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Sample records for bending moments including

  1. Estimation of hull girder vertical bending moments including non-linear and flexibility effects using closed form expressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Preben Terndrup; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2009-01-01

    -induced loads are evaluated for specific operational profiles. Non-linearity in the wave bending moment is modeled using results derived from a second-order strip theory and water entry solutions for wedge type sections. Hence, bow flare slamming is accounted for through a momentum type of approach....... The stochastic properties of this non-linear response are calculated through a monotonic Hermite transformation. In addition, the impulse loading due to e.g. bottom slamming or a rapid change in bow flare is included using a modal expansion in the two lowest vertical vibration modes. These whipping vibrations...

  2. Bending moment of galvanized iron glass fiber sandwich panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurustal Somnath Swamy

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this project is to prepare a laminated with Galvanized iron thickness fractions, fiber volume fractions and orientation in the layers of GF were fabricated by hand lay-up method and evaluated for their bending moment properties of the sandwich panel using universal testing machine. This paper theoretically calculates the bending behavior of sandwich panel. The recent need to develop a new range of materials has resulted in the development of high performance lightweight composites with excellent properties. Metal– composite systems consist of alternating layers of metal and fiber-reinforced polymer composites which are bonded by an adhesive. Sandwich beams were tested under Air Bending. Stress-strain and stress-displacement were recorded by using AIMIL UTM. The beam face sheets exhibited a softening non-linearity on the bending side. Experimental results were in good agreement with predictions from simple models. On an overall basis, the sandwich panel exhibited better bending moment performance than the monolithic galvanized iron

  3. Influence of Whipping on Long term Vertical Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarholm, G. S.; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2004-01-01

    This paper is concerned with estimating the response value corresponding to a long return period, say a twenty years. Time domain simulation is required to obtain the nonlinear response, and long time series are required to limit the statistical uncertainty in the simulations. It is crucial to in......). Results are presented for the S-175 container ship, (15th & 16th ITTC Seakeeping Committee 1983). The analysis shoes that whipping increases the vertical bending moment and that the correlation is significant...

  4. Improving Bending Moment Measurements on Wind Turbine Blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Post, Nathan L.

    2016-03-15

    Full-scale fatigue testing of wind turbine blades is conducted using resonance test techniques where the blade plus additional masses is excited at its first resonance frequency to achieve the target loading amplitude. Because there is not a direct relationship between the force applied by an actuator and the bending moment, the blade is instrumented with strain gauges that are calibrated under static loading conditions to determine the sensitivity or relationship between strain and applied moment. Then, during dynamic loading the applied moment is calculated using the strain response of the structure. A similar procedure is also used in the field to measure in-service loads on turbine blades. Because wind turbine blades are complex twisted structures and the deflections are large, there is often significant cross-talk coupling in the sensitivity of strain gauges placed on the structure. Recent work has shown that a sensitivity matrix with nonzero cross terms must be employed to find constant results when a blade is subjected to both flap and lead-lag loading. However, even under controlled laboratory conditions, potential for errors of 3 percent or more in the measured moment exist when using the typical cross-talk matrix approach due to neglecting the influence of large deformations and torsion. This is particularly critical when considering a biaxial load as would be applied on the turbine or during a biaxial fatigue test. This presentation describes these results demonstrating errors made when performing current loads measurement practices on wind turbine blades in the lab and evaluating potential improvements using enhanced cross-talk matrix approaches and calibration procedures.

  5. Bending Moment Decrease of Reinforced Concrete Beam Supported by Additional CFRP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykolas Daugevičius

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The calculation method of reinforced concrete beam with additional CFRP composite is proposed in this article. This method estimates tangential angular concrete deformations in tensioned beam layers between steel and bonded carbon fiber reinforced polymer. The horizontal slip of CFRP composite reduce beam bending moment capacity. An additional coefficient to reduce CFRP resultant force is necessary for better precision of bending moment capacity. Also, various calculation methods of bending moment capacity are considered. Article in Lithuanian

  6. Bending Moment Calculations for Piles Based on the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-xin Jie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the finite element analysis program ABAQUS, a series of calculations on a cantilever beam, pile, and sheet pile wall were made to investigate the bending moment computational methods. The analyses demonstrated that the shear locking is not significant for the passive pile embedded in soil. Therefore, higher-order elements are not always necessary in the computation. The number of grids across the pile section is important for bending moment calculated with stress and less significant for that calculated with displacement. Although computing bending moment with displacement requires fewer grid numbers across the pile section, it sometimes results in variation of the results. For displacement calculation, a pile row can be suitably represented by an equivalent sheet pile wall, whereas the resulting bending moments may be different. Calculated results of bending moment may differ greatly with different grid partitions and computational methods. Therefore, a comparison of results is necessary when performing the analysis.

  7. Combined Effects of Gravity, Bending Moment, Bearing Clearance, and Input Torque on Wind Turbine Planetary Gear Load Sharing: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; LaCava, W.

    2012-09-01

    This computational work investigates planetary gear load sharing of three-mount suspension wind turbine gearboxes. A three dimensional multibody dynamic model is established, including gravity, bending moments, fluctuating mesh stiffness, nonlinear tooth contact, and bearing clearance. A flexible main shaft, planetary carrier, housing, and gear shafts are modeled using reduced degrees-of-freedom through modal compensation. This drivetrain model is validated against the experimental data of Gearbox Reliability Collaborative for gearbox internal loads. Planet load sharing is a combined effect of gravity, bending moment, bearing clearance, and input torque. Influences of each of these parameters and their combined effects on the resulting planet load sharing are investigated. Bending moments and gravity induce fundamental excitations in the rotating carrier frame, which can increase gearbox internal loads and disturb load sharing. Clearance in carrier bearings reduces the bearing load carrying capacity and thus the bending moment from the rotor can be transmitted into gear meshes. With bearing clearance, the bending moment can cause tooth micropitting and can induce planet bearing fatigue, leading to reduced gearbox life. Planet bearings are susceptible to skidding at low input torque.

  8. Strength performance of mortise and loose-tenon furniture joints under uniaxial bending moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Derikvand; Ghanbar Ebrahimi

    2014-01-01

    We determined the effects of adhesive type and loose tenon dimensions (length and thickness) on bending strength of T-shaped mor-tise and loose-tenon joints. Polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) and two-component polyurethane (PU) adhesives were used to construct joint specimens. The bending moment capacity of joints increased significantly with increased length and thickness of the loose tenon. Bending moment capacity of joints constructed with PU adhesive was approximately 13%higher than for joints constructed with PVAc adhesive. We developed a predictive equation as a function of adhesive type and loose tenon dimensions to estimate the strength of the joints constructed of oriental beech (Fagus orientalis L.) under uniaxial bending load.

  9. On the Effect of Green Water on Deck on the Wave Bending Moment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Xia, Jinzhu

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate whether green water on deck in severe sea states have a notable effect on the maximum wave bending moments. The analysis is carried out for an S175 container ship for which results from model experiments are available. The static water head and a mome...

  10. Bending moment resistance of dowel corner joints in case-type furniture under diagonal compression load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mosayeb Dalvand; Ghanbar Ebrahimi; Mehdi Tajvidi; Mohammad Layeghi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated bending moment resistance under diagonal compression load of corner doweled joints with plywood members. Joint members were made of 11-ply hardwood plywood of 19 mm thickness. Dowels were fabricated of Beech and Hornbeam species. Their diameters (6, 8 and 10 mm) and depths of penetration (9, 13 and 17 mm) in joint members were chosen variables in our experiment. By increasing the connector’s diameter from 6 to 8 mm, the bending moment resistance under diagonal compressive load was increased, while it decreased when the diameter was increased from 8 to 10 mm. The bending moment re-sistance under diagonal compressive load was increased by increasing the dowel’s depth of penetration. Joints made with dowels of Beech had higher resistance than dowels of Hornbeam. Highest resisting moment (45.18 N·m) was recorded for joints assembled with 8 mm Beech dowels penetrating 17 mm into joint members Lowest resisting moment (13.35 N·m) was recorded for joints assembled with 6 mm Hornbeam dowels and penetrating 9 mm into joint members.

  11. Maximum-entropy closure of hydrodynamic moment hierarchies including correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Keith H; Burghardt, Irene

    2012-06-07

    Generalized hydrodynamic moment hierarchies are derived which explicitly include nonequilibrium two-particle and higher-order correlations. The approach is adapted to strongly correlated media and nonequilibrium processes on short time scales which necessitate an explicit treatment of time-evolving correlations. Closure conditions for the extended moment hierarchies are formulated by a maximum-entropy approach, generalizing related closure procedures for kinetic equations. A self-consistent set of nonperturbative dynamical equations are thus obtained for a chosen set of single-particle and two-particle (and possibly higher-order) moments. Analytical results are derived for generalized Gaussian closures including the dynamic pair distribution function and a two-particle correction to the current density. The maximum-entropy closure conditions are found to involve the Kirkwood superposition approximation.

  12. Bending Moments Distribution at the Main Structural Elements of Skew Deck-Slab and Their Implementation on Cost Effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Kakish

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of bending moments in T-beam deck slab varies from one T-beam to another. The design of T-beams should be based on the actual bending moments each beam is subjected to for the purpose of achieving economy especially in bridge deck slab, extended over big area. The saving in some cases is substantial due to reducing the quantities of steel and concrete.

  13. Charts for Determining Preliminary Values of Span-load, Shear, Bending-moment, and Accumulated-torque Distributions of Swept Wings of Various Taper Ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollner, Bertram C

    1948-01-01

    Contains charts for use in determining preliminary values of the spanwise-load, shear, bending-moment, and accumulated-torque distributions of swept wings. The charts are based on strip theory and include four aerodynamic-load distributions, two section-moment distributions, and two inertia-load distributions. The taper ratios considered cover the range from 1.0 to 0 and the results are applicable to any angle of sweep.

  14. A general mixed mode fracture mechanics test specimen: The DCB-specimen loaded with uneven bending moments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Jørgensen, K.; Jacobsen, T.K.;

    2004-01-01

    A mixed mode specimen is proposed for fracture mechanics characterisation of adhesive joints, laminates and multilayers. The specimen is a double cantilever beam specimen loaded with uneven bending moments at the two free beams. By varying the ratiobetween the two applied moments, the full mode...

  15. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian Frithiof

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows...... to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness...... of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization...

  16. Homogenization of long fiber reinforced composites including fiber bending effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poulios, Konstantinos; Niordson, Christian F.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a homogenization method, which accounts for intrinsic size effects related to the fiber diameter in long fiber reinforced composite materials with two independent constitutive models for the matrix and fiber materials. A new choice of internal kinematic variables allows to maintain the kinematics of the two material phases independent from the assumed constitutive models, so that stress-deformation relationships, can be expressed in the framework of hyper-elasticity and hyper-elastoplasticity for the fiber and the matrix materials respectively. The bending stiffness of the reinforcing fibers is captured by higher order strain terms, resulting in an accurate representation of the micro-mechanical behavior of the composite. Numerical examples show that the accuracy of the proposed model is very close to a non-homogenized finite-element model with an explicit discretization of the matrix and the fibers.

  17. Determine Bending Moment of Plane Bending Beam by Graphical Method%用图解法确定平面弯曲梁的弯矩

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫志琴

    2014-01-01

    针对传统“解析法”的弊端,利用剪力图中剪力所围区域面积的代数量与弯矩图中的弯矩代数量间存在一一对应关系的特点,采用“图解法”介绍了求解、校核平面弯曲梁强度和刚度的核心内容———弯矩值,凸显了图解法快速、准确、易学、深刻记忆的优点。%Aiming at shortcomings of conventional analytical method and utilizing the characteristic of the one to one correspon‐dence between the algebra of area surrounding by shearing force and algebra of bending moment in bending moment diagram ,in this paper ,we introduced the utilization of graphical method to solve and check bending moment value which is the core contents of intensity and rigidity of plane bending beam .Our graphical method highlights the advantage of the novel method:rapidity ,ac‐curacy ,learnability ,and profound memory .

  18. Extreme value prediction of the wave-induced vertical bending moment in large container ships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    in the present paper is based on time series of full scale measurements from three large container ships of 8600, 9400 and 14000 TEU. When carrying out the extreme value estimation the peak-over-threshold (POT) method combined with an appropriate extreme value distribution is applied. The choice of a proper...... increase the extreme hull girder response significantly. Focus in the present paper is on the influence of the hull girder flexibility on the extreme response amidships, namely the wave-induced vertical bending moment (VBM) in hogging, and the prediction of the extreme value of the same. The analysis...... threshold level as well as the statistical correlation between clustered peaks influence the extreme value prediction and are taken into consideration in the present paper....

  19. Effects of bubbly flow on bending moment acting on the shaft of a gas sparged vessel stirred by a Rushton turbine☆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daien Shi; Ziqi Cai; Archie Eaglesham; Zhengming Gao

    2015-01-01

    The bending moment acting on the overhung shaft of a gas-sparged vessel stirred by a Rushton turbine, as one of the results of fluid and structure interactions in stirred vessels, was measured using a moment sensor equipped with digital telemetry. An analysis of the shaft bending moment amplitude shows that the amplitude distribution of the bending moment, which indicates the elasticity nature of shaft material against bending deformation, fol-lows the Weibull distribution. The trends of amplitude mean, standard deviation and peak deviation character-istics manifest an“S”shape versus gas flow. The“S”trend of the relative mean bending moment over gas flow rate, depending on the flow regime in gas–liquid stirred vessels, resulted from the competition among the non-uniformity of bubbly flow around the impeller, the formation of gas cavities behind the blades, and the gas direct impact on the impel er when gas is introduced. A further analysis of the bending moment power spectral density shows that the rather low frequency and speed frequency are evident. The low-frequency contribution to bend-ing moment fluctuation peaks in the complete dispersion regime.

  20. Pulp Fiber Bending Stiffness in Wet and Dry State Measured from Moment of Inertia and Modulus of Elasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Lorbach

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The bending stiffness of pulp fibers in both dry and wet states is of great importance with respect to many optical and physical paper properties. We introduce a method that evaluates fiber bending stiffness from the fibers’ Young’s modulus (E and the area moment of inertia (I from the fiber cross section. The values for E and I in the dry state are obtained from single fiber tensile testing and image analysis of the fiber cross section. The values for the wet state are estimated from literature results for decreasing elastic modulus due to wetting and by the measurement of swollen, freeze-dried fiber cross sections by serial sectioning. We show a comparison between the results from our method and the bending stiffness of individual fibers measured with other methods.

  1. Development of a nonlinear 3D solid finite element model for the calculation of bending moments of flexural members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this paper to calculate the bending moments of flexural members through integration in 3D solid finite element analyses according to the nonlinear constitutive model of concrete and the elastoplastic constitutive model of steel,utilizing the stress condition of the cross-section,considering the destruction characteristic of reinforced concrete members,and based on the plane cross-section assumption.The results of this model give good agreement with those of the classical me...

  2. Nonlinear bending-torsional vibration and stability of rotating, pretwisted, preconed blades including Coriolis effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subrahmanyam, K. B.; Kaza, K. R. V.; Brown, G. V.; Lawrence, C.

    1986-01-01

    The coupled bending-bending-torsional equations of dynamic motion of rotating, linearly pretwisted blades are derived including large precone, second degree geometric nonlinearities and Coriolis effects. The equations are solved by the Galerkin method and a linear perturbation technique. Accuracy of the present method is verified by comparisons of predicted frequencies and steady state deflections with those from MSC/NASTRAN and from experiments. Parametric results are generated to establish where inclusion of only the second degree geometric nonlinearities is adequate. The nonlinear terms causing torsional divergence in thin blades are identified. The effects of Coriolis terms and several other structurally nonlinear terms are studied, and their relative importance is examined.

  3. Bending of I-beam with the transvers shear effect included - FEM calculated

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grygorowicz, Magdalena; Lewiński, Jerzy

    2016-06-01

    The paper is devoted to three-point bending of an I-beam with include of transvers shear effect. Numerical calculations were conducted independently with the use of the SolidWorks system and the multi-purpose software package ANSYS The results of FEM study conducted with the use of two systems were compared and presented in tables and figures.

  4. Development of a nonlinear 3D solid finite element model for the calculation of bending moments of flexural members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wencheng; Zhou Xiaoyong; Li Na

    2008-01-01

    A numerical model is developed in this paper to calculate the bending moments of flexural members through integration in 3D solid finite element analyses according to the nonlinear constitutive model of concrete and the elastoplastic constitutive model of steel, utilizing the stress condition of the cross-section, considering the destruction characteristic of reinforced concrete members, and based on the plane cross-section assumption. The results of this model give good agreement with those of the classical method. Consequently, we can also deduce the corresponding numerical expression for eccentrically loaded members according to the analysis method.

  5. Calculation of muscle forces during normal gait under consideration of femoral bending moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Frederick; Mastel, Roland; Runge, Martin; Stief, Felix; Schmidt, André; Meurer, Andrea; Witte, Hartmut

    2016-09-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for computing lower extremity muscle forces by incorporating equations that consider "bone structure" and "prevention of bending by load reduction" into existing optimization algorithms. Lower extremity muscle and joint forces, during normal gait, were calculated and compared using two different optimization approaches. We added constraint equations that prevent femoral bending loads to an existing approach that considers "minimal total muscular force". Gait parameters such as kinematics, ground reaction forces, and surface electromyographic activation patterns were examined using standardized gait analysis. A subject-specific anatomic model of the lower extremities, obtained from magnetic resonance images of a healthy male, was used for the simulations. Finite element analysis was used to calculate femoral loads. The conventional method of calculating muscle forces leads to higher rates of femoral bending and structural stress than the new approach. Adding equations with structural subject-specific parameters in our new approach resulted in reduced femoral stress patterns. These findings show that our new approach improves the accuracy of femoral stress and strain simulations. Structural overloads caused by bending can be avoided during inverse calculation of muscle forces.

  6. Comparison of wing-span averaging effects on lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions and for two turbulence representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical method of computing the averaging effect of wing-span size on the loading of a wing induced by random turbulence was adapted for use on a digital electronic computer. The turbulence input was assumed to have a Dryden power spectral density. The computations were made for lift, rolling moment, and bending moment for two span load distributions, rectangular and elliptic. Data are presented to show the wing-span averaging effect for wing-span ratios encompassing current airplane sizes. The rectangular wing-span loading showed a slightly greater averaging effect than did the elliptic loading. In the frequency range most bothersome to airplane passengers, the wing-span averaging effect can reduce the normal lift load, and thus the acceleration, by about 7 percent for a typical medium-sized transport. Some calculations were made to evaluate the effect of using a Von Karman turbulence representation. These results showed that using the Von Karman representation generally resulted in a span averaging effect about 3 percent larger.

  7. A robust two-node, 13 moment quadrature method of moments for dilute particle flows including wall bouncing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Dan; Garmory, Andrew; Page, Gary J.

    2017-02-01

    For flows where the particle number density is low and the Stokes number is relatively high, as found when sand or ice is ingested into aircraft gas turbine engines, streams of particles can cross each other's path or bounce from a solid surface without being influenced by inter-particle collisions. The aim of this work is to develop an Eulerian method to simulate these types of flow. To this end, a two-node quadrature-based moment method using 13 moments is proposed. In the proposed algorithm thirteen moments of particle velocity, including cross-moments of second order, are used to determine the weights and abscissas of the two nodes and to set up the association between the velocity components in each node. Previous Quadrature Method of Moments (QMOM) algorithms either use more than two nodes, leading to increased computational expense, or are shown here to give incorrect results under some circumstances. This method gives the computational efficiency advantages of only needing two particle phase velocity fields whilst ensuring that a correct combination of weights and abscissas is returned for any arbitrary combination of particle trajectories without the need for any further assumptions. Particle crossing and wall bouncing with arbitrary combinations of angles are demonstrated using the method in a two-dimensional scheme. The ability of the scheme to include the presence of drag from a carrier phase is also demonstrated, as is bouncing off surfaces with inelastic collisions. The method is also applied to the Taylor-Green vortex flow test case and is found to give results superior to the existing two-node QMOM method and is in good agreement with results from Lagrangian modelling of this case.

  8. On the Effect of Hull Girder Flexibility on the Vertical Wave Bending Moment for Ultra Large Container Vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ingrid Marie Vincent; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2012-01-01

    analysis is done using the First Order Reliability Method (FORM) supplemented with Monte Carlo simulations. Furthermore, strip-theory calculations are compared to model tests in regular waves of different wave lengths using a segmented, flexible model of the case-ship and good agreement is obtained...... for the 9,400 TEU container ship used as case-ship in the EU project TULCS (Tools for Ultra Large Container Ships). A non-linear time-domain strip theory is used for the hydrodynamic analysis of the vertical bending moment amidships in sagging and hogging conditions for a flexible and a rigid modelling...... of the ship. The theory takes into account non-linear radiation forces (memory effects) through the use of a set of higher order differential equations. The non-linear hydrostatic restoring forces and non-linear Froude-Krylov forces are determined accurately at the instantaneous position of the ship...

  9. Atomistic spin dynamic method with both damping and moment of inertia effects included from first principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Satadeep; Nordström, Lars; Fransson, Jonas

    2012-02-03

    We consider spin dynamics for implementation in an atomistic framework and we address the feasibility of capturing processes in the femtosecond regime by inclusion of moment of inertia. In the spirit of an s-d-like interaction between the magnetization and electron spin, we derive a generalized equation of motion for the magnetization dynamics in the semiclassical limit, which is nonlocal in both space and time. Using this result we retain a generalized Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation, also including the moment of inertia, and demonstrate how the exchange interaction, damping, and moment of inertia, all can be calculated from first principles.

  10. 面内弯矩作用下弯管应力高次解%HIGH ORDER STRESSES FOR ELBOW UNDER IN-PLANE BENDING MOMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段志祥

    2012-01-01

    该文采用应变分析和能量法得出了面内弯矩作用下弯管环向和轴向应力的解析解,并提出了高次解的求解方法。该方法的计算结果与其他各种解析解的结果进行比较表明:该文提出的方法能得到更精确的结果,并适用于所有弯曲系数的弯管。该方法可用于计算弯管在面内闭合弯矩和面内张开弯矩下的应力。%By the strain analysis and energy method, the expressions of the axial stress and circumferential stress of an elbow under the action of an in-plane bending moment are gained, and the high order stress solution for an elbow subjected to an in-plane bending moment is suggested. The high order stress solution for an elbow subjected to an in-plane bending moment is compared with the solution using the other methods. It is obtained from the comparison that the high order solution is more accurate and is suitable for elbows without the limit of 2. The high order stress solution is suitable for an elbow under an in-plane close-bending moment or an in-plane open-bending moment.

  11. ESTIMATION OF MASS MOMENT OF INERTIA OF HUMAN BODY, WHEN BENDING FORWARD, FOR THE DESIGN OF A SELF-TRANSFER ROBOTIC FACILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HARI KRISHNAN

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of Mass Moment of Inertia of human body and its segments are necessary for various problems in biomechanics and its applications. This paper focusses on the estimation of Moment of Inertia of a human body when bending forward, which is needed for designing a robotic self-transfer facility for elderly and disabled. This paper also covers a brief review on studies of different anthropometric data like mass of the body segments, Centre of Mass, radius of gyration, etc. Using these data and certain assumptions, Mass Moment of Inertia of human body bending forward is estimated by applying laws of basic mechanics. This estimated value is then validated using a solid modelling CAD software.

  12. Coupled bending-torsion vibration of a homogeneous beam with a single delamination subjected to axial loads and static end moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Shu, Dong-Wei

    2014-08-01

    Delaminations in structures may significantly reduce the stiffness and strength of the structures and may affect their vibration characteristics. As structural components, beams have been used for various purposes, in many of which beams are often subjected to axial loads and static end moments. In the present study, an analytical solution is developed to study the coupled bending-torsion vibration of a homogeneous beam with a single delamination subjected to axial loads and static end moments. Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the "free mode" assumption in delamination vibration are adopted. This is the first study of the influences of static end moments upon the effects of delaminations on natural frequencies, critical buckling loads and critical moments for lateral instability. The results show that the effects of delamination on reducing natural frequencies, critical buckling load and critical moment for lateral instability are aggravated by the presence of static end moment. In turn, the effects of static end moments on vibration and instability characteristics are affected by the presence of delamination. The analytical results of this study can serve as a benchmark for finite element method and other numerical solutions.

  13. Calculations of the IR spectra of bend fundamentals of (H2O)n=3,4,5 using the WHBB_2 potential and dipole moment surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yimin; Bowman, Joel M

    2016-09-14

    Stimulated by new experiments from the Havenith group, we report IR spectra of the bend fundamentals of (H2O)n=3,4,5, using anharmonic, coupled-mode VSCF/VCI calculations, done in a subspace of modes consisting of all the monomer bends plus the hydrogen-bonded OH stretches. Double-harmonic spectra are also reported. All calculations employ a faster version of the ab initio WHBB potential and also a more accurate representation of the dipole moment surface, reported previously. Comparisons at the harmonic level are made with previous high-level ab initio calculations, notably those of Howard and Tschumper and also with harmonic frequencies from the semi-empirical TTM3-F potential, which have been reported previously by Howard and Tschumper. The calculations provide energies and intensities of the hydrogen-bonded OH stretches and these are also presented and briefly discussed.

  14. 舵机弯矩电动加载测试系统的设计%Design of Motor-Driven Bending Moment Loading Test System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周军; 刘光辉; 周凤岐; 张佼龙

    2011-01-01

    针对舵机测试需求,设计了一种弯矩电动加载测试系统.系统以直流电机为执行元件能够实现几百到几万牛力加载,介绍了系统的工作原理和机械结构,分析计算了弯矩加载对其他力矩加载的干扰和系统影响,从测试技术要求上论证了方案的可行性.最后进行了理论分析和研究,建立了加载系统的数学模型,基于PID控制算法,进行了计算机仿真.仿真结果表明,能够满足系统预定的性能指标要求.%To meet the requirements to current rudder motor test, the bending moment loading test system is designed. The system can achieve a few hundred to tens of thousands of N force output with DC motor driven. Based on an introduction to the structure and principle of electrical loading system, and the calculation of disturbance on torque from bending moment, the test system design is feasible to meet rudder motor test requirements. A mathematical model of the system is established to analyze and to computer simulate with PID control arithmetic. Simulation results indicated that the performance of the motor-driven bending moment loading test system is competent for rudder motor test.

  15. Experimental Study of the Flexural Behaviour of Damaged RC Beams Strengthened in Bending Moment Region with Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polymer (BFRP Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay P. Gholkar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the flexural behaviour of basalt fiber reinforced polymer (BFRP strengthened reinforced concrete (RC beams. For flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete beams, total twenty-two beams were cast and tested over an effective span of 900 mm up to failure of the beam under two-point loading. The beams were designed as under-reinforced beams. The beams were bonded with BFRP sheets in single layer and double layers in the bending moment region at the bottom face of the beam. Out of the twenty-two beams two beams were control beams and remaining beams were strengthened after being damaged for various degrees of damage (0 %, 70 %, 80 %, 90% and 100 %. The experimental results show that the beams strengthened show high load carrying capacity.

  16. Impact of the Weld Geometry on the Stress Intensity Factor of the Welded T-Joint Exposed to the Tensile Force and the Bending Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djoković, Jelena M.; Nikolić, Ružica R.; Bujňák, Ján

    2015-12-01

    In this paper it is analyzed the welded T-joint exposed to the axial tensile force and the bending moment, for determining the impact of the weld geometry on the fracture mechanics parameters. The stress intensity factor was calculated analytically, based on the concept of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), by application of the Mathematica® programming routine. The presence of the weld was taken into account through the corresponding correction factors. The results show that increase of the size of the triangular welds leads to decrease of the stress intensity factor, while the SIF increases with increase of the welds' width. The ratio of the two welded plates' thicknesses shows that plate thicknesses do not exhibit significant influence on the stress intensity factor behavior.

  17. Impact of the Weld Geometry on the Stress Intensity Factor of the Welded T-Joint Exposed to the Tensile Force and the Bending Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djoković Jelena M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper it is analyzed the welded T-joint exposed to the axial tensile force and the bending moment, for determining the impact of the weld geometry on the fracture mechanics parameters. The stress intensity factor was calculated analytically, based on the concept of the linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM, by application of the Mathematica® programming routine. The presence of the weld was taken into account through the corresponding correction factors. The results show that increase of the size of the triangular welds leads to decrease of the stress intensity factor, while the SIF increases with increase of the welds’ width. The ratio of the two welded plates’ thicknesses shows that plate thicknesses do not exhibit significant influence on the stress intensity factor behavior.

  18. A new approach for elasto-plastic finite strain analysis of cantilever beams subjected to uniform bending moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GOKHAN T TAYYAR

    2016-04-01

    The reliability and limits of solutions for static structural analysis depend on the accuracy of the curvature and deflection calculations. Even if the material model is close to the actual material behavior, physically unrealistic deflections or divergence problems are unavoidable in the analysis if an appropriate fundamental kinematic theory is not chosen. Moreover, accurate deflection calculation plays an important role in ultimate strength analysis where in-plane stresses are considered. Therefore, a more powerful method is neededto achieve reliable deflection calculation and modeling. For this purpose, a new advanced step was developed by coupling the elasto-plastic material behavior with precise general planar kinematic analysis. The deflection is generated precisely without making geometric assumptions or using differential equations of the deflection curve. An analytical finite strain solution was derived for an elasto-plastic prismatic/non-prismatic rectangular cross-sectioned beam under a uniform moment distribution. A comparison of the analytical results with thosefrom the Abaqus FEM software package reveals a coherent correlation.

  19. The island coalescence problem: Scaling of reconnection in extended fluid models including higher-order moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Jonathan; Huang, Yi-Min; Hakim, Ammar; Bhattacharjee, A. [Center for Heliophysics, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Stanier, Adam; Daughton, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Wang, Liang; Germaschewski, Kai [Space Science Center and Physics Department, University of New Hampshire, Durham, New Hampshire 03824 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    As modeling of collisionless magnetic reconnection in most space plasmas with realistic parameters is beyond the capability of today's simulations, due to the separation between global and kinetic length scales, it is important to establish scaling relations in model problems so as to extrapolate to realistic scales. Recently, large scale particle-in-cell simulations of island coalescence have shown that the time averaged reconnection rate decreases with system size, while fluid systems at such large scales in the Hall regime have not been studied. Here, we perform the complementary resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and two fluid simulations using a ten-moment model with the same geometry. In contrast to the standard Harris sheet reconnection problem, Hall MHD is insufficient to capture the physics of the reconnection region. Additionally, motivated by the results of a recent set of hybrid simulations which show the importance of ion kinetics in this geometry, we evaluate the efficacy of the ten-moment model in reproducing such results.

  20. Nuclear moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kopferman, H; Massey, H S W

    1958-01-01

    Nuclear Moments focuses on the processes, methodologies, reactions, and transformations of molecules and atoms, including magnetic resonance and nuclear moments. The book first offers information on nuclear moments in free atoms and molecules, including theoretical foundations of hyperfine structure, isotope shift, spectra of diatomic molecules, and vector model of molecules. The manuscript then takes a look at nuclear moments in liquids and crystals. Discussions focus on nuclear paramagnetic and magnetic resonance and nuclear quadrupole resonance. The text discusses nuclear moments and nucl

  1. Monitoring Composites under Bending Tests with Infrared Thermography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carosena Meola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The attention of the present paper is focused on the use of an infrared imaging device to monitor the thermal response of composite materials under cyclic bending. Three types of composites are considered including an epoxy matrix reinforced with either carbon fibres (CFRP or glass fibres (GFRP and a hybrid composite involving glass fibres and aluminium layers (FRML. The specimen surface, under bending, displays temperature variations pursuing the load variations with cooling down under tension and warming up under compression; such temperature variations are in agreement with the bending moment. It has been observed that the amplitude of temperature variations over the specimen surface depends on the material characteristics. In particular, the presence of a defect inside the material affects the temperature distribution with deviation from the usual bending moment trend.

  2. Ultimate negative bending-moment capacity of outer-plated steel-concrete continuous composite beams%外包钢-混凝土连续组合梁的负弯矩极限承载力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丽华; 李爱群; 娄宇; 李培彬

    2009-01-01

    Static load tests and bearing capacity analyses are cardeA out for two outer-plated steel-concrete continuous composite beams.The load-deflection curve and the loat-strain culve of specimens are obtained and analyzed.The test results indicate that effective cooperation can be achieved by the shear-resistant connection between the reinforcement in the negative moment area and the outer-plated steel beam,and the overall working performance of the composite beams is favorable.At the load-bearing limiting state,the plastic strain on the maximum negative and positive moment section becomes fully developed so as to form relatively ideal plastic hinges.With the increase in the reinforcement ratio,the moment-carrying capacity of the composite beams improves significantly,but the ductility of the beams and the rotation ability of the plastic hinges decrease.The formulae for calculating the limit bending capacity in the negative moment area of outer-plated steel-concrete composite beams are proposed based on the test data.The calculated results agree well with the test results.%对2根外包钢-混凝土连续梁试件进行了静力加载实验研究与承栽力分析.测量并分析了试件的荷栽-挠度及荷载-应变关系曲线.结果表明:外包钢-混凝土组合梁负弯矩区钢筋和外包钢梁通过抗剪连接措施能有效地共同工作,整体工作性能良好.在承栽能力极限状态,负弯矩和正弯矩最大截面的塑性应变均充分发展,并形成比较理想的塑性铰.随着配筋率的提高,组合梁受弯承栽力明显提高,而延性和转动能力相应降低.在试验数据基础上,给出了外包钢-混凝土组合梁在负弯矩区极限受弯承载力的计算公式,计算结果与实验结果吻合良好.

  3. Design of a mechanism to simulate the quasi-static moment-deflection behaviour of the osteoligamentous structure of the C3-C4 cervical spine segment in the flexion-extension and lateral bending directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Samuel; Arsenault, Marc; Moglo, Kodjo

    2012-11-01

    The human neck is susceptible to traumatic injuries due to impacts as well as chronic injuries caused by loads such as those attributed to the wearing of heavy headgear. To facilitate the analysis of the loads that cause injuries to the cervical spine, it is possible to replicate the human neck's behaviour with mechanical devices. The goal of this work is to lay the foundation for the eventual development of a novel mechanism used to simulate the behaviour of the cervical spine during laboratory experiments. The research presented herein focuses on the design of a mechanism capable of reproducing the non-linear relationships between moments applied to the C3 vertebra and its corresponding rotations with respect to the C4 vertebra. The geometrical and mechanical properties of the mechanism are optimized based on the ability of the latter to replicate the load-deflection profile of the osteoligamentous structure of the C3-C4 vertebral pair in the flexion-extension and lateral bending directions. The results show that the proposed design concept is capable of faithfully replicating the non-linear behaviour of the motion segment within acceptable tolerances.

  4. 合拢弯矩作用下复合材料曲梁突变屈曲的研究%Delamination Buckling of a Curved Composite Beam Subjected to a Closing Bending Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮波; R.; A.; SHENOI; 崔维成

    2006-01-01

    The snap buckling case in a curved composite beam under a closing bending moment is dealt with.A theoretical approach is developed for the non-linear problem of delamination buckling which is likely to occur in curved composite structures.The approach is based on large deflection characterisation of a curved beam,coupled with fracture mechanics concepts.The general solution is applied to analyse a special case in which delamination occurs very close to inner surface of the beam and snap buckling happens in this delaminated thin layer. The effect of the arc angle of delamination crack on the critical load is also studied.%研究了复合材料曲梁在受到合拢弯矩作用下发生的屈曲情况,并给出一种理论解析方法来分析这种很可能发生在复合材料弯曲结构中的脱层耦合屈曲问题.该方法是基于曲梁大变形理论及断裂力学而提出来的.文中并用该解析方法分析了一个特定的常见的情况,在该题例中脱层发生在非常靠近内表面处并且突变屈曲就发生在该薄脱层.在文中也对脱层裂纹的弧角对极限载荷的影响进行了研究.

  5. Pre-compressed Stress Effect of Negative Bending Moment Area of Continuous Steel-concrete Composite Beam%连续钢-混叠合梁桥负弯矩区预压应力效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李继兰; 李国芬; 陈耀章

    2012-01-01

    The decking on the top of bridge pier of the continuous steel-concrete composite beam is easily cracked by the action of non-load factors. The support forced displacement method is one of the effective methods to control or slow down the crack. To discuss the pre-compressed stress effect of the forced displacement method in the negative bending moment area of the decking of the composite beam bridge, taken the 6 x90 m continuous steel-concrete composite beam bridge at Hankou side of Erqi Changjiang River Bridge as research object, the improvement on traditional support forced displacement method was conducted. Besides, a local simulation analysis was accomplished on the basis of a hybrid finite element model of large "beam-shell-solid" which was established through APDL of ANSYS. A conclusion drawn from the theoretical and measured values shows that enough pre-compressed stress reserves, the maximum compressive stress of which was 18. 5 MPa, was produced in the decking of the negative moment area by the improved support forced displacement method. On this basis, the pre-compressed stress reserves by the improved method gained more than 0. 41 - 0. 46 times in the negative moment area on bridge decks. This study provided a reference for design and construction of super long-span continuous steel-concrete composite beam bridge.%针对连续钢-混叠合梁桥墩项区桥面板,在非荷载因素作用下受拉易产生裂缝,采用支座强迫位移法解决上述问题.为研究支座强迫位移法对叠合梁桥负弯矩区桥面板产生的预压应力效应,以武汉二七长江大桥汉口侧6×90m连续钢-混叠合梁桥为研究对象,对传统的支座强迫位移法进行了改进,同时利用ANSYS的APDL语言建立大型“梁-壳-实”有限元混合模型,并对其进行局部仿真分析和实测.理论和实测值均表明,改进的支座强迫位移在负弯矩区桥面板中产生了足够的预压应力储备,最大压应力大小为18.5 MPa.在

  6. Plastic deformation analysis and forming quality prediction of tube NC bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Shiqiang; Fang Jun; Wang Kelu

    2016-01-01

    Plane strain assumption and exponent hardening law are used to investigate the plastic deformation in tube bending. Some theoretical formulae including stress, curvature radius of neu-tral layer, angle of neutral layer deviation, bending moment, wall thickness variation and cross-section distortion, are developed to explain the phenomena in tube bending and their magnitudes are also determined. During unloading process, the springback angle is deduced using the virtual work principle, and springback radius is also given according to the length of the neutral layer which remains unchanged before and after springback. The theoretical formulae are validated by the experimental results or the validated simulation results in literature, which can be used to quickly predict the forming quality of tube numerical control (NC) bending.

  7. Bending stresses in Facetted Glass Shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Anne; Jönsson, Jeppe; Almegaard, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    A shell structure of glass combines a highly effective structural principle with a material of optimal permeability to light. A facetted shell structure has a piecewise plane geometry, and together the facets form an approximation to a curved surface. A distributed load on a plane-based facetted...... structure will locally cause bending moments in the loaded facets. The bending stresses are dependent on the stiffness of the joints. Approximate solutions are developed to estimate the magnitude of the bending stresses. A FE-model of a facetted glass shell structure is used to validate the expressions...

  8. THE DISCUSSION ON BEAM-ARCH ACTION MECHANISM OF DEEP PILE CAPS WITH PULL PILE UNDER UNBALANCED BENDING MOMENT%不平衡弯矩作用下有受拉桩的厚承台梁拱作用机理探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭宏磊

    2012-01-01

    进行了不平衡弯矩作用下有受拉桩的厚承台实验与有限元研究,表明该种承台可以因有梁作用而发生弯曲破坏,而受弯曲作用的同时,又因有拱作用而使得空间桁架的传力体系依然存在.梁拱作用并存在厚承台中具有一定的普遍性.%The study of the deep pile cap with a pull pile under an unbalanced bending moment is processed, based on the test and finite element method. The research indicates that this kind of pile cap may induce bending failure due to the beam action, and at the same time, it still acts as a load transfer system of the spatial strut-and-tie due to the arch action. It is definitely universal that both the beam action and the arch action exist in the deep pile cap.

  9. Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining

    2013-02-01

    Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.

  10. Nuclear Anapole Moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Ramsey-Musolf; Wick Haxton; Ching-Pang Liu

    2002-03-29

    Nuclear anapole moments are parity-odd, time-reversal-even E1 moments of the electromagnetic current operator. Although the existence of this moment was recognized theoretically soon after the discovery of parity nonconservation (PNC), its experimental isolation was achieved only recently, when a new level of precision was reached in a measurement of the hyperfine dependence of atomic PNC in 133Cs. An important anapole moment bound in 205Tl also exists. In this paper, we present the details of the first calculation of these anapole moments in the framework commonly used in other studies of hadronic PNC, a meson exchange potential that includes long-range pion exchange and enough degrees of freedom to describe the five independent S-P amplitudes induced by short-range interactions. The resulting contributions of pi-, rho-, and omega-exchange to the single-nucleon anapole moment, to parity admixtures in the nuclear ground state, and to PNC exchange currents are evaluated, using configuration-mixed shell-model wave functions. The experimental anapole moment constraints on the PNC meson-nucleon coupling constants are derived and compared with those from other tests of the hadronic weak interaction. While the bounds obtained from the anapole moment results are consistent with the broad ''reasonable ranges'' defined by theory, they are not in good agreement with the constraints from the other experiments. We explore possible explanations for the discrepancy and comment on the potential importance of new experiments.

  11. Effective potential for moment-method simulation of quantum devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriman, A. M.; Zhou, J.-R.; Kluksdahl, N. C.; Choi, H. H.; Ferry, D. K.

    1989-12-01

    In the simulation of submicron devices, complete quantum descriptions can be extremely computationally intensive, and reduced descriptions are desirable. One such description utilizes a few low-order moments of the momentum distribution that are defined by the Wigner function. Two major difficulties occur in applying this moment method: (i) An independent calculation is required to find quantum mechanically accurate initial conditions. (ii) For a system in a mixed state, the hierarchy of time evolution equations for the moments does not close. We describe an approach to solve these problems. The initial distribution is determined in equilibrium by means of a new effective potential, chosen for its ability to treat the sharp potential features which occur in heterostructures. It accurately describes barrier penetration and repulsion, as well as quantum broadening of the momentum distribution. The moment equation hierarchy is closed at the level of the second-moment time evolution equation, using a closure that is exact for a shifted Fermi distribution. Band-bending is included by simultaneous self-consistent determination of all the moments.

  12. Multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swann, Andrew Francis; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a notion of moment map adapted to actions of Lie groups that preserve a closed three-form. We show existence of our multi-moment maps in many circumstances, including mild topological assumptions on the underlying manifold. Such maps are also shown to exist for all groups whose secon......-torus symmetry in terms of tri-symplectic geometry of four-manifolds. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  13. Bend me, shape me

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A Japanese team has found a way to bend and shape silicon substrates by growing a thin layer of diamond on top. The technique has been proposed as an alternative to mechanical bending, which is currently used to make reflective lenses for X-ray systems and particle physics systems (2 paragraphs).

  14. Energy Dissipation Analysis of Bended SMA Bar in Isothermal State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Gang; LI Li; TAN Jia-xiang

    2004-01-01

    The theory calculation formula is deduced about stress distribution in cross section and changes in Martensite percentages with the section height of random section shape bar under the action of the bending moment according to the Brinson's Constitutive Relation.The bar's energy dissipation capability under circulation of bending moment was analyzed and the calculation theory was set up. By using MATLAB program and the numerical calculation for uniform rectangle cross section bar, the relationships among the maximal stress and strain on cross section edge with bend load, the stress and Martensite percent's with cross section height, the energy dissipation capability with cross section height, and the energy dissipation capability with maximal strain on cross section edge are gained, also those curves are discused. It is put forward that the SMA material can be used for passive structure vibration control to dissipate energy of bend load.

  15. Moment of inertia, backbending, and molecular bifurcation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyng, Vivian; Kellman, Michael E

    2007-07-28

    We predict an anomaly in highly excited bending spectra of acetylene with high vibrational angular momentum. We interpret this in terms of a vibrational shape effect with moment of inertia backbending, induced by a sequence of bifurcations with a transition from "local" to "orthogonal" modes.

  16. The maximum bending moment resistance of plate girders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abspoel, R.

    2014-01-01

    In many steel structures like buildings, industrial halls and bridges, standard hot-rolled sections like IPE, HEA, HEB, HEM, HED and UNP in Europe and similar profiles in other regions of the world are used. The range of hot-rolled sections is limited and therefore fabricated plate girders are used

  17. Forming characteristics of thin-walled tube bending process with small bending radius

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Heng; YANG He; ZHAN Mei; GU Rui-Jie

    2006-01-01

    Currently requirements of thin-walled tube with small bending radius cause the defects such as wrinkling,overthinning and cross-section distortion more prone to occur in bending process. Based on the analysis of the forming characteristics by analytical and experimental methods,a complete 3D elastic-plastic FEM model of the process was developed using ABAQUS/Explicit code,including bending process,balls retracting and unloading process,and thus the plastic deformation characteristics with small bending radius were investigated. The main results show that: 1) The utmost deformation feature of the NC bending process is its continuous progressive deformation. 2) The occurring conditions of the defects such as wrinkling and tension instability in the process are obtained. The wrinkling is traditional on the double compressive stresses state and the tension instability is on the double tension stresses state. 3) The enhanced non-uniform deformation in thin-walled tube with small bending radius is demonstrated by comparing the stress/ strains distributions under the 1.5D and 1D bending conditions. 4) For 1D small bending process,a new method-"stepped mandrel retraction" is proposed to improve the bending quality in experiment according to the FE simulation. The simulation results are verified by experiment.

  18. The area moment of inertia of the tibia: a risk factor for stress fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milgrom, C; Giladi, M; Simkin, A; Rand, N; Kedem, R; Kashtan, H; Stein, M; Gomori, M

    1989-01-01

    In a prospective study of stress fractures among Israeli infantry recruits, the area moment of inertia of the tibia was found to have a statistically significant correlation with the incidence of tibial, femoral and total stress fractures. Recruits with "low" area moments of inertia of the tibia were found to have higher stress fracture morbidity than those with "high" area moments of inertia. The best correlation was obtained when the area moment of inertia was calculated about the AP axis of bending at a cross-sectional level corresponding to the narrowest tibial width on lateral X-rays, a point which is at the distal quarter of the tibia. This finding indicates that bending forces about the approximate AP axis are an important causal factor for tibial and many other stress fractures. The bone's bending strength, or ability to resist bending moments, as measured by the area moment of inertia, helps determine risk to stress fracture.

  19. FFAG lattice without opposite bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trbojevic, Dejan; Courant, Ernest D.; Garren, Al

    2000-08-01

    A future "neutrino factory" or Muon Collider requires fast muon acceleration before the storage ring. Several alternatives for fast muon acceleration have previously been considered. One of them is the FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron. The FFAG concept was developed in 1952 by K. R. Symon (ref. 1). The advantages of this design are the fixed magnetic field, large range of particle energy, simple RF; power supplies are simple, and there is no transition energy. But a drawback is that reverse bending magnets are included in the configuration; this increases the size and cost of the ring. Recently some modified FFAG lattice designs have been described where the amount of opposite bending was significantly reduced (ref. 2, ref. 3).

  20. FFAG lattice without opposite bends

    CERN Document Server

    Trbojevic, D; Garren, A

    2000-01-01

    A future 'neutrino factory' or Muon Collider requires fast muon acceleration before the storage ring. Several alternatives for fast muon acceleration have previously been considered. One of them is the FFAG (Fixed Field Alternating Gradient) synchrotron. The FFAG concept was developed in 1952 by K. R. Symon (ref. 1). The advantages of this design are the fixed magnetic field, large range of particle energy, simple RF; power supplies are simple, and there is no transition energy. But a drawback is that reverse bending magnets are included in the configuration; this increases the size and cost of the ring. Recently some modified FFAG lattice designs have been described where the amount of opposite bending was significantly reduced (ref. 2, ref. 3).

  1. Parameter prediction in laser bending of aluminum alloy sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuyue WANG; Weixing XU; Hua CHEN; Jinsong WANG

    2008-01-01

    Based on the basic platform of BP neural net-works, a BP network model is established to predict the bending angle in the laser bending process of an aluminum alloy sheet (1-2 mm in thickness) and to optimize laser bending parameters for bending control. The sample experimental data is used to train the BP network. The nonlinear regularities of sample data are fitted through the trained BP network; the predicted results include laser bending angles and parameters. Experimental results indi-cate that the prediction allowance is controlled less than 5%-8% and can provide a theoretical and experimental basis for industry purpose.

  2. LEAR bending magnet quadrant

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    During 1981, the PS South-Hall, no longer used for physics experiments, was cleared for the installation of the Low Energy Antiproton Ring, LEAR. In October 1981, 3 of the 4 bending magnet quadrants were in place, this is one of them.

  3. Thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, V. P.; Gol'tsev, A. S.

    2007-03-01

    The thermoelastic bending of locally heated orthotropic shells is studied using the classical theory of thermoelasticity of thin shallow orthotropic shells and the method of fundamental solutions. Linear distribution of temperature over thickness and the Newton's law of cooling are assumed. Numerical analysis is carried out for orthotropic shells of arbitrary Gaussian curvature made of a strongly anisotropic material. The behavior of thermal forces and moments near the zone of local heating is studied for two areas of thermal effect: along a coordinate axis and along a circle of unit radius. Generalized conclusions are drawn

  4. DNA Bending elasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivak, David Alexander

    DNA bending elasticity on length scales of tens of basepairs is of critical importance in numerous biological contexts. Even the simplest models of DNA bending admit of few simple analytic results, thus there is a need for numerical methods to calculate experimental observables, such as distance distributions, forces, FRET efficiencies, and timescales of particular large-scale motions. We have implemented and helped develop a coarse-grained representation of DNA and various other covalently-linked groups that allows simple calculation of such observables for varied experimental systems. The simple freely-jointed chain (FJC) model and extremely coarse resolution proved useful in understanding DNA threading through nanopores, identifying steric occlusion by other parts of the chain as a prime culprit for slower capture as distance to the pore decreased. Enhanced sampling techniques of a finer resolution discrete wormlike chain (WLC) model permitted calculation of cyclization rates for small chains and identified the ramifications of a thermodynamically-sound treatment of thermal melts. Adding treatment of double-stranded DNA's helical nature and single-stranded DNA provided a model system that helped demonstrate the importance of statistical fluctuations in even highly-stressed DNA mini-loops, and allowed us to verify that even these constructs show no evidence of excitation-induced softening. Additional incorporation of salt-sensitivity to the model allowed us to calculate forces and FRET efficiencies for such mini-loops and their uncircularized precursors, thereby furthering the understanding of the nature of IHF binding and bending of its recognition sequence. Adding large volume-excluding spheres linked to the ends of the dsDNA permits calculation of distance distributions and thus small-angle X-ray scattering, whereby we demonstrated the validity of the WLC in describing bending fluctuations in DNA chains as short as 42 bp. We also make important connections

  5. Turbulent flow computation in a circular U-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloud Abdelkrim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Turbulent flows through a circular 180° curved bend with a curvature ratio of 3.375, defined as the the bend mean radius to pipe diameter is investigated numerically for a Reynolds number of 4.45×104. The computation is performed for a U-Bend with full long pipes at the entrance and at the exit. The commercial ANSYS FLUENT is used to solve the steady Reynolds–Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS equations. The performances of standard k-ε and the second moment closure RSM models are evaluated by comparing their numerical results against experimental data and testing their capabilities to capture the formation and extend this turbulence driven vortex. It is found that the secondary flows occur in the cross-stream half-plane of such configurations and primarily induced by high anisotropy of the cross-stream turbulent normal stresses near the outer bend.

  6. Standard test methods for bend testing of material for ductility

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2009-01-01

    1.1 These test methods cover bend testing for ductility of materials. Included in the procedures are four conditions of constraint on the bent portion of the specimen; a guided-bend test using a mandrel or plunger of defined dimensions to force the mid-length of the specimen between two supports separated by a defined space; a semi-guided bend test in which the specimen is bent, while in contact with a mandrel, through a specified angle or to a specified inside radius (r) of curvature, measured while under the bending force; a free-bend test in which the ends of the specimen are brought toward each other, but in which no transverse force is applied to the bend itself and there is no contact of the concave inside surface of the bend with other material; a bend and flatten test, in which a transverse force is applied to the bend such that the legs make contact with each other over the length of the specimen. 1.2 After bending, the convex surface of the bend is examined for evidence of a crack or surface irregu...

  7. Bending and stretching of plates

    CERN Document Server

    Mansfield, E H; Hemp, W S

    1964-01-01

    The Bending and Stretching of Plates deals with elastic plate theory, particularly on small- and large-deflexion theory. Small-deflexion theory concerns derivation of basic equations, rectangular plates, plates of various shapes, plates whose boundaries are amenable to conformal transformation, plates with variable rigidity, and approximate methods. Large-deflexion theory includes general equations and some exact solutions, approximate methods in large-deflexion theory, asymptotic large-deflexion theories for very thin plates. Asymptotic theories covers membrane theory, tension field theory, a

  8. Bending strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinawy, Moustafa; Butler, Richard; Hunt, Giles W

    2012-04-28

    Buckling-driven delamination is considered among the most critical failure modes in composite laminates. This paper examines the propagation of delaminations in a beam under pure bending. A pre-developed analytical model to predict the critical buckling moment of a thin sub-laminate is extended to account for propagation prediction, using mixed-mode fracture analysis. Fractography analysis is performed to distinguish between mode I and mode II contributions to the final failure of specimens. Comparison between experimental results and analysis shows agreement to within 5 per cent in static propagation moment for two different materials. It is concluded that static fracture is almost entirely driven by mode II effects. This result was unexpected because it arises from a buckling mode that opens the delamination. For this reason, and because of the excellent repeatability of the experiments, the method of testing may be a promising means of establishing the critical value of mode II fracture toughness, G(IIC), of the material. Fatigue testing on similar samples showed that buckled delamination resulted in a fatigue threshold that was over 80 per cent lower than the static propagation moment. Such an outcome highlights the significance of predicting snap-buckling moment and subsequent propagation for design purposes.

  9. Roton dipole moment

    OpenAIRE

    Mineev, V. P.

    2009-01-01

    The roton excitation in the superfluid He-4 does not possess a stationary dipole moment. However, a roton has an instantaneous dipole moment, such that at any given moment one can find it in the state either with positive or with negative dipole moment projection on its momentum direction. The instantaneous value of electric dipole moment of roton excitation is evaluated. The result is in reasonable agreement with recent experimental observation of the splitting of microwave resonance absorpt...

  10. Buckling Response of Pipe-in-Pipe Systems Subjected to Bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王哲; 陈志华; 刘红波; 何永禹; 马克俭

    2015-01-01

    The buckling response of pipe-in-pipe(PIP)systems subjected to bending is investigated in this paper. A set of parameterized models are established to explore the bending characteristics of the PIP systems through eigen-value buckling analysis and nonlinear post-buckling analysis. The results show that the length of PIP systems and the height of centralizers are the most significant factors that influence the buckling moment, ultimate bending mo-ment and buckling mode; the other geometric characteristics, such as initial geometric imperfection and friction between centralizers and outer pipes, evidently influence the post-buckling path and ductility of PIPs; the equivalent bending stiffness is dependent on the length and centralizers. Moreover, the range of equivalent bending stiffness is also discussed.

  11. Moment-to-Moment Emotions during Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graesser, Arthur C.; D'Mello, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Moment-to-moment emotions are affective states that dynamically change during reading and potentially influence comprehension. Researchers have recently identified these emotions and the emotion trajectories in reading, tutoring, and problem solving. The primary learning-centered emotions are boredom, frustration, confusion, flow (engagement),…

  12. Effects of Geometrical Clearances, Supports Friction, and Wear Rings on Hydraulic Actuators Bending Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Baragetti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydraulic actuators are commonly adopted in machines and structures to provide translating forces with significant magnitudes. Although their application dates back to the industrial revolution, their bending behavior under compression is typically addressed by simple Euler’s instability analysis on the rod, neglecting effects such as the cylinder inertia and stiffness, the presence of contact elements in the cylinder-rod junction and on the piston, geometrical misalignments and imperfections, and friction moments at the support. Such simplifications lead to unjustified reduced critical load calculations on the component. In the present paper, a complete mathematical formulation, which accounts for such effects, is presented and validated against experimental data. A numerical sensitivity analysis is conducted, to assess the contributions of initial rectilinear imperfections, wear rings stiffness and dimension, and supports friction on the actuator’s limit buckling load and bending behavior under compression. Results are presented, including the effect of the cited parameters on the buckling load, providing a reliable tool for the mechanical designer. In particular, an optimum position for the wear ring distance is found. Moreover, increased wear ring stiffness and reduced imperfections increase the buckling load and reduce the bending stresses before the critical load.

  13. Longitudinal-bending mode micromotor using multilayer piezoelectric actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, K; Koc, B; Uchino, K

    2001-07-01

    Longitudinal-bending mode ultrasonic motors with a diameter of 3 mm were fabricated using stacked multilayer piezoelectric actuators, which were self-developed from hard lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramic. A bending vibration was converted from a longitudinal vibration with a longitudinal-bending coupler. The motors could be bidirectionally operated by changing driving frequency. Their starting and braking torque were analyzed based on the transient velocity response. With a load of moment of inertia 2.5 x 10(-7) kgm2, the motor showed a maximum starting torque of 127.5 microNm. The braking torque proved to be a constant independent on the motor's driving conditions and was roughly equivalent to the maximum starting torque achievable with our micromotors.

  14. Effect of train carbody's parameters on vertical bending stiffness performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guangwu; Wang, Changke; Xiang, Futeng; Xiao, Shoune

    2016-10-01

    Finite element analysis(FEA) and modal test are main methods to give the first-order vertical bending vibration frequency of train carbody at present, but they are inefficiency and waste plenty of time. Based on Timoshenko beam theory, the bending deformation, moment of inertia and shear deformation are considered. Carbody is divided into some parts with the same length, and it's stiffness is calculated with series principle, it's cross section area, moment of inertia and shear shape coefficient is equivalent by segment length, and the fimal corrected first-order vertical bending vibration frequency analytical formula is deduced. There are 6 simple carbodies and 1 real carbody as examples to test the formula, all analysis frequencies are very close to their FEA frequencies, and especially for the real carbody, the error between analysis and experiment frequency is 0.75%. Based on the analytic formula, sensitivity analysis of the real carbody's design parameters is done, and some main parameters are found. The series principle of carbody stiffness is introduced into Timoshenko beam theory to deduce a formula, which can estimate the first-order vertical bending vibration frequency of carbody quickly without traditional FEA method and provide a reference to design engineers.

  15. Kinematic Moment of Inertia of e-e Rare Earths Nuclei

    OpenAIRE

    Kelabi, Mohamed E.

    2013-01-01

    The kinematic moment of inertia of the rare earth even-even nuclei was calculated using three parametric energy based expression. The plot of kinematic moment of inertia versus nuclear spin shows a better sensitivity to back bending than energy plot.

  16. Sheet Bending using Soft Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinke, J.

    2011-05-01

    Sheet bending is usually performed by air bending and V-die bending processes. Both processes apply rigid tools. These solid tools facilitate the generation of software for the numerical control of those processes. When the lower rigid die is replaced with a soft or rubber tool, the numerical control becomes much more difficult, since the soft tool deforms too. Compared to other bending processes the rubber backed bending process has some distinct advantages, like large radius-to-thickness ratios, applicability to materials with topcoats, well defined radii, and the feasibility of forming details (ridges, beads). These advantages may give the process exclusive benefits over conventional bending processes, not only for industries related to mechanical engineering and sheet metal forming, but also for other disciplines like Architecture and Industrial Design The largest disadvantage is that also the soft (rubber) tool deforms. Although the tool deformation is elastic and recovers after each process cycle, the applied force during bending is related to the deformation of the metal sheet and the deformation of the rubber. The deformation of the rubber interacts with the process but also with sheet parameters. This makes the numerical control of the process much more complicated. This paper presents a model for the bending of sheet materials using a rubber lower die. This model can be implemented in software in order to control the bending process numerically. The model itself is based on numerical and experimental research. In this research a number of variables related to the tooling and the material have been evaluated. The numerical part of the research was used to investigate the influence of the features of the soft lower tool, like the hardness and dimensions, and the influence of the sheet thickness, which also interacts with the soft tool deformation. The experimental research was focused on the relation between the machine control parameters and the most

  17. Oide Effect and Radiation in Bending Magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Blanco, Oscar; Bambade, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Including radiation effects during lattice design optimization is crucial in high energy accelerators. Oide effect and radiation in bending magnets are reviewed aiming to include them in the optical design process to minimize the IP beam size. The Oide double integral is expressed in simpler terms in order to speed up calculations, concluding in how longer quadrupoles with lower gradients may help reducing the Oide effect. Radiation in bending magnets is reviewed for linear lattices, generalizing to the case when the final dispersion is different from zero and making comparisons with theoretical results and particle tracking. An agreement between the theory, the implemented approximation included in MAPCLASS2 and the six-dimensional tracking in PLACET has been found.

  18. Holey fibers for low bend loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Kazuhide; Saito, Kotaro; Yamada, Yusuke; Kurokawa, Kenji; Shimizu, Tomoya; Fukai, Chisato; Matsui, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bending-loss insensitive fiber (BIF) has proved an essential medium for constructing the current fiber to the home (FTTH) network. By contrast, the progress that has been made on holey fiber (HF) technologies provides us with novel possibilities including non-telecom applications. In this paper, we review recent progress on hole-assisted type BIF. A simple design consideration is overviewed. We then describe some of the properties of HAF including its mechanical reliability. Finally, we introduce some applications of HAF including to high power transmission. We show that HAF with a low bending loss has the potential for use in various future optical technologies as well as in the optical communication network.

  19. Boundary effects in welded steel moment connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung-Hyeog

    Unprecedented widespread failure of welded moment connections in steel frames caused by the 1994 Northridge and the 1995 Kobe earthquakes have alarmed the engineering communities throughout the world. Welded moment connections in steel frames have been traditionally designed by using the classical beam theory which leads to assumptions that the flanges transfer moment while the web connection primarily resists the shear force. However, this study shows that the magnitude and direction of the principal stresses in the connection region are better approximated by using truss analogy rather than the classical beam theory. Accordingly, both the bending moment and the shear force are transferred across the connection near the beam flanges through diagonal strut action. Thus, the beam flange region of the traditionally designed connection is overloaded. This conclusion explains, to a large extent, the recently observed steel moment connection failures. In this study, detailed finite element analyses were carried out for a representative beam-to-column subassemblage with fully welded connection. The stress distribution in the beam web and flanges in the vicinity of the connection were closely studied. The factors responsible for stress redistribution and concentration were identified by using fundamental principles of mechanics. It was concluded that peak resultant stresses can exceed the values used in simple design calculations by large margins. Using the finite element analysis results and the truss analogy to establish a realistic load path in the connection, a practical and more rational analysis and design procedure was developed. The proposed design procedure and the new connection details were successfully validated through cyclic load testing of a nearly full size specimen. The truss model represented the force transmission around the beam-to-column moment connection region very well. Results of the finite element analyses and the laboratory testing showed

  20. Measuring the Moment of Inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmberg, George L.

    1978-01-01

    Two physics experiments are described, One, involving a laboratory cart accelerated along a level surface, examines the concept of inertial mass in translation and the other, using a solid cylinder, measures the moment of inertia of a wheel. Equations and illustrations are included. (MA)

  1. Characterizing flow fluctuations with moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalerao, Rajeev S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400 005 (India); Ollitrault, Jean-Yves, E-mail: jean-yves.ollitrault@cea.fr [CNRS, URA2306, IPhT, Institut de physique théorique de Saclay, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Pal, Subrata [Department of Nuclear and Atomic Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400 005 (India)

    2015-03-06

    We present a complete set of multiparticle correlation observables for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. These include moments of the distribution of the anisotropic flow in a single harmonic and also mixed moments, which contain the information on correlations between event planes of different harmonics. We explain how all these moments can be measured using just two symmetric subevents separated by a rapidity gap. This presents a multi-pronged probe of the physics of flow fluctuations. For instance, it allows to test the hypothesis that event-plane correlations are generated by non-linear hydrodynamic response. We illustrate the method with simulations of events in A MultiPhase Transport (AMPT) model.

  2. Characterizing flow fluctuations with moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev S. Bhalerao

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We present a complete set of multiparticle correlation observables for ultrarelativistic heavy-ion collisions. These include moments of the distribution of the anisotropic flow in a single harmonic and also mixed moments, which contain the information on correlations between event planes of different harmonics. We explain how all these moments can be measured using just two symmetric subevents separated by a rapidity gap. This presents a multi-pronged probe of the physics of flow fluctuations. For instance, it allows to test the hypothesis that event-plane correlations are generated by non-linear hydrodynamic response. We illustrate the method with simulations of events in A MultiPhase Transport (AMPT model.

  3. Bending behavior of double-row stabilizing piles with constructional time delay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang YU; Yue-quan SHANG; Hong-yue SUN

    2012-01-01

    The bending behavior of double-row stabilizing plies is associated with the constructional time delay (CTD),which can be defined as the time interval between the installations of the front stabilizing pile and the rear stabilizing pile.This paper investigates the effect of CTD on the bending moments of double-row stabilizing piles and a method for determining the optimal CTD is proposed.The stabilizing pile is modeled as a cantilever pile embedded in the Winkler elastic foundation.A triangular distributed earth pressure is assumed on the pile segment in the sliding layer.The front stabilizing pile and the rear stabilizing pile are connected by a beam with pinned joints.The analytical solutions of bending moments on the front and the rear stabilizing piles are derived and the accuracy of bending moment solutions is validated by comparing the tensile strain measured from the Hongyan landslide project,Taizhou,Zhejiang,China.It is concluded that CTD has a significant influence on the bending moments of double-row stabilizing piles.An optimal CTD can be obtained when the maximum tensile stress in the front stabilizing pile is equal to that in the rear stabilizing pile,which is 1.4 months for the Hongyan landslide project.

  4. Requirements for Bend Insensitive Fiber in Millimeter-Wave Fronthaul Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rommel, Simon; Cavalcante, Lucas Costa Pereira; Vegas Olmos, Juan José;

    2015-01-01

    The impact of fiber bending on mm-wave radioover-fiber transmission is investigated and the need for bend insensitive fiber for front-haul installation confirmed. A 70m Wband hybrid photonic-wireless link including bend insensitive fiber is demonstrated with BER

  5. 1984 Deer Harvest Summary for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1984 deer harvest for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge. Tables summarize numerical findings, including bucks, does, and points.

  6. 1984 Deer Harvest Summary for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This memo summarizes the 1985 deer harvest for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge. Tables summarize numerical findings, including bucks, does, and points.

  7. Streched Magnetic Moments

    CERN Document Server

    Zamick, Larry

    2012-01-01

    We note that for a system of 2 nucleons in a stretched case (J=J1+J2) the magnetic moment of the combined system is the sum of the magnetic moments of the 2 constituents. In general there is no additive rule for g factors.

  8. Moment graphs and representations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantzen, Jens Carsten

    2012-01-01

    Moment graphs and sheaves on moment graphs are basically combinatorial objects that have be used to describe equivariant intersectiion cohomology. In these lectures we are going to show that they can be used to provide a direct link from this cohomology to the representation theory of simple Lie...

  9. Neutrino Magnetic Moment

    OpenAIRE

    Balantekin, A. B.

    2006-01-01

    Current experimental and observational limits on the neutrino magnetic moment are reviewed. Implications of the recent results from the solar and reactor neutrino experiments for the value of the neutrino magnetic moment are discussed. It is shown that spin-flavor precession in the Sun is suppressed.

  10. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    2013-01-01

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps are gu...

  11. Hamiltonian system for orthotropic plate bending based on analogy theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on analogy between plane elasticity and plate bending as well as variational principles of mixed energy, Hamiltonian system is further led to orthotropic plate bending problems in this paper. Thus many effective methods of mathematical physics such as separation of variables and eigenfunction expansion can be employed in orthotropic plate bending problems as they are used in plane elasticity. Analytical solutions of rectangular plate are presented directly, which expands the range of analytical solutions. There is an essential distinction between this method and traditional semi-inverse method. Numerical results of orthotropic plate with two lateral sides fixed are included to demonstrate the effectiveness and accuracy of this method.

  12. Bends in nanotubes allow electric spin control and coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensberg, Karsten; Marcus, Charles Masamed

    2010-01-01

    We investigate combined effects of spin-orbit coupling and magnetic field in carbon nanotubes containing one or more bends along their length. We show how bends can be used to provide electrical control of confined spins, while spins confined in straight segments remain insensitive to electric...... fields. Device geometries that allow general rotation of single spins are presented and analyzed. In addition, capacitive coupling along bends provides coherent spin-spin interaction, including between otherwise disconnected nanotubes, completing a universal set of one- and two-qubit gates....

  13. Four point bending setup for characterization of semiconductor piezoresistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Jacob; Arnoldus, Morten Berg; Hansen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    We present a four point bending setup suitable for high precision characterization of piezoresistance in semiconductors. The compact setup has a total size of 635 cm3. Thermal stability is ensured by an aluminum housing wherein the actual four point bending fixture is located. The four point...... bending fixture is manufactured in polyetheretherketon and a dedicated silicon chip with embedded piezoresistors fits in the fixture. The fixture is actuated by a microstepper actuator and a high sensitivity force sensor measures the applied force on the fixture and chip. The setup includes heaters...

  14. Dos aproximaciones a la metodología de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como rectangulares y constituyen la sección recta de la viguetería de losas aligeradas Two approaches to design methodology at T sections bending moment in reinforced concrete which behave as rectangular sections and constitute the straight sections of beams of light slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Christian Chanchí Golondrino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo esboza dos aproximaciones sobre la ecuación de diseño a momento flexionante de secciones T en concreto reforzado que se comportan como secciones rectangulares y que trabajan como viguetería de losas aligeradas. La primera aproximación discute la viabilidad de usar el ancho del nervio de la vigueta en lugar de usar el ancho efectivo de la aleta, dentro del proceso de la obtención del acero, requerida para asumir un momento flexionante; la segunda aproximación discute la viabilidad de aproximar la ecuación cuadrática que rige la obtención del área del acero requerida para obtener un momento flexionante en una ecuación lineal, cuyas únicas variables son el área del acero y la altura efectiva de la sección T. Se ha dimensionado geométricamente un conjunto de secciones de losas aligeradas siguiendo los requisitos del título C13 de la norma sismo resistente colombiana NSR98, los cuales se obtuvieron para un modelo simplemente apoyado, cuya luz varía entre [2 - 7] m y el ancho del casetón ente [0.30 - 1] m. El dimensionamiento antes mencionado fue utilizado para sensibilizar la efectividad de cada una de las aproximaciones propuestas respecto a la solución general para la obtención del área del acero de la sección T que se comporta como rectangular.This article presents two approaches on the moment design equation of T shaped beams. Particularly the beam's T cross section analyzed behaves like a rectangular cross section when the beam works like a component of a slab system built from a set of T shaped beams. The first approach discusses the feasibility to use the web width instead of effective flange width to obtain the steel area associated to the moment solicitation of T shaped beam. The second approach discusses the feasibility to approach the quadratic equation used to obtain the steel required to take the bending moment into linear equation related to variables such as steel area and the effective depth

  15. Moment inference from tomograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Chen, Y.; Singha, K.

    2007-01-01

    Time-lapse geophysical tomography can provide valuable qualitative insights into hydrologic transport phenomena associated with aquifer dynamics, tracer experiments, and engineered remediation. Increasingly, tomograms are used to infer the spatial and/or temporal moments of solute plumes; these moments provide quantitative information about transport processes (e.g., advection, dispersion, and rate-limited mass transfer) and controlling parameters (e.g., permeability, dispersivity, and rate coefficients). The reliability of moments calculated from tomograms is, however, poorly understood because classic approaches to image appraisal (e.g., the model resolution matrix) are not directly applicable to moment inference. Here, we present a semi-analytical approach to construct a moment resolution matrix based on (1) the classic model resolution matrix and (2) image reconstruction from orthogonal moments. Numerical results for radar and electrical-resistivity imaging of solute plumes demonstrate that moment values calculated from tomograms depend strongly on plume location within the tomogram, survey geometry, regularization criteria, and measurement error. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Irradiated Effect on Shear-Moment Interaction of Reinforced Concrete Slab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Jun Yeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, HyungTae; Park, Kyoungsoo [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang-Ho [Hyundai Engineering, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Several deleterious mechanisms include chronic high-temperature exposure, freeze-thaw, and chemical attack and have been reviewed extensively in the literature. On the other hand, the effect of irradiation on RC needs further investigations for the long-term operation of existing NPPs. In this regard, the RC biological shield structure is located in closest proximity to a reactor core and expected to see the highest levels of irradiation over the lifetime. The biological shield structure may undergo a large lateral load from earthquake and become thicker for a suitable shielding. Although the bending strength is easily predictable with the altering steel properties, the more complete behaviors should be studied to see if the promised performance is achievable. Given this, in this study, the shear-moment (VM) interaction of a typical one-way slab representing the biological shield structure is investigated with incremental neutron irradiation. The effect of radiation on the behavior of one-way slab is presented by the shear and moment capacity interaction diagram. The results suggest that the yield strength increase of the longitudinal reinforcement barely affects the shear strength but it increases the bending strength significantly. This may be misleading, however, as the structural capacity to observe the energy from environmental loadings such as earthquake would be actually reducing.

  17. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Cañas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs, discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Λi and the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1×10−11μB at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Λ1|≤5.6×10−11μB, |Λ2|≤4.0×10−11μB, and |Λ3|≤3.1×10−11μB (90% C.L., irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a global analysis including the case of reactor and accelerator neutrino sources, presenting the resulting constraints for different values of the relevant CP phases. Improved reactor and accelerator neutrino experiments will be needed in order to underpin the full profile of the neutrino electromagnetic properties.

  18. A New Kind of Bend Sensor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new kind of bend sensor is introduced.It can be used to detect the bend angle of an object or inclination between two objects.It has characteristics of small size, lightweight, high reliability, fine flexibility and plasticity.When this bend sensor is used with a proper converting circuit, it can implement dynamic measuring the bend angle of an object conveniently.The application of the bend sensor in dataglove is also described.

  19. Design of an impedance matching acoustic bend

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yuzhen; Jia, Han; Lu, Wenjia; Sun, Zhaoyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-01-01

    We propose the design of an impedance matching acoustic bend in this article. The bending structure is composed of sub-wavelength unit cells with perforated plates and side pipes, whose mass density and bulk modulus can be tuned simultaneously. So the refraction index and the impedance of the acoustic bend can be modulated simultaneously to guarantee both the bending effect and the high transmission. The simulation results of sound pressure field distribution show that the bending effect of t...

  20. Neutrino magnetic moment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, D. (Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (USA). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy Fermi National Accelerator Lab., Batavia, IL (USA)); Senjanovic, G. (Zagreb Univ. (Yugoslavia). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1990-01-01

    We review attempts to achieve a large neutrino magnetic moment ({mu}{sub {nu}} {le} 10{sup {minus}11}{mu}{sub B}), while keeping neutrino light or massless. The application to the solar neutrino puzzle is discussed. 24 refs.

  1. Bending characteristics of resin concretes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro Maria Cristina Santos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research work the influence of composition and curing conditions in bending strength of polyester and epoxy concrete is analyzed. Various mixtures of resin and aggregates were considered in view of an optimal combination. The Taguchi methodology was applied in order to reduce the number of tests, and in order to evaluate the influence of various parameters in concrete properties. This methodology is very useful for the planning of experiments. Test results, analyzed by this methodology, shown that the most significant factors affecting bending strength properties of resin concretes are the type of resin, resin content and charge content. An optimal formulation leading to a maximum bending strength was achieved in terms of material parameters.

  2. Tuning the Band Bending and Controlling the Surface Reactivity at Polar and Nonpolar Surfaces of ZnO through Phosphonic Acid Binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Alexandra R; Hyndman, Adam R; Reeves, Roger J; Downard, Alison J; Allen, Martin W

    2016-11-16

    ZnO is a prime candidate for future use in transparent electronics; however, development of practical materials requires attention to factors including control of its unusual surface band bending and surface reactivity. In this work, we have modified the O-polar (0001̅), Zn-polar (0001), and m-plane (101̅0) surfaces of ZnO with phosphonic acid (PA) derivatives and measured the effect on the surface band bending and surface sensitivity to atmospheric oxygen. Core level and valence band synchrotron X-ray photoemission spectroscopy was used to measure the surface band bending introduced by PA modifiers with substituents of opposite polarity dipole moment: octadecylphosphonic acid (ODPA) and 3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7,8,8,8-tridecafluorooctylphosphonic acid (F13OPA). Both PAs act as surface electron donors, increasing the downward band bending and the strength of the two-dimensional surface electron accumulation layer on all of the ZnO surfaces investigated. On the O-polar (0001̅) and m-plane (101̅0) surfaces, the ODPA modifier produced the largest increase in downward band bending relative to the hydroxyl-terminated unmodified surface of 0.55 and 0.35 eV, respectively. On the Zn-polar (0001) face, the F13OPA modifier gave the largest increase (by 0.50 eV) producing a total downward band bending of 1.00 eV, representing ∼30% of the ZnO band gap. Ultraviolet (UV) photoinduced surface wettability and photoconductivity measurements demonstrated that the PA modifiers are effective at decreasing the sensitivity of the surface toward atmospheric oxygen. Modification with PA derivatives produced a large increase in the persistence of UV-induced photoconductivity and a large reduction in UV-induced changes in surface wettability.

  3. A two species thermodynamic Preisach approach for simulating superelastic responses of shape memory alloys under tension and bending loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Srikrishna; Rao, Ashwin; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2013-04-01

    Modeling superelastic behavior of shape memory alloys (SMA) has received considerable attention due to SMAs ability to recover large strains with associated loading{unloading hysteresis enabling them to find many applications. In this work, a simple mechanics of materials modeling approach for simulating superelastic responses of SMA components under tension and bending loading conditions is developed. Following Doraiswamy, Rao and Srinivasa's1 approach, the key idea here would be in separating the thermoelastic and the dissipative part of the hysteretic response with a Gibbs potential based formulation which includes both thermal and mechanical loading in the same framework. The dissipative part is then handled by a discrete Preisach model. The model is formulated directly using tensile stress{strain or bending moment{curvature rather than solving for non-homogeneous stress and strains across the specimen cross-sections and then integrating the same especially for bending loading conditions. The model is capable of simulating complex superelastic responses with multiple internal loops and provides an improved treatment for temperature dependence associated with superelastic responses. The model results are verified with experimental results on SMA components like wires and beams at different temperatures.

  4. Nonlinear Collapse of General Thin-Walled Cross-Sections Under Pure Bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couturier, Philippe; Krenk, Steen

    2016-01-01

    Thin-walled beams exhibit a nonlinear response to bending moments due to the progressive flattening of the crosssection, a behavior commonly referred to as the Brazier effect. Most approaches to model this effect are limited to either circular cross-sections or to cross-sections made of isotropic...

  5. Nonlocal shear deformable shell model for bending buckling of microtubules embedded in an elastic medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Huishen, E-mail: hsshen@mail.sjtu.edu.c [Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China); State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030 (China)

    2010-08-30

    A nonlocal shear deformable shell model is developed for buckling of microtubules embedded in an elastic matrix of cytoplasm under bending in thermal environments. The results reveal that the lateral constraint has a significant effect on the buckling moments of a microtubule when the foundation stiffness is sufficiently large.

  6. Controllability of a viscoelastic plate using one boundary control in displacement or bending

    OpenAIRE

    Pandolfi, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we consider a viscoelastic plate (linear viscoelasticity of the Maxwell-Boltzmann type) and we compare its controllability properties with the (known) controllability of a purely elastic plate (the control acts on the boundary displacement or bending). By combining operator and moment methods, we prove that the viscoelastic plate inherits the controllability properties of the purely elastic plate.

  7. Tinker Toys Have Their Moments of Inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kenneth Neal

    1983-01-01

    Describes use of Tinker Toys in several moment of inertia laboratory experiments at the advanced high school or introductory college levels. Includes procedures to be followed, arrangements of the Tinker Toy parts during experiments, and typical student data obtained. (JM)

  8. Measurement of the bending wave power flow by the structural intensity technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjama, Jukka; Lahti, Tapio

    1989-02-01

    Literature on the theory of bending waves and power flow, measurement of the structural intensity, and its applications to machinery and buildings is reviewed. Based on intensity measurement equations, a set of frequency domain expressions is derived for bending wave intensity measurements in a beam. A practical procedure for the general 4-transducer method is developed, using the sequential 1-transducer frequency response technique. Expressions for the determination of the force- and moment-related power components separately are derived. In laboratory experiments the power carried by bending waves was measured in a simple beam, and the developed configurations were tested and compared. The frequency response approach to detect the total power flow is shown to work well. The estimation of the force- and moment-related power components, both in the near and the far field, was also demonstrated.

  9. Bending behavior of lapped plastic ehv cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, G H; Muller, A C

    1980-01-01

    One of the factors delaying the development of lapped polymeric cables has been their reputed poor bending characteristics. Complementary programs were begun at BNL several years ago to mathematically model the bending of synthetic tape cables and to develop novel plastic tapes designed to have moduli more favorable to bending. A series of bend tests was recently completed to evaluate the bending performance of several tapes developed for use in experimental superconducting cables. The program is discussed and the results of the bend tests are summarized.

  10. Hormonal regulation of gravitropic bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, X.; Cui, D.; Xu, X.; Hu, L.; Cai, W.

    Gravitropic bending is an important subject in the research of plant Recent data support the basics of the Cholodny-Went hypothesis indicating that differential growth in gravitropism is due to redistribution of auxin to the lower sides of gravistimulated roots but little is known regarding the molecular details of such effects So we carried a series of work surround the signals induced by auxin end center We found the endogenous signaling molecules nitric oxide NO and cGMP mediate responses to gravistimulation in primary roots of soybean Glycine max Horizontal orientation of soybean roots caused the accumulation of both NO and cGMP in the primary root tip Fluorescence confocal microcopy revealed that the accumulation of NO was asymmetric with NO concentrating in the lower side of the root Auxin induced NO accumulation in root protoplasts and asymmetric NO accumulation in root tips Gravistimulation NO and auxin also induced the accumulation of cGMP a response inhibited by removal of NO or by inhibitors of guanylyl cyclase compounds that also reduced gravitropic bending Asymmetric NO accumulation and gravitropic bending were both inhibited by an auxin transport inhibitor and the inhibition of bending was overcome by treatment with NO or 8-bromo-cGMP a cell-permeable analog of cGMP These data indicate that auxin-induced NO and cGMP mediate gravitropic curvature in soybean roots From Hu et al Plant Physiol 2005 137 663-670 The asymmetric distribution of auxin plays a fundamental role in plant gravitropic bending

  11. Moment Restriction-based Econometric Methods: An Overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Kunitomo (Naoto); M.J. McAleer (Michael); Y. Nishiyama (Yoshihiko)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMoment restriction-based econometric modelling is a broad class which includes the parametric, semiparametric and nonparametric approaches. Moments and conditional moments themselves are nonparametric quantities. If a model is specified in part up to some finite dimensional parameters, t

  12. A closed form large deformation solution of plate bending with surface effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tianshu; Jagota, Anand; Hui, Chung-Yuen

    2017-01-04

    We study the effect of surface stress on the pure bending of a finite thickness plate under large deformation. The surface is assumed to be isotropic and its stress consists of a part that can be interpreted as a residual stress and a part that stiffens as the surface increases its area. Our results show that residual surface stress and surface stiffness can both increase the overall bending stiffness but through different mechanisms. For sufficiently large residual surface tension, we discover a new type of instability - the bending moment reaches a maximum at a critical curvature. Effects of surface stress on different stress components in the bulk of the plate are discussed and the possibility of self-bending due to asymmetry of the surface properties is also explored. The results of our calculations provide insights into surface stress effects in the large deformation regime and can be used as a test for implementation of finite element methods for surface elasticity.

  13. Moments of Negotiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieters, Jurgen

    2001-01-01

    'Moments of Negotiation' offers the first book-length and indepth analysis of the New Historicist reading method, which the American Shakespeare-scolar Stephen Greenblatt introduced at the beginning of the 1980s. Ever since, Greenblatt has been hailed as the prime representative of this movement, wh

  14. The Humanist Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, Chris

    2014-01-01

    In "The Humanist Moment," Chris Higgins sets out to recover a tenable, living humanism, rejecting both the version vilified by the anti-humanists and the one sentimentalized by the reactionary nostalgists. Rescuing humanism from such polemics is only the first step, as we find at least nine rival, contemporary definitions of humanism.…

  15. An online database of nuclear electromagnetic moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertzimekis, T. J.; Stamou, K.; Psaltis, A.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements of nuclear magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole moments are considered quite important for the understanding of nuclear structure both near and far from the valley of stability. The recent advent of radioactive beams has resulted in a plethora of new, continuously flowing, experimental data on nuclear structure - including nuclear moments - which hinders the information management. A new, dedicated, public and user friendly online database

  16. How Does The Bone Shaft Geometry Affect its Bending Properties?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveh P. Saffar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, ten fresh specimens of sheep tibiae were provided from slaughtered animals. Whole bone specimens were loaded in three-point bending according to standard wet bone test protocols. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with the results which were obtained from two dry bone tests. The results showed that fracture bending moment and bone extrinsic stiffness had significant relations with fracture cross-section dependent parameters (i.e., cross-section area and area moment of inertia. Where, fracture energy and ultimate strength did not have such a relation with these parameters. Finite element modeling of bone shaft was made with simplified geometry (neglecting cross-section variations along bone shaft in two steps: First, by elliptical cross-section and second, by circular cross-section, assuming linear elastic and isotropic properties for the specimens. Elastic (Young’s modulus and fracture load, evaluated from curves obtained from tests, were applied to the finite element model and close results of maximum stress in both test specimen and first (elliptical cross-section model showed up. There was an average difference of about 2% between ultimate strength of wet bone specimens and maximum (tensile stress occurred in the elliptical models. However, this value for circular models was about 16%.

  17. Ethnic Differences in Bending Stiffness of the Ulna and Tibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Liang, M. T. C.; Bassin, S.; Braun, W.; Dutto, D.; Plesums, K.; Huvnh, H. T.; Cooper, D.; Wong, N.

    2004-01-01

    There is considerable information about the variations in bone mass associated with different opportunity to compare a mechanical property of bone in young college women of Caucasian, Hispanic and Asian descent who gave informed consent to participate in an exercise study. The subjects were sedentary, in good health, eumenorrheic, non-smokers and had body mass indices (BMI) less than 30. Measurements acquired were body weight, kg, and height, cm, calcaneal and wrist bone density, g/square cm (PIXI, Lunar GE) and bending stiffness (EI, Nm(exp 2)) in the ulna and tibia. E1 was determined non-invasively with an instrument called the Mechanical Response Tissue Analyzer (MRTA) that delivers a vibratory stimulus to the center of the ulna or tibia and analyzes the response curve based on the equation E1 = k(sub b) L(exp 3)/48 where k, is lateral bending stiffness, L is the length of the bone, E is Young's modulus of elasticity and I, the bending moment of inertia. The error of the test (CV) based on measurements of an aluminum rod with a known E1 was 4.8%, of calcaneal BMD, 0.54%, and of wrist bone density, 3.45%.

  18. How two-dimensional bending can extraordinarily stiffen thin sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pini, V.; Ruz, J. J.; Kosaka, P. M.; Malvar, O.; Calleja, M.; Tamayo, J.

    2016-07-01

    Curved thin sheets are ubiquitously found in nature and manmade structures from macro- to nanoscale. Within the framework of classical thin plate theory, the stiffness of thin sheets is independent of its bending state for small deflections. This assumption, however, goes against intuition. Simple experiments with a cantilever sheet made of paper show that the cantilever stiffness largely increases with small amounts of transversal curvature. We here demonstrate by using simple geometric arguments that thin sheets subject to two-dimensional bending necessarily develop internal stresses. The coupling between the internal stresses and the bending moments can increase the stiffness of the plate by several times. We develop a theory that describes the stiffness of curved thin sheets with simple equations in terms of the longitudinal and transversal curvatures. The theory predicts experimental results with a macroscopic cantilever sheet as well as numerical simulations by the finite element method. The results shed new light on plant and insect wing biomechanics and provide an easy route to engineer micro- and nanomechanical structures based on thin materials with extraordinary stiffness tunability.

  19. Redefining the political moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Arvanitakis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available On 16 February 2003, more than half a million people gathered in Sydney, Australia, as part of a global anti-war protest aimed at stopping the impending invasion of Iraq by the then US Administration. It is difficult to estimate how many millions marched on the coordinated protest, but it was by far the largest mobilization of a generation. Walking and chanting on the streets of Sydney that day, it seemed that a political moment was upon us. In a culture that rarely embraces large scale activism, millions around Australian demanded to be heard. The message was clear: if you do not hear us, we would be willing to bring down a government. The invasion went ahead, however, with the then Australian government, under the leadership of John Howard, being one of the loudest and staunchest supporters of the Bush Administrations drive to war. Within 18 months, anti-war activists struggled to have a few hundred participants take part in anti-Iraq war rallies, and the Howard Government was comfortably re-elected for another term. The political moment had come and gone, with both social commentators and many members of the public looking for a reason. While the conservative media was often the focus of analysis, this paper argues that in a time of late capitalism, the political moment is hollowed out by ‘Politics’ itself. That is to say, that formal political processes (or ‘Politics’ undermine the political practices that people participate in everyday (or ‘politics’. Drawing on an ongoing research project focusing on democracy and young people, I discuss how the concept of ’politics‘ has been destabilised and subsequently, the political moment has been displaced. This displacement has led to a re-definition of ‘political action’ and, I argue, the emergence of a different type of everyday politics.

  20. A Novel Low-Cost, Large Curvature Bend Sensor Based on a Bowden-Cable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Useok; Cho, Kyu-Jin

    2016-06-24

    Bend sensors have been developed based on conductive ink, optical fiber, and electronic textiles. Each type has advantages and disadvantages in terms of performance, ease of use, and cost. This study proposes a new and low-cost bend sensor that can measure a wide range of accumulated bend angles with large curvatures. This bend sensor utilizes a Bowden-cable, which consists of a coil sheath and an inner wire. Displacement changes of the Bowden-cable's inner wire, when the shape of the sheath changes, have been considered to be a position error in previous studies. However, this study takes advantage of this position error to detect the bend angle of the sheath. The bend angle of the sensor can be calculated from the displacement measurement of the sensing wire using a Hall-effect sensor or a potentiometer. Simulations and experiments have shown that the accumulated bend angle of the sensor is linearly related to the sensor signal, with an R-square value up to 0.9969 and a root mean square error of 2% of the full sensing range. The proposed sensor is not affected by a bend curvature of up to 80.0 m(-1), unlike previous bend sensors. The proposed sensor is expected to be useful for various applications, including motion capture devices, wearable robots, surgical devices, or generally any device that requires an affordable and low-cost bend sensor.

  1. Numberical Investigation of a New Method for Reducing Bends Erosion from Particles Impacts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAOJun; FANJianren; 等

    2002-01-01

    The present paper intends to introduce a new method for reducing bends erosion from particles impacts: the ribbed bend erosion protection method. Ribs are evenly fixed in the range of 20°-80° on the inner-wall of inside 90° bend and the bend (including ribs) is made of medium carbon steel. Three-dimensional numerical work is performed and the result shows satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurement. Numerical simulation studies the characteristics of axial gas flow along the bend and secondary flow at cross section. Detailed analyses involving the impact velocity and incidence angle of particle-metal (either particle-rib or particle-duct) impact unveil the mechanism of the anti-erosion effect. As a result, predications achieve that the average erosion rate of the ribbed bends is only a third of the bare bend under test conditions and rectangle ribs possess higher anti-erosion effect than square ribs, while the wear distribution pattern remains unchanged after adding ribs onto the bend. All results confirm that the ribbed bend erosion protection method is a simple and effective method for reducing bends erosion from particles impacts.

  2. The quantitative check-measure of the bend strain parameters of the rotating components

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文华; 乔中涛

    2002-01-01

    Based on the principle of the electric-magnetic check-measure, this paper puts forward a new technology and method that use the magnetic marks to check and measure the dynamic physical parameters such as angle speed, bending strain,stress and bending moment. The principles of the check-measure and the dealing and exchanging technology about signals have been demonstrated and the rotating components have been made up. The timely and quantitative check-measure of the dynamic physical parameters during the component in working has been realized by using computer control.

  3. Distributions on unbounded moment spaces and random moment sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Nagel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we define distributions on moment spaces corresponding to measures on the real line with an unbounded support. We identify these distributions as limiting distributions of random moment vectors defined on compact moment spaces and as distributions corresponding to random spectral measures associated with the Jacobi, Laguerre and Hermite ensemble from random matrix theory. For random vectors on the unbounded moment spaces we prove a central limit theorem where the centering vectors correspond to the moments of the Marchenko-Pastur distribution and Wigner's semi-circle law.

  4. Particle deposition in industrial duct bends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thomas M; Leith, David

    2004-07-01

    A study of particle deposition in industrial duct bends is presented. Particle deposition by size was measured by comparing particle size distributions upstream and downstream of bends that had geometries and flow conditions similar to those used in industrial ventilation. As the interior surface of the duct bend was greased to prevent particle bounce, the results are applicable to liquid drops and solid particles where duct walls are sticky. Factors investigated were: (i) flow Reynolds number (Re = 203 000, 36 000); (ii) particle Reynolds number (10 vertical); and (vii) construction technique (smooth, gored, segmented). Measured deposition was compared with models developed for bends in small diameter sampling lines (Re 20 microm, deposition was slightly greater in the horizontal-to-horizontal orientation than in the horizontal-to-vertical orientation due to gravitational settling. Penetration was not a multiplicative function of bend angle as theory predicts, due to the developing nature of turbulent flow in bends. Deposition in a smooth bend was similar to that in a gored bend; however, a tight radius segmented bend (R0 = 1.7) exhibited much lower deposition. For more gradual bends (3 < R0 < 12), curvature ratio had negligible effect on deposition.

  5. Garment-Integrated Bend Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Gioberto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Garment-integrated sensors equip clothes with a smart sensing capability, while preserving the comfort of the user. However, this benefit can be to the detriment of sensing accuracy due to the unpredictability of garment movement (which affects sensor positioning and textile folds (which can affect sensor orientation. However, sensors integrated directly into garments or fabric structures can also be used to detect the movement of the garment during wearing. Specifically, a textile bend sensor could be used to sense folds in the garment. We tested a garment-integrated stitched sensor for five types of folds, stitched on five different weights of un-stretchable denim fabric and analyzed the effects of fold complexity and fabric stiffness, under un-insulated and insulated conditions. Results show that insulation improves the linearity and repeatability of the sensor response, particularly for higher fold complexity. Stiffer fabrics show greater sensitivity, but less linearity. Sensor response amplitude is larger for more complex fold geometries. The utility of a linear bending response (insulated and a binary shorting response (un-insulated is discussed. Overall, the sensor exhibits excellent repeatability and accuracy, particularly for a fiber-based, textile-integrated sensor.

  6. Paul Callaghan luminous moments

    CERN Document Server

    Callaghan, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Acknowledged internationally for his ground-breaking scientific research in the field of magnetic resonance, Sir Paul Callaghan was a scientist and visionary with a rare gift for promoting science to a wide audience. He was named New Zealander of the Year in 2011. His death in early 2012 robbed New Zealand of an inspirational leader. Paul Callaghan: Luminous Moments brings together some of his most significant writing. Whether he describes his childhood in Wanganui, reflects on discovering the beauty of science, sets out New Zealand's future potential or discusses the experience of fa

  7. Elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Qiang; Huang Rui [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Arroyo, Marino [Department of Applied Mathematics 3, LaCaN, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), Barcelona 08034 (Spain)

    2009-05-21

    An analytic formula is derived for the elastic bending modulus of monolayer graphene based on an empirical potential for solid-state carbon atoms. Two physical origins are identified for the non-vanishing bending stiffness of the atomically thin graphene sheet, one due to the bond-angle effect and the other resulting from the bond-order term associated with the dihedral angles. The analytical prediction compares closely with ab initio energy calculations. Pure bending of graphene monolayers into cylindrical tubes is simulated by a molecular mechanics approach, showing slight nonlinearity and anisotropy in the tangent bending modulus as the bending curvature increases. An intrinsic coupling between bending and in-plane strain is noted for graphene monolayers rolled into carbon nanotubes. (fast track communication)

  8. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  9. Modulated liquid-crystal phases induced by polarity: Twist-bend, splay-bend, and blue phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Jonathan; Shamid, Shaikh; Allender, David

    2014-03-01

    Nematic liquid crystals exhibit flexoelectric couplings between polar order and gradients in the director field. When the couplings become strong enough, the uniform nematic phase can become unstable to the formation of a modulated polar phase. The question is then: What is the structure of the modulated polar phase? Classic work by Meyer and further studies by Dozov predicted two possible structures, known as twist-bend and splay-bend. One of these predictions, the twist-bend phase, has recently been identified in experiments on bent-core liquid crystals. Here, we investigate modulated polar phases through a combination of Landau theory and lattice simulations. We find a range of possibilities, including the twist-bend and splay-bend phases as well as polar blue phases, with 2D or 3D modulations of the director field and the polar order. We compare these polar blue phases with chiral blue phases, and discuss opportunities for observing them experimentally. Supported by NSF DMR-1106014.

  10. Moments in time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eWittmann

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that perception and action can be understood as evolving in temporal epochs or sequential processing units. Successive events are fused into units forming a unitary experience or ‘psychological present’. Studies have identified several temporal integration levels on different time scales which are fundamental for our understanding of behaviour and subjective experience. In recent literature concerning the philosophy and neuroscience of consciousness these separate temporal processing levels are not always precisely distinguished. Therefore, empirical evidence from psychophysics and neuropsychology on these distinct temporal processing levels is presented and discussed within philosophical conceptualizations of time experience. On an elementary level, one can identify a functional moment, a basic temporal building block of perception in the range of milliseconds that defines simultaneity and succession. Below a certain threshold temporal order is not perceived, individual events are processed as co-temporal. On a second level, an experienced moment, which is based on temporal integration of up to a few seconds, has been reported in many qualitatively different experiments in perception and action. It has been suggested that this segmental processing mechanism creates temporal windows that provide a logistical basis for conscious representation and the experience of nowness. On a third level of integration, continuity of experience is enabled by working-memory in the range of multiple seconds allowing the maintenance of cognitive operations and emotional feelings, leading to mental presence, a temporal window of an individual’s experienced presence.

  11. Fuzzy analysis of serviceability limit state of slender steel beam under bending

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kala, Zdeněk; Valeš, Jan [Brno University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Department of Structural Mechanics Vevefi St. 95, ZIP 602 00, Brno (Czech Republic)

    2015-03-10

    In the present paper, deformations of a beam under equal end moments solved with influence of lateral buckling are studied. It has been found by numerical studies that the lateral deflection of slender beam under major axis bending can be relatively high.The acceptability of high values of lateral deflections within the framework of serviceability limit state is discussed. In the next part of the paper, the limit value of maximum deflection was introduced as a fuzzy number. The fuzzy analysis of the maximum moment which causes the maximum deflection was carried out. The slendernesses of beams for which the serviceability limit state is the limiting state for design were identified.

  12. Multilevel light bending in nanoplasmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Sherif, Mohamed H.; Ahmed, Osman S.; Bakr, Mohamed H.; Swillam, Mohamed A.

    2014-03-01

    Nanoplasmonic optical interconnects is proposed to mitigate challenges facing electronics integration. It provides fast and miniaturized data channel that overcome the diffraction limit. We present a three dimensional plasmonic coupler that vertically bends the light to multilevel circuit configurations. It exploits light guiding in nanoscale plasmonic slot waveguides (PSWs). A triangularly-shaped plasmonic slot waveguide rotator is introduced to attain such coupling with good efficiency over a wide bandwidth. Using this approach, light propagating in a horizontal direction is easily converted and coupled to propagate in the vertical direction and vice versa. The proposed configuration is further extended to the design of a multilayer power divider/combiner with ultra-compact footprint that guides the light to multiple channels. A detailed study of the triangular rotator is demonstrated with the analysis of multiple configurations. This structure is suitable for efficient coupling and splitting in multilevel nano circuit environment.

  13. Peeling, sliding, pulling and bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lister, John; Peng, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    The peeling of an elastic sheet away from thin layer of viscous fluid is a simply-stated and generic problem, that involves complex interactions between the flow and elastic deformation on a range of length scales. Consider an analogue of capillary spreading, where a blister of injected viscous fluid spreads due to tension in the overlying elastic sheet. Here the tension is coupled to the deformation of the sheet, and thus varies in time and space. A key question is whether or not viscous shear stresses ahead of the blister are sufficient to prevent the sheet sliding inwards and relieving the tension. Our asymptotic analysis reveals a dichotomy between fast and slow spreading, and between two-dimensional and axisymmetric spreading. In combination with bending stresses and gravity, which may dominate parts of the flow but not others, there is a plethora of dynamical regimes.

  14. Behavior of sandwich panels subjected to bending fatigue, axial compression loading and in-plane bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieson, Haley Aaron

    This thesis investigates experimentally and analytically the structural performance of sandwich panels composed of glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) skins and a soft polyurethane foam core, with or without thin GFRP ribs connecting skins. The study includes three main components: (a) out-of-plane bending fatigue, (b) axial compression loading, and (c) in-plane bending of sandwich beams. Fatigue studies included 28 specimens and looked into establishing service life (S-N) curves of sandwich panels without ribs, governed by soft core shear failure and also ribbed panels governed by failure at the rib-skin junction. Additionally, the study compared fatigue life curves of sandwich panels loaded under fully reversed bending conditions (R=-1) with panels cyclically loaded in one direction only (R=0) and established the stiffness degradation characteristics throughout their fatigue life. Mathematical models expressing fatigue life and stiffness degradation curves were calibrated and expanded forms for various loading ratios were developed. Approximate fatigue thresholds of 37% and 23% were determined for non-ribbed panels loaded at R=0 and -1, respectively. Digital imaging techniques showed significant shear contribution significantly (90%) to deflections if no ribs used. Axial loading work included 51 specimens and examined the behavior of panels of various lengths (slenderness ratios), skin thicknesses, and also panels of similar length with various rib configurations. Observed failure modes governing were global buckling, skin wrinkling or skin crushing. In-plane bending involved testing 18 sandwich beams of various shear span-to-depth ratios and skin thicknesses, which failed by skin wrinkling at the compression side. The analytical modeling components of axially loaded panels include; a simple design-oriented analytical failure model and a robust non-linear model capable of predicting the full load-displacement response of axially loaded slender sandwich panels

  15. Evaluation of cold bending and mechanical properties of helical (SAWH) and longitudinal (SAWL) seam pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batista, Gilmar Zacca; Sanandres, Simon Ricardo [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Pipeline Engineering Division; Pinto, Percy Saavedra; Mello, Marcelo [Tubos Soldados Atlantico, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present work is a part of a comprehensive program that aims to evaluate the helical seam pipe application in pipeline construction and compare with the traditional longitudinal seam pipe that have been used in Brazil. One of the biggest concerns is the cold bending process once the Brazilian land profile is very sinuous, different than other countries where helical seam pipes have been used successfully. At this work, two pipes were used, one helical seam and one longitudinal seam, both API 5L X70 with 28 inch of diameter and 0.469 inch wall thickness. The results of cold bending tests comparing both types of pipe and the mechanical properties from the straight pipe with the bend section are shown. The research methodology includes dimensional analysis, microstructural evaluation and mechanical tests that were performed on the straight pipe and bend areas. The cold bending parameters used to obtain a bend according the design and construction standards requirements are also presented. The results showed that the cold bending process produces a helical seam pipe bend with the most critical radius allowed by the standards, without presenting any evidence of wrinkles, out-of-roundness above the limits or any type of mechanical damage. Both pipes tested met the standards requirements in terms of bending and mechanical properties. The results of this study provide technical information for future helical seam pipe application in Brazil. (author)

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Fruit Bending in Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Li-li; ZHANG Peng; QIN Zhi-wei; ZHOU Xiu-yan

    2014-01-01

    In cucumber, fruit shape is an important quality criterion, and fruit bending is known to limit growth, yield, and taste. To investigate the post-transcriptional changes that regulate fruit bending and to better understand the underlying molecular mechanisms, we generated a proteomic proifle of the abdomen and back of cucumber bending fruit. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) allowed the detection of approximately 900 distinct protein spots in each gel, 32 of which were differentially expressed in the abdomen and back of bending cucumber fruit. Ten of the differentially expressed proteins were analyzed using matrix-assisted laser ionization time of lfight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). A search of primary databases showed that the identiifed proteins are involved in various metabolic processes and cellular responses, including photosynthesis metabolism, energy metabolism, defense and stress response, and regulation. The identiifed proteins included large subunits of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, which are involved in photosynthesis and photorespiratory metabolism, and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which is involved in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It is possible that imbalances in catabolic and anabolic processes directly affect the bending of cucumber fruit. The predicted function of the cobalamin-independent methionine synthase isozyme is closely related to ethylene biosynthesis; fruit bending may be regulated by ethylene, or by ethylene signaling crosstalk during fruit development. The 14-3-3 protein is usually considered to be a regulation-related protein, which plays a role in regulating cell hyperplasia, cell differentiation during growth, and apoptosis during senescence. Involvement of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins in signal transmission is known to regulate the development of cells in cucumber fruits and to play a role in fruit shape variation. Patterns of protein expression showed high repeatability. We hypothesize

  17. SELECTION MOMENTS AND GENERALIZED METHOD OF MOMENTS FOR HETEROSKEDASTIC MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin ANGHELACHE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the authors describe the selection methods for moments and the application of the generalized moments method for the heteroskedastic models. The utility of GMM estimators is found in the study of the financial market models. The selection criteria for moments are applied for the efficient estimation of GMM for univariate time series with martingale difference errors, similar to those studied so far by Kuersteiner.

  18. Pure bending of simply supported circular plate of transversely isotropic functionally graded material

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiang-yu; DING Hao-jiang; CHEN Wei-qiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers the pure bending problem of simply supported transversely isotropic circular plates with elastic compliance coefficients being arbitrary functions of the thickness coordinate. First, the partial differential equation, which is satisfied by the stress functions for the axisymmetric deformation problem is derived. Then, stress functions are obtained by proper manipulation. The analytical expressions of axial force, bending moment and displacements are then deduced through integration.And then, stress functions are employed to solve problems of transversely isotropic functionally graded circular plate, with the integral constants completely determined from boundary conditions. An elasticity solution for pure bending problem, which coincides with the available solution when degenerated into the elasticity solutions for homogenous circular plate, is thus obtained.A numerical example is finally presented to show the effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic field in a simply supported circular plate of transversely isotropic functionally graded material (FGM).

  19. Quasi-static and dynamical bending of a cantilever poroelastic beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yi; LI Li; YANG Xiao

    2009-01-01

    Based on the theory of porous media, the quasi-static and dynamical bending of a cantilever poroelastic beam subjected to a step load at its free end is investigated, and the influences of its permeability on bending deformation is examined.The initial boundary value problems for dynamical and quasi-static responses are solved with the Laplace transform technique,and the deflections, the bending moments of the solid skeleton and the equivalent couples of the pore fluid pressure are shown in figures. It is shown that the dynamical and quasi-static behavior of the saturated poroelastic beam depends closely on the permeability conditions at the beam ends. Under the different permeability conditions, the deflections of the beam may oscillate or not. The Mandel-Cryer effect also exists in liquid-saturated poroelastic beams.

  20. Theoretical analysis on bending behavior of functionally graded composite beam crack-controlled by ultrahigh toughness cementitious composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ultrahigh toughness cementitious composites (UHTCC) obviously show strain hardening property under tensile or bending loading. The failure pattern of the UHTCC components exhibits multiple fine cracks under uniaxial tensile loading with prominent tensile strain capacity in excess of 3%, with merely 60 μm average crack width even corresponding to the ultimate tensile strain state. The approach adopted is based on the concept of functionally-graded concrete, where part of the concrete, which surrounds the main longitudinal reinforcement in a RC (reinforced concrete) member, is strategically replaced with UHTCC with excellent crack-controlling ability. Investigations on bending behavior of functionally-graded composite beam crack controlled by UHTCC has been carried out, including theo- retical analysis, experimental research on long composite beams without web reinforcement, validation and comparison between experimental and theoretical results, and analysis on crack control. In addition to improving bearing capacity, the results indicate that functionally-graded composite beams using UHTCC has been found to be very effective in preventing corrosion-induced damage compared with RC beams. Therefore, durability and service life of the structure could be enhanced. This paper discusses the development of internal force and crack propagation during loading process, and presents analysis of the internal force in different stages, moment-curvature relationship from loading to damage and calculation of mid-span deflection and ductility index. In the end, the theoretical formulae have been validated by experimental results.

  1. Bending of the looping heart: differential growth revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunfei; Yao, Jiang; Xu, Gang; Taber, Larry A

    2014-08-01

    In the early embryo, the primitive heart tube (HT) undergoes the morphogenetic process of c-looping as it bends and twists into a c-shaped tube. Despite intensive study for nearly a century, the physical forces that drive looping remain poorly understood. This is especially true for the bending component, which is the focus of this paper. For decades, experimental measurements of mitotic rates had seemingly eliminated differential growth as the cause of HT bending, as it has commonly been thought that the heart grows almost exclusively via hyperplasia before birth and hypertrophy after birth. Recently published data, however, suggests that hypertrophic growth may play a role in looping. To test this idea, we developed finite-element models that include regionally measured changes in myocardial volume over the HT. First, models based on idealized cylindrical geometry were used to simulate the bending process in isolated hearts, which bend without the complicating effects of external loads. With the number of free parameters in the model reduced to the extent possible, stress and strain distributions were compared to those measured in embryonic chick hearts that were isolated and cultured for 24 h. The results show that differential growth alone yields results that agree reasonably well with the trends in our data, but adding active changes in myocardial cell shape provides closer quantitative agreement with stress measurements. Next, the estimated parameters were extrapolated to a model based on realistic 3D geometry reconstructed from images of an actual chick heart. This model yields similar results and captures quite well the basic morphology of the looped heart. Overall, our study suggests that differential hypertrophic growth in the myocardium (MY) is the primary cause of the bending component of c-looping, with other mechanisms possibly playing lesser roles.

  2. Measurement of magnetic moment via optical transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidsieck, Alexandra, E-mail: aheidsieck@tum.de; Schmid, Daniel; Gleich, Bernhard

    2016-03-01

    The magnetic moment of nanoparticles is an important property for drug targeting and related applications as well as for the simulation thereof. However, the measurement of the magnetic moment of nanoparticles, nanoparticle–virus-complexes or microspheres in solution can be difficult and often yields unsatisfying or incomparable results. To measure the magnetic moment, we designed a custom measurement device including a magnetic set-up to observe nanoparticles indirectly via light transmission in solution. We present a simple, cheap device of manageable size, which can be used in any laboratory as well as a novel evaluation method to determine the magnetic moment of nanoparticles via the change of the optical density of the particle suspension in a well-defined magnetic gradient field. In contrast to many of the established measurement methods, we are able to observe and measure the nanoparticle complexes in their natural state in the respective medium. The nanoparticles move along the magnetic gradient and thereby away from the observation point. Due to this movement, the optical density of the fluid decreases and the transmission increases over time at the measurement location. By comparing the measurement with parametric simulations, we can deduce the magnetic moment from the observed behavior. - Highlights: • Performance of a direct detection camera in the context of off-axis electron holography has been evaluated. • A measurement device to indirectly observe magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is described. • MNPs can be observed in the respective medium via light transmission. • An evaluation method to determine the magnetic moment of the MNPs is presented. • The magnetic moment can be deduced from the observed change in optical density.

  3. Area moments of inertia as a measure of the mandible stiffness of the implant patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, Stig; Ekestubbe, Annika

    2004-08-01

    It was hypothesized that the bending stiffness of the mandible is an important biomechanical parameter in implant dentistry. It was shown how this bending stiffness can be estimated by means of the principal area moments of inertia of the cortical and cancellous cross-sections as obtained by computed tomography, some image processing and subsequent calculation. It was found that the contribution of the cancellous bone to the bending stiffness is normally insignificant and that the principal area moments of inertia of the cortical cross-section show large variations, depending on the degree of resorption. It was furthermore found that the variations in the principal area moments of inertia of the cortical cross-section in one and the same potential implant patient were minor. Finally, in a three-dimensional finite element study, it was found that the peak bone stresses adjacent to implants, resulting from a standardized load at the distal end of an implant-supported bridge, were inversely related to the magnitude of the principal area moment of inertia about the horizontal axis of the cortical cross-section. It was concluded that the principal area moments of inertia of the cortical cross-section and the angulation of the principal axes of inertia might be useful as a quantitative characterization of the mandible stiffness in clinical research and perhaps also in clinical practice.

  4. Discontinious Galerkin formulations for thin bending problems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, T.D.

    2008-01-01

    A structural thin bending problem is essentially associated with a fourth-order partial differential equation. Within the finite element framework, the numerical solution of thin bending problems demands the use of C^1 continuous shape functions. Elements using these functions are challenging and di

  5. Bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Xiaolong; Yan, Wei; Mortensen, N. Asger

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the performance of bends and splitters in graphene nanoribbon waveguides. Although the graphene waveguides are lossy themselves, we show that bends and splitters do not induce any additional loss provided that the nanoribbon width is sub-wavelength. We use transmission line theory...

  6. Bandwidth engineering of photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn; Harpøth, Anders;

    2004-01-01

    An effective design principle has been applied to photonic crystal waveguide bends fabricated in silicon-on-insulator material using deep UV lithography resulting in a large increase in the low-loss bandwidth of the bends. Furthermore, it is experimentally demonstrated that the absolute bandwidth...

  7. Restorying the Self: Bending toward Textual Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth; Stornaiuolo, Amy

    2016-01-01

    In this essay, Ebony Elizabeth Thomas and Amy Stornaiuolo explore new trends in reader response for a digital age, particularly the phenomenon of bending texts using social media. They argue that bending is one form of "restorying," a process by which people reshape narratives to represent a diversity of perspectives and experiences that…

  8. Moment Distributions of Phase Type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    -type distributions. We construct representations for moment distributions based on a general matrix-exponential distribution which turns out to be a generalization of the moment distributions based on exponential distributions. For moment distributions based on phase{type distributions we find an appropriate...... alternative representation in terms of sub{intensity matrices. Finally we are able to nd explicit expressions for both the Lorenz curve and the Gini index....

  9. Photoacoustic elastic bending in thin film—Substrate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorović, D. M., E-mail: dmtodor@imsi.bg.ac.rs [Institute for Multidisciplinary Research, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 33, 11030 Belgrade (Serbia); Rabasović, M. D.; Markushev, D. D. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade-Zemun (Serbia)

    2013-12-07

    Theoretical model for optically excited two-layer elastic plate, which includes plasmaelastic, thermoelastic, and thermodiffusion mechanisms, is given in order to study the dependence of the photoacoustic (PA) elastic bending signal on the optical, thermal, and elastic properties of thin film—substrate system. Thin film-semiconductor sample (in our case Silicon) is modeled by simultaneous analysis of the plasma, thermal, and elastic wave equations. Multireflection effects in thin film are included in theoretical model and analyzed. Relations for the amplitude and phase of electronic and thermal elastic bending in the optically excited two-layer mechanically-supported circular plate are derived. Theoretical analysis of the thermodiffusion, plasmaelastic, and thermoelastic effects in a sample-gas-microphone photoacoustic detection configuration is given. Two normalization procedures of the photoacoustic elastic bending signal in function of the modulation frequency of the optical excitation are established. Given theoretical model can be used for various photoacoustic detection configurations, for example, in the study of optical, thermal, and elastic properties of the dielectric-semiconductor or metal-semiconductor structure, etc., Theoretical analysis shows that it is possible to develop new noncontact and nondestructive experimental method—PA elastic bending method for thin film study, with possibility to obtain the optical, thermal, and elastic parameters of the film thinner than 1 μm.

  10. Plausible cloth animation using dynamic bending model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhou; Xiaogang Jin; Charlie C.L. Wang; Jieqing Feng

    2008-01-01

    Simulating the mechanical behavior of a cloth is a very challenging and important problem in computer animation. The models of bending in most existing cloth simulation approaches are taking the assumption that the cloth is little deformed from a plate shape.Therefore, based on the thin-plate theory, these bending models do not consider the condition that the current shape of the cloth under large deformations cannot be regarded as the approximation to that before deformation, which leads to an unreal static bending. [This paper introduces a dynamic bending model which is appropriate to describe large out-plane deformations such as cloth buckling and bending, and develops a compact implementation of the new model on spring-mass systems. Experimental results show that wrinkles and folds generated using this technique in cloth simulation, can appear and vanish in a more natural way than other approaches.

  11. Wire and Cable Cold Bending Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colozza, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    One of the factors in assessing the applicability of wire or cable on the lunar surface is its flexibility under extreme cold conditions. Existing wire specifications did not address their mechanical behavior under cold, cryogenic temperature conditions. Therefore tests were performed to provide this information. To assess this characteristic 35 different insulated wire and cable pieces were cold soaked in liquid nitrogen. The segments were then subjected to bending and the force was recorded. Any failure of the insulation or jacketing was also documented for each sample tested. The bending force tests were performed at room temperature to provide a comparison to the change in force needed to bend the samples due to the low temperature conditions. The results from the bending tests were plotted and showed how various types of insulated wire and cable responded to bending under cold conditions. These results were then used to estimate the torque needed to unroll the wire under these low temperature conditions.

  12. Closed forms and multi-moment maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Thomas Bruun; Swann, Andrew Francis

    We extend the notion of multi-moment map to geometries defined by closed forms of arbitrary degree. We give fundamental existence and uniqueness results and discuss a number of essential examples, including geometries related to special holonomy. For forms of degree four, multi-moment maps...... are guaranteed to exist and are unique when the symmetry group is (3, 4)-trivial, meaning that the group is connected and the third and fourth Lie algebra Betti numbers vanish. We give a structural description of some classes of (3, 4)-trivial algebras and provide a number of examples....

  13. Right-handed neutrino magnetic moments

    CERN Document Server

    Aparici, Alberto; Santamaria, Arcadi; Wudka, Jose

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of the most general effective Lagrangian, up to operators of dimension 5, build with standard model fields and interactions including right-handed neutrinos. In particular we find there is a dimension 5 electroweak moment operator of right-handed neutrinos, not discussed previously in the literature, which could have interesting phenomenological consequences.

  14. Theory of the Muon Anomalous Magnetic Moment

    CERN Document Server

    Melnikov, Kirill

    2006-01-01

    The theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is "particle physics in a nutshell" and as such is interesting, exciting and difficult. The current precision of the experimental value for this quantity, improved significantly in the past several years due to experiment E821 at Brookhaven National Laboratory, is so high that a large number of subtle effects not relevant previously, become important for the interpretation of the experimental result. The theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment is at the cutting edge of current research in particle physics and includes multiloop calculations in both QED and electroweak theory, precision low-energy hadron physics, isospin violations and scattering of light by light. Any deviation between the theoretical prediction and the experimental value might be interpreted as a signal of an as-yet-unknown new physics. This book provides a comprehensive review of the theory of the muon anomalous magnetic moment.

  15. 49 CFR 192.315 - Wrinkle bends in steel pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. 192.315 Section 192... Transmission Lines and Mains § 192.315 Wrinkle bends in steel pipe. (a) A wrinkle bend may not be made on steel... wrinkle bend on steel pipe must comply with the following: (1) The bend must not have any sharp kinks....

  16. A Closed-form Solution to Finite Bending of a Compressible Elastic-perfectly Plastic Rectangular Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Xiao

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The self-consistent Eulerian rate-type elastoplastic model based on the logarithmic rate is used to study finite bending of a compressible elastic-perfectly plastic rectangular block. It is found that an explicit closed-form solution for this typical inhomogeneous finite deformation , mode may be available in a general case of compressible deformation with a stretch normal to the bending plane, where the maximum circumferential stretch at the outer surface serves as an Independent parameter. Expressions are given for the bending angle, the bending moment, the the outer and the inner radii, and the radii of the two moving elastic-plastic interfaces, etc. The exact stress distribution on any circumferential cross-section of the deformed block is accordingly determined.

  17. All joint moments significantly contribute to trunk angular acceleration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nott, Cameron R; Zajac, Felix E; Neptune, Richard R; Kautz, Steven A

    2010-09-17

    Computationally advanced biomechanical analyses of gait demonstrate the often counter-intuitive roles of joint moments on various aspects of gait such as propulsion, swing initiation, and balance. Each joint moment can produce linear and angular acceleration of all body segments (including those on which the moment does not directly act) due to the dynamic coupling inherent in the interconnected musculoskeletal system. This study presents quantitative relationships between individual joint moments and trunk control with respect to balance during gait to show that the ankle, knee, and hip joint moments all affect the angular acceleration of the trunk. We show that trunk angular acceleration is affected by all joints in the leg with varying degrees of dependence during the gait cycle. Furthermore, it is shown that inter-planar coupling exists and a two-dimensional analysis of trunk balance neglects important out-of-plane joint moments that affect trunk angular acceleration.

  18. Extension of moment projection method to the fragmentation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shaohua; Yapp, Edward K. Y.; Akroyd, Jethro; Mosbach, Sebastian; Xu, Rong; Yang, Wenming; Kraft, Markus

    2017-04-01

    The method of moments is a simple but efficient method of solving the population balance equation which describes particle dynamics. Recently, the moment projection method (MPM) was proposed and validated for particle inception, coagulation, growth and, more importantly, shrinkage; here the method is extended to include the fragmentation process. The performance of MPM is tested for 13 different test cases for different fragmentation kernels, fragment distribution functions and initial conditions. Comparisons are made with the quadrature method of moments (QMOM), hybrid method of moments (HMOM) and a high-precision stochastic solution calculated using the established direct simulation algorithm (DSA) and advantages of MPM are drawn.

  19. End effects on elbows subjected to moment loadings. [PWR; BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodabaugh, E.C.; Moore, S.E.

    1982-01-01

    So-called end effects for moment loadings on short-radius and long-radius butt welding elbows of various arc lengths are investigated with a view toward providing more accurate design formulas for critical piping systems. Data developed in this study, along with published information, were used to develop relatively simple design equations for elbows attached at both ends to long sections of straight pipe. These formulas are the basis for an alternate ASME Code procedure for evaluating the bending moment stresses in Class 1 nuclear piping (ASME Code Case N-319). The more complicated problems of elbows with other end conditions, e.g., flanges at one or both ends, are also considered. Comparisons of recently published experimental and theoretical studies with current industrial code design rules for these situations indicate that these rules also need to be improved.

  20. A novel method of strain - bending moment calibration for blade testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, P.; Prieto, R.; Gaffing, J.; van Beveren, C.; Dominy, R.; Ingram, G.

    2016-09-01

    A new method of interpreting strain data in full scale static and fatigue tests has been implemented as part of the Offshore Renewable Energy Catapult's ongoing development of biaxial fatigue testing of wind turbine blades. During bi-axial fatigue tests, it is necessary to be able to distinguish strains arising from the flapwise motion of the blade from strains arising from the edgewise motion. The method exploits the beam-like structure of blades and is derived using the equations of beam theory. It offers several advantages over the current state of the art method of calibrating strain gauges.

  1. Degradation and buckling of metal tubes under cyclic bending and external pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Edmundo

    The response and stability of long tubular components under bending and external pressure were investigated. The behavior of the structure under monotonic as well as cyclic bending was examined through combined experimental and analytical efforts. The experiments involved metal seamless tubes with diameter-to-thickness ratios in the range of 17 to 35. Long specimens were tested under combined bending and pressure in a specially developed test facility. Bending-pressure interaction collapse envelopes were first generated for monotonically increasing loading histories. The two loads were found to interact strongly through the ovalization of the cross section and the collapse envelopes to depend on the loading history followed. Cyclic bending under various curvature controlled and moment controlled histories was considered. The factors influencing the rate of accumulation of ovalization and the resulting instabilities were studied parametrically. Buckling under cyclic loads occurred when the ovalization of the tubes reached a critical value approximately equal to the critical value developed under the corresponding monotonically applied loads. The problem was analyzed numerically using kinematics which capture the ovalization of the cross section. The predicted response was found to be very sensitive to the elastic-plastic constitutive models used. This sensitivity was carefully analyzed using state-of-the-art models. In the case of cyclic loading histories, the hardening rules used in such models were found to play a pivotal role in the accuracy of the predictions. The reasons for this sensitivity were studied through a parallel investigation of the behavior of the material under cyclic loads.

  2. Low Loss S-Bend Structure With Tapered Curved Waveguides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    A novel S-bend with tapered curved waveguides is proposed. The normalized transmitted power is greater than the conventional bend with weakly guided waveguides. Small size and low loss can be reached by the proposed S-bend.

  3. Magnetic Moment of $^{59}$Cu

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Experiment IS358 uses the intense and pure beams of copper isotopes provided by the ISOLDE RILIS (resonance ionization laser ion source). The isotopes are implanted and oriented in the low temperature nuclear orientation set-up NICOLE. Magnetic moments are measured by $\\beta$-NMR. Copper (Z=29), with a single proton above the proton-magic nickel isotopes provides an ideal testground for precise shell model calculations of magnetic moments and their experimental verification. In the course of our experiments we already determined the magnetic moments of $^{67}$Ni, $^{67}$Cu, $^{68g}$Cu, $^{69}$Cu and $^{71}$Cu which provide important information on the magicity of the N=40 subshell closure. In 2001 we plan to conclude our systematic investigations by measuring the magnetic moment of the neutron-deficient isotope $^{59}$Cu. This will pave the way for a subsequent study of the magnetic moment of $^{57}$Cu with a complementary method.

  4. The Impact of Bending Stress on the Performance of Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI Magnetic Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Nabias

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The flexibility of amorphous Giant Magneto-Impedance (GMI micro wires makes them easy to use in several magnetic field sensing applications, such as electrical current sensing, where they need to be deformed in order to be aligned with the measured field. The present paper deals with the bending impact, as a parameter of influence of the sensor, on the GMI effect in 100 µm Co-rich amorphous wires. Changes in the values of key parameters associated with the GMI effect have been investigated under bending stress. These parameters included the GMI ratio, the intrinsic sensitivity, and the offset at a given bias field. The experimental results have shown that bending the wire resulted in a reduction of GMI ratio and sensitivity. The bending also induced a net change in the offset for the considered bending curvature and the set of used excitation parameters (1 MHz, 1 mA. Furthermore, the field of the maximum impedance, which is generally related to the anisotropy field of the wire, was increased. The reversibility and the repeatability of the bending effect were also evaluated by applying repetitive bending stresses. The observations have actually shown that the behavior of the wire under the bending stress was roughly reversible and repetitive.

  5. The forces and moments on airplane engine mounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donely, Philip

    1936-01-01

    A resume of the equations and formulas for the forces and moments on an aircraft-engine mount is presented. In addition, available experimental data have been included to permit the computation of these forces and moments. A sample calculation is made and compared with present design conditions for engine mounts.

  6. Lithospheric bending at subduction zones based on depth soundings and satellite gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Daniel A.; Sandwell, David T.

    1995-01-01

    A global study of trench flexure was performed by simultaneously modeling 117 bathymetric profiles (original depth soundings) and satellite-derived gravity profiles. A thin, elastic plate flexure model was fit to each bathymetry/gravity profile by minimization of the L(sub 1) norm. The six model parameters were regional depth, regional gravity, trench axis location, flexural wavelength, flexural amplitude, and lithospheric density. A regional tilt parameter was not required after correcting for age-related trend using a new high-resolution age map. Estimates of the density parameter confirm that most outer rises are uncompensated. We find that flexural wavelength is not an accurate estimate of plate thickness because of the high curvatures observed at a majority of trenches. As in previous studies, we find that the gravity data favor a longer-wavelength flexure than the bathymetry data. A joint topography-gravity modeling scheme and fit criteria are used to limit acceptable parameter values to models for which topography and gravity yield consistent results. Even after the elastic thicknesses are converted to mechanical thicknesses using the yield strength envelope model, residual scatter obscures the systematic increase of mechanical thickness with age; perhaps this reflects the combination of uncertainties inherent in estimating flexural wavelength, such as extreme inelastic bending and accumulated thermoelastic stress. The bending moment needed to support the trench and outer rise topography increases by a factor of 10 as lithospheric age increases from 20 to 150 Ma; this reflects the increase in saturation bending moment that the lithosphere can maintain. Using a stiff, dry-olivine rheology, we find that the lithosphere of the GDH1 thermal model (Stein and Stein, 1992) is too hot and thin to maintain the observed bending moments. Moreover, the regional depth seaward of the oldest trenches (approximately 150 Ma) exceeds the GDH1 model depths by about 400 m.

  7. Bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirvakili, Seyed M.; Hunter, Ian W.

    2016-04-01

    Highly oriented nylon and polyethylene fibers shrink in length and expand in diameter when heated. Using this property, in this work, for the first time we are introducing a type of bending artificial muscle from nylon filaments such as fishing line. Reversible radius of curvature of 0.23 mm-1 was achieved with maximum reversible bending amplitude of 115 mm for the nylon bending actuator. Peak force of up to 2040 mN was measured with a catch-state force of up to 40% of the active force. A 3 dB roll-off frequency of around 0.7 Hz was observed in the frequency response of the bending actuator in water.

  8. Pipes under internal pressure and bending

    CERN Document Server

    Catinaccio, A

    2009-01-01

    This article covers the general behaviour of a straight uniform pipe, with built-in open ends, subject to internal pressure and in plane bending or curvature. It is intended as a summary of the basic equations driving the unintuitive phenomena of bending and instability of pipes under internal pressure. The analysis covers in addition the investigation of opposite pressure stabilisation effects that can be observed in some orthotropic material pipes like composite pressure hoses.

  9. slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  10. Slice of a LEP bending magnet

    CERN Document Server

    This is a slice of a LEP dipole bending magnet, made as a concrete and iron sandwich. The bending field needed in LEP is small (about 1000 Gauss), equivalent to two of the magnets people stick on fridge doors. Because it is very difficult to keep a low field steady, a high field was used in iron plates embedded in concrete. A CERN breakthrough in magnet design, LEP dipoles can be tuned easily and are cheaper than conventional magnets.

  11. Three Moments in Jewish Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Goltzberg

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available I would like to thank the following people for having proofread my text: Noémie Benchimol, Shemuel Lampronti and Georges-Elia Sarfati. The purpose of this article is to offer a new periodization of Jewish philosophy and to reflect on the definition of Jewish philosophy. It will therefore deal with the characteristic style of each Jewish philosophy rather than with their content. I shall identify three moments in the history of Jewish philosophy: the Arab moment, the German moment, and the an...

  12. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  13. A transparent bending-insensitive pressure sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sungwon; Reuveny, Amir; Reeder, Jonathan; Lee, Sunghoon; Jin, Hanbit; Liu, Qihan; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Isoyama, Takashi; Abe, Yusuke; Suo, Zhigang; Someya, Takao

    2016-05-01

    Measuring small normal pressures is essential to accurately evaluate external stimuli in curvilinear and dynamic surfaces such as natural tissues. Usually, sensitive and spatially accurate pressure sensors are achieved through conformal contact with the surface; however, this also makes them sensitive to mechanical deformation (bending). Indeed, when a soft object is pressed by another soft object, the normal pressure cannot be measured independently from the mechanical stress. Here, we show a pressure sensor that measures only the normal pressure, even under extreme bending conditions. To reduce the bending sensitivity, we use composite nanofibres of carbon nanotubes and graphene. Our simulations show that these fibres change their relative alignment to accommodate bending deformation, thus reducing the strain in individual fibres. Pressure sensitivity is maintained down to a bending radius of 80 μm. To test the suitability of our sensor for soft robotics and medical applications, we fabricated an integrated sensor matrix that is only 2 μm thick. We show real-time (response time of ∼20 ms), large-area, normal pressure monitoring under different, complex bending conditions.

  14. Design and tolerance analysis of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber using statistical design methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Erps, Jürgen; Debaes, Christof; Nasilowski, Tomasz; Watté, Jan; Wojcik, Jan; Thienpont, Hugo

    2008-03-31

    We present the design of a low bending loss hole-assisted fiber for a 180?-bend fiber socket application, including a tolerance analysis for manufacturability. To this aim, we make use of statistical design methodology, combined with a fully vectorial mode solver. Two resulting designs are presented and their performance in terms of bending loss, coupling loss to Corning SMF-28 standard telecom fiber, and cut-off wavelength is calculated.

  15. New Equation for Bending Development of Arbitrary Rods and Application to Palm Fronds Bending

    CERN Document Server

    Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2016-01-01

    A new general equation to explain bending of arbitrary rods (from arbitrary materials, cross sections, densities, strengthnesses, bending angles, etc) was proposed. This equation can solve several problems found in classical equations, which have many limitations such as only applies for small bending angles or must be solved using very complex schemes. Experiments were also conducted to confirm the theoretical predictions. The equation might be used to explain bending of palm fronds in a very simple way. The proposed equation may be used to obtain solution of several problems which are usually obtain with iteration procedures.

  16. Moment methods in extremal geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Laat, D.

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis we develop techniques for solving problems in extremal geometry. We give an infinite dimensional generalization of moment techniques from polynomial optimization. We use this to construct semidefinite programming hierarchies for approximating optimal packing densities and ground state

  17. Radiation reaction of multipole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2007-08-01

    A Poincaré-invariant description is proposed for the effective dynamics of a localized system of charged particles in classical electrodynamics in terms of the intrinsic multipole moments of the system. A relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments of a system of charged particles is given. A new generally covariant action functional for a relativistic perfect fluid is proposed. In the case of relativistic charged dust, it is proven that the description of the problem of radiation reaction of multipole moments by the model of particles is equivalent to the description of this problem by a hydrodynamic model. An effective model is obtained for a pointlike neutral system of charged particles that possesses an intrinsic dipole moment, and the free dynamics of this system is described. The bound momentum of a point dipole is found.

  18. Face recognition using Krawtchouk moment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J Sheeba Rani; D Devaraj

    2012-08-01

    Feature extraction is one of the important tasks in face recognition. Moments are widely used feature extractor due to their superior discriminatory power and geometrical invariance. Moments generally capture the global features of the image. This paper proposes Krawtchouk moment for feature extraction in face recognition system, which has the ability to extract local features from any region of interest. Krawtchouk moment is used to extract both local features and global features of the face. The extracted features are fused using summed normalized distance strategy. Nearest neighbour classifier is employed to classify the faces. The proposed method is tested using ORL and Yale databases. Experimental results show that the proposed method is able to recognize images correctly, even if the images are corrupted with noise and possess change in facial expression and tilt.

  19. FROM ENERGY IMPROVEMENT TO ACCURACY ENHANCEMENT:IMPROVEMENT OF PLATE BENDING ELEMENTS BY THE COMBINED HYBRID METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-ping Xie

    2004-01-01

    By following the geometric point of view in mechanics, a novel expression of the combined hybrid method for plate bending problems is introduced to clarify its intrinsic mechanism of enhancing coarse-mesh accuracy of conforming or nonconforming plate elements.By adjusting the combination parameter α∈ (0, 1) and adopting appropriate bending moments modes, reduction of energy error for the discretized displacement model leads to enhanced numerical accuracy. As an application, improvement of Adini's rectangle is discussed. Numerical experiments show that the combined hybrid counterpart of Adini's element is capable of attaining high accuracy at coarse meshes.

  20. World Focus on the Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2008-01-01

    @@ Chinese people would never for-get the moment-14:28, on May 12, 2008, as the 8.0-magnitude earthquake shook the whole of Sichuan; at that moment the world's at-tention was focused on the southwest of China - the homeland of the Giant Panda. This rare yet catastrophic natural disaster has resulted in the heavy loss of lives and property throughout the region.

  1. Maximizing your teaching moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your own demeanor. This includes adopting the right tone of voice and making the appropriate amount of eye contact (based on cultural needs). It is also important to refrain from judgment and not rushing the ...

  2. Analysis of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressor by actuator disk theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical model was developed for predicting the onset of supersonic stall bending flutter in axial-flow compressors. The analysis is based on two-dimensional, compressible, unsteady actuator disk theory. It is applied to a rotor blade row by considering a cascade of airfoils. The effects of shock waves and flow separation are included in the model. Calculations show that the model predicts the onset, in an unshrouded rotor, of a bending flutter mode that exhibits many of the characteristics of supersonic stall bending flutter. The validity of the analysis for predicting this flutter mode is demonstrated.

  3. Efficient analysis and design of low-loss whispering-gallery-mode coupled resonator optical waveguide bends

    CERN Document Server

    Pishko, Svetlana V; Benson, Trevor M; Boriskina, Svetlana V

    2007-01-01

    Waveguides composed of electromagnetically-coupled optical microcavities (coupled resonator optical waveguides or CROWs) can be used for light guiding, slowing and storage. In this paper, we present a two-dimensional analysis of finite-size straight and curved CROW sections based on a rigorous Muller boundary integral equations method. We study mechanisms of the coupling of whispering gallery (WG) modes and guiding light around bends in CROWs composed of both identical and size-mismatched microdisk resonators. Our accurate analysis reveals differences in WG modes coupling in the vicinity of bends in CROWs composed of optically-large and wavelength-scale microcavities. We propose and discuss possible ways to design low-loss CROW bends and to reduce bend losses. These include selecting specific bend angles depending on the azimuthal order of the WG mode and tuning the radius of the microdisk positioned at the CROW bend.

  4. Bend-insensitive optical fibers for FTTH applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming-Jun

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews recent development in bend-insensitive fibers for fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) applications. First, requirements for bend-insensitive fibers are discussed. Then different design approaches for reducing fiber bending loss are described and compared. A new bend-insensitive fiber using the nano-engineered ring design is presented in detail.

  5. Elastoswellability: Will it bend or will it buckle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Douglas; Pandey, Anupam

    2013-03-01

    Soft mechanical structures such as biological tissues and gels exhibit motion, instabilities, and large morphological changes when subjected to external stimuli. Swelling is a robust approach for inducing structural change as it occurs naturally in humid environments and can be easily adapted for industrial design. Small volumes of fluid that interact favorably with a material can cause large, dramatic, and geometrically nonlinear deformations including beam bending, plate buckling, and surface wrinkling. In this talk we address an overarching question regarding swelling-induced deformations: will the structural change occur globally, or will it be confined to the material's surface? We introduce a materials and geometry defined transition point that describes a fluid-structure's characteristic ``elastoswellability'' lengthscale. By locally swelling unconstrained slender beams and plates with solvents of varying solubility, we identify a transition between local surface wrinkling and global structural bending.

  6. Negative bending mode curvature via Robin boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Samuel D. M.; Craster, Richard V.; Guenneau, Sébastien

    2009-06-01

    We examine the band spectrum, and associated Floquet-Bloch eigensolutions, arising in straight walled acoustic waveguides that have periodic structure along the guide. Homogeneous impedance (Robin) conditions are imposed along the guide walls and we find that in certain circumstances, negative curvature of the lowest (bending) mode can be achieved. This is unexpected, and has not been observed in a variety of physical situations examined by other authors. Further unexpected properties include the existence of the bending mode only on a subset of the Brillouin zone, as well as permitting otherwise unobtainable velocities of energy transmission. We conclude with a discussion of how such boundary conditions might be physically reproduced using effective conditions and homogenization theory, although the methodology to achieve these effective conditions is an open problem. To cite this article: S.D.M. Adams et al., C. R. Physique 10 (2009).

  7. Inquiry-Based Science: Turning Teachable Moments into Learnable Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Berit S.

    2014-02-01

    This study examines how an inquiry-based approach to teaching and learning creates teachable moments that can foster conceptual understanding in students, and how teachers capitalize upon these moments. Six elementary school teachers were videotaped as they implemented an integrated inquiry-based science and literacy curriculum in their classrooms. In this curriculum, science inquiry implies that students search for evidence in order to make and revise explanations based on the evidence found and through critical and logical thinking. Furthermore, the curriculum material is designed to address science key concepts multiple times through multiple modalities (do it, say it, read it, write it). Two types of teachable moments were identified: planned and spontaneous. Results suggest that the consolidation phases of inquiry, when students reinforce new knowledge and connect their empirical findings to theory, can be considered as planned teachable moments. These are phases of inquiry during which the teacher should expect, and be prepared for, student utterances that create opportunities to further student learning. Spontaneous teachable moments are instances when the teacher must choose to either follow the pace of the curriculum or adapt to the students' need. One implication of the study is that more teacher support is required in terms of how to plan for and effectively utilize the consolidation phases of inquiry.

  8. The effect of chain bending on the photophysical properties of conjugated polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hestand, Nicholas J; Spano, Frank C

    2014-07-17

    The impact of chain bending on the photophysical properties of emissive conjugated polymers (CPs) is studied theoretically using Holstein-style Hamiltonians which treat vibronic coupling involving the ubiquitous vinyl/ring stretching mode nonadiabatically. The photophysical impact of chain bending is already evident at the level of an effective Frenkel Hamiltonian, where the positive exciton band curvature in CPs translates to negative excitonic coupling between monomeric units, as in J-aggregates. It is shown that the absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectral line shapes respond very differently to chain bending. The misalignment of monomeric transition dipole moments with bending selectively attenuates the 0-0 PL peak intensity while leaving the 0-1 intensity practically unchanged, a property which is ultimately due to the uniquely coherent nature of the 0-0 peak. Hence, the 0-0/0-1 PL ratio, as well as the radiative decay rate, decrease with chain bending, effects that are more pronounced at lower temperatures where exciton coherence extends over a larger portion of the chain. Increasing temperature and/or static disorder reduces the exciton coherence number, Ncoh, thereby reducing the sensitivity to bending. In marked contrast, the absorption vibronic progression is far less sensitive to morphological changes, even at low temperatures, and is mainly responsive to the exciton bandwidth. The above results also hold when using a more accurate 1D semiconductor Hamiltonian which allows for electron-hole separation along the CP chain. The findings may suggest unique ways of controlling the radiative properties of conjugated polymer chains useful in applications such as organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and low-temperature sensors.

  9. [2](1,3)Adamantano[2](2,7)pyrenophane: A Hydrocarbon with a Large Dipole Moment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Paul; Wagner, J Philipp; Balestrieri, Ciro; Becker, Jonathan; Hausmann, Heike; Bodwell, Graham J; Schreiner, Peter R

    2016-08-01

    The fusion of the sp(3) -hybridized parent diamondoid adamantane with the sp(2) -hybridized pyrene results in a hybrid structure with a very large dipole moment which arises from bending the pyrene moiety. Presented herein is the synthesis, study of the electronic and optical properties, as well as the dynamic behavior of this new hydrocarbon.

  10. Performance of Object Classification Using Zernike Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ariffuddin Joret; Mohammad Faiz Liew Abdullah; Muhammad Suhaimi Sulong; Asmarashid Ponniran; Siti Zuraidah Zainudin

    2014-01-01

    Moments have been used in all sorts of object classification systems based on image. There are lots of moments studied by many researchers in the area of object classification and one of the most preference moments is the Zernike moment. In this paper, the performance of object classification using the Zernike moment has been explored. The classifier based on neural networks has been used in this study. The results indicate the best performance in identifying the aggregate is at 91.4% with a ten orders of the Zernike moment. This encouraging result has shown that the Zernike moment is a suitable moment to be used as a feature of object classification systems.

  11. Pure plate bending in couple stress theories

    CERN Document Server

    Hadjesfandiari, Ali R; Dargush, Gary F

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the pure bending of plates within the framework of modified couple stress theory (M-CST) and consistent couple stress theory (C-CST). In this development, it is demonstrated that M-CST does not describe pure bending of a plate properly. Particularly, M-CST predicts no couple-stresses and no size effect for the pure bending of the plate into a spherical shell. This contradicts our expectation that couple stress theory should predict some size effect for such a deformation pattern. Therefore, this result clearly demonstrates another inconsistency of indeterminate symmetric modified couple stress theory (M-CST), which is based on considering the symmetric torsion tensor as the curvature tensor. On the other hand, the fully determinate skew-symmetric consistent couple stress theory (C-CST) predicts results for pure plate bending that tend to agree with mechanics intuition and experimental evidence. Particularly, C-CST predicts couple-stresses and size effects for the pure bending of the ...

  12. Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang-Ning, Pan; Jun, He; Mao-Fa, Fang

    2016-07-01

    The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic-semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quantum interference effect occurs in the metallic-metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61401153) and the Natural Science Foundation of Hunan Province, China (Grant Nos. 2015JJ2050 and 14JJ3126).

  13. Tunable thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘长宁; 何军; 方卯发

    2016-01-01

    The ballistic thermoelectric properties in bended graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are systematically investigated by using atomistic simulation of electron and phonon transport. We find that the electron resonant tunneling effect occurs in the metallic–semiconducting linked ZZ-GNRs (the bended GNRs with zigzag edge leads). The electron-wave quan-tum interference effect occurs in the metallic–metallic linked AA-GNRs (the bended GNRs with armchair edge leads). These different physical mechanisms lead to the large Seebeck coefficient S and high electron conductance in bended ZZ-GNRs/AA-GNRs. Combined with the reduced lattice thermal conduction, the significant enhancement of the figure of merit ZT is predicted. Moreover, we find that the ZTmax (the maximum peak of ZT) is sensitive to the structural parameters. It can be conveniently tuned by changing the interbend length of bended GNRs. The magnitude of ZT ranges from the 0.15 to 0.72. Geometry-controlled ballistic thermoelectric effect offers an effective way to design thermoelectric devices such as thermocouples based on graphene.

  14. Estimation of bending wave intensity in beams using the frequency response technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linjama, J.; Lahti, T.

    1992-02-01

    The frequency response approach is applied to the measurement of bending wave intensity, with two or four accelerometers being used. Based on the known structural intensity equations, a comprehensive set of frequency domain expressions is derived for power measurements in a beam. A practical procedure is developed for the general four-transducer method, which allows a usual dual channel FFT analyzer to be employed in multi-channel measurements. The procedure uses the sequential frequency response technique, and is applicable if the situation remains stationary during the data acquisition. In addition, expressions are derived for the determination of the force- and moment-related bending wave power components separately. In a laboratory experiment, the power carried by bending waves was measured in a simple beam, and the methods developed were tested and compared. The frequency response approach was shown to work well in detecting the total power. The estimation of the two bending wave power components, both in the near and the far field, was also demonstrated.

  15. The Lenin Moment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available After tracing the path taken by the Partido dos Trabalhadores (Workers’ Party to the Presidency of Brazil, Francisco de Oliveira describes how the first years of the PT adminstration, which continued on the same footing as the previous government, relate to a broader context characterized by the consequences of the ascendancy of finance capital: the impossibility of hegemony due to the increasing chasm between rich and poor; the decomposition of class bases, including that of the bourgeoisie due to the antagonism between financial and industrial capital; emergent populism; and finally the incorporation of parties and politics into the State, even as the economy and daily life are increasingly privatized.

  16. Matrix elements from moments of correlation functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bouchard, Chris; Orginos, Kostas; Richards, David

    2016-01-01

    Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer $Q^2$ for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. This method permits the computation of not only the values of matrix elements at momenta accessible on the lattice, but also the momentum-space derivatives, providing {\\it a priori} information about the $Q^2$ dependence of form factors. As a specific application we use the method, at a single lattice spacing and with unphysically heavy quarks, to directly obtain the slope of the isovector form factor at various $Q^2$, whence the isovector charge radius. The method has potential application in the calculation of any hadronic matrix element with momentum transfer, including those relevant to hadronic weak decays.

  17. Matrix elements from moments of correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia Cheng [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Bouchard, Chris [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Orginos, Konstantinos [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Richards, David G. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Momentum-space derivatives of matrix elements can be related to their coordinate-space moments through the Fourier transform. We derive these expressions as a function of momentum transfer Q2 for asymptotic in/out states consisting of a single hadron. We calculate corrections to the finite volume moments by studying the spatial dependence of the lattice correlation functions. This method permits the computation of not only the values of matrix elements at momenta accessible on the lattice, but also the momentum-space derivatives, providing {\\it a priori} information about the Q2 dependence of form factors. As a specific application we use the method, at a single lattice spacing and with unphysically heavy quarks, to directly obtain the slope of the isovector form factor at various Q2, whence the isovector charge radius. The method has potential application in the calculation of any hadronic matrix element with momentum transfer, including those relevant to hadronic weak decays.

  18. Torsion and antero-posterior bending in the in vivo human tibia loading regimes during walking and running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peng-Fei; Sanno, Maximilian; Ganse, Bergita; Koy, Timmo; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Müller, Lars Peter; Rittweger, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    Bending, in addition to compression, is recognized to be a common loading pattern in long bones in animals. However, due to the technical difficulty of measuring bone deformation in humans, our current understanding of bone loading patterns in humans is very limited. In the present study, we hypothesized that bending and torsion are important loading regimes in the human tibia. In vivo tibia segment deformation in humans was assessed during walking and running utilizing a novel optical approach. Results suggest that the proximal tibia primarily bends to the posterior (bending angle: 0.15°-1.30°) and medial aspect (bending angle: 0.38°-0.90°) and that it twists externally (torsion angle: 0.67°-1.66°) in relation to the distal tibia during the stance phase of overground walking at a speed between 2.5 and 6.1 km/h. Peak posterior bending and peak torsion occurred during the first and second half of stance phase, respectively. The peak-to-peak antero-posterior (AP) bending angles increased linearly with vertical ground reaction force and speed. Similarly, peak-to-peak torsion angles increased with the vertical free moment in four of the five test subjects and with the speed in three of the test subjects. There was no correlation between peak-to-peak medio-lateral (ML) bending angles and ground reaction force or speed. On the treadmill, peak-to-peak AP bending angles increased with walking and running speed, but peak-to-peak torsion angles and peak-to-peak ML bending angles remained constant during walking. Peak-to-peak AP bending angle during treadmill running was speed-dependent and larger than that observed during walking. In contrast, peak-to-peak tibia torsion angle was smaller during treadmill running than during walking. To conclude, bending and torsion of substantial magnitude were observed in the human tibia during walking and running. A systematic distribution of peak amplitude was found during the first and second parts of the stance phase.

  19. Radiation reaction for multipole moments

    CERN Document Server

    Kazinski, P O

    2006-01-01

    We propose a Poincare-invariant description for the effective dynamics of systems of charged particles by means of intrinsic multipole moments. To achieve this goal we study the effective dynamics of such systems within two frameworks -- the particle itself and hydrodynamical one. We give a relativistic-invariant definition for the intrinsic multipole moments both pointlike and extended relativistic objects. Within the hydrodynamical framework we suggest a covariant action functional for a perfect fluid with pressure. In the case of a relativistic charged dust we prove the equivalence of the particle approach to the hydrodynamical one to the problem of radiation reaction for multipoles. As the particular example of a general procedure we obtain the effective model for a neutral system of charged particles with dipole moment.

  20. Monte Carlo Volcano Seismic Moment Tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waite, G. P.; Brill, K. A.; Lanza, F.

    2015-12-01

    Inverse modeling of volcano seismic sources can provide insight into the geometry and dynamics of volcanic conduits. But given the logistical challenges of working on an active volcano, seismic networks are typically deficient in spatial and temporal coverage; this potentially leads to large errors in source models. In addition, uncertainties in the centroid location and moment-tensor components, including volumetric components, are difficult to constrain from the linear inversion results, which leads to a poor understanding of the model space. In this study, we employ a nonlinear inversion using a Monte Carlo scheme with the objective of defining robustly resolved elements of model space. The model space is randomized by centroid location and moment tensor eigenvectors. Point sources densely sample the summit area and moment tensors are constrained to a randomly chosen geometry within the inversion; Green's functions for the random moment tensors are all calculated from modeled single forces, making the nonlinear inversion computationally reasonable. We apply this method to very-long-period (VLP) seismic events that accompany minor eruptions at Fuego volcano, Guatemala. The library of single force Green's functions is computed with a 3D finite-difference modeling algorithm through a homogeneous velocity-density model that includes topography, for a 3D grid of nodes, spaced 40 m apart, within the summit region. The homogenous velocity and density model is justified by long wavelength of VLP data. The nonlinear inversion reveals well resolved model features and informs the interpretation through a better understanding of the possible models. This approach can also be used to evaluate possible station geometries in order to optimize networks prior to deployment.

  1. Effect of Induction Heat Bending Process on the Properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C Carbon Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Tae; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hyun Young; Oh, Young Jin [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Recently, the bending process is greatly applied to fabricate the pipe line. Bending process can reduce welding joints and then decrease the number of inspection. Thus, the maintenance cost will be reduced. Induction heat bending process is composed of bending deformation by repeated local heat and cooling. By this thermal process, corrosion properties and microstructure can be affected. This work focused on the effect of induction heating bending process on the properties of ASME SA106 Gr. C low carbon steel pipes. Microstructure analysis, hardness measurements, and immersion corrosion test were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. Hardness was measured using a Rockwell B scale. Induction heat bending process has influenced upon the size and distribution of ferrite and pearlite phases which were transformed into finer structure than those of base metal. Even though the fine microstructure, every bent area showed a little lower hardness than that of base metal. It is considered that softening by the bending process may be arisen. Except of I2, intrados area, the others showed a similar corrosion rate to that of base metal. But even relatively high rate of intrados area was very low and acceptable. Therefore, it is judged that induction heat bending process didn't affect boric acid corrosion behaviour of carbon steel.

  2. Immediate effect of valgus bracing on knee joint moments in meniscectomised patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorning, Maria; Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Roos, Ewa M;

    2016-01-01

    -dimensional analysis of gait, forward lunge and one-leg rise during two conditions: with and without a valgus unloader knee brace. Outcome measures included the peak and impulse of the knee adduction moment and the peak knee flexion moment. RESULTS: The peak knee flexion moment increased during brace condition...

  3. Method of moments in electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Walton C

    2007-01-01

    Responding to the need for a clear, up-to-date introduction to the field, The Method of Moments in Electromagnetics explores surface integral equations in electromagnetics and presents their numerical solution using the method of moments (MOM) technique. It provides the numerical implementation aspects at a nuts-and-bolts level while discussing integral equations and electromagnetic theory at a higher level. The author covers a range of topics in this area, from the initial underpinnings of the MOM to its current applications. He first reviews the frequency-domain electromagnetic theory and t

  4. Neutron star moments of inertia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenhall, D. G.; Pethick, C. J.

    1994-01-01

    An approximation for the moment of inertia of a neutron star in terms of only its mass and radius is presented, and insight into it is obtained by examining the behavior of the relativistic structural equations. The approximation is accurate to approximately 10% for a variety of nuclear equations of state, for all except very low mass stars. It is combined with information about the neutron-star crust to obtain a simple expression (again in terms only of mass and radius) for the fractional moment of inertia of the crust.

  5. The solution of minimum reliability index for modified weak point of arbitrary curved beam under pure bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper is based on the fundamental loading model of pure bending and the analytical model of a circular beam element with arbitrary initial deflection. The L.W. Guo solution is modified and generalized according to the elastic theory, and the analytical solution for the stress of the beam element with arbitrary initial deflection under pure bending is derived. Using yield theory of edge strength, an expression for the safety margin of one point in the arbitrary curved beam under pure bending (ACPB) is built. This paper modifies the model for weak points of service structures and establishes a foundation for safe design and inspection of imperfect structures. Also, according to the theory of the method of advanced first-order second-moment(AFOSM), this paper derives an expression for the reliability index of one point in ACPB. Lastly, it modifies the solution for weak points by solving the minimal reliability index.

  6. Nuclear electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states in Xe and Ba isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshinaga, N.; Higashiyama, K.; Arai, R.; Teruya, E.

    2014-04-01

    The electric dipole moments for the lowest 1/2+ states of Xe and Ba isotopes are calculated in terms of the nuclear shell model, which includes two-body nucleon interactions violating parity and time-reversal invariance. Using the wave functions thus obtained, the nuclear electric dipole moments arising from the intrinsic nucleon electric dipole moments and also from asymmetric charge distribution are calculated. The upper limits for the nuclear electric dipole moments of Xe and Ba isotopes are estimated.

  7. Nickel multilayers and their effects on bend fatigue strength of leads

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Feihua; WANG Zhanhua; SHEN Zhuoshen

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is commonly coated on the outer leads for T8 metal package. The leads electrodeposited by conventional dull or bright nickel over 5 μm at direct current from Watt bath are hard to pass the bend fatigue test for three times. Nickel electrodeposited at multi waveform current including direct current, single and double pulse from sulfamate bath can improve the bend fatigue strength of leads. Such nickel plating has a multilayer structure, its morphology of sublayers can be clearly seen in its cross section with SEM. The electrochemical study shows that these sublayers have different corrosion potentials. The bend fatigue test of leads with such plating for T8 metal package shows that the number of bend increases with the decrease of average current density of multi waveform, which can be attributed to the reduction of every sublayer thickness and the increase of layer numbers under the same condition of total thickness.

  8. J-integral in the description of fatigue crack growth rate induced by different ratios of torsion to bending Loading in AlCu4Mg1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rozumek, D.; Macha, E. [Opole University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Machine Design, Opole (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    The paper presents the results of tests on fatigue crack growth under proportional torsion with bending in AlCu4Mg1 aluminium alloy. Specimens with rectangular cross-sections and stress concentrator in the form of external one-sided sharp notch were used. The tests were performed under the different ratios of torsion to bending moments. The results of the experimental tests have been described by a nonlinear formula based on {delta}J-integral range. The tests have shown that the change of ratio of torsion to bending moments from 0.58 to 1.73 caused an increase in crack growth rate. It has been shown that at the constant loading and the change of stress ratio (R) from - 1 to 0, the fatigue crack growth rate also increases. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  9. Tubular lining material for pipelines having bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moringa, A.; Sakaguchi, Y.; Hyodo, M.; Yagi, I.

    1987-03-24

    A tubular lining material for pipelines having bends or curved portions comprises a tubular textile jacket made of warps and wefts woven in a tubular form overlaid with a coating of a flexible synthetic resin. It is applicable onto the inner surface of a pipeline having bends or curved portions in such manner that the tubular lining material with a binder onto the inner surface thereof is inserted into the pipeline and allowed to advance within the pipeline, with or without the aid of a leading rope-like elongated element, while turning the tubular lining material inside out under fluid pressure. In this manner the tubular lining material is applied onto the inner surface of the pipeline with the binder being interposed between the pipeline and the tubular lining material. The lining material is characterized in that a part of all of the warps are comprised of an elastic yarn around which, over the full length thereof, a synthetic fiber yarn or yarns have been left-and/or right-handedly coiled. This tubular lining material is particularly suitable for lining a pipeline having an inner diameter of 25-200 mm and a plurality of bends, such as gas service pipelines or house pipelines, without occurrence of wrinkles in the lining material in a bend.

  10. Aerosol deposition in bends with turbulent flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McFarland, A.R.; Gong, H.; Wente, W.B. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)] [and others

    1997-08-01

    The losses of aerosol particles in bends were determined numerically for a broad range of design and operational conditions. Experimental data were used to check the validity of the numerical model, where the latter employs a commercially available computational fluid dynamics code for characterizing the fluid flow field and Lagrangian particle tracking technique for characterizing aerosol losses. Physical experiments have been conducted to examine the effect of curvature ratio and distortion of the cross section of bends. If it curvature ratio ({delta} = R/a) is greater than about 4, it has little effect on deposition, which is in contrast with the recommendation given in ANSI N13.1-1969 for a minimum curvature ratio of 10. Also, experimental results show that if the tube cross section is flattened by 25% or less, the flattening also has little effect on deposition. Results of numerical tests have been used to develop a correlation of aerosol penetration through a bend as a function of Stokes number (Stk), curvature ratio ({delta}) and the bend angle ({theta}). 17 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Inelastic Deformation Analysis of Aluminum Bending Members

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ming; SHI Yongjiu; WANG Yuanqing

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum alloys are typical nonlinear materials, and consequently bending members made of this material exhibit a nonlinear behavior. Most design codes do not pay much attention to such deformations and adopt a simple linear analysis for the calculation of deflections. This paper presents an investigation of the nonlinear deformation of aluminum bending members using the finite-element analysis (FEA). The plastic adaptation coefficient, which can be used to limit the residual deflection, is introduced, and the influence of residual deflection is investigated. A method for evaluating the plastic adoption coefficient is proposed. This paper also shows the load-deflection curve of aluminum bending members and the influence of several parameters. A semi-empirical formula is derived, and some numerical examples are given by FEA. The coefficients of the semi-empirical formula are modified by the FEA results using the nonlinear fitting method. Based on these results, two improved design methods for strength and deformation of aluminum bending members are proposed. Through the comparison with test data, these methods are proved to be suitable for structural design.

  12. Probing the elastic limit of DNA bending

    CERN Document Server

    Le, Tung T

    2014-01-01

    Many structures inside the cell such as nucleosomes and protein-mediated DNA loops contain sharply bent double-stranded (ds) DNA. Therefore, the energetics of strong dsDNA bending constitutes an essential part of cellular thermodynamics. Although the thermomechanical behavior of long dsDNA is well described by the worm-like chain (WLC) model, the length limit of such elastic behavior remains controversial. To investigate the energetics of strong dsDNA bending, we measured the opening rate of small dsDNA loops with contour lengths of 40-200 bp using Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). From the measured relationship of loop stability to loop size, we observed a transition between two separate bending regimes at a critical loop size below 100 bp. Above this loop size, the loop lifetime decreased with decreasing loop size in a manner consistent with an elastic bending stress. Below the critical loop size, however, the loop lifetime became less sensitive to loop size, indicative of softening of the doub...

  13. Fuzzy model for Laser Assisted Bending Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannini Oliviero

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a fuzzy model was developed to predict the residual bending in a conventional metal bending process assisted by a high power diode laser. The study was focused on AA6082T6 aluminium thin sheets. In most dynamic sheet metal forming operations, the highly nonlinear deformation processes cause large amounts of elastic strain energy stored in the formed material. The novel hybrid forming process was thus aimed at inducing the local heating of the mechanically bent workpiece in order to decrease or eliminate the related springback phenomena. In particular, the influence on the extent of springback phenomena of laser process parameters such as source power, scan speed and starting elastic deformation of mechanically bent sheets, was experimentally assessed. Consistent trends in experimental response according to operational parameters were found. Accordingly, 3D process maps of the extent of the springback phenomena according to operational parameters were constructed. The effect of the inherent uncertainties on the predicted residual bending caused by the approximation in the model parameters was evaluated. In particular, a fuzzy-logic based approach was used to describe the model uncertainties and the transformation method was applied to propagate their effect on the residual bending.

  14. Spring-back deformation in tube bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-xin E; Hua-hui He; Xiao-yi Liu; Ru-xin Ning

    2009-01-01

    The spring-back of a bending metal tube was studied through extensive experiments and finite element method (FEM) analysis. An approximate equation for the spring-back angle of bending was deduced. It is noted that the mechanical properties of the material (in a tubular form) are quite different from those found in the standard tensile tests (when the materials are in bar forms). This is one of the major reasons that result in the discrepancies in the outcomes of experimental study, FEM calculations, and spring-back analysis. It is therefore of crucial importance to study the mechanical properties of the materials in their tubular forms. The experiments and FEM simulations prove that the spring-back angle is significantly affected by the mechanical properties of the materials. The angle decreases accordingly with plastic modulus, but changes inversely with the hardening index and elastic modulus. The spring-back angle is also affected by the conditions of tube deformation: it increases accordingly with the relative bending radius but changes inversely with the relative wall thickness. In addition, the spring-back angle increases nonlinearly with the bending an-gle.

  15. Finger-jointed beams in bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Lotte; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1997-01-01

    An investigation of the dynamic and static fatique of finger-jointed beams in bending was carried out. Results were obtained for five different frequencies from static loading to a load cycle period of two minutes. A total of seven series were long-term tested and five series were short-term tested...

  16. Monitoring the Bending Stiffness of DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chongli; Lou, Xiongwen; Rhoades, Elizabeth; Chen, Huimin; Archer, Lynden

    2007-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the accessibility of genomic sequences provides an inherent regulation mechanism for gene expression through variations in bending stiffness encoded by the nucleic acid sequence. Cyclization of dsDNA is the prevailing method for determining DNA bending stiffness. Recent cyclization data for short dsDNA raises several fundamental questions about the soundness of the cyclization method, particularly in cases where the probability of highly bent DNA conformations is low. We herein evaluate the role of T4 DNA ligase in the cyclization reaction by inserting an environmental sensitive base analogue, 2-amino purine, to the DNA molecule. By monitoring the 2-AP fluorescence under standard cyclization conditions, it is found that in addition to trapping highly-bent cyclic DNA conformations, T4 DNA ligase enhances the apparent base pair flip out rate, thus exaggerating the measured flexibility. This result is further confirmed using fluorescence anisotropy experiments. We show that fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) measurements on suitably labeled dsDNA provides an alternative approach for quantifying the bending stiffness of short fragments. DNA bending stiffness results obtained using FRET are compared with literature values.

  17. Demonstration model of LEP bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1981-01-01

    To save iron and raise the flux density, the LEP bending magnet laminations were separated by spacers and the space between the laminations was filled with concrete. This is a demonstration model, part of it with the spaced laminations only, the other part filled with concrete.

  18. Effect of dexamethasone on mandibular bone biomechanics in rats during the growth phase as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computerized tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzini, Clarisa; Champin, Graciela; Alippi, Rosa M; Bozzini, Carlos E

    2015-04-01

    Long-term glucocorticoid administration to growing rats induces osteopenia and alterations in the biomechanical behavior of the bone. This study was performed to estimate the effects of dexamethasone (DTX), a synthetic steroid with predominant glucocorticoid activity, on the biomechanical properties of the mandible of rats during the growth phase, as assessed by bending test and peripheral quantitative computed tomographic (pQCT) analysis. The data obtained by the two methods will provide more precise information when analyzed together than separately. Female rats aged 23 d (n=7) received 500μg.kg-1 per day of DXT for 4 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, their body weight and body length were 51.3% and 20.6% lower, respectively, than controls. Hemimandible weight and area (an index of mandibular size) were 27.3% and 9.7% lower, respectively. The right hemimandible of each animal was subjected to a mechanical 3-point bending test. Significant weakening of the bone, as shown by a correlative impairment of strength and stiffness, was observed in experimental rats. Bone density and cross-sectional area were measured by pQCT. Cross-sectional, cortical and trabecular areas were reduced by 20% to 30% in the DTX group, as were other cortical parameters, including the bone density, mineral content and cross-sectional moment of inertia. The "bone strength index" (BSI, the product of the pQCT-assessed xCSMI and vCtBMD) was 56% lower in treated rats, which compares well with the 54% and 52% reduction observed in mandibular strength and stiffness determined through the bending test. Data suggest that the corticosteroid exerts a combined, negative action on bone geometry (mass and architecture) and volumetric bone mineral density of cortical bone, which would express independent effects on both cellular (material quality) and tissue (cross-sectional design) levels of biological organization of the skeleton in the species.

  19. Anomalous magnetic moment of anyons

    CERN Document Server

    Gat, G; Gat, Gil; Ray, Rashmi

    1994-01-01

    The anomalous magnetic moment of anyons is calculated to leading order in a 1/N expansion. It is shown that the gyromagnetic ratio g remains 2 to the leading order in 1/N. This result strongly supports that obtained in \\cite{poly}, namely that g=2 is in fact exact.

  20. Quiet Moment around the Campfire

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-18

    Byron Breedlove reads his essay, "Quiet Moment around the Campfire," about the art of Frederic Remington and the transmission of pathogens as frontiers expand.  Created: 6/18/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 6/19/2014.

  1. Updating neutrino magnetic moment constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Canas, B C; Parada, A; Tortola, M; Valle, J W F

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we provide an updated analysis of the neutrino magnetic moments (NMMs), discussing both the constraints on the magnitudes of the three transition moments Lambda_i as well as the role of the CP violating phases present both in the mixing matrix and in the NMM matrix. The scattering of solar neutrinos off electrons in Borexino provides the most stringent restrictions, due to its robust statistics and the low energies observed, below 1 MeV. Our new limit on the effective neutrino magnetic moment which follows from the most recent Borexino data is 3.1 x 10^-11 mu_B at 90% C.L. This corresponds to the individual transition magnetic moment constraints: |Lambda_1| < 5.6 x10^-11 mu_B, |Lambda_2| < 4.0 x 10^-11 mu_B, and |Lambda_3| < 3.1 x 10^-11 mu_B (90% C.L.), irrespective of any complex phase. Indeed, the incoherent admixture of neutrino mass eigenstates present in the solar flux makes Borexino insensitive to the Majorana phases present in the NMM matrix. For this reason we also provide a gl...

  2. Moment of Inertia by Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizcallah, Joseph A.

    2015-01-01

    The calculation of the moment of inertia of an extended body, as presented in standard introductory-level textbooks, involves the evaluation of a definite integral--an operation often not fully mastered by beginners, let alone the conceptual difficulties it presents, even to the advanced student, in understanding and setting up the integral in the…

  3. Particle electric dipole-moments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendlebury, J.M. [Sussex Univ., Brighton (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    The incentive to detect particle electric dipole-moments, as a window on time-reversal violation, remains undiminished. Efforts to improve the measurements for the neutron, the electron and some nuclei are still making rapid progress as more powerful experimental methods are brought to bear. A new measurement for the neutron at ILL is presented. (author). 7 refs.

  4. Searching for electric dipole moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jungmann, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Searches for a permanent Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of a fundamental particle provide a wide window for the discovery of potential New Physics. Within todays Standard Model in particle physics the well established violation of CP symmetry gives rise to EDMs which are several orders of magnitude be

  5. Experimental Characterization of Stretch-Bending Formability of AHSS Sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitting, Daniela; Ofenheimer, Aldo; Pauli, Heinrich; Till, Edwin T.

    2011-05-01

    Deformation conditions of combined stretching and bending are known to enhance material formability compared to forming conditions without bending (e.g. in-plane stretching). These phenomena can be observed for most conventional steel grades but is even more pronounced for Advanced High Strength Steel (AHSS) sheets. Consequently, there is an urgent need in industry to quantify the phenomena of enhanced material formability due to bending effects. In this work new stretch-bend test setups are presented which can be used in addition to the conventional Angular Stretch Bend Test to systematically investigate the influence of various stretch-bending deformation conditions on the formability of AHSS sheets.

  6. The Dependency of Nematic and Twist-bend Mesophase Formation on Bend Angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandle, Richard J.; Archbold, Craig T.; Sarju, Julia P.; Andrews, Jessica L.; Goodby, John W.

    2016-11-01

    We have prepared and studied a family of cyanobiphenyl dimers with varying linking groups with a view to exploring how molecular structure dictates the stability of the nematic and twist-bend nematic mesophases. Using molecular modelling and 1D 1H NOESY NMR spectroscopy, we determine the angle between the two aromatic core units for each dimer and find a strong dependency of the stability of both the nematic and twist-bend mesophases upon this angle, thereby satisfying earlier theoretical models.

  7. Geologic map of Big Bend National Park, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Kenzie J.; Berry, Margaret E.; Page, William R.; Lehman, Thomas M.; Bohannon, Robert G.; Scott, Robert B.; Miggins, Daniel P.; Budahn, James R.; Cooper, Roger W.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Anderson, Eric D.; Williams, Van S.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this map is to provide the National Park Service and the public with an updated digital geologic map of Big Bend National Park (BBNP). The geologic map report of Maxwell and others (1967) provides a fully comprehensive account of the important volcanic, structural, geomorphological, and paleontological features that define BBNP. However, the map is on a geographically distorted planimetric base and lacks topography, which has caused difficulty in conducting GIS-based data analyses and georeferencing the many geologic features investigated and depicted on the map. In addition, the map is outdated, excluding significant data from numerous studies that have been carried out since its publication more than 40 years ago. This report includes a modern digital geologic map that can be utilized with standard GIS applications to aid BBNP researchers in geologic data analysis, natural resource and ecosystem management, monitoring, assessment, inventory activities, and educational and recreational uses. The digital map incorporates new data, many revisions, and greater detail than the original map. Although some geologic issues remain unresolved for BBNP, the updated map serves as a foundation for addressing those issues. Funding for the Big Bend National Park geologic map was provided by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program and the National Park Service. The Big Bend mapping project was administered by staff in the USGS Geology and Environmental Change Science Center, Denver, Colo. Members of the USGS Mineral and Environmental Resources Science Center completed investigations in parallel with the geologic mapping project. Results of these investigations addressed some significant current issues in BBNP and the U.S.-Mexico border region, including contaminants and human health, ecosystems, and water resources. Funding for the high-resolution aeromagnetic survey in BBNP, and associated data analyses and

  8. Moment of truth for CMS

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    One of the first events reconstructed in the Muon Drift Tubes, the Hadron Calorimeter and elements of the Silicon Tracker (TK) at 3 Tesla. The atmosphere in the CMS control rooms was electric. Everbody was at the helm for the first full-scale testing of the experiment. This was a crunch moment for the entire collaboration. On Tuesday, 22 August the magnet attained almost its nominal power of 4 Tesla! At the same moment, in a tiny improvised control room, the physicists were keyed up to test the entire detector system for the first time. The first cosmic ray tracks appeared on their screens in the week of 15 August. The tests are set to continue for several weeks more until the first CMS components are lowered into their final positions in the cavern.

  9. Thermal Analysis of Bending Under Tension Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, Ermanno; Martins, Paulo A.F.; Bay, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The tribological conditions in deep drawing can be simulated in the Bending Under Tension test to evaluate the performance of new lubricants, tool materials, etc. Deep drawing production with automatic handling runs normally at high rate. This implies considerable heating of the tools, which...... sometimes can cause lubricant film breakdown and galling. In order to replicate the production conditions in bending under tension testing it is thus important to control the tool/workpiece interface temperature. This can be done by pre-heating the tool, but it is essential that the interface temperature...... during testing is similar to the one in the production tool. A universal sheet tribo-tester has been developed, which can run multiple tests automatically from coil. This allows emulating the temperature increase as in production. The present work performs finite element analysis of the evolution...

  10. Approach to hot bending process simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmignani, B.; Daneri, A.; Toselli, G. [ENEA, Bologna (Italy). Centro Ricerche Energia `E. Clementel` - Area Energia e Innovazione

    1995-06-01

    An approach to the simulation of the thermal shaping or bending of large steel sheets, by ABAQUS/Standard code, will be presented. A thermal source representation, which can produce a temperature distribution, adequate to the processes which must be considered, has been set up. Some problems connected with the hot sheet shaping or bending process simulation have been approached and calculations have been executed in order to single out how to perform the sheet heating, so that the required sheet shape may be obtained. The results for one reference model for different source situations and one heating line, object of the first phase of the analyses performed, will be presented and discussed. The work will be presented at the 8th International Abaqus Users` Conference at Paris, 31 May - 2 June 1995.

  11. Parallel monostrand stay cable bending fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan Pawel

    of damage and replacement of bridge stay cables due to wind and traffic-induced fatigue. The understanding of fatigue mechanisms in most steel structures is well established. However, in the case of cables composed of steel strands, many important aspects related with bending fatigue remain to be clarified......This dissertation investigates the bending fatigue response of high-strength steel monostrands and multistrand stay cables to cyclic transverse deformations. Increasing bridge stock numbers and a push for longer cable-supported span lengths have led to an increased number of reported incidents...... associated with variable loading, and different testing procedures. As most of the contemporary stay cables are comprised of a number of individual highstrength steel monostrands, the research study started with an extensive experimental work on the fatigue response of a single monostrand to cyclic flexural...

  12. Rock bending creep and disturbance effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志亮; 郑颖人; 刘元雪

    2008-01-01

    The bending creep and its disturbance effects of red sandstone rock beam and oil shale rock beam were studied by adopting the self-developed gravitation level style rock creep test machine and bending creep test system,and the constitutive equations were established.It is found that fracture morphology of rock beams under no disturbance load is regular,cracking position of fractures is on part of loading concentration,the crack starts from a neutral plane.However,fracture morphology of rock beams under disturbance load is irregular,cracking position of fractures deviates from a neutral plane.Delayed instability of rock beam occurs for some time under constant disturbance load.When disturbance load is beyond a certain range,suddenly instability of occurs rock beam in a certain time.The results show that there is a guiding significance for creep stability in the geotechnical engineering fields.

  13. Hydrodynamic processes in sharp meander bends and their morphological implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blanckaert, K.

    2011-01-01

    The migration rate of sharp meander bends exhibits large variance and indicates that some sharply curved bends tend to stabilize. These observations remain unexplained. This paper examines three hydrodynamic processes in sharp bends with fixed banks and discusses their morphological implications: se

  14. Big Bend National Park, TX, USA, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Sierra del Carmen of Mexico, across the Rio Grande River from Big Bend National Park, TX, (28.5N, 104.0W) is centered in this photo. The Rio Grande River bisects the scene; Mexico to the east, USA to the west. The thousand ft. Boquillas limestone cliff on the Mexican side of the river changes colors from white to pink to lavender at sunset. This severely eroded sedimentary landscape was once an ancient seabed later overlaid with volcanic activity.

  15. Electron cooling device without bending magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapa, A. N.; Shemyakin, A. V.

    1993-11-01

    The scheme of an axisymmetric electron cooling device without bending magnets is proposed. Solutions for the most important elements, i.e., a gun and a recuperator, are considered. The main characteristics of the recuperator of the Faraday cup type having a reflector and a gun with a ring emitter are explored. In the gun, the beam is formed, the diameter of which is 40 mm and the dimension of a disturbance region is several millimeters.

  16. Drag Reduction, from Bending to Pruning

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Diego; Michelin, Sébastien; de Langre, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Most plants and benthic organisms have evolved efficient reconfiguration mechanisms to resist flow-induced loads. These mechanisms can be divided into bending, in which plants reduce their sail area through elastic deformation, and pruning, in which the loads are decreased through partial breakage of the structure. In this work, we show by using idealized models that these two mechanisms or, in fact, any combination of the two, are equally efficient to reduce the drag experienced by terrestrial and aquatic vegetation.

  17. AA, assembly of wide bending magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets; BST, short and wide; BLG, long and narrow). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see the copper coils being hoisted onto the lower half of a BST. See also 7811105, 8006050. For a BLG, see 8001044.

  18. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). The wide ones had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. Here we see a wooden model, built in 1978, to gain dimensional experience with such a monster.

  19. SYMPLECTIC SOLUTION SYSTEM FOR REISSNER PLATE BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟岸; 隋永枫

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Hellinger-Reissner variatonal principle for Reissner plate bending and introducing dual variables, Hamiltonian dual equations for Reissner plate bending were presented. Therefore Hamiltonian solution system can also be applied to Reissner plate bending problem, and the transformation from Euclidian space to symplectic space and from Lagrangian system to Hamiltonian system was realized. So in the symplectic space which consists of the original variables and their dual variables, the problem can be solved via effective mathematical physics methods such as the method of separation of variables and eigenfunction-vector expansion. All the eigensolutions and Jordan canonical form eigensolutions for zero eigenvalue of the Hamiltonian operator matrix are solved in detail,and their physical meanings are showed clearly. The adjoint symplectic orthonormal relation of the eigenfunction vectors for zero eigenvalue are formed. It is showed that the all eigensolutions for zero eigenvalue are basic solutions of the Saint-Venant problem and they form a perfect symplectic subspace for zero eigenvalue. And the eigensolutions for nonzero eigenvalue are covered by the Saint-Venant theorem. The symplectic solution method is not the same as the classical semi- inverse method and breaks through the limit of the traditional semi-inverse solution. The symplectic solution method will have vast application.

  20. Multiculturalism, Gender and Bend it Like Beckham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal Abdel-Shehid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we explore the efficacy of sport as an instrument for social inclusion through an analysis of the film Bend it Like Beckham. The film argues for the potential of sport to foster a more inclusive society in terms of multiculturalism and gender equity by showing how a hybrid culture can be forged through the microcosm of an English young women’s football club, while simultaneously challenging assumptions about traditional masculinities and femininities. Yet, despite appearances, Bend it Like Beckham does little to challenge the structure of English society. Ultimately, the version of multiculturalism offered by the film is one of assimilation to a utopian English norm. This conception appears progressive in its availability to all Britons regardless of ethnicity, but falls short of conceptions of hybrid identity that do not privilege one hegemonic culture over others. Likewise, although the film presents a feminist veneer, underneath lurks a troubling reassertion of the value of chastity, masculinity, and patriarchy. Bend it Like Beckham thus provides an instructive case study for the potential of sport as a site of social inclusion because it reveals how seductive it is to imagine that structural inequalities can be overcome through involvement in teams.

  1. Rotation, scaling, and translation invariant local watermarking technique with Krawtchouk moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhang; Weiwei Xiao; Gongbin Qian; Zhen Ji

    2007-01-01

    A rotation, scaling, and translation invariant local watermarking is proposed with one or two Krawtchouk moment(s) of the original to estimate the geometric distortion parameters including rotation angle, scaling factor, and translation parameter. Krawtchouk moments can be used as private key of watermark extractor.Watermark is inserted into perceptually significant Krawtchouk moments of original, and watermark based on Krawtchouk moments is local. Independent component analysis (ICA) is utilized to extract watermark blindly. Experimental results show that this method has a good robustness against distortions preformed by watermark benchmark Stirmark.

  2. Breather statics and dynamics in Klein-Gordon chains with a bend.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, J; Kevrekidis, P G

    2004-05-01

    In this paper, we examine a nonlinear model with an impurity emulating a bend. We justify the geometric interpretation of the model and connect it with earlier work on models including geometric effects. We focus on both the bifurcation and stability analysis of the modes that emerge as a function of the strength of the bend angle, but we also examine dynamical effects including the scattering of mobile localized modes (discrete breathers) off of such a geometric structure. The potential outcomes of such numerical experiments (including transmission, trapping within the bend as well as reflection) are highlighted and qualitatively explained. Such models are of interest both theoretically in understanding the interplay of breathers with curvature, but also practically in simple models of photonic crystals or of bent chains of DNA.

  3. Nuclear Quadrupole Moments and Nuclear Shell Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, C. H.; Foley, H. M.; Low, W.

    1950-06-23

    Describes a simple model, based on nuclear shell considerations, which leads to the proper behavior of known nuclear quadrupole moments, although predictions of the magnitudes of some quadrupole moments are seriously in error.

  4. Bending of a uniformly loaded square plate resting on unilateral edge supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yos Sompornjaroensuk

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this paper are to analyze the bending behaviors of unilaterally simply supported square plate subjected to the uniformly distributed load, and to examine the extent of receding contacts between the plate and the unilateral supports. In the present problem the mixed boundary conditions exist along the plate edges, which can be written in the form of dual series equations. These equations are further reduced to determine the solution of inhomogeneous Fredholmintegral equation of the second kind for an unknown auxiliary function by using the finite Hankel integral transform techniques.Numerical results concerning the extent of receding contact, deflection, bending moment, twisting moment, and support reaction of the plate are given and also compared with the results obtained by other available techniques. From investigations, the conclusions can be stated that (i the method used is found to be efficient for solving the problem considered, (ii the extent of contact is independent of the level of loading, but dependent on the values of Poisson’s ratio of the plate, and (iii the support reactions are proportional to the applied load.

  5. 77 FR 36012 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application; Notice of Intent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant Combined License Application; Notice of Intent... its Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP) site, located west of the existing Susquehanna Steam... by relocating the power block footprint and other plant components. For purposes of developing...

  6. 78 FR 4465 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0... Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant... (RCOL) application for UniStar's Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3 (CCNPP3). The......

  7. 76 FR 81992 - PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-29

    ... COMMISSION PPL Bell Bend, LLC; Combined License Application for Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0..., Certifications, and Approvals for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This reactor is to be identified as Bell Bend Nuclear Power Plant (BBNPP), in Salem County, Pennsylvania. The BBNPP COL application incorporates by...

  8. Recent developments in bend-insensitive and ultra-bend-insensitive fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boivin, David; de Montmorillon, Louis-Anne; Provost, Lionel; Montaigne, Nelly; Gooijer, Frans; Aldea, Eugen; Jensma, Jaap; Sillard, Pierre

    2010-02-01

    Designed to overcome the limitations in case of extreme bending conditions, Bend- and Ultra-Bend-Insensitive Fibers (BIFs and UBIFs) appear as ideal solutions for use in FTTH networks and in components, pigtails or patch-cords for ever demanding applications such as military or sensing. Recently, however, questions have been raised concerning the Multi-Path-Interference (MPI) levels in these fibers. Indeed, they are potentially subject to interferences between the fundamental mode and the higher-order mode that is also bend resistant. This MPI is generated because of discrete discontinuities such as staples, bends and splices/connections that occur on distance scales that become comparable to the laser coherent length. In this paper, we will demonstrate the high MPI tolerance of all-solid single-trench-assisted BIFs and UBIFs. We will present the first comprehensive study combining theoretical and experimental points of view to quantify the impact of fusion splices on coherent MPI. To be complete, results for mechanical splices will also be reported. Finally, we will show how the single-trench- assisted concept combined with the versatile PCVD process allows to tightly control the distributions of fibers characteristics. Such controls are needed to massively produce BIFs and to meet the more stringent specifications of the UBIFs.

  9. Improvement for design of beam structures in large vibrating screen considering bending and random vibration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭利平; 刘初升; 宋宝成; 武继达; 王帅

    2015-01-01

    Demand for large vibrating screen is huge in the mineral processing industry. As bending and random vibration are not considered in a traditional design method for beam structures of a large vibrating screen, fatigue damage occurs frequently to affect the screening performance. This work aims to conduct a systematic mechanics analysis of the beam structures and improve the design method. Total motion of a beam structure in screening process can be decomposed into the traditional followed rigid translation (FRT), bending vibration (BV) and axial linear-distributed random rigid translation (ALRRT) excited by the side-plates. When treated as a generalized single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) elastic system analytically, the BV can be solved by the Rayleigh’s method. Stochastic analysis for random process is conducted for the detailed ALRRT calculation. Expressions for the mechanics property, namely, the shearing force and bending-moment with respect to BV and ALRRT, are derived, respectively. Experimental and numerical investigations demonstrate that the largest BV exists at the beam center and can be nearly ignored in comparison with the FRT during a simplified engineering design. With the BV and FRT considered, the mechanics property accords well with the practical situation with the maximum error of 6.33%, which is less than that obtained by traditional method.

  10. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Zhao-xian

    2016-01-15

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  11. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Lerose, Damiana; Bochmann, Arne; Christiansen, Silke H; Nietzsche, Sandor; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten

    2011-05-06

    Ion beams can be used to permanently bend and re-align nanowires after growth. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with energetic ions, achieving bending and alignment in different directions. Not only the bending of single nanowires is studied in detail, but also the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires. Computer simulations reveal how the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Detailed structural characterization identifies dislocations to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent, even surviving annealing procedures.

  12. Permanent bending and alignment of ZnO nanowires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borschel, Christian; Spindler, Susann; Oertel, Michael; Ronning, Carsten [Institut fuer Festkoerperphysik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Lerose, Damiana [MPI fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle/Saale (Germany); Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Bochmann, Arne [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); Christiansen, Silke H. [Institut fuer Photonische Technologien, Albert-Einstein-Strasse 9, 07745 Jena (Germany); MPI fuer die Physik des Lichts, Guenther-Scharowsky-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Nietzsche, Sandor [Zentrum fuer Elektronenmikroskopie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet Jena, Ziegelmuehlenweg 1, 07743 Jena (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Ion beams can be used to bend or re-align nanowires permanently, after they have been grown. We have irradiated ZnO nanowires with ions of different species and energy, achieving bending and alignment in various directions. We study the bending of single nanowires as well as the simultaneous alignment of large ensembles of ZnO nanowires in detail. Computer simulations show that the bending is initiated by ion beam induced damage. Dislocations are identified to relax stresses and make the bending and alignment permanent and resistant against annealing procedures.

  13. Tunable waveguide bends with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao-xian; Chen, Ze-guo; Ming, Yang; Wu, Ying; Lu, Yan-qing

    2016-02-01

    We design tunable waveguide bends filled with graphene-based anisotropic metamaterials to achieve a nearly perfect bending effect. The anisotropic properties of the metamaterials can be described by the effective medium theory. The nearly perfect bending effect is demonstrated by finite element simulations of various structures with different bending curvatures and shapes. This effect is attributed to zero effective permittivity along the direction of propagation and matched effective impedance at the interfaces between the bending part and the dielectric waveguides. We envisage that the design will be applicable in the far-infrared and terahertz frequency ranges owing to the tunable dielectric responses of graphene.

  14. On the bending algorithms for soft objects in flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guckenberger, Achim; Schraml, Marcel P.; Chen, Paul G.; Leonetti, Marc; Gekle, Stephan

    2016-10-01

    One of the most challenging aspects in the accurate simulation of three-dimensional soft objects such as vesicles or biological cells is the computation of membrane bending forces. The origin of this difficulty stems from the need to numerically evaluate a fourth order derivative on the discretized surface geometry. Here we investigate six different algorithms to compute membrane bending forces, including regularly used methods as well as novel ones. All are based on the same physical model (due to Canham and Helfrich) and start from a surface discretization with flat triangles. At the same time, they differ substantially in their numerical approach. We start by comparing the numerically obtained mean curvature, the Laplace-Beltrami operator of the mean curvature and finally the surface force density to analytical results for the discocyte resting shape of a red blood cell. We find that none of the considered algorithms converges to zero error at all nodes and that for some algorithms the error even diverges. There is furthermore a pronounced influence of the mesh structure: Discretizations with more irregular triangles and node connectivity present serious difficulties for most investigated methods. To assess the behavior of the algorithms in a realistic physical application, we investigate the deformation of an initially spherical capsule in a linear shear flow at small Reynolds numbers. To exclude any influence of the flow solver, two conceptually very different solvers are employed: the Lattice-Boltzmann and the Boundary Integral Method. Despite the largely different quality of the bending algorithms when applied to the static red blood cell, we find that in the actual flow situation most algorithms give consistent results for both hydrodynamic solvers. Even so, a short review of earlier works reveals a wide scattering of reported results for, e.g., the Taylor deformation parameter. Besides the presented application to biofluidic systems, the investigated

  15. Defining moments in leadership character development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleich, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Critical moments in life define one's character and clarify true values. Reflective leadership is espoused as an important practice for transformational leaders. Professional development educators can help surface and explore defining moments, strengthen leadership behavior with defining moments as a catalyst for change, and create safe spaces for leaders to expand their leadership capacity.

  16. On the interpretation of the support moment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hof, AL

    2000-01-01

    It has been suggested by Winter (J. Biomech. 13 (1980) 923-927) that the 'support moment', the sum of the sagittal extension moments, shows less variability in walking than any of the joint moments separately. A simple model is put forward to explain this finding. It is proposed to reformulate the d

  17. Optical guiding and beam bending in free-electron lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scharlemann, E.T.

    1987-01-01

    The electron beam in a free-electron laser (FEL) can act as an optical fiber, guiding or bending the optical beam. The refractive and gain effects of the bunched electron beam can compensate for diffraction, making possible wigglers that are many Rayleigh ranges (i.e., characteristic diffraction lengths) long. The origin of optical guiding can be understood by examining gain and refractive guiding in a fiber with a complex index of refraction, providing a mathematical description applicable also to the FEL, with some extensions. In the exponential gain regime of the FEL, the electron equations of motion must be included, but a self-consistent description of exponential gain with diffraction fully included becomes possible. The origin of the effective index of refraction of an FEL is illustrated with a simple example of bunched, radiating dipoles. Some of the properties of the index of refraction are described. The limited experimental evidence for optical beam bending is summarized. The evidence does not yet provide conclusive proof of the existence of optical guiding, but supports the idea. Finally, the importance of refractive guiding for the performance of a high-gain tapered-wiggler FEL amplifier is illustrated with numerical simulations.

  18. A study on springback of bending linear flow split profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, P.; Taplick, C.; Özel, M.; Groche, P.

    2016-11-01

    The bending of linear flow split profiles made up of high strength materials involves high bending loads leading to high springback and geometrical defects. In addition, the linear flow split profiles are made stronger due to the high plastic deformation applied by the process itself. The bending method proposed in this paper combines the linear flow splitting process with a movable bending tool. The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of superimposed stresses exerted by the linear flow splitting process on bending load and springback of the profile by using a finite element model. The latter was validated by means of experimental results. The results show that the bending loads and the springback were reduced by increasing the superposition of stress applied by the linear flow splitting process. The reduction in the bending loads leads to a reduction in the cross-sectional distortion. Furthermore, the springback was compensated by controlling the amount of superimposed stress.

  19. Fermion Dipole Moment and Holography

    CERN Document Server

    Kulaxizi, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    In the background of a charged AdS black hole, we consider a Dirac particle endowed with an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment. For non-zero charge and dipole coupling of the bulk fermion, we find that the dual boundary theory can be plagued with superluminal modes. Requiring consistency of the dual CFT amounts to constraining the strength of the dipole coupling by an upper bound. We briefly discuss the implications of our results for the physics of holographic non-Fermi liquids.

  20. Experimental review on moment analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Calvi, M

    2003-01-01

    Moments of photon energy spectrum in B->Xs gamma decays, of hadronic mass spectrum and of lepton energy spectrum in B->Xc l nu decays are sensitive to the masses of the heavy quarks as well as to the non-perturbative parameters of the heavy quark expansion. Several measurements have been performed both at the Upsilon(4S) resonance and at Z0 center of mass energies. They provide constraints on the non-perturbative parameters, give a test of the consistency of the theoretical predictions and of the underlying assumptions and allow to reduce the indetermination in the |Vcb| extraction.

  1. Investigation of load effect on macro-bend losses for an SMS fiber structure with a small bend radius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmah, Fitri; Sekartedjo, Sekartedjo; Hatta, Agus Muhamad

    2016-11-01

    Modelling of load effect on macro-bend losses for a singlemode-multimode-singlemode (SMS) fiber structure with small bend radius is presented. Load effect on macro-bend losses for the SMS fiber structure placed between two high-density polyethylene (HDPE) boards are investigated theoretically and experimentally. A model on macro-bend losses for SMS fiber structure is constructed by using the light transmission formula in a straight SMS fiber structure and taking into account the effective number of guided modes due to the macrobending. In the experimental, a mandrel with a diameter of 0.8 mm is used to induce the bend. When the loads are applied on the system, the mandrel will affect the bend losses for the SMS fiber structure. It is shown numerically and experimentally that the bend-loss of SMS fiber structure strongly depends on the applied loads and the multimode fiber (MMF) lengths.

  2. Anomalous bending effect in photonic crystal fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Haohua; Jiang, Zhi; Marks, Daniel L; Boppart, Stephen A

    2008-04-14

    An unexpected transmission loss up to 50% occurs to intense femtosecond pulses propagating along an endlessly single-mode photonic crystal fiber over a length of 1 m. A specific leaky-fiber mode gains amplification along the fiber at the expense of the fundamental fiber mode through stimulated four-wave mixing and Raman scattering, leading to this transmission loss. Bending near the fiber entrance dissipates the propagating seed of this leaky mode, preventing the leaky mode amplification and therefore enhancing the transmission of these pulses.

  3. Light bending in $f(T)$ gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ruggiero, Matteo Luca

    2016-01-01

    In the framework of $f(T)$ gravity, we focus on a weak-field and spherically symmetric solution for the Lagrangian $f(T)=T+\\alpha T^{2}$, where $\\alpha$ is a small constant which parameterizes the departure from General Relativity. In particular, we study the propagation of light and obtain the correction to the general relativistic bending angle. Moreover, we discuss the impact of this correction on some gravitational lensing observables, and evaluate the possibility of constraining the theory parameter $\\alpha$ by means of observations.

  4. Wooden Model of Wide AA Bending Magnet

    CERN Multimedia

    1978-01-01

    The very particular lattice of the AA required 2 types of dipoles (bending magnets: BLG, long and narrow; BST, short and wide). A wide one had a steel length of 2.71 m, a "good field" width of 0.564 m, and a weight of about 75 t. A wooden model was build in 1978, to gain dimensional experience. Here, Peter Zettwoch, one of the largest men at CERN at that time, is putting a hand in the mouth of the wooden BST monster.

  5. Extension versus Bending for Continuum Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Grimes

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we analyze the capabilities of a novel class of continuous-backbone ("continuum" robots. These robots are inspired by biological "trunks, and tentacles". However, the capabilities of established continuum robot designs, which feature controlled bending but not extension, fall short of those of their biological counterparts. In this paper, we argue that the addition of controlled extension provides dual and complementary functionality, and correspondingly enhanced performance, in continuum robots. We present an interval-based analysis to show how the inclusion of controllable extension significantly enhances the workspace and capabilities of continuum robots.

  6. Finite element simulations of the bending of the IPMC sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugal, D.; Kasemägi, H.; Kim, K. J.; Kruusmaa, M.; Aabloo, A.

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents a electro-mechanical model of an IPMC sheet. The model is developed using Finite Element method. The physical bending of an IPMC sheet due to the drift of counter-ions (e.g Na+) and water in applied electric field are simulated. Our model establishes a cause-effect relationship between the charge imbalance of the counter-ions and the mechanical bending of the IPMC sheet. The model takes into account the mechanical properties of the Nafion polymer as well as the platinum coating. As the simulations are time dependent, a transient model is used and some additional parameters, such as damping coefficients, are included. In addition to electro-mechanical model, electrochemical reactions are introduced. Equations describing periodic adsorption and desorption of CO and OH on a platinum electrode of an IPMC muscle immersed into formaldehyde solution are coupled to mechanical properties of the proposed model. This permits us to simulate self-oscillatory behavious of an IPMC sheet. The simulation results are compared to experimental data.

  7. Moment-to-moment dynamics of ADHD behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aase Heidi

    2005-08-01

    learning long behavioural sequences may ultimately lead to deficient development of verbally governed behaviour and self control. The study represents a new approach to analyzing the moment-to-moment dynamics of behaviour, and provides support for the theory that reinforcement processes are altered in ADHD.

  8. A mixed problem of plate bending for doubly connected domains with partially unknown boundaries in the presence of cyclic symmetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Odishelidze; N; Criado-Aldeanueva; F

    2010-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of plate bending for a doubly connected body with outer and inner boundaries in the form of regular polygons with a common center and parallel sides.The neighborhoods of the vertices of the inner boundary are equal full-strength smooth arcs symmetric about the rays coming from the vertices to the center,but have unknown positions.Rigid bars are attached to the linear parts of the boundary.The plate bends by the moments applied to the middle point bars.The unknown arcs are free from external stresses.The same problem of plate bending is considered for a regular hexagon weakened by a full-strength hole.Using the methods of complex analysis,the analytical image of Kolosov-Muskhelishvili’s complex potentials (characterizing an elastic equilibrium of the body),the plate deflection and unknown parts of its boundary are determined under the condition that the tangential normal moment on that plate takes a constant value.Numerical analyses are also performed and the corresponding graphs are constructed.

  9. A ten year Moment Tensor database for Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpetsidaki, Anna; Sokos, Efthimios; Tselentis, G.-Akis

    2016-10-01

    Moment Tensors (MTs) provide important information for seismotectonic, stress distribution and source studies. It is also important as a real time or near real time information in shakemaps, tsunami warning, and stress transfer. Therefore a reliable and rapid MT computation is a routine task for modern seismic networks with broadband sensors and real-time digital telemetry. In this paper we present the database of Moment Tensor solutions computed during the last ten years in Western Greece by the University of Patras, Seismological Laboratory (UPSL). The data from UPSL broad band network were used together with the ISOLA Moment Tensor inversion package for routine MT calculation. The procedures followed and the comparison of UPSL derived solutions with the ones provided by other agencies for Western Greece region are presented as well. The Moment Tensor database includes solutions for events in the magnitude range 2.8-6.8 and provides a unique insight into the faulting characteristics of Western Greece. Moreover it paves the way for detailed studies of stress tensor and stress transfer. The weak events' Moment Tensor included in UPSL's database are important for the comprehension of local seismotectonics and reveal the role of minor faults, which may be critical in seismic hazard estimation.

  10. Effects of stem structure and cell wall components on bending strength in wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Morphological traits, anatomical features, chemical components and bending stress in the stems of three genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), namely Xiaoyan54, 8602 and Xiaoyan81, were examined by means of light microscopy coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Noticeable changes in morphological and anatomical traits were observed, including outer radius of stem, the ratio of stem outer radius to stem wall thickness, various tissue proportions and variations among different types of vascular bundles. The results of chemical analysis revealed that Xiaoyan81 had the highest cellulose content in comparison with Xiaoyan54 and 8602, whereas lignin level in Xiaoyan81 was lower than that in 8602 but higher that that in Xiaoyan54. Bending stress analysis demonstrated that Xiaoyan81 may be the main target for identification, for it had the highest bending stress among the stems of three genotypes. Associated with bending stress, all the results presented here suggested that the ratio of stem wall thickness to its outer radius, schlerenchyma tissue proportion, the average number of big VB per unit and the cellulose content are four important factors affecting the mechanical strength of Xiaoyan81 wheat stems, which can be considered as the key parameters for selecting varieties with bending stress. Therefore, it was suggested that in the selection of lodging resistant cultivars one should consider those characterized with large ratio of outer radius of stem to stem wall thickness, greaterschlerenchyma tissue proportion, high average number of big VB per unit with high cellulose content in their stems.

  11. Harmonic moment dynamics in Laplacian growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leshchiner, Alexander; Thrasher, Matthew; Mineev-Weinstein, Mark B; Swinney, Harry L

    2010-01-01

    Harmonic moments are integrals of integer powers of z=x+iy over a domain. Here, the domain is an exterior of a bubble of air growing in an oil layer between two horizontal closely spaced plates. Harmonic moments are a natural basis for such Laplacian growth phenomena because, unlike other representations, these moments linearize the zero surface tension problem [S. Richardson, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 609 (1972)], so that all moments except the lowest one (the area of the bubble) are conserved in time. In our experiments, we directly determine the harmonic moments and show that for nonzero surface tension, all moments (except the lowest one) decay in time rather than exhibiting the divergences of other representations. Further, we derive an expression that relates the derivative of the k(th) harmonic moment M(k) to measurable quantities (surface tension, viscosity, the distance between the plates, and a line integral over the contour encompassing the growing bubble). The laboratory observations are in good accord with the expression we derive for dM(k)/dt , which is proportional to the surface tension; thus in the zero surface tension limit, the moments (above k=0) are all conserved, in accord with Richardson's theory. In addition, from the measurements of the time evolution of the harmonic moments we obtain a value for the surface tension that is within 20% of the accepted value. In conclusion, our analysis and laboratory observations demonstrate that an interface dynamics description in terms of harmonic moments is physically realizable and robust.

  12. Bending strain tolerance of MgB2 superconducting wires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kováč, P.; Hušek, I.; Melišek, T.; Kulich, M.; Kopera, L.

    2016-04-01

    This work describes the strain tolerance of MgB2 superconductors subjected to variable bending stresses. Bending of MgB2 wire was done at room temperature in different modes: (i) direct bending of straight annealed samples to variable diameters and by (ii) indirect bending by straightening of bent and annealed samples. I c-bending strain characteristics of samples made by in situ PIT and by the internal magnesium diffusion (IMD) process were measured at 4.2 K. The results show a good agreement between the direct and indirect bending mode, which allows easier estimation of limits important for the winding process of MgB2 superconductors with brittle filaments. A comparison of MgB2 wires made by in situ PIT and IMD processes showed improved strain tolerance for IMD due to better grain connectivity the low annealing temperature, which does not appear to reduce the mechanical strength of sheath material.

  13. Reduction Bending of Thin Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Lan-xian; LIU Zu-ming; LIAO Hua; TU Jie-lei; DENG Shu-kang

    2009-01-01

    Reported are the results of reduction the bending of thin crystalline silicon solar ceils after printing and sintering of back electrode by changing the back electrode paste and adjusting the screen printing parameters without effecting the electrical properties of the cell. Theory and experiments showed that the bending of the cell is changed with its thickness of suhstrate, the thinner cell, the more serious bending. The bending of the cell is decreased with the thickness decrease of the back contact paste. The substrate with the thickness of 190μm printing with sheet aluminum paste shows a relatively lower bend compared with that of the substrate printing with ordinary aluminum paste, and the minimum bend is 0.55 mm which is reduced by52%.

  14. Flexible bending of aluminum profiles with polyurethane pad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Zhu-bin; LIU Gang; WANG Zhong-ren

    2006-01-01

    The high flexibility of profile bending with hyperelastic pad enables it to be a promising method for small lot or single part production, especially for space frame and roof-rail parts in automotive and aerospace industries. Bending of two aluminum profiles with different sections was carried out to investigate the effect of main process parameters on the bending process. Results show that the shape of the cross-section and its relative thickness and section modulus in bending are the main factors that determine the bending properties of the profiles. Roller stroke, properties of polyurethane pad and constraints on profiles are key factors that determine the bending radius and section deformation of bent profiles. Failures and quality problems met in experiments were also analyzed.

  15. An analysis of thermal stress and gas bending effects on vibrations of compressor rotor stages. [blade torsional rigidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L.-T.; Dugundji, J.

    1979-01-01

    A preliminary study conducted by Kerrebrock et al. (1976) has shown that the torsional rigidity of untwisted thin blades of a transonic compressor can be reduced significantly by transient thermal stresses. The aerodynamic loads have various effects on blade vibration. One effect is that gas bending loads may result in a bending-torsion coupling which may change the characteristics of the torsion and bending vibration of the blade. For a general study of transient-temperature distribution within a rotor stage, a finite-element heat-conduction analysis was developed. The blade and shroud are divided into annular elements. With a temperature distribution obtained from the heat-conduction analysis and a prescribed gas bending load distribution along the blade span, the static deformation and moment distributions of the blade can be solved iteratively using the finite-element method. The reduction of the torsional rigidity of pretwisted blades caused by the thermal stress effect is then computed. The dynamic behavior of the blade is studied by a modified Galerkin's method.

  16. Bending testing and characterization of surrogate nuclear fuel rods made of Zircaloy-4 cladding and aluminum oxide pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wang, Jy-An John

    2016-10-01

    Behavior of surrogate nuclear fuel rods made of Zircaloy-4 (Zry-4) cladding with alumina pellets under reversed cyclic bending was studied. Tests were performed under load or moment control at 5 Hz. The surrogate rods fractured under moment amplitudes greater than 10.16 Nm with fatigue lives between 2.4 × 103 and 2.2 × 106 cycles. Fatigue response of Zry-4 cladding was characterized by using flexural rigidity. Degradation of flexural rigidity was shown to depend on the moment and the prefatigue condition of specimens. Pellet-to-pellet interface (PPI), pellet-to-cladding interface (PCI), and pellet condition affect surrogate rod failure. Both debonding of PPI/PCI and pellet fracturing contribute to surrogate rod bending fatigue. The effect of sensor spacing on curvature measurement using three-point deflections was studied; the method based on effective gauge length is effective in sensor spacing correction. The database developed and the understanding gained in this study can serve as input to analysis of SNF (spent nuclear fuel) vibration integrity.

  17. BEND3 mediates transcriptional repression and heterochromatin organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abid; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2015-01-01

    Transcription repression plays a central role in gene regulation. Transcription repressors utilize diverse strategies to mediate transcriptional repression. We have recently demonstrated that BEND3 (BANP, E5R and Nac1 domain) protein represses rDNA transcription by stabilizing a NoRC component. We discuss the role of BEND3 as a global regulator of gene expression and propose a model whereby BEND3 associates with chromatin remodeling complexes to modulate gene expression and heterochromatin organization.

  18. INVESTIGATION INTO THE SPRINGBACK OF PIPE BENDING USING INDUCTION HEATING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Stresses and deformation states of pipe bending are investigated under loading or unloading with various pipe materials, size, bending radius and deformation temperature. A theorem of springback of large diameter pipe bending is presented. The experiments are carried out with pipe materials of 20, 10CrMo910 and 12Cr1MoV steel. Results of computations are in good agreement with experiments.

  19. Consideration on longitudinal bending moment in waves of a large high-speed ship; Ogata kosokutei no haro tatemage moment ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deguchi, M.; Takimoto, T.; Kasuda, T.; Tozawa, S. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-04-10

    While high-speed ships are on a trend of increased speed, size and diversity, one of the most important items is a discussion on large high-speed ships with a total length of 100 m class on their longitudinal strength in waves. With such a background, a model ship intended of realizing a large high-speed was assumed, and verification of reliability in structural strength and establishment of a design method for this ship were intended. Therefore, oceanographic condition setting, design load setting, FEM analysis, and strength assessment were carried out. This paper reports the results of comparison with and consideration on conventional criteria and linear calculations, mainly the results of simulated calculations on non-linear hull movement/wave load which have been performed in discussing the loads. The result of the non-linear simulation is thought to have well simulated non-linearity characteristic to the ship. Conventional criteria which have been arranged on the record of use for small ships are considered impossible to be applied to large high-speed ships. Under such a situation, the simplified equations by Kaneko et al are judged effective in making an initial plan for this type of ship. 6 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Comparison of Intervertebral ROM in Multi-Level Cadaveric Lumbar Spines Using Distinct Pure Moment Loading Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoni, Brandon; Cabezas, Andres F; Cook, Daniel J; Yeager, Matthew S; Billys, James B; Whiting, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Background Pure-moment loading is the test method of choice for spinal implant evaluation. However, the apparatuses and boundary conditions employed by laboratories in performing spine flexibility testing vary. The purpose of this study was to quantify the differences, if they exist, in intervertebral range of motion (ROM) resulting from different pure-moment loading apparatuses used in two laboratories. Methods Twenty-four (laboratory A) and forty-two (laboratory B) intact L1-S1 specimens were loaded using pure moments (±7.5 Nm) in flexion-extension (FE), lateral bending (LB) and axial torsion (AT). At laboratory A, pure moments were applied using a system of cables, pulleys and suspended weights in 1.5 Nm increments. At laboratory B, specimens were loaded in a pneumatic biaxial test frame mounted with counteracting stepper-motor-driven biaxial gimbals. ROM was obtained in both labs using identical optoelectronic systems and compared. Results In FE, total L1-L5 ROM was similar, on average, between the two laboratories (lab A: 37.4° ± 9.1°; lab B: 35.0° ± 8.9°, p=0.289). Larger apparent differences, on average, were noted between labs in AT (lab A: 19.4° ± 7.3°; lab B: 15.7° ± 7.1°, p=0.074), and this finding was significant for combined right and left LB (lab A: 45.5° ± 11.4°; lab B: 35.3° ± 8.5°, p < 0.001). Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first study comparing ROM of multi-segment lumbar spines between laboratories utilizing different apparatuses. The results of this study show that intervertebral ROM in multi-segment lumbar spine constructs are markedly similar in FE loading. Differences in boundary conditions are likely the source of small and sometimes statistically significant differences between the two techniques in LB and AT ROM. The relative merits of each testing strategy with regard to the physiologic conditions that are to be simulated should be considered in the design of a study including LB and AT modes of loading. An

  1. Magnetic Moment Fields in Dense Relativistic Plasma Interacting with Laser Radiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.Ghosh1* , S.N.Paul 1 , S.Bannerjee2 and C.Das3

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Theory of the generation of magnetic moment field from resonant interaction of three high frequency electromagnetic waves in un-magnetized dense electron plasma is developed including the relativistic change of electron mass. It is shown that the inclusion of relativistic effect enhances the magnetic moment field. For high intensity laser beams this moment field may be of the order of a few mega gauss. Such a high magnetic field can considerably affect the transport of electrons in fusion plasma

  2. PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE MEASUREMENT BY BEAM BENDING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, J; Tommy Edwards, T; Vickie Williams, V

    2008-01-30

    One of the goals of the Saltstone variability study is to identify (and, quantify the impact of) the operational and compositional variables that control or influence the important processing and performance properties of Saltstone mixes. A performance property for Saltstone mixes that is important but not routinely measured is the liquid permeability or saturated hydraulic conductivity of the cured Saltstone mix. The value for the saturated hydraulic conductivity is an input into the Performance Assessment for the SRS Z-Area vaults. Therefore, it is important to have a method available that allows for an accurate and reproducible measurement of permeability quickly and inexpensively. One such method that could potentially meet these requirements for the measurement of saturated hydraulic conductivity is the technique of beam bending, developed by Professor George Scherer at Princeton University. In order to determine the feasibility of this technique for Saltstone mixes, a summer student, David Feliciano, was hired to work at Princeton under the direction of George Scherer. This report details the results of this study which demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of the beam bending method to measurement of permeability of Saltstone samples. This research effort used samples made at Princeton from a Modular Caustic side solvent extraction Unit based simulant (MCU) and premix at a water to premix ratio of 0.60. The saturated hydraulic conductivities for these mixes were measured by the beam bending technique and the values determined were of the order of 1.4 to 3.4 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. These values of hydraulic conductivity are consistent with independently measured values of this property on similar MCU based mixes by Dixon and Phifer. These values are also consistent with the hydraulic conductivity of a generic Saltstone mix measured by Langton in 1985. The high water to premix ratio used for Saltstone along with the relatively low degree of hydration for

  3. Hot bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bammer, F.; Schumi, T.; Schuöcker, D.

    2010-09-01

    For bending of brittle materials it is necessary to heat up the forming zone. This can be done with a fiber coupled solid state laser, whose beam is evenly distributed on the bending line with a beam splitter installed in the lower tool (die) of a bending press. With polarization optics the laser beam is divided there into partial beams that are evenly distributed on the bending line with lenses and prisms. A setup for a bending length of 200mm heated by a fiber-coupled 3kW Nd:YAG-laser shows the feasibility of the concept. Successful operation was shown for the Mg-alloy AZ31, which breaks during forming at room temperature, but can be well formed at temperatures in the range of 200-300°C. Other materials benefiting from this method are Ti-alloys, high-strength-Al-alloys, and high-strength-steels. Typical heating times are in the range of up to 5s and much of the heat input is generated during the bending operation where the laser continues to work. Laser Assisted Bending with a fiber coupled solid state laser is a straightforward way to perform the bending of brittle materials in a process as simple as cold bending.

  4. A preliminary bending fatigue spectrum for steel monostrand cables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the experimental study on the bending fatigue resistance of high-strength steel monostrand cables. From the conducted fatigue tests in the high-stress, low-cycle region, a preliminary bending fatigue spectrum is derived for the estimation of monostrand cable...... service life expectancy. The presented preliminary bending fatigue spectrum of high-strength monostrands is currently unavailable in the published literature. The presented results provide relevant information on the bending mechanism and fatigue characteristics of monostrand steel cables in tension...

  5. Fox-Wolfram Moments in Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Bernaciak, Catherine; Butter, Anja; Plehn, Tilman

    2012-01-01

    Geometric correlations between jets as part of hard processes or in addition to hard processes are key ingredients to many LHC analyses. Fox--Wolfram moments systematically describe these correlations in terms of spherical harmonics. These moments, either computed from the tagging jets or from all jets in each event, can significantly improve Higgs searches in weak boson fusion. Applications of Fox--Wolfram moments in LHC analyses obviously surpass jets as analysis objects as well as Higgs searches in terms of analyses.

  6. The Krein condition for the moment problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a class of Wiener functionals that are `indeterminate by their moments', that is, whose distributions are not uniquely determined by their moments. In particular, it is proved that the integral of a geometric Brownian motion is indeterminate by its moments and, moreover......, shown that previous proofs of this result are incorrect. The main result of this paper is based on geometric inequalities in Gauss space and on a generalization of the Krein criterion due to H. L. Pedersen....

  7. Moments of inertia of relativistic magnetized stars

    OpenAIRE

    Konno, K

    2001-01-01

    We consider principal moments of inertia of axisymmetric, magnetically deformed stars in the context of general relativity. The general expression for the moment of inertia with respect to the symmetric axis is obtained. The numerical estimates are derived for several polytropic stellar models. We find that the values of the principal moments of inertia are modified by a factor of 2 at most from Newtonian estimates.

  8. Moment Conditions Selection Based on Adaptive Penalized Empirical Likelihood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunquan Song

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Empirical likelihood is a very popular method and has been widely used in the fields of artificial intelligence (AI and data mining as tablets and mobile application and social media dominate the technology landscape. This paper proposes an empirical likelihood shrinkage method to efficiently estimate unknown parameters and select correct moment conditions simultaneously, when the model is defined by moment restrictions in which some are possibly misspecified. We show that our method enjoys oracle-like properties; that is, it consistently selects the correct moment conditions and at the same time its estimator is as efficient as the empirical likelihood estimator obtained by all correct moment conditions. Moreover, unlike the GMM, our proposed method allows us to carry out confidence regions for the parameters included in the model without estimating the covariances of the estimators. For empirical implementation, we provide some data-driven procedures for selecting the tuning parameter of the penalty function. The simulation results show that the method works remarkably well in terms of correct moment selection and the finite sample properties of the estimators. Also, a real-life example is carried out to illustrate the new methodology.

  9. Sparse aerosol models beyond the quadrature method of moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Robert

    2013-05-01

    This study examines a class of sparse aerosol models derived from linear programming (LP). The widely used quadrature method of moments (QMOM) is shown to fall into this class. Here it is shown how other sparse aerosol models can be constructed, which are not based on moments of the particle size distribution. The new methods enable one to bound atmospheric aerosol physical and optical properties using arbitrary combinations of model parameters and measurements. Rigorous upper and lower bounds, e.g. on the number of aerosol particles that can activate to form cloud droplets, can be obtained this way from measurement constraints that may include total particle number concentration and size distribution moments. The new LP-based methods allow a much wider range of aerosol properties, such as light backscatter or extinction coefficient, which are not easily connected to particle size moments, to also be assimilated into a list of constraints. Finally, it is shown that many of these more general aerosol properties can be tracked directly in an aerosol dynamics simulation, using SAMs, in much the same way that moments are tracked directly in the QMOM.

  10. Analysis of the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin method with optimal test functions for the Reissner-Mindlin plate bending model

    KAUST Repository

    Calo, Victor M.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the discontinuous Petrov-Galerkin (DPG) method with optimal test functions when applied to solve the Reissner-Mindlin model of plate bending. We prove that the hybrid variational formulation underlying the DPG method is well-posed (stable) with a thickness-dependent constant in a norm encompassing the L2-norms of the bending moment, the shear force, the transverse deflection and the rotation vector. We then construct a numerical solution scheme based on quadrilateral scalar and vector finite elements of degree p. We show that for affine meshes the discretization inherits the stability of the continuous formulation provided that the optimal test functions are approximated by polynomials of degree p+3. We prove a theoretical error estimate in terms of the mesh size h and polynomial degree p and demonstrate numerical convergence on affine as well as non-affine mesh sequences. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A uniform parameterization of moment tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tape, C.; Tape, W.

    2015-12-01

    A moment tensor is a 3 x 3 symmetric matrix that expresses an earthquake source. We construct a parameterization of the five-dimensional space of all moment tensors of unit norm. The coordinates associated with the parameterization are closely related to moment tensor orientations and source types. The parameterization is uniform, in the sense that equal volumes in the coordinate domain of the parameterization correspond to equal volumes of moment tensors. Uniformly distributed points in the coordinate domain therefore give uniformly distributed moment tensors. A cartesian grid in the coordinate domain can be used to search efficiently over moment tensors. We find that uniformly distributed moment tensors have uniformly distributed orientations (eigenframes), but that their source types (eigenvalue triples) are distributed so as to favor double couples. An appropriate choice of a priori moment tensor probability is a prerequisite for parameter estimation. As a seemingly sensible choice, we consider the homogeneous probability, in which equal volumes of moment tensors are equally likely. We believe that it will lead to improved characterization of source processes.

  12. Optimized Set of RST Moment Invariants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid M. Hosny

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Moment invariants are widely used in image processing, pattern recognition and computer vision. Several methods and algorithms have been proposed for fast and efficient calculation of moment's invariants where numerical approximation errors are involved in most of these methods. In this paper, an optimized set of moment invariants with respect to rotation, scaling and translation is presented. An accurate method is used for exact computation of moment invariants for gray level images. A fast algorithm is applied to accelerate the process of computation. Error analysis is presented and a comparison with other conventional methods is performed. The obtained results explain the superiority of the proposed method.

  13. The growth of children's moment of inertia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R K

    1986-08-01

    As children grow, their moments of inertia increase. The magnitude and timing of these changes can affect the rotations of the body. The present study evaluated inter-individual differences in the transverse centroidal moment of inertia for 12 boys between 5 and 16 yr, using intra-individual data from three successive years. Segmental masses and moments of inertia were estimated using the elliptical zone model and the model then repositioned into two configurations: a layout position from a back handspring and a tuck position from a back somersault. In each case, the mass centroid and the moment of inertia about the transverse axis were calculated. With growth indexed by age, it was shown that the rate of change increases with age. For the children 10 yr and younger, the rate of change of moment of inertia was approximately 30% of the rate for the older children. Also, at each age level, there was a wide range of moments of inertia. In order to improve the prediction of moment of inertia, height and mass were tried as predictors with a noticeable improvement in correlation and linearity. The best predictor, however, was found to be the product of mass and height squared (M X H2) with correlations of 0.99 and 0.97. It is suggested that, because of the effects of growth on the moment of inertia. M X H2 could be used in conjunction with age in order to better appreciate the potential effects of change of moment of inertia.

  14. Practical Fast Computation of Zernike Moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Rawi Mohammed; 杨杰

    2002-01-01

    The fast computation of Zernike moments from normalized geometric moments has been developed in this paper. The computation is multiplication free and only additions are needed to generate Zernike moments. Geometric moments are generated using Hatamian's filter up to high orders by a very simple and straightforward computation scheme. Other kinds of moments (e.g., Legendre, pseudo Zernike) can be computed using the same algorithm after giving the proper transformations that state their relations to geometric moments. Proper normalizations of geometric moments are necessary so that the method can be used in the efficient computation of Zernike moments. To ensure fair comparisons, recursive algorithms are used to generate Zernike polynomials and other coefficients. The computational complexity model and test programs show that the speed-up factor of the proposed algorithm is superior with respect to other fast and/or direct computations. It perhaps is the first time that Zernike moments can be computed in real time rates, which encourages the use of Zernike momentfeatures in different image retrieval systems that support huge databases such as the XM experimental model stated for the MPEG-7 experimental core. It is concluded that choosing direct computation would be impractical.

  15. Piecewise Filter of Infrared Image Based on Moment Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yang; LI Yan-jun; ZHANG Ke

    2007-01-01

    The disadvantages of IR images mostly include high noise, blurry edge and so on. The characteristics make the existent smoothing methods ineffective in preserving edge. To solve this problem, a piecewise moment filter (PMF) is put forward. By using moment and piecewise linear theory, the filter can preserve edge. Based on the statistical model of random noise, a related-coefficient method is presented to estimate the variance of noise. The edge region and model are then detected by the estimated variance. The expectation of first-order derivatives is used in getting the reliable offset of edge.At last, a fast moment filter of double-stair edge model is used to gain the piecewise smoothing results and reduce the calculation. The experimental result shows that the new method has a better capability than other methods in suppressing noise and preserving edge.

  16. Bending of pipes with inconel cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nachpitz, Leonardo; Menezes, Carlos Eduardo B.; Vieira, Carlos R. Tavares [Primus Processamento de Tubos S.A. (PROTUBO), Macae, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The high-frequency induction bending process, using API pipes coated with Inconel 625 reconciled to a mechanical transformation for a higher degree of resistance, was developed through a careful specification and control of the manufacturing parameters and inherent heat treatments. The effects of this technology were investigated by a qualification process consisting of a sequence of tests and acceptance criteria typically required by the offshore industry, and through the obtained results was proved the effectiveness of this entire manufacturing process, without causing interference in the properties and the quality of the inconel cladding, adding a gain of resistance to the base material, guaranteed by the requirements of the API 5L Standard. (author)

  17. Design Study: ELENA Bending Magnet Prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Schoerling, D

    2013-01-01

    The ELENA bending magnet prototype shall prove that the proposed design meets the requirements set by the ELENA beam dynamics. The following points will be discussed in detail: (i) production process of a magnetic yoke diluted with stainless steel plates, (ii) the stability and repeatability of the field homogeneity of such a yoke over the full working range, (iii) choice of soft magnetic steel, (iv) hysteresis effects, (v) mechanical deformations, (vi) thermal insulation to intercept heat load from baking for activation of NEG coating in the vacuum chamber, (vii) end shim design. In order to verify these points the following measurements will be performed: (i) Hall probe scanning, (ii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (DC), (iii) integrated field homogeneity measurement (AC).

  18. Bend-insensitive fiber based vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanping; Lu, Ping; Baset, Farhana; Bhardwaj, Vedula Ravi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2014-05-01

    We report two novel fiber-optic vibration sensors based on standard telecom bend-insensitive fiber (BIF). A tapered BIF forming a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer could measure continuous and damped vibration from 1 Hz up to 500 kHz. An enclosed microcantilever is fabricated inside the BIF by chemical etching and fusion spliced with a readout singlemode fiber that exhibits a frequency range from 5 Hz to 10 kHz with high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) up to 68 dB. The unique double cladding structure of the BIF ensures both sensors with advantages of compactness, high resistance to the external disturbance and stronger mechanical strength.

  19. Secondary turbulent flow in an infinte bend

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, H. Bo; Gislason, Kjartan; Fredsøe, Jørgen

    1999-01-01

    The flow in an infinite circular bend is inverstigated in both the laminar and fully turbulent flow case, by use of laminar flow solver, a k-e turbulence model, and a fully Reynolds stress turbulence model. The topic of the analysis is to investigate whether a counter-rotating secondary flow cell...... is formed near the surface at the outer bank. This cell might help to stabilise the bank and hereby be an important factor for the morphology in a meandering river. In the laminar runs stability criterion related to a Dean number was estabilshed. In the simulations with the k-e model and the Reynolds stress...... model, the influence of the curvature ratio and cross section geometry on the vortex pattern is investigated. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that an-isotropy of turbulence plays an important role for the structure of flow pattern and existence of an extra flow cell....

  20. Effects of Induction Heat Bending Process on Microstructure and Corrosion Properties of ASME SA312 Gr.TP304 Stainless Steel Pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nam In; Kim, Young Sik [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Soo; Chang, Hyun Young; Park, Heung Bae; Sung, Gi Ho [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Gi Ho [R and D Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    The usage of bending products recently have increased since many industries such as automobile, aerospace, shipbuilding, and chemical plants need the application of pipings. Bending process is one of the inevitable steps to fabricate the facilities. Induction heat bending is composed of compressive bending process by local heating and cooling. This work focused on the effect of induction heat bending process on the properties of ASME SA312 Gr. TP304 stainless steel pipes. Tests were performed for base metal and bended area including extrados, intrados, crown up, and down parts. Microstructure was analyzed using an optical microscope and SEM. In order to determine intergranular corrosion resistance, Double Loop Electrochemical Potentiokinetic Reactivation (DL-EPR) test and ASTM A262 practice A and C tests were done. Every specimen revealed non-metallic inclusion free under the criteria of 1.5i of the standard and the induction heat bending process did not affect the non-metallic inclusion in the alloys. Also, all the bended specimens had finer grain size than ASTM grain size number 5 corresponding to the grain sizes of the base metal and thus the grain size of the pipe bended by induction heat bending process is acceptable. Hardness of transition start, bend, and transition end areas of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel was a little higher than that of base metal. Intergranular corrosion behavior was determined by ASTM A262 practice A and C and DL-EPR test, and respectively step structure, corrosion rate under 0.3 mm/y, and Degree of Sensitization (DOS) of 0.001 - 0.075 % were obtained. That is, the induction heat bending process didn't affect the intergranular corrosion behavior of ASME SA312 TP304 stainless steel.

  1. A mechanical model for FRP-strengthened beams in bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. S. Valvo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the problem of a simply supported beam, strengthened with a fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP strip bonded to its intrados and subjected to bending couples applied to its end sections. A mechanical model is proposed, whereby the beam and FRP strip are modelled according to classical beam theory, while the adhesive and its neighbouring layers are modelled as an interface having a piecewise linear constitutive law defined over three intervals (elastic response – softening response – debonding. The model is described by a set of differential equations with appropriate boundary conditions. An analytical solution to the problem is determined, including explicit expressions for the internal forces, displacements and interfacial stresses. The model predicts an overall non-linear mechanical response for the strengthened beam, ranging over several stages: from linearly elastic behaviour to damage, until the complete detachment of the FRP reinforcement.

  2. Stabilization of helical macromolecular phases by confined bending

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    By means of extensive replica-exchange simulations of generic coarse-grained models for helical polymers, we systematically investigate the structural transitions into all possible helical phases for flexible and semiflexible elastic polymers with self-interaction under the influence of torsion barriers. The competing interactions lead to a variety of conformational phases including disordered helical arrangements, single helices, and ordered, tertiary helix bundles. Most remarkably, we find that a bending restraint entails a clear separation and stabilization of the helical phases. This aids in understanding why semiflexible polymers such as double-stranded DNA tend to form pronounced helical structures and proteins often exhibit an abundance of helical structures, such as helix bundles, within their tertiary structure.

  3. Bending stiff charged polymers: The electrostatic persistence length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trizac, Emmanuel; Shen, Tongye

    2016-10-01

    Many charged polymers, including nucleic acids, are locally stiff. Their bending rigidity —quantified by the persistence length— depends crucially on Coulombic features, such as the ionic strength of the solution which offers a convenient experimental route for tuning the rigidity. While the classic Odijk-Skolnick-Fixman treatment fails for realistic parameter values, we derive a simple analytical formula for the electrostatic persistence length. It is shown to be in remarkable agreement with numerically obtained Poisson-Boltzmann theory results, thereby fully accounting for non-linearities, among which counter-ion condensation effects. Specified to double-stranded DNA, our work reveals that the widely used bare persistence length of 500 Å is overestimated by some 20%.

  4. Influence of malalignment on socket reaction moments during gait in amputees with transtibial prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, David A; Kobayashi, Toshiki; Chou, Teri G; Arabian, Adam K; Coleman, Kim L; Orendurff, Michael S; Zhang, Ming

    2013-04-01

    Alignment - the process and measured orientation of the prosthetic socket relative to the foot - is important for proper function of a transtibial prosthesis. Prosthetic alignment is performed by prosthetists using visual gait observation and amputees' feedback. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of transtibial prosthesis malalignment on the moments measured at the base of the socket: the socket reaction moments. Eleven subjects with transtibial amputation were recruited from the community. An instrumented prosthesis alignment component was used to measure socket reaction moments during ambulation under 17 alignment conditions, including nominally aligned using conventional clinical methods, and angle perturbations of 3° and 6° (flexion, extension, abduction, and adduction) and translation perturbations of 5mm and 10mm (anterior, posterior, lateral, and medial) referenced from the nominal alignment. Coronal alignment perturbations caused systematic changes in the coronal socket reaction moments. All angle and translation perturbations revealed statistically significant differences on coronal socket reaction moments compared to the nominal alignment at 30% and 75% of stance phase (Psocket reaction moments was not as responsive as that of the coronal perturbations. The sagittal angle and translation perturbations of the socket led to statistically significant changes in minimum moment, maximum moment, and moments at 45% of stance phase in the sagittal plane. Therefore, malalignment affected the socket reaction moments in amputees with transtibial prostheses.

  5. Effect of cyclic outer and inner bending on the fatigue behavior of a multi-layer metal film on a polymer substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byoung-Joon; Shin, Hae-A.-Seul; Lee, Ji-Hoon; Joo, Young-Chang

    2016-06-01

    The electrical reliability of a multi-layer metal film on a polymer substrate during cyclic inner bending and outer bending is investigated using a bending fatigue system. The electrical resistance of a Cu film on a polymer substrate during cyclic outer bending increases due to fatigue damage formation, such as cracks and extrusion. Cyclic inner bending also leads to fatigue damage and a similar increase in the electrical resistance. In a sample having a NiCr under-layer, however, the electrical resistance increases significantly during outer bending but not during inner bending mode. Cross-sectional observations reveal that brittle cracking in the hard under-layer results in different fatigue behaviors according to the stress mode. By applying an Al over-layer, the fatigue resistance is improved during both outer bending and inner bending by suppressing fatigue damage formation. The effects of the position, materials, and thickness of the inter-layer on the electrical reliability of a multi-layer sample are also investigated. This study can provide meaningful information for designing a multi-layer structure under various mechanical deformations including tensile and compressive stress.

  6. Behaviour of a Moment Resisting Composite Steel and Concrete Joint Under Alternate Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alberto Zanchettin; Bruno Briseghella; Tobia Zordan; Junqing Xue

    2011-01-01

    The authors show the results of a study conducted on a joint connecting a concrete column to a composite steel concrete floor, subjected to tension on the beams as a result of the decomposition of sagging bending moment. The beam to column connection is achieved by means of headed studs welded to the beam and embedded in the concrete cast. Five different configurations have been tested at failure and the results are compared to formulae proposed in literature. Different degrees of ductility, reliability and strength have been obtained varying geometry and reinforcement ratio on the joints tested.

  7. Microwave spectrum, structure, dipole moment, and Coriolis coupling of 1,1-difluoroallene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durig, J. R.; Li, Y. S.; Tong, C. C.; Zens, A. P.; Ellis, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Microwave spectra from 12.4 to 40.0 GHz were recorded for five isotopic species of 1,1-difluoroallene. A-type transitions were observed and R-branch assignments were made for the ground state and two vibrationally excited states. Several structural parameters of the compounds were determined. The dipole moment value obtained from Stark splitting was 2.07 plus or minus 0.03 D. A Coriolis coupling was observed between the two-low-frequency C = C = C bending modes.

  8. Stretch bending - the plane within the sheet where strains reach the forming limit curve

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, F. M.; Terrazas, O. R.; Manopulo, N.; Hora, P.; Van Tyne, C. J.

    2016-11-01

    Finite element analysis (FEA) was used to model the angular stretch bend test, where a strip of sheet metal is locked at both ends and a tool with a radius stretches and bends the center of the strip until failure. The FEA program used in the study was Abaqus. The FEA model was verified by experimental work using a dual phase steel (DP600) and with a simplified analytical analysis. The FEA model was used to simulate the experimental test for various frictional conditions and various radii of an upward moving tool. The primary objective of the study was to evaluate the concave-side rule, which states that during stretch bending the forming limit occurs when the strains on the concave surface plane of the bent sheet (i.e. bottom plane) reach the forming limit curve (FLC). The verification with experimental data indicates that the FEA model represents the process very well. Only conditions where failure occurred on or near the tooling are included in the results. The FEA simulations showed that the actual forming limit of the sheet occurs when the strains on the bottom plane of the sheet (i.e. concave side of the bend) reach the forming limit curve for high friction and small tool radii. For lower friction and for larger tool radii the actual forming limit occurs when strains on other planes in the sheet (i.e. mid planes or top surface plane) reach the forming limit curve. The implications of these results suggest that care must be taken in assessing forming operations when both stretch and bending occur. Although it is known that the FLC cannot predict the forming limit for small bend radii, the common assumption that the forming limit occurs when the strains for the middle thickness plane of the sheet reach the forming limit curve or that the concave side rule is often made. Understanding the limits of this assumption needs to be carefully and critically evaluated.

  9. Bending strength of piezoelectric ceramics and single crystals for multifunctional load-bearing applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, Steven R; Erturk, Alper; Inman, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    The topic of multifunctional material systems using active or smart materials has recently gained attention in the research community. Multifunctional piezoelectric systems present the ability to combine multiple functions into a single active piezoelectric element, namely, combining sensing, actuation, or energy conversion ability with load-bearing capacity. Quantification of the bending strength of various piezoelectric materials is, therefore, critical in the development of load-bearing piezoelectric systems. Three-point bend tests are carried out on a variety of piezoelectric ceramics including soft monolithic piezoceramics (PZT-5A and PZT-5H), hard monolithic ceramics (PZT-4 and PZT-8), single-crystal piezoelectrics (PMN-PT and PMN-PZT), and commercially packaged composite devices (which contain active PZT-5A layers). A common 3-point bend test procedure is used throughout the experimental tests. The bending strengths of these materials are found using Euler-Bernoulli beam theory to be 44.9 MPa for PMN-PZT, 60.6 MPa for PMN-PT, 114.8 MPa for PZT- 5H, 123.2 MPa for PZT-4, 127.5 MPa for PZT-8, 140.4 MPa for PZT-5A, and 186.6 MPa for the commercial composite. The high strength of the commercial configuration is a result of the composite structure that allows for shear stresses on the surfaces of the piezoelectric layers, whereas the low strength of the single-crystal materials is due to their unique crystal structure, which allows for rapid propagation of cracks initiating at flaw sites. The experimental bending strength results reported, which are linear estimates without nonlinear ferroelastic considerations, are intended for use in the design of multifunctional piezoelectric systems in which the active device is subjected to bending loads.

  10. Coupled-Mode Flutter of Bending-Bending Type in Highly-Flexible Uniform Airfoils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourazarm, Pariya; Modarres-Sadeghi, Yahya

    2016-11-01

    We study the behavior of a highly flexible uniform airfoil placed in wind both numerically and experimentally. It is shown that for a non-rotating highly-flexible cantilevered airfoil, placed at very small angles of attack (less than 1 degree), the airfoil loses its stability by buckling. For slightly higher angles of attack (more than 1 degree) a coupled-mode flutter in which the first and the second flapwise modes coalesce toward a flutter mode is observed, and thus the observed flutter has a bending-bending nature. The flutter onset and frequency found experimentally matched the numerical predictions. If the same airfoil is forced to rotate about its fixed end, the static deflection decreases and the observed couple-mode flutter becomes of flapwise-torsional type, same as what has already been observed for flutter of rotating wind turbine blades. The support provided by the National Science Foundation, CBET-1437988, is greatly acknowledged.

  11. Influence of mass moment of inertia on normal modes of preloaded solar array mast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, Sasan C.; Lin, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Earth-orbiting spacecraft often contain solar arrays or antennas supported by a preloaded mast. Because of weight and cost considerations, the structures supporting the spacecraft appendages are extremely light and flexible; therefore, it is vital to investigate the influence of all physical and structural parameters that may influence the dynamic behavior of the overall structure. The study primarily focuses on the mast for the space station solar arrays, but the formulations and the techniques developed in this study apply to any large and flexible mast in zero gravity. Furthermore, to determine the influence on the circular frequencies, the mass moment of inertia of the mast was incorporated into the governing equation of motion for bending. A finite element technique (MSC/NASTRAN) was used to verify the formulation. Results indicate that when the mast is relatively flexible and long, the mass moment inertia influences the circular frequencies.

  12. Effect of Bend Radius on Magnitude and Location of Erosion in S-Bend

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quamrul H. Mazumder

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid particle erosion is a mechanical process that removes material by the impact of solid particles entrained in the flow. Erosion is a leading cause of failure of oil and gas pipelines and fittings in fluid handling industries. Different approaches have been used to control or minimize damage caused by erosion in particulated gas-solid or liquid-solid flows. S-bend geometry is widely used in different fluid handling equipment that may be susceptible to erosion damage. The results of a computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation of diluted gas-solid and liquid-solid flows in an S-bend are presented in this paper. In addition to particle impact velocity, the bend radius may have significant influence on the magnitude and the location of erosion. CFD analysis was performed at three different air velocities (15.24 m/s–45.72 m/s and three different water velocities (0.1 m/s–10 m/s with entrained solid particles. The particle sizes used in the analysis range between 50 and 300 microns. Maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 250-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. The location of maximum erosion was observed in water with 10 m/s, 300-micron particle size, and a ratio of 3.5. Comparison of CFD results with available literature data showed reasonable and good agreement.

  13. Schiff moment of the Mercury nucleus and the proton dipole moment

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriev, V. F.; Sen'kov, R. A.

    2003-01-01

    We calculated the contribution of internal nucleon electric dipole moments to the Schiff moment of $^{199}$Hg. The contribution of the proton electric dipole moment was obtained via core polarization effects that were treated in the framework of random phase approximation with effective residual forces. We derived a new upper bound $|d_p|< 5.4\\times 10^{-24} e\\cdot$cm of the proton electric dipole moment.

  14. Development of new finite element by source method. 2nd Report. Plate bending element; Source wo mochiita atarashii yugen yoso no kaihatsu. 2. Itamage yoso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neki, I.; Tada, T. [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports a method to develop a new finite element by source (FES) for a two-dimensional plane problem and a three-dimensional solid problem as a method to analyze ship body structures. The paper describes development of a plate bending element by using a similar method, and the fundamental principle thereof. The present method can prepare a finite element of an arbitrary shape by simply providing a contact point only on a boundary. It can also derive good calculation accuracy with less number of contact points and elements. These facts are shown by examples of analyses on a square plate, a triangle plate and a semi-circular plate. Particularly, since a plate bending problem has a large order of differential calculus in a governing equation, this method being a semi-analytical method derives a result with very good accuracy even with less number of contact points. A hypothetical boundary method or a hypothetical electric charge method presents not a very high accuracy even if a large number of contact points are provided. This is because the method hypothesizes only a bending moment vertical to the boundary, but does not consider a source of the moment relative to the boundary. In contrast, the present method hypothesizes both of bending and twisting as the sources, hence its accuracy is better than with the above two methods. 5 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Forming limits under multi-index constraints in NC bending of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes with large diameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With increasing diameters of aluminum alloy thin-walled tubes (AATTs), the tube forming limits, i.e. the minimum bending factors, and their predictions under multi-index constraints including wrinkling, thinning and flattening have been being a key problem to be urgently solved for improving tube forming potential in numerical control (NC) bending processes of AATTs with large diameters. Thus in this paper, a search algorithm of the forming limits is put forward based on a 3D elastic-plastic finite element (FE) model and a wrinkling energy prediction model for the bending processes under axial compression loading (ACL) or not. This algorithm enables to be considered the effects of process parameter combinations including die, friction parameters on the multi-indices. Based on this algorithm, the forming limits of the different size tubes are obtained, and the roles of the process parameter combinations in enabling the limit bending processes are also revealed. The followings are found: the first, within the appropriate ranges of friction and clearances between the different dies and the tubes enabling the bending processes with smaller bending factors, the ACL enables the tube limit bending processes after a decrease of the mandrel ball thickness and diameters; then, without considering the effects of the tube geometry sizes on the tube constitutive equations, the forming limits will be decided by the limit thinning values for the tubes with diameters smaller than 80 mm, while the wrinkling for the tubes with diameters no less than 80 mm. The forming limits obtained from this algorithm are smaller than the analytical results, and reduced by 57.39%; the last, the roles of the process parameter combinations in enabling the limit bending processes are verified by experimental results.

  16. A note on noncommutative moment problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Xiujuan

    2005-01-01

    Noncommutative moment problems for C*-algebras are studied. We generalize a result of Hadwin on tracial states to nontracial case. Our results are applied to obtain simple solutions to moment problems on the square and the circle as well as extend the positive unital functionals from a (discrete) complex group algebra to states on the group C*-algebra.

  17. Balancing Beams--For a Few Moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2008-01-01

    A 2 m long wooden beam provides an ideal demonstration tool for exploring moments. A class set is cheap and can be used at introductory and advanced levels. This article explores how such beams can be used to support learning about moments, equilibrium, vectors, and simultaneous equations. (Contains 7 figures.)

  18. Learn to Live in the Present Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾庆文

    2002-01-01

    To a large degree, the measure of our peace of mind is determined by how much we are able to live in the present moment. Irrespective of what happened yesterday or last year, and what may or may not happen tomorrow, the present moment is where you are-always!

  19. Teachable Moment: Google Earth Takes Us There

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Ann; Davinroy, Thomas C.

    2015-01-01

    In the current educational climate, where clearly articulated learning objectives are required, it is clear that the spontaneous teachable moment still has its place. Authors Ann Williams and Thomas Davinroy think that instructors from almost any discipline can employ Google Earth as a tool to take advantage of teachable moments through the…

  20. HELMHOLTZ COILS FOR MEASURING MAGNETIC MOMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Dobrodeyev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimal configuration of the double Helmholtz coils for measuring of the magnetic dipole moments was defined. It was determined that measuring coils should have round shape and compensative coils – the square one. Analytically confirmed the feasibility of the proposed configuration of these coils as primary transmitters of magnetic dipole moments.

  1. How to Introduce the Magnetic Dipole Moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, M.; Kort-Kamp, W. J. M.; Cougo-Pinto, M. V.; Farina, C.

    2012-01-01

    We show how the concept of the magnetic dipole moment can be introduced in the same way as the concept of the electric dipole moment in introductory courses on electromagnetism. Considering a localized steady current distribution, we make a Taylor expansion directly in the Biot-Savart law to obtain, explicitly, the dominant contribution of the…

  2. Neutrino induced magnetic moment and spin precession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternov, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    When propagating through a dispersing medium, a massive neutrino acquires an induced magnetic moment that may give rise to a helicity flip in an external magnetic field with a larger probability than that caused by the anomalous magnetic moment. This phenomenon is investigated in the framework of relativistic quantum mechanics and of the generalized Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation.

  3. 36 CFR 7.41 - Big Bend National Park.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Bend National Park. 7.41 Section 7.41 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.41 Big Bend National Park. (a) Fishing; closed...

  4. APPLICABILITY OF THE BEND DEVELOPMENT THEORY IN NATURAL ALLUVIAL RIVERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.M.RAHMAN; M.A.HAQUE; M.M.HOQUE

    2002-01-01

    The theoretical conditions for the bend development or attenuation have been reviewed and tested for a study reach of the Meghna river.The field observations in the natural alluvial meander do not support the theories developed for bend development.The limitations of the theory to apply in the natural meandering river are discussed.

  5. Flexible DNA bending in HU-DNA cocrystal structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinger, Kerren K; Lemberg, Kathryn M; Zhang, Ying; Rice, Phoebe A

    2003-07-15

    HU and IHF are members of a family of prokaryotic proteins that interact with the DNA minor groove in a sequence-specific (IHF) or non-specific (HU) manner to induce and/or stabilize DNA bending. HU plays architectural roles in replication initiation, transcription regulation and site-specific recombination, and is associated with bacterial nucleoids. Cocrystal structures of Anabaena HU bound to DNA (1P71, 1P78, 1P51) reveal that while underlying proline intercalation and asymmetric charge neutralization mechanisms of DNA bending are similar for IHF and HU, HU stabilizes different DNA bend angles ( approximately 105-140 degrees ). The two bend angles within a single HU complex are not coplanar, and the resulting dihedral angle is consistent with negative supercoiling. Comparison of HU-DNA and IHF-DNA structures suggests that sharper bending is correlated with longer DNA binding sites and smaller dihedral angles. An HU-induced bend may be better modeled as a hinge, not a rigid bend. The ability to induce or stabilize varying bend angles is consistent with HU's role as an architectural cofactor in many different systems that may require differing geometries.

  6. Bending Resistance of Steel Plate-Reinforced Concrete Beam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Zhimin; CHEN Jie

    2006-01-01

    The formulas for calculating bending-resistant capacity of a steel plate-reinforced concrete composite beam are derived.To validate the formulas,experiments of the composite beam under three-point bending are carried out.Calculated results based on the formulas are in good agreement with experimental results.

  7. Anharmonic bend-stretch coupling in neat liquid water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindner, Joerg; Cringus, Dan; Pshenichnikov, Maxim S.; Voehringer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Femtosecond mid-IR spectroscopy is used to study the vibrational relaxation dynamics in neat liquid water. By exciting the bending vibration and probing the stretching mode, it is possible to reliably determine the bending and librational lifetimes of water. The anharmonic coupling between the bendi

  8. Computational Strategies for the Architectural Design of Bending Active Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Nicholas, Paul

    2013-01-01

    with the design of bending-active structures, through computational strategies. We report three built structures that develop architecturally oriented design methods for bending-active systems using composite materials. These projects demonstrate the application and limits of the introduction of advanced...

  9. On the Bending Problem for Large Scale Mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esteban, I.; Booij, O.; Dijk, J.; Groen, F.

    2010-01-01

    During Simultaneous Localization And Mapping, geometrical constraints are established between map features. These constraints, introduced through measurements and motion prediction, produce a bending effect in the event of closing a large loop. In this paper we present a discussion of the bending pr

  10. On the bending problem for large scale mapping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Esteban; O. Booij; J. Dijk; F. Groen

    2009-01-01

    During Simultaneous Localization And Mapping, geometrical constraints are established between map features. These constraints, introduced through measurements and motion prediction, produce a bending effect in the event of closing a large loop. In this paper we present a discussion of the bending pr

  11. Rule bending by morally disengaged detectives : an ethnographic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim

    2014-01-01

    Rule bending is a well-known practice in policing worldwide, often linked to 'noble cause corruption'. This ethnographic study shows how police detectives sometimes consider to creatively bend rules when rule abidance would lead to other values being jeopardized. This paper illustrates that the theo

  12. Innovative moments and change in narrative therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Marlene; Santos, Anita; Gonçalves, Miguel; Martins, Carla

    2009-01-01

    Narrative therapy suggests that change happens by paying close attention in therapy to "unique outcomes," which are narrative details outside the main story (White & Epston, 1990). In this exploratory study, unique outcomes were analyzed in five good-outcome and five poor-outcome psychotherapy cases using the Innovative Moments Coding System (Gonçalves, Matos, & Santos, 2008). Across 127 sessions, innovative moments were coded in terms of salience and type. In accordance with the theory, results suggest that innovative moments are important to therapeutic change. Poor- and good-outcome groups have a global difference in the salience of the innovative moments. In addition, results suggest that two particular types of innovative moments are needed in narrative therapy for therapeutic change to take place: re-conceptualization and new experiences. Implications for future research using this model of analysis are discussed.

  13. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Jie; LIU Gui-Min; LI Hao-Hu; ZHANG Man-Zhou

    2008-01-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility(SSRF)booster ring,a full energy injector for the storage ring,is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150MeV to 3.5GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping.Closed orbit distortion(COD)caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting.Considering the affections of random errors in measurement,both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper.

  14. Sorting of bending magnets for the SSRF booster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Liu, Gui-Min; Li, Hao-Hu; Zhang, Man-Zhou

    2008-04-01

    The Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF)booster ring, a full energy injector for the storage ring, is deigned to accelerate the electron beam energy from 150 MeV to 3.5 GeV that demands high extraction efficiency at the extraction energy with low beam loss rate when electrons are ramping. Closed orbit distortion (COD) caused by bending magnet field uniformity errors which affects the machine performance harmfully could be effectively reduced by bending magnet location sorting. Considering the affections of random errors in measurement, both ideal sorting and realistic sorting are studied based on measured bending magnet field uniformity errors and one reasonable combination of bending magnets which can reduce the horizontal COD by a factor of 5 is given as the final installation sequence of the booster bending magnets in this paper. Supported by SSRF Project

  15. Revisit the anomalous bending elasticity of sharply bent DNA

    CERN Document Server

    Cong, Peiwen; Chen, Hu; van der Maarel, Johan R C; Doyle, Patrick S; Yan, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Several recent experiments have suggested that sharply bent DNA has a surprisingly high bending flexibility, but the cause is poorly understood. It has been demonstrated that excitation of flexible defects can explain the results; while whether such defects can be excited under the level of DNA bending in those experiments has remained unclear and been debated. Interestingly, due to experimental design DNA contained pre-existing nicks in nearly all those experiments, while the potential effect of nicks have never been considered. Here, using full-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that nicks promote DNA basepair disruption at the nicked sites which drastically reduced DNA bending energy. In the absence of nicks, basepair disruption can also occur, but it requires a higher level of DNA bending. Overall, our results challenge the interpretations of previous sharp DNA bending experiments and highlight that the micromechanics of sharply bent DNA still remains an open question.

  16. Atmospheric Refractive Electromagnetic Wave Bending and Propagation Delay

    CERN Document Server

    Mangum, Jeffrey G

    2014-01-01

    In this tutorial we summarize the physics and mathematics behind refractive electromagnetic wave bending and delay. Refractive bending and delay through the Earth's atmosphere at both radio/millimetric and optical/IR wavelengths are discussed, but with most emphasis on the former, and with Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) applications in mind. As modern astronomical measurements often require sub-arcsecond position accuracy, care is required when selecting refractive bending and delay algorithms. For the spherically-uniform model atmospheres generally used for all refractive bending and delay algorithms, positional accuracies $\\lesssim 1^{\\prime\\prime}$ are achievable when observing at zenith angles $\\lesssim 75^\\circ$. A number of computationally economical approximate methods for atmospheric refractive bending and delay calculation are presented, appropriate for astronomical observations under these conditions. For observations under more realistic atmospheric conditions, for zenith angles $\\gtrsim 75^...

  17. Role of xyloglucan in gravitropic bending of azuki bean epicotyl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikushima, Toshimitsu; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Shimmen, Teruo

    2008-04-01

    The mechanism of the gravitropic bending was studied in azuki bean epicotyls. The cell wall extensibility of the lower side became higher than that of the upper side in the epicotyl bending upward. The contents of matrix polysaccharides of the cell wall (pectin and xyloglucan in hemicellulose-II) in the lower side became smaller than those in the upper side. The molecular mass of xyloglucans in the lower side decreased. After an epicotyl was fixed to a metal rod to prevent the bending, gravistimulation was applied. Fundamentally the same results were obtained with respect to rheological and chemical characteristics of the cell wall as those of epicotyls showing gravitropic bending. The present results suggested that the initial gravitropic bending was caused by the increase in extensibility of the lower side and the decrease in extensibility of the upper side via the change of the cell wall matrix, especially xyloglucans.

  18. Analysis and Simulation of Adiabatic Bend Transitions in Optical Fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Lei; LOU Shu-Qin; JIAN Shui-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    A low-loss criterion for bend transitions in optical fibers is proposed. An optical fiber can be tightly bent with low loss to be adiabatic for the fundamental mode, provided that an approximate upper bound on the rate of change of bend curvature for a given bend curvature is satisfied. Two typical adiabatic bend transition paths, the optimum profile and linear profile, are analyzed and studied numerically. A realizable adiabatic transition with an Archimedean spiral profile is introduced for low bend loss in tightly bent optical fibers. Design of the transitions is based on modeling of the propagation and coupling characteristics of the core and cladding modes,which clearly illustrate the physical processes involved.

  19. Bend-Induced Distortion in Large Mode Area Holey Fibre

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Xiao-Ling; GENG You-Fu; ZHANG Tie-Li; WANG Wei-Neng; WANG Peng; YAO Jian-Quan

    2008-01-01

    A simplified scheme of bend-induced mode distortion is introduced into bent holey fibres,the distorted mode distribution and mode effective area reduction are investigated using the finite difference method.Numerical results show that the modes of bent holey fibres with small bend radius shift away from the core and are deformed greatly,and the mode areas drop significantly as the bend radius decreases,which severely affects the fibre laser performance.The propagation characteristics of bent holey fibres at given wavelength are determined by fill factor and normalized bend radius.Finally,the transition normalized bend radius that represents the location of the mode area beginning to fall off is obtained.

  20. Simulation and prediction in laser bending of silicon sheet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu-yue; XU Wei-xing; XU Wen-ji; HU Ya-feng; LIANG Yan-de; WANG Lian-ji

    2011-01-01

    The laser bending of single-crystal silicon sheet (0.2 mm in thickness) was investigated with JK701 Nd:YAG laser. The models were developed to describe the beam characteristics of pulsed laser. In order to simulate the process of laser bending, the FEM softvare ANSYS was used to predict the heat temperature and stress-strain fields. The periodic transformation of temperature field and stress-strain distribution was analyzed during pulsed laser scanning silicon sheet. The results indicate that the mechanism of pulsed laser bending silicon is a hybrid mechanism in silicon bending, rather than a simple mechanism of TGM or BM. This work also gets silicon sheet bent after scanning 6 times with pulsed laser, and its bending angle is up to 6.5°. The simulation and prediction results reach well agreement with the verifying experiments.

  1. Axisymmetrical Nonlinear Bending and Buckling of a Circular Plate Under Large Load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Chaosheng; YUE Yanling

    2005-01-01

    With the terms of the exact series solution taken as trial functions, the method of point collocation was used to calculate the large deflection of a circular plate. The axisymmetrical bending formulae were developed for the calculation of a circular plate subjected to polynomial distributed loads, a concentrated load at the center, uniform radial forces and moments along the edge or their combinations. The support may be elastic. The buckling load was calculated. Under action of uniformly distributed load, central load or their compound load, solutions were compared with those obtained by other methods. Buckling beyond critical thrust was compared with that calculated by the power series method. The method presented in this paper has advantages of wide convergent range, high precision and short computing time. Moreover, the computing time is nearly independent of the complexity of the loads.

  2. On Bending of Bernoulli-Euler Nanobeams for Nonlocal Composite Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Feo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation of size effects in functionally graded elastic nanobeams is carried out by making recourse to the nonlocal continuum mechanics. The Bernoulli-Euler kinematic assumption and the Eringen nonlocal constitutive law are assumed in the formulation of the elastic equilibrium problem. An innovative methodology, characterized by a lowering in the order of governing differential equation, is adopted in the present manuscript in order to solve the boundary value problem of a nanobeam under flexure. Unlike standard treatments, a second-order differential equation of nonlocal equilibrium elastic is integrated in terms of transverse displacements and equilibrated bending moments. Benchmark examples are developed, thus providing the nonlocality effect in nanocantilever and clampled-simply supported nanobeams for selected values of the Eringen scale parameter.

  3. CUBLIC SPLINE SOLUTIONS OF AXISYMMETRICAL NONLINEAR BENDING AND BRCKLING OF CIRCULAR SANDWICH PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯朝胜; 张守恺; 林锋

    2005-01-01

    Cubic B-spline taken as trial function, the nonlinear bending of a circular sandwich plate was calculated by the method of point collocation. The support could be elastic. A sandwich plate was assumed to be Reissner model. The formulae were developed for the calculation of a circular sandwich plate subjected to polynomial distributed loads,uniformly distributed moments, radial pressure or radial prestress along the edge and their combination. Buckling load was calculated for the first time by nonlinear theory. Under action of uniformly distributed loads, results were compared with that obtained by the power series method. Excellences of the program written by the spline collocation method are wide convergent range, high precision and universal.

  4. On Perturbation Solutions for Axisymmetric Bending Boundary Values of a Deep Thin Spherical Shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the general theory of elastic thin shells and the Kirchhoff-Love hypothesis, a fundamental equation for a thin shell under the moment theory is established. In this study, the author derives Reissner’s equation with a transverse shear force Q1 and the displacement component w. These basic unknown quantities are derived considering the axisymmetry of the deep, thin spherical shell and manage to constitute a boundary value question of axisymmetric bending of the deep thin spherical shell under boundary conditions. The asymptotic solution is obtained by the composite expansion method. At the end of this paper, to prove the correctness and accuracy of the derivation, an example is given to compare the numerical solution by ANSYS and the perturbation solution. Meanwhile, the effects of material and geometric parameters on the nonlinear response of axisymmetric deep thin spherical shell under uniform external pressure are also analyzed in this paper.

  5. Metric of a Slow Rotating Body with Quadrupole Moment from the Erez-Rosen Metric

    CERN Document Server

    Frutos-Alfaro, Francisco; Cordero-García, Iván; Ulloa-Esquivel, Oscar

    2012-01-01

    A metric representing a slow rotating object with quadrupole moment is obtained using the Newman-Janis formalism to include rotation into the weak limit of the Erez-Rosen metric. This metric is intended to tackle relativistic astrometry and gravitational lensing problems in which a quadrupole moment has to be taken into account.

  6. Measurement of Constant Acceleration of a Body: Moment of Inertia. Laboratory Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamoran, E. P.

    This document provides a laboratory manual for an experiment whose objectives are: (1) measure the constant acceleration of a body; (2) calculate the moment of inertia for various symmetrical shape objects; and (3) use the moment of inertia to solve for the constant acceleration of the body. The paper includes a list of materials needed, theory,…

  7. Influence of the reinforcement corrosion on the bending moment capacity of reinforced concrete beams: a structural reliability approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. P. Liberati

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete structures are, certainly, one of the most used types of structure around world. When it is located in non-aggressive environments, it respects, in general, the structural life predicted. Unless the structure be used improperly. However, the durability of these structures is strongly connected to degradation processes whose origin is environmental and/or functional. Among these processes, it is worth to mention those related to corrosion of reinforcements. The reinforcement's corrosion is directly related to the durability and safety of concrete structures. Moreover, the chlorides diffusion is recognized as one of major factors that triggers the corrosion. Therefore, at modelling accurately the chloride diffusion, the corrosion of reinforcements can be better evaluated. Consequently, design criteria can be more realistically proposed in order to assure safety and economy into reinforced concrete structures. Due to the inherent randomness present on chloride diffusion and corrosion, these phenomena can only be properly modelled considering probabilistic approaches. In this paper, the durability of a beam designed using the criteria proposed by ABNT NBR 6118:2003 [1] is assessed using probabilistic approaches. The corrosion time initiation is determined using Fick's diffusion law whereas Faraday's corrosion laws are adopted to model the steel loss. The probability of structural failure is determined using Monte Carlo simulation. The mentioned beam is analysed considering different failure scenarios in order to study the influence of water/cement ratio and environmental aggressiveness on the probability of failure. Based on these results, some remarks are performed considering NBR recommendations and the real probability of failure.

  8. Numerical Procedures for the Calculation of the Stresses in Monocoques. 3 - Calculation of the Bending Moments in Fuselage Frames

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-04-01

    i 4 I : ’’•*:-;Y’~i-:jr: *s~« h 1 XAOA n lo. »a 16 Tabla 3.- Relaxation Table T H I / _ (1») (ID) (in.-in) Bjtfrnal fore«’-*? 0 -100...may be found in an article by Pnul S. Dwyer in the December 1941 ISJUO of ’ ; - Annals cf Mathematical Statistics, Vol. XII , Bo. 4, pp. 4*itl-458

  9. Engineering estimation of time-dependent deformation characteristics as bending moment relaxation and released unfolding motion of creased paperboard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagasawa, Sh

    2017-02-01

    Paperboards are recognized to be important raw materials for packaging industry due to their advantages such as high strength-to-weight ratio, recyclability. Regarding the development of advanced packaging materials and the requirement of smart formed products, a study of sheet’s response behaviour is necessary for expanding the advanced converting industry. After introducing a couple of past research works concerned crease technologies, a fundamental mechanisms of crease deformation is reviewed using the scoring depth and the folding angle of a paperboard. Since one of important forming characteristics is a time-dependent stress relaxation or time-delayed strain during a fold/unfold process, the author’s experimental approaches for estimating a short term (less than 10 seconds) dynamic deformation behaviour of creased paperboard are discussed.

  10. Which axial and bending stiffnesses of posterior implants are required to design a flexible lumbar stabilization system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hendrik; Heuer, Frank; Wilke, Hans-Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic stabilization devices have been introduced to clinics as an alternative to rigid fixation. The stiffness of these devices varies widely, whereas the optimal stiffness, achieving a predefined stabilization of the spine, is unknown. This study was focused on the determination of stiffness values for posterior stabilization devices achieving a flexible, semi-flexible or rigid connection between two vertebrae. An extensively validated finite element model of a lumbar spinal segment L4-5 with an implanted posterior fixation device was used in this study. The model was exposed to pure moments of 7.5 and 20Nm around the three principal anatomical directions, simulating flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation. In parametrical studies, the influence of the axial and bending fixator stiffness on the spinal range of motion was investigated. In order to examine the validity of the computed results, an in-vitro study was carried out. In this, the influence of two posterior stabilization devices (DSS and rigidly internal fixator) on the segmental stabilization was investigated. The finite element (FE)-model predicted that each load direction caused a pairing of stiffness relations between axial and bending stiffness. In flexion and extension, however, the bending stiffness had a neglectable effect on the segmental stabilization, compared to the axial stiffness. In contrast, lateral bending and axial rotation were influenced by both stiffness parameters. Except in axial rotation, the model predictions were in a good agreement with the determined in-vitro data. In axial rotation, the FE-model predicted a stiffer segmental behavior than it was determined in the in-vitro study. It is usually expected that high stiffness values are required for a posterior stabilization device to stiffen a spinal segment. We found that already small stiffness values were sufficient to cause a stiffening. Using these data, it may possible to develop implants for certain clinical

  11. Moment closure in a Moran model with recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Baake, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    We extend the Moran model with single-crossover recombination to include general recombination and mutation. We show that, in the case without resampling, the expectations of products of marginal processes defined via partitions of sites form a closed hierarchy, which is exhaustively described by a finite system of differential equations. One thus has the exceptional situation of moment closure in a nonlinear system. Surprisingly, this property is lost when resampling (i.e., genetic drift) is included.

  12. Four-dimensional transform fault processes: progressive evolution of step-overs and bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, John; Hengesh, James V.; Sawyer, Thomas L.

    2004-11-01

    Many bends or step-overs along strike-slip faults may evolve by propagation of the strike-slip fault on one side of the structure and progressive shut-off of the strike-slip fault on the other side. In such a process, new transverse structures form, and the bend or step-over region migrates with respect to materials that were once affected by it. This process is the progressive asymmetric development of a strike-slip duplex. Consequences of this type of step-over evolution include: (1) the amount of structural relief in the restraining step-over or bend region is less than expected; (2) pull-apart basin deposits are left outside of the active basin; and (3) local tectonic inversion occurs that is not linked to regional plate boundary kinematic changes. This type of evolution of step-overs and bends may be common along the dextral San Andreas fault system of California; we present evidence at different scales for the evolution of bends and step-overs along this fault system. Examples of pull-apart basin deposits related to migrating releasing (right) bends or step-overs are the Plio-Pleistocene Merced Formation (tens of km along strike), the Pleistocene Olema Creek Formation (several km along strike) along the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay area, and an inverted colluvial graben exposed in a paleoseismic trench across the Miller Creek fault (meters to tens of meters along strike) in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. Examples of migrating restraining bends or step-overs include the transfer of slip from the Calaveras to Hayward fault, and the Greenville to the Concord fault (ten km or more along strike), the offshore San Gregorio fold and thrust belt (40 km along strike), and the progressive transfer of slip from the eastern faults of the San Andreas system to the migrating Mendocino triple junction (over 150 km along strike). Similar 4D evolution may characterize the evolution of other regions in the world, including the Dead Sea pull-apart, the Gulf

  13. 轴向扩散下不可压饱和多孔简支弹性杆的弯曲%Bending of simply supported incompressible saturated poroelastic beams with axial diffusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨骁; 刘鑫

    2008-01-01

    Based on the mathematical model of the bending of the incompressible saturated poroelastic beam with axialdiffusion, the quasi-static bendings of the simply supported poroelastic beam subjected to a suddenly applied constant loadwere investigated, and the analytical solutions were obtained for different diffusion conditions of the pore fluid at the beamends. The deflections, the bending moments of the solid skeleton and the equivalent couples of the pore pressures werepresented in figures. It is also shown that the behavior of the saturated poroelastic beams depends closely on the diffusionconditions at the beam ends, especially for the equivalent couples of the pore pressures. It is found that the Mandel-Cryereffect also exists in the bending of the saturated poroelastic beams under specific diffusion conditions at the beam ends.

  14. Self-crumpling elastomers: bending motion induced by a drying stimulus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulogne, François; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-11-01

    Capillary forces exerted by a liquid drop can bend elastic slender structures such as fibers or sheets. However, to successfully achieve capillary origami with sheets, it is important to make sure that the adhesion of the elastomer with the surface is low. We report an experimental study of the drying-induced peeling of a bilayer consisting of an elastomeric disk coated with a suspension of nanoparticles. We show that where capillary forces associated with the scale of the droplet can not compete with the adhesion of the elastomer on a surface, nevertheless large tensile stress developed in the coating, which resulted in a moment bending the bilayer. We attribute this stress to the nano-menisci in the pores of the colloidal material and we propose a model that describes successfully the early stage curvature of the bilayer. Thus, we show that the peeling can be conveniently controlled by the particle size and the coating thickness. We believe that such systems can be employed in various situations where delicate surfaces are involved such as in applications with optical and electronic components or in restoration of photographies, painting, wallpaper, fragile collectibles from contamination by dust, pollen, dirt, etc. The research leading to these results received funding from the People Programme (Marie Curie Actions) of the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under REA Grant Agreement 623541.

  15. Numerical Investigation of Bending-Body Projectile Aerodynamics for Maneuver Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Eric; Silton, Sidra

    2015-11-01

    Precision munitions are an active area of research for the U.S. Army. Canard-control actuators have historically been the primary mechanism used to maneuver fin-stabilized, gun-launched munitions. Canards are small, fin-like control surfaces mounted at the forward section of the munition to provide the pitching moment necessary to rotate the body in the freestream flow. The additional lift force due to the rotated body and the canards then alters the flight path toward the intended target. As velocity and maneuverability requirements continue to increase, investigation of other maneuver mechanisms becomes necessary. One option for a projectile with a large length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) is a bending-body design, which imparts a curvature to the projectile body along its axis. This investigation uses full Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics simulations to evaluate the effectiveness of an 8-degree bent nose tip on an 8-degree bent forward section of an L/D =10 projectile. The aerodynamic control effectiveness of the bending-body concept is compared to that of a standard L/D =10 straight-body projectile as well as that of the same projectile with traditional canards. All simulations were performed at supersonic velocities between Mach 2-4.

  16. ZERODUR: bending strength data for etched surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter; Leys, Antoine; Carré, Antoine; Kerz, Franca; Westerhoff, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    In a continuous effort since 2007 a considerable amount of new data and information has been gathered on the bending strength of the extremely low thermal expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR®. By fitting a three parameter Weibull distribution to the data it could be shown that for homogenously ground surfaces minimum breakage stresses exist lying much higher than the previously applied design limits. In order to achieve even higher allowable stress values diamond grain ground surfaces have been acid etched, a procedure widely accepted as strength increasing measure. If surfaces are etched taking off layers with thickness which are comparable to the maximum micro crack depth of the preceding grinding process they also show statistical distributions compatible with a three parameter Weibull distribution. SCHOTT has performed additional measurement series with etch solutions with variable composition testing the applicability of this distribution and the possibility to achieve further increase of the minimum breakage stress. For long term loading applications strength change with time and environmental media are important. The parameter needed for prediction calculations which is combining these influences is the stress corrosion constant. Results from the past differ significantly from each other. On the basis of new investigations better information will be provided for choosing the best value for the given application conditions.

  17. The Effects of Hot Bending on the Low Cycle Fatigue Behaviors of 347 SS in PWR Primary Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ho-Sub; Hong, Jong-Dae; Lee, Junho; Jang, Changheui [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Fatigue damage could be significant for some locations, especially the welds and bends where stress concentration is typically high. As a possible solution, a large radius hot-bending method has been suggested to eliminate some weld joints and all tight bends. However, for the hot-bending process which involves a high temperature thermal cycle, there is a concern about changes in mechanical properties including low cycle fatigue behaviors. In APR1400, Type 347 SS have been used as surge line pipes. Therefore, to verify the applicability of hot-bending on 347 SS surge line pipes, an environmental fatigue test program was initiated. In this paper, the preliminary results of the on-going test program are introduced. Also, the low cycle fatigue behaviors of 347 SS are compared with those of other grade of stainless steels. The effects of hot bending on the low cycle fatigue behavior of 347 SS were quantitatively evaluated. The fatigue life was compared with the estimated values per NUREG 6909 rev. 1. There are no distinct differences between NUREG 6909 and LCF tests. According to fractography and cross section analysis in progress, basically, the reduction of LCF life of 347 SS in PWR water was caused by operation of HIC mechanism. The cyclic stress responses shows that there is no secondary hardening in 330 .deg.C air and PWR water.

  18. Four-Dimensional Transform Fault Processes: Evolution of Step-Overs and Bends at Different Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, J.; Hengesh, J. V.; Sawyer, T. L.

    2002-12-01

    Many bends or step-overs along strike-slip faults may evolve by propagation of the strike-slip fault on one side of the structure and progressive shut off of the strike-slip fault on the other side. In such a process, new transverse structures form, old ones become inactive, and the bend or step-over region migrates with respect to materials that were once affected by it. This process is the progressive asymmetric development of a strike-slip duplex. Consequences of this type of step-over evolution include the following: 1. the amount of vertical structural relief in restraining step-over or bend regions is less than expected (apatite fission track ages associated with these step-over regions predate the strike-slip faulting); 2. pull-apart basin deposits are left outside of the active basin and commonly subjected to contractional deformation and uplift; and 3. local basin inversion occurs that is not linked to regional plate motion changes. This type of evolution of step-overs and bends may be common along the dextral San Andreas fault system of California. Examples of pull-apart basin deposits related to migrating releasing () bends or step-overs are the Plio-Pleistocene Merced Formation (tens of km along strike), the Pleistocene Olema Creek Formation (several km along strike) along the San Andreas fault in the San Francisco Bay area, and an inverted colluvial graben exposed in a paleoseismic trench across the Miller Creek fault (meters to tens of meters along strike) in the eastern San Francisco Bay area. Examples of migrating restraining bends or step-overs include the transfer of slip from the Calaveras to Hayward fault in the Mission Peak area, and the Greenville to the Concord fault at Mount Diablo (10 km or more along strike), the offshore San Gregorio fold and thrust belt (40 km along strike), and the progressive transfer of slip from the eastern faults of the San Andreas system to the migrating Mendocino triple junction (over 150 km along strike). Another

  19. Experimental and theoretical dipole moments of purines in their ground and lowest excited singlet states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, Jean-Jacques; Diabou Gaye, Mame; Párkányi, Cyril; Cho, Nam Sook; Von Szentpály, László

    1987-01-01

    The ground-state dipole moments of seven biologically important purines (purine, 6-chloropurine, 6-mercaptopurine, hypoxanthine, theobromine, theophylline and caffeine) were determined at 25°C in acetic acid (all the above compounds with the exception of purine) and in ethyl acetate (purine, theophylline and caffeine). Because of its low solubility, it was not possible to measure the dipole moment of uric acid. The first excited singlet-state dipole moments were obtained on the basis of the Bakhshiev and Chamma—Viallet equations using the variation of the Stokes shift with the solvent dielectric constant-refractive index term. The theoretical dipole moments for all the purines listed above and including uric acid were calculated by combining the use of the PPP (π-LCI-SCF-MO) method for the π-contribution to the overall dipole moment with the σ-contribution obtained as a vector sum of the σbond moments and group moments. The experimental and theoretical values were compared with the data available in the literature for some of the purines under study. For several purines, the calculations were carried out for different tautomeric forms. Excited singlet-state dipole moments are smaller than the ground-state values by 0.8 to 2.2 Debye units for all purines under study with the exception of 6-chloropurine. The effects of the structure upon the ground- and excited-state dipole moments of the purines are discussed.

  20. Table of nuclear electric quadrupole moments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This Table is a compilation of experimental measurements of static electric quadrupole moments of ground states and excited states of atomic nuclei throughout the periodic table. To aid identification of the states, their excitation energy, half-life, spin and parity are given, along with a brief indication of the method and any reference standard used in the particular measurement. Experimental data from all quadrupole moment measurements actually provide a value of the product of the moment and the electric field gradient [EFG] acting at the nucleus. Knowledge of the EFG is thus necessary to extract the quadrupole moment. A single recommended moment value is given for each state, based, for each element, wherever possible, upon a standard reference moment for a nuclear state of that element studied in a situation in which the electric field gradient has been well calculated. For several elements one or more subsidiary EFG/moment reference is required and their use is specified. The literature search covers the period to mid-2015.

  1. Inhibition of the gravitropic bending response of flowering shoots by salicylic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Haya; Meir, Shimon; Halevy, Abraham H; Philosoph-Hadas, Sonia

    2003-10-01

    The upward gravitropic bending of cut snapdragon, lupinus and anemone flowering shoots was inhibited by salicylic acid (SA) applied at 0.5 mM and above. This effect was probably not due to acidification of the cytoplasm, since other weak acids did not inhibit bending of snapdragon shoots. In order to study its mode of inhibitory action, we have examined in cut snapdragon shoots the effect of SA on three processes of the gravity-signaling pathway, including: amyloplast sedimentation, formation of ethylene gradient across the stem, and differential growth response. The results show that 1 mM SA inhibited differential ethylene production rates across the horizontal stem and the gravity-induced growth, without significantly inhibiting vertical growth or amyloplast sedimentation following horizontal placement. However, 5 mM SA inhibited all three gravity-induced processes, as well as the growth of vertical shoots, while increasing flower wilting. It may, therefore, be concluded that SA inhibits bending of various cut flowering shoots in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, at a low concentration SA exerts its effect in snapdragon shoots by inhibiting processes operating downstream to stimulus sensing exerted by amyloplast sedimentation. At a higher concentration SA inhibits bending probably by exerting general negative effects on various cellular processes.

  2. Solid-boundary treatment for moment systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khieu, Loc Huu

    Hyperbolic-relaxation systems for describing fluid flow, such as Grad's 13-moment (13M) system, are an alternative to the systems generated by the Chapman-Enskog expansion, which include derivatives of increasing order. The former have a number of numerical advantages stemming from the compactness of their spatial operator. They have been demonstrated to be suited for subsonic and transonic flow. In this dissertation we explore the solid-wall boundary conditions that have to supplement these moment systems. Starting from the boundary treatment proposed by Grad, we first remove an inconsistency in his theory that would lead to ambiguous results. We formulate two boundary conditions, 1— C and 2—C, containing one and two parameters, respectively; these are used to satisfy the non-penetration condition in 1— C and 2—C, and an additional normalization condition in 2—C. The boundary conditions are implemented in a computational code based on the 13M system. In order to study the accuracy of the new boundary condition we also develop a benchmark code based on the Boltzmann equation with Bhatnagar—Gross—Krook collision model (BGK equation), and implement the same boundary conditions in there. Both codes include a Finite-Volume (FV) and a Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) option (piecewise-linear discretization). These codes are used to solve three types of flow problems: low-speed Couette flow with zero difference in wall temperatures, zero-speed Couette flow with appreciable wall-temperature difference, and low-speed Poiseuille flow. The Knudsen number ranged from 0.01 to 10. For these problems, incompressible Navier—Stokes—Fourier (NSF) solutions are available for comparison (except for the temperature-driven flow); here the boundary condition used is a first-or second-order velocity-slip boundary condition. The numerical experiments indicate that the 13M/1—C system consistently predicts a flow velocity at the wall that is closer to the BGK solution than

  3. PROGRESS IN STUDIES ON ICE ACCUMULATION IN RIVER BENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jun; CHEN Pang-pang; SUI Jue-yi

    2011-01-01

    River ice is an important hydraulic element in temperate and polar environments and would affect hydrodynamic conditions of rivers through changes both in the boundary conditions and the thermal regime.The river bend has been reported as the common location for the initiation of ice jams because the water flow along a river bend is markedly affected by the channel curvature.In this article,the experimental studies about the ice accumulation in a river bend are reviewed.Based on experiments conducted so far,the criteria for the formation of ice jams in the river bend,the mechanisms of the ice accumulation in the river bend and the thickness profile of the ice accumulation in the river bend are discussed.The k- ε two-equation turbulence model is used to simulate the ice accumulation under an ice cover along a river bend.A formula is proposed for describing the deformation of the ice jam bottom.Our results indicate that all simulated thickness of the ice accumulation agrees reasonably well with the measured thickness of the ice accumulation in the laboratory.

  4. A Moment Matching Approach for Generating Synthetic Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogle, Brittany Megan; Mehrotra, Sanjay

    2016-09-01

    Synthetic data are becoming increasingly important mechanisms for sharing data among collaborators and with the public. Multiple methods for the generation of synthetic data have been proposed, but many have short comings with respect to maintaining the statistical properties of the original data. We propose a new method for fully synthetic data generation that leverages linear and integer mathematical programming models in order to match the moments of the original data in the synthetic data. This method has no inherent disclosure risk and does not require parametric or distributional assumptions. We demonstrate this methodology using the Framingham Heart Study. Existing synthetic data methods that use chained equations were compared with our approach. We fit Cox proportional hazards, logistic regression, and nonparametric models to synthetic data and compared with models fitted to the original data. True coverage, the proportion of synthetic data parameter confidence intervals that include the original data's parameter estimate, was 100% for parametric models when up to four moments were matched, and consistently outperformed the chained equations approach. The area under the curve and accuracy of the nonparametric models trained on synthetic data marginally differed when tested on the full original data. Models were also trained on synthetic data and a partition of original data and were tested on a held-out portion of original data. Fourth-order moment matched synthetic data outperformed others with respect to fitted parametric models but did not always outperform other methods with fitted nonparametric models. No single synthetic data method consistently outperformed others when assessing the performance of nonparametric models. The performance of fourth-order moment matched synthetic data in fitting parametric models suggests its use in these cases. Our empirical results also suggest that the performance of synthetic data generation techniques, including the

  5. Influence of plywood grain direction on sandwich panel bending properties

    OpenAIRE

    Jaroslav Kljak; Mladen Brezović; Alan Antonović

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of plywood grain direction on bending properties of a sandwich panel, as well as on stress distribution in each layer. Experimental sandwich panels (tnom= 29 mm) were made of two three-ply plywood panels and a rigid PVC core between them. Grain directions of plywood panels were between 0° and 90°, continuously raised by 15°. Seven models of sandwich panels were made. Bending properties of a sandwich panel was determined by three point bending method and s...

  6. Buffers affect the bending rigidity of model lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouvrais, Hélène; Duelund, Lars; Ipsen, John H

    2014-01-14

    In biophysical and biochemical studies of lipid bilayers the influence of the used buffer is often ignored or assumed to be negligible on membrane structure, elasticity, or physical properties. However, we here present experimental evidence, through bending rigidity measurements performed on giant vesicles, of a more complex behavior, where the buffering molecules may considerably affect the bending rigidity of phosphatidylcholine bilayers. Furthermore, a synergistic effect on the bending modulus is observed in the presence of both salt and buffer molecules, which serves as a warning to experimentalists in the data interpretation of their studies, since typical lipid bilayer studies contain buffer and ion molecules.

  7. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao; Steinhauser, Matthias [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Teilchenphysik; Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-11-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  8. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurz, Alexander [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Liu, Tao [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Marquard, Peter [Deutsches Elektronen Synchrotron (DESY), 15738 Zeuthen (Germany); Steinhauser, Matthias [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), 76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2014-02-15

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  9. Anomalous magnetic moment with heavy virtual leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Kurz, Alexander; Marquard, Peter; Steinhauser, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    We compute the contributions to the electron and muon anomalous magnetic moment induced by heavy leptons up to four-loop order. Asymptotic expansion is applied to obtain three analytic expansion terms which show rapid convergence.

  10. Moment of Inertia of a Physical Pendulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidl, Charles J., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a simple and inexpensive procedure for determining the moment of inertia of a physical pendulum both experimentally and analytically. The simplicity of the apparatus enables students to easily change parameters and obtain a wide variety of measurements. (JRH)

  11. Magnetic moments in graphene with vacancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing-Jing; Wu, Han-Chun; Yu, Da-Peng; Liao, Zhi-Min

    2014-08-07

    Vacancies can induce local magnetic moments in graphene, paving the way to make magnetic functional graphene. Due to the interaction between magnetic moments and conduction carriers, the magnetotransport properties of graphene can be modulated. Here, the effects of vacancy induced magnetic moments on the electrical properties of graphene are studied via magnetotransport measurements and spin-polarized density functional theory calculations. We show by quantum Hall measurements that a sharp resonant Vπ state is introduced in the midgap region of graphene with vacancies, resulting in the local magnetic moment. The coupling between the localized Vπ state and the itinerant carrier is tuned by varying the carrier concentration, temperature, magnetic field, and vacancy density, which results in a transition between hopping transport and the Kondo effect and a transition between giant negative magnetoresistance (MR) and positive MR. This modulated magnetotransport is valuable for graphene based spintronic devices.

  12. Moments of the folded logistic distribution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saralees Nadarajah; Samuel Kotz

    2007-01-01

    The recent paper by Cooray et al. introduced the folded logistic distribution. The moments properties given in the paper appear too complicated. In this note, a simple formula is derived in terms of the well known Lerch function.

  13. On the Neutron Electric Dipole Moment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Bentalha; O. Lazrec

    2004-01-01

    @@ Within the Kobayashi-Maskawa mechanism of electroweak interaction and using the recent measured mass of the top quark, we estimate the neutron electric dipole moment (NEDM) via the diquark electroweak interaction.The resulting moment is about 10-30 e cm. The actual upper bound on the NEDM is 6.3 × 10-26 ecm and it can reach the value 5 × 10-28 ecm predicted by experiments in recent years.

  14. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    OpenAIRE

    Mourrain, B.; J. B. Lasserre; Laurent, Monique; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming. While the border basis algorithms of [17] are ecient and numerically stable for computing complex roots, algorithms based on moment matrices [12] allow the incorporation of additional polynomials, ...

  15. From Moments to Functions in Quantum Chromodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Blümlein, J; Klein, S; Schneider, C

    2009-01-01

    Single-scale quantities, like the QCD anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients, obey difference equations. Therefore their analytic form can be determined from a finite number of moments. We demonstrate this in an explicit calculation by establishing and solving large scale recursions by means of computer algebra for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering from their Mellin moments to 3-loop order.

  16. On the dipole moment of CO/+/.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain, P. R.; Woods, R. C.

    1973-01-01

    Results of self-consistent field calculations on neutral CO, its positive ion, and on neutral CN to verify an earlier estimate of the dipole moment of CO(+) in its ground super 2 Sigma state. Based on the above-mentioned calculations, direct evidence is obtained that the dipole moment (relative to the center of mass) is approximately 2.5 plus or minus 0.5 C, as previously determined by Kopelman and Klemperer (1962).

  17. Link between chips and cutting moments evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Cahuc, Olivier; Gérard, Alain; 10.4028/WWW.scientific.net/AMR.423.89

    2012-01-01

    The better understanding of the material cutting process has been shown with the benefit of the forces and moments measurement since some years ago. In paper, simultaneous six mechanical components and chip orientation measurements were realized during turning tests. During these tests, the influence of the depth of cut or feed rate has been observed and a link between the chip orientation and the moment vector orientation or the central axis characteristics has been shown.

  18. Truncated Moment Analysis of Nucleon Structure Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Psaker; W. Melnitchouk; M. E. Christy; C. E. Keppel

    2007-11-16

    We employ a novel new approach using "truncated" moments, or integrals of structure functions over restricted regions of x, to study local quark-hadron duality, and the degree to which individual resonance regions are dominated by leading twists. Because truncated moments obey the same Q^2 evolution equations as the leading twist parton distributions, this approach makes possible for the first time a description of resonance region data and the phenomenon of quark-hadron duality directly from QCD.

  19. From moments to functions in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemlein, Johannes; Klein, Sebastian [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Kauers, Manuel; Schneider, Carsten [Johannes Kepler Univ., Linz (Austria). Research Inst. for Symbolic Computation

    2009-02-15

    Single-scale quantities, like the QCD anomalous dimensions andWilson coefficients, obey difference equations. Therefore their analytic form can be determined from a finite number of moments. We demonstrate this in an explicit calculation by establishing and solving large scale recursions by means of computer algebra for the anomalous dimensions and Wilson coefficients in unpolarized deeply inelastic scattering from their Mellin moments to 3-loop order. (orig.)

  20. Advantages of customer/supplier involvement in the upgrade of River Bend`s IST program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Womack, R.L.; Addison, J.A.

    1996-12-01

    At River Bend Station, IST testing had problems. Operations could not perform the test with the required repeatability; engineering could not reliably trend test data to detect degradation; licensing was heavily burdened with regulatory concerns; and maintenance could not do preventative maintenance because of poor prediction of system health status. Using Energy`s Total Quality principles, it was determined that the causes were: lack of ownership, inadequate test equipment usage, lack of adequate procedures, and lack of program maintenance. After identifying the customers and suppliers of the IST program data, Energy management put together an upgrade team to address these concerns. These customers and suppliers made up the IST upgrade team. The team`s mission was to supply River Bend with a reliable, functional, industry correct and user friendly IST program. The IST program in place went through a verification process that identified and corrected over 400 individual program discrepancies. Over 200 components were identified for improved testing methods. An IST basis document was developed. The operations department was trained on ASME Section XI testing. All IST tests have been simplified and shortened, due to heavy involvement by operations in the procedure development process. This significantly reduced testing time, resulting in lower cost, less dose and greater system availability.

  1. Cyclic density functional theory: A route to the first principles simulation of bending in nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Amartya S.; Suryanarayana, Phanish

    2016-11-01

    We formulate and implement Cyclic Density Functional Theory (Cyclic DFT) - a self-consistent first principles simulation method for nanostructures with cyclic symmetries. Using arguments based on Group Representation Theory, we rigorously demonstrate that the Kohn-Sham eigenvalue problem for such systems can be reduced to a fundamental domain (or cyclic unit cell) augmented with cyclic-Bloch boundary conditions. Analogously, the equations of electrostatics appearing in Kohn-Sham theory can be reduced to the fundamental domain augmented with cyclic boundary conditions. By making use of this symmetry cell reduction, we show that the electronic ground-state energy and the Hellmann-Feynman forces on the atoms can be calculated using quantities defined over the fundamental domain. We develop a symmetry-adapted finite-difference discretization scheme to obtain a fully functional numerical realization of the proposed approach. We verify that our formulation and implementation of Cyclic DFT is both accurate and efficient through selected examples. The connection of cyclic symmetries with uniform bending deformations provides an elegant route to the ab-initio study of bending in nanostructures using Cyclic DFT. As a demonstration of this capability, we simulate the uniform bending of a silicene nanoribbon and obtain its energy-curvature relationship from first principles. A self-consistent ab-initio simulation of this nature is unprecedented and well outside the scope of any other systematic first principles method in existence. Our simulations reveal that the bending stiffness of the silicene nanoribbon is intermediate between that of graphene and molybdenum disulphide - a trend which can be ascribed to the variation in effective thickness of these materials. We describe several future avenues and applications of Cyclic DFT, including its extension to the study of non-uniform bending deformations and its possible use in the study of the nanoscale flexoelectric effect.

  2. Narrative report 1968: U. L. Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Ul Bend NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1968 calendar year. The report begins by summarizing the weather conditions,...

  3. Wildlife Inventory Plan : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan describes wildlife inventory in Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge in 1983. This plan helps achieve refuge objectives by detailing the plan, purpose, and...

  4. Active vibration control of structures undergoing bending vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, Frederic G. (Inventor); Rajiyah, Harindra (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An active vibration control subassembly for a structure (such as a jet engine duct or a washing machine panel) undergoing bending vibrations caused by a source (such as the clothes agitator of the washing machine) independent of the subassembly. A piezoceramic actuator plate is vibratable by an applied electric AC signal. The plate is connected to the structure such that vibrations in the plate induced by the AC signal cause canceling bending vibrations in the structure and such that the plate is compressively pre-stressed along the structure when the structure is free of any bending vibrations. The compressive prestressing increases the amplitude of the canceling bending vibrations before the critical tensile stress level of the plate is reached. Preferably, a positive electric DC bias is also applied to the plate in its poling direction.

  5. Gender differences in variability patterns of forward bending

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Morten; Madeleine, Pascal; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    The variability pattern is highly relevant in the analysis of occupational physical exposures. It is hypothesized that gender differences exist in the variability pattern of forward bending between work and leisure....

  6. Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Holla Bend NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  7. Novel boundary element method for resolving plate bending problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颂英; 王乐勤; 焦磊

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses the application of the boundary contour method for resolving plate bending problems. The exploitation of the integrand divergence free property of the plate bending boundary integral equation based on the Kirchhoff hypothesis and a very useful application of Stokes' Theorem are presented to convert surface integrals on boundary elements to the computation of bending potential functions on the discretized boundary points, even for curved surface elements of arbitrary shape. Singularity and treatment of the discontinued corner point are not needed at all. The evaluation of the physics variant at internal points is also shown in this article. Numerical results are presented for some plate bending problems and compared against analytical and previous solutions.

  8. Preliminary Project Investigation : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report covers the proposed expansion of Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge to increase the quantity and quality of wintering habitat primarily for mallards and...

  9. Tidal bending of glaciers: a linear viscoelastic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Niels; Christensen, Erik Lintz; Mayer, Christoph;

    2003-01-01

    In theoretical treatments of tidal bending of floating glaciers, the glacier is usually modelled as an elastic beam with uniform thickness, resting on an elastic foundation. With a few exceptions, values of the elastic (Young's) modulus E of ice derived from tidal deflection records of floating...... glaciers are in the range 0.9-3 GPa. It has therefore been suggested that the elastic-beam model with a single value of E approximate to 1 GPa adequately describes tidal bending of glaciers.In contrast, laboratory experiments with ice give E =93 GPa, i.e. 3-10 times higher than the glacier-derived values....... This suggests that ice creep may have a significant influence on tidal bending of glaciers. Moreover, detailed tidal-deflection and tilt data from Nioghalvfjerdsfjorden glacier, northeast Greenland, cannot be explained by elastic-beam theory. We present a theory of tidal bending of glaciers based on linear...

  10. Fishery Manangement Plan : Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This plan describes fishery management for Holla Bend National Wildlife Refuge in 1990. The plan outlines goals, objectives for fishery management for the benefit of...

  11. A Moment Equation Approach to a Muon Collider Cooling Lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celata, C.M.; Sessler, A.M.; Lee, P.B.; Shadwick, B.A.; Wurtele, J.S.

    1998-06-01

    Equations are derived which describe the evolution of the second order moments of the beam distribution function in the ionization cooling section of a muon collider. Ionization energy loss, multiple scattering, and magnetic fields have been included, but forces are linearized. A computer code using the equations agrees well with tracking calculations. The code is extremely fast, and can be used for preliminary design, where such issues as beam halo, which must be explored using a tracking code, are not the focus.

  12. NUMERICAL SIMULATION FOR LASER BENDING OF SHEET METAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The new flexible forming technique of sheet metal-laser bending process is numerically simulated by using finite element method of large elastic-plastic deformation. The temperature fields and stress-strain distribution in deformation area are calculated, forming process is described and relationship between bend angle and width of sheet is discussed. It is shown that the calculated values are in good accordance with the experiments.

  13. Localized bending fatigue behavior of high-strength steel monostrands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Jan; Fischer, Gregor; Georgakis, Christos T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement of the st......In this paper, the localized bending fatigue behavior of pretensioned high strength steel monostrands is investigated. Furthermore, a new methodology using an optical photogrammetry system, which can quantify surface deformations on the strand is presented. The system allows measurement...

  14. Bending elastic moduli of lipid bilayers : modulation by solutes

    OpenAIRE

    Duwe, H.P.; Kaes, J.; Sackmann, E.

    1990-01-01

    We present high precision measurements of the bending elastic moduli for bilayers of a variety of different lipids and of modifications of the flexural rigidity by solutes. The measurements are based on the Fourier analysis of thermally excited membrane undulations (vesicle shape fluctuations) using a recently developed dynamic image processing method. Measurements of the bending modulus as a function of the undulation wave vector provide information on the limitation of the excitations by th...

  15. An Analysis of Elasto-Plastic Bending of Rectangular Plate

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuda, Hiroshi; Sakiyama, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a discrete method for analyzing the problem of elasto-plastic bending of a rectangular plate is proposed. The solutions for partial differential equation of rectangular plate are obtained in discrete forms by applying numerical integnltion. An incremental variable elasticity procedure has been used for the clasta-plastic analysis of the rectangular plate. As the applications of the proposed method, clasta-plastic bending of rectangular plate with four types of boundary conditio...

  16. A Study of Neutron Star Structure in Strong Magnetic Fields that includes Anomalous Magnetic Moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guang-Jun Mao; Akira Iwamoto; Zhu-Xia Li

    2003-01-01

    We study the effect of strong magnetic fields on the structure of neutronstar. We find that if the interior field is on the same order as the surface fieldcurrently observed, then the influences of the field on the star's mass and radius arenegligible; if the field is as large as that estimated from the scalar virial theorem,then considerable effects will be induced. The maximum mass of the star will beincreased substantially while the central density is greatly reduced. The radius ofa magnetic star can be larger by about 10% ~ 20% than a nonmagnetic star of thesame mass.

  17. Continuous time random walk: Galilei invariance and relation for the nth moment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau Fa, Kwok

    2011-01-01

    We consider a decoupled continuous time random walk model with a generic waiting time probability density function (PDF). For the force-free case we derive an integro-differential diffusion equation which is related to the Galilei invariance for the probability density. We also derive a general relation which connects the nth moment in the presence of any external force to the second moment without external force, i.e. it is valid for any waiting time PDF. This general relation includes the generalized second Einstein relation, which connects the first moment in the presence of any external force to the second moment without any external force. These expressions for the first two moments are verified by using several kinds of the waiting time PDF. Moreover, we present new anomalous diffusion behaviours for a waiting time PDF given by a product of power-law and exponential function.

  18. Optimal Orthogonal Graph Drawing with Convex Bend Costs

    CERN Document Server

    Bläsius, Thomas; Wagner, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Traditionally, the quality of orthogonal planar drawings is quantified by either the total number of bends, or the maximum number of bends per edge. However, this neglects that in typical applications, edges have varying importance. Moreover, as bend minimization over all planar embeddings is NP-hard, most approaches focus on a fixed planar embedding. We consider the problem OptimalFlexDraw that is defined as follows. Given a planar graph G on n vertices with maximum degree 4 and for each edge e a cost function cost_e : N_0 --> R defining costs depending on the number of bends on e, compute an orthogonal drawing of G of minimum cost. Note that this optimizes over all planar embeddings of the input graphs, and the cost functions allow fine-grained control on the bends of edges. In this generality OptimalFlexDraw is NP-hard. We show that it can be solved efficiently if 1) the cost function of each edge is convex and 2) the first bend on each edge does not cause any cost (which is a condition similar to the posi...

  19. A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxiang; Chen, Weishan; Liu, Junkao; Shi, Shengjun

    2011-07-01

    A cylindrical standing wave ultrasonic motor using bending vibration transducer was proposed in this paper. The proposed stator contains a cylinder and a bending vibration transducer. The two combining sites between the cylinder and the transducer locate at the adjacent wave loops of bending vibration of the transducer and have a distance that equal to the half wave length of bending standing wave excited in the cylinder. Thus, the bending mode of the cylinder can be excited by the bending vibration of the transducer. Two circular cone type rotors are pressed in contact to the end rims of the teeth, and the preload between the rotors and stator is accomplished by a spring and nut system. The working principle of the proposed motor was analyzed. The motion trajectories of teeth were deduced. The stator was designed and analyzed with FEM. A prototype motor was fabricated and measured. Typical output of the prototype is no-load speed of 165rpm and maximum torque of 0.45Nm at an exciting voltage of 200V(rms).

  20. Tunable characteristics of bending resonance frequency in magnetoelectric laminated composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Lei; Li Ping; Wen Yu-Mei; Zhu Yong

    2013-01-01

    As the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminated composites is mediated by mechanical deformation,the ME effect is significantly enhanced in the vicinity of resonance frequency.The bending resonance frequency (fr) of bilayered Terfenol-D/PZT (MP) laminated composites is studied,and our analysis predicts that (i) the bending resonance frequency of an MP laminated composite can be tuned by an applied dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to the △E effect; (ii) the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite can be controlled by incorporating FeCuNbSiB layers with different thicknesses.The experimental results show that with Hdc increasing from 0Oe (1 Oe=79.5775 A/m)to 700 Oe,the bending resonance frequency can be shifted in a range of 32.68 kHz ≤ fr ≤ 33.96 kHz.In addition,with the thickness of the FeCuNbSiB layer increasing from 0 μm to 90 μm,the bending resonance frequency of the MP laminated composite gradually increases from 33.66 kHz to 39.18 kHz.This study offers a method of adjusting the strength of dc magnetic bias or the thicknesses of the FeCuNbSiB layer to tune the bending resonance frequency for ME composite,which plays a guiding role in the ME composite design for real applications.

  1. Teaching Mistakes or Teachable Moments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Mary; Yankelewitz, Dina

    2014-01-01

    Gain a new perspective on the sharing of erroneous solutions in classroom discussions. Based on their research in grades four and six, the authors reveal how student-to-student correction of errors promotes mathematical reasoning and understanding. Tips for teachers include strategies for using students' errors to encourage reasoning during…

  2. Nonadiabatic Induced Dipole Moment by High Intensity Femtosecond Optical Pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Koprinkov, I. G.

    2006-01-01

    Nonadiabtic dressed states and nonadiabatic induced dipole moment in the leading order of nonadiabaticity is proposed. The nonadiabatic induced dipole moment is studied in the femtosecond time domain.

  3. Applications of circularly polarized photons at the ALS with a bend magnet source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-02-01

    The purpose of this workshop is to focus attention on, and to stimulate the scientific exploitation of, the natural polarization properties of bend-magnet synchrotron radiation at the ALS -- for research in biology, materials science, physics, and chemistry. The topics include: The Advanced Light Source; Magnetic Circular Dichroism and Differential Scattering on Biomolecules; Tests of Fundamental Symmetries; High {Tc} Superconductivity; Photoemission from Magnetic and Non-magnetic Solids; Studies of Highly Correlated Systems; and Instrumentation for Photon Transport and Polarization Measurements.

  4. Laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization time and spin moment in ferromagnets: First-principles calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, G. P., E-mail: gpzhang@indstate.edu [Department of Physics, Indiana State University, Terre Haute, Indiana 47809 (United States); Si, M. S. [Key Laboratory for Magnetism and Magnetic Materials of the Ministry of Education, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); George, Thomas F. [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Departments of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, Missouri 63121 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    When a laser pulse excites a ferromagnet, its spin undergoes a dramatic change. The initial demagnetization process is very fast. Experimentally, it is found that the demagnetization time is related to the spin moment in the sample. In this study, we employ the first-principles method to directly simulate such a process. We use the fixed spin moment method to change the spin moment in ferromagnetic nickel, and then we employ the Liouville equation to couple the laser pulse to the system. We find that in general the dependence of demagnetization time on the spin moment is nonlinear: It decreases with the spin moment up to a point, after which an increase with the spin moment is observed, followed by a second decrease. To understand this, we employ an extended Heisenberg model, which includes both the exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling. The model directly links the demagnetization rate to the spin moment itself and demonstrates analytically that the spin relaxes more slowly with a small spin moment. A future experimental test of our predictions is needed.

  5. Laser-induced ultrafast demagnetization time and spin moment in ferromagnets: First-principles calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, G. P.; Si, M. S.; George, Thomas F.

    2015-05-01

    When a laser pulse excites a ferromagnet, its spin undergoes a dramatic change. The initial demagnetization process is very fast. Experimentally, it is found that the demagnetization time is related to the spin moment in the sample. In this study, we employ the first-principles method to directly simulate such a process. We use the fixed spin moment method to change the spin moment in ferromagnetic nickel, and then we employ the Liouville equation to couple the laser pulse to the system. We find that in general the dependence of demagnetization time on the spin moment is nonlinear: It decreases with the spin moment up to a point, after which an increase with the spin moment is observed, followed by a second decrease. To understand this, we employ an extended Heisenberg model, which includes both the exchange interaction and spin-orbit coupling. The model directly links the demagnetization rate to the spin moment itself and demonstrates analytically that the spin relaxes more slowly with a small spin moment. A future experimental test of our predictions is needed.

  6. Numerical Investigation of a New Method for Reducing Bends Erosion from Particles Impacts%气固两相流中一种抗磨新方法的数值验证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚军; 樊建人; 岑可法

    2002-01-01

    The present paper intends to introduce a new method for reducing bends erosion from particles impacts:the ribbed bend erosion protection method. Ribs are evenly fixed in the range of 20°-80° on the inner-wall of inside 90° bend and the bend (including ribs) is made of medium carbon steel. Three-dimensional numerical work is performed and the result shows satisfactory agreement with the experimental measurement. Numerical simulation studies the characteristics of axial gas flow along the bend and secondary flow at cross section. Detailed analyses involving the impact velocity and incidence angle of particle-metal (either particle-rib or particle-duct) impact unveil the mechanism of the anti-erosion effect. As a result, predications achieve that the average erosion rate of the ribbed bends is only a third of the bare bend under test conditions and rectangle ribs possess higher anti-erosion effect than square ribs, while the wear distribution pattern remains unchanged after adding ribs onto the bend. All results confirm that the ribbed bend erosion protection method is a simple and effective method for reducing bends erosion from particles impacts.

  7. Two-dimensional second-order factorial moment for shower particles produced in {sup 28}Si-emulsion collisions at 14.6 A GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haq, M Mohib-ul; Islam, Saiful; Hasan, R [Department of Physics, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India)

    2004-12-01

    The anomalous scaling behaviour of two-dimensional second-order factorial moment F{sub 2} for shower particles produced in {sup 28}Si-emulsion collisions at 14.6 A GeV has been investigated. The slopes of ln (F{sub 2}) versus ln M plots for different values of Hurst exponent H have been determined. The parameter 'a' that characterizes the upward bending of ln (F{sub 2}) versus ln M plots has been determined. A comparison of our results with the corresponding results for events generated using UrQMD model indicates that the upward bending of the two-dimensional moment cannot be explained by the model.

  8. Multipole moments for embedding potentials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørby, Morten Steen; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Kongsted, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    Polarizable quantum mechanical (QM)/molecular mechanics (MM)-embedding methods are currently among the most promising methods for computationally feasible, yet reliable, production calculations of localized excitations and molecular response properties of large molecular complexes, such as proteins...... extended with site polarizabilities including internal charge transfer terms. We present a new way of dealing with well-known problems in relation to the use of basis sets with diffuse functions in conventional atomic allocation algorithms, avoiding numerical integration schemes. Using this approach, we...

  9. Power module control moment gyro

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The directed design modifications to the Skylab/ATM CMG for application to the Power Module include new rotors of a different material with high resistance to stress corrosion cracking. The spin bearing retainer fix which was determined during the post Skylab mission was incorporated, and the speed pickoff was improved through the use of pickoff thermal cycling screening tests. The unlimited gimbal freedom on box axes was incorporated using slip ring assemblies. The on-orbit replacement capability was also incorporated for the CMG assembly and the inverter assembly.

  10. Thick Plate Homogenization of Sandwich Panels Including Folded Cellular Cores

    OpenAIRE

    LEBEE, Arthur; Sab, Karam

    2011-01-01

    In the present work, we provide the Bending-Gradient homogenization scheme and apply it to a sandwich panel including the chevron pattern. It turns out that the shear forces stiffness of the sandwich panel is strongly influenced by a skin distortion phenomenon which cannot be neglected in conventional design.

  11. Bond length, dipole moment, and harmonic frequency of CO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Leslie A.; Liu, Bowen; Lindh, Roland

    1993-01-01

    A detailed comparison of some properties of CO is given, at the modified coupled-pair functional, single and double excitation coupled-cluster (CCSD), and CCSD(T) levels of theory (including a perturbational estimate for connected triple excitations), using a variety of basis sets. With very large one-particle basis sets, the CCSD(T) method gives excellent results for the bond distance, dipole moment, and harmonic frequency of CO. In a (6s 5p 4d 3f 2g 1h) + (1s 1p 1d) basis set, the bond distance is about 0.005a0 too large, the dipole moment about 0.005 a.u. too small, and the frequency about 6/cm too small, when compared with experimental results.

  12. Constraining neutrino magnetic moment with solar neutrino data

    CERN Document Server

    Tortola, M A

    2003-01-01

    We use solar neutrino data to derive stringent bounds on Majorana neutrino transition moments (TMs). Such moments, if present, would contribute to the neutrino-electron scattering cross section and hence alter the signal observed in Super-Kamiokande. Using the latest solar neutrino data, combined with the results of the reactor experiment KamLAND, we perform a simultaneous fit of the oscillation parameters and TMs. Furthermore, we include data from the reactor experiments Rovno, TEXONO and MUNU in our analysis, improving significantly the current constraints on TMs. A comparison with previous works shows that our bounds are the strongest and most general results presented up to now. Finally, we perform a simulation of the future Borexino experiment and show that it will improve the bounds from today's data by order of magnitude.

  13. Measurement of the electric dipole moment and magnetic moment anomaly of the muon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderwater, CJG

    2005-01-01

    The experimental precision of the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon has been improved to 0.5 part-per-million by the Brookhaven E821 experiment, similar to the theoretical uncertainty. In the same experiment, a new limit on the electric dipole moment of 2.8 x 10(-19) e-cm (95% CL) was set. The e

  14. Interdigital Piezopolymer Transducers for Time of Flight Measurements with Ultrasonic Lamb Waves on Carbon-Epoxy Composites under Pure Bending Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Bulletti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interdigital transducers fabricated with piezopolymer film have been realized to excite ultrasonic Lamb waves in a composite laminate subjected to pure bending stresses. Lamb waves were generated and detected in a cross-ply [0°/90°] 4 mm thick carbon-fiber composite, by using two interdigital transducers in pitch-catch configuration. We demonstrate that the choice of the piezopolymer transducer technology is suitable for this type of investigation and the advantages of the proposed transducer assembly and bonding are described. A full set-up is described to determine the relationship between the time of flight of the recorded signals and the applied bending moment. Interdigital transducers were designed according to simulations of the dispersion curves, in order to operate at a central frequency of 450 kHz. This frequency corresponds to a central wavelength of 16 mm and to a group velocity of about 6000 m/s for the first symmetric guided wave mode. The variations in the time of flight of ultrasonic recorded signals were measured as a function of the variations in the bending moment. The static and dynamic load tests were in good agreement with strain gage measurements performed in the micro deformation range (0–1400 µm/m.

  15. Dynamic characteristics of the rotor in a magnetically suspended control moment gyroscope with active magnetic bearing and passive magnetic bearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiqiang; Xiang, Biao; Zhang, Yongbin

    2014-07-01

    For a magnetically suspended control moment gyroscope, stiffness and damping of magnetic bearing will influence modal frequency of a rotor. In this paper the relationship between modal frequency and stiffness and damping has been investigated. The mathematic calculation model of axial passive magnetic bearing (PMB) stiffness is developed. And PID control based on internal model control is introduced into control of radial active magnetic bearing (AMB), considering the radial coupling of axial PMB, a mathematic calculation model of stiffness and damping of radial AMB is established. According to modal analysis, the relationship between modal frequency and modal shapes is achieved. Radial vibration frequency is mainly influenced by stiffness of radial AMB; however, when stiffness increases, radial vibration will disappear and a high frequency bending modal will appear. Stiffness of axial PMB mainly affects the axial vibration mode, which will turn into high-order bending modal. Axial PMB causes bigger influence on torsion modal of the rotor.

  16. Magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohtsubo, T., E-mail: tohtsubo@np.gs.niigata-u.ac.jp; Kawamura, Y.; Ohya, S. [Niigata University, Department of Physics (Japan); Izumikawa, T. [Niigata University, Radioisotope Center (Japan); Nishimura, K. [Toyama University, Faculty of Engineering (Japan); Muto, S. [Neutron Science Laboratory, KEK (Japan); Shinozuka, T. [Tohoku University, Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (Japan)

    2007-11-15

    Nuclear magnetic resonances were measured for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc oriented at 8 mK in an Fe host metal. The magnetic hyperfine splitting frequencies at an external magnetic field of 0.2 T were determined to be 63.22(11) MHz and 64.81(1) MHz for {sup 48}Sc and {sup 44m}Sc, respectively. With the known magnetic moment of {mu}({sup 44m}Sc)=+3.88 (1) {mu}{sub N}, the magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is deduced as {mu}({sup 44}Sc)=+3.785(12) {mu}{sub N}. The measured magnetic moment of {sup 48}Sc is discussed in terms of the shell model using the effective interactions.

  17. The moments of inertia of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bills, Bruce G.

    1989-01-01

    The mean moment of inertia of Mars is, at present, very poorly constrained. The generally accepted value of 0.365 M(R-squared) is obtained by assuming that the observed second degree gravity field can be decomposed into a hydrostatic oblate spheroid and a nonhydrostatic prolate spheroid with an equatorial axis of symmetry. An alternative decomposition is advocated in the present analysis. If the nonhydrostatic component is a maximally triaxial ellipsoid (intermediate moment exactly midway between greatest and least), the hydrostatic component is consistent with a mean moment of 0.345 M(R-squared). The plausibility of this decomposition is supported by statistical arguments and comparison with the earth, moon and Venus.

  18. Nuclear Schiff moment and soft vibrational modes

    CERN Document Server

    Zelevinsky, Vladimir; Auerbach, Naftali

    2008-01-01

    The atomic electric dipole moment (EDM) currently searched by a number of experimental groups requires that both parity and time-reversal invariance be violated. According to current theoretical understanding, the EDM is induced by the nuclear Schiff moment. The enhancement of the Schiff moment by the combination of static quadrupole and octupole deformation was predicted earlier. Here we study a further idea of the possible enhancement in the absence of static deformation but in a nuclear system with soft collective vibrations of two types. Both analytical approximation and numerical solution of the simplified problem confirm the presence of the enhancement. We discuss related aspects of nuclear structure which should be studied beyond mean-field and random phase approximations.

  19. Skew t distribution and its moments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saralees NADARAJAH; Arjun K.GUPTA

    2006-01-01

    A random variable X is said to have the skew- t distribution if its pdf is f (x) = 2g (x) G (λx), where g (·) and G(·), respectively, denote the pdf and the cdf of the Student's t distribution with degrees of freedom ν. The moments of this distribution appear not to have been studied in detail. In this paper, we derive general expressions for the nth moment of X by considering the cases ν odd and ν even separately. These expressions turn out to involve sums of the Gauss hypergeometric function. We also provide closed form expressions for the moments of X for the particular cases ν = 2, …, 10.

  20. Vlasov moments, integrable systems and singular solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibbons, John [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Holm, Darryl D. [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Computer and Computational Science Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)], E-mail: d.holm@ic.ac.uk; Tronci, Cesare [Department of Mathematics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); TERA Foundation for Oncological Hadrontherapy, 11 V. Puccini, Novara 28100 (Italy)

    2008-02-11

    The Vlasov equation governs the evolution of the single-particle probability distribution function (PDF) for a system of particles interacting without dissipation. Its singular solutions correspond to the individual particle motions. The operation of taking the moments of the Vlasov equation is a Poisson map. The resulting Lie-Poisson Hamiltonian dynamics of the Vlasov moments is found to be integrable is several cases. For example, the dynamics for coasting beams in particle accelerators is associated by a hodograph transformation to the known integrable Benney shallow-water equation. After setting the context, the Letter focuses on geodesic Vlasov moment equations. Continuum closures of these equations at two different orders are found to be integrable systems whose singular solutions characterize the geodesic motion of the individual particles.

  1. The inverse moment problem for convex polytopes

    CERN Document Server

    Gravin, Nick; Pasechnik, Dmitrii; Robins, Sinai

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to present a general and novel approach for the reconstruction of any convex d-dimensional polytope P, from knowledge of its moments. In particular, we show that the vertices of an N-vertex polytope in R^d can be reconstructed from the knowledge of O(DN) axial moments (w.r.t. to an unknown polynomial measure od degree D) in d+1 distinct generic directions. Our approach is based on the collection of moment formulas due to Brion, Lawrence, Khovanskii-Pukhikov, and Barvinok that arise in the discrete geometry of polytopes, and what variously known as Prony's method, or Vandermonde factorization of finite rank Hankel matrices.

  2. Real object recognition using moment invariants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muharrem Mercimek; Kayhan Gulez; Tarik Veli Mumcu

    2005-12-01

    Moments and functions of moments have been extensively employed as invariant global features of images in pattern recognition. In this study, a flexible recognition system that can compute the good features for high classification of 3-D real objects is investigated. For object recognition, regardless of orientation, size and position, feature vectors are computed with the help of nonlinear moment invariant functions. Representations of objects using two-dimensional images that are taken from different angles of view are the main features leading us to our objective. After efficient feature extraction, the main focus of this study, the recognition performance of classifiers in conjunction with moment–based feature sets, is introduced.

  3. Distortional Buckling Analysis of Steel-Concrete Composite Girders in Negative Moment Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Wangbao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Distortional buckling is one of the most important buckling modes of the steel-concrete composite girder under negative moment. In this study, the equivalent lateral and torsional restraints of the bottom flange of a steel-concrete composite girder under negative moments due to variable axial forces are thoroughly investigated. The results show that there is a coupling effect between the applied forces and the lateral and torsional restraint of the bottom flange. Based on the calculation formula of lateral and torsional restraints, the critical buckling stress of I-steel-concrete composite girders and steel-concrete composite box girders under variable axial force is obtained. The critical bending moment of the steel-concrete composite girders can be further calculated. Compared to the traditional calculation methods of elastic foundation beam, the paper introduces an improved method, which considers coupling effect of the external loads and the foundation spring constraints of the bottom flange. Fifteen examples of the steel-concrete composite girders in different conditions are calculated. The calculation results show a good match between the hand calculation and the ANSYS finite element method, which validated that the analytic calculation method proposed in this paper is practical.

  4. Magnetic moment nonconservation in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalena, S; Greco, A; Rappazzo, A F; Mace, R L; Matthaeus, W H

    2012-07-01

    The fundamental assumptions of the adiabatic theory do not apply in the presence of sharp field gradients or in the presence of well-developed magnetohydrodynamic turbulence. For this reason, in such conditions the magnetic moment μ is no longer expected to be constant. This can influence particle acceleration and have considerable implications in many astrophysical problems. Starting with the resonant interaction between ions and a single parallel propagating electromagnetic wave, we derive expressions for the magnetic moment trapping width Δμ (defined as the half peak-to-peak difference in the particle magnetic moments) and the bounce frequency ω(b). We perform test-particle simulations to investigate magnetic moment behavior when resonance overlapping occurs and during the interaction of a ring-beam particle distribution with a broadband slab spectrum. We find that the changes of magnetic moment and changes of pitch angle are related when the level of magnetic fluctuations is low, δB/B(0) = (10(-3),10(-2)), where B(0) is the constant and uniform background magnetic field. Stochasticity arises for intermediate fluctuation values and its effect on pitch angle is the isotropization of the distribution function f(α). This is a transient regime during which magnetic moment distribution f(μ) exhibits a characteristic one-sided long tail and starts to be influenced by the onset of spatial parallel diffusion, i.e., the variance grows linearly in time as in normal diffusion. With strong fluctuations f(α) becomes completely isotropic, spatial diffusion sets in, and the f(μ) behavior is closely related to the sampling of the varying magnetic field associated with that spatial diffusion.

  5. Moment searching algorithm for bioluminescence tomography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ludong Jin; Yan Wu; Jie Tian; Heyu Huang; Xiaochao Qu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid the ill-posedness in the inverse problem of bioluminescence tomography, a moment searching algorithm fusing the finite element method (FEM) with the moment concept in theoretical mechanics is developed. In the algorithm, the source's information is mapped to the surface photon flux density by FEM, and the source's position is modified with the feedback through the algorithm of barycenter searching, which makes full use of the position information of the photon flux density on surface. The position is modified in every iterative step and will finally converge to the real source's value theoretically.

  6. Time and the Algebraic Theory of Moments

    OpenAIRE

    Hiley, Basil J.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the notion of an extended moment in time, the duron. This is a region of temporal ambiguity which arises naturally in the nature of process which we take to be basic. We introduce an algebra of process and show how it is related to, but different from, the monoidal category introduced by Abramsky and Coecke. By considering the limit as the duration of the moment approaches the infinitesimal, we obtain a pair of dynamical equations, one expressed in terms of a commutator and the o...

  7. Magnetic moment densities in selected UTX compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javorsky, P.; Schweizer, J.; Givord, F.; Boucherle, J.-X.; Andreev, A.V.; Divis, M.; Lelievre-Berna, E.; Sechovsky, V

    2004-07-15

    We present results of polarized neutron-diffraction studies of magnetization distribution in several isostructural UTX compounds. Besides the uranium magnetic moment, we observe a significant magnetization also on the transition-metal sites and in the interstitial region, close to the X-atom site. The values of the moments induced on the T-atoms in the U-T and T-X basal planes are rather similar for compounds with 3d-metals, UNiGa, UNiAl, and UCoAl, while a difference occurs in UPtAl. Our results are compared with literature data for URhAl and URuAl.

  8. Moment in Peking and Chinese Traditional Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晶金

    2014-01-01

    Lin Yutang’s Moment in Peking was a huge success, because he showed the long history of Chinese traditional culture in the book. The era background, character set and the plot of Moment in Peking reflects the significance of Chinese culture in many aspects. The great English masterpiece is a Chinese culture carrier which painted a grand social and historical picture, created a series of vivid images, especially images of traditional Chinese women character. The philosophy of novel is going through the history of space and time tunnel and becoming the main clue of many events in the book.

  9. Spin and orbital moments in actinide compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebech, B.; Wulff, M.; Lander, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    experiments designed to determine the magnetic moments at the actinide and transition-metal sublattice sites in compounds such as UFe2, NpCo2, and PuFe2 and to separate the spin and orbital components at the actinide sites. The results show, indeed, that the ratio of the orbital to spin moment is reduced......The extended spatial distribution of both the transition-metal 3d electrons and the actinide 5f electrons results in a strong interaction between these electron states when the relevant elements are alloyed. A particular interesting feature of this hybridization, which is predicted by single...

  10. Laurent polynomial moment problem: a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Pakovich, F; Zvonkin, A

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, the so-called polynomial moment problem, motivated by the classical Poincare center-focus problem, was thoroughly studied, and the answers to the main questions have been found. The study of a similar problem for rational functions is still at its very beginning. In this paper, we make certain progress in this direction; namely, we construct an example of a Laurent polynomial for which the solutions of the corresponding moment problem behave in a significantly more complicated way than it would be possible for a polynomial.

  11. Insights into the damage zones in fault-bend folds from geomechanical models and field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Wei; Hou, Guiting; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the rock mass deformation and stress states, the fracture development and distribution are critical to a range of endeavors including oil and gas exploration and development, and geothermal reservoir characterization and management. Geomechanical modeling can be used to simulate the forming processes of faults and folds, and predict the onset of failure and the type and abundance of deformation features along with the orientations and magnitudes of stresses. This approach enables the development of forward models that incorporate realistic mechanical stratigraphy (e.g., the bed thickness, bedding planes and competence contrasts), include faults and bedding-slip surfaces as frictional sliding interfaces, reproduce the geometry of the fold structures, and allow tracking strain and stress through the whole deformation process. In this present study, we combine field observations and finite element models to calibrate the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds, and discuss the mechanical controls (e.g., the slip displacement, ramp cutoff angle, frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults) that are able to influence the development and distribution of fractures during fault-bend folding. A linear relationship between the slip displacement and the fracture damage zone, the ramp cutoff angle and the fracture damage zone, and the frictional coefficient of interlayers and faults and the fracture damage zone was established respectively based on the geomechanical modeling results. These mechanical controls mentioned above altogether contribute to influence and control the development and distribution of fractures in the fault-bend folds.

  12. Hysteresis of the resonance frequency of magnetostrictive bending cantilevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Michael; Kremer, Ramona; Sutor, Alexander; Lerch, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    Magnetostrictive bending cantilevers are applicable for wirelessly measuring physical quantities such as pressure and strain. Exploiting the ΔE-effect, the resonance frequency of the cantilevers is shifted because of a change in the magnetic biasing field. The biasing field, in turn, depends on the applied pressure or strain, respectively. With a view to the application as a reliable sensor, maximum sensitivity but minimum hysteresis in the biasing field/resonance frequency dependence is preferred. In this contribution, monomorph bending cantilevers fabricated using magnetostrictive Fe49Co49V2 and Metglas 2605SA1 are investigated regarding their applicability for future sensors. For this purpose, the biasing field-dependent polarization of the magnetostrictive materials and bending of the cantilevers are determined. Furthermore, a setup to magnetically bias the cantilevers and determine the bending resonance frequency is presented. Here, the resonance frequency is identified by measuring the impulse response employing a laser Doppler vibrometer. The measurement results reveal that cantilevers made of Fe49Co49V2 possess a distinct hysteretic behaviour at low magnetic biasing field magnitudes. This is ascribed to the polarization and bending hysteresis. Cantilevers fabricated using Metglas 2605SA1 feature a lower resonance frequency shift compared to cantilevers with Fe49Co49V2, which would result in a lower sensitivity of the sensor. However, their resonance frequency hysteresis is almost negligible.

  13. Photomechanical Energy Conversion of Photoresponsive Fibers Exhibiting Bending Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Nakata

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Photoresponsive fibers based on poly(acrylamide (PAA with methylene blue (MB dye were prepared. All semicircular fibers show bending towards the direction of the flat surface of the fiber when illuminated. The fibers recover their initial shape when the illumination stops. The fiber is heated upon illumination and cooled to room temperature once the illumination is stopped. The fiber also is sensitive to humidity, showing bending behavior towards the direction of the flat surface of the fiber upon changing the humidity. The mechanical energy of the PAA/MB fiber is approximately 0.6 mN for the bending direction when it is illuminated. A possible mechanism for the bending behavior is as follow: (1 the fiber is heated upon illumination because of the photothermal effect, (2 the fiber loses water molecules, (3 the fiber shrinks; bending towards the direction of the flat surface of the fiber occurs because of a difference in the shrinkage for the flat surface and the other side of the fiber. Finally, we demonstrated that a PP ball (1.5 mg can be moved by the mechanical energy produced by the changing shape of the fiber upon illumination.

  14. Advances and Trends on Tube Bending Forming Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG He; LI Heng; ZHANG Zhiyong; ZHAN Mei; LIU Jing; LI Guangjun

    2012-01-01

    As one kind of key components with enormous quantities and diversities,the bent tube parts satisfy the increasing needs for lightweight and high-strength product from both materials and structure aspects.The bent tubes have been widely used in many high-end industries such as aviation,aerospaee,shipbuilding,automobile,energy and health care.The tube bending has become one of the key manufacturing technologies for lightweight product forming.Via the analysis of bending characteristics and multiple defects,advances on exploring the common issues in tube bending are summarized regarding wrinkling instability at the intrados,wall thinning (cracking) at the extrados,springback phenomenon,cross-section deformation,forming limit and process/tooling design/optimization.Some currently developed bending techniques are reviewed in terms of their advantages and limitations.Finally,in view of the urgent requirements of high-performance complex bent tube components with difficult-to-deform and lightweight materials in aviation and aerospace fields,the development trends and corresponding challenges are presented for realizing the precise and high-efficiency tube bending deformation.

  15. Curvature optical fiber sensor by using bend enhanced method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianrong ZHANG; Hairong LIU; Xinkun WU

    2009-01-01

    Deflection curvature measurement can offer a number of advantages compared with the well-established strain measurement alternative. It is able to measure thin structure; fiber has no resistance with force, which leads to a high precision. There are many kinds of curvature gauges with different operation principles. A low-cost curvature optical fiber sensor using bend enhanced method to improve its curvature measurement sensitivity was devel-oped in recent years. This sensor can distinguish between convex bending and concave bending and has a good linearity in measuring large curvature deformation. Whisper gallery ray theory and Monte Carlo simulation are new achievements by computer experiment. The operation mechanism of this curvature optical fiber sensor is presented based on light scattering theory. The attenuation is ascribed to the transmission mode changing by the curvature of the fiber, which affects the attenuation of the surface scattering. The mathematical model of relationship among light loss, bending curvature, surface roughness, and parameters of the fiber's configuration is also presented. We design different kinds of shapes of sensitive zones; each zone has different parameters. Through detecting their output optical attenuations in different curvatures and fitting the results by exponential decaying functions, the proposed model is demonstrated by experimental results. Also, we compare the experi-mental results with the theoretical analysis and discuss the sensitivity dependence on bending direction.

  16. The calculation of the mass moment of inertia of a fluid in a rotating rectangular tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    This analysis calculated the mass moment of inertia of a nonviscous fluid in a slowly rotating rectangular tank. Given the dimensions of the tank in the x, y, and z coordinates, the axis of rotation, the percentage of the tank occupied by the fluid, and angle of rotation, an algorithm was written that could calculate the mass moment of inertia of the fluid. While not included in this paper, the change in the mass moment of inertia of the fluid could then be used to calculate the force exerted by the fluid on the container wall.

  17. Variation in the human Achilles tendon moment arm during walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasske, Kristen; Thelen, Darryl G; Franz, Jason R

    2017-02-01

    The Achilles tendon (AT) moment arm is an important determinant of ankle moment and power generation during locomotion. Load and depth-dependent variations in the AT moment arm are generally not considered, but may be relevant given the complex triceps surae architecture. We coupled motion analysis and ultrasound imaging to characterize AT moment arms during walking in 10 subjects. Muscle loading during push-off amplified the AT moment arm by 10% relative to heel strike. AT moment arms also varied by 14% over the tendon thickness. In walking, AT moment arms are not strictly dependent on kinematics, but exhibit important load and spatial dependencies.

  18. New plate and shell elements for NASTRAN. [development of higher order triangular plate-bending finite element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanaswami, R.

    1973-01-01

    A new higher order triangular plate-bending finite element is presented which possesses high accuracy for practical mesh subdivisions and which uses only translations and rotations as grid point degrees of freedom. The element has 18 degrees of freedom, the transverse displacement and two rotations at the vertices and mid-side grid points of the triangle. The transverse displacement within the element is approximated by a quintic polynomial; the bending strains thus vary cubically within the element. Transverse shear flexibility is taken into account in the stiffness formulation. Two examples of static and dynamic analysis are included to show the behavior of the element.

  19. Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data

    CERN Document Server

    Ramalho, G

    2010-01-01

    The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our pr...

  20. Extracting the Omega- electric quadrupole moment from lattice QCD data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Ramalho, M.T. Pena

    2011-03-01

    The Omega- has an extremely long lifetime, and is the most stable of the baryons with spin 3/2. Therefore the Omega- magnetic moment is very accurately known. Nevertheless, its electric quadrupole moment was never measured, although estimates exist in different formalisms. In principle, lattice QCD simulations provide at present the most appropriate way to estimate the Omega- form factors, as function of the square of the transferred four-momentum, Q2, since it describes baryon systems at the physical mass for the strange quark. However, lattice QCD form factors, and in particular GE2, are determined at finite Q2 only, and the extraction of the electric quadrupole moment, Q_Omega= GE2(0) e/(2 M_Omega), involves an extrapolation of the numerical lattice results. In this work we reproduce the lattice QCD data with a covariant spectator quark model for Omega- which includes a mixture of S and two D states for the relative quark-diquark motion. Once the model is calibrated, it is used to determine Q_Omega. Our prediction is Q_Omega= (0.96 +/- 0.02)*10^(-2) efm2 [GE2(0)=0.680 +/- 0.012].

  1. Exploration of Learning Strategies Associated With Aha Learning Moments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, Jobeth W

    2016-01-01

    Educators recognize aha moments as powerful aspects of learning. Yet limited research has been performed regarding how to promote these learning moments. This article describes an exploratory study of aha learning moments as experienced and described by participants. Findings showed use of visuals, scenarios, storytelling, Socratic questions, and expert explanation led to aha learning moments. The findings provide guidance regarding the types of learning strategies that can be used to promote aha moments.

  2. The Magic Moment: Creating Color Harmony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartges, Dan

    2009-01-01

    If there is a truly magic moment in art class, it must be when a student--of any age--attains a working knowledge of color's core principles. At that point, she or he becomes able to consistently create color harmony in any painting, regardless of the subject matter. From then on, that student gains greater confidence, can paint better pictures…

  3. Expert judgement combination using moment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wisse, Bram [Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom); TNO Defence, Security and Safety, The Hague (Netherlands)], E-mail: bram.wisse@strath.ac.uk; Bedford, Tim [Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: tim.bedford@strath.ac.uk; Quigley, John [Department of Management Science, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)], E-mail: j.quigley@strath.ac.uk

    2008-05-15

    Moment methods have been employed in decision analysis, partly to avoid the computational burden that decision models involving continuous probability distributions can suffer from. In the Bayes linear (BL) methodology prior judgements about uncertain quantities are specified using expectation (rather than probability) as the fundamental notion. BL provides a strong foundation for moment methods, rooted in work of De Finetti and Goldstein. The main objective of this paper is to discuss in what way expert assessments of moments can be combined, in a non-Bayesian way, to construct a prior assessment. We show that the linear pool can be justified in an analogous but technically different way to linear pools for probability assessments, and that this linear pool has a very convenient property: a linear pool of experts' assessments of moments is coherent if each of the experts has given coherent assessments. To determine the weights of the linear pool we give a method of performance based weighting analogous to Cooke's classical model and explore its properties. Finally, we compare its performance with the classical model on data gathered in applications of the classical model.

  4. Critical moments in police-citizen reconciliation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stronks, Sara; Adang, Otto M. J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction of police and citizen representatives during critical moments in reconciliation processes through a relational model. Design/methodology/approach - Based on 26 in-depth interviews with key actors in three different cases of media-sali

  5. The Doubling Moment: Resurrecting Edgar Allan Poe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnick, J. Bradley; Mergil, Fernando

    2008-01-01

    This article expands upon Jeffrey Wilhelm's and Brian Edmiston's (1998) concept of a doubling of viewpoints by encouraging middle level students to use dramatization to take on multiple perspectives, to pose interpretive questions, and to enhance critical inquiry from inside and outside of texts. The doubling moment is both the activation of…

  6. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.

  7. Moment matrices, border bases and radical computation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourrain, B.; Lasserre, J.B.; Laurent, M.; Rostalski, P.; Trebuchet, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we describe new methods to compute the radical (resp. real radical) of an ideal, assuming it complex (resp. real) variety is nte. The aim is to combine approaches for solving a system of polynomial equations with dual methods which involve moment matrices and semi-denite programming.

  8. Avalanche!--Teachable Moments in Outdoor Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Shayne

    2005-01-01

    Rarely do outdoor educators get the opportunity to safely incorporate an avalanche while the topic of the day is actually avalanche awareness and forecasting. Many similar possibilities exist in the expeditionary context, but even brief excursions may result in incredible learning experiences. These "teachable moments" occur regularly in the…

  9. Real Moments of the Restrictive Factor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andrew Ledoan; Alexandru Zaharescu

    2009-09-01

    Let be a real number such that 0 < < 1. We establish asymptotic formulas for the weighted real moments $\\sum_{n≤ x}R^(n)(1-n/x)$, where $R(n)=\\prod^k_{v=1}p^{ v-1}_v$ is the Atanassov strong restrictive factor function and $n=\\prod^k_{v=1}p^{ v}_v$ is the prime factorization of .

  10. The isotopic dipole moment of HDO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assafrao, Denise; Mohallem, Jose R [Laboratorio de Atomos e Moleculas Especiais, Departamento de Fisica, ICEx, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, CP 702, 30123-970, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2007-03-14

    An adiabatic variational approximation is used to study the monodeuterated water molecule, HDO, accounting for the isotopic effect. The isotopic dipole moment, pointing from D to H, is then calculated for the first time, yielding (1.5 {+-} 0.1) x 10{sup -3} Debye, being helpful in the interpretation of experiments. (fast track communication)

  11. Using Aha! Moments to Understand Leadership Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Lori L.; Lewis, Lauren J.

    2012-01-01

    As Huber (2002) noted, striving to understand how leadership is taught and learned is both a challenge and an opportunity facing leadership educators. This article describes the "Leadership Aha! Moment" assignment used in a leadership theory course to help students recognize the intersection of leadership theories and their daily lives while…

  12. Pedagogical Moments: Affective Sexual Literacies in Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Kyra

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers three pedagogical moments in the film "Tomorrow, When the War Began" (2010), contemplating the way in which they open a space for conversations about feelings, sexuality and gender. "Tomorrow, When the War Began" follows the plight of 17-year-old Ellie who returns to her rural town from a camping trip with…

  13. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  14. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sijie Jason; Wang, Zhao-Wen

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage), custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in other labs.

  15. Strain localization and damage development in 2060 alloy during bending

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Jin; Bao-qin Fu; Cheng-lu Zhang; Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure evolution and damage development of the third-generation Al–Li alloy 2060 (T8) were studied using in situ bending tests. Specimens were loaded with a series of punches of different radii, and the microstructure evolution was studied by scanning electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and digital image correlation (DIC) methods. The evolution of the microscopic fracture strain distribution and microstructure in 2060 alloy during bending was characterized, where the dispersion distribution of precipitates was recorded by backscattered electron imaging and later inputted into a DIC system for strain calculations. The experimental results showed that strain localization in the free surface of bent specimens induced damage to the microstructure. The region of crack initiation lies on the free surface with maximum strain, and the shear crack propagates along the macro-shear band in the early stages of bending. Crack propagation in the later stages was interpreted on the basis of the conventional mechanism of ductile fracture.

  16. Elastocapillary instability under partial wetting conditions: bending versus buckling

    CERN Document Server

    Andreotti, Bruno; Das, Siddhartha; Snoeijer, Jacco H

    2011-01-01

    The elastocapillary instability of a flexible plate plunged in a liquid bath is analysed theoretically. We show that the plate can bend due to two separate destabilizing mechanisms, when the liquid is partially wetting the solid. For contact angles $\\theta_e > \\pi/2$, the capillary forces acting tangential to the surface are compressing the plate and can induce a classical buckling instability. However, a second mechanism appears due to capillary forces normal to surface. These induce a destabilizing torque that tends to bend the plate for any value of the contact angle $\\theta_e > 0$. We denote these mechanisms as "buckling" and "bending" respectively and identify the two corresponding dimensionless parameters that govern the elastocapillary stability. The onset of instability is determined analytically and the different bifurcation scenarios are worked out for experimentally relevant conditions.

  17. Demonstration of acoustic waveguiding and tight bending in phononic crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Baboly, M.; Raza, A.; Brady, J.; Reinke, C. M.; Leseman, Z. C.; El-Kady, I.

    2016-10-01

    The systematic design, fabrication, and characterization of an isolated, single-mode, 90° bend phononic crystal (PnC) waveguide are presented. A PnC consisting of a 2D square array of circular air holes in an aluminum substrate is used, and waveguides are created by introducing a line defect in the PnC lattice. A high transmission coefficient is observed (-1 dB) for the straight sections of the waveguide, and an overall 2.3 dB transmission loss is observed (a transmission coefficient of 76%) for the 90° bend. Further optimization of the structure may yield higher transmission efficiencies. This manuscript shows the complete design process for an engineered 90° bend PnC waveguide from inception to experimental demonstration.

  18. Flow resistance of ice slurry in bends and elbow pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niezgoda-Żelasko, B.; Żelasko, J.

    2014-08-01

    The present paper covers the flow of ice slurry made of a 10.6% ethanol solution through small-radius bends and elbow pipes. The paper presents the results of experimental research on the flow resistances of Bingham-fluid ice slurry in bends and elbows. The research, performed for three pipe diameters and a relative bend radius of 1<=D/di<=2, has made it possible to take into consideration the influence of friction resistances as well the of the flow geometry on the total local resistance coefficients. The study attempts to make the local resistance coefficient dependent on the Dean number defined for a generalized Reynolds number according to Metzner-Reade

  19. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fedorov, Vladimir; Berggreen, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In the present study an evaluation of the potential for bend-twist coupling effects in wind turbine blades is addressed. A method for evaluation of the coupling magnitude based on the results of finite element modeling and full-field displacement measurements obtained by experiments is developed...... and tested on small-scale coupled composite beams. In the proposed method the coupling coefficient for a generic beam is introduced based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam formulation. By applying the developed method for analysis of a commercial wind turbine blade structure it is demonstrated that a bend......-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling...

  20. Platonic scattering cancellation for bending waves in a thin plate

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-04-10

    We propose an ultra-thin elastic cloak to control the scattering of bending waves in isotropic heterogeneous thin plates. The cloak design makes use of the scattering cancellation technique applied, for the first time, to the biharmonic operator describing the propagation of bending waves in thin plates. We first analyze scattering from hard and soft cylindrical objects in the quasistatic limit, then we prove that the scattering of bending waves from an object in the near and far-field regions can be suppressed significantly by covering it with a suitably designed coating. Beyond camouflaging, these findings may have potential applications in protection of buildings from earthquakes and isolating structures from vibrations in the motor vehicle industry.

  1. Photomechanical Bending of Azobenzene-Based Photochromic Molecular Fibers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riku Matsui

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Microfibers composed of azobenzene-based photochromic amorphous molecular materials, namely low molecular-mass photochromic materials with a glass-forming property, could be fabricated. These fibers were found to exhibit mechanical bending motion upon irradiation with a laser beam. In addition, the bending direction could be controlled by altering the polarization direction of the irradiated light without changing the position of the light source or the wavelength of the light. In-situ fluorescence observation of mass transport induced at the surface of the fiber doped with CdSe quantum dots suggested that the bending motions were related with the photoinduced mass transport taking place near the irradiated surface of the fiber.

  2. Segmental Bridges under Combined Torsion, Bending and Shear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄真; 刘西拉

    2003-01-01

    Segmental bridges with unbonded prestressed tendons have some advantages, such as the weather independence and the corrosion protection of prestressing tendons. This paper analyzed the behavior of a prestressed segmental bridge with unbonded tendons under combined loading of torsion, bending and shear. According to the experiment research, a modified skew bending model was developed to calculate the bearing capacity of segmental bridges subjected to combined bending, shear and torsion. The finite element method was used to investigate the deflection behaviors of such structure, also to check the theoretical model. The theoretical and FEM research resuits were compared favorably with the test results from Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. Finally, suggestion for the design and construction of segmental bridges with external prestressing was made.

  3. An energy harvester using piezoelectric cantilever beams undergoing coupled bending-torsion vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkefi, A.; Najar, F.; Nayfeh, A. H.; Ben Ayed, S.

    2011-11-01

    Recently, piezoelectric cantilevered beams have received considerable attention for vibration-to-electric energy conversion. Generally, researchers have investigated a classical piezoelectric cantilever beam with or without a tip mass. In this paper, we propose the use of a unimorph cantilever beam undergoing bending-torsion vibrations as a new piezoelectric energy harvester. The proposed design consists of a single piezoelectric layer and a couple of asymmetric tip masses; the latter convert part of the base excitation force into a torsion moment. This structure can be tuned to be a broader band energy harvester by adjusting the first two global natural frequencies to be relatively close to each other. We develop a distributed-parameter model of the harvester by using the Euler-beam theory and Hamilton's principle, thereby obtaining the governing equations of motion and associated boundary conditions. Then, we calculate the exact eigenvalues and associated mode shapes and validate them with a finite element (FE) model. We use these mode shapes in a Galerkin procedure to develop a reduced-order model of the harvester, which we use in turn to obtain closed-form expressions for the displacement, twisting angle, voltage output, and harvested electrical power. These expressions are used to conduct a parametric study for the dynamics of the system to determine the appropriate set of geometric properties that maximizes the harvested electrical power. The results show that, as the asymmetry is increased, the harvester's performance improves. We found a 30% increase in the harvested power with this design compared to the case of beams undergoing bending only. We also show that the locations of the two masses can be chosen to bring the lowest two global natural frequencies closer to each other, thereby allowing the harvesting of electrical power from multi-frequency excitations.

  4. Microscopic Strain Mapping in Nanostructured and Microstructured Alumina-Titania Coatings Under 4-point Compressive and Tensile Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    resistance, including resistance to build-up of deposits from sea salts; - Mechanical wear resistance; - Spallation / cracking / chipping resistance...indentation crack resistance, adhesion strength, spallation resistance against bend- and cut test, abrasive wear resistance, sliding wear resistance. XRD...this area are explicitly destructive and involve theoretical modeling of the strain fields accompanying material removal (e.g. hole drilling and

  5. Moment tensors of a dislocation in a porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Hu, Hengshan

    2016-06-01

    A dislocation can be represented by a moment tensor for calculating seismic waves. However, the moment tensor expression was derived in an elastic medium and cannot completely describe a dislocation in a porous medium. In this paper, effective moment tensors of a dislocation in a porous medium are derived. It is found that the dislocation is equivalent to two independent moment tensors, i.e., the bulk moment tensor acting on the bulk of the porous medium and the isotropic fluid moment tensor acting on the pore fluid. Both of them are caused by the solid dislocation as well as the fluid-solid relative motion corresponding to fluid injection towards the surrounding rocks (or fluid outflow) through the fault plane. For a shear dislocation, the fluid moment tensor is zero, and the dislocation is equivalent to a double couple acting on the bulk; for an opening dislocation or fluid injection, the two moment tensors are needed to describe the source. The fluid moment tensor only affects the radiated compressional waves. By calculating the ratio of the radiation fields generated by unit fluid moment tensor and bulk moment tensor, it is found that the fast compressional wave radiated by the bulk moment tensor is much stronger than that radiated by the fluid moment tensor, while the slow compressional wave radiated by the fluid moment tensor is several times stronger than that radiated by the bulk moment tensor.

  6. Magnetic moment and electric dipole moment of the {tau}-lepton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Rodriguez, A [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal C-580, 98060 Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Hernandez-Ruiz, M A [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Codigo Postal 98600 Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico); Luis-Noriega, L N [Facultad de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Apartado Postal C-580, 98060 Zacatecas, Zacatecas (Mexico)

    2006-05-15

    Limits on the anomalous magnetic moment and the electric dipole moment of the {tau} lepton are calculated through the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{tau}{sup -} {gamma} at the Z{sub 1}-pole and in the framework of a left-right symmetric model. The results are based on the recent data reported by the L3 Collaboration at CERN LEP. Due to the stringent limit of the model mixing angle {phi}, the effect of this angle on the dipole moments is quite small.

  7. Correcting transport errors during advection of aerosol and cloud moment sequences in eulerian models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGraw R.

    2012-03-01

    Moment methods are finding increasing usage for simulations of particle population balance in box models and in more complex flows including two-phase flows. These highly efficient methods have nevertheless had little impact to date for multi-moment representation of aerosols and clouds in atmospheric models. There are evidently two reasons for this: First, atmospheric models, especially if the goal is to simulate climate, tend to be extremely complex and take many man-years to develop. Thus there is considerable inertia to the implementation of novel approaches. Second, and more fundamental, the nonlinear transport algorithms designed to reduce numerical diffusion during advection of various species (tracers) from cell to cell, in the typically coarse grid arrays of these models, can and occasionally do fail to preserve correlations between the moments. Other correlated tracers such as isotopic abundances, composition of aerosol mixtures, hydrometeor phase, etc., are subject to this same fate. In the case of moments, this loss of correlation can and occasionally does give rise to unphysical moment sets. When this happens the simulation can come to a halt. Following a brief description and review of moment methods, the goal of this paper is to present two new approaches that both test moment sequences for validity and correct them when they fail. The new approaches work on individual grid cells without requiring stored information from previous time-steps or neighboring cells.

  8. Quasimolecular Dynamic Simulation for Bending Fracture of Laminar Composite Materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Recently, quasimolecular dynamics has been successfully used to simulate the deformation characteristics of actual size solid materials. In quasimolecular dynamics, which is an attempt to bridge the gap between atomistic and continuum simulations, molecules are aggregated into large units, called quasimolecules, to evaluate large scale material behavior. In this paper, a 2-dimensional numerical simulation using quasimolecular dynamics was performed to investigate laminar composite material fractures and crack propagation behavior in the uniform bending of laminar composite materials. It was verified that under bending deformation laminar composite materials deform quite differently from homogeneous materials

  9. Origin of bending in uncoated microcantilever - Surface topography?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakshmoji, K.; Prabakar, K.; Tripura Sundari, S., E-mail: sundari@igcar.gov.in; Jayapandian, J.; Tyagi, A. K.; Sundar, C. S. [Materials Science Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India)

    2014-01-27

    We provide direct experimental evidence to show that difference in surface topography on opposite sides of an uncoated microcantilever induces bending, upon exposure to water molecules. Examination on opposite sides of the microcantilever by atomic force microscopy reveals the presence of localized surface features on one side, which renders the induced stress non-uniform. Further, the root mean square inclination angle characterizing the surface topography shows a difference of 73° between the opposite sides. The absence of deflection in another uncoated microcantilever having similar surface topography confirms that in former microcantilever bending is indeed induced by differences in surface topography.

  10. Effects of rim thickness on spur gear bending stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibel, G. D.; Reddy, S. K.; Savage, M.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1991-01-01

    Thin rim gears find application in high-power, light-weight aircraft transmissions. Bending stresses in thin rim spur gear tooth fillets and root areas differ from the stresses in solid gears due to rim deformations. Rim thickness is a significant design parameter for these gears. To study this parameter, a finite element analysis was conducted on a segment of a thin rim gear. The rim thickness was varied and the location and magnitude of the maximum bending stresses reported. Design limits are discussed and compared with the results of other researchers.

  11. The influence of tip shape on bending force during needle insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, Nick J.; de Jong, Tonke L.; van Gerwen, Dennis J.; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Steering of needles involves the planning and timely modifying of instrument-tissue force interactions to allow for controlled deflections during the insertion in tissue. In this work, the effect of tip shape on these forces was studied using 10 mm diameter needle tips. Six different tips were selected, including beveled and conical versions, with or without pre-bend or pre-curve. A six-degree-of-freedom force/torque sensor measured the loads during indentations in tissue simulants. The increased insertion (axial) and bending (radial) forces with insertion depth — the force-displacement slopes — were analyzed. Results showed that the ratio between radial and axial forces was not always proportional. This means that the tip load does not have a constant orientation, as is often assumed in mechanics-based steering models. For all tip types, the tip-load assumed a more radial orientation with increased axial load. This effect was larger for straight tips than for pre-bent or pre-curved tips. In addition, the force-displacement slopes were consistently higher for (1) increased tip angles, and for (2) beveled tips compared to conical tips. Needles with a bent or curved tip allow for an increased bending force and a decreased variability of the tip load vector orientation. PMID:28074939

  12. The influence of tip shape on bending force during needle insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Berg, Nick J.; de Jong, Tonke L.; van Gerwen, Dennis J.; Dankelman, Jenny; van den Dobbelsteen, John J.

    2017-01-01

    Steering of needles involves the planning and timely modifying of instrument-tissue force interactions to allow for controlled deflections during the insertion in tissue. In this work, the effect of tip shape on these forces was studied using 10 mm diameter needle tips. Six different tips were selected, including beveled and conical versions, with or without pre-bend or pre-curve. A six-degree-of-freedom force/torque sensor measured the loads during indentations in tissue simulants. The increased insertion (axial) and bending (radial) forces with insertion depth — the force-displacement slopes — were analyzed. Results showed that the ratio between radial and axial forces was not always proportional. This means that the tip load does not have a constant orientation, as is often assumed in mechanics-based steering models. For all tip types, the tip-load assumed a more radial orientation with increased axial load. This effect was larger for straight tips than for pre-bent or pre-curved tips. In addition, the force-displacement slopes were consistently higher for (1) increased tip angles, and for (2) beveled tips compared to conical tips. Needles with a bent or curved tip allow for an increased bending force and a decreased variability of the tip load vector orientation.

  13. Auxeticity in truss networks and the role of bending versus stretching deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmoulins, Albert; Zelhofer, Alex J.; Kochmann, Dennis M.

    2016-05-01

    Auxetic behavior (i.e., a negative value of Poisson’s ratio) has been reported for a variety of cellular networks including truss structures. Commonly, this implies that the geometric arrangement of truss members within a periodic unit cell is designed to achieve the negative Poisson effect, e.g., in the reentrant honeycomb configuration. Here, we show that elastic periodic truss lattices can be tuned to display auxeticity by controlling the ratio of bending to stretching stiffness. If the nodal stiffness (or the bending stiffness) is low compared to the stretching stiffness of individual truss members, then the lattice is expected to exhibit a positive Poisson’s ratio, showing lateral expansion upon uniaxial compression. In contrast, if the nodal or bending stiffness is high (and buckling is prevented), the lattice may reveal auxetic behavior, contracting laterally under uniaxial compression. This effect is demonstrated in two dimensions for the examples of square and triangular lattices, and it is confirmed both analytically in the limit of small strains as well as numerically for finite elastic deformation. Under large deformation, instability additionally gives rise to auxetic behavior due to truss buckling.

  14. Determination of Tensile Strength and Fracture Toughness of Granite Using Notched Three-Point-Bend Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yusuo; Hu, Xiaozhi

    2017-01-01

    Direct tensile strength and fracture toughness of rock and concrete, important properties for many applications, are cumbersome to measure directly. In this study, granite is chosen as an example to show how the tensile strength and fracture toughness can be measured from small three-point-bend samples of a single size but with different notches. An existing fracture mechanics model has been extended to include the stable fictitious crack growth before peak loads, which is then linked to the granite grain size. Both tensile strength and fracture toughness of granite can be estimated by the maximum load measurements from those notched three-point-bend samples. In total, 72 three-point-bend granite samples with different notches have been tested, and the estimated tensile strength and fracture toughness are compared with those available in the literature. The modified fracture mechanics model is then used to predict the fracture behaviour of smaller samples of the same granite. The theoretical prediction is confirmed by the experimental results of those smaller samples. Finally, the fracture model and its relation with the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard on fracture toughness are discussed.

  15. Effect of prosthetic alignment changes on socket reaction moment impulse during walking in transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Toshiki; Orendurff, Michael S; Arabian, Adam K; Rosenbaum-Chou, Teri G; Boone, David A

    2014-04-11

    The alignment of a lower limb prosthesis affects the way load is transferred to the residual limb through the socket, and this load is critically important for the comfort and function of the prosthesis. Both magnitude and duration of the moment are important factors that may affect the residual limb health. Moment impulse is a well-accepted measurement that incorporates both factors via moment-time integrals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of alignment changes on the socket reaction moment impulse in transtibial prostheses. Ten amputees with transtibial prostheses participated in this study. The socket reaction moment impulse was measured at a self-selected walking speed using a Smart Pyramid in 25 alignment conditions, including a nominal alignment (clinically aligned by a prosthetist), as well as angle malalignments of 2°, 4° and 6° (abduction, adduction, extension and flexion) and translation malalignments of 5 mm, 10 mm and 15 mm (lateral, medial, anterior and posterior). The socket reaction moment impulse of the nominal alignment was compared for each condition. The relationship between the alignment and the socket reaction moment impulse was clearly observed in the coronal angle, coronal translation and sagittal translation alignment changes. However, this relationship was not evident in the sagittal angle alignment changes. The results of this study suggested that the socket reaction moment impulse could potentially serve as a valuable parameter to assist the alignment tuning process for transtibial prostheses. Further study is needed to investigate the influence of the socket reaction moment impulse on the residual limb health.

  16. METHOD TO CALCULATE BENDING CENTER AND STRESS INTENSITY FACTORS OF CRACKED CYLINDER UNDER SAINT-VENANT BENDING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤任基; 汤昕燕

    2001-01-01

    Using the single crack solution and the regular solution of plane harmonic function, the problem of Saint-Venant bending of a cracked cylinder by a transverse force was reduced to solving two sets of integral equations and its general solution was then obtained. Based on the obtained solution, a method to calculate the bending center and the stress intensity factors of the cracked cylinger whose cross-section is not thin-walled, but of small torsion rigidity is proposed. Some numerical examples are given.

  17. Thin-walled aluminum alloy tube NC precision bending based on finite element simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Rui-jie; YANG He; ZHAN Mei; LI Heng

    2006-01-01

    Elongation and springback are the bottleneck problems of thin-walled aluminum alloy tube NC precision bending. So thin-walled aluminum alloy tube NC precision bending based on finite element simulation is put forward. The finite element model of thin-walled aluminum alloy tube NC bending is established based on the DYNAFORM platform. The process of thin-walled aluminum alloy tube NC precision bending is simulated with the model and the elongation and springback of tube bending can be is put forward and the computing equations of bending angle, bending radius, blanking length and initial bending section based on elongation and springback angle are derived. The bending angle, bending radius, blanking length and initial bending section of tube bending can be gained with these equations based on the elongation and springback angle from the simulation. The study can be used to control the quality of thin-walled aluminum alloy tube NC bending so that precision bending without redundance can be realized.

  18. CODA-DERIVED SOURCE SPECTRA, MOMENT MAGNITUDES, AND ENERGY-MOMENT SCALING IN THE WESTERN ALPS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morasca, P; Mayeda, K; Malagnini, L; Walter, W

    2004-02-03

    A stable estimate of the earthquake source spectra in the western Alps is obtained using an empirical method based on coda envelope amplitude measurements described by Mayeda et al. (2003) for events ranging between M{sub W} {approx} 1.0 to {approx}5.0. We calibrated path corrections for consecutive narrow frequency bands ranging between 0.2 and 25.0-Hz using a simple 1-D model for 5 three-component stations of the Regional Seismic network of Northwestern Italy (RSNI). The 1-D assumption performs well, even though the region is characterized by a complex structural setting involving strong lateral variations in the Moho depth. For frequencies less than 1.0-Hz, we tied our dimensionless, distance-corrected coda amplitudes to an absolute scale in units of dyne-cm by using independent moment magnitudes from long-period waveform modeling for 3 moderate magnitude events in the region. For the higher frequencies, we used small events as empirical Green's functions, with corner frequencies above 25.0-Hz. For each station, the procedure yields frequency-dependent corrections that account for site effects, including those related to f{sub max}, as well as those related to S-to-coda transfer function effects. After the calibration was completed, the corrections were applied to the entire data-set composed of 957 events. Our findings using the coda-derived source spectra are summarized as follows: (1) We derived stable estimates of seismic moment, M{sub 0}, (and hence M{sub W}) as well as radiated S-wave energy, (E{sub S}), from waveforms recorded by as few as one station, for events that were too small to be waveform modeled (i.e., events less than M{sub W} {approx}3.5); (2) The source spectra were used to derive an equivalent local magnitude, M{sub L(coda)}, that is in excellent agreement with the network averaged values using direct S-waves; (3) Scaled energy, {tilde e} = E{sub R}/M{sub 0}, where E{sub R}, the radiated seismic energy, is comparable to results from

  19. Electrical Reliability of a Film-Type Connection during Bending

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Mitsui

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available With the escalating demands for downsizing and functionalizing mobile electronics, flexible electronics have become an important aspect of future technologies. To address limitations concerning junction deformation, we developed a new connection method using a film-type connector that is less than 0.1 mm thick. The film-type connector is composed of an organic film substrate, a UV-curable adhesive that deforms elastically under pressure, and electrodes that are arranged on the adhesive. The film-type connection relies on a plate-to-plate contact, which ensures a sufficient contact area. The electrical reliability of the film-type connection was investigated based on changes in the resistance during bending at curvature radii of 70, 50, 25, 10, 5, and 2.5 mm. The connection was bent 1000 times to investigate the reproducibility of the connector’s bending properties. The tests showed that no disconnections occurred due to bending in the vertical direction of the electrode, but disconnections were observed due to bending in the parallel direction at curvature radii of 10, 5, and 2.5 mm. In addition, the maximum average change in resistance was less than 70 milliohms unless a disconnection was generated. These results support the application of the new film-type connection in future flexible devices.

  20. Bend-twist coupling potential of wind turbine blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V.; Berggreen, C.

    2014-06-01

    In the present study an evaluation of the potential for bend-twist coupling effects in wind turbine blades is addressed. A method for evaluation of the coupling magnitude based on the results of finite element modeling and full-field displacement measurements obtained by experiments is developed and tested on small-scale coupled composite beams. In the proposed method the coupling coefficient for a generic beam is introduced based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam formulation. By applying the developed method for analysis of a commercial wind turbine blade structure it is demonstrated that a bend-twist coupling magnitude of up to 0.2 is feasible to achieve in the baseline blade structure made of glass-fiber reinforced plastics. Further, by substituting the glass-fibers with carbon-fibers the coupling effect can be increased to 0.4. Additionally, the effect of introduction of bend-twist coupling into a blade on such important blade structural properties as bending and torsional stiffness is demonstrated.

  1. Water-rich bending faults at the Middle America Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naif, Samer; Key, Kerry; Constable, Steven; Evans, Rob L.

    2015-09-01

    The portion of the Central American margin that encompasses Nicaragua is considered to represent an end-member system where multiple lines of evidence point to a substantial flux of subducted fluids. The seafloor spreading fabric of the incoming Cocos plate is oriented parallel to the trench such that flexural bending at the outer rise optimally reactivates a dense network of normal faults that extend several kilometers into the upper mantle. Bending faults are thought to provide fluid pathways that lead to serpentinization of the upper mantle. While geophysical anomalies detected beneath the outer rise have been interpreted as broad crustal and upper mantle hydration, no observational evidence exists to confirm that bending faults behave as fluid pathways. Here we use seafloor electromagnetic data collected across the Middle America Trench (MAT) offshore of Nicaragua to create a comprehensive electrical resistivity image that illuminates the infiltration of seawater along bending faults. We quantify porosity from the resistivity with Archie's law and find that our estimates for the abyssal plain oceanic crust are in good agreement with independent observations. As the Cocos crust traverses the outer rise, the porosity of the dikes and gabbros progressively increase from 2.7% and 0.7% to 4.8% and 1.7%, peaking within 20 km of the trench axis. We conclude that the intrusive crust subducts twice as much pore water as previously thought, significantly raising the flux of fluid to the seismogenic zone and the mantle wedge.

  2. Enhanced resolution of long-period grating bend sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glavind, Lars; Gao, S; Cook, K;

    2013-01-01

    We present an optical fiber bend sensor with enhanced resolution based on the principle of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer in transmission. The sensor is based on two identical Long-Period Gratings separated by approximately 100 mm in a D-shaped single-mode optical fiber. The sensor provides a narrow...

  3. Multiphase fluid structure interaction in bends and T-joints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cargnelutti, M.F.; Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Osch, M.M.E. van

    2010-01-01

    Air-water experiments were carried out in a horizontal 1" pipe system to measure the magnitude of the forces induced by the multiphase flow. Forces and accelerations were measured on a number of bends and T-joint configurations for a wide range of operating conditions. Five different configurations

  4. Elastocapillary instability under partial wetting conditions: Bending versus buckling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andreotti, Bruno; Marchand, Antonin; Das, Siddhartha; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2011-01-01

    The elastocapillary instability of a flexible plate plunged in a liquid bath is analyzed theoretically. We show that the plate can bend due to two separate destabilizing mechanisms, when the liquid is partially wetting the solid. For contact angles θe>π/2, the capillary forces acting tangential to t

  5. A Second Look at Brian Simon's "Bending the Rules"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Sue

    2016-01-01

    In this article the author revisits an important book: Brian Simon's "Bending the Rules: the Baker reform of education." Written by a key figure in the history of the journal FORUM as well as in the history of education, Simon's book documented the features of the Education Reform Bill of 1987 (the precursor to the Education Reform Act…

  6. Band bending and electrical transport at chemically modified silicon surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopinski, Greg; Ward, Tim; Hul'Ko, Oleksa; Boukherroub, Rabah

    2002-03-01

    High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) and electrical transport measurements have been used to investigate how various chemical modifications give rise to band bending and alter the conductivity of Si(111) surfaces. HREELS is a sensitive probe of band bending through observations of the low frequency free carrier plasmon mode. For hydrogen terminated surfaces, prepared by the standard etch in ammonium flouride, HREELS measurements on both n and n+ substrates are consistent with nearly flat bands. Chlorination of these surfaces results in substantial upward band bending due to the strong electron withdrawing nature of the chlorine, driving the surface into inversion. The presence of this inversion layer on high resistivity n-type samples is observed through a substantial enhancement of the surface conductivity (relative to the H-terminated surface), as well as through broadening of the quasi-elastic peak in the HREELS measurements. We have also begun to examine organically modified silicon surfaces, prepared by various wet chemical reactions with the H-terminated surface. Decyl modified Si(111) surfaces are seen to exhibit a small degree of band bending, attributed to extrinsic defect states cause by a small degree of oxidation accompanying the modification reaction. The prospects of using conductivity as an in-situ monitor of the rate of these reactions will be discussed.

  7. Fresh-stem bending of silver fir and Norway spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundström, Tor; Stoffel, Markus; Stöckli, Veronika

    2008-03-01

    The bending and growth characteristics of large fresh stems from four silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and three Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees were studied. Twenty logs taken from different stem heights were subjected to four-point bending tests. From the bending test records, we calculated stress-strain curves, which accounted for detailed log taper, shear deformation and self weight. From these curves we determined, among other parameters, the modulus of elasticity (MOE), the modulus of rupture (MOR) and the work absorbed in bending (W). No significant differences were found between species for the wood properties examined. Values of MOE, MOR and W generally decreased with stem height, with MOR in the range of 43 to 59 MPa and MOE ranging from 10.6 to 15.6 GPa. These MOE values are twice or more those reported for stems of young Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis (Bong.) Carr.) trees. Based on the radial growth properties measured in discs from the logs, we calculated predicted values of MOE and MOR for the stem cross section. The predictions of MOE were precise, whereas those of MOR were approximate because of a complex combination of different failure mechanisms. Methods to test and calculate MOE, MOR and W for the stems of living trees are discussed with the aim of improving analyses of tree biomechanics and assessments of forest stability protection.

  8. Optimization of bandwidth in 60^o photonic crystal waveguide bends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xing, P. F.; Borel, Peter Ingo; Frandsen, Lars Hagedorn;

    2005-01-01

    A systematic scheme utilizing 2D and 3D finite-difference time-domain calculations to design 60^o photonic crystal waveguide bends is presented. The method results in an improved transmission bandwidth from 70 to 160 nm in 2D simulations, and from 50 to 100 nm in 3D simulations. The design...

  9. A Novel Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using First Bending Hybrid Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingxiang Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We report a novel rotary piezoelectric motor using bending transducers in this work. Three transducers are used to drive a disk-shaped rotor together by the elliptical movements of their driving tips; these motions are produced by the hybrid of two first bending vibration modes. The proposed piezoelectric transducer has a simple structure as it only contains an aluminum alloy beam and four pieces of PZT plates. Symmetrical structure is the only necessary condition in the design process as it will ensure the resonance frequencies of the two orthogonal first bending modes are equal. Transducers with first bending resonance frequency of about 53 kHz were fabricated and assembled into a rotary motor. The proposed motor exhibits good performance on speed and torque control. Under a working frequency of 53.2 kHz, the maximum no-load speed and the maximum torque of the prototype are tested to be 53.3 rpm and of 27 mN·m.

  10. The Clinch Bend Regional Industrial Site and economic development opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This effort focuses initially on the Clinch Bend site. Other sites and developable tracts of land are identified with the assistance of communities in proximity to Oak Ridge, the State of Tennessee, and others, and compared with the projected site requirements for large industrial facilities.

  11. A COMBINED HYBRID FINITE ELEMENT METHOD FOR PLATE BENDING PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-xiao Zhou; Xiao-ping Xie

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, a combined hybrid method is applied to finite element discretization ofplate bending problems. It is shown that the resultant schemes are stabilized, i.e., theconvergence of the schemes is independent of inf-sup conditions and any other patch test.Based on this, two new series of plate elements are proposed.

  12. Finite element analysis of damage in pipeline bends

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, A.E.; Karamanos, S.A.; Scarpas, A.; Blaauwendraad, J.

    2010-01-01

    The present paper describes a numerical formulation for the analysis of damage in steel pipeline bends. In particular, the numerical implementation of Gurson plasticity model is described in the framework of a special element, referred to as “tube element”. This is a three-node element, which simula

  13. Electrical Emissions from Concrete under Three-point Bending Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Qingping; SUN Mingqing; LI Zhuoqiu; LI Guoqiang

    2005-01-01

    Electrical emission(EM) signals, which are generated from the concrete specimens under three-point bending tests, were conducted. It is shown that electrical emission phenomena are related to cracking of the specimens, cohesive failure, contact-separation etc. The simultaneous appearance of electric emission signals and visible cracks during the flexure loading of beams was also observed.

  14. Radio Occultation Bending Angle Anomalies During Tropical Cyclones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biondi, Riccardo; Neubert, Torsten; Syndergaard, Stig;

    signature in radio occultation profiles in the tropical tropopause layer. Using tropical cyclone best track database and data from the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (COSMIC), we show that the bending angle anomaly of a GPS radio occultation signal is typically larger...

  15. Ultrathin 90-degree sharp bends for spoof surface plasmon polaritons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yihao; Chen, Hongsheng; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2015-01-01

    surface plasmons around 90-degree sharp bends on ultrathin metallic films in the microwave regime. We demonstrate that by judiciously engineering the structure, the dispersion relation can be designed to reduce the scattering. Furthermore, the reflection can be suppressed by proper structural decoration...

  16. Theory of electric dipole moments and lepton flavour violation

    CERN Document Server

    Jung, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Electric dipole moments and charged-lepton flavour-violating processes are extremely sensitive probes for new physics, complementary to direct searches as well as flavour-changing processes in the quark sector. Beyond the "smoking-gun" feature of a potential significant measurement, however, it is crucial to understand their implications for new physics models quantitatively. The corresponding multi-scale problem of relating the existing high-precision measurements to fundamental parameters can be approached model-independently to a large extent; however, care must be taken to include the uncertainties from especially nuclear and QCD calculations properly.

  17. Optimal inference in dynamic models with conditional moment restrictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Bent Jesper; Sørensen, Michael

    By an application of the theory of optimal estimating function, optimal in- struments for dynamic models with conditional moment restrictions are derived. The general efficiency bound is provided, along with estimators attaining the bound. It is demonstrated that the optimal estimators are always...... optimal estimator reduces to Newey's. Specification and hypothesis testing in our framework are introduced. We derive the theory of optimal instruments and the associated asymptotic dis- tribution theory for general cases including non-martingale estimating functions and general history dependence...

  18. Radial velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.

    2005-01-01

    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the radial velocity distribution in dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis. We determine the properties of ten massive haloes in the simulation box approximating their density distribution by the NFW formula characterized by the virial mass and concentration. We also calculate the velocity anisotropy parameter of the haloes and find it mildly radial and increasing with distance from the halo centre. The radial velocity dispersion of the haloes shows a characteristic profile with a maximum, while the radial kurtosis profile decreases with distance starting from a value close to Gaussian near the centre. We therefore confirm that dark matter haloes possess intrinsically non-Gaussian, flat-topped velocity distributions. We find that the radial velocity moments of the simulated haloes are very well reproduced by the solutions of the Jeans equations obtained for the halo parameters with the anisotropy measured in the simu...

  19. Velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    CERN Document Server

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.

    2006-01-01

    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the line-of-sight velocity distribution of dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis, and their application to estimate the mass profiles of cosmological structures. For each of the ten massive haloes selected from the simulation box we determine the virial mass, concentration and the anisotropy parameter. In order to emulate observations from each halo we choose randomly 300 particles and project their velocities and positions along the line of sight and on the surface of the sky, respectively. After removing interlopers we calculate the profiles of the line-of-sight velocity moments and fit them with the solutions of the Jeans equations. The estimates of virial mass, concentration parameter and velocity anisotropy obtained in this way are in good agreement with the values found from the full 3D analysis.

  20. Moment distributions of phase-type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladt, Mogens; Nielsen, Bo Friis

    2012-01-01

    -normal, Pareto and gamma distributions. We provide explicit representations for both the matrix-exponential class and for the phase-type distributions, where the latter class may also use the former representations, but for various reasons it is desirable to establish a phase-type representation when dealing......Both matrix-exponential and phase-type distributions have a number of important closure properties. Among those are the distributions of the age and residual life-time of a stationary renewal process with inter-arrivals of either type. In this talk we show that the spread, which is the sum...... of the age an residual life-time, is also phase-type distributed. Moreover, we give some explicit representations. The spread is known to have a first order moment distribution. If X is a positive random variable and ?i is its i'th moment, then the function fi(x) = xif(x)/?i is a density function...