses, eight meteorological stations, four in the western half (Porto, Bragança, Lisboa and Beja) and four in the eastern half (Barcelona, Valencia, Tortosa and Zaragoza) of Iberia are selected taking into account, firstly, the geographical location, and secondly the quality and homogeneity of the respective time series. A set of extremely wet/dry seasons was subsequently chosen for each weather station separately, taking into account the 90th percentile of the respective empirical distributions. The analysis of the different atmospheric fields (precipitation rates, convective precipitation, precipitable water, specific humidity, relative humidity, surface temperature, sea surface pressure, geopotential heights, wind components and vorticity at different isobaric levels) is undertaken by using data from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction

  6. The terms 'Iberia' and 'Iberians' in Greek and Latin sources: a study about their origin and scope | Los términos "Iberia" e "Íberos" en las fuentes grecolatinas: estudio acerca de su origen y ámbito de aplicación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Jerónimo Domínguez Monedero

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with two basic problems: establish the possible relationship between Pontic Iberia and the origin of the name of Spanish Iberia, studying the information which surely some Greek mythical stories comprise, and establish the contents exclusively geographical, and far of any ethnical consideration, which the word «Iberia» (Hispania had in ancient times, turning to the graeco-latin authors' witness. | Este artículo se propone dos objetivos fundamentales: establecer la relación que pudo existir entre la Iberia póntica y el origen del nombre de la Iberia hispánica, mediante el estudio de la posible información contenida en algunas narraciones míticas griegas, y establecer el contenido exclusivamente geográfico, y alejado de cualquier planteamiento de tipo étnico, que en la Antigüedad tuvo el término «Iberia» (Hispania, acudiendo a los testimonios de los autores grecolatinos.

  7. A mid-third millennium BC collective burial cave in central Iberia: El Rebollosillo (Torrelaguna, Madrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Díaz-del-Río

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available El Rebollosillo is a small karstic cave located in the center of Iberia used for the disposition of secondary burials during the mid third millennium BC. We present bioanthropological, isotopic (87Sr/86Sr, δ13C and δ18O analyses and 16 radiocarbon dates on human remains, as well as mineralogical characterization of 6 beads (4 of them variscite from Palazuelo de las Cuevas, Zamora, and a quantitative analysis of 43 pottery fragments recovered during the 1989 excavations. A minimum of 21 individuals have been identified, covering all age ranges and sex. Low percentages of pathologies have been detected, mainly dental calculus and caries, with specific cases of cribra orbitalia, periostosis and arthritis. Only adults received a clearly individualized treatment, suggestive of achieved status. We interpret the evidence as a multi-staged mortuary program, the last phase of which is documented at the site, with previous stages perhaps carried out elsewhere, and we evaluate these results in the context of the regional funerary record.

  8. Magnetotelluric Imaging of the Lithosphere Across the Variscan Orogen (Iberian Autochthonous Domain, NW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves Ribeiro, J.; Monteiro-Santos, F. A.; Pereira, M. F.; Díez Fernández, R.; Dias da Silva, Í.; Nascimento, C.; Silva, J. B.

    2017-12-01

    A new magnetotelluric (MT) survey comprising 17 MT soundings throughout a 30 km long N30°W transect in the Iberian autochthons domain of NW Iberia (Central Iberian Zone) is presented. The 2-D inversion model shows the resistivity structure of the continental crust up to 10 km depth, heretofore unavailable for this region of the Variscan Orogen. The MT model reveals a wavy structure separating a conductive upper layer underlain by a resistive layer, thus picturing the two main tectonic blocks of a large-scale D2 extensional shear zone (i.e., Pinhel shear zone). The upper layer represents a lower grade metamorphic domain that includes graphite-rich rocks. The lower layer consists of high-grade metamorphic rocks that experienced partial melting and are associated with granites (more resistive) emplaced during crustal thinning. The wavy structure is the result of superimposed crustal shortening responsible for the development of large-scale D3 folds (e.g., Marofa synform), later deflected and refolded by a D4 strike-slip shear zone (i.e., Juzbado-Penalva do Castelo shear zone). The later contribution to the final structure of the crust is marked by the intrusion of postkinematic granitic rocks and the propagation of steeply dipping brittle fault zones. Our study demonstrates that MT imaging is a powerful tool to understand complex crustal structures of ancient orogens in order to design future prospecting surveys for mineral deposits of economic interest.

  9. Laterality in the first Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominguez-Ballesteros, Eder; Arrizabalaga, Alvaro

    2015-05-01

    Laterality is a quality, widespread throughout the vertebrate kingdom. It consists in assigning different roles to each side of the body by granting predominance to one of the sides. Humans too display this quality and the specialization of each hemisphere in our brain was already present in the first vertebrates. We usually refer to right-handed and left-handed people depending on the upper limb that is assigned the dominant role. For a long time, it has been thought that the proportion of left-handed people in a population has remained constant in all cultures and during our evolution. However, laterality is affected by sociocultural influences and varies geographically and chronologically. Using archaeological remains, it is possible to obtain information about the laterality of our ancestors and determine laterality indices for past populations. We developed an experimental programme to determine which characteristics of a polished axe indicate the laterality of its maker. We describe a method based on the orientation of the edge and we study the Neolithic and Chalcolithic farming communities in northern Iberia to evaluate the laterality in those populations. The right/left laterality ratio for the Neolithic and Chalcolithic populations is very similar to the range detected for modern non-industrial societies.

  10. Mitochondrial haplogroup H1 in north Africa: an early holocene arrival from Iberia.

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    Claudio Ottoni

    Full Text Available The Tuareg of the Fezzan region (Libya are characterized by an extremely high frequency (61% of haplogroup H1, a mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplogroup that is common in all Western European populations. To define how and when H1 spread from Europe to North Africa up to the Central Sahara, in Fezzan, we investigated the complete mitochondrial genomes of eleven Libyan Tuareg belonging to H1. Coalescence time estimates suggest an arrival of the European H1 mtDNAs at about 8,000-9,000 years ago, while phylogenetic analyses reveal three novel H1 branches, termed H1v, H1w and H1x, which appear to be specific for North African populations, but whose frequencies can be extremely different even in relatively close Tuareg villages. Overall, these findings support the scenario of an arrival of haplogroup H1 in North Africa from Iberia at the beginning of the Holocene, as a consequence of the improvement in climate conditions after the Younger Dryas cold snap, followed by in situ formation of local H1 sub-haplogroups. This process of autochthonous differentiation continues in the Libyan Tuareg who, probably due to isolation and recent founder events, are characterized by village-specific maternal mtDNA lineages.

  11. Seamounts along the Iberian continental margins; Los montes submarinos en los margenes continentales de Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.; Fernandez-Puga, M. C.; Gomez-Ballesteros, M.; Iglesias, J.; Palomino, D.; Roque, C.; Ercilla, G.; Diaz-del-Rio, V.

    2015-07-01

    Seamounts are first-order morphological elements on continental margins and in oceanic domains, which have been extensively researched over recent decades in all branches of oceanography. These features favour the development of several geological processes, and their study gives us a better understanding of their geological and morphological domains. The seamounts around Iberia are numerous and provide excellent examples of the geo diversity of these morphological elements. Here we present a compilation of 15 seamounts around the Iberian Peninsula. These seamounts have different origins related to the geodynamic evolution (volcanism, extensional or compressive tectonics, and diapirism) of the domains where they are located. The current configuration of their relief has been influenced by Neogene-Quaternary tectonics. Their positioning controls the current morpho-sedimentary processes in the basins and on the margins, and high- lights the fact that downslope processes on seamount flanks (mass flows, turbidite flows, and landslides) and processes parallel to seamounts (contouritic currents) correspond to the major geological features they are associated with them. Biogenic structures commonly develop on the tops of seamounts where occasionally isolated shelves form that have carbonate-dominated sedimentation. (Author)

  12. Insights into the lithospheric architecture of Iberia and Morocco from teleseismic body-wave attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, Maximiliano J.

    2017-11-01

    The long and often complicated tectonic history of continental lithosphere results in lateral strength heterogeneities which in turn affect the style and localization of deformation. In this study, we produce a model for the attenuation structure of Iberia and northern Morocco using a waveform-matching approach on P-wave data from teleseismic deep-focus earthquakes. We find that attenuation is correlated with zones of intraplate deformation and seismicity, but do not find a consistent relationship between attenuation and recent volcanism. The main features of our model are low to moderate Δt* in the undeformed Tertiary basins of Spain and high Δt* in areas deformed by the Alpine orogeny. Additionally, low Δt* is found in areas where the Alboran slab is thought to be attached to the Iberian and African lithosphere, and high Δt* where it has detached. These features are robust with respect to inversion parameters, and are consistent with independent data. Very mild backazimuthal dependence of the measurements and comparison with previous results suggest that the source of the attenuation is sub-crustal. In line with other recent studies, the range of Δt* we observe is much larger than can be expected from lithospheric thickness or temperature variations.

  13. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B. [Univ. of Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix.

  14. Analysis of groundwater flow beneath ice sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulton, G. S.; Zatsepin, S.; Maillot, B.

    2001-03-01

    The large-scale pattern of subglacial groundwater flow beneath European ice sheets was analysed in a previous report. It was based on a two-dimensional flowline model. In this report, the analysis is extended to three dimensions by exploring the interactions between groundwater and tunnel flow. A theory is developed which suggests that the large-scale geometry of the hydraulic system beneath an ice sheet is a coupled, self-organising system. In this system the pressure distribution along tunnels is a function of discharge derived from basal meltwater delivered to tunnels by groundwater flow, and the pressure along tunnels itself sets the base pressure which determines the geometry of catchments and flow towards the tunnel. The large-scale geometry of tunnel distribution is a product of the pattern of basal meltwater production and the transmissive properties of the bed. The tunnel discharge from the ice margin of the glacier, its seasonal fluctuation and the sedimentary characteristics of eskers are largely determined by the discharge of surface meltwater which penetrates to the bed in the terminal zone. The theory explains many of the characteristics of esker systems and can account for tunnel valleys. It is concluded that the large-scale hydraulic regime beneath ice sheets is largely a consequence of groundwater/tunnel flow interactions and that it is essential similar to non-glacial hydraulic regimes. Experimental data from an Icelandic glacier, which demonstrates measured relationships between subglacial tunnel flow and groundwater flow during the transition from summer to winter seasons for a modern glacier, and which support the general conclusions of the theory is summarised in an appendix

  15. A continuous high-resolution record of western South Island environmental change over the last 31,000 years from stable isotope analyses of two north-west Nelson speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellstrom, J.; McCulloch, M.; Stone, J.

    1997-01-01

    Core samples were taken through large sheets of calcite flowstone growing in two cave systems, Nettlebed, and Exhaleair, in north-west Nelson, New Zealand. The sampled flowstones are at elevations of 400 m asl and 600 m asl, and are both located 200m below the surface. Ten high-precision U-series dates, measured by thermal ionisation mass spectroemtry, indicate the Nettlebed flowstone grew continuously over the last 31 ka. The Exhaleair flowstone grew continuously over the last 16 ka, following a 50 ka hiatus in deposition. The speleothems from both caves show similar records of oxygen isotope variation over the last 16 ka. The carbon isotope record from Nettlebed shows considerable variation, of almost 10 per thousand from the last glacial maximum to the early Holocene. It is anticipated that these well-dated speleothem records will enable more accurate constraints to be placed on the timing of glacial advances and vegetation changes in the western South Island than are possible using the available radiocarbon ages alone. (author)

  16. Processing of the reflection seismic data which were acquired in the continental shelf off the north-west Australia; Australia hokusei tairikudana chiiki ni oite shutokusareta hanshaho chishitsu tansa data no shori ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amano, H [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    Reflection exploration of earthquakes was conducted in the continental shelf off the north-west Australia, and a report is made concerning the processing of the acquired data. A GI gun was used as the vibration source, and a wave quite similar to a pulse was generated. Hydrophones were arranged with group intervals of 12.5m, and high-resolution field data were acquired. An analog low cut filter was used to suppress the large-amplitude swell noise attributable to sea conditions. A digital filter was designed for the purpose of eliminating coherent noises from other survey ships. At the ultimate stage the f-k filter was applied to each of the shot records, and the effectiveness was verified. The traverse line was as long as 6700km and therefore the design window was set relatively long at 2.0-4.0s in the residual static correction phase. It was found that this setup is effective in improving the continuity of the reflection surface. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Utilization of statistical table for waves in North-west Pacific Ocean and a long-term estimation on hull responses; Seihoku Taiheiyo haro tokeihyo no riyo to sentai oto choki yosoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinkai, A [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Designing a vessel to sail oceans for an extended period of time requires statistical estimation on different hull responses to waves. To meet the requirement, it is necessary to accurately identify hydrographic conditions (particularly waves) which are considered to be encountered by the vessel. This paper makes clear the statistical characteristics of the wave statistics table presented by Fang et al, and compares them with other processes for discussion. This statistics collection is based on data collected in China, Hong Kong and Japan, including those collected in the Sea of Japan, the Yellow Sea, the North Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea. It was found that these data provide results slightly lower than the long-term estimation values derived from data of the global wave statistics (GWS) prepared by Hogben et al. The cause for this was found attributable to the format of the statistical data, especially setting of wave height classes. However, since the data provided by Fang et al include items of detailed information on small sea areas near the Chinese coast lines, the data are thought to provide useful information source in investigating long-term hull response characteristics relative to spatial spread of the sea areas in the North-west Pacific Ocean. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. O mezhdunarodnom sotrudnichestve Severo-Zapada Rossii v innovacionnoj sfere na Baltike [On the international cooperation of North-West Russia in the field of innovations in the Baltic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baranova Yulia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the cooperation between the constituent entities of the Northwestern Federal District of the Russian Federation and the Baltic countries (Finland, Estonia, and Norway in the field of innovations at national and regional levels, as well as at the level of corporate cooperation. The author reviews successful implementation of innovation projects within cross-border and transnational cooperation programmes. The most significant projects focus on the development of information and communications technologies in healthcare, the development of networks uniting innovation centres in the Baltic Sea region, and the transnational network of business incubators in the Baltic Sea region. The author identifies promising areas of cooperation between North-West Russia, Finland, Norway, and Estonia in the field of innovations, including telecommunications, information and, space; biological, environmental and nanotechnologies; software, medicine, education, culture, energy efficiency and ecological construction, as well as the development of creative industries. The article pays attention to large-scale national projects, such as “St. Petersburg Corridor — Two Model Open Innovation Platform” and “Partnership in commercialization of Russian innovations”.

  19. HIV is Now a Manageable Long-Term Condition, But What Makes it Unique? A Qualitative Study Exploring Views About Distinguishing Features from Multi-Professional HIV Specialists in North West England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelliman, Pauline; Porcellato, Lorna

    HIV is evolving from a life-threatening infection to a long-term, manageable condition because of medical advances, radical changes in health and social care policy, and the impact of an aging population. However, HIV remains complex, presenting unique characteristics distinguishing it from other long-term conditions (LTCs). Our aim in this qualitative descriptive study was to identify and explore these features in the context of LTCs. A focus group (FG) method was used to gather the views and experiences of multi-professional HIV specialists who worked in North West England. Twenty-four staff participated in FGs (n = 3), which were audio recorded, manually transcribed, and thematically analyzed. We found four main themes: (a) stigma, (b) challenges faced by HIV specialists, (c) lack HIV-related knowledge, and (d) unique features, termed "stand alone." We concluded that these distinguishing features hindered full recognition and acceptance of HIV as an LTC. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Biogas digestate and its economic impact on farms and biogas plants according to the upper limit for nitrogen spreading—the case of nutrient-burdened areas in north-west Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Auburger

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2012, an expert group presented its evaluation of the forthcoming amendment of the German Fertilizer Ordinance (DüV. The new proposal intends to include manure of plant origin in the calculation of the upper limit for nitrogen spreading, determined to be 170 kg per hectare. This would particularly affect regions of north-west Germany that are characterized by intensive animal husbandry and biogas production. This would lead to increased costs of the disposal of manure and the use of agricultural land, especially for pig farms and biogas producers. A spatial model of nutrient distribution demonstrates the regional impacts of the amendment, and example calculations at an enterprise level show that many farmers would no longer be able to suitably pay for the factors used. Monte Carlo analysis shows a relatively high probability that only successful pig farmers and biogas producers would be able to compensate for the rising costs of transport and land use in a sustainable manner. Successful piglet producers would improve their relative competitiveness compared to biogas producers and especially to pig-fattening enterprises. The adoption of new strategies should factor in both the water protection requirements and the ability of the affected farms to evolve and grow on a sustainable basis.

  1. Imaging magma plumbing beneath Askja volcano, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Tim; White, Robert S.

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes during repose periods are not commonly monitored by dense instrumentation networks and so activity during periods of unrest is difficult to put in context. We have operated a dense seismic network of 3-component, broadband instruments around Askja, a large central volcano in the Northern Volcanic Zone, Iceland, since 2006. Askja last erupted in 1961, with a relatively small basaltic lava flow. Since 1975 the central caldera has been subsiding and there has been no indication of volcanic activity. Despite this, Askja has been one of the more seismically active volcanoes in Iceland. The majority of these events are due to an extensive geothermal area within the caldera and tectonically induced earthquakes to the northeast which are not related to the magma plumbing system. More intriguing are the less numerous deeper earthquakes at 12-24km depth, situated in three distinct areas within the volcanic system. These earthquakes often show a frequency content which is lower than the shallower activity, but they still show strong P and S wave arrivals indicative of brittle failure, despite their location being well below the brittle-ductile boundary, which, in Askja is ~7km bsl. These earthquakes indicate the presence of melt moving or degassing at depth while the volcano is not inflating, as only high strain rates or increased pore fluid pressures would cause brittle fracture in what is normally an aseismic region in the ductile zone. The lower frequency content must be the result of a slower source time function as earthquakes which are both high frequency and low frequency come from the same cluster, thereby discounting a highly attenuating lower crust. To image the plumbing system beneath Askja, local and regional earthquakes have been used as sources to solve for the velocity structure beneath the volcano. Travel-time tables were created using a finite difference technique and the residuals were used to solve simultaneously for both the earthquake locations

  2. Iberia : capital federal de la IIª República Española (Un proyecto de Rubio i Tuduri

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    Carlos Sambricio

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A los pocos meses de proclamarse, en 1931, la II República Española, Nicolás Rubio i Tuduri presentaba —en el marco de la Exposición organizada por la Asociación de Arquitectos de Cataluña, celebrada en la barcelonesa Galería Maragall— una propuesta un tanto sorprendente: el proyecto de una nueva Capital Federal de la República Española que él denominaba Iberia.

  3. The hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia: social impacts and triggering conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Susana; Ramos, Alexandre M.; Zêzere, José L.; Trigo, Ricardo M.; Vaquero, José M.

    2015-04-01

    According to the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014), a Disaster event is a set of flood and landslide cases sharing the same trigger, which may have a widespread spatial extension and a certain magnitude. The Disaster event with the highest number of floods and landslides cases occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 was registered between 20 and 28 December 1909. This event also caused important socioeconomic impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro basin and in the northern section of the Tagus basin. Despite such widespread impact in western Iberia there is no scientific publication addressing the triggering conditions and the social consequences of this disastrous event. Therefore, this work aims to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic event over Iberia. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20 Century Reanalysis dataset from NOAA and rainfall data from Iberian meteorological stations. The historical data source used to analyse the event of December 1909 in Portugal is the Disaster Database (Zêzere et al., 2014). This database contains detailed data on the spatial location and social impacts (fatalities, injuries, missing people, evacuated and homeless people) of hydro-geomorphologic disasters (flood and landslide cases) occurred in Portugal (1865-2010) and referred in newspapers. In Spain the data collection process was supported by the systematic analysis of daily newspapers and using the same entry criteria of the Disaster database, to ensure data integrity and enable comparison with Portuguese records. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning between Lisbon, Santarém, Porto and Guarda (in Portugal), until Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, Palencia (in Spain). The social and economic impacts of the December 1909 disaster event were higher on the

  4. The record precipitation and flood event in Iberia in December 1876: description and synoptic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Machado Trigo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first week of December 1876 was marked by extreme weather conditions that affected the south-western sector of the Iberian Peninsula, leading to an all-time record flow in two large international rivers. As a direct consequence, several Portuguese and Spanish towns and villages located in the banks of both rivers suffered serious flood damage on 7 December 1876. These unusual floods were amplified by the preceding particularly autumn wet months, with October 1876 presenting extremely high precipitation anomalies for all western Iberia stations. Two recently digitised stations in Portugal (Lisbon and Evora, present a peak value on 5 December 1876. Furthermore, the values of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December were so remarkable that, the episode of 1876 still corresponds to the maximum average daily precipitation values for temporal scales between 2 and 10 days. Using several different data sources, such as historical newspapers of that time, meteorological data recently digitised from several stations in Portugal and Spain and the recently available 20th Century Reanalysis, we provide a detailed analysis on the socio-economic impacts, precipitation values and the atmospheric circulation conditions associated with this event. The atmospheric circulation during these months was assessed at the monthly, daily and sub-daily scales. All months considered present an intense negative NAO index value, with November 1876 corresponding to the lowest NAO value on record since 1865. We have also computed a multivariable analysis of surface and upper air fields in order to provide some enlightening into the evolution of the synoptic conditions in the week prior to the floods. These events resulted from the continuous pouring of precipitation registered between 28 November and 7 December, due to the consecutive passage of Atlantic low-pressure systems fuelled by the presence of an atmospheric-river tropical moisture flow over

  5. Holocene fire activity and vegetation response in South-Eastern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; Carrión, José S.; Pausas, Juli G.; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Lamb, Henry F.; Fernández, Santiago; Burjachs, Francesc

    2010-05-01

    Since fire has been recognized as an essential disturbance in Mediterranean landscapes, the study of long-term fire ecology has developed rapidly. We have reconstructed a sequence of vegetation dynamics and fire changes across south-eastern Iberia by coupling records of climate, fire, vegetation and human activities. We calculated fire activity anomalies (FAAs) in relation to 3 ka cal BP for 10-8 ka cal BP, 6 ka cal BP, 4 ka cal BP and the present. For most of the Early to the Mid-Holocene uneven, but low fire events were the main vegetation driver at high altitudes where broadleaved and coniferous trees presented a highly dynamic post-fire response. At mid-altitudes in the mainland Segura Mountains, fire activity remained relatively stable, at similar levels to recent times. We hypothesize that coastal areas, both mountains and lowlands, were more fire-prone landscapes as biomass was more likely to have accumulated than in the inland regions, triggering regular fire events. The wet and warm phase towards the Mid-Holocene (between ca 8 and 6 ka cal BP) affected the whole region and promoted the spread of mesophytic forest co-existing with Pinus, as FAAs appear strongly negative at 6 ka cal BP, with a less important role of fire. Mid and Late Holocene landscapes were shaped by an increasing aridity trend and the rise of human occupation, especially in the coastal mountains where forest disappeared from ca 2 ka cal BP. Mediterranean-type vegetation (evergreen oaks and Pinus pinaster- halepensis types) showed the fastest post-fire vegetation dynamics over time.

  6. Spring precipitation in inland Iberia: land-atmosphere interactions and recycling and amplification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios-Entenza, A.; Miguez-Macho, G.

    2012-04-01

    Inland Iberia, the highest peak of rainfall occurs in May, being critical for agriculture in large water-limited areas. We investigate here the role of the soil moisture - precipitation feedback in the intensification of the water cycle in spring and in the aforementioned maximum of precipitation in the interior of the Iberian Peninsula. We conducted paired, high-resolution simulations with the WRF-ARW model, using a nested grid that covers the Iberian Peninsula at 5km resolution. Eleven months of May (from May 2000 to May 2010) and eleven months of January (from January 2000 to January 2010) were selected. For each month, we performed two simulations: a control one, where all land-atmosphere fluxes are normally set up, and the corresponding experiment, where evapotranspired water over land in the nested domain is not incorporated into the atmosphere, although the corresponding latent heat flux is considered in the surface energy budget. As expected, precipitation is higher in the control runs with respect to the experiments and, furthermore, this fraction of extra rainfall substantially exceeds the value of the analytical recycling ratio. This suggests that amplification processes, and not only direct recycling, may play an important role in the maximum of precipitation observed in the Iberian spring. We estimated the amplification effect to be as large as the recycling with calculations using analytical methods of separation of both contributions. We also develop here a procedure to quantify the amplification impact using the no-ET experiment and results confirm those obtained analytically. These results suggest that in the Iberian spring, under favourable synoptic conditions and given a small supply of external moisture that triggers large-scale convection, land-atmosphere interactions can intensify and sustain convective processes in time. Thus there is a large impact of local land-surface fluxes on precipitation and that alterations of anthropogenic nature can

  7. Exceptional winter storms affecting Western Iberia and extremes: diagnosis, modelling and multi-model ensemble projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberato, M. L. R.; Pinto, J. G.; Gil, V.; Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.

    2017-12-01

    Extratropical cyclones dominate autumn and winter weather over Western Europe and particularly over the Iberian Peninsula. Intense, high-impact storms are one of the major weather risks in the region, mostly due to the simultaneous occurrence of high winds and extreme precipitation events. These intense extratropical cyclones may result in windstorm damage, flooding and coastal storm surges, with large societal impacts. In Portugal, due to the extensive human use of coastal areas, the natural and built coastal environments have been amongst the most affected. In this work several historical winter storms that adversely affected the Western Iberian Peninsula are studied in detail in order to contribute to an improved assessment of the characteristics of these events. The diagnosis has been performed based on instrumental daily precipitation and wind records, on satellite images, on reanalysis data and through model simulations. For several examples the synoptic evolution and upper-level dynamics analysis of physical processes controlling the life cycle of extratropical storms associated with the triggering of the considered extreme events has also been accomplished. Furthermore, the space-time variability of the exceptionally severe storms affecting Western Iberia over the last century and under three climate scenarios (the historical simulation, the RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 scenarios) is presented. These studies contribute to improving the knowledge of atmospheric dynamics controlling the life cycle of midlatitude storms associated to severe weather (precipitation and wind) in the Iberian Peninsula. AcknowledgementsThis work is supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), Portugal, through project UID/GEO/50019/2013 - Instituto Dom Luiz. A. M. Ramos is also supported by a FCT postdoctoral grant (FCT/DFRH/SFRH/BPD/84328/2012).

  8. PERFORMATIVIDAD DE LA ANSIEDAD: ENCUENTROS MATERIALES ENTRE ROMA Y LAS COMUNIDADES LOCALES EN EL NOROESTE DE IBERIA (The Performativity of Anxiety: Material Encounters between Rome and Local Communities in Northwestern Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez-Corral

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza desde una aproximación performativa la formación de topografías emocionales en relación a los castros de la Segunda Edad del Hierro (siglos II-I a. C. en el noroeste de Iberia. En particular, explora cómo los individuos, al incardinarse con diversos tipos de formas y prácticas materiales e iconográficas, fueron afectados emocionalmente de un modo que ayudó a estructurar la realidad social de las comunidades locales. Al examinar la manera en que los individuos se relacionaron con este mundo material, podemos trazar la creación de una nueva estrategia sociomaterial de resistencia, que fue crucial para gestionar sentimientos tales como la ansiedad, consecuencia de la presencia de Roma en la región. ENGLISH: This paper analyzes the shaping of emotional topographies in connection with late Iron Age hillforts (2nd-1st centuries BC in Northwestern Iberia using a performative approach. In particular, it explores how, by engaging with various material and iconographic forms and practices, people were affected emotionally in ways that helped to structure the social reality of the local communities. By examining the manner in which people engaged with this material world, we can trace the creation of new sociomaterial strategies of resistance, which were crucial in managing anxieties caused by Roman presence in the region.

  9. Fuel load and flight ranges of blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla in northern Iberia during autumn and spring migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN ARIZAGA, EMILIO BARBA

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fuel accumulation, mainly as fatty acids, is one of the main characteristics of migratory birds. Studying to what extent each population or species manages fuel load and how it varies along routes of migration or between seasons (autumn and spring migrations is crucial to our understanding of bird migration strategies. Our aim here was to analyse whether migratory blackcaps Sylvia atricapilla passing through northern Iberia differ in their mean fuel loads, rate of fuel accumulation and 'potential' flight ranges between migration seasons. Blackcaps were mist netted for 4 h-periods beginning at dawn from 16 September to 15 November 2003–2005, and from 1 March to 30 April 2004–2006 in a European Atlantic hedgerow at Loza, northern Iberia. Both fuel load and fuel deposition rate (this latter assessed with difference in body mass of within-season recaptured individuals were higher in autumn than in spring. Possible hypotheses explaining these results could be seasonal-associated variations in food availability (likely lower during spring than during autumn, the fact that a fraction of the migrants captured in spring could breed close to the study area and different selective pressures for breeding and wintering [Current Zoology 55 (6: 401–410, 2009].

  10. Male involvement in PMTCT and associated factors among men whom their wives had ANC visit 12 months prior to the study in Gondar town, North west Ethiopia, December, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Abdella; Musa, Abdulbasit

    2016-01-01

    Globally, male involvement has been recognized as a priority focus area to be strengthened in PMTCT but, testing male partners for HIV in the context of preventing mother-to-child transmission remains a challenge in most low- and middle-income countries including Ethiopia. In Ethiopia even though male involvement is one of the guiding principle in testing and counseling of HIV, the magnitude of male involvement in PMTCT is not well known. The objective was to assess the magnitude of male involvement in PMTCT and associated factors among men whom their wives have ANC visit 12 months prior to the study in Gondar town, North west Ethiopia. A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 1- 20, 2014 among men whose wives had ANC follow up in the last 12 months prior to study period in Gondar town. Cluster sampling was used to get the total of 802 participants. From all participants, only 20.9% of men had high involvement index in prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV/AIDS. Men with secondary and post secondary education (AOR=3.59, 95%CI: 1.36, 9.44), government employment by occupation (AOR=2.23, 95%CI: 1.53, 4.02) men who were married and in union (AOR=4.37, 95%CI: 1.85, 10.32), and men who have heard about PMTCT (AOR=1.74, 95%CI=1.21, 2.49) were more likely to have high involvement index in PMTCT. Male involvement in PMTCT programme was low in the study area. Having information about PMTCT, attending Secondary and post secondary education, being government employer and living in union with partner were factors significantly associated with male involvement in PMTCT. Improving male involvement by creating husband's awareness regarding benefit of PMTCT through provision of balanced information for all male partners is recommended.

  11. An assessment of the HIV/TB knowledge and skills of home-based carers working in the North West province in South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Justin G; Letsoalo, Mabjala R; Chirowodza, Admire C

    2017-04-19

    Home-based carers (HBCs) play a critical role in ensuring the success of the primary health care re-engineering strategy in South Africa. Their role includes ensuring improved access to and delivery of primary health care at the household level, and better co-ordination and improved linkages between community and health facilities for HIV/TB services. The objective of this study was to assess the knowledge, skills, challenges and training needs of HBCs involved in HIV/TB care in one sub-district in the North-West province of South Africa. We conducted a descriptive, cross-sectional study in which 157 HBCs were interviewed to assess their knowledge and skills regarding HIV and TB. Data were collected using a pre-tested semi-structured questionnaire. Quantitative and qualitative data were analysed using SPSS statistical software and thematic analysis respectively. One hundred and forty-four (92%) of the interviewees were female and 13 (8%) were male. The median age of the participants was 35 years (interquartile range (IQR): 22-27). The median score for knowledge of both HIV and TB questions was 66% (IQR: 57-75). In general, HIV knowledge scores were higher than TB knowledge scores (73% versus 66%). A significant association was found between knowledge scores and formal training (p worked. HBCs also reported facing various challenges in their jobs related to stigma and the social contexts in which they work. The study showed that the overall knowledge of HBCs was limited, given the skills required and the services they provide. Given the increasing role of HBCs in various health initiatives, targeted interventions are required to support and improve their competencies and service provision.

  12. A double-layer structure model of uranium-bearing horizon in inland basins of medium to big size, North-west China, and its significance in metallogenic potential assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhilong.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a double-layer structure model of uranium-bearing horizon, i.e. uranium-bearing horizon = source rock (arkose red beds) + uranium trap (grey beds favourable to uranium precipitation) in inland basins of medium to big size, North-west China. The mechanism of its formation is: during diagenetic-epigenetic processes resulted in arkose red bed formation, feldspar was hydromicatized, feldspar and quartz were replaced by authigenic hematite, goethite and hydrogoethite and became red. In such oxidation process, part of uranium in detritus of silicates such as feldspar, quartz etc. was mobilized and released, but the released uranium can not be precipitated because of the oxidation environment, and it can be diffused during diagenetic dehydration and then precipitated in nearby grey beds with low Eh together with uranium-bearing 'stagnant water' fixed in pores, forming economic uranium concentration. It is evident that uranium deposit could not be formed owing to uranium dispersion in the case of absence of certain pervious grey beds rich in reductants, although arkose red beds could provide sufficient uranium source. Therefore, only the two conditions existed simultaneously, could the uranium-bearing horizons be formed. The significance of the model for uranium prospecting are as follows: 1. Uranium source range is much expanded concerning uranium prospecting in sandstone. Except the source in basement of the basin and its margins, we must also pay attention to the overlying red beds, especially the arkose red beds in inland basin of medium to big size. 2. For the potential assessment of basin and the selection of potential area, the model is an important prospecting criterion. 3. If we apply the main criterion uranium-bearing horizon-arkose red beds well, the buried ore bodies can be found provided that arkose red beds were regarded as a significant criterion of uranium-bearing horizon

  13. A study of the provision of hospital based dental General Anaesthetic services for children in the North West of England: Part 2--the views and experience of families and dentists regarding service needs, treatment and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Michaela; Pretty, Iain A; Sanders, Caroline

    2015-04-09

    Patterns of service delivery and the organisation of Dental General Anaesthesia (DGA) have been found to differ across hospitals. This paper reports on qualitative research aimed to understand the impact of such variation by exploring views and experiences of families receiving care in different hospital sites, as well as dentists involved in referral and delivery of care. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted with 26 people comprising parents (n = 15), dentists working in primary care (n = 6) and operating dentists (n = 5) in relation to DGA. Participants were recruited from areas across the North West of England to ensure a variety referral and treatment experiences were captured. Field notes were made during visits to all settings included in the study and explored alongside interview transcripts to elicit key themes. A variety of positive and negative impacts on children and parents throughout the referral process and operation day were apparent. Key themes established were clustered around three key topics: 1. Organisational and professional concerns regarding referrals, delivery of treatment and prevention. 2. The role of hospital environment and routine on the emotional experiences of children. 3. The influence of the wider social context on dental health. These findings suggest the need and perceived value of: tailored services for children (such as play specialists) and improved information, such as clear guidance regarding wait times and what is to be expected on the day of the procedure. These features were viewed to be helpful in alleviating the stress and anxiety often associated with DGA. While some elements will always be restricted in part to the hospital setting in which they occur, there are several aspects where best practice could be shared amongst hospitals and, where issues such as wait times have been acknowledged, alternative pathways can be explored in order to address areas which can impact negatively on children.

  14. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value.

    The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly

  15. Extreme summer temperatures in Iberia: health impacts and associated synoptic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. García-Herrera

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effect of extreme summer temperatures on daily mortality in two large cities of Iberia: Lisbon (Portugal and Madrid (Spain. Daily mortality and meteorological variables are analysed using the same methodology based on Box-Jenkins models. Results reveal that in both cases there is a triggering effect on mortality when maximum daily temperature exceeds a given threshold (34°C in Lisbon and 36°C in Madrid. The impact of most intense heat events is very similar for both cities, with significant mortality values occurring up to 3 days after the temperature threshold has been surpassed. This impact is measured as the percentual increase of mortality associated to a 1°C increase above the threshold temperature. In this respect, Lisbon shows a higher impact, 31%, as compared with Madrid at 21%. The difference can be attributed to demographic and socio-economic factors. Furthermore, the longer life span of Iberian women is critical to explain why, in both cities, females are more susceptible than males to heat effects, with an almost double mortality impact value. The analysis of Sea Level Pressure (SLP, 500hPa geopotential height and temperature fields reveals that, despite being relatively close to each other, Lisbon and Madrid have relatively different synoptic circulation anomalies associated with their respective extreme summer temperature days. The SLP field reveals higher anomalies for Lisbon, but extending over a smaller area. Extreme values in Madrid seem to require a more western location of the Azores High, embracing a greater area over Europe, even if it is not as deep as for Lisbon. The origin of the hot and dry air masses that usually lead to extreme heat days in both cities is located in Northern Africa. However, while Madrid maxima require wind blowing directly from the south, transporting heat from Southern Spain and Northern Africa, Lisbon maxima occur under more easterly conditions, when Northern African air

  16. Extensional Fault Evolution and its Flexural Isostatic Response During Iberia-Newfoundland Rifted Margin Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, J.; Kusznir, N.; Manatschal, G.; Roberts, A.

    2017-12-01

    During the formation of magma-poor rifted margins, upper lithosphere thinning and stretching is achieved by extensional faulting, however, there is still debate and uncertainty how faults evolve during rifting leading to breakup. Seismic data provides an image of the present-day structural and stratigraphic configuration and thus initial fault geometry is unknown. To understand the geometric evolution of extensional faults at rifted margins it is extremely important to also consider the flexural response of the lithosphere produced by fault displacement resulting in footwall uplift and hangingwall subsidence. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting controls the structural development of rifted margins. To achieve our aim, we use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) which incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. Inputs for RIFTER are derived from seismic reflection interpretation and outputs of RIFTER are the prediction of the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. Using RIFTER we model the simultaneous tectonic development of the Iberia-Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins along the ISE01-SCREECH1 and TGS/LG12-SCREECH2 seismic lines. We quantitatively test and calibrate the model against observed target data restored to breakup time. Two quantitative methods are used to obtain this target data: (i) gravity anomaly inversion which predicts Moho depth and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling to give water and Moho depths at breakup time. We show that extensional faulting occurs on steep ( 60°) normal faults in both proximal and distal parts of rifted margins. Extensional faults together with their flexural isostatic response produce not only sub-horizontal exhumed footwall surfaces (i.e. the rolling hinge model) and highly rotated (60

  17. Thermal classification of lithospheric discontinuities beneath USArray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Steven M.; Dueker, Ken; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    Broadband seismic data from the United States were processed into Ps and Sp receiver function image volumes for the purpose of constraining negative velocity gradients (NVG) at depths between the Moho and 200 km. Moho depth picks from the two independent datasets are in good agreement, however, large discrepancies in NVG picks occur and are attributed to free-surface multiples which obscure deep NVG arrivals in the Ps data. From the Sp data, shallow NVG are found west of the Rockies and in the central US while deep and sporadic NVG are observed beneath the Great Plains and northern Rockies. To aid the interpretation of the observed NVG arrivals, the mantle thermal field is estimated by mapping surface wave tomography velocities to temperature assuming an anelastic olivine model. The distribution of temperature versus NVG depth is bi-modal and displays two distinct thermal populations that are interpreted to represent both the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and mid-lithosphere discontinuities (MLD). LAB arrivals occur in the western US at 60-85 km and 1200-1400 °C depth suggesting that they manifest partial melt near the base of the thermal plate. MLD arrivals primarily occur at 70-110 km depth and 700-900 °C and we hypothesize that these arrivals are caused by a low-velocity metasomatic layer containing phlogopite resulting from magma crystallization products that accumulate within long-lived thick lithosphere.

  18. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M.  C.; Hewitt, I. J.; Wells, A. J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  19. Channelization of plumes beneath ice shelves

    KAUST Repository

    Dallaston, M. C.

    2015-11-11

    © 2015 Cambridge University Press. We study a simplified model of ice-ocean interaction beneath a floating ice shelf, and investigate the possibility for channels to form in the ice shelf base due to spatial variations in conditions at the grounding line. The model combines an extensional thin-film description of viscous ice flow in the shelf, with melting at its base driven by a turbulent ocean plume. Small transverse perturbations to the one-dimensional steady state are considered, driven either by ice thickness or subglacial discharge variations across the grounding line. Either forcing leads to the growth of channels downstream, with melting driven by locally enhanced ocean velocities, and thus heat transfer. Narrow channels are smoothed out due to turbulent mixing in the ocean plume, leading to a preferred wavelength for channel growth. In the absence of perturbations at the grounding line, linear stability analysis suggests that the one-dimensional state is stable to initial perturbations, chiefly due to the background ice advection.

  20. Turbulence beneath finite amplitude water waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beya, J.F. [Universidad de Valparaiso, Escuela de Ingenieria Civil Oceanica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Valparaiso (Chile); The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Peirson, W.L. [The University of New South Wales, Water Research Laboratory, School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Sydney, NSW (Australia); Banner, M.L. [The University of New South Wales, School of Mathematics and Statistics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2012-05-15

    Babanin and Haus (J Phys Oceanogr 39:2675-2679, 2009) recently presented evidence of near-surface turbulence generated below steep non-breaking deep-water waves. They proposed a threshold wave parameter a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 3,000 for the spontaneous occurrence of turbulence beneath surface waves. This is in contrast to conventional understanding that irrotational wave theories provide a good approximation of non-wind-forced wave behaviour as validated by classical experiments. Many laboratory wave experiments were carried out in the early 1960s (e.g. Wiegel 1964). In those experiments, no evidence of turbulence was reported, and steep waves behaved as predicted by the high-order irrotational wave theories within the accuracy of the theories and experimental techniques at the time. This contribution describes flow visualisation experiments for steep non-breaking waves using conventional dye techniques in the wave boundary layer extending above the wave trough level. The measurements showed no evidence of turbulent mixing up to a value of a {sup 2}{omega}/{nu} = 7,000 at which breaking commenced in these experiments. These present findings are in accord with the conventional understandings of wave behaviour. (orig.)

  1. Nuclear wastes beneath the deep sea floor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, W.P.; Hollister, C.D.

    1974-01-01

    Projections of energy demands for the year 2000 show that nuclear power will likely be one of our energy sources. But the benefits of nuclear power must be balanced against the drawbacks of its by-product: high-level wastes. While it may become possible to completely destroy or eliminate these wastes, it is at least equally possible that we may have to dispose of them on earth in such a way as to assure their isolation from man for periods of the order of a million years. Undersea regions in the middle of tectonic plates and in the approximate center of major current gyres offer some conceptual promise for waste disposal because of their geologic stability and comparatively low organic productivity. The advantages of this concept and the types of detailed information needed for its accurate assessment are discussed. The technical feasibility of permanent disposal beneath the deep sea floor cannot be accurately assessed with present knowledge, and there is a need for a thorough study of the types and rates of processes that affect this part of the earth's surface. Basic oceanographic research aimed at understanding these processes is yielding answers that apply to this societal need. (U.S.)

  2. Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital, North West

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapid spread of resistant microbes affected the effectiveness of antimicrobials creating worldwide problem (1). The condition is serious in developing countries owing to irrational prescription ... Standard operation procedures were checked for laboratory ... Sheep's blood, chocolate agar, mannitol salt agar and. MacConkey ...

  3. Northern Australia's energy arc - North West Shelf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millhouse, R.

    2000-01-01

    One of the world's great sources of natural gas is promising immense opportunities for the development of feedstock for petrochemical industries. The lures for new players to Western Australia are world-class offshore natural gas fields that already supply major Australian and international customers, and close proximity to Asian markets. It produces a wide range of hydrocarbon products, ranging from more than 7.5 million tonnes of liquefied natural gas a year, to more than 50 million barrels of oil and condensate and 650,000 tonnes of liquefied petroleum gas a year and 4.5 bcm (500 million standard cubic feet) of piped natural gas for local markets per day. The development of this wide range of products began with establishment of the venture's first offshore gas and condensate production platform, then the biggest in the world, in the mid - 1980s

  4. Environmental security in North-West Russia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerke, S.

    1999-01-01

    The arms race and military security during the Cold War cost trillions of dollars. It has been claimed that the processes of disarmament, and the large-scale conversion from military to civilian production that is now under way, will be equally costly. This includes the cost of environmental clean up and other measures to deal with the environmental legacy of the Cold War. Norway strongly supports a holistic approach to environmental issues. The armed forces and military industry must also adapt to environmental demands and adopt the principles of modern environmental management. Our own defence forces have for some time been basing their choice of equipment partly on modern environmental criteria and are taking steps to remedy previous environmental damage. Field training and exercises are subject to stringent environmental restrictions. All along the former East-West divide the scope of military activity has been dramatically reduced. The time has come to focus more attention on military or arms-related environmental issues

  5. North-West Iowa Groundwater Vulnerability Regions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — The regions on this map represent areas with similar hydro-geologic characteristics thought to represent similar potentials for contamination of groundwater and/or...

  6. El gobierno del caballo montado en la antigüedad clásica con especial referencia al caso de Iberia. Bocados, espuelas y la cuestión de la silla de montar, estribos y herraduras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quesada Sanz, Fernando

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available We examine the different elements of the horse’s tack in Antiquity: bits, spurs, saddle, stirrups and the problem of horseshoes, with special reference to the case of Iberia.

    Se analizan los elementos de control del caballo montado en la Antigüedad: bocados, espuelas, silla y estribos, y se hace referencia al problema de las herraduras, todo ello con especial referencia al caso de la antigua Iberia.

  7. On Childhood in Prehistory: The Analysis of Inner Iberia Societies from the VIth and IIIrd Millenia BC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mercedes Herrero Corral

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Research about children had been traditionally forgotten by the archaeology due to some factors as their difficult preservation and identification. The literature on Prehistory has mostly forgotten children, who had received a marginal and inappropriate treatment for been considered as passive members of the society. However, immature individuals belong to the community and are determinants for an appropriated reproduction of their social, economic and ideological patterns, through the learning processes, initiation rituals, etc. It appears absolutely necessary to take children into an account if we want to approach past societies. The main goal of this research is to collect and analyze the different funerary evidences of children, as it could provide valuable information to approach their social and economic role in prehistoric societies. In particular, it would be focus on inner Iberia sites from 5500 to 2000 cal AC (Neolithic and Copper Age, as during this period of time, crucial transformations occur in Western Europe prehistoric societies.

  8. Fluid mixing and the deep biosphere of a fossil Lost City-type hydrothermal system at the Iberia Margin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Frieder; Humphris, Susan E; Guo, Weifu; Schubotz, Florence; Schwarzenbach, Esther M; Orsi, William D

    2015-09-29

    Subseafloor mixing of reduced hydrothermal fluids with seawater is believed to provide the energy and substrates needed to support deep chemolithoautotrophic life in the hydrated oceanic mantle (i.e., serpentinite). However, geosphere-biosphere interactions in serpentinite-hosted subseafloor mixing zones remain poorly constrained. Here we examine fossil microbial communities and fluid mixing processes in the subseafloor of a Cretaceous Lost City-type hydrothermal system at the magma-poor passive Iberia Margin (Ocean Drilling Program Leg 149, Hole 897D). Brucite-calcite mineral assemblages precipitated from mixed fluids ca. 65 m below the Cretaceous paleo-seafloor at temperatures of 31.7 ± 4.3 °C within steep chemical gradients between weathered, carbonate-rich serpentinite breccia and serpentinite. Mixing of oxidized seawater and strongly reducing hydrothermal fluid at moderate temperatures created conditions capable of supporting microbial activity. Dense microbial colonies are fossilized in brucite-calcite veins that are strongly enriched in organic carbon (up to 0.5 wt.% of the total carbon) but depleted in (13)C (δ(13)C(TOC) = -19.4‰). We detected a combination of bacterial diether lipid biomarkers, archaeol, and archaeal tetraethers analogous to those found in carbonate chimneys at the active Lost City hydrothermal field. The exposure of mantle rocks to seawater during the breakup of Pangaea fueled chemolithoautotrophic microbial communities at the Iberia Margin, possibly before the onset of seafloor spreading. Lost City-type serpentinization systems have been discovered at midocean ridges, in forearc settings of subduction zones, and at continental margins. It appears that, wherever they occur, they can support microbial life, even in deep subseafloor environments.

  9. Palaeomagnetism in the Sines massif (SW Iberia) revisited: evidences for Late Cretaceous hydrothermal alteration and associated partial remagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, P.; Silva, P. F.; Moita, P.; Kratinová, Z.; Marques, F. O.; Henry, B.

    2013-10-01

    This study revisits the palaeomagnetism of the Sines massif (˜76 Ma) in the southwestern Iberian Margin (Portugal). The palaeomagnetic analysis was complemented by a comprehensive study of the magnetic mineralogy by means of rock magnetic measurements and petrographic observations. The overall dispersion of palaeomagnetic directions (declination ranging between ˜N0° and ˜N50°) and their migration observed during stepwise demagnetizations have revealed the superposition of remanence components. We interpret this complex palaeomagnetic behaviour as related to the regional hydrothermalism associated with the last stages of Late Cretaceous magmatic activity. This environment favoured mineralogical alteration and a partial chemical remagnetization, giving in most samples a composite magnetization, which has been erroneously interpreted as the primary one in a previous study, then leading to a questionable model for Cretaceous Iberia rotation. Nonetheless, for some samples a single component has been isolated. Interesting rock magnetic properties and microscopic observations point to a well-preserved magnetic mineralogy for these samples, with magnetite clearly of primary origin. The associated ChRM mean direction (D/I = 3.9°/46.5°, α95 = 1.7°, N = 31 samples) then represents the true primary magnetization of the Sines massif. This new palaeomagnetic direction and the corresponding palaeomagnetic pole (long = 332.0°, lat = -79.5°, A95 = 1.7°) agrees with those from the other palaeomagnetic works for the same period and region (e.g. the Sintra and Monchique massifs), yielding a lack of significant rotation of Iberia relative to stable Europe since the uppermost Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian).

  10. The Filador Rock Shelter (Margalef de Montsant, Tarragona and its cultural and chronological context in Northeastern Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Argüelles Andreu, Pilar

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we review briefly our twenty-years of excavation in the Filador rock shelter. We give the most important results in sedimentology, faunal remains, pollen, lithic industries and radiocarbon dates that we have obtained since 1979. We give also our opinion about the chronocultural situation of the site in the epipalaeolithic period in the northeastern Iberia, based on the radiocabon dates known until now. This is the first synthetic publication of this major site since professor Fortea reviewed the ancient excavations in 1973. The Filador rock shelter keeps on being one of the bases of the chronocultural structure of Epipalaeolithic in norteastern Iberia.

    En este articulo se pasa revista, de forma resumida, a 20 años de excavaciones en el abrigo del Filador y se dan a conocer los resultados más importantes (sedimentología, fauna, polen, industria, dataciones, etc.., obtenidos con la aplicación de nuevas técnicas de estudio desde 1979. Del mismo modo replanteamos su ubicación cronocultural dentro del marco geográfico del NE peninsular a partir de las dataciones radiocarbónicas conocidas hasta el momento. Se trata del primer trabajo de síntesis sobre el yacimiento realizado con posterioridad al estudio de J. Fortea (Fortea 1973; el Filador sigue siendo un referente obligado del Epipaleolítico de la zona en tanto que muestra la mayoría de las facies cronoculturales que definen esta fase en el NE ibérico.

  11. Extreme Mesozoic crustal thinning in the Eastern Iberia margin: The example of the Columbrets Basin (Valencia Trough)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohn, G.; Etheve, N.; Frizon de Lamotte, D.; Roca, E.; Tugend, J.; Gómez-Romeu, J.

    2017-12-01

    Eastern Iberia preserves a complex succession of Mesozoic rifts partly or completely inverted during the Late Cretaceous and Cenozoic in relation with Africa-Eurasia convergence. Notably, the Valencia Trough, classically viewed as part of the Cenozoic West Mediterranean basins, preserves in its southwestern part a thick Mesozoic succession (locally »10km thick) over a highly thinned continental basement (locally only »3,5km thick). This sub-basin referred to as the Columbrets Basin, represents a Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous hyper-extended rift basin weakly overprinted by subsequent events. Its initial configuration is well preserved allowing us to unravel its 3D architecture and tectono-stratigraphic evolution in the frame of the Mesozoic evolution of eastern Iberia. The Columbrets Basin benefits from an extensive dataset combining high resolution reflection seismic profiles, drill holes, refraction seismic data and Expanding Spread Profiles. Its Mesozoic architecture is controlled by interactions between extensional deformation and halokinesis involving the Upper Triassic salt. The thick uppermost Triassic to Cretaceous succession describes a general synclinal shape, progressively stretched and dismembered towards the basin borders. The SE-border of the basin is characterized by a large extensional detachment fault acting at crustal scale and interacting locally with the Upper Triassic décollement. This extensional structure accommodates the exhumation of the continental basement and part of the crustal thinning. Eventually our results highlight the complex interaction between extreme crustal thinning and occurrence of a pre-rift salt level for the deformation style and tectono-stratigraphic evolution of hyper-extended rift basins.

  12. Flow in the western Mediterranean shallow mantle: Insights from xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts from SE Iberia (eastern Betics, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidas, Károly; Konc, Zoltán.; Garrido, Carlos J.; Tommasi, Andréa.; Vauchez, Alain; Padrón-Navarta, José Alberto; Marchesi, Claudio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Acosta-Vigil, Antonio; Szabó, Csaba; Varas-Reus, María. Isabel; Gervilla, Fernando

    2016-11-01

    Mantle xenoliths in Pliocene alkali basalts of the eastern Betics (SE Iberia, Spain) are spinel ± plagioclase lherzolite, with minor harzburgite and wehrlite, displaying porphyroclastic or equigranular textures. Equigranular peridotites have olivine crystal preferred orientation (CPO) patterns similar to those of porphyroclastic xenoliths but slightly more dispersed. Olivine CPO shows [100]-fiber patterns characterized by strong alignment of [100]-axes subparallel to the stretching lineation and a girdle distribution of [010]-axes normal to it. This pattern is consistent with simple shear or transtensional deformation accommodated by dislocation creep. One xenolith provides evidence for synkinematic reactive percolation of subduction-related Si-rich melts/fluids that resulted in oriented crystallization of orthopyroxene. Despite a seemingly undeformed microstructure, the CPO in orthopyroxenite veins in composite xenoliths is identical to those of pyroxenes in the host peridotite, suggesting late-kinematic crystallization. Based on these observations, we propose that the annealing producing the equigranular microstructures was triggered by melt percolation in the shallow subcontinental lithospheric mantle coeval to the late Neogene formation of veins in composite xenoliths. Calculated seismic properties are characterized by fast propagation of P waves and polarization of fast S waves parallel to olivine [100]-axis (stretching lineation). These data are compatible with present-day seismic anisotropy observations in SE Iberia if the foliations in the lithospheric mantle are steeply dipping and lineations are subhorizontal with ENE strike, implying dominantly horizontal mantle flow in the ENE-WSW direction within vertical planes, that is, subparallel to the paleo-Iberian margin. The measured anisotropy could thus reflect a lithospheric fabric due to strike-slip deformation in the late Miocene in the context of WSW tearing of the subducted south Iberian margin

  13. Abrupt temperature changes and contrasted hydrological responses during Greenland Stadial 1 in northern Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomé, Miguel; Moreno, Ana; Sancho, Carlos; Stoll, Heather; Cacho, Isabel; Spötl, Christoph; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Cheng, Hai; Hellstrom, John

    2016-04-01

    to a reduced growth rate, is reproduced in two stalagmites more from Central Iberia (La Galiana Cave, Soria province). Monitoring of Seso Cave shows low speleothem δ13C and Mg/Ca values coinciding with increased infiltration into the cave as a result of a higher precipitation-evaporation balance in the region. This is consistent with well-documented processes by which slower drip rates enhance degassing and raise dripwater Mg/Ca ratios and δ13C values. Therefore, these proxy data suggest a first phase of relatively drier conditions until 12,500 y b2k and a progressive increase in humidity afterward. This gradual transition from dry to wet conditions starting at 12,500 y b2k occurred during a progressive warming of the subtropical Atlantic Ocean (Schmidt et al., 2011) and a resumption of the Atlantic overturning circulation (Hughen et al., 2000) while conditions in Greenland were still cold. This, therefore, demonstrates a rapid coupling among terrestrial (atmospheric) and oceanic systems at the mid-GS-1 transition on the European continent. This second phase of GS-1 calls for a revision of the well established model of dry and cold stadials during the last glacial period.

  14. Comparing erosion rates in burnt forests and agricultural fields for a mountain catchment in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, João Pedro; Marisa Santos, Juliana; Bernard-Jannin, Léonard; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2013-04-01

    A large part of northwestern Iberia is nowadays covered by commercial forest plantations of eucalypts and maritime pines, which have partly replaced traditional agricultural land-uses. The humid Mediterranean climate, with mild wet winters and warm dry summers, creates favorable conditions for the occurrence of frequent and recurrent forest fires. Erosion rates in recently burnt areas have been the subject of numerous studies; however, there is still a lack of information on their relevance when compared with agricultural erosion rates, impairing a comprehensive assessment of the role of forests for soil protection. This study focuses on Macieira de Alcoba, head-water catchment in the Caramulo Mountain Range, north-central Portugal, with a mixture of agricultural fields (mostly a rotation between winter pastures and summer cereals) on the lower slopes and forest plantations (mostly eucalypts) on the upper slopes. Agricultural erosion in this catchment has been monitored since 2010; a forest fire in 2011 presented an opportunity to compare post-fire and agricultural erosion rates at nearby sites with comparable soil and climatic conditions. Erosion rates were monitored between 2010 and 2013 by repeated surveys of visible erosion features and, in particular, by mapping and measuring rills and gullies after important rainfall events. During the 2011/2012 hydrological year, erosion rates in the burnt forest were two orders of magnitude above those in agricultural fields, amounting to 17.6 and. 0.1 Mg ha-1, respectively. Rills were widespread in the burnt area, while in the agricultural area they were limited to a small number of fields with higher slope; these particular fields experienced an erosion rate of 2.3 Mg ha-1, still one order of magnitude lower than at the burnt forest site. The timing of the erosion features was also quite distinct for the burnt area and the agricultural fields. During the first nine months after the fire, rill formation was not observed in

  15. Self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayele AA

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Asnakew Achaw Ayele,1 Seyfe Asrade Atnafie,2 Demis Driba Balcha,1 Asegedech Tsegaw Weredekal,2 Birhanu Alemayehu Woldegiorgis,1 Mulgeta Melaku Wotte,1 Begashaw Melaku Gebresillasie1 1Department of Clinical Pharmacy, 2Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia Purpose: This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.Patients and methods: An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV/AIDS patients. Adherence was measured by self-report of isoniazid (INH tablets taken for the preceding 7 days. Participants were recruited through in-depth interviews. The collected data were entered and analyzed using the statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS version 20.Results: The adherence level to IPT was 90.3% for the last 7 days of the study. ART was initiated for 84.4%, and all of them were on a first-line regimen. Isoniazid-related side effects were reported by 48 (31.2% participants, of which the most commonly identified were abdominal pain, vomiting, skin rash, jaundice, and numbness. Only 3 (2% participants discontinued from the study. In the bivariate logistic regression analysis, respondents who had received an explanation about IPT were 83% times more likely to be adherent compared to those who had not received it (95% CI, AOR: 0.266 [0.23–3.127]. Respondents who had taken IPT for ≥5 months were more likely to be adherent than those who had taken it for 1–2 months [95% CI, COR: 1.484]. On the

  16. Quasi-Poisson versus negative binomial regression models in identifying factors affecting initial CD4 cell count change due to antiretroviral therapy administered to HIV-positive adults in North-West Ethiopia (Amhara region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyoum, Awoke; Ndlovu, Principal; Zewotir, Temesgen

    2016-01-01

    CD4 cells are a type of white blood cells that plays a significant role in protecting humans from infectious diseases. Lack of information on associated factors on CD4 cell count reduction is an obstacle for improvement of cells in HIV positive adults. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to investigate baseline factors that could affect initial CD4 cell count change after highly active antiretroviral therapy had been given to adult patients in North West Ethiopia. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted among 792 HIV positive adult patients who already started antiretroviral therapy for 1 month of therapy. A Chi square test of association was used to assess of predictor covariates on the variable of interest. Data was secondary source and modeled using generalized linear models, especially Quasi-Poisson regression. The patients' CD4 cell count changed within a month ranged from 0 to 109 cells/mm 3 with a mean of 15.9 cells/mm 3 and standard deviation 18.44 cells/mm 3 . The first month CD4 cell count change was significantly affected by poor adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (aRR = 0.506, P value = 2e -16 ), fair adherence (aRR = 0.592, P value = 0.0120), initial CD4 cell count (aRR = 1.0212, P value = 1.54e -15 ), low household income (aRR = 0.63, P value = 0.671e -14 ), middle income (aRR = 0.74, P value = 0.629e -12 ), patients without cell phone (aRR = 0.67, P value = 0.615e -16 ), WHO stage 2 (aRR = 0.91, P value = 0.0078), WHO stage 3 (aRR = 0.91, P value = 0.0058), WHO stage 4 (0876, P value = 0.0214), age (aRR = 0.987, P value = 0.000) and weight (aRR = 1.0216, P value = 3.98e -14 ). Adherence to antiretroviral therapy, initial CD4 cell count, household income, WHO stages, age, weight and owner of cell phone played a major role for the variation of CD4 cell count in our data. Hence, we recommend a close follow-up of patients to adhere the prescribed medication for

  17. Self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayele, Asnakew Achaw; Asrade Atnafie, Seyfe; Balcha, Demis Driba; Weredekal, Asegedech Tsegaw; Woldegiorgis, Birhanu Alemayehu; Wotte, Mulgeta Melaku; Gebresillasie, Begashaw Melaku

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to assess self-reported adherence and associated factors to isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) for latent tuberculosis among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) at health centers in Gondar town, North West Ethiopia. An institution-based prospective cross-sectional study was conducted from March 10 to June 11, 2016. A total of 154 eligible participants were included in the study, using the simple random sampling method, from the available four health centers and one teaching referral hospital that provided antiretroviral therapy (ART) for HIV/AIDS patients. Adherence was measured by self-report of isoniazid (INH) tablets taken for the preceding 7 days. Participants were recruited through in-depth interviews. The collected data were entered and analyzed using the statistical packages for social sciences (SPSS) version 20. The adherence level to IPT was 90.3% for the last 7 days of the study. ART was initiated for 84.4%, and all of them were on a first-line regimen. Isoniazid-related side effects were reported by 48 (31.2%) participants, of which the most commonly identified were abdominal pain, vomiting, skin rash, jaundice, and numbness. Only 3 (2%) participants discontinued from the study. In the bivariate logistic regression analysis, respondents who had received an explanation about IPT were 83% times more likely to be adherent compared to those who had not received it (95% CI, AOR: 0.266 [0.23-3.127]). Respondents who had taken IPT for ≥5 months were more likely to be adherent than those who had taken it for 1-2 months [95% CI, COR: 1.484]. On the other hand, respondents who experienced side effects were 36% less likely to be adherent compared to those who did not experience any. The level of adherence to IPT among PLWHA was high. Among the predictors reported, carelessness and/or forgetfulness, side effects, and absence from home were the major factors identified for being nonadherent. Health professionals and the Ministry of Health should

  18. Imaging voids beneath bridge bent using electrical resistivity tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Five electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) profiles and borehole control were acquired beneath two bridges on the bank of the : Gasconade River in order to determine extension of the underground water-filled openings in rock encountered during a dr...

  19. NW Iberia shelf dynamics and the behaviour of the Douro River plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias, Isabel; Couvelard, Xavier; Avilez-Valente, Paulo; Caldeira, Rui M. A.

    2015-04-01

    The study and modelling of the river plumes is a key factor to complete understand the coastal physics and dynamic processes and sediment transport mechanisms. Some the terrestrial materials that they transport to the ocean are pollutants, essential nutrients, which enhance the phytoplankton productivity or sediments, which settle on the seabed producing bathymetric modifications. When the riverine water join the ocean several instabilities can be induced, generating bulges, filaments, and buoyant currents over the continental shelf. Offshore, the riverine water could form fronts that could be related with the occurrence of current-jets, eddies and strong mixing. This study focused on the Douro River plume simulation. This river is located on the north-west Iberian coast. Its daily averaged freshwater discharge can range values from 0 to 13000 m3/s, which impacts on the formation of the river plumes and its dispersion along the continental shelf. The Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS) model was used to reproduce scenarios of plume generation, retention and dispersion (Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005). Three types of simulations were performed: schematic winds simulations with prescribed river flow, wind speed and direction; multi-year climatological simulation, with river flow and temperature change for each month; extreme case simulation. The schematic wind case-studies suggest that the plume is wind-driven. Important differences appear in its structure and dispersion pathways depending on the wind direction and strength. Northerly winds induce plumes with a narrow coastal current meanwhile southerly winds push the river water to the north finding water associated with the Douro River in the Galician Rías. The high surface salinity on the plume regions during strong wind events suggests that the wind enhances the vertical mixing. Extreme river discharges, associated with southerly winds, can transport debris to the Galician coast in about 60 h, helping to

  20. Fossil plume head beneath the Arabian lithosphere?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Mordechai; Hofmann, Albrecht W.

    1992-12-01

    Phanerozoic alkali basalts from Israel, which have erupted over the past 200 Ma, have isotopic compositions similar to PREMA ("prevalent mantle") with narrow ranges of initial ɛ Nd(T) = +3.9-+5.9; 87Sr/ 86Sr(T)= 0.70292-0.70334; 206Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 18.88-19.99; 207Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 15.58-15.70; and 208Pb/ 204Pb(T)= 38.42-39.57. Their Nb/U(43 ± 9) and Ce/Pb(26 ± 6) ratios are identical to those of normal oceanic basalts, demonstrating that the basalts are essentially free of crustal contamination. Overall, the basalts are chemically and isotopically indistinguishable from many ordinary plume basalts, but no plume track can be identified. We propose that these and other, similar, magmas from the Arabian plate originated from a "fossilized" head of a mantle plume, which was unable to penetrate the continental lithosphere and was therefore trapped and stored beneath it. The plume head was emplaced some time between the late Proterozoic crust formation and the initiation of the Phanerozoic magmatic cycles. Basalts from rift environments in other continental localities show similar geochemistry to that of the Arabian basalts and their sources may also represent fossil plume heads trapped below the continents. We suggest that plume heads are, in general, characterized by the PREMA isotopic mantle signature, because the original plume sources (which may have HIMU or EM-type composition) have been diluted by overlying mantle material, which has been entrained by the plume heads during ascent. On the Arabian plate, rifting and thinning of the lithosphere caused partial melting of the stored plume, which led to periodic volcanism. In the late Cenozoic, the lithosphere broke up and the Red Sea opened. N-MORB tholeiites are now erupting in the central trough of the Red Sea, where the lithosphere has moved apart and the fossil plume has been exhausted, whereas E-MORBs are erupting in the northern and southern troughs, still tapping the plume reservoir. Fossil plumes, which are

  1. Thrust-wrench interference tectonics in the Gulf of Cadiz (Africa-Iberia plate boundary in the North-East Atlantic): Insights from analog models

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte , João ,; Rosas , Filipe ,; Terrinha , Pedro; Gutscher , Marc-André ,; Malavielle , Jacques; Silva , Sonia; Matias , Luis

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In the Gulf of Cadiz key segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary (North-East Atlantic ocean), three main different modes of tectonic interference between a recently identified wrench system (SWIM) and the Gulf of Cadiz Accretionary Wedge (GCAW) were tested through analog sand-box modeling: a) An active accretionary wedge on top of a pre-existent inactive basement fault; b) An active strike-slip fault cutting a previously formed, inactive, accretionary wedge; and c)...

  2. P-wave velocity structure beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Y.; Kim, K.; Jin, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have imaged tomographically the tree-dimensional velocity structure of the upper mantle beneath the northern Antarctic Peninsula using teleseismic P waves. The data came from the seven land stations of the Seismic Experiment in Patagonia and Antarctica (SEPA) campaigned during 1997-1999, a permanent IRIS/GSN station (PMSA), and 3 seismic stations installed at scientific bases, Esperanza (ESPZ), Jubany (JUBA), and King Sejong (KSJ), in South Shetland Islands. All of the seismic stations are located in coast area, and the signal to noise ratios (SNR) are very low. The P-wave model was inverted from 95 earthquakes resulting in 347 ray paths with P- and PKP-wave arrivals. The inverted model shows a strong low velocity anmaly beneath the Bransfield Strait, and a fast anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands. The low velocity anomaly beneath the Bransfield might be due to a back arc extension, and the fast velocity anomaly beneath the South Shetland Islands could indicates the cold subducted slab.

  3. Genetic structure, relationships and admixture with wild relatives in native pig breeds from Iberia and its islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Luis T; Martínez, Amparo M; Carolino, Inês; Landi, Vincenzo; Delgado, Juan V; Vicente, Antonio A; Vega-Pla, José L; Cortés, Oscar; Sousa, Conceição O

    2013-06-14

    Native pig breeds in the Iberian Peninsula are broadly classified as belonging to either the Celtic or the Mediterranean breed groups, but there are other local populations that do not fit into any of these groups. Most of the native pig breeds in Iberia are in danger of extinction, and the assessment of their genetic diversity and population structure, relationships and possible admixture between breeds, and the appraisal of conservation alternatives are crucial to adopt appropriate management strategies. A panel of 24 microsatellite markers was used to genotype 844 animals representing the 17 most important native swine breeds and wild populations existing in Portugal and Spain and various statistical tools were applied to analyze the results. Genetic diversity was high in the breeds studied, with an overall mean of 13.6 alleles per locus and an average expected heterozygosity of 0.80. Signs of genetic bottlenecks were observed in breeds with a small census size, and population substructure was present in some of the breeds with larger census sizes. Variability among breeds accounted for about 20% of the total genetic diversity, and was explained mostly by differences among the Celtic, Mediterranean and Basque breed groups, rather than by differences between domestic and wild pigs. Breeds clustered closely according to group, and proximity was detected between wild pigs and the Mediterranean cluster of breeds. Most breeds had their own structure and identity, with very little evidence of admixture, except for the Retinto and Entrepelado varieties of the Mediterranean group, which are very similar. Genetic influence of the identified breed clusters extends beyond the specific geographical areas across borders throughout the Iberian Peninsula, with a very sharp transition from one breed group to another. Analysis of conservation priorities confirms that the ranking of a breed for conservation depends on the emphasis placed on its contribution to the between- and

  4. Spatial impact and triggering conditions of the exceptional hydro-geomorphological event of December 1909 in Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, S.; Ramos, A. M.; Zêzere, J. L.; Trigo, R. M.; Vaquero, J. M.

    2016-02-01

    According to the DISASTER database the 20-28 December 1909 event was the hydro-geomorphologic event with the highest number of flood and landslide cases that occurred in Portugal in the period 1865-2010 (Zêzere et al., 2014). This event also caused important social impacts over the Spanish territory, especially in the Douro Basin, having triggered the highest floods in more than 100 years at the river's mouth in the city of Oporto. This work has a dual purpose: (i) to characterize the spatial distribution and social impacts of the December 1909 hydro-geomorphologic DISASTER event over Portugal and Spain; (ii) to analyse the meteorological conditions that triggered the event and the spatial distribution of the precipitation anomalies. Social impacts that occurred in Portugal were obtained from the Disaster database (Zêzere et al., 2014) whereas the data collection for Spain was supported by the systematic analysis of Spanish daily newspapers. In addition, the meteorological conditions that triggered the event are analysed using the 20th Century Reanalysis data set from NOAA and precipitation data from Iberian meteorological stations. The Iberian Peninsula was spatially affected during this event along the SW-NE direction spanning from Lisbon, Santarém, Oporto, and Guarda (in Portugal), to Salamanca, Valladolid, Zamora, Orense, León, and Palencia (in Spain). In Iberia, 134 DISASTER cases were recorded (130 flood cases; 4 landslides cases) having caused 89 casualties (57 due to floods and 32 due to landslides) and a further total of 3876 affected people, including fatalities, injured, missing, evacuated, and homeless people. This event was associated with outstanding precipitation registered at Guarda (Portugal) on 22 December 1909 and unusual meteorological conditions characterized by the presence of a deep low-pressure system located over the NW Iberian Peninsula with a stationary frontal system striking the western Iberian Peninsula. The presence of an upper

  5. Morphological Indicators of a Mascon Beneath Ceres's Largest Crater, Kerwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, M. T.; Ermakov, A. I.; Raymond, C. A.; Williams, D. A.; Bowling, T. J.; Preusker, F.; Park, R. S.; Marchi, S.; Castillo-Rogez, J. C.; Fu, R. R.; Russell, C. T.

    2018-02-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long-term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact-induced uplift of the high-density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest-degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin-associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

  6. Late Cambrian magmatic arc activity in peri-Gondwana: geochemical evidence from the Basal Allochthonous Units of NW Iberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andonaegui, P.; Abati, J.; Díez-Fernández, R.

    2017-07-01

    The North African section of the Gondwana margin was the site of voluminous, arc-related magmatism during the Late Neoproterozoic (Avalonian–Cadomian orogen). The lower (and older) metasedimentary sequence that constitutes the Basal Units of the Allochthonous Complexes of NW Iberia was deposited in that setting. In these units, sedimentation was followed by the intrusion of tonalites and granodiorites in the late Cambrian (ca. 493–489Ma). In the Late Paleozoic, the collision of Gondwana and Laurussia (Variscan orogeny) deformed and metamorphosed the whole ensemble. New whole rock geochemical analysis performed in seven samples of metatonalites and fourteen samples of metagranodiorites are characterized by: i) slight enrichment in incompatible elements (Rb, Ba, Th, U), ii) negative anomalies in Nb, Ta, P, and Ti, and iii) negative anomalies in Eu. These chemical features are in agreement with a subduction-related setting for the genesis of both types of magma, which is also supported by chemical discrimination using tectonic setting diagrams. Positive anomalies of Pb suggest a crustal component. The new geochemical data reveal that the convergent orogen that ruled the paleogeography of the Gondwana periphery during the Neoproterozoic (Cadomian orogen) remained active bey.

  7. Testing thin-skinned inversion of a prerift salt-bearing passive margin (Eastern Prebetic Zone, SE Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escosa, Frederic O.; Roca, Eduard; Ferrer, Oriol

    2018-04-01

    Detailed geologic mapping combined with well and seismic data from the Eastern Prebetic Zone (SE Iberia) reveal extensional and contractional structures that permit characterization of passive margin development and its incorporation into a thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. The study area is represented by NW-directed, ENE-trending folds and thrusts faults locally disrupted by the NW-trending Matamoros Basin and the active Jumilla and La Rosa diapirs. These structures resulted from the thin-skinned inversion of the proximal part of the Eastern South Iberian passive margin containing prerift salt. Here, Upper Jurassic to Santonian thick-skinned extension controlled the accumulation of sediment over mobile prerift salt. This in turn defined the style of salt tectonics characterized by monoclinal drape folds, suprasalt extensional faults and diapirs. The structural and sedimentological analysis suggests that during extension, salt localizes strain thus decoupling sub- and suprasalt deformation. Thick-skinned extension controls suprasalt deformation as well as its location and distribution which changes over time. Salt also localizes strain during inversion. The preexisting salt structures, weaker than adjacent areas, preferentially absorb the contractional deformation. In addition, the stepped subsalt geometry that results from thick-skinned extension also controls the shortening propagation. Therefore, the degree of strain localization depends on the thickness of the suprasalt cover and on the dip of subsalt faults relative to the thin-skinned transport direction.

  8. The population genomics of archaeological transition in west Iberia: Investigation of ancient substructure using imputation and haplotype-based methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Martiniano

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We analyse new genomic data (0.05-2.95x from 14 ancient individuals from Portugal distributed from the Middle Neolithic (4200-3500 BC to the Middle Bronze Age (1740-1430 BC and impute genomewide diploid genotypes in these together with published ancient Eurasians. While discontinuity is evident in the transition to agriculture across the region, sensitive haplotype-based analyses suggest a significant degree of local hunter-gatherer contribution to later Iberian Neolithic populations. A more subtle genetic influx is also apparent in the Bronze Age, detectable from analyses including haplotype sharing with both ancient and modern genomes, D-statistics and Y-chromosome lineages. However, the limited nature of this introgression contrasts with the major Steppe migration turnovers within third Millennium northern Europe and echoes the survival of non-Indo-European language in Iberia. Changes in genomic estimates of individual height across Europe are also associated with these major cultural transitions, and ancestral components continue to correlate with modern differences in stature.

  9. The 2005 and 2012 major drought events in Iberia: monitoring vegetation dynamics and crop yields using satellite data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Trigo, Ricardo M.

    2014-05-01

    The Iberian Peninsula is recurrently affected by drought episodes and therefore by the adverse effects associated that range from severe water shortages to economic losses and related social impacts. During the hydrological years of 2004/2005 and 2011/2012, Iberia was hit by two of the worst drought episodes ever recording in this semi-arid region (Garcia-Herrera at al., 2007; Trigo et al., 2013). These two drought episodes were extreme in both its magnitude and spatial extent. A tendency towards a drier Mediterranean for the period 1970-2010 in comparison with 1901-70 has been identified (Hoerling et al., 2012), reinforcing the need for a continuous monitoring of vegetation stress and reliable estimates of the drought impacts. The strong effect of water scarcity on vegetation dynamics is well documented in Mediterranean and other semi-arid regions. Despite the usual link established between the decrease of vegetation greenness and the lack of precipitation during a considerably long period, the impact on vegetation activity may be amplified by other climatic anomalies, such as high temperature, high wind, and low relative humidity. The recent availability of consistent satellite imagery covering large regions over long periods of time has progressively reinforced the role of remote sensing in environmental studies, in particular in those related to drought episodes (e.g. Gouveia et al., 2009). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the cumulative impact over time of drought conditions on vegetation over Iberian Peninsula. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2013. The entire 15-yr long period was analysed, but particular attention was devoted to the two extreme drought episodes of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012. During the hydrological years of 2004-2005 and 2011-2012 drought episodes negative anomalies of NDVI were observed over

  10. Impact of sea-level rise on earthquake and landslide triggering offshore the Alentejo margin (SW Iberia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, M. C.; Roque, C.; Luttrell, K. M.; Vázquez, J. T.; Alonso, B.

    2016-12-01

    Earthquakes and submarine landslides are recurrent and widespread manifestations of fault activity offshore SW Iberia. The present work tests the effects of sea-level rise on offshore fault systems using Coulomb stress change calculations across the Alentejo margin. Large-scale faults capable of generating large earthquakes and tsunamis in the region, especially NE-SW trending thrusts and WNW-ESE trending dextral strike-slip faults imaged at basement depths, are either blocked or unaffected by flexural effects related to sea-level changes. Large-magnitude earthquakes occurring along these structures may, therefore, be less frequent during periods of sea-level rise. In contrast, sea-level rise promotes shallow fault ruptures within the sedimentary sequence along the continental slope and upper rise within distances of failures may either increase (if triggered by shallow fault ruptures) or decrease (if triggered by deep fault ruptures) as a result of sea-level rise. Moreover, observations of slope failures affecting the area of the Sines contourite drift highlight the role of sediment properties as preconditioning factors in this region.

  11. How Far into Europe Did Pikas (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) Go during the Pleistocene? New Evidence from Central Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laplana, César; Sevilla, Paloma; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Arriaza, Mari Carmen; Baquedano, Enrique; Pérez-González, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the first find of pika remains in the Iberian Peninsula, at a site in central Spain. A fragmented mandible of Ochotona cf. pusilla was unearthed from Layer 3 (deposited some 63.4±5.5 ka ago as determined by thermoluminescence) of the Buena Pinta Cave. This record establishes new limits for the genus geographic distribution during the Pleistocene, shifting the previous edge of its known range southwest by some 500 km. It also supports the idea that, even though Europe’s alpine mountain ranges represented a barrier that prevented the dispersal into the south to this and other taxa of small mammals from central and eastern Europe, they were crossed or circumvented at the coldest time intervals of the end of the Middle Pleistocene and of the Late Pleistocene. During those periods both the reduction of the forest cover and the emersion of large areas of the continental shelf due to the drop of the sea level probably provided these species a way to surpass this barrier. The pika mandible was found accompanying the remains of other small mammals adapted to cold climates, indicating the presence of steppe environments in central Iberia during the Late Pleistocene. PMID:26535576

  12. Deep long-period earthquakes beneath Washington and Oregon volcanoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, M.L.; Malone, S.D.; Moran, S.C.; Thelen, W.A.; Vidale, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Deep long-period (DLP) earthquakes are an enigmatic type of seismicity occurring near or beneath volcanoes. They are commonly associated with the presence of magma, and found in some cases to correlate with eruptive activity. To more thoroughly understand and characterize DLP occurrence near volcanoes in Washington and Oregon, we systematically searched the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) triggered earthquake catalog for DLPs occurring between 1980 (when PNSN began collecting digital data) and October 2009. Through our analysis we identified 60 DLPs beneath six Cascade volcanic centers. No DLPs were associated with volcanic activity, including the 1980-1986 and 2004-2008 eruptions at Mount St. Helens. More than half of the events occurred near Mount Baker, where the background flux of magmatic gases is greatest among Washington and Oregon volcanoes. The six volcanoes with DLPs (counts in parentheses) are Mount Baker (31), Glacier Peak (9), Mount Rainier (9), Mount St. Helens (9), Three Sisters (1), and Crater Lake (1). No DLPs were identified beneath Mount Adams, Mount Hood, Mount Jefferson, or Newberry Volcano, although (except at Hood) that may be due in part to poorer network coverage. In cases where the DLPs do not occur directly beneath the volcanic edifice, the locations coincide with large structural faults that extend into the deep crust. Our observations suggest the occurrence of DLPs in these areas could represent fluid and/or magma transport along pre-existing tectonic structures in the middle crust. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Buckling instabilities of subducted lithosphere beneath the transition zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribe, N.M.; Stutzmann, E.; Ren, Y.; Hilst, R.D. van der

    2007-01-01

    A sheet of viscous fluid poured onto a surface buckles periodically to generate a pile of regular folds. Recent tomographic images beneath subduction zones, together with quantitative fluid mechanical scaling laws, suggest that a similar instability can occur when slabs of subducted oceanic

  14. Living and Working Beneath the Sea – Next Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowiński Lech

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The idea of living beneath the sea is very new if compared with millennia of shipping activity. In fact, ocean surface was considered mainly as medium suitable for transport of persons and goods as well as aggression and robbery. More practical attempts to live “on” the water surface are limited to well protected internal waters.

  15. Sub-crustal seismic activity beneath Klyuchevskoy Volcano

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, M. J.; Droznina, S.; Levin, V. L.; Senyukov, S.

    2013-12-01

    Seismic activity is extremely vigorous beneath the Klyuchevskoy Volcanic Group (KVG). The unique aspect is the distribution in depth. In addition to upper-crustal seismicity, earthquakes take place at depths in excess of 20 km. Similar observations are known in other volcanic regions, however the KVG is unique in both the number of earthquakes and that they occur continuously. Most other instances of deep seismicity beneath volcanoes appear to be episodic or transient. Digital recording of seismic signals started at the KVG in early 2000s.The dense local network reliably locates earthquakes as small as ML~1. We selected records of 20 earthquakes located at depths over 20 km. Selection was based on the quality of the routine locations and the visual clarity of the records. Arrivals of P and S waves were re-picked, and hypocentral parameters re-established. Newl locations fell within the ranges outlined by historical seismicity, confirming the existence of two distinct seismically active regions. A shallower zone is at ~20 km depth, and all hypocenters are to the northeast of KVG, in a region between KVG and Shiveluch volcano. A deeper zone is at ~30 km, and all hypocenters cluster directly beneath the edifice of the Kyuchevskoy volcano. Examination of individual records shows that earthquakes in both zones are tectonic, with well-defined P and S waves - another distinction of the deep seismicity beneath KVG. While the upper seismic zone is unquestionably within the crust, the provenance of the deeper earthquakes is enigmatic. The crustal structure beneath KVG is highly complex, with no agreed-upon definition of the crust-mantle boundary. Rather, a range of values, from under 30 to over 40 km, exists in the literature. Similarly, a range of velocity structures has been reported. Teleseismic receiver functions (RFs) provide a way to position the earthquakes with respect to the crust-mantle boundary. We compare the differential travel times of S and P waves from deep

  16. Petrological Constraints on Melt Generation Beneath the Asal Rift (Djibouti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzuti, P.; Humler, E.; Manighetti, I.; Gaudemer, Y.; Bézos, A.

    2010-12-01

    The temporal evolution of the mantle melting processes in the Asal Rift is evaluated from the chemical composition of 95 lava flows sampled along 10 km of the rift axis and 8 km off-axis (that is for the last 650 ky). The major element composition and the trace element ratios of aphyric basalts across the Asal Rift show a symmetric pattern relative to the rift axis and preserved a clear signal of mantle melting depth variations. FeO, Fe8.0, Sm/YbN and Zr/Y increase, whereas SiO2 and Lu/HfN decrease from the rift axis to the rift shoulders. These variations are qualitatively consistent with a shallower melting beneath the rift axis than off-axis and the data show that the melting regime is inconsistent with a passive upwelling model. In order to quantify the depth range and extent of melting, we invert Na8.0 and Fe8.0 contents of basalts based on a pure active upwelling model. Beneath the rift axis, melting paths are shallow, from 60 to 30 km. These melting paths are consistent with adiabatic melting in normal-temperature asthenosphere, beneath an extensively thinned mantle lithosphere. In contrast, melting on the rift shoulders occurred beneath a thick mantle lithosphere and required mantle solidus temperature 180°C hotter than normal (melting paths from 110 to 75 km). The calculated rate of lithospheric thinning is high (6.0 cm yr-1) and could explain the survival of a metastable garnet within the mantle at depth shallower than 90 km beneath the modern Asal Rift.

  17. Post-tectonic landscape evolution in NE Iberia using staircase terraces: Combined effects of uplift and climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Claudia J.; Sancho, Carlos; McDonald, Eric V.; Peña-Monné, José Luis; Pueyo, Emilio L.; Rhodes, Edward; Calle, Mikel; Soto, Ruth

    2017-09-01

    River incision into bedrock resulting from the combined effects of tectonic uplift and climate governs long-term regional landscape evolution. We determined spatial and temporal patterns of post-orogenic stream incision from a sequence of well-preserved staircase terraces developed over the last 1 Ma in the Central Pyrenees and its southern foreland Ebro basin (NE Spain). Extensive remnants of ten vertically separated terraces (Qt1 to Qt10, from oldest to youngest) were mapped along 170 km of the Cinca River valley, transverse to the Pyrenean mountain belt. Multiple outcrops appear in the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa sector, 50 km from headwaters) as well as in the lower reach (Albalate sector, 125 km from headwaters). Fluvial incision into bedrock was calculated using (i) differentially corrected GPS measurements of the altitude of straths and (ii) numerical dating of alluvial sediments from the lower terraces (Qt5 to Qt9) by Optically Stimulated Luminescence, previously reported by Lewis et al. (2009), and supplemented with new dates for the upper terraces (Qt1, Qt2 and Qt3) based on paleomagnetism and supported by soil development. Considering altitude differences and the elapsed time between successive well preserved terrace couples (Qt3-Qt7, Qt7-Qt9 and Qt9-Active channel), mean bedrock incision rates ranged from 0.76 to 0.38 m ka- 1, at the upper reach of the valley (Ainsa section), and from 0.61 to 0.20 m ka- 1, at the lower reach (Albalate section). River incision along the valley produced vertically separated, near-parallel longitudinal terrace profiles evidencing a rapid near-uniform regional uplift as response to (i) the tectonic lithospheric thickening in NE Iberia and (ii) the erosional download rebound related to the Ebro basin exorheism. Moreover, a subtle upstream divergence of strath profiles may have been a consequence of an increase in uplift rate toward the head of the valley. Additionally, incision rates changed over time as indicate

  18. Deformation in D″ Beneath North America From Anisotropy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowacki, A. J.; Wookey, J.; Kendall, J. M.

    2009-12-01

    The lowermost few hundred kilometres of the Earth's mantle—known as D″—form the boundary between it and the core below, control the Earth's convective system, and are the site of probable large thermochemical heterogeneity. Seismic observations of D″ show a strong heterogeneity in seismic wave velocity and significant seismic anisotropy (the variation of wave speed with direction) are present in many parts of the region. On the basis of continuous regions of fast shear velocity (VS) anomalies in global models, it is also proposed as the resting place of subducted slabs, notably the Farallon beneath North America. A phase change of MgSiO3-perovskite (pv) to a post-perovskite (ppv) structure at near-core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions is a compelling mechanism to explain the seismic features of D″. An outstanding question is how this and other mineral phases may deform to produce anisotropy, with different mechanisms possible. With knowledge either of mantle flow or which slip system is responsible for causing deformation, we can potentially determine the other with observations of the resulting seismic anisotropy. We investigate the dynamics at the CMB beneath North America using differential shear wave splitting in S and ScS phases from earthquakes of magnitude MW>5.5 in South and Central America, Hawaii the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and East Pacific Rise. They are detected on ~500 stations in North America, giving ~700 measurements of anisotropy in D″. We achieve this by correcting for anisotropy in the upper mantle (UM) beneath both the source and receiver. The measurements cover three regions beneath western USA, the Yucatan peninsula and Florida. In each case, two different, crossing ray paths are used, so that the style of anisotropy can be constrained—a single azimuth cannot distinguish differing cases. Our results showing ~1% anisotropy dependent on azimuth are not consistent with transverse isotropy with a vertical symmetry axis (VTI) anywhere. The

  19. Thermally driven gas flow beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amter, S.; Lu, Ning; Ross, B.

    1991-01-01

    A coupled thermopneumatic model is developed for simulating heat transfer, rock-gas flow and carbon-14 travel time beneath Yucca Mountain, NV. The aim of this work is to understand the coupling of heat transfer and gas flow. Heat transfer in and near the potential repository region depends on several factors, including the geothermal gradient, climate, and local sources of heat such as radioactive wastes. Our numerical study shows that small temperature changes at the surface can change both the temperature field and the gas flow pattern beneath Yucca Mountain. A lateral temperature difference of 1 K is sufficient to create convection cells hundreds of meters in size. Differences in relative humidities between gas inside the mountain and air outside the mountain also significantly affect the gas flow field. 6 refs., 7 figs

  20. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, John M; Meadows, Guy A

    2009-06-23

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000-7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and location, structures used for caribou hunting in both prehistoric and ethnographic times. These results present evidence for early hunters on the Alpena-Amberley corridor, and raise the possibility that intact settlements and ancient landscapes are preserved beneath Lake Huron.

  1. The extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Kendall, J.-M.; Collier, J. S.; Rümpker, G.

    2013-11-01

    The granitic islands of the Seychelles Plateau have long been recognised to overlie continental crust, isolated from Madagascar and India during the formation of the Indian Ocean. However, to date the extent of continental crust beneath the Seychelles region remains unknown. This is particularly true beneath the Mascarene Basin between the Seychelles Plateau and Madagascar and beneath the Amirante Arc. Constraining the size and shape of the Seychelles continental fragment is needed for accurate plate reconstructions of the breakup of Gondwana and has implications for the processes of continental breakup in general. Here we present new estimates of crustal thickness and VP/VS from H-κ stacking of receiver functions from a year long deployment of seismic stations across the Seychelles covering the topographic plateau, the Amirante Ridge and the northern Mascarene Basin. These results, combined with gravity modelling of historical ship track data, confirm that continental crust is present beneath the Seychelles Plateau. This is ˜30-33 km thick, but with a relatively high velocity lower crustal layer. This layer thins southwards from ˜10 km to ˜1 km over a distance of ˜50 km, which is consistent with the Seychelles being at the edge of the Deccan plume prior to its separation from India. In contrast, the majority of the Seychelles Islands away from the topographic plateau show no direct evidence for continental crust. The exception to this is the island of Desroche on the northern Amirante Ridge, where thicker low density crust, consistent with a block of continental material is present. We suggest that the northern Amirantes are likely continental in nature and that small fragments of continental material are a common feature of plume affected continental breakup.

  2. Crustal structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula from local earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang-Hee; Park, Jung-Ho; Park, Yongcheol; Hao, Tian-Yao; Kim, Han-Joon

    2017-05-01

    The 3-D subsurface structure beneath the southern Korean Peninsula is poorly known, even though such information could be key in verifying or rejecting several competing models of the tectonic evolution of East Asia. We constructed a 3-D velocity model of the upper crust beneath the southern Korean Peninsula using 19 935 P-wave arrivals from 747 earthquakes recorded by high-density local seismic networks. Results show significant lateral and vertical variations: velocity increases from northwest to southeast at shallow depths, and significant velocity variations are observed across the South Korea Tectonic Line between the Okcheon Fold Belt and the Youngnam Massif. Collision between the North and South China blocks during the Early Cretaceous might have caused extensive deformation and the observed negative velocity anomalies in the region. The results of the tomographic inversion, combined with the findings of previous studies of Bouguer and isostatic gravity anomalies, indicate the presence of high-density material in the upper and middle crust beneath the Gyeongsang Basin in the southeastern Korean Peninsula. Although our results partially support the indentation tectonic model, it is still premature to discard other tectonic evolution models because our study only covers the southern half of the peninsula.

  3. Morphological indicators of a mascon beneath Ceres' largest crater, Kerwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael T.; Ermakov, Anton; Raymond, Carol A.; Williams, David A.; Bowling, Tim J.; Preusker, F.; Park, Ryan S.; Marchi, Simone; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Fu, R.R.; Russell, Christopher T.

    2018-01-01

    Gravity data of Ceres returned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Dawn spacecraft is consistent with a lower density crust of variable thickness overlying a higher density mantle. Crustal thickness variations can affect the long‐term, postimpact modification of impact craters on Ceres. Here we show that the unusual morphology of the 280 km diameter crater Kerwan may result from viscous relaxation in an outer layer that thins substantially beneath the crater floor. We propose that such a structure is consistent with either impact‐induced uplift of the high‐density mantle beneath the crater or from volatile loss during the impact event. In either case, the subsurface structure inferred from the crater morphology is superisostatic, and the mass excess would result in a positive Bouguer anomaly beneath the crater, consistent with the highest‐degree gravity data from Dawn. Ceres joins the Moon, Mars, and Mercury in having basin‐associated gravity anomalies, although their origin may differ substantially.

  4. Pre-Hercynian hydrothermalism in South Iberia: lead isotope geochemistry constraints; Hydrothermalisme ante-hercynien en Sud-Iberie: apport de la geochimie isotopique du plomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcoux, E.; Onezime, J. [Orleans Univ., Institut des Sciences de la Terre d' Orleans, 45 (France); Pascual, E. [Universite d' Huelva, Dept. de Geologia y MIneria, Huelva (Spain)

    2002-04-01

    Lead isotope study has been performed on massive sulphide deposits of Ossa-Morena and Aracena Belt (South Iberia). Results suggest the existence of at least two ancient hydrothermal events. The first one, Upper Brioverian in age ({approx}600-570 Ma), gave birth to Maria-Luisa and Puebla de la Reina massive sulphide deposits; it thus confirms the existence of a Cadomian orogen in South Iberia. Isotopic compositions indicate a local contribution of mantle-derived material (Maria Luisa mine), confirming the presence of ancient oceanic crust in Aracena Belt. This mineralizing event seems to extend till the Armorican Massif. The second episode, Eo-Hercynian in age ({approx}400-350 Ma) has allowed genesis of massive sulphide deposits of la Nava Paredon and Aguas Blancas, and could be coeval with the emplacement of South-Iberian massive sulphide ore deposits in the neighbouring South-Portuguese Zone. A more continental crustal source for later ore deposits could explain the much more important metal accumulation in this zone. (authors)

  5. Recent Male-Mediated Gene Flow over a Linguistic Barrier in Iberia, Suggested by Analysis of a Y-Chromosomal DNA Polymorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurles, Matthew E.; Veitia, Reiner; Arroyo, Eduardo; Armenteros, Manuel; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Pérez-Lezaun, Anna; Bosch, Elena; Shlumukova, Maria; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; McElreavey, Ken; López de Munain, Adolfo; Röhl, Arne; Wilson, Ian J.; Singh, Lalji; Pandya, Arpita; Santos, Fabrício R.; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Jobling, Mark A.

    1999-01-01

    Summary We have examined the worldwide distribution of a Y-chromosomal base-substitution polymorphism, the T/C transition at SRY-2627, where the T allele defines haplogroup 22; sequencing of primate homologues shows that the ancestral state cannot be determined unambiguously but is probably the C allele. Of 1,191 human Y chromosomes analyzed, 33 belong to haplogroup 22. Twenty-nine come from Iberia, and the highest frequencies are in Basques (11%; n=117) and Catalans (22%; n=32). Microsatellite and minisatellite (MSY1) diversity analysis shows that non-Iberian haplogroup-22 chromosomes are not significantly different from Iberian ones. The simplest interpretation of these data is that haplogroup 22 arose in Iberia and that non-Iberian cases reflect Iberian emigrants. Several different methods were used to date the origin of the polymorphism: microsatellite data gave ages of 1,650, 2,700, 3,100, or 3,450 years, and MSY1 gave ages of 1,000, 2,300, or 2,650 years, although 95% confidence intervals on all of these figures are wide. The age of the split between Basque and Catalan haplogroup-22 chromosomes was calculated as only 20% of the age of the lineage as a whole. This study thus provides evidence for direct or indirect gene flow over the substantial linguistic barrier between the Indo-European and non–Indo-European–speaking populations of the Catalans and the Basques, during the past few thousand years. PMID:10521311

  6. New constraints on the crustal structure beneath northern Tyrrhenian Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, V. L.; Park, J. J.

    2009-12-01

    We present new seismological data on the seismic structure beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea between Corsica and the coast of Italy. Teleseismic receiver functions from two Tyrrhenian islands (Elba and Gorgona) identify clear P-to-S mode-converted waves from two distinct interfaces, at ~20 and ~45 km depth. Both interfaces are characterized by an increase of seismic wavespeed with depth. Using a summation of direct and multiply-reflected body waves within the P wave coda we estimate the mean ratio of compressional and shear wave speeds above the 45 km interface to be 1.75-1.80. Using reflectivity computations in 1D layered models we develop a model of seismic wavespeed distribution that yields synthetic seismograms very similar to those observed. We apply a Ps-multiple summation procedure to the synthetic waveforms to further verify the match between observed and predicted wavefields. The lower layer of our model, between 20 and 45 km, has Vp ~ 7.5 km/sec, a value that can be ascribed to either very fast crustal rocks or very slow upper mantle rocks. The Vp/Vs ratio is ~1.8 in this intermediate layer. On the basis of a well-constrained downward increase in seismic wave speed beneath this second layer, we interpret it as the magmatically reworked lower crust, a lithology that has been proposed to explain high-Vp layers in the crustal roots of island-arc terranes and volcanically altered continental margins, as well as lower-crustal high-Vp features sometimes seen beneath continental rifts. The presence of a thick layer of high-Vp, but crustal, lithology beneath the Tyrrhenian Sea differs considerably from previous estimates that interpreted the interface at ~20 km as the Moho. Our new interpretation obviates a need for a crustal thickness change of over 20 km at the crest of the Apennines orogen. We propose an alteration in the properties of the lower crust instead. We argue that ongoing convergent subduction of the Adriatic lithospehre is not required beneath northern

  7. Extensional fault geometry and its flexural isostatic response during the formation of the Iberia - Newfoundland conjugate rifted margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Romeu, Júlia; Kusznir, Nick; Manatschal, Gianreto; Roberts, Alan

    2017-04-01

    Despite magma-poor rifted margins having been extensively studied for the last 20 years, the evolution of extensional fault geometry and the flexural isostatic response to faulting remain still debated topics. We investigate how the flexural isostatic response to faulting controls the structural development of the distal part of rifted margins in the hyper-extended domain and the resulting sedimentary record. In particular we address an important question concerning the geometry and evolution of extensional faults within distal hyper-extended continental crust; are the seismically observed extensional fault blocks in this region allochthons from the upper plate or are they autochthons of the lower plate? In order to achieve our aim we focus on the west Iberian rifted continental margin along the TGS and LG12 seismic profiles. Our strategy is to use a kinematic forward model (RIFTER) to model the tectonic and stratigraphic development of the west Iberia margin along TGS-LG12 and quantitatively test and calibrate the model against breakup paleo-bathymetry, crustal basement thickness and well data. RIFTER incorporates the flexural isostatic response to extensional faulting, crustal thinning, lithosphere thermal loads, sedimentation and erosion. The model predicts the structural and stratigraphic consequences of recursive sequential faulting and sedimentation. The target data used to constrain model predictions consists of two components: (i) gravity anomaly inversion is used to determine Moho depth, crustal basement thickness and continental lithosphere thinning and (ii) reverse post-rift subsidence modelling consisting of flexural backstripping, decompaction and reverse post-rift thermal subsidence modelling is used to give paleo-bathymetry at breakup time. We show that successful modelling of the structural and stratigraphic development of the TGS-LG12 Iberian margin transect also requires the simultaneous modelling of the Newfoundland conjugate margin, which we

  8. Precise dating of the Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition in Murcia (Spain supports late Neandertal persistence in Iberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Zilhão

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The late persistence in Southern Iberia of a Neandertal-associated Middle Paleolithic is supported by the archeological stratigraphy and the radiocarbon and luminescence dating of three newly excavated localities in the Mula basin of Murcia (Spain. At Cueva Antón, Mousterian layer I-k can be no more than 37,100 years-old. At La Boja, the basal Aurignacian can be no less than 36,500 years-old. The regional Middle-to-Upper Paleolithic transition process is thereby bounded to the first half of the 37th millennium Before Present, in agreement with evidence from Andalusia, Gibraltar and Portugal. This chronology represents a lag of minimally 3000 years with the rest of Europe, where that transition and the associated process of Neandertal/modern human admixture took place between 40,000 and 42,000 years ago. The lag implies the presence of an effective barrier to migration and diffusion across the Ebro river depression, which, based on available paleoenvironmental indicators, would at that time have represented a major biogeographical divide. In addition, (a the Phlegraean Fields caldera explosion, which occurred 39,850 years ago, would have stalled the Neandertal/modern human admixture front because of the population sink it generated in Central and Eastern Europe, and (b the long period of ameliorated climate that came soon after (Greenland Interstadial 8, during which forests underwent a marked expansion in Iberian regions south of 40°N would have enhanced the “Ebro Frontier” effect. These findings have two broader paleoanthropological implications: firstly, that, below the Ebro, the archeological record made prior to 37,000 years ago must be attributed, in all its aspects and components, to the Neandertals (or their ancestors; secondly, that modern human emergence is best seen as an uneven, punctuated process during which long-lasting barriers to gene flow and cultural diffusion could have existed across rather short distances, with

  9. A Bed-Deformation Experiment Beneath Engabreen, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, N. R.; Hooyer, T. S.; Fischer, U. H.; Cohen, D.; Jackson, M.; Moore, P. L.; Lappegard, G.; Kohler, J.

    2001-12-01

    Although deformation of sediment beneath ice masses may contribute to their motion and may sometimes enable fast glacier flow, both the kinematics and mechanics of deformation are controversial. This controversy stems, in part, from subglacial measurements that are difficult to interpret. Measurements have been made either beneath ice margins or remotely through boreholes with interpretive limitations caused by uncertain instrument position and performance, uncertain sediment thickness and bed geometry, and unknown disturbance of the bed and stress state by drilling. We have used a different approach made possible by the Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory, which enables human access to the bed of Engabreen, Norway, beneath 230 m of temperate ice. A trough (2 m x 1.5 m x 0.4 m deep) was blasted in the rock bed and filled with sediment (75 percent sand and gravel, 20 percent silt, 5 percent clay). Instruments were placed in the sediment to record shear deformation (tiltmeters), dilation and contraction, total normal stress, and pore-water pressure. Pore pressure was manipulated by feeding water to the base of the sediment with a high-pressure pump, operated in a rock tunnel 4 m below the bed surface. After irregular deformation during closure of ice on the sediment, shear deformation and volume change stopped, and total normal stress became constant at 2.2 MPa. Subsequent pump tests, which lasted several hours, induced pore-water pressures greater than 70 percent of the total normal stress and resulted in shear deformation over most of the sediment thickness with attendant dilation. Ice separated from the sediment when effective normal stress was lowest, arresting shear deformation. Displacement profiles during pump tests were similar to those observed by Boulton and co-workers at Breidamerkurjökull, Iceland, with rates of shear strain increasing upward toward the glacier sole. Such deformation does not require viscous deformation resistance and is expected in a

  10. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  11. The structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriampenomanana, Fenitra; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wysession, Michael E.; Durrheim, Raymond J.; Tilmann, Frederik; Julià, Jordi; Pratt, Martin J.; Rambolamanana, Gérard; Aleqabi, Ghassan; Shore, Patrick J.; Rakotondraibe, Tsiriandrimanana

    2017-09-01

    The lithosphere of Madagascar was initially amalgamated during the Pan-African events in the Neoproterozoic. It has subsequently been reshaped by extensional processes associated with the separation from Africa and India in the Jurassic and Cretaceous, respectively, and been subjected to several magmatic events in the late Cretaceous and the Cenozoic. In this study, the crust and uppermost mantle have been investigated to gain insights into the present-day structure and tectonic evolution of Madagascar. We analysed receiver functions, computed from data recorded on 37 broad-band seismic stations, using the H-κ stacking method and a joint inversion with Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity measurements. The thickness of the Malagasy crust ranges between 18 and 46 km. It is generally thick beneath the spine of mountains in the centre part (up to 46 km thick) and decreases in thickness towards the edges of the island. The shallowest Moho is found beneath the western sedimentary basins (18 km thick), which formed during both the Permo-Triassic Karro rifting in Gondwana and the Jurassic rifting of Madagascar from eastern Africa. The crust below the sedimentary basin thickens towards the north and east, reflecting the progressive development of the basins. In contrast, in the east there was no major rifting episode. Instead, the slight thinning of the crust along the east coast (31-36 km thick) may have been caused by crustal uplift and erosion when Madagascar moved over the Marion hotspot and India broke away from it. The parameters describing the crustal structure of Archean and Proterozoic terranes, including average thickness (40 km versus 35 km), Poisson's ratio (0.25 versus 0.26), average shear-wave velocity (both 3.7 km s-1), and thickness of mafic lower crust (7 km versus 4 km), show weak evidence of secular variation. The uppermost mantle beneath Madagascar is generally characterized by shear-wave velocities typical of stable lithosphere (∼4.5 km s-1). However

  12. Evidence for early hunters beneath the Great Lakes

    OpenAIRE

    O'Shea, John M.; Meadows, Guy A.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars have hypothesized that the poorly understood and rarely encountered archaeological sites from the terminal Paleoindian and Archaic periods associated with the Lake Stanley low water stage (10,000–7,500 BP) are lost beneath the modern Great Lakes. Acoustic and video survey on the Alpena-Amberley ridge, a feature that would have been a dry land corridor crossing the Lake Huron basin during this time period, reveals the presence of a series of stone features that match, in form and loca...

  13. Subduction and volcanism in the Iberia-North Africa collision zone from tomographic images of the upper mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaseñor, Antonio; Chevrot, Sébastien; Harnafi, Mimoun; Gallart, Josep; Pazos, Antonio; Serrano, Inmaculada; Córdoba, Diego; Pulgar, Javier A.; Ibarra, Pedro

    2015-11-01

    New tomographic images of the upper mantle beneath the westernmost Mediterranean suggest that the evolution of the region experienced two subduction-related episodes. First subduction of oceanic and/or extended continental lithosphere, now located mainly beneath the Betics at depths greater than 400 km, took place on a NW-SE oriented subduction zone. This was followed by a slab-tear process that initiated in the east and propagated to the west, leading to westward slab rollback and possibly lower crustal delamination. The current position of the slab tear is located approximately at 4°W, and to the west of this location the subducted lithosphere is still attached to the surface along the Gibraltar Arc. Our new P-wave velocity model is able to image the attached subducted lithosphere as a narrow high-velocity body extending to shallow depths, coinciding with the region of maximum curvature of the Gibraltar Arc, the occurrence of intermediate-depth earthquakes, and anomalously thick crust. This thick crust has a large influence in the measured teleseismic travel time residuals and therefore in the obtained P-wave tomographic model. We show that removing the effects of the thick crust significantly improves the shallow images of the slab and therefore the interpretations based on the seismic structure.

  14. Isotopic discontinuities in ground water beneath Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuckless, J.S.; Whelan, J.F.; Steinkampf, W.C.

    1991-01-01

    Analytical data for stable isotopes in ground water from beneath Yucca Mountain, when examined in map view, show areal patterns of heterogeneity that can be interpreted in terms of mixing of at least three end members. One end member must be isotopically heavy in terms of hydrogen and oxygen and have a young apparent 14 C age such as water found at the north end of Yucca Mountain beneath Fortymile Wash. A second end member must contain isotopically heavy carbon and have an old apparent 14 C age such as water from the Paleozoic aquifer. The third end member cannot be tightly defined. It must be isotopically lighter than the first with respect of hydrogen and oxygen and be intermediate to the first and second end members with respect to both apparent 14 C age and δ 13 C. The variable isotopic compositions of hydrogen and oxygen indicate that two of the end members are waters, but the variable carbon isotopic composition could represent either a third water end member or reaction of water with a carbon-bearing solids such as calcite. 15 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Analysis of pumping-induced unsaturated regions beneath aperennial river

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su, G.W.; Jasperse, J.; Seymour, D.; Constantz, J.; Zhou, Q.

    2007-05-15

    The presence of an unsaturated region beneath a streambedduring groundwater pumping near streams reduces the pumping capacity whenit reaches the well screens, changes flow paths, and alters the types ofbiological transformations in the streambed sediments. Athree-dimensional, multi-phase flow model of two horizontal collectorwells along the Russian River near Forestville, California was developedto investigate the impact of varying the ratio of the aquifer tostreambed permeability on (1) the formation of an unsaturated regionbeneath the stream, (2) the pumping capacity, (3) stream-water fluxesthrough the streambed, and (4) stream-water travel times to the collectorwells. The aquifer to streambed permeability ratio at which theunsaturated region was initially observed ranged from 10 to 100. The sizeof the unsaturated region beneath the streambed increased as the aquiferto streambed permeability ratio increased. The simulations also indicatedthat for a particular aquifer permeability, decreasing the streambedpermeability by only a factor of 2-3 from the permeability wheredesaturation initially occurred resulted in reducing the pumpingcapacity. In some cases, the stream-water fluxes increased as thestreambed permeability decreased. However, the stream water residencetimes increased and the fraction of stream water that reached that thewells decreased as the streambed permeability decreased, indicating thata higher streambed flux does not necessarily correlate to greaterrecharge of stream water around the wells.

  16. Simulation of Wave-Plus-Current Scour beneath Submarine Pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke; Fuhrman, David R.; Sumer, B. Mutlu

    2016-01-01

    A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed and suspen......A fully coupled hydrodynamic and morphologic numerical model was utilized for the simulation of wave-plus-current scour beneath submarine pipelines. The model was based on incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations, coupled with k-ω turbulence closure, with additional bed...... and suspended load descriptions forming the basis for seabed morphology. The model was successfully validated against experimental measurements involving scour development and eventual equilibrium in pure-current flows over a range of Shields parameters characteristic of both clear-water and live-bed regimes....... This validation complements previously demonstrated accuracy for the same model in simulating pipeline scour processes in pure-wave environments. The model was subsequently utilized to simulate combined wave-plus-current scour over a wide range of combined Keulegan–Carpenter numbers and relative current strengths...

  17. García & Cernadas (eds., Reginae Iberia: El Poder Regio Femenino en Los Reinos Medievales Peninsulares (Universidade de Santiago de Compostela, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lledo Ruiz Domingo

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume "Reginae Iberia" is a compilation of some of the papers presented at the International Congress on Queens and Infantas in Medieval Iberian Kingdoms, held in Santiago de Compostela from the 21st to 23rd May 2014. The editors of this volume, Miguel García and Silvia Cernadas, selected a total of 12 articles, which despite focussing on very different topics, all served to emphasise a shared central idea. With these articles, the editors aimed to present a range of new and complementary readings on the Iberian monarchy, whilst highlighting the leading role of women at the heart of these houses and challenging the perception that they served purely for decorative or reproductive purposes

  18. Crustal and upper mantle velocity structure of Southern Iberia, the sea of Alboran, and the Gibraltar arc determined by local earthquake tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. J. Blanco

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available A "local earthquake tomography" of a large area encompassing the South of Iberia, the sea of Alboran, the Gibraltar arc, and Northern Morrocco, has been performed using first arrival times recorded at various Spanish and Morroccan seismic networks. A total of 52 stations and 639 earthquakes provided over 6300 first P arrivals and 4400 S arrivals. Three features of interest appear in the results: i a continuous low velocity structure which correlates with the Betics, the Gibraltar arc and the Rif; ii a high velocity feature which persists to a depth of approximately 30 km, positioned near the coast of Malaga on the northern margin of the Alboran sea; iii a low velocity feature, extending to a minimum depth of approximately 40 km, which coincides with the Granada basin and a strong negative Bouguer gravity anomaly.

  19. Seismic anisotropy in tomographic studies of the upper mantle beneath Southern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Plomerovà

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Regional seismic tomography of Iberia, Italy, the South Balkans and the Aegean region down to about 400 km are discussed along with results of studies on the anisotropic structure of the lithosphere based on an analysis of spatial variations of P-residuals. The P-residual spheres, showing azimuth-incidence angle dependent terms of relative residuals, map lateral changes of the anisotropic structure of the subcrustal lithosphere related to large tectonic units. Isotropic velocity perturbation models correlate, in general, with models of the lithosphere thickness but in some provinces they are affected by neglecting the anisotropic propagation within the lithosphere.

  20. An objective daily Weather Type classification for Iberia since 1850; patterns, trends, variability and impact in precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A. M.; Trigo, R. M.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Vaquero, J. M.; Gallego, M. C.; Valente, M. A.; Gimeno, L.

    2009-04-01

    In recent years a large number of automated classifications of atmospheric circulation patterns have been published covering the entire European continent or specific sub-regions (Huth et al., 2008). This generalized use of objective classifications results from their relatively straightforward computation but crucially from their capacity to provide simple description of typical synoptic conditions as well as their climatic and environmental impact. For this purpose, the vast majority of authors has employed the Reanalyses datasets, namely from either NCEP/NCAR or ECMWF projects. However, both these widely used datasets suffer from important caveats, namely their restricted temporal coverage, that is limited to the last six decades (NCEP/NCAR since 1948 and ECMWF since 1958). This limitation has been partially mitigated by the recent availability of continuous daily mean sea level pressure obtained within the European project EMULATE, that extended the historic records over the extra-tropical Atlantic and Europe (70°-25° N by 70° W-50° E), for the period 1850 to the present (Ansell, T. J. et al. 2006). Here we have used the extended EMULATE dataset to construct an automated version of the Lamb Weather type (WTs) classification scheme (Jones et al 1993) adapted for the center of the Iberian Peninsula. We have identified 10 basic WTs (Cyclonic, Anticyclonic and 8 directional types) following a similar methodology to that previously adopted by Trigo and DaCamara, 2000 (for Portugal) and Lorenzo et al. 2008 (for Galicia, northwestern Iberia). We have evaluated trends of monthly/seasonal frequency of each WT for the entire period and several shorter periods. Finally, we use the long-term precipitation time series from Lisbon (recently digitized) and Cadiz (southern Spain) to evaluate, the impact of each WT on the precipitation regime. It is shown that the Anticyclonic (A) type, although being the most frequent class in winter, gives a rather small contribution to

  1. Slab melting and magma formation beneath the southern Cascade arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walowski, Kristina J.; Wallace, Paul J.; Clynne, Michael A.; Rasmussen, D.J.; Weis, D.

    2016-01-01

    The processes that drive magma formation beneath the Cascade arc and other warm-slab subduction zones have been debated because young oceanic crust is predicted to largely dehydrate beneath the forearc during subduction. In addition, geochemical variability along strike in the Cascades has led to contrasting interpretations about the role of volatiles in magma generation. Here, we focus on the Lassen segment of the Cascade arc, where previous work has demonstrated across-arc geochemical variations related to subduction enrichment, and H-isotope data suggest that H2O in basaltic magmas is derived from the final breakdown of chlorite in the mantle portion of the slab. We use naturally glassy, olivine-hosted melt inclusions (MI) from the tephra deposits of eight primitive (MgO>7 wt%) basaltic cinder cones to quantify the pre-eruptive volatile contents of mantle-derived melts in this region. The melt inclusions have B concentrations and isotope ratios that are similar to mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting extensive dehydration of the downgoing plate prior to reaching sub-arc depths and little input of slab-derived B into the mantle wedge. However, correlations of volatile and trace element ratios (H2O/Ce, Cl/Nb, Sr/Nd) in the melt inclusions demonstrate that geochemical variability is the result of variable addition of a hydrous subduction component to the mantle wedge. Furthermore, correlations between subduction component tracers and radiogenic isotope ratios show that the subduction component has less radiogenic Sr and Pb than the Lassen sub-arc mantle, which can be explained by melting of subducted Gorda MORB beneath the arc. Agreement between pMELTS melting models and melt inclusion volatile, major, and trace element data suggests that hydrous slab melt addition to the mantle wedge can produce the range in primitive compositions erupted in the Lassen region. Our results provide further evidence that chlorite-derived fluids from the mantle portion of the

  2. Jonia e Iberia

    OpenAIRE

    León, Pilar

    2003-01-01

    Las relaciones entre Jonia e Ibería atestiguan la existencia de un eje Oriente-Occidente en la cuenca del Mediterráneo, cuyo funcionamiento resulta especialmente activo en época arcaica. Se analiza aquí el carácter intrínseco de esas relaciones y se las observa desde una perspectiva nueva, que implica reciprocidad de algún modo, y que esclarece el sentido del influjo jonio sobre el arte ibérico, matizado por lo efímero y tangencial de dicho influjo.--------------------------------------------...

  3. Hot upwelling conduit beneath the Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Daoyuan; Miller, Meghan S.; Holt, Adam F.; Becker, Thorsten W.

    2014-11-01

    The Atlas Mountains of Morocco display high topography, no deep crustal root, and regions of localized Cenozoic alkaline volcanism. Previous seismic imaging and geophysical studies have implied a hot mantle upwelling as the source of the volcanism and high elevation. However, the existence, shape, and physical properties of an associated mantle anomaly are debated. Here we use seismic waveform analysis from a broadband deployment and geodynamic modeling to define the physical properties and morphology of the anomaly. The imaged low-velocity structure extends to ~200 km beneath the Atlas and appears ~350 K hotter than the ambient mantle with possible partial melting. It includes a lateral conduit, which suggests that the Quaternary volcanism arises from the upper mantle. Moreover, the shape and temperature of the imaged anomaly indicate that the unusually high topography of the Atlas Mountains is due to active mantle support.

  4. Receiver Function Imaging of Mantle Transition Zone Discontinuities Beneath Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahm, Haider Hassan Faraj

    Subduction of tectonic plates is one of the most important tectonic processes, yet many aspects of subduction zone geodynamics remain unsolved and poorly understood, such as the depth extent of the subducted slab and its geometry. The Alaska subduction zone, which is associated with the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the North America plate, has a complex tectonic setting and carries a series of subduction episodes, and represents an excellent target to study such plate tectonic processes. Previous seismological studies in Alaska have proposed different depth estimations and geometry for the subducted slab. The Mantle transition zone discontinuities of the 410km and the 660 km provide independent constraints on the depth extent of the subducted slabs. We conducted a receiver function study to map the topography of the 410 km and the 660 km discontinuities beneath Alaska and its adjacent areas by taking advantage of the teleseismic data from the new USArray deployment in Alaska and northwestern Canada. Stacking over 75,000 high-quality radial receiver functions recorded in Alaska with more than 40 years of recording period, the topographies of the 410 km and 660 km are mapped. The depths of both d410 and d660 show systematic spatial variations, the mean depth of d410 and d660 are within 6 km and 6 km from the global average, respectively. The mean MTZ thickness of the entire study area is within -2 km from the global average of 250 km, suggesting normal MTZ conditions on average. Central and south-central Alaska are characterized by a larger than normal MTZ thickness, suggesting that the subducting Pacific slab is thermally interacted with the MTZ. This study shows that lateral upper mantle velocity variations contribute the bulk of the observed apparent undulations of the MTZ discontinuities.

  5. Geodynamic Constraints on the Sources of Seismic Anisotropy Beneath Madagascar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajaonarison, T. A.; Stamps, D. S.; Fishwick, S.

    2017-12-01

    majority of the seismic anisotropy are due to sub-lithospheric asthenospheric flow beneath Madagascar. Our results suggest the dislocation creep regime extends beneath the lithosphere, which implies the rheology of the upper asthenosphere deforms by dislocation creep rather than diffusion creep.

  6. Upper Mantle Structure beneath Afar: inferences from surface waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicilia, D.; Montagner, J.; Debayle, E.; Lepine, J.; Leveque, J.; Cara, M.; Ataley, A.; Sholan, J.

    2001-12-01

    The Afar hotspot is related to one of the most important plume from a geodynamic point of view. It has been advocated to be the surface expression of the South-West African Superswell. Below the lithosphere, the Afar plume might feed other hotspots in central Africa (Hadiouche et al., 1989; Ebinger & Sleep, 1998). The processes of interaction between crust, lithosphere and plume are not well understood. In order to gain insight into the scientific issue, we have performed a surface-wave tomography covering the Horn of Africa. A data set of 1404 paths for Rayleigh waves and 473 paths for Love waves was selected in the period range 45-200s. They were collected from the permanent IRIS and GEOSCOPE networks and from the PASSCAL experiment, in Tanzania and Saudi Arabia. Other data come from the broadband stations deployed in Ethiopia and Yemen in the framework of the French INSU program ``Horn of Africa''. The results presented here come from a path average phase velocities obtained with a method based on a least-squares minimization (Beucler et al., 2000). The local phase velocity distribution and the azimuthal anisotropy were simultaneously retrieved by using the tomographic technique of Montagner (1986). A correction of the data is applied according to the crustal structure of the 3SMAC model (Nataf & Ricard, 1996). We find low velocities down to 200 km depth beneath the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, Afars, the Ethiopian Plateau and southern Arabia. High velocities are present in the eastern Arabia and the Tanzania Craton. The anisotropy beneath Afar seems to be complex, but enables to map the flow pattern at the interface lithosphere-asthenosphere. The results presented here are complementary to those obtained by Debayle et al. (2001) at upper-mantle transition zone depths using waveform inversion of higher Rayle igh modes.

  7. Magma heating by decompression-driven crystallization beneath andesite volcanoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blundy, Jon; Cashman, Kathy; Humphreys, Madeleine

    2006-09-07

    Explosive volcanic eruptions are driven by exsolution of H2O-rich vapour from silicic magma. Eruption dynamics involve a complex interplay between nucleation and growth of vapour bubbles and crystallization, generating highly nonlinear variation in the physical properties of magma as it ascends beneath a volcano. This makes explosive volcanism difficult to model and, ultimately, to predict. A key unknown is the temperature variation in magma rising through the sub-volcanic system, as it loses gas and crystallizes en route. Thermodynamic modelling of magma that degasses, but does not crystallize, indicates that both cooling and heating are possible. Hitherto it has not been possible to evaluate such alternatives because of the difficulty of tracking temperature variations in moving magma several kilometres below the surface. Here we extend recent work on glassy melt inclusions trapped in plagioclase crystals to develop a method for tracking pressure-temperature-crystallinity paths in magma beneath two active andesite volcanoes. We use dissolved H2O in melt inclusions to constrain the pressure of H2O at the time an inclusion became sealed, incompatible trace element concentrations to calculate the corresponding magma crystallinity and plagioclase-melt geothermometry to determine the temperature. These data are allied to ilmenite-magnetite geothermometry to show that the temperature of ascending magma increases by up to 100 degrees C, owing to the release of latent heat of crystallization. This heating can account for several common textural features of andesitic magmas, which might otherwise be erroneously attributed to pre-eruptive magma mixing.

  8. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  9. Heterogeneous Structure and Seismicity beneath the Tokyo Metropolitan Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, S.; Kato, A.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.; Hirata, N.

    2010-12-01

    Beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area, the Philippine Sea Plate (PSP) subducts and causes damaged mega-thrust earthquakes. Sato et al. (2005) revealed the geometry of upper surface of PSP, and Hagiwara et al. (2006) estimated the velocity structure beneath Boso peninsula. However, these results are not sufficient for the assessment of the entire picture of the seismic hazards beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area including those due to an intra-slab M7+ earthquake. So, we launched the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Hirata et al., 2009). Proving the more detailed geometry and physical properties (e.g. velocities, densities, attenuation) and stress field within PSP is very important to attain this issue. The core item of this project is a dense seismic array called Metropolitan Seismic Observation network (MeSO-net) for making observations in the metropolitan area (Sakai and Hirata, 2009; Kasahara et al., 2009). We deployed the 249 seismic stations with a spacing of 5 km. Some parts of stations construct 5 linear arrays at interval of 2 km such as Tsukuba-Fujisawa (TF) array, etc. The TF array runs from northeast to southwest through the center of Tokyo. In this study, we applied the tomography method to image the heterogeneous structure under the Tokyo metropolitan area. We selected events from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) unified earthquake list. All data of MeSO-net were edited into event data by the selected JMA unified earthquake list. We picked the P and S wave arrival times. The total number of stations and events are 421 and 1,256, respectively. Then, we applied the double-difference tomography method (Zhang and Thurber, 2003) to this dataset and estimated the fine-scale velocity structure. The grid nodes locate 10 km interval in parallel with the array, 20 km interval in perpendicular to the array; and on depth direction, 5 km interval to a depth of less than 50 km and 10 km interval at a depth of more

  10. Temperature increase beneath etched dentin discs during composite polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaarslan, Emine Sirin; Secilmis, Asli; Bulbul, Mehmet; Yildirim, Cihan; Usumez, Aslihan

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to measure the temperature increase during the polymerization of a composite resin beneath acid-etched or laser-etched dentin discs. The irradiation of dentin with an Er:YAG laser may have a positive effect on the thermal conductivity of dentin. This technique has not been studied extensively. Forty dentin discs (5 mm in diameter and 0.5 or 1 mm in height) were prepared from extracted permanent third molars. These dentin discs were etched with 20% orthophosphoric acid or an Er:YAG laser, and were then placed on an apparatus developed to measure temperature increases. The composite resin was polymerized with a high-intensity quartz tungsten halogen (HQTH) or light-emitting diode unit (LED). The temperature increase was measured under the dentin disc with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Five measurements were made for each dentin disc, curing unit, and etching system combination. Differences between the initial and the highest temperature readings were taken, and the five calculated temperature changes were averaged to determine the value of the temperature increase. Statistical analysis was performed with a three-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests at a 0.05 level of significance. Further SEM examinations were performed. The temperature increase values varied significantly, depending on etching systems (p < 0.05), dentin thicknesses (p < 0.05), and curing units (p < 0.05). Temperature increases measured beneath laser-etched discs were significantly higher than those for acid-etched dentin discs (p < 0.05). The HQTH unit induced significantly higher temperature increases than the LED unit (p < 0.05). The LED unit induced the lowest temperature change (5.2°C) in the 1-mm, acid-etched dentin group. The HQTH unit induced the highest temperature change (10.4°C) for the 0.5-mm, laser-etched dentin group. The risk of heat-induced pulpal damage should be taken into consideration

  11. Piecewise delamination of Moroccan lithosphere from beneath the Atlas Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezada, M. J.; Humphreys, E. D.; Davila, J. M.; Carbonell, R.; Harnafi, M.; Palomeras, I.; Levander, A.

    2014-04-01

    The elevation of the intracontinental Atlas Mountains of Morocco and surrounding regions requires a mantle component of buoyancy, and there is consensus that this buoyancy results from an abnormally thin lithosphere. Lithospheric delamination under the Atlas Mountains and thermal erosion caused by upwelling mantle have each been suggested as thinning mechanisms. We use seismic tomography to image the upper mantle of Morocco. Our imaging resolves the location and shape of lithospheric cavities and of delaminated lithosphere ˜400 km beneath the Middle Atlas. We propose discontinuous delamination of an intrinsically unstable Atlas lithosphere, enabled by the presence of anomalously hot mantle, as a mechanism for producing the imaged structures. The Atlas lithosphere was made unstable by a combination of tectonic shortening and eclogite loading during Mesozoic rifting and Cenozoic magmatism. The presence of hot mantle sourced from regional upwellings in northern Africa or the Canary Islands enhanced the instability of this lithosphere. Flow around the retreating Alboran slab focused upwelling mantle under the Middle Atlas, which we infer to be the site of the most recent delamination. The Atlas Mountains of Morocco stand as an example of large-scale lithospheric loss in a mildly contractional orogen.

  12. Spatiotemporal throughfall patterns beneath an urban tree row

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogeholz, P.; Van Stan, J. T., II; Hildebrandt, A.; Friesen, J.; Dibble, M.; Norman, Z.

    2016-12-01

    Much recent research has focused on throughfall patterns in natural forests as they can influence the heterogeneity of surface ecohydrological and biogeochemical processes. However, to the knowledge of the authors, no work has assessed how urban forest structures affect the spatiotemporal variability of throughfall water flux. Urbanization greatly alters not only a significant portion of the land surface, but canopy structure, with the most typical urban forest configuration being landscaped tree rows along streets, swales, parking lot medians, etc. This study examines throughfall spatiotemporal patterns for a landscaped tree row of Pinus elliottii (Engelm., slash pine) on Georgia Southern University's campus (southeastern, USA) using 150 individual observations per storm. Throughfall correlation lengths beneath this tree row were similar to, but appeared to be more stable across storm size than, observations in past studies on natural forests. Individual tree overlap and the planting interval also may more strongly drive throughfall patterns in tree rows. Meteorological influences beyond storm magnitude (intensity, intermittency, wind conditions, and atmospheric moisture demand) are also examined.

  13. Origin and evolution of the deep thermochemical structure beneath Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flament, N; Williams, S; Müller, R D; Gurnis, M; Bower, D J

    2017-01-18

    A unique structure in the Earth's lowermost mantle, the Perm Anomaly, was recently identified beneath Eurasia. It seismologically resembles the large low-shear velocity provinces (LLSVPs) under Africa and the Pacific, but is much smaller. This challenges the current understanding of the evolution of the plate-mantle system in which plumes rise from the edges of the two LLSVPs, spatially fixed in time. New models of mantle flow over the last 230 million years reproduce the present-day structure of the lower mantle, and show a Perm-like anomaly. The anomaly formed in isolation within a closed subduction network ∼22,000 km in circumference prior to 150 million years ago before migrati