WorldWideScience

Sample records for benching

  1. GraphBench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2016-06-01

    GraphBench is a benchmark suite for graph pattern mining and graph analysis systems. The benchmark suite is a significant addition to conducting apples-apples comparison of graph analysis software (databases, in-memory tools, triple stores, etc.)

  2. TEST BENCH WITH SUPERCAPACITOR STORAGE

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a test bench developed to study and monitor the propulsion drives of electric vehicles at Tallinn University of Technology. The composition and performance of the setup are explained. The charging process of the supercapacitor bank is described as an example of the test bench application. The developed simulation model of the supercapacitor bank is presented and discussed.

  3. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  4. The VORTEX coronagraphic test bench

    CERN Document Server

    Jolivet, Aissa; Huby, Elsa; Absil, Olivier; Delacroix, Christian; Mawet, Dimitri; Surdej, Jean; Habraken, Serge

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present the infrared coronagraphic test bench of the University of Li\\`ege named VODCA (Vortex Optical Demonstrator for Coronagraphic Applications). The goal of the bench is to assess the performances of the Annular Groove Phase Masks (AGPMs) at near- to mid-infrared wavelengths. The AGPM is a subwavelength grating vortex coronagraph of charge two (SGVC2) made out of diamond. The bench is designed to be completely achromatic and will be composed of a super continuum laser source emitting in the near to mid-infrared, several parabolas, diaphragms and an infrared camera. This way, we will be able to test the different AGPMs in the M, L, K and H bands. Eventually, the bench will also allow the computation of the incident wavefront aberrations on the coronagraph. A reflective Lyot stop will send most of the stellar light to a second camera to perform low-order wavefront sensing. This second system coupled with a deformable mirror will allow the correction of the wavefront aberrations. We also ai...

  5. Piezoelectric energy harvesting computer controlled test bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Rodriguez, M.; Jiménez, F. J.; de Frutos, J.; Alonso, D.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper a new computer controlled (C.C.) laboratory test bench is presented. The patented test bench is made up of a C.C. road traffic simulator, C.C. electronic hardware involved in automating measurements, and test bench control software interface programmed in LabVIEW™. Our research is focused on characterizing electronic energy harvesting piezoelectric-based elements in road traffic environments to extract (or "harvest") maximum power. In mechanical to electrical energy conversion, mechanical impacts or vibrational behavior are commonly used, and several major problems need to be solved to perform optimal harvesting systems including, but no limited to, primary energy source modeling, energy conversion, and energy storage. It is described a novel C.C. test bench that obtains, in an accurate and automatized process, a generalized linear equivalent electrical model of piezoelectric elements and piezoelectric based energy store harvesting circuits in order to scale energy generation with multiple devices integrated in different topologies.

  6. Test Bench Development for Femur Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel SANCHEZ-CABALLERO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the design and development of a test bench for humanfemurs. The main uses of this test bench will run from artificial femurs comparisonwith real femurs, to join stability assessment after bone a fracture repair. Amongthis uses is specially designed for condylar fractures testing. The test bench isdeveloped from a self-made existing tensile/compression testing machine. Thedesign procedure is supported by a literature review about the bone mechanicalbehavior and composition generally and the knee joint performance and repairparticularly. On the basis of this review, the machine was designed to simulate theadduction and abduction movements of the joint. The magnitudes to be measuredare: the compression force, the bone displacement (vertical and the knee jointrotation

  7. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves;

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  8. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  9. An MCAO test bench for NFIRAOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turri, Paolo; Andersen, David R.; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Spanò, Paolo; Rosensteiner, Matthias; McVeigh, Eric A.

    2014-08-01

    At NRC Herzberg - Astronomy we are developing a closed-loop multi-conjugate adaptive optics bench to simulate a scaled-down version of NFIRAOS, the first light MCAO system on the Thirty Meter Telescope. The current bench consists of four laser guide stars, an evenly spaced array of natural guide stars, two magnetic deformable mirrors, a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor and a science camera at the focal plane for the evaluation of the performance and the tip-tilt measurements. Three phase screens conjugated at different altitudes simulate the atmospheric perturbation over the telescope. We can recreate the spot elongation on the SHWFS by defocusing the ground DM and at the same time modulating the intensity of the LGS spots in order to simulate the timevarying density profile of the sodium layer. The goals of this experiment are to compare the experimental performance on the bench with the predicted results of NFIRAOS models and to test the robustness of the tomographic reconstruction under conditions including the use of faint guide stars, non-uniform density profiles of the sodium layer and known non-common path aberrations. In this paper we present an update on the status of the bench and some first results.

  10. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  11. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  12. Bone tissue engineering: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A. Woodruff

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The drive to develop bone grafts for the filling of major gaps in the skeletal structure has led to a major research thrust towards developing biomaterials for bone engineering. Unfortunately, from a clinical perspective, the promise of bone tissue engineering which was so vibrant a decade ago has so far failed to deliver the anticipated results of becoming a routine therapeutic application in reconstructive surgery. Here we describe our bench to bedside concept, the first clinical results and a detailed analysis of long-term bone regeneration studies in preclinical animal models, exploiting methods of micro- and nano analysis of biodegradable composite scaffolds.

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Vii to Part 86 - Standard Bench Cycle (SBC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) VII.... VII Appendix VII to Part 86—Standard Bench Cycle (SBC) 1. The standard bench aging durability... bench cycle (SBC) described in this appendix. 2. The SBC requires use of an aging bench with an...

  14. Diesel injector fouling bench test methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavinoha, Leon L.; Yost, Douglas M.; Lestz, Sidney J.

    1992-06-01

    Compared to conventional compression ignition (CI) engine operation with the fuel being delivered at approximately 149 C (300 F), adiabatic engine operation potentially may deliver the fuel at temperatures as high as 260 C (500 F). Hypergolic CI engine combustion systems now in theoretical design stages will deliver fuel at temperatures approaching 427 to 538 C (800 to 1000 F). The ability of a fuel to resist formation of deposits on internal injector system surfaces is a form of thermal oxidative stability for which test methodology will be required. The injector Fouling Bench Test (IFBT) methodology evaluated in this report will assist in defining fuel contribution to injector fouling and control of fuel thermal stability in procurement specifications. The major observations from this project are discussed. Forty-hour cyclic IFB tests employing both Bosch APE 113 and Detroit Diesel (DD) N70 injectors are viable procedures for evaluating fuel effects on injector fouling. Cyclic operation appears to be superior to steady-state operation for both type injectors. Eighty-hour cyclic tests are more discriminating than 40-hour cyclic tests using the Bosch APE 113 injectors. JFTOT tests of fuels provide directional information on thermal stability-related deposits and filter plugging but show limited good correlation with IFBT DD N70 ratings, and none with IFBT Bosch APE 113 injector ratings. Deposition on injector pintles was more realistically rated by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) than conventional visual and bench rating methods. High-sulfur fuel readily caused sticking of Detroit Diesel injectors. Injector sticking is an important mode of injector fouling.

  15. Foaming phenomenon in bench-scale anaerobic digesters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebels, Amanda M; Long, Sharon C

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Metropolitan Sewerage District (The District) in Madison, Wisconsin has been experiencing seasonal foaming in their anaerobic biosolids digesters, which has occurred from mid-November to late June for the past few years. The exact cause(s) of foaming is unknown. Previous research findings are unclear as to whether applications of advanced anaerobic digestion processes reduce the foaming potential of digesters. The object of this study was to investigate how configurations of thermophilic and acid phase-thermophilic anaerobic digestion would affect foaming at the bench-scale level compared to single stage mesophilic digestion for The District. Bench-scale anaerobic digesters were fed with a 4 to 4.5% by dry weight of solids content blend of waste activated sludge (WAS) and primary sludge from The District. Foaming potential was monitored using Alka-Seltzer and aeration foaming tests. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digester had a higher foaming potential than the bench-scale mesophilic digester. These results indicate that higher temperatures increase the foaming potential of the bench-scale anaerobic digesters. The bench-scale acid phase-thermophilic digesters had a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) volatile solids destruction and a greater percent (approximately 5 to 10%) total solids destruction when compared to the bench-scale mesophilic digester. Overall, for the full-scale foaming experienced by The District, it appears that adding an acid phase or switching to thermophilic digestion would not alleviate The District's foaming issues.

  16. The check and error analysis of the BRDF experiment bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a detailed introduction is given to the check method of the BRDF experiment bench which is built on our own. Measurement is made on the BRDF of the standard white plate made of polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) with reference to the existing standard white plate whose surface reflectance is known and by the method of theory approximate and relative comparison. On the basis of that, the BRDF value of the standard white plate in the wave band of 0. 6328 μm is given and the experiment bench is checked, the relative error of the experiment bench being within 20%.

  17. Working Towards the LISA Optical Benches at UF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Andrew; Hillsberry, Daniel; Ciani, Giacomo; Conklin, John; Mueller, Guido

    2017-01-01

    The first space-based gravitational wave observatory will likely be a six-link LISA-like observatory with three million km scale arms. LISA aims at detecting gravitational waves from super-massive black hole mergers, compact galactic binaries, and many other exciting sources which emit gravitational waves in the 10 µHz to 1Hz frequency band. LISA will use laser interferometry to measure changes in the distance between free floating test masses at the pm/Hz level. At the core of the interferometry are the optical benches (two on each spacecraft) which receive, manipulate and redirect the different laser beams. The optical bench has been identified as a critical item in the design, manufacturing, and testing phases of this mission. Our group studies different components of the optical bench with the goal to simplify the design and manufacturing process of the optical bench.

  18. Electronic Unit Pump Test Bench Development and Pump Properties Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Bo-lan; HUANG Ying; ZHANG Fu-jun; ZHAO Chang-lu

    2006-01-01

    A unit pump test bench is developed on an in-line pump test platform. The bench is composed of pump adapting assembly, fuel supply subsystem, lubricating subsystem and a control unit. A crank angle domain injection control method is given out and the control accuracy can be 0.1° crank degree. The bench can test bot h mechanical unit pump and electronic unit pump. A test model-PLD12 electronic unit pump is tested. Full pump delivery map and some influence factors test is d one. Experimental results show that the injection quantity is linear with the de livery angle. The quantity change rate is 15% when fuel temperature increases 30℃. The delivery quantity per cycle increases 30mg at 28V drive voltage. T he average delivery difference for two same type pumps is 5%. Test results show that the bench can be used for unit pump verification.

  19. Bench-Scale Co-Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piasecki, C.A.; Gatsis, J.G.; Fullerton, H.E.

    1993-11-08

    This topical report is the first for the UOP Bench-Scale Co-processing contract. The objective of this contract is to extend and optimize the UOP single-stage, slurry-catalyzed co-processing scheme. UOP co-processing uses a single-stage, slurry-catalyzed scheme in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active, well-dispersed catalyst permits operations at moderate- and high-severity reaction conditions with minimum detrimental thermal reactions. In this process, finely ground coal, petroleum resid, and catalyst are mixed, combined with hydrogen, and then directed to a single-stage reactor, where the simultaneous upgrading of the petroleum resid and coal occurs. The reactor effluent is directed to a series of separators, where a hydrogen-rich gas is recovered and recycled back to the reactor inlet. The balance of the material is sent to a series of separators, where the light gasses, light oil, vacuum gas on (VGO), catalyst, unconverted coal, ash, and residues are recovered. The catalyst is recycled back to the reactor. The UOP co-processing scheme is designed to be integrated into a conventional petroleum refinery. the hydrocarbon products from the co-processing unit will be sent to the refinery for final upgrading to finished products. A major focus of this contract is to investigate ways to reduce the catalyst and catalyst recovery costs and improve the overall economics of the process. This report documents the work completed under Task 2.0, Laboratory Support. The overall objective of Task 2.0 was to obtain and characterize the feedstocks for the contract and to provide a screening mechanism to test new catalyst systems prior to testing in the continuous pilot plant. The main elements of the experimental program for task 2.0 include: Feedstock procurement and analysis; catalyst improvements; and catalyst recycle screening.

  20. One to One营销优化算法的BenchMark验证方法%A BenchMark Method for One to One Marketing Optimization Algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴敏; 何蓓; 陈淑红

    2004-01-01

    该文针对One to One营销优化问题,提出了一种BenchMark验证方法.基于这一BenchMark验证方法,对原始Simplex法、DFS法和LIPSOL法进行了基于理论的BenchMark验证和基于MATLAB的BenchMark验证,给出了仿真结论,证明了提出的BenchMark验证方法的有效性.

  1. The feasibility of bench tests for disposable ECG electrode adhesiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, C D; Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of recommending one standard bench test that adequately qualifies electrode adhesives for clinical use was examined by UBTL. Small strips, cut from whole, commercially available disposable ECG electrodes, were attached to three types of surfaces, and samples of each type of electrode were peel tested at 15 minutes, 8 hours, and 48 hours after attachment. A program was developed to average, display, and calculate peel strength parameters. Analysis of the data showed that (a) the peel strength of electrodes varied by more than a factor of 10 when measured on human skin, and by more than a factor of 3 when measured on bench test surfaces, and (b) the peel strength of the electrode adhesive strips did not correlate with intact electrode loss on ambulatory subjects. Therefore, UBTL could not recommend one bench test that would measure adhesion performance for all electrode types appropriate for inclusion in an AAMI ECG electrode standard.

  2. Object oriented hardware-software test bench for OMTF diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabik, Pawel; Pozniak, Krzysztof T.; Bunkowski, Karol; Zawistowski, Krystian; Byszuk, Adrian; Bluj, Michał; Doroba, Krzysztof; Górski, Maciej; Kalinowski, Artur; Kierzkowski, Krzysztof; Konecki, Marcin; Królikowski, Jan; Oklinski, Wojciech; Olszewski, Michał; Skala, Aleksander; Zabołotny, Wojciech M.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the object oriented hardware-software model and its sample implementation of diagnostics for the Overlap Muon Track Finder trigger for the CMS experiment in CERN is described. It presents realization of test-bench for control and diagnosis class of multichannel, distributed measurement systems based on FPGA chips. The test-bench fulfills requirements for system's rapid changes, configurability and efficiency. This ability is very significant and desirable by expanded electronic systems. The solution described is a software model based on a method of address space management called the Component Internal Interface (CII). Establishment of stable link between hardware and software, as a purpose of designed and realized programming environment, is presented. The test-bench implementation and example of OMTF algorithm test is presented.

  3. Virtual bench testing to study coronary bifurcation stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliavacca, Francesco; Chiastra, Claudio; Chatzizisis, Yiannis S; Dubini, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Virtual bench testing is a numerical methodology which has been applied to the study of coronary interventions. It exploits the amazing growth of computer performance for scientific calculation and makes it possible to simulate very different and complex multiphysics environments and processes, including coronary bifurcation stenting. The quality of prediction from any computer model is very sensitive to the quality of the input data and assumptions. This also holds true in stent virtual bench testing. This paper reviews the state of the art in the field of bifurcation stenting modelling and identifies the current advantages and limitations of this methodology.

  4. Influence of the "Slingshot" bench press training aid on bench press kinematics and neuromuscular activity in competitive powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugdale, James H; Hunter, Angus; Di Virgilio, Thomas; Macgregor, Lewis J; Hamilton, D Lee

    2017-02-13

    This study examined the acute effects of the 'Slingshot' on bench-press performance, prime-mover surface electromyographic (sEMG) amplitude, and barbell velocity during maximal and submaximal bench-pressing in competitive male powerlifters. Fifteen male powerlifters (mean ± SD age: 27.05 ± 5.94 years; mass: 94.15kg; 1RM bench-press: 139.7 ± 16.79kg) participated in the study. Bench-press strength, average barbell velocity, and sEMG amplitude of the prime mover muscles (triceps brachii, pectoralis major and anterior deltoid) were measured during two conditions; 'Raw' (without use of any assistance) and 'Slingshot' [using the 'Slingshot' to perform both the weight achieved during 'Raw' 1RM testing (Raw max/SS), and absolute 1RM using the 'Slingshot' (SS)]. The results showed that the 'Slingshot' significantly increased bench press 1RM performance by a mean ± SD of 20.67kg ± 3.4kg. Barbell velocity and stick point analysis indicate that this improvement is likely driven by an increase in peak and pre-stick barbell velocity as triceps RMS was lower throughout all rep max phases with the 'Slingshot'. The 'Slingshot' also caused reductions in RMS, specifically of the triceps at all rep ranges but barbell velocity was better maintained in the last reps of all sets. These data indicate that the 'Slingshot' specifically de-loaded the triceps muscle throughout all rep ranges and provide assistance to maintaining barbell velocity under fatigue during later repetitions of multiple-repetition sets. The 'Slingshot' training aid could therefore be used in de-load phases of bench press training or as an over-reaching and velocity training aid.

  5. Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Patino, R.; Stockar, von U.

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale biocalorimetry (=1 L) allows for the determination of the metabolic heat flow during bioprocesses under complete control of all process conditions for extended periods of time. It can be combined with a number of on-line and off-line measurement techniques. This combination can significa

  6. ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Stavarache, Larise; Dessus, Philippe; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle; Bianco, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    Dascalu, M., Stavarache, L.L., Dessus, P., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Bianco, M. (2015). ReaderBench: An Integrated Cohesion-Centered Framework. In G. Conole, T. Klobucar, C. Rensing, J. Konert & É. Lavoué (Eds.), 10th European Conf. on Technology Enhanced Learning (pp. 505–508). Toledo, Sp

  7. Optimising Microbial Growth with a Bench-Top Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, A. M. R.; Borin, S. L.; Chooi, K. P.; Huang, S. S.; Newgas, A. J. S.; Sodagar, D.; Ziegler, C. A.; Chan, G. H. T.; Walsh, K. A. P.

    2006-01-01

    The effects of impeller size, agitation and aeration on the rate of yeast growth were investigated using bench-top bioreactors. This exercise, carried out over a six-month period, served as an effective demonstration of the importance of different operating parameters on cell growth and provided a means of determining the optimisation conditions…

  8. Beyond bench and bedside: disentangling the concept of translational research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, van der Anna Laura; Boenink, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    The label ‘Translational Research’ (TR) has become ever more popular in the biomedical domain in recent years. It is usually presented as an attempt to bridge a supposed gap between knowledge produced at the lab bench and its use at the clinical bedside. This is claimed to help society harvest the b

  9. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...... content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...

  10. Test Bench for Analyzing the Lost Foam Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kaczorowski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work presents and describes the test bench for analyzing the lost foam process, especially measuring of the pressure of gases in the gas gap and continuous measuring of the rate of rise of the bath level when pouring the liquid metal into the mould. A series ofpreliminary research was carried out on the bench which was aimed at determining the influence of the basic parameters of the process, i.e. the density of the styrofoam pattern, thickness of the refractory coating applied on the pattern, kind of the alloy and the temperature of pouring on the mould cavity by the liquid metal and the pressure of gases in the gas gap.

  11. Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter bench test module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukens, L.L.; Andraka, C.E.; Moreno, J.B.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and test of a Liquid Metal Thermal Electric Converter Bench Test Module. The work presented in this document was conducted as a part of Heat Engine Task of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Solar Thermal Technology Program. The objective of this task is the development and evaluation of heat engine technologies applicable to distributed receiver systems, in particular, dish electric systems.

  12. Validating induced seismicity forecast models - Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    CERN Document Server

    Kiraly-Proag, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Wiemer, Stefan; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Doetsch, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. In this study, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models; this test bench can be used for model development, model selection, and ensemble model building. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-For\\^ets 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models: Shapiro and Smoothed Seismicity (SaSS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). These models incorporate a different mix of physics-based elements and stochastic representation of the induced sequences. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. Generally, HySei forecasts the seismicity rate better after shut-in, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distri...

  13. Design guidelines for high dimensional stability of CFRP optical bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desnoyers, Nichola; Boucher, Marc-André; Goyette, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    In carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) optomechanical structures, particularly when embodying reflective optics, angular stability is critical. Angular stability or warping stability is greatly affected by moisture absorption and thermal gradients. Unfortunately, it is impossible to achieve the perfect laminate and there will always be manufacturing errors in trying to reach a quasi-iso laminate. Some errors, such as those related to the angular position of each ply and the facesheet parallelism (for a bench) can be easily monitored in order to control the stability more adequately. This paper presents warping experiments and finite-element analyses (FEA) obtained from typical optomechanical sandwich structures. Experiments were done using a thermal vacuum chamber to cycle the structures from -40°C to 50°C. Moisture desorption tests were also performed for a number of specific configurations. The selected composite material for the study is the unidirectional prepreg from Tencate M55J/TC410. M55J is a high modulus fiber and TC410 is a new-generation cyanate ester designed for dimensionally stable optical benches. In the studied cases, the main contributors were found to be: the ply angular errors, laminate in-plane parallelism (between 0° ply direction of both facesheets), fiber volume fraction tolerance and joints. Final results show that some tested configurations demonstrated good warping stability. FEA and measurements are in good agreement despite the fact that some defects or fabrication errors remain unpredictable. Design guidelines to maximize the warping stability by taking into account the main dimensional stability contributors, the bench geometry and the optical mount interface are then proposed.

  14. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millán, María S.

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  15. Design of a Test Bench for Intraocular Lens Optical Characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alba-Bueno, Francisco; Vega, Fidel; Millan, Maria S, E-mail: francisco.alba-bueno@upc.edu, E-mail: fvega@oo.upc.edu, E-mail: millan@oo.upc.edu [Departamento de Optica y Optometria, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C/ Violinista Vellsola 37, 08222 Terrassa (Spain)

    2011-01-01

    The crystalline lens is the responsible for focusing at different distances (accommodation) in the human eye. This organ grows throughout life increasing in size and rigidity. Moreover, due this growth it loses transparency through life, and becomes gradually opacified causing what is known as cataracts. Cataract is the most common cause of visual loss in the world. At present, this visual loss is recoverable by surgery in which the opacified lens is destroyed (phacoemulsification) and replaced by the implantation of an intraocular lens (IOL). If the IOL implanted is mono-focal the patient loses its natural capacity of accommodation, and as a consequence they would depend on an external optic correction to focus at different distances. In order to avoid this dependency, multifocal IOLs designs have been developed. The multi-focality can be achieved by using either, a refractive surface with different radii of curvature (refractive IOLs) or incorporating a diffractive surface (diffractive IOLs). To analyze the optical quality of IOLs it is necessary to test them in an optical bench that agrees with the ISO119679-2 1999 standard (Ophthalmic implants. Intraocular lenses. Part 2. Optical Properties and Test Methods). In addition to analyze the IOLs according to the ISO standard, we have designed an optical bench that allows us to simulate the conditions of a real human eye. To do that, we will use artificial corneas with different amounts of optical aberrations and several illumination sources with different spectral distributions. Moreover, the design of the test bench includes the possibility of testing the IOLs under off-axis conditions as well as in the presence of decentration and/or tilt. Finally, the optical imaging quality of the IOLs is assessed by using common metrics like the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF), the Point Spread Function (PSF) and/or the Strehl ratio (SR), or via registration of the IOL's wavefront with a Hartmann-Shack sensor and its

  16. Bidirectional converter interface for a battery energy storage test bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Thomas, Stephan; Blank, Tobias;

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the bidirectional converter interface for a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. The power electronic interface consists a two stage converter topology having a low voltage dc-ac grid connected converter and a new dual active bridge dc-dc converter with high transformation...... ratio. The dc-dc converter controls the battery charge/discharge current while the grid converter controls the common dc-link voltage and the grid current. The applied control structures and the hardware implementation of both converters are presented, together with their interaction. Experimental...

  17. Bench Crater Meteorite: Hydrated Asteroidal Material Delivered to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, K. H.; Messenger, S.; Zolensky, M. E.; Frank, D. R.; Kring, D. A.

    2013-01-01

    D/H measurements from the lunar regolith agglutinates [8] indicate mixing between a low D/H solar implanted component and additional higher D/H sources (e.g., meteoritic/ cometary/volcanic gases). We have determined the range and average D/H ratio of Bench Crater meteorite, which is the first direct D/H analysis of meteoritic material delivered to the lunar surface. This result provides an important ground truth for future investigations of lunar water resources by missions to the Moon.

  18. Dynamic balance abilities of collegiate men for the bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piper, Timothy J; Radlo, Steven J; Smith, Thomas J; Woodward, Ryan W

    2012-12-01

    This study investigated the dynamic balance detection ability of college men for the bench press exercise. Thirty-five college men (mean ± SD: age = 22.4 ± 2.76 years, bench press experience = 8.3 ± 2.79 years, and estimated 1RM = 120.1 ± 21.8 kg) completed 1 repetition of the bench press repetitions for each of 3 bar loading arrangements. In a randomized fashion, subjects performed the bench press with a 20-kg barbell loaded with one of the following: a balanced load, one 20-kg plate on each side; an imbalanced asymmetrical load, one 20-kg plate on one side and a 20-kg plate plus a 1.25-kg plate on the other side; or an imbalanced asymmetrical center of mass, 20-kg plate on one side and sixteen 1.25-kg plates on the other side. Subjects were blindfolded and wore ear protection throughout all testing to decrease the ability to otherwise detect loads. Binomial data analysis indicated that subjects correctly detected the imbalance of the imbalanced asymmetrical center of mass condition (p[correct detection] = 0.89, p < 0.01) but did not correctly detect the balanced condition (p[correct detection] = 0.46, p = 0.74) or the imbalanced asymmetrical condition (p[correct detection] = 0.60, p = 0.31). Although it appears that a substantial shift in the center of mass of plates leads to the detection of barbell imbalance, minor changes of the addition of 1.25 kg (2.5 lb) to the asymmetrical condition did not result in consistent detection. Our data indicate that the establishment of a biofeedback loop capable of determining balance detection was only realized under a high degree of imbalance. Although balance detection was not present in either the even or the slightly uneven loading condition, the inclusion of balance training for upper body may be futile if exercises are unable to establish such a feedback loop and thus eliciting an improvement of balance performance.

  19. ESA's CCD test bench for the PLATO mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaufort, Thierry; Duvet, Ludovic; Bloemmaert, Sander; Lemmel, Frederic; Prod'homme, Thibaut; Verhoeve, Peter; Smit, Hans; Butler, Bart; van der Luijt, Cornelis; Heijnen, Jerko; Visser, Ivo

    2016-08-01

    PLATO { PLAnetary Transits and Oscillations of stars { is the third medium-class mission to be selected in the European Space Agency (ESA) Science and Robotic Exploration Cosmic Vision programme. Due for launch in 2025, the payload makes use of a large format (8 cm x 8 cm) Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs), the e2v CCD270 operated at 4 MHz and at -70 C. To de-risk the PLATO CCD qualification programme initiated in 2014 and support the mission definition process, ESA's Payload Technology Validation section from the Future Missions Office has developed a dedicated test bench.

  20. Feasibility of a Single Common Powertrain Lubricant-Transmission Bench Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-01

    mechanical applications including engine crankcase lubrication, powershift transmission operation, and some hydraulic system operation. Several diesel ...performance in SCPL. Overall, the performance of various diesel engine oils tested in a variety of friction bench tests was determined. The results indicate...friction bench test results with the slate of engine oils tested. This will enable the marriage of diesel engine oil performance with military

  1. TACLeBench: A benchmark collection to support worst-case execution time research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falk, Heiko; Altmeyer, Sebastian; Hellinckx, Peter

    2016-01-01

    -source programs, adapted them to a common coding style, and provide the collection in open-source. The benchmark collection is called TACLeBench and is available from GitHub in version 1.9 at the publication date of this paper. One of the main features of TACLeBench is that all programs are self-contained without...

  2. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing media and amendments in larger pilot- or full-scale rain garden installations. The bench-scale study conclude...

  3. Test bench for thermal cycling of 10 kV silicon carbide power modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Simon Dyhr; Jørgensen, Asger Bjørn; Maarbjerg, Anders Eggert;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a test bench for lifetime investigation of 10 kV silicon carbide power modules. The test bench subjects high voltage switching operation to the modules while power cycling. Thus both a thermal and electrical operating point is emulated. The power cycling setup features offline...

  4. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid......). Between 57 and 83% of the APC residue was dissolved during treatment. The highest dissolution was seen for acid treated residue and the lowest for water pre-washed residue....

  5. Old star clusters: Bench tests of low mass stellar models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salaris M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Old star clusters in the Milky Way and external galaxies have been (and still are traditionally used to constrain the age of the universe and the timescales of galaxy formation. A parallel avenue of old star cluster research considers these objects as bench tests of low-mass stellar models. This short review will highlight some recent tests of stellar evolution models that make use of photometric and spectroscopic observations of resolved old star clusters. In some cases these tests have pointed to additional physical processes efficient in low-mass stars, that are not routinely included in model computations. Moreover, recent results from the Kepler mission about the old open cluster NGC6791 are adding new tight constraints to the models.

  6. An ion-optical bench for testing ion source lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffels, J. J.; Ells, D. R.

    1988-06-01

    An ion-optical bench has been designed and constructed to obtain experimental data on the focusing properties of ion lenses in three dimensions. The heart of the apparatus is a position-sensitive detector (PSD) that gives output signals proportional to the x and y positions of each ion impact. The position signals can be displayed on an oscilloscope screen and analyzed by a two-parameter pulse-height analyzer, thereby giving a visual picture of the ion beam cross section and intensity distribution. The PSD itself is mounted on a track and is movable during operation from a position immediately following the ion lens to 30 cm away. This enables the rapid collection of accurate data on the intensity distribution and divergence angles of ions leaving the source lens. Examples of ion lens measurements are given.

  7. [Moraxella bovis biomass production in a bench-top fermentor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, R D; Oberti, E R

    1994-01-01

    A Moraxella bovis strain was isolated from a kerato-conjunctivities lesion of a calf in Villa Valeria (Córdoba); it was used to establish improved cultural conditions, such as nature and concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources, and pH control in shaken flasks. The selected conditions were assayed for biomass production in a bench-top fermentor. The strain is used by the pharmaceutical industry to produce vaccines and adjuvants. In the initial condition (48 h culture on blood agar) 0.019 g biomass/l.h-1 was obtained. With the use of liquid defined medium with pH control, productivity was increased to 0.153g/l.h-1, with optimum harvest time of 32 h.

  8. Development of Stretched wire measurement bench at IDDL, DAVV Indore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehlot, Mona; Mishra, G.

    2016-10-01

    A stretched wire magnetic measurement bench is under development at IDDL, DAVV, Indore. In this method a multistrend wire consisting of N turns is stretched inside the undulator to measure the field integrals of the undulators. The wire moved with constant velocity of translation measures the first integral of the undulator field. The cross motion of the wire at the undulator ends measures the second field integral. The measurement accuracy depends on the wire conditions and material properties. In this paper we follow an analytical approach to find the voltage fluctuations due to wire vibrations during the field measurement. It is shown that the voltage fluctuations depend on undulator gap, magnitude of the impulse on the wire. The mass density and the length of the wire also cause sizeable voltage fluctuations. The analytical derived expression is analysed to optimize system parameters for minimum errors during the measurement.

  9. The emergence of Melloni’s optical bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, Emanuela; Leone, Matteo; Robotti, Nadia

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we address the emergence of one of the most common instruments in 19th century physics laboratories, Melloni’s optical bench, relying on the analysis of the most significant historical documents. This apparatus, devised in 1835 by Macedonio Melloni, a distinguished Italian physicist of that time, enabled the study of the properties of ‘radiant heat’, or thermal radiation as it was then called. This apparatus is present in a large number of physics cabinets of universities and secondary schools. In this paper, we plan to foster the educational use of this device, still relevant for the study of infrared radiation, both by university and secondary school students and by teachers and scholars.

  10. A Test-Bench for Measurement of Electrical Static Parameters of Strip Silicon Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Golutvin, I A; Danilevich, V G; Dmitriev, A Yu; Elsha, V V; Zamiatin, Y I; Zubarev, E V; Ziaziulia, F E; Kozus, V I; Lomako, V M; Stepankov, D V; Khomich, A P; Shumeiko, N M; Cheremuhin, A E

    2003-01-01

    An automated test-bench for electrical parameters input control of the strip silicon detectors, used in the End-Cap Preshower detector of the CMS experiment, is described. The test-bench application allows one to solve a problem of silicon detectors input control in conditions of mass production - 1800 detectors over 2 years. The test-bench software is realized in Delphi environment and contains a user-friendly operator interface for measurement data processing and visualization as well as up-to-date facilities for MS-Windows used for the network database. High operating characteristics and reliability of the test-bench were confirmed while more than 800 detectors were tested. Some technical solutions applied to the test-bench could be useful for design and construction of automated facilities for electrical parameters measurements of the microstrip detectors input control.

  11. A ground-water reconnaissance of the Jacmel-Meyer Bench, Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, George C.

    1949-01-01

    The Jacmel-Meyer bench lies on the south coast of the southern peninsula of Haiti in the Department de l'Ouest. Jacmel, at the west end of the bench, is about 40 kilometers airline southwest of Port-au-Prince. In the early part of January 1949, the writer in company with Mr. Rémy Lemoine made a reconnaissance study of the ground-water conditions of the bench. The object of the reconnaissance was to determine the availability of ground water for irrigation of the bench as well as for the public water supply of Jacmel. Irrigation is practiced on the bench, bu the existing water supplies are insufficient to cover all irrigable lands. Jacmel is at present supplied with water from a pipe line that delivers the flow of several developed springs to the city by gravity. However, this supply is inadequate and probably at times is contaminated.

  12. USING BENCH PRESS LOAD TO PREDICT UPPER BODY EXERCISE LOADS IN PHYSICALLY ACTIVE INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del P. Wong

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m-2 were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p < 0.01. The bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p < 0.01. Linear regression revealed that the bench press load was a significant (R2 range from 0.64 to 0.86, p < 0.01 predictor for the loads of the 4 assistance exercises. The following 6RM prediction equations were determined: (a Hammer curl = Bench press load (0.28 + 6.30 kg, (b Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33 + 6.20 kg, (c Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33 - 0.60 kg, and (d Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42 + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  13. Bench-scale experiment design for developing co-pyrolysis and co-gasification technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2004-07-01

    Important technical issues must be resolved before co-pyrolysis and co-gasification technologies can be offered as commercially viable processes. Clearly, issues such as solids handling and solids injection require solutions developed at actual plant or pilot scale. However, research on numerous other residual problems can be carried out effectively, rapidly, and inexpensively at bench-scale level. This article describes several cases where problems encountered during pilot or plant scale operation can be studied by experiments at bench-top levels; the designs of the bench-scale reactors used in these studies are presented and discussed. 34 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  14. Inertia Matching During Dynic Simulation of Vehicle Drive System on Test Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋强; 孙逢春; 郑慕侨; 顾进超

    2004-01-01

    Frework and basic pareters of a test bench for motor drive system of electric vehicle (EV) are illuminated. Two kinds of electric drive models, one was for the electric vehicle drived on real road, the other was for that on test bench, are put forward. Then, dynic analysis of these models is made in detail. Inertia matching method of the test bench is researched and some useful formulas and graphs are brought forward. The experiment of an electric bus is introduced in order to explain the usage of this inertia matching method.

  15. Fast modulation and dithering on a pyramid wavefront sensor bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kooten, Maaike; Bradley, Colin; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Herriot, Glen; Lardiere, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    A pyramid wavefront sensor (PWFS) bench has been setup at NRC-Herzberg (Victoria, Canada) to investigate, first, the feasibility of a double roof prism PWFS, and second, test the proposed pyramid wavefront sensing methodology to be used in NFIRAOS for the Thirty Meter Telescope. Traditional PWFS require shallow angles and strict apex tolerances, making them difficult to manufacture. Roof prisms, on the other hand, are common optical components and can easily be made to the desired specifications. Understanding the differences between a double roof prism PWFS and traditional PWFS will allow for the double roof prism PWFS to become more widely used as an alternative to the standard pyramid, especially in a laboratory setting. In this work, the response of the double roof prism PWFS as the amount of modulation is changed, is compared to an ideal PWFS modelled using the adaptive optics toolbox, OOMAO in MATLAB. The object oriented toolbox uses physical optics to model complete AO systems. Fast modulation and dithering using a PI mirror has been implemented using a micro-controller to drive the mirror and trigger the camera. The various trade offs of this scheme, in a controlled laboratory environment, are studied and reported.

  16. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  17. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  18. The E-lens test bench for RHIC beam-beam compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu X.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Aronson, J.; Beebe, E. et al

    2012-05-20

    To compensate for the beam-beam effects from the proton-proton interactions at IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are fabricating two electron lenses that we plan to install at RHIC IR10. Before installing the e-lenses, we are setting-up the e-lens test bench to test the electron gun, collector, GS1 coil, modulator, partial control system, some instrumentation, and the application software. Some e-lens power supplies, the electronics for current measurement will also be qualified on test bench. The test bench also was designed for measuring the properties of the cathode and the profile of the beam. In this paper, we introduce the layout and elements of the e-lens test bench; and we discuss its present status towards the end of this paper.

  19. Development of a Synchronous-Generator Experimental Bench for Standstill Time-Domain Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Arjona

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of an experimental bench for performing time-domain tests on synchronousmachines at standstill. The test bench allows the collection of experimental data which can then be used in theparameter estimation of mathematical models of synchronous motors and generators. The system development isbased on the LabVIEW programming language. It effortlessly allows the calibration of voltage and current sensors, thed-q magnetic axis positioning of the synchronous generator, and the spectral analysis from the collected data. Inaddition, the testing environment includes non-sophisticated instrumentation elements and a power amplifier. Thisexperimental bench has a friendly user interface which guides the user throughout a defined methodology to allow theachievement of the different time domain tests on synchronous machines. A 7kVA, 220V, 60Hz synchronousgenerator was used to show the functionality and usefulness of the test bench in research and teaching electricalmachine theory.

  20. 40 CFR Appendix Viii to Part 86 - Aging Bench Equipment and Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures use the standard bench cycle (SBC) which is described in appendix VII to part 86. The SBC is... adjustments shall be made to assure that the SBC is being appropriately followed throughout the aging...

  1. System of Thermal Balance Maintenance in Modern Test Benches for Centrifugal Pumps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Petrov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article “Systems of the heat balance maintenance in modern test benches for centrifugal pumps” makes the case to include cooling systems of a working fluid (heat setting in test bench for impeller pumps. It briefly summarizes an experience of bench building to test centrifugal pumps, developed at the BMSTU Department E-10 over the last 10 years. The article gives the formulas and the algorithm to calculate the heat capacity of different types of impeller pumps when tested at the bench as ell as to determine the heating time of the liquid in the bench without external cooling. Based on analysis of the power balance of a centrifugal pump, it is shown that about 90% of the pump unit-consumed electric power in terminals is used for heating up the working fluid in the loop of the test bench. The article gives examples of elementary heat calculation of the pump operation within the test bench. It presents the main types of systems to maintain thermal balance, their advantages, disadvantages and possible applications. The cooling system schemes for open and closed version of the benches both with built-in and with an independent cooling circuit are analysed. The paper separately considers options of such systems for large benches using the cooling tower as a cooling device in the loop, and to test the pumps using the hydraulic fluids other than water, including those at high temperatures of working fluids; in the latter case a diagram of dual-circuit cooling system "liquid-liquid-air" is shown. The paper depicts a necessity to use ethylene glycol coolant in the two-loop cooling bench. It provides an example of combining the functions of cooling and filtration in a single cooling circuit. Criteria for effectiveness of these systems are stated. Possible ways for developing systems to maintain a thermal balance, modern methods of regulation and control are described. In particular, the paper shows the efficiency of frequency control of the

  2. Study of a spectrometer line for the Linac4 diagnostics movable bench

    CERN Document Server

    Bellodi, G; CERN. Geneva. AB Department

    2008-01-01

    movable diagnostics bench is currently being designed as part of the Linac4 commissioning plan to characterise the H-beam at the exit of each DTL tank. A spectrometer line has been proposed for installation on the bench to allow performing measurements of the beam energy spread with a slit/dipole/monitor technique. A layout for this diagnostics line is here proposed together with the results of beam dynamics studies to evaluate the resolution achievable and the measurement reach.

  3. Automatic Test Bench for the Measurement of the Magnetic Interference on LVDTs

    CERN Document Server

    Spiezia, G; Masi, A; Pierno, A; Martino, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a rigorous and repeatable measurement procedure to analyze the effects of magnetic interferences on Linear Variable Differential Transformer sensors. This issue is neither addressed in the sensor datasheet, nor in the scientific literature. The potential of the method and the performance of an automated test bench, that implements the procedure, are proved by measuring the drift of the position reading due to external magnetic interferences on a commercial LVDT. Finally, the repeatability of the test bench is shown.

  4. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  5. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  6. Bench-scale co-processing economic assessment. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gala, H.B.; Marker, T.L.; Miller, E.N.

    1994-11-01

    The UOP Co-Processing scheme is a single-stage slurry catalyzed process in which petroleum vacuum resid and coal are simultaneously upgraded to a high-quality synthetic oil. A highly active dispersed catalyst has been developed which enables the operation of the co-processing unit at relatively moderate and high temperatures and relatively high pressure. Under the current contract, a multi-year research program was undertaken to study the technical and economic feasibility of this technology. All the contractual tasks were completed. Autoclave experiments were carried out to evaluate dispersed vanadium catalysts, molybdenum catalysts, and a less costly UOP-proprietary catalyst preparation technique. Autoclave experiments were also carried out in support of the continuous pilot plant unit operation and to study the effects of the process variables (pressure, temperature, and metal loading on the catalyst). A total of 24 continuous pilot plant runs were made. Research and development efforts during the pilot plant operations were concentrated on addressing the cost effectiveness of the UOP single-stage slurry catalyzed co-processing concept based on UOP experience gained in the previous DOE contract. To this end, effect of catalyst metal concentration was studied and a highly-active Mo-based catalyst was developed. This catalyst enabled successful long-term operation (924 hours) of the continuous bench-scale plant at highly severe operating conditions of 3,000 psig, 465{degree}C temperature, and 2:1 resid-to-MAF (moisture- and ash-free) coal ratio with 0.1 wt % active metal. The metal loading of the catalyst was low enough to consider the catalyst as a disposable slurry catalyst. Also, liquid recycle was incorporated in the pilot plant design to increase the, reactor back mixing and to increase the flow of liquid through the reactor (to introduce turbulence in the reactor) and to represent the design of a commercial-scale reactor.

  7. Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaetani, Silvana; Romano, Adele; Provensi, Gustavo; Ricca, Valdo; Lutz, Thomas; Passani, Maria Beatrice

    2016-12-01

    The central nervous system and viscera constitute a functional ensemble, the gut-brain axis, that allows bidirectional information flow that contributes to the control of feeding behavior based not only on the homeostatic, but also on the hedonic aspects of food intake. The prevalence of eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, binge eating and obesity, poses an enormous clinical burden, and involves an ever-growing percentage of the population worldwide. Clinical and preclinical research is constantly adding new information to the field and orienting further studies with the aim of providing a foundation for developing more specific and effective treatment approaches to pathological conditions. A recent symposium at the XVI Congress of the Societá Italiana di Neuroscienze (SINS, 2015) 'Eating disorders: from bench to bedside and back' brought together basic scientists and clinicians with the objective of presenting novel perspectives in the neurobiology of eating disorders. Clinical studies presented by V. Ricca illustrated some genetic aspects of the psychopathology of anorexia nervosa. Preclinical studies addressed different issues ranging from the description of animal models that mimic human pathologies such as anorexia nervosa, diet-induced obesity, and binge eating disorders (T. Lutz), to novel interactions between peripheral signals and central circuits that govern food intake, mood and stress (A. Romano and G. Provensi). The gut-brain axis has received increasing attention in the recent years as preclinical studies are demonstrating that the brain and visceral organs such as the liver and guts, but also the microbiota are constantly engaged in processes of reciprocal communication, with unexpected physiological and pathological implications. Eating is controlled by a plethora of factors; genetic predisposition, early life adverse conditions, peripheral gastrointestinal hormones that act directly or indirectly on the central nervous system, all are

  8. A comparison of muscle activity in concentric and counter movement maximum bench press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Tillaar, Roland; Ettema, Gertjan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the kinematics and muscle activation patterns of regular free-weight bench press (counter movement) with pure concentric lifts in the ascending phase of a successful one repetition maximum (1-RM) attempt in the bench press. Our aim was to evaluate if diminishing potentiation could be the cause of the sticking region. Since diminishing potentiation cannot occur in pure concentric lifts, the occurrence of a sticking region in this type of muscle actions would support the hypothesis that the sticking region is due to a poor mechanical position. Eleven male participants (age 21.9 ± 1.7 yrs, body mass 80.7 ± 10.9 kg, body height 1.79 ± 0.07 m) conducted 1-RM lifts in counter movement and in pure concentric bench presses in which kinematics and EMG activity were measured. In both conditions, a sticking region occurred. However, the start of the sticking region was different between the two bench presses. In addition, in four of six muscles, the muscle activity was higher in the counter movement bench press compared to the concentric one. Considering the findings of the muscle activity of six muscles during the maximal lifts it was concluded that the diminishing effect of force potentiation, which occurs in the counter movement bench press, in combination with a delayed muscle activation unlikely explains the existence of the sticking region in a 1-RM bench press. Most likely, the sticking region is the result of a poor mechanical force position.

  9. Bench-Scale Testing of the Micronized Magnetite Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward R. Torak; Peter J. Suardini

    1997-11-01

    A recent emphasis of the Department of Energy's (DOE's), Coal Preparation Program has been the development of high-efficiency technologies that offer near-term, low-cost improvements in the ability of coal preparation plants to address problems associated with coal fines. In 1992, three cost-shared contracts were awarded to industry, under the first High-Efficiency Preparation (HEP I) solicitation. All three projects involved bench-scale testing of various emerging technologies, at the Federal Energy Technology Center*s (FETC*s), Process Research Facility (PRF). The first HEP I project, completed in mid-1993, was conducted by Process Technology, Inc., with the objective of developing a computerized, on-line system for monitoring and controlling the operation of a column flotation circuit. The second HEP I project, completed in mid-1994, was conducted by a team led by Virginia Polytechnic Institute to test the Mozely Multi-Gravity Separator in combination with the Microcel Flotation Column, for improved removal of mineral matter and pyritic sulfur from fine coal. The last HEP I project, of which the findings are contained in this report, was conducted by Custom Coals Corporation to evaluate and advance a micronized-magnetite-based, fine-coal cycloning technology. The micronized-magnetite coal cleaning technology, also know as the Micro-Mag process, is based on widely used conventional dense-medium cyclone applications, in that it utilizes a finely ground magnetite/water suspension as a separating medium for cleaning fine coal, by density, in a cyclone. However, the micronized-magnetite cleaning technology differs from conventional systems in several ways: ! It utilizes significantly finer magnetite (about 5 to 10 micron mean particle size), as compared to normal mean particle sizes of 20 microns. ! It can effectively beneficiate coal particles down to 500M in size, as compared to the most advanced, existing conventional systems that are limited to a

  10. Using bench press load to predict upper body exercise loads in physically active individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Del P; Ngo, Kwan-Lung; Tse, Michael A; Smith, Andrew W

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether loads for assistance exercises of the upper body can be predicted from the loads of the bench press exercise. Twenty-nine physically active collegiate students (age: 22.6 ± 2.5; weight training experience: 2.9 ± 2.1 years; estimated 1RM bench press: 54.31 ± 14.60 kg; 1RM: body weight ratio: 0.80 ± 0.22; BMI: 22.7 ± 2.1 kg·m(-2)) were recruited. The 6RM loads for bench press, barbell bicep curl, overhead dumbbell triceps extension, hammer curl and dumbbell shoulder press were measured. Test-retest reliability for the 5 exercises as determined by Pearson product moment correlation coefficient was very high to nearly perfect (0.82-0.98, p press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises (r ranged from 0.80 to 0.93, p press load was a significant (R(2) range from 0.64 to 0.86, p press load (0.28) + 6.30 kg, (b) Barbell biceps curl = Bench press load (0.33) + 6.20 kg, (c) Overhead triceps extension = Bench press load (0.33) - 0.60 kg, and (d) Dumbbell shoulder press = Bench press load (0.42) + 5.84 kg. The difference between the actual load and the predicted load using the four equations ranged between 6.52% and 8.54%, such difference was not significant. Fitness professionals can use the 6RM bench press load as a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises. Key pointsThe bench press load was significantly correlated with the loads of the 4 assistance exercises.No significant differences were found between the actual load and the predicted load in the four equations.6RM bench press load can be a time effective and accurate method to predict training loads for upper body assistance exercises.

  11. Method of mining heavy coal seams in two or more benches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barsi, K.; Dorombozi, L.; Forisek, I.; Kuburczik, G.; Stuber, G.

    1982-07-20

    In mining a heavy coal seam that must be excavated in several benches, the excavation of the uppermost bench is accompanied by the introduction of a cementitious slurry into the resulting stope for consolidating the waste rock present therein, preparatorily to the excavation of the next-lower bench, and proceeding in like manner with the second bench if a third one is to follow. The cementitious slurry comprises burnt or slaked lime, and/or Portland cement, suspended in water in a quantity of about 10 to 60% by weight and preferably together with a small percentage of chlorides of one or more alkali or alkaline-earth metals, to which ceramic aggregates at large specific surface such as mineral ashes, slag, sand or dolomite powder may be added in a quantity of up to about 30% of the weight of the water. The slurry, on being admitted to the stope in an amount of at least 10% of the volume thereof, causes the waste rock to swell and form a solid layer of up to approximately a meter in thickness which allows the next-lower bench to be excavated after only about a month's delay.

  12. Optimization Of Blasting Design Parameters On Open Pit Bench A Case Study Of Nchanga Open Pits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Mwango Bowa

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In hard rock mining blasting is the most productive excavation technique applied to fragment insitu rock to the required size for efficient loading and crushing. In order to blast the insitu rock to the desired fragment size blast design parameter such as bench height hole diameter spacing burden hole length bottom charge specific charge and rock factor are considered. The research was carried out as a practical method on Nchanga Open Pits NOP ore Bench to optimize the blasting design parameters that can yield the required fragmentation size thereby reducing the shovel loading times and maximizing efficiency of the subsequent mining unit operations such as hauling and crushing. Fragmentation characteristics such as the mean fragment size were measured by means of a digital measuring tape and predicated using the Kuznetsov equation and rock factor value of ore bench was calculated using Lilly 1986 equations by means of rock characteristics. Traditional blasting design parameters were acquired for NOP and modified using Langerfors and Sharma P.A approaches. Several blast operations were conducted using both traditional and modified blasting design parameters on the same ore bench with the same geological conditions. Loading times of the shovel and fragment sizes were obtained after the blasts from ore bench where both the traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied. Results show that mean fragment size and loading times were reduced from 51cm and 12minutes to 22cm and 3minutes where traditional and modified blasting design parameters were applied respectively.

  13. Teaching elliptical excision skills to novice medical students: A randomized controlled study comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation is needed due to ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in training surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals. Aims : To evaluate if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of elliptical excision skills by novice medical students. Materials and Methods: Forty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed elliptical excision skills′ training (n = 8: didactic materials (control; organic bench model (low-fidelity; ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model (low-fidelity; chicken legs′ skin bench model (high-fidelity; or pig foot skin bench model (high-fidelity. Pre- and post-tests were applied. Global rating scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to evaluate all elliptical excision performances. Results : The analysis showed that after training, the students practicing on bench models had better performance based on Global rating scale (all P 0.05 between the groups that trained on bench models. The magnitude of the effect (basic cutaneous surgery skills′ training was considered large (>0.80 in all measurements. Conclusion : The acquisition of elliptical excision skills after instructor-directed training on low-fidelity bench models was similar to the training on high-fidelity bench models; and there was a more substantial increase in elliptical excision performances of students that trained on all simulators compared to the learning on didactic materials.

  14. Fast Pyrolysis Process Development Unit for Validating Bench Scale Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.; Jones, Samuel T. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States). Biorenewables Research Lab.. Center for Sustainable Environmental Technologies. Bioeconomy Inst.

    2010-03-31

    The purpose of this project was to prepare and operate a fast pyrolysis process development unit (PDU) that can validate experimental data generated at the bench scale. In order to do this, a biomass preparation system, a modular fast pyrolysis fluidized bed reactor, modular gas clean-up systems, and modular bio-oil recovery systems were designed and constructed. Instrumentation for centralized data collection and process control were integrated. The bio-oil analysis laboratory was upgraded with the addition of analytical equipment needed to measure C, H, O, N, S, P, K, and Cl. To provide a consistent material for processing through the fluidized bed fast pyrolysis reactor, the existing biomass preparation capabilities of the ISU facility needed to be upgraded. A stationary grinder was installed to reduce biomass from bale form to 5-10 cm lengths. A 25 kg/hr rotary kiln drier was installed. It has the ability to lower moisture content to the desired level of less than 20% wt. An existing forage chopper was upgraded with new screens. It is used to reduce biomass to the desired particle size of 2-25 mm fiber length. To complete the material handling between these pieces of equipment, a bucket elevator and two belt conveyors must be installed. The bucket elevator has been installed. The conveyors are being procured using other funding sources. Fast pyrolysis bio-oil, char and non-condensable gases were produced from an 8 kg/hr fluidized bed reactor. The bio-oil was collected in a fractionating bio-oil collection system that produced multiple fractions of bio-oil. This bio-oil was fractionated through two separate, but equally important, mechanisms within the collection system. The aerosols and vapors were selectively collected by utilizing laminar flow conditions to prevent aerosol collection and electrostatic precipitators to collect the aerosols. The vapors were successfully collected through a selective condensation process. The combination of these two mechanisms

  15. DIRECT LIQUEFACTION PROOF-OF-CONCEPT PROGRAM - BENCH RUN PB-10 (HTI 227-109)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-12-30

    This report presents the results of the bench-scale test, PB-10, performed at HTI's facilities under DOE contract (HTI Run No. 227-109). This bench test continues the work that was started in PDU testing 260-007. Previous bench test (PB-09, HTI 227-106) was performed on different seams of Chinese coal (Shenhua Ningtiaota Coal No.2 and No.3). Since another coal, Shangwan coal was selected for the liquefaction plant, PB-10 was made as approved by DOE/COR. The objective of this test was to evaluate the liquefaction performance of Shangwan coal utilizing various backend processing and recycle schemes. Additionally, this test was to collect available process data to allow for the best scale-up process design possible from this particular unit.

  16. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  17. AnaBench: a Web/CORBA-based workbench for biomolecular sequence analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burger Gertraud

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence data analyses such as gene identification, structure modeling or phylogenetic tree inference involve a variety of bioinformatics software tools. Due to the heterogeneity of bioinformatics tools in usage and data requirements, scientists spend much effort on technical issues including data format, storage and management of input and output, and memorization of numerous parameters and multi-step analysis procedures. Results In this paper, we present the design and implementation of AnaBench, an interactive, Web-based bioinformatics Analysis workBench allowing streamlined data analysis. Our philosophy was to minimize the technical effort not only for the scientist who uses this environment to analyze data, but also for the administrator who manages and maintains the workbench. With new bioinformatics tools published daily, AnaBench permits easy incorporation of additional tools. This flexibility is achieved by employing a three-tier distributed architecture and recent technologies including CORBA middleware, Java, JDBC, and JSP. A CORBA server permits transparent access to a workbench management database, which stores information about the users, their data, as well as the description of all bioinformatics applications that can be launched from the workbench. Conclusion AnaBench is an efficient and intuitive interactive bioinformatics environment, which offers scientists application-driven, data-driven and protocol-driven analysis approaches. The prototype of AnaBench, managed by a team at the Université de Montréal, is accessible on-line at: http://malawimonas.bcm.umontreal.ca:8091/anabench. Please contact the authors for details about setting up a local-network AnaBench site elsewhere.

  18. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-01-01

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  19. Full-scale and bench-scale testing of a coal-fueled gas turbine system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, P.B.; LeCren, R.T.; Cowell, L.H.; Galica, M.A.; Stephenson, M.D.; Wen, C.S.

    1992-12-31

    Components for a coal-fueled industrial gas turbine were developed and tested at both benchscale and full-scale. The components included a two stage slagging combustor, a particulate rejection impact separator (PRIS), and a secondary particulate filter. The Integrated Bench Scale Test Facility (IBSTF) was used for the filter tests ana some of the PRIS testing. Full-scale combustor testing has been carried-out both with and without the PRIS. Bench-scale testing has included evaluating the feasibility of on-site CWM preparation, developing a water-cooled impactor and an extended run with new secondary candle filters.

  20. Setup a photomultiplier tube test bench for use at LHAASO-KM2A

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Xu; Tian, Ye; Li, Changyu; Sun, Yansheng; Feng, Cunfeng

    2015-01-01

    To fulfill the requirements of testing the photomultiplier tubes of the electromagnetic detector at the Large High Altitude Air Shower Observatory (LHAASO), a multi-functional PMT test bench with a two-dimensional scanning system is developed. With this 2D scanning system, 16 PMTs are scanned simultaneously to test their uniformity and cathode transit time difference, and we can also perform PMT tests of SPE spectrum, gain vs. high voltage, linear behavior and dark noise. The programmable hardware and intelligent software of the test bench make it convenient to use and provide reliable results. The test methods are described in detail and primary results are presented.

  1. T and D-Bench--Innovative Combined Support for Education and Research in Computer Architecture and Embedded Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, S. N.; Wagner, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    Teaching and Design Workbench (T&D-Bench) is a framework aimed at education and research in the areas of computer architecture and embedded systems. It includes a set of features not found in other educational environments. This set of features is the result of an original combination of design requirements for T&D-Bench: that the…

  2. Characterization benches for neutrino telescope Optical Modules at the APC laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avgitas Theodore

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As has been demonstrated by the first generation of neutrino telescopes Antares and IceCube, precise knowledge of the photon detection efficiency of optical modules is of fundamental importance for the understanding of the instrument and accurate event reconstruction. Dedicated test benches have been developed to measure all related quantities for the Digital Optical Modules of the KM3NeT neutrino telescope being currently deployed in the Mediterranean sea. The first bench is a black box with robotic arms equipped with a calibrated single photon source or laser which enable a precise mapping of the detection efficiency at arbitrary incident angles as well as precise measurements of the time delays induced by the photodetection chain. These measurement can be incorporated and compared to full GEANT MonteCarlo simulations of the optical modules. The second bench is a 2 m×2 m ×2 m water tank equipped with muon hodoscopes on top and bottom. It enables to study and measure the angular dependence of the DOM's detection efficiency of the Cherenkov light produced in water by relativistic muons, thus reproducing in situ detection conditions. We describe these two benches and present their first results and status.

  3. Bench scale demonstration of the Supermethanol concept : The synthesis of methanol from glycerol derived syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated process for the synthesis of methanol from aqueous glycerol involving reforming of the feed to syngas followed by methanol synthesis is successfully demonstrated in a continuous bench scale unit. Glycerol reforming was carried out at pressures of 24-27 MPa and temperatures of 948-998 K

  4. Dynamics of water and nutrients for potted plants induced by flooded bench fertigation: experiments and simulation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otten, W.

    1994-01-01

    Dynamics of water and nutrients as affected by physical and chemical characteristics of a substrate, fertigation method and schedule, and plant uptake were studied for a flooded bench fertigation system for potted plants, through a detailed experimental study of the root environment and a simulation

  5. Qualification of the LHC Corrector Magnet Production with the CERN-built Measurement Benches

    CERN Document Server

    Giloux, C; Mugnai, G; Remondino, V; Venturini-Delsolaro, W; Viret, P; Walckiers, L; Wolf, R

    2008-01-01

    The LHC will incorporate about 7600 superconducting single aperture corrector magnets mounted in the main magnet cold masses. In order to follow up their production, we have designed and built 12 different benches for warm magnetic measurements based on rotating coils. Each bench was manufactured in two copies, one installed at the industry sites and the other kept at CERN for cross checks and monitoring of the measurement quality. These systems measure the main field, the field quality and the position and orientation of the field relative to the mechanical construction, all properties that are required for an effective use of the magnets. After calibration, the benches automatically refer the measured quantities to the mechanical interfaces used to align the correctors in the cold masses (pin holes or keys). In this paper we evaluate the global uncertainty achieved with the benches and compare the field measurements performed at room temperature in industry with measurements at 1.9 K performed at CERN on sa...

  6. ReaderBench: Automated evaluation of collaboration based on cohesion and dialogism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; McNamara, Danielle; Dessus, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Dascalu, M., Trausan-Matu, S., McNamara, D.S., & Dessus, P. (2015). ReaderBench – Automated Evaluation of Collaboration based on Cohesion and Dialogism. International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning, 10(4), 395–423. doi: 10.1007/s11412-015-9226-y

  7. An Electromyograph Comparison of an Isokenetic Bench Press at Three Speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgeway, M.; And Others

    The muscle action potentials (MAP) of the anterior deltoid, pectoralis major, biceps brachii, and the triceps muscle were studied by quantitative electromyography (emg) during a bench press exercise at three controlled speeds. Bipolar surface electrodes with standard placement were employed throughout the study. Eleven volunteer college women…

  8. 30 CFR 817.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... health and safety and to ensure that damage will be minimized between the benches, outside the set course.... The design will be certified by a registered professional engineer. The spoil shall be placed on the... long term static safety factor of 1.3 for all portions of the fill. Any spoil deposited on any...

  9. 30 CFR 816.74 - Disposal of excess spoil: Preexisting benches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... health and safety and to ensure that damage will be minimized between the benches, outside the set course.... The design will be certified by a registered professional engineer. The spoil shall be placed on the... long term static safety factor of 1.3 for all portions of the fill. Any spoil deposited on any...

  10. Calibration bench of flowmeters; Banc d'etalonnage de debitmetres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C

    1966-07-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Measure Twice, Build Once: Bench-Scale Testing to Evaluate Bioretention Media Design - slides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The oral presentation will be at the EWRI International LID Conference in San Francisco, on April 11-14, 2010. The slides discuss the utility of conducting bench-scale testing on selected bioretention media and media amendments to validate hydrologic properties before installing...

  12. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  13. Bench, Bedside, Curbside, and Home: Translational Research to Include Transformative Change Using Educational Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felege, Christopher; Hahn, Emily; Hunter, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Translational research originated in the medical field during the 1990s to describe taking discovery based research through the steps of applying it to clinical research and patient-oriented care. This model is implicitly linear, depicting the flow of information from researchers' bench, to a clinical trial bedside, to a primary care physician's…

  14. Imposed work of breathing during high-frequency oscillatory ventilation : a bench study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Heerde, Marc; van Genderingen, Huib R.; Leenhoven, Tom; Roubik, Karel; Ploetz, Frans B.; Markhorst, Dick G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The ventilator and the endotracheal tube impose additional workload in mechanically ventilated patients breathing spontaneously. The total work of breathing (WOB) includes elastic and resistive work. In a bench test we assessed the imposed WOB using 3100 A/3100 B SensorMedics high-frequ

  15. A Bench Measurement of the Energy Loss of a Stored Beam to a Cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sands, M; Rees, J.; /SLAC

    2016-12-19

    A rather simple electronic bench experiment is proposed for obtaining a measure of the impulse energy loss of a stored particle bunch to an rf cavity or other vacuum-chamber structure--the so-called "cavity radiation". The proposed method is analyzed in some detail.

  16. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  17. ReaderBench goes Online: A Comprehension-Centered Framework for Educational Purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gutu, Gabriel; Dascalu, Mihai; Trausan-Matu, Stefan; Dessus, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we introduce the online version of our ReaderBench framework, which includes multi-lingual comprehension-centered web services designed to address a wide range of individual and collaborative learning scenarios, as follows. First, students can be engaged in reading a course material, t

  18. REVIEW OF BENCH-, PILOT-, AND FULL-SCALE ORIMULSION (R) COMBUSTION TESTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper gives results of a review of bench-, pilot-, and full-scale Orimulsion combustion tests. A fossil fuel marketed by its producer, Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PdVSA), since the late 1980s as an alternative to coal and heavy fuel oil, Orimulsion is a bitumen-in-water em...

  19. RPE and Velocity Relationships for the Back Squat, Bench Press, and Deadlift in Powerlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Eric R; Storey, Adam; Cross, Matt R; Brown, Scott R; Lenetsky, Seth; Ramsay, Hamish; Dillen, Carolina; Zourdos, Michael C

    2017-02-01

    Helms, ER, Storey, A, Cross, MR, Browm, SR, Lenetsky, S, Ramsay, H, Dillen, C, and Zourdos, MC. RPE and velocity relationships for the back squat, bench press, and deadlift in powerlifters. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 292-297, 2017-The purpose of this study was to compare average concentric velocity (ACV) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) based on repetitions in reserve on the squat, bench press, and deadlift. Fifteen powerlifters (3 women and 12 men, mean age 28.4 ± 8.5 years) worked up to a one repetition maximum (1RM) on each lift. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded on all sets, and the ACV was recorded for all sets performed at 80% of estimated 1RM and higher, up to 1RM. Rating of perceived exertion at 1RM on squat, bench press, and deadlift was 9.6 ± 0.5, 9.7 ± 0.4, and 9.6 ± 0.5, respectively and was not significantly different (p > 0.05). The ACV at 1RM on squat, bench press and deadlift was 0.23 ± 0.05, 0.10 ± 0.04, and 0.14 ± 0.05 m·second, respectively. Squat was faster than both bench press and deadlift (p > 0.001), and deadlift was faster than bench press (p = 0.05). Very strong relationships (r = 0.88-0.91) between percentage 1RM and RPE were observed on each lift. The ACV showed strong (r = -0.79 to -0.87) and very strong (r = -0.90 to 92) inverse relationships with RPE and percentage 1RM on each lift, respectively. We conclude that RPE may be a useful tool for prescribing intensity for squat, bench press, and deadlift in powerlifters, in addition to traditional methods such as percentage of 1RM. Despite high correlations between percentage 1RM and ACV, a "velocity load profile" should be developed to prescribe intensity on an individual basis with appropriate accuracy.

  20. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  1. The development of a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moir, Gavin L; Erny, Kyle F; Davis, Shala E; Guers, John J; Witmer, Chad A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to develop a repetition-load scheme for the eccentric-only bench press exercise. Nine resistance trained men (age: 21.6 ± 1.0 years; 1-repetition maximum [RM] bench press: 137.7 ± 30.4 kg) attended four testing sessions during a four week period. During the first session each subject's 1-RM bench press load utilizing the stretch-shortening cycle was determined. During the remaining sessions they performed eccentric-only repetitions to failure using supra-maximal loads equivalent to 110%, 120% and 130% of their 1-RM value with a constant cadence (30 reps·min(-1)). Force plates and a three dimensional motion analysis system were used during these final three sessions in order to evaluate kinematic and kinetic variables. More repetitions were completed during the 110% 1-RM condition compared to the 130% 1-RM condition (p=0.01). Mean total work (p=0.046) as well as vertical force (p=0.049), vertical work (p=0.017), and vertical power output (p=0.05) were significantly greater during the 130% 1-RM condition compared to the 110% 1-RM condition. A linear function was fitted to the number of repetitions completed under each load condition that allowed the determination of the maximum number of repetitions that could be completed under other supra-maximal loads. This linear function predicted an eccentric-only 1-RM in the bench press with a load equivalent to 164.8% 1-RM, producing a load of 227.0 ± 50.0 kg. The repetition-load scheme presented here should provide a starting point for researchers to investigate the kinematic, kinetic and metabolic responses to eccentric-only bench press workouts.

  2. The Enigmatic Bench Unit of Endeavour Crater Rim in Meridiani Planum, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, S. W.

    2013-12-01

    For the first 2680 sols of its mission, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity traversed across essentially the same rocks: sulfur-rich sandstones known as the Burns formation. On August 8, 2011 Opportunity completed a ~21 km traverse from Victoria crater to the rim of the ~22 km diameter Endeavour crater where it crossed a slightly raised smooth bench unit that surrounds an interior core of higher standing and more rugged terrain on a rim segment named Cape York. As recognized by its distinctive morphologic character evident in orbital images, the inward sloping bench feature is found associated with portions of other segments of the discontinuous raised rim of Endeavour crater. Viewed by Opportunity, it appears as platy, fractured, relatively light-toned outcrop that is fine-grained, lacks hematite concretions and in places hosts veins of Ca- and S-rich composition, likely due to precipitation of gypsum in fractures that cut the bench unit (1). The bench outcrop target named Grasberg included a grind using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) to obtain a cleaner surface for the Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer chemistry measurement compared with the initially investigated target named Deadwood. In addition to its greater strength than Burns formation as determined by the RAT grind operation, Grasberg and other examples of the bench unit have lower S, higher Cl and other elemental characteristics that depart from typical Burns formation. Thus the 'Grasberg unit' clearly represents a distinct rock type compared to the Meridiani plains. A second unit makes up the exposed core of the Cape York rim segment. Known as Shoemaker formation, it is composed of breccias that are recognized as a suevite deposit produced from the Endeavour impact event (1). The Shoemaker formation appears to be onlapped by the Grasberg unit with Burns formation onlapping it (1). However, a well-exposed section observed in a wedge-shaped fracture known as Whim Creek on the northeast portion of the

  3. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on back squat and bench press exercise to failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Weldon, Anthony; Price, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the acute effects of NaHCO3 ingestion on repetitions to failure and rating of perceived exertion in the back squat and bench press in trained men. Eight resistance-trained men took part in this double-blind, randomized crossover experimental study whereby they ingested NaHCO3 (0.3 g·kg(-1) body mass) or placebo (sodium chloride NaCl: 0.045 g·kg(-1) body mass) solution 60 minutes before completing a bout of resistance exercise (3 sets of bench press and back squat exercise to failure at an intensity of 80% 1 repetition maximum). Experimental conditions were separated by at least 48 hours. Participants completed more repetitions to failure in the back squat after NaHCO3 ingestion (p = 0.04) but not for bench press (p = 0.679). Mean ± SD of total repetitions was 31.3 ± 15.3 and 24.6 ± 16.2 for back squat and 28.7 ± 12.2 and 26.7 ± 10.2 for bench press in NaHCO3 and placebo conditions, respectively. Repetitions to failure decreased as set increased for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.001, both). Rating of perceived exertion significantly increased with set for the back squat and bench press (p = 0.002, both). There was no significant change in blood lactate across time or between conditions. There were however treatment × time interactions for blood pH (p = 0.014) and blood HCO3 concentration (p = 0.001). After ingestion, blood pH and HCO3 (p = 0.008) concentrations were greater for the NaHCO3 condition compared with the placebo condition (p < 0.001). The results of this study suggest that sodium bicarbonate ingestion can enhance resistance exercise performance using a repetition to failure protocol in the first exercise in a resistance exercise session.

  4. Design and test of the benches for the magnetic measurement of the LHC dipoles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billan, J.; Buckley, J.; Saban, R.; Sievers, P.; Walckiers, L.

    1994-07-01

    The magnetic measurement of more than 1300 LHC dipoles comprises the content of higher harmonic field components, field direction and field integrals. The measurements will be carried out along a warm bore installed inside the magnet cold bore, thus allowing the use of rotating coils at room temperature. This coil, together with Hall and NMR detectors is mounted at one end of a 12.5 m long shaft which is specially designed for very high rotational stiffness and which is controlled from its far end by a motor, an angular encoder and a level meter, all standard components placed outside the magnetic field without space restrictions. Particular emphasis has been put on the user-friendliness of the bench and its automated, computer-controlled operation requiring a minimum of staff, an important issue during production measurements of large series of magnets. The bench and its performance and precision achieved during its commissioning are described.

  5. Is 'bench-to-bedside' realistic for autism? An integrative neuroscience approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Melissa D; Schumann, Cynthia M

    2013-04-01

    Given the prevalence and societal impact of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is an urgent need to develop innovative treatments that will improve core social deficits, for which there is currently no reliable pharmacological treatment, prevention or cure. Development of novel biological interventions will depend upon the successful translation of basic neuroscience research into safe and effective medicines. This article outlines steps to bring neuroscience research from 'the bench' to treatment at 'bedside', from phenotyping the disorder to animal models to patient treatment. Although these steps appear simplistic, this is a daunting challenge because of the inherent complexity of the human brain, our lack of understanding of disease neurobiology underlying ASD, and the incredible heterogeneity of the disorder. For ASD, perhaps more than any other neurological or psychiatric disorder, progress will depend on integrative multidisciplinary approaches between basic scientists from varying neuroscience disciplines and clinicians to make 'bench to bedside' treatment a reality.

  6. Development of a bench-top extra-cleanroom for DNA amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Hirokazu; Satoh, Takahiro; Kanahara, Hiroko; Kubota, Yuji; Hirose, Tamaki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Kimiko; Okamura, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Taketo; Kobori, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Prevention of airborne contamination has become an important factor in biotechnology; however, conventional laminar-airflow cabinets (LAF-cabinets) are no longer sufficient as a countermeasure against nano-sized airborne contaminants in the laboratory. Here we present a bench-top extra-cleanroom classified as ISO-1 that can prevent contamination from airborne nanoparticles. This bench-top extra-cleanroom consists of a novel clean-zone-creating system that is equipped with nanofibrous, nonwoven filters. In addition, the cleanroom is also equipped with an ionizer to prevent plasticware from collecting dust by electrostatic charge attraction. This combination of features allows the cleanroom to prevent DNA contamination derived from airborne nanoparticles. Our extra-cleanroom with ionizer could be useful in various areas of biotechnology that are easily affected by airborne contaminants.

  7. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa;

    2016-01-01

    (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt.......% was found to be optimal for the six biomass feedstocks. A friction increase was seen when the die temperature increased from room temperature to 60-90 degrees C for most biomass types, and then a friction decrease when the die temperature increased further. The results obtained in the bench-scale pellet...... mill support the proposed theory that good quality pellets and satisfactory pelletizing should occur in the region where the friction decreases with die temperature. Therefore, the friction vs. die temperature curve measured for each biomass in the SPP can be used as an indication of the right die...

  8. Proposed SLR Optical Bench Required to Track Debris Using 1550 nm Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coyle, D. B.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Clarke, G.; Hull, S. M.; Skillman, D. R.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has indicated that by using approx.1550 nm wavelengths a laser ranging system can track debris objects in an "eye safe" manner, while increasing the expected return rate by a factor of approx. 2/unit area of the telescope. In this presentation we develop the optical bench required to use approx.1550nm lasers, and integration with a 532nm system. We will use the optical bench configuration for NGSLR as the baseline, and indicate a possible injection point for the 1550 nm laser. The presentation will include what elements may need to be changed for transmitting the required power on the approx.1550nm wavelength, supporting the alignment of the laser to the telescope, and possible concerns for the telescope optics.

  9. Comparison of electromyographic activity during the bench press and barbell pulloverexercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri de Almeida Costa Campos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the electromyographic (EMG activity of the following muscles: clavicular portion of pectoralis major, sternal portion of pectoralis major, long portion of triceps brachii, anterior deltoid, posterior deltoid and latissimus dorsi during dynamic contractions between flat horizontal bench press and barbell pulloverexercises. The sample comprised 12 males individuals experienced in resistance training. The volunteers made three visits to the laboratory. The first one consisted of 12 repetitions of the exercises for the electromyographic data collection. The results showed a higher EMG activation of the pectoralis major and anterior deltoid muscles in the flat horizontal bench press in comparison with the barbell pullover. The triceps brachii and latissimus dorsi muscles were more activated in the barbell pullover.

  10. Numerical and experimental analysis of cold stretching of aluminium sheets using an instrumented bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Gueder, Jawhar; Giraud, Eliane; Zhao, Nan; Dal Santo, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Cold stretching is a forming process meanly used in aeronautic industry to obtain deep drawing parts from thin sheets. It's not very easy to characterize the process using industrial machines, due to production constraints and complexity of their structures. In this study, an instrumented bench is developed to analyse the forming of double curvature panels in 5754H111 Aluminium alloys. A numerical tool using ABAQUS software is developed to predict the behaviour of thin sheets during the stretching process and also to estimate the residual mechanical field in the formed shapes. The bench is calibrated by comparing experiments and numerical results in terms of deformed shape, in-plane strain levels and thickness evolution.

  11. Steam Reforming, 6-in. Bench-Scale Design and Testing Project -- Technical and Functional Requirements Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losinski, Sylvester John; Marshall, Douglas William

    2002-08-01

    Feasibility studies and technology development work are currently being performed on several processes to treat radioactive liquids and solids currently stored at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located within the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). These studies and development work will be used to select a treatment process for treatment of the radioactive liquids and solids to meet treatment milestones of the Settlement Agreement between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. One process under consideration for treating the radioactive liquids and solids, specifically Sodium-Bearing Waste (SBW) and tank heel solids, is fluid bed steam reforming (FBSR). To support both feasibility and development studies a bench-scale FBSR is being designed and constructed. This report presents the technical and functional requirements, experimental objectives, process flow sheets, and equipment specifications for the bench-scale FBSR.

  12. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, J.; Gallardo, M. L.; Grimaldi, D. M.; Román-Berrelleza, J. A.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M. A.; Morales, J. G.

    1999-04-01

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain.

  13. Comparison between simulations and lab results on the ASSIST test-bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Louarn, Miska; Madec, Pierre-Yves; Kolb, Johann; Paufique, Jerome; Oberti, Sylvain; La Penna, Paolo; Arsenault, Robin

    2016-07-01

    We present the latest comparison results between laboratory tests carried out on the ASSIST test bench and Octopus end-to end simulations. We simulated, as closely to the lab conditions as possible, the different AOF modes (Maintenance and commissioning mode (SCAO), GRAAL (GLAO in the near IR), Galacsi Wide Field mode (GLAO in the visible) and Galacsi narrow field mode (LTAO in the visible)). We then compared the simulation results to the ones obtained on the lab bench. Several aspects were investigated, like number of corrected modes, turbulence wind speeds, LGS photon flux etc. The agreement between simulations and lab is remarkably good for all investigated parameters, giving great confidence in both simulation tool and performance of the AO system in the lab.

  14. Bench-scale studies on gasification of biomass in the presence of catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mudge, L.K.; Baker, E.G.; Brown, M.D.; Wilcox, W.A.

    1987-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of bench-scale studies on the development of catalysts for conversion of biomass to specific gas products. The primary objective of these studies was to define operating conditions that allow long lifetimes for secondary catalysts used in biomass gasification. Nickel-based catalysts that were found to be active for conversion of wood to synthesis gases in previous studies were evaluated. These catalysts remained active indefinitely in laboratory studies but lost activity rapidly when evaluated in a process research unit. Bench-scale equipment was designed and installed to resolve the differences between laboratory and PRU results. Primary catalysts (alkali carbonates) were also evaluated for their effectiveness in improving conversion yields from biomass gasification. 21 refs., 27 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Inter-Investigator Reliability of Anthropometric Prediction of 1RM Bench Press in College Football Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHUMACHER, RICHARD M.; ARABAS, JANA L.; MAYHEW, JERRY L.; BRECHUE, WILLIAM F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of inter-investigator differences in anthropometric assessments on the prediction of one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press in college football players. Division-II players (n = 34, age = 20.4 ± 1.2 y, 182.3 ± 6.6 cm, 99.1 ± 18.4 kg) were measured for selected anthropometric variables and 1RM bench press at the conclusion of a heavy resistance training program. Triceps, subscapular, and abdominal skinfolds were measured in triplicate by three investigators and used to estimate %fat. Arm circumference was measured around a flexed biceps muscle and was corrected for triceps skinfold to estimate muscle cross-sectional area (CSA). Chest circumference was measured at mid-expiration. Significant differences among the testers were evident in six of the nine anthropometric variables, with the least experienced tester being significantly different from the other testers on seven variables, although average differences among investigators ranged from 1–2% for circumferences to 4–9% for skinfolds. The two more experienced testers were significantly different on only one variable. Overall agreement among testers was high (ICC>0.895) for each variable, with low coefficients of variation (CV<10.7%). Predicted 1RMs for testers (126.9 ± 20.6, 123.4 ± 22.0, and 132.1 ± 28.4 kg, respectively) were not significantly different from actual 1RM (129.2 ± 20.6 kg). Individuals with varying levels of experience appear to have an acceptable level of ability to estimate 1RM bench press using a non-performance anthropometric equation. Minimal experience in anthropometry may not impede strength and conditioning specialists from accurately estimating 1RM bench press. PMID:27766130

  16. One-repetition maximum bench press performance estimated with a new accelerometer method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rontu, Jari-Pekka; Hannula, Manne I; Leskinen, Sami; Linnamo, Vesa; Salmi, Jukka A

    2010-08-01

    The one repetition maximum (1RM) is an important method to measure muscular strength. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a new method to predict 1RM bench press performance from a submaximal lift. The developed method was evaluated by using different load levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of 1RM). The subjects were active floorball players (n = 22). The new method is based on the assumption that the estimation of 1RM can be calculated from the submaximal weight and the maximum acceleration of the submaximal weight during the lift. The submaximal bench press lift was recorded with a 3-axis accelerometer integrated to a wrist equipment and a data acquisition card. The maximum acceleration was calculated from the measurement data of the sensor and analyzed in personal computer with LabView-based software. The estimated 1RM results were compared with traditionally measured 1RM results of the subjects. An own estimation equation was developed for each load level, that is, 5 different estimation equations have been used based on the measured 1RM values of the subjects. The mean (+/-SD) of measured 1RM result was 69.86 (+/-15.72) kg. The mean of estimated 1RM values were 69.85-69.97 kg. The correlations between measured and estimated 1RM results were high (0.89-0.97; p < 0.001). The differences between the methods were very small (-0.11 to 0.01 kg) and were not significantly different from each other. The results of this study showed promising prediction accuracy for estimating bench press performance by performing just a single submaximal bench press lift. The estimation accuracy is competitive with other known estimation methods, at least with the current study population.

  17. The influence of isometric preload on power expressed during bench press in strength-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Fukuda, David H; Hoffman, Jay R; Stout, Jeffrey R; Merni, Franco

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the power expressed during the bench press exercise in resistance-trained men following different pre-activation conditions. Twenty-two trained men (age 24.1 ± 1.7 years, height 178.6 ± 6.1 cm, body mass 81.1 ± 10.6 kg) completed a maximal effort bench press (1-RM) test (100.0 kg ± 8.1 kg). In a subsequent assessment, each participant performed concentric bench press movements with loads of 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% of their 1-RM preceded by either a concentric contraction (CC), a low isometric preload (LIP; 70% 1-RM) or a high isometric preload (HIP; 100% 1-RM) conditions. All movements were performed in a Smith machine with a settable quick-release device. Participants performed all three conditions in randomized fashion. Results indicated that power outputs during the bench press exercise following HIP were significantly (p < 0.05) greater than CC at 20% 1-RM (+9%), 30% 1-RM (+16%) and 40% 1-RM (+14%), and LIP at 20% 1-RM (+4%), 30% 1-RM (+20%) and 40% 1-RM (+15%). No differences were found between conditions at 50% 1-RM. Area under the force-power curve with HIP was greater (p < 0.05) than with CC and LIP. In conclusion, results of this study indicate that the use of a HIP (100% 1-RM) in trained participants results in significantly greater power output during the concentric phase of a multi-joint exercise when compared to standard concentric movement.

  18. Cavitation Enhancing Nanodroplets Mediate Efficient DNA Fragmentation in a Bench Top Ultrasonic Water Bath.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep K Kasoji

    Full Text Available A perfluorocarbon nanodroplet formulation is shown to be an effective cavitation enhancement agent, enabling rapid and consistent fragmentation of genomic DNA in a standard ultrasonic water bath. This nanodroplet-enhanced method produces genomic DNA libraries and next-generation sequencing results indistinguishable from DNA samples fragmented in dedicated commercial acoustic sonication equipment, and with higher throughput. This technique thus enables widespread access to fast bench-top genomic DNA fragmentation.

  19. Developing of a software for determining advanced brake failures in brakes test bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Köylü

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available At present time, the brake test bench conducts the braking and suspension tests of front or rear axles and the test results are evaluated through one axle. The purpose of the brake testing system is to determine braking force and damping coefficient dissymmetry of one axle. Thus, this test system evaluates the performance of service brake, hand brake and suspension systems by considering separately front and rear axle dissymmetry. For this reason, the effects of different braking and damping forces applied by right and left wheels of both axles on braking performance of all vehicle are not determined due to available algorithm of the test bench. Also, the other brake failures are not occurred due to the algorithm of brake test system. In this study, the interface has been developed to determine the other effects of dissymmetry and the other brake failures by using the one axle results of brake test bench. The interface has algorithm computing the parameters according to the interaction between front and rear axles by only using measured test results. Also, it gives the warnings by comparing changes in the parameters with braking performance rules. Braking and suspension tests of three different vehicles have been conducted by using brake test bench to determine the performance of the algorithm. Parameters based on the axle interaction have been calculated by transferring brake test results to the interface and the test results have been evaluated. As a result, the effects of brake and suspension failures on braking performance of both axle and vehicle have been determined thanks to the developed interface.

  20. Design of a pseudo-physiological test bench specific to the development of biodegradable metallic biomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévesque, Julie; Hermawan, Hendra; Dubé, Dominique; Mantovani, Diego

    2008-03-01

    Endovascular stents have proven effective in treating coronary and peripheral arterial occlusions. Since the first attempts, metals used to make these devices have been generally selected, and designed to be highly resistant to corrosion. Therefore, as almost the totality of metallic biomaterials, they are implanted on a long-term basis. However, complications associated with permanent stents, such as in-stent restenosis and thrombosis, have often been reported. In order to reduce those complications, it would be clinically useful to develop a new family of degradable stents. An interesting material for fabrication of degradable stents is based on magnesium, an essential element involved in human metabolism. Success in using magnesium alloys for the fabrication of endovascular devices is closely related to the properties of the selected alloy. In this context, a test bench was specifically designed to reproduce the physiological conditions to which stents are submitted when implanted in the coronary arteries. Then the test bench was validated using a magnesium-based alloy. Results showed that the corrosion rate and the corrosion mechanisms vary with the applied shear stress and that corrosion products strongly depend on the composition of the corrosive solution. This test bench will thus be useful in further investigations for the development of metallic alloys as degradable biomaterials.

  1. Colonization of spoil benches of an opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain by amphibians and reptiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galan, P. [University of Santiago de Compostela, Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Faculty of Biology

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the colonization by reptiles and amphibians of the spoil benches of the Meirama opencast lignite mine in northwest Spain over 10 years, following the start of the revegetation process. At Meirama, spoil benches are initially fertilized and hydroseeded with a pasture mix, but are subject to little subsequent management and are gradually colonized by scrub vegetation characteristic of the region. Herpetofauna censuses were carried out yearly on a single 2 ha plot over 6 years following hydroseeding, and in a single year on ten 2 ha plots which had been hydroseeded between 0 and 10 years previously. In addition, censuses were carried out on three undisturbed `control` plots close to the mine. Fifteen species (nine amphibians and six reptiles) were detected in one or more of the spoil-bench plots. Recolonization was particularly rapid after the first 2-3 years post-hydroseeding, and was closely related to habitat development due to revegetation and natural succession. Species composition was most similar to that in control plots in the oldest (ten-year-old) spoil plots.

  2. A Comparative Study of Ground and Underground Vibrations Induced by Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuzhi Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground vibrations originating from bench blasting may cause damage to slopes, structures, and underground workings in close proximity to an operating open-pit mine. It is important to monitor and predict ground vibration levels induced by blasting and to take measures to reduce their hazardous effects. The aims of this paper are to determine the weaker protection objects by comparatively studying bench blasting induced vibrations obtained at surface and in an underground tunnel in an open-pit mine and thus to seek vibration control methods to protect engineering objects at the site. Vibrations arising from measurement devices at surface and in an underground tunnel at the Zijinshan Open-Pit Mine were obtained. Comparative analysis of the peak particle velocities shows that, in the greatest majority of cases, surface values are higher than underground values for the same vibration distance. The transmission laws of surface and underground vibrations were established depending on the type of rock mass, the explosive charge, and the distance. Compared with the Chinese Safety Regulations for Blasting (GB6722-2014, the bench blasting induced vibrations would not currently cause damage to the underground tunnel. According to the maximum allowable peak particle velocities for different objects, the permitted maximum charges per delay are obtained to reduce damage to these objects at different distances.

  3. Thermal inactivation of Bacillus anthracis surrogate spores in a bench-scale enclosed landfill gas flare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tufts, Jenia A McBrian; Rosati, Jacky A

    2012-02-01

    A bench-scale landfill flare system was designed and built to test the potential for landfilled biological spores that migrate from the waste into the landfill gas to pass through the flare and exit into the environment as viable. The residence times and temperatures of the flare were characterized and compared to full-scale systems. Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Bacillus atrophaeus, nonpathogenic spores that may serve as surrogates for Bacillus anthracis, the causative agent for anthrax, were investigated to determine whether these organisms would be inactivated or remain viable after passing through a simulated landfill flare. High concentration spore solutions were aerosolized, dried, and sent through a bench-scale system to simulate the fate of biological weapon (BW)-grade spores in a landfill gas flare. Sampling was conducted downstream of the flare using a bioaerosol collection device containing sterile white mineral oil. The samples were cultured, incubated for seven days, and assessed for viability. Results showed that the bench-scale system exhibited good similarity to the real-world conditions of an enclosed standard combustor flare stack with a single orifice, forced-draft diffusion burner. All spores of G. stearothermophilus and B. atrophaeus were inactivated in the flare, indicating that spores that become re-entrained in landfill gas may not escape the landfill as viable, apparently becoming completely inactivated as they exit through a landfill flare.

  4. Manual of procedures for the operation of bench-scale anaerobic digesters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, R.R.

    1978-12-01

    The successful operation of any laboratory-scale biological system is often a difficult and frustrating experience. This is especially true when dealing with the anaerobic digestion process. Because of the stringent environmental requirements associated with anaerobic digesters, efficient operation of bench-scale units requires rigid monitoring and control. The purpose of this manual is to present the methods and procedures which are followed in bench-scale anaerobic digestion studies at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). Among the topics discussed are operating parameters, a description of the experimental system, typical digestion substrates, operational procedures, analytical techniques, and safety considerations. The document serves as a technical guide to PNL personnel assigned to a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored program evaluating the effect of powdered activated carbon on the anaerobic digestio of sewage sludge. It should be noted that the methods described in this manual do not necessarily represent the best or only means of conducting the research. They are merely procedures that have been found to be successful at PNL. It is hoped that this information may be useful to other researchers who are contemplating or pursuing bench-scale studies of their own.

  5. Linear Static and Dynamic Analysis of Rocket Engine Testing Bench Structure using the Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Fabrino Favato

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of a testing bench structure for Rocket Engines, which is under development by the PUC-Minas Aerospace Research Group. The Bench is being built for civilian’s liquid bipropellant rocket engines up to 5 kN of thrust. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the bench structure using the Finite Element Method (FEM, by structural linear static and dynamic analysis. Performed to predict the behavior of the structure to the requests of the tests. The virtual simulations were performed using a CAE software with the Nastran solver. The structure is 979 x 1638 mm by 2629 mm, consisting of folded-plates (¼ "x 3¼" x 8" and plates of 1/4" and 1/2 ", both SAE 1020 Steel .The rocket engine is fixed on the structure through a set called engine mount. It was included in the analysis clearances or misalignments that may occur during tests. As well as, the load applied was evaluated with components in varying orientations and directions. It was considered the maximum size of the engine mount and the maximum inclination angle of load. At the end of this article it was observed that the worst stress and displacement values obtained were for the hypothesis with the inclination of five-degrees with load components in the positive directions of the axes defined and it was also obtained the first twenty frequency modes of the structure.

  6. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  7. Road and Street Centerlines, New Castle Bench, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Iron County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'New Castle Bench'. The extent of these...

  8. Development of a pyramidal wavefront sensor test-bench at INO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turbide, Simon; Wang, Min; Gauvin, Jonny; Martin, Olivier; Savard, Maxime; Bourqui, Pascal; Veran, Jean-Pierre; Deschenes, William; Anctil, Genevieve; Chateauneuf, François

    2013-12-01

    The key technical element of the adaptive optics in astronomy is the wavefront sensing (WFS). One of the advantages of the pyramid wavefront sensor (P-WFS) over the widely used Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor seems to be the increased sensitivity in closed-loop applications. A high-sensitivity and large dynamic-range WFS, such as P-WFS technology, still needs to be further investigated for proper justification in future Extremely Large Telescopes application. At INO, we have recently carried out the optical design, testing and performance evaluation of a P-WFS bench setup. The optical design of the bench setup mainly consists of the super-LED fiber source, source collimator, spatial light modulator (SLM), relay lenses, tip-tilt mirror, Fourier-transforming lens, and a four-faceted glass pyramid with a large vertex angle as well as pupil re-imaged optics. The phase-only SLM has been introduced in the bench setup to generate atmospheric turbulence with a maximum phase shift of more than 2π at each pixel (256 grey levels). Like a modified Foucault knife-edge test, the refractive pyramid element is used to produce four images of the entrance pupil on a CCD camera. The Fourier-transforming lens, which is used before the pyramid prism, is designed for telecentric output to allow dynamic modulation (rotation of the beam around the pyramid-prism center) from a tip-tilt mirror. Furthermore, a P-WFS diffraction-based model has been developed. This model includes most of the system limitations such as the SLM discrete voltage steps and the CCD pixel pitch. The pyramid effects (edges and tip) are considered as well. The modal wavefront reconstruction algorithm relies on the construction of an interaction matrix (one for each modulation's amplitude). Each column of the interaction matrix represents the combination of the four pupil images for a given wavefront aberration. The nice agreement between the data and the model suggest that the limitation of the system is not the P

  9. Direct liquefaction proof-of-concept program: POC bench option run 01 (227-90). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, T.L.K.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Popper, G.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the results of bench-scale work, Bench Run PB-01, conducted under the DOE Proof of Concept-Bench Option Program in direct coal liquefaction at Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. in Lawrenceville, New Jersey. The Bench Run PB-01 was the first of nine runs planned under the POC Bench Option Contract between the US DOE and Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc. The primary goal of this bench run was to evaluate the most successful of the process improvements concepts, evolving out of the earlier CMSL Project, for conventional direct liquefaction as well as coprocessing of a sub-bituminous Black Thunder mine coal with waste organics such as waste plastics and heavy resid. The interstage separation of light ends and gases was indeed found to reduce the overall light gas-make from the liquefaction process. The organic waste feeds such as mixed plastics and vacuum resid, employed during Bench Run PB-01, in combined processing with coal, resulted in making the overall process more hydrogen efficient by virtue of reducing the light gas make and also decreasing the hydrogen consumption from the process, while at the same time improving the yields and quality of the distillate products. A definite synergy was found during the combined processing of coal with mixtures of vacuum resid and mixed waste plastics. The application of an all dispersed catalyst conversion reactor resulted in higher feed throughput at equivalent process performance, but also necessitated the use of an in-line hydrotreater for improving the quality of IBP-400{degrees}C distillate products. The combination of HTI`s iron gel catalyst and Molyvan-A was found very effective in achieving high levels of process performance; although, in recycled form, these catalysts were not as effective as the freshly added precursors.

  10. Long Rest Interval Promotes Durable Testosterone Responses in High-Intensity Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudese, Estevão; Simão, Roberto; Senna, Gilmar; Vingren, Jakob L; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Baffi, Matheus; Miranda, Humberto

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of rest period duration (1 vs. 3 minute between sets) on acute hormone responses to a high-intensity and equal volume bench press workout. Ten resistance-trained men (25.2 ± 5.6 years; 78.2 ± 5.7 kg; 176.7 ± 5.4 cm; bench press relative strength: 1.3 ± 0.1 kg per kilogram of body mass) performed 2 bench press workouts separated by 1 week. Each workout consisted of 5 sets of 3 repetitions performed at 85% of 1 repetition maximum, with either 1- or 3-minute rest between sets. Circulating concentrations of total testosterone (TT), free testosterone (FT), cortisol (C), testosterone/cortisol ratio (TT/C), and growth hormone (GH) were measured at preworkout (PRE), and immediately (T0), 15 minutes (T15), and 30 minutes (T30) postworkout. Rating of perceived exertion was recorded before and after each set. For TT, both rest lengths enhanced all postexercise verifications (T0, T15, and T30) compared with PRE, with 1 minute showing decreases on T15 and T30 compared with T0. For FT, both 1- and 3-minute rest protocols triggered augmentations on distinct postexercise moments (T0 and T15 for 1 minute; T15 and T30 for 3-minute) compared with PRE. The C values did not change throughout any postexercise verification for either rests. The TT/C ratio was significantly elevated for both rests in all postexercise moments compared with PRE. Finally, GH values did not change for both rest lengths. In conclusion, although both short and long rest periods enhanced acute testosterone values, the longer rest promoted a long-lasting elevation for both TT and FT.

  11. Sensory feedback in prosthetics: a standardized test bench for closed-loop control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosen, Strahinja; Markovic, Marko; Hartmann, Cornelia; Farina, Dario

    2015-03-01

    Closing the control loop by providing sensory feedback to the user of a prosthesis is an important challenge, with major impact on the future of prosthetics. Developing and comparing closed-loop systems is a difficult task, since there are many different methods and technologies that can be used to implement each component of the system. Here, we present a test bench developed in Matlab Simulink for configuring and testing the closed-loop human control system in standardized settings. The framework comprises a set of connected generic blocks with normalized inputs and outputs, which can be customized by selecting specific implementations from a library of predefined components. The framework is modular and extensible and it can be used to configure, compare and test different closed-loop system prototypes, thereby guiding the development towards an optimal system configuration. The use of the test bench was demonstrated by investigating two important aspects of closed-loop control: performance of different electrotactile feedback interfaces (spatial versus intensity coding) during a pendulum stabilization task and feedforward methods (joystick versus myocontrol) for force control. The first experiment demonstrated that in the case of trained subjects the intensity coding might be superior to spatial coding. In the second experiment, the control of force was rather poor even with a stable and precise control interface (joystick), demonstrating that inherent characteristics of the prosthesis can be an important limiting factor when considering the overall effectiveness of the closed-loop control. The presented test bench is an important instrument for investigating different aspects of human manual control with sensory feedback.

  12. Screening of phenylpyruvic acid producers and optimization of culture conditions in bench scale bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coban, Hasan B; Demirci, Ali; Patterson, Paul H; Elias, Ryan J

    2014-11-01

    Alpha keto acids are deaminated forms of amino acids that have received significant attention as feed and food additives in the agriculture and medical industries. To date, their production has been commonly performed at shake-flask scale with low product concentrations. In this study, production of phenylpyruvic acid (PPA), which is the alpha keto acid of phenylalanine was investigated. First, various microorganisms were screened to select the most efficient producer. Thereafter, growth parameters (temperature, pH, and aeration) were optimized in bench scale bioreactors to maximize both PPA and biomass concentration in bench scale bioreactors, using response surface methodology. Among the four different microorganisms evaluated, Proteus vulgaris was the most productive strain for PPA production. Optimum temperature, pH, and aeration conditions were determined as 34.5 °C, 5.12, and 0.5 vvm for PPA production, whereas 36.9 °C, pH 6.87, and 0.96 vvm for the biomass production. Under these optimum conditions, PPA concentration was enhanced to 1,054 mg/L, which was almost three times higher than shake-flask fermentation concentrations. Moreover, P. vulgaris biomass was produced at 3.25 g/L under optimum conditions. Overall, this study demonstrated that optimization of growth parameters improved PPA production in 1-L working volume bench-scale bioreactors compared to previous studies in the literature and was a first step to scale up the production to industrial production.

  13. Automated test bench for simulation of radiation electrification of spacecraft structural dielectrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirov, A. M.; Bezhayev, A. Yu; Zykov, V. M.; Isaychenko, V. I.; Lukashchuk, A. A.; Lukonin, S. E.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes the test bench “Prognoz-2” designed in Testing Center, Institute of Non-Destructive Testing, Tomsk Polytechnic University, which can be used: for ground testing of individual samples of spacecraft structural materials (e.g. thermal control coatings or cover glasses for solar batteries) or ceramics of the plasma thruster discharge channel), and whole spacecraft units or instruments (e.g. instruments of solar and stellar orientation or correcting plasma thrusters) exposed to radiation electrification factors; to verify the calculation mathematical models of radiation electrification of structural dielectrics under the impact of space factors in different orbits.

  14. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased sig...

  15. Online estimation of respiratory mechanics in non-invasive pressure support ventilation: a bench model study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulqueeny, Qestra; Tassaux, Didier; Vignaux, Laurence; Jolliet, Philippe; Schindhelm, Klaus; Redmond, Stephen; Lovell, Nigel H

    2010-01-01

    An online algorithm for determining respiratory mechanics in patients using non-invasive ventilation (NIV) in pressure support mode was developed and embedded in a ventilator system. Based on multiple linear regression (MLR) of respiratory data, the algorithm was tested on a patient bench model under conditions with and without leak and simulating a variety of mechanics. Bland-Altman analysis indicates reliable measures of compliance across the clinical range of interest (± 11-18% limits of agreement). Resistance measures showed large quantitative errors (30-50%), however, it was still possible to qualitatively distinguish between normal and obstructive resistances. This outcome provides clinically significant information for ventilator titration and patient management.

  16. Moving theranostics trom bench to bedside in an interdisciplinary research team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swierczewska, Magdalena; Lee, Seulki; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2011-02-01

    The Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine of the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering at the National Institutes of Health has been led by Xiaoyuan Chen since 2009. The Laboratory of Molecular Imaging and Nanomedicine contains three interdisciplinary, versatile groups: the Theranostic Nanomedicine; PET/Optical Imaging Probe; and Biological Molecular Imaging Sections, consisting of chemists, engineers, biologists and clinicians working together to transfer biomedical technology from bench to bedside. To find out more about our laboratory and meet our group, please visit us at www.nibib.nih.gov/Research/Intramural/xchen.

  17. Theoretical Rationale of Heating Block for Testing Bench of Aerospace Crafts Thermal Protection Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrova Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical rationale for the structural layout of a testing bench with zirconium dioxide heating elements on the basis of modelling radiative-conductive heat transfer are presented. The numerical simulation of radiative-conductive heat transfer for the two-dimensional scaled model of the testing segment with the finite-element analysis software package Ansys 15.0 are performed. The simulation results showed that for the selected layout of the heaters the temperature non-uniformity along the length of the sample over time will not exceed 3 % even at a temperature of 2000 K.

  18. Coronary bifurcation stenting: insights from in vitro and virtual bench testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortier, Peter; De Beule, Matthieu; Dubini, Gabriele; Hikichi, Yutaka; Murasato, Yoshinobu; Ormiston, John A

    2010-12-01

    The various techniques and devices that have been proposed for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions have differing levels of complexity and each has one or more limitations. Two highly complementary ex vivo methods are available to study the treatment of bifurcation lesions: in vitro and virtual bench testing. Both methods can be used to develop, evaluate and optimise bifurcation stenting techniques and dedicated devices. The basics, the evolution, the advantages and limitations of both methods are discussed in this paper. Subsequently, a literature overview of the main insights gained from ex vivo testing in the field of bifurcation stenting is given.

  19. Method, apparatus and system for managing queue operations of a test bench environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Farrell Lynn

    2016-07-19

    Techniques and mechanisms for performing dequeue operations for agents of a test bench environment. In an embodiment, a first group of agents are each allocated a respective ripe reservation and a second set of agents are each allocated a respective unripe reservation. Over time, queue management logic allocates respective reservations to agents and variously changes one or more such reservations from unripe to ripe. In another embodiment, an order of servicing agents allocated unripe reservations is based on relative priorities of the unripe reservations with respect to one another. An order of servicing agents allocated ripe reservations is on a first come, first served basis.

  20. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of /sup 137/Cs and /sup 226/Ra from existing waste solutions.

  1. Vapor cell based sodium laser guide star mechanism study lab-bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongyan; Li, Lihang; Luo, Ruiyao; Li, Lei; Ning, Yu; Xi, Fengjie; Xu, Xiaojun

    2016-07-01

    Sodium laser guide star (LGS) is the key for the success of modern adaptive optics (AO) supported large ground based telescopes, however, for many field applications, Sodium LGS's brightness is still a limited factor. Large amounts of theoretical efforts have been paid to optimize Sodium LGS exciting parameters, that is, to fully discover potential of harsh environment surrounding mesospheric extreme thin sodium atoms under resonant excitation, whether quantum or Monte Carlo based. But till to now, only limited proposals are demonstrated with on-sky test due to the high cost and engineering complexities. To bridge the gap between theoretical modeling and on-sky test, we built a magnetic field controllable sodium cell based lab-bench, which includes a small scale sum-frequency single mode 589nm laser, with added amplitude, polarization, and phase modulators. We could perform quantitative resonant fluorescence study under single, multi-frequency, side-band optical re-pumping exciting with different polarization, also we could perform optical field modulation to study Larmor precession which is considered as one of devils of Sodium LGS, and we have the ability to generate beams contain orbital angular moment. Our preliminary sodium cell based optical re-pumping experiments have shown excellent consistence with Bloch equation predicted results, other experimental results will also be presented in the report, and these results will give a direct support that sodium cell based lab-bench study could help a Sodium LGS scientists a lot before their on-sky test.

  2. Pregnancy diagnosis in cats using a rapid, bench-top kit to detect relaxin in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haas van Dorsser, F J; Lasano, S; Steinetz, B G

    2007-02-01

    Relaxin is a pregnancy-specific hormone in the queen and is produced by the placenta. Both serum and urinary relaxin levels can be used to diagnose and monitor pregnancy in the cat; however, only serum levels are commonly measured in practice. The present study aimed to assess whether urine could be used for the rapid diagnosis of pregnancy at an early stage in domestic cats using a bench-top kit to detect relaxin. Paired serum and urine samples were collected during the first month of gestation in six cats. The samples were tested by applying neat serum, urine or urine diluted in non-pregnant cat serum to the Witness Relaxin kit. Relaxin concentrations in the paired samples were also measured by radioimmunoassay. All undiluted urine samples from pregnant cats tested negative using the bench-top kit; however, the kit was able to detect relaxin in urine after dilution with non-pregnant cat serum. Using this as the test sample, the kit was accurate at diagnosing pregnancy from 28 days after mating and some samples tested positive at 21 days after mating. This preliminary work could lead to the development of a home pregnancy test for cats.

  3. StarBench: The D-type expansion of an HII region

    CERN Document Server

    Bisbas, T G; Williams, R J R; Mackey, J; Tremblin, P; Raga, A C; Arthur, S J; Baczynski, C; Dale, J E; Frostholm, T; Geen, S; Haugboelle, T; Hubber, D; Iliev, I T; Kuiper, R; Rosdahl, J; Sullivan, D; Walch, S; Wuensch, R

    2015-01-01

    StarBench is a project focused on benchmarking and validating different star-formation and stellar feedback codes. In this first StarBench paper we perform a comparison study of the D-type expansion of an HII region. The aim of this work is to understand the differences observed between the twelve participating numerical codes against the various analytical expressions examining the D-type phase of HII region expansion. To do this, we propose two well-defined tests which are tackled by 1D and 3D grid- and SPH- based codes. The first test examines the `early phase' D-type scenario during which the mechanical pressure driving the expansion is significantly larger than the thermal pressure of the neutral medium. The second test examines the `late phase' D-type scenario during which the system relaxes to pressure equilibrium with the external medium. Although they are mutually in excellent agreement, all twelve participating codes follow a modified expansion law that deviates significantly from the classical Spit...

  4. Automation of a test bench for accessing the bendability of electrospun vascular grafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bensch Martin

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges in cardiovascular tissue engineering is to develop vascular grafts with properties similar to autologous vessels. A promising approach is the fabrication of scaffolds from biodegradable polymers by electrospinning. Unstructured vascular subs possess a weak dimensional stability resulting in lumen collapse when subjected to bending stress. In order to examine different structured grafts, a standardised test method is required. A manual test method, designed in a former study, was adopted in terms of standardisation and automation. Therefore, a control system was programmed to regulate the required electronics. The electronic circuit was then developed and put into service. To fix samples into the test bench a new sample holder and a new collector for electrospinning were designed. Subsequently, a validation showed the new systems’ improved functionality compared to the former test bench. The samples were manufactured with the new collector. They could be fixed to the sample holder with high repeatability. The demand for vascular grafts with biological and mechanical properties similar to autologous vessels requires a standardised test method to examine bendability. The new test system enables the scaffolds to be examined regarding bendability with low personal expense and a simultaneously high degree of reproducibility. In addition, the new collector geometry can be easily adapted to higher or lower inner diameters. Hence, a new sample geometry was developed within this work.

  5. Design of Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin

    2012-06-30

    The major goal of the project is to design and optimize a bench-scale process for novel silicone CO{sub 2}-capture solvents and establish scalability and potential for commercialization of post-combustion capture of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants. This system should be capable of 90% capture efficiency and demonstrate that less than 35% increase in the cost of energy services can be achieved upon scale-up. Experiments were conducted to obtain data required for design of the major unit operations. The bench-scale system design has been completed, including sizing of major unit operations and the development of a detailed Process and Instrument Diagram (P&ID). The system has been designed to be able to operate over a wide range of process conditions so that the effect of various process variables on performance can be determined. To facilitate flexibility in operation, the absorption column has been designed in a modular manner, so that the height of the column can be varied. The desorber has also been designed to allow for a range of residence times, temperatures, and pressures. The system will be fabricated at Techniserv Inc.

  6. A new portable test bench for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics certification

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Hee Yeun, K; Minashvili, I; Moreno, P; Qin, G; Reed, R; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Sousa, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the upgraded portable test bench for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The previous version of the portable test bench was extensively used for certification and qualification of the front-end electronics during the commissioning phase as well as during the short maintenance periods of 2010 and 2011. The new version described here is designed to be an easily upgradable version of the 10-year-old system, able to evaluate the new technologies planned for the ATLAS upgrade as well as provide new functionalities to the present system. It will be used in the consolidation of electronics campaign during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-14 and during future maintenance periods. The system, based on a global re-design with state-of-the-art devices, is based on a back-end electronics crate instrumented with commercial and custom modules and a front-end GUI that is executed on an external portable computer and communicates with the controller in the crate through an Ethernet...

  7. A new portable test bench for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics certification

    CERN Document Server

    Alves, J; The ATLAS collaboration; Hee Yeun, K; Minashvili, I; Moreno, P; Qin, G; Reed, R; Schettino, V; Shalyugin, A; Solans, C; Sousa, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the upgraded portable test bench for the Tile Calorimeter of the ATLAS experiment at CERN. The previous version of the portable test bench was extensively used for certification and qualification of the front-end electronics during the commissioning phase as well as during the short maintenance periods of 2010 and 2011. The new version described here is designed to be an easily upgradable version of the 10-year-old system, able to evaluate the new technologies planned for the ATLAS upgrade as well as provide new functionalities to the present system. It will be used in the consolidation of electronics campaign during the long shutdown of the LHC in 2013-14 and during future maintenance periods. The system, based on a global re-design with state-of-the-art devices, is based on a back-end electronics crate instrumented with commercial and custom modules and a front-end GUI that is executed on an external portable computer and communicate

  8. Automation&Characterization of US Air Force Bench Top Wind Tunnels - Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, J.E.

    2006-03-23

    The United States Air Force Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratories (PMEL) calibrate over 1,000 anemometer probes per year. To facilitate a more efficient calibration process for probe-style anemometers, the Air Force Metrology and Calibration Program underwent an effort to modernize the existing PMEL bench top wind tunnels. Through a joint effort with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the performance of PMEL wind tunnels was improved. The improvement consisted of new high accuracy sensors, automatic data acquisition, and a software-driven calibration process. As part of the wind tunnel upgrades, an uncertainty analysis was completed, laser Doppler velocimeter profiling was conducted to characterize the velocities at probe locations in the wind tunnel, and pitot tube calibrations of the wind tunnel were verified. The bench top wind tunnel accuracy and repeatability has been measured for nine prototype wind tunnel systems and valuable field experience has been gained with these wind tunnels at the PMELs. This report describes the requirements for the wind tunnel improvements along with actual implementation strategies and details. Lessons-learned from the automation, the velocity profiling, and the software-driven calibration process will also be discussed.

  9. Effect of the Location of the Detonation Initiation Point for Bench Blasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uneven floor and fragmentation play an important role in blasting operations due to the direct effects on the efficiency of hauling and loading. This paper focuses on the influences of initiation position on bench blasting in order to improve blasting effects. The numerical simulations of bench blasting at different initiation points (top, middle, and bottom are implemented based on secondary development of LS-DYNA with a tensile-compressive damage model. The damage spatial distribution characteristics of different initiation points are compared. The outlines of rock foundation and boulder areas are analyzed with the damage threshold of critical breakage that is ascertained by acoustic characteristic of damage rock mass. Results of the numerical simulations demonstrate that different initiation points make a great influence on the stress and energy distribution in blasting process and induce different blasting effects. Middle initiation turns out to be the best initiation to increase the flatness of the floor and decrease the oversize boulder ratio simultaneously, which will increase the damage areas of the bottom and top regions and give a better blasting effect. Field experiment in Baihetan Station was carried out to validate conclusions of numerical simulation. Research could provide a good reference for the improvement of rock blasting.

  10. Project of electro-cyclotron resonance ion source test-bench for material investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulevoy, T V; Chalykh, B B; Kuibeda, R P; Kropachev, G N; Ziiatdinova, A V

    2014-02-01

    Development of new materials for future energy facilities with higher operating efficiency is a challenging and crucial task. However, full-scale testing of radiation hardness for reactor materials is quite sophisticated and difficult as it requires long session of reactor irradiation; moreover, induced radioactivity considerably complicates further investigation. Ion beam irradiation does not have such a drawback; on the contrary, it has certain advantages. One of them is high speed of defect formation. Therefore, it provides a useful tool for modeling of different radiation damages. Improved understanding of material behavior under high dose irradiation will probably allow to simulate reactor irradiation close to real conditions and to make an adequate estimation of material radiation hardness. Since 2008 in Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics, the ion beam irradiation experiments are under development at the heavy ion radio frequency quadrupole linac and very important results are obtained already [T. V. Kulevoy et al., in Proceedings of the International Topical Meeting on Nuclear Research Applications and Utilization of Accelerators, IAEA Vienna, Austria, 2009, http://www.pub.iaea.org/MTCD/publications/PDF/P1433_CD/darasets/papers/ap_p5_07.pdf]. Nevertheless, the new test bench based on electro-cyclotron resonance ion source and high voltage platform is developed. The project of the test bench is presented and discussed.

  11. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  12. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM0 Flight Hardware in Bench Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Engineering bench system hardware for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested on a lab bench at the University of Colorado in Boulder. This is done in a horizontal arrangement to reduce pressure differences so the tests more closely resemble behavior in the microgravity of space. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  13. Design and Construction of a Test Bench to Characterize Efficiency and Reliability of High Voltage Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blank, Tobias; Thomas, Stephan; Roggendorf, Christoph;

    2010-01-01

    Stationary battery energy storage systems are widely used for uninterruptible power supply systems. Furthermore, they are able to provide grid services. This yields in rising installed power and capacity. One possibility uses high voltage batteries. This results in an improvement of the overall...... system efficiency. High voltage batteries may be advantageous for future medium voltage DC-grids as well. In all cases, high availability and reliability is indispensable. Investigations on the operating behavior of such systems are needed. For this purpose, a test bench for high voltage storage systems...... was built to analyze these processes for different battery technologies. A special safety infrastructure for the test bench was developed due to the high voltage and the storable energy of approximately 120 kWh. This paper presents the layout of the test bench for analyzing high voltage batteries with about...

  14. Effectiveness of Bench Top Non-Vacuum Autoclaves on Dental Turbine Chamber Sterilization Effectiveness of Bench Top Non-Vacuum Autoclaves on Dental Turbine Chamber Sterilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taraneh Movahhed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dental turbine chamber is a suitable reservoir for living microorganisms, so chamber sterilization is necessary for reducing cross contamination risk. On the other hand, in non-vacuum autoclaves, steam penetration into turbine chamber is doubtful, while they are still in use in dental clinics. In this study, performance of small non-vacuum autoclave in turbine chamber sterilization was evaluated. Methods: A total of 48 dental turbines were sterilized by large vacuum autoclaves. The turbin chamber cap was opened in aseptic enviroment and a strip contaminated with bacillus stearothermophilus endospores was placed into chamber and chamber cap was closed. Twelve dental turbines were loaded in each of four autoclaves (2 large pre-vacuum autoclaves, 2 bench top non-vacuum autoclaves and sterilization process preformed according to the manufacturer's instructions. After the sterilization cycle, the strips were transferred to culture medium and incubated at 56°C for 48 Hours. As control sample, a biologic indicator that had not been autoclaved was used for each group. Results: Being loaded in different autoclaves, All 48 turbines were sterilized properly and all the cultures were negative. The culture results of four control indicators which were not sterilized, were positive. Conclusion: There was no difference between performance of vacuum and non-vacuum autoclaves in dental turbine chamber sterilization. Both types performed sterilization properly.

  15. Refinement of a commercial bench-top relaxin assay for pregnancy diagnosis using urine from domestic and nondomestic felids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Laurie A; Steinetz, Bernard G; Bond, Jennifer B; Lasano, Sally; Swanson, William F

    2008-06-01

    Relaxin, a 6-kDa polypeptide hormone, is excreted in the urine during pregnancy in several mammalian species. A recent study showed that detection of urinary relaxin using a bench-top serum assay (Witness relaxin kit, Synbiotics Corp., San Diego, California 92127, USA) can be diagnostic for pregnancy in domestic cats (Felis silvestris catus), but it is unknown whether the bench-top kit is applicable with urine across felid species. Our objectives were to 1) examine modifications in urine processing to improve kit reliability in pregnant cats, 2) evaluate the impact of concentrating urine via filtration on relaxin detection, 3) assess the effect of sample freezing on relaxin concentrations, and 4) begin quantifying urinary relaxin levels in nondomestic felids. Urine and serum were collected from domestic cats and nondomestic cat species (Pallas' cat, Otocolobus manul; sand cat, Felis margarita; cheetah, Acinonyx jubatus; and lion, Panthera leo) at several times after breeding. Urine samples, subjected to various processing methods, were tested using the bench-top kit, and relaxin levels were later quantified via radioimmunoassay. For domestic cat urine samples, filtration and addition of protein/phosphate buffer improved the consistency of the relaxin kit for early pregnancy diagnosis. Urine freezing caused a slight (approximately 13%) but significant decrease in relaxin concentrations, but frozen-thawed samples still tested positive with the bench-top kit. In nondomestic felids, urinary relaxin immunoreactivity during pregnancy was similar to or higher than that of pregnant domestic cats, suggesting that relaxin is a reliable cross-species marker of pregnancy. Urinary relaxin was detectable using the bench-top kit in pregnant Pallas' cats, but urine samples from other species tested negative, regardless of processing methods. Findings suggest that measurement of urinary relaxin is a promising approach for noninvasive pregnancy diagnosis in exotic felids, but

  16. Design And Bench Tests of Converter Driven 1kW Underwater Induction Generator for the Deep Wind project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina Monika; Trintis, Ionut;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 1 kW generator and converter applied to a floating Darreius type wind turbine system. The completed system is floated in the sea with the generator 5m below the surface. The present paper sketches the design and presents the laboratory bench test results, as well as the envi......This paper presents a 1 kW generator and converter applied to a floating Darreius type wind turbine system. The completed system is floated in the sea with the generator 5m below the surface. The present paper sketches the design and presents the laboratory bench test results, as well...

  17. Optical bench performance of a novel trifocal intraocular lens compared with a multifocal intraocular lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Shinwook; Choi, Myoung; Xu, Zaiwei; Zhao, Zeyu; Alexander, Elsinore; Liu, Yueai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to compare the optical characteristics of the novel PanOptix presbyopia-correcting trifocal intraocular lens (IOL) and the multifocal ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL, through in vitro bench investigations. Methods The optical characteristics of AcrySof® IQ PanOptix™ (PanOptix) and AcrySof® IQ ReSTOR +3.0 D (ReSTOR +3.0 D) IOLs were evaluated by through-focus Badal images, simulated headlight images, and modulation transfer function (MTF) measurements which determine resolution, photic phenomena, and image quality. Through-focus Badal images of an Early Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart were recorded at both photopic and mesopic pupil sizes. Simulated headlight images were taken on an MTF bench with a 50-μm pinhole target and a 5.0 mm pupil at the distance focus of the IOL. MTF curves were measured with a 3.0 mm pupil, and spatial frequencies equivalent to 20/40 and 20/20 visual acuities were recorded to illustrate the through-focus MTF curves. Far-, intermediate-, and near-focus MTF values were obtained. Results Bench Badal image testing and MTF measurements showed that PanOptix has a near focus at a distance of 42 cm and an additional intermediate focus at a distance of about 60 cm. The near focus for ReSTOR +3.0 D is at 45 cm. PanOptix and ReSTOR +3.0 D have comparable photopic distances and near MTF values. Additionally, PanOptix provided a substantial continuous range of vision from distance to intermediate and to near compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D. The halo propensity for PanOptix was slightly higher than that for ReSTOR +3.0 D. Conclusion Laboratory-based in vitro simulations showed that PanOptix trifocal IOL has comparable resolution and image quality performance in distance and near foci compared with ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PanOptix showed better resolution and image quality performance at the intermediate focus than ReSTOR +3.0 D IOL. PMID:27330273

  18. EMERGING TECHNOLOGY REPORT: BENCH-SCALE TESTING OF PHOTOLYSIS, CHEMICAL OXIDATION AND BIODEGRADATION OF PCB CONTAMINATED SOILS AND PHOTOLYSIS OF TCDD CONTAMINATED SOILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of bench-scale testing on degradation of 2,3,7,8-TCDD using W photolysis, and PCB degradation using UV photolysis, chemical oxidation and biological treatment. Bench-scale tests were conducted to investigate the feasibility of a two-phase detoxifi...

  19. What in silico molecular docking can do for the `bench-working biologists'

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Marius Mihăşan

    2012-12-01

    Required by an increasing amount of scientists, the in silico docking field is in full expansion, new algorithms and methods appearing at an exponential rate. The sheer range of available programs is overwhelming for the bench-working biologist, which is often discouraging by the lack of a graphical user interface, good user manual or literature to validate a given program. This mini-review attempts to present the docking problem and available solutions from a non-bioinformatician point of view and makes a selection of the available servers and programs. These tools are evaluated from several points of view, as numbers of citations, ease of usage and computer requirements. Finally, the capabilities and limitations as well as specific applications of in silico docking techniques are presented.

  20. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  1. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  2. Advanced microscale bioreactor system: a representative scale-down model for bench-top bioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wei-Ting; Aulakh, Rigzen P S; Traul, Donald L; Yuk, Inn H

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, several automated scale-down bioreactor systems have been developed to increase efficiency in cell culture process development. ambr™ is an automated workstation that provides individual monitoring and control of culture dissolved oxygen and pH in single-use, stirred-tank bioreactors at a working volume of 10-15 mL. To evaluate the ambr™ system, we compared the performance of four recombinant Chinese hamster ovary cell lines in a fed-batch process in parallel ambr™, 2-L bench-top bioreactors, and shake flasks. Cultures in ambr™ matched 2-L bioreactors in controlling the environment (temperature, dissolved oxygen, and pH) and in culture performance (growth, viability, glucose, lactate, Na(+), osmolality, titer, and product quality). However, cultures in shake flasks did not show comparable performance to the ambr™ and 2-L bioreactors.

  3. Great expectations - Epigenetics and the meandering path from bench to bedside

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Häfner, Sophia J; Lund, Anders H

    2016-01-01

    Making quick promises of major biomedical breakthroughs based on exciting discoveries at the bench is tempting. But the meandering path from fundamental science to life-saving clinical applications can be fraught with many hurdles. Epigenetics, the study of potentially heritable changes of gene...... a conceptual framework to a mechanistic understanding. This shift was accompanied by much hype and raised high hopes that epigenetics might hold both the key to deciphering the molecular underpinning of complex, non-Mendelian diseases and offer novel therapeutic approaches for a large panel of pathologies....... However, while exciting reports of biological phenomena involving DNA methylation and histone modifications fill up the scientific literature, the realistic clinical applications of epigenetic medicines remain somewhat blurry. Here, we discuss the state of the art and speculate how epigenetics might...

  4. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 3, July--September, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, K.

    1993-10-29

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  5. Catheter-based flow measurements in hemodialysis fistulas - Bench testing and clinical performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren T; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V;

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to perform bench and clinical testing of a catheter-based intravascular system capable of measuring blood flow in hemodialysis vascular accesses during endovascular procedures. Methods: We tested the Transonic ReoCath Flow Catheter System which uses...... of agreement between results from the ReoCath Flow Catheter System and the reference flowmeter. Clinical precision, expressed as the mean coefficient of variation, was 5.9% and 4.7% for the antegrade and retrograde catheters, respectively. Flow measurements were significantly affected by the distance between...... a stenosis and the tip of a retrograde catheter with the effect being proportional to the degree of stenosis. There was no systematic bias between measurers. Conclusions: The Reocath Flow Catheter System was found to be accurate and precise. Reliable results require careful attention to catheter placement...

  6. 500-MeV electron beam bench-mark experiments and calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farley, E.; Crase, K.; Selway, D.

    1979-12-01

    Experiments measuring the energy deposited by electron beams were performed to provide bench marks against which to evaluate our HANDYL76 electron beam computer code. The experiments, done at Stanford's Mk III accelerator, measured dose vs depth and dose vs radius profiles induced in layered aluminum targets by 500-MeV electrons. The dose was measured by passive thermoluminescence and photographic film placed between aluminum plates. The calculations predict a dose vs radius profile that forward-peaks on axis after the beam passes through a 200-cm air gap; the experimental measurements do not show this peak. This discrepancy indicates there may be a problem in using HANDYL76 to calculate deep penetration of a target with a large gap.

  7. iPSCs: A Minireview from Bench to Bed, including Organoids and the CRISPR System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Javier Orqueda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When Dolly the sheep was born, the first probe into an adult mammalian genome traveling back in time and generating a whole new animal appeared. Ten years later, the reprogramming process became a defined method of producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs through the overexpression of four transcription factors. iPSCs are capable of originating virtually all types of cells and tissues, including a whole new animal. The reprogramming strategies based on patient-derived cells should make the development of clinical applications of cell based therapy much more straightforward. Here, we analyze the current state, opportunities, and challenges of iPSCs from bench to bed, including organoids and the CRISPR system.

  8. Sustainable oil and grease removal from synthetic stormwater runoff using bench-scale bioretention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Eunyoung; Seagren, Eric A; Davis, Allen P

    2006-02-01

    One of the principal components of the contaminant load in urban stormwater runoff is oil and grease (O&G) pollution, resulting from vehicle emissions. A mulch layer was used as a contaminant trap to remove O&G (dissolved and particulate-associated naphthalene, dissolved toluene, and dissolved motor oil hydrocarbons) from a synthetic runoff during a bench-scale infiltration study. Approximately 80 to 95% removal of all contaminants from synthetic runoff was found via sorption and filtration. Subsequently, approximately 90% of the sorbed naphthalene, toluene, oil, and particulate-associated naphthalene was biodegraded within approximately 3, 4, 8, and 2 days after the event, respectively, based on decreases in contaminant concentrations coupled with increases of microbial populations. These results indicate the effectiveness and sustainability of placing a thin layer of mulch on the surface of a bioretention facility for reducing O&G pollution from urban stormwater runoff.

  9. Bitumen recovery from oil-sand extraction tailings: Part One: Bench-scale tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Y. H.; Mikhail, M. W.; Salama, A. I. A. [Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology Western Research Centre, Devon, AB (Canada); Burns, B. [Suncor Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    1999-09-01

    Residual bitumen from extraction plant tailings were recovered in bench-scale tests using conventional froth flotation, flotation columns, air-sparged hydrocyclones, and various combinations of these techniques. A flowsheet combining the use of mechanically agitated flotation cells with a stationary separator was developed. Results indicate that this process is effective in recovering bitumen from tailings with low bitumen content. Investigation of the flotation kinetics in a batch flotation cell provided information on the relationship between retention and froth quality. The effect of operating parameters on bitumen flotation and the dispersion of bubbles and bitumen was also examined. Results suggests that properly increasing the turbulence energy level in flotation units will improve the recovery of bitumen by flotation. It is believed that that this is due to the interaction between bitumen droplets and bubbles and the increase in of liquid/air interfacial area. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  10. Development of a Bench-Top Air-to-Water Heat Pump Experimental Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. I. Abu-Mulaweh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A bench-top air-to-water heat pump experimental apparatus was designed,developed, and constructed for instructional and demonstrative purposes. Thisair-to-water heat pump experimental apparatus is capable of demonstratingthermodynamics and heat transfer concepts and principles. This heat pumpexperimental setup was designed around the vapor compression refrigerationcycle. This experimental apparatus has an intuitive user interface, reliable, safefor student use, and portable. The interface is capable of allowing dataacquisition by a computer. A PC-based control system which consists ofLabVIEW and data acquisition unit is employed to monitor and control thisexperimental laboratory apparatus. This paper provides details about thedevelopment of this unit and the integration of the electrical/electronic componentand the control system.

  11. Advanced high-pressure bench-scale reactor for testing with hot corrosive gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbasian, J.; Bachta, R.P.; Wangerow, J.R. (Inst. of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Mojtahedi, W.; Salo, K. (Enviropower Inc., Espoo (Finland))

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale, high-pressure/high-temperature fluidized-bed reactor (HPTR) system is described that is capable of operating at a maximum temperature and pressure of 1,000 C and 30 bar in a corrosive atmosphere. The design of the unit is based on a double-shell balanced-pressure system. All the hot parts of the reactor that are wetted by the corrosive (and/or reactive) gases and the entire sampling line are constructed of inert material to prevent corrosion and loss of the reactant gases. The unit has been used for over 200 high-pressure hot coal gas desulfurization tests at 20 bars and up to 750 C without any experimental problem and with excellent sulfur balance, indicating that this reactor system is ideal for testing with reactive and corrosive gases at elevated pressures and temperatures.

  12. A Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) bench static system to study bacteria inactivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortese, Pietro; Dellacasa, Giuseppe; Gemme, Roberto [Department of Science and Advanced Technology, Eastern Piedmont University, Viale Teresa Michel 11, 15121-Alessandria (Italy); Bonetta, Sara; Bonetta, Silvia; Carraro, Elisabetta; Motta, Francesca [Department of Environmental and Life Science, Eastern Piedmont University, Viale Teresa Michel 11, 15121-Alessandria (Italy); Paganoni, Marco; Pizzichemi, Marco [Physics Department G. Occhialini, University of Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 3, 20126-Milano (Italy)

    2011-06-15

    Pulsed Electric Fields (PEF) technology is a promising non-thermal processing method for inactivation of microorganisms. A small PEF bench system able to treat a 0.4 ml static liquid volume has been built and tested at the laboratories of the Universita del Piemonte Orientale in Alessandria, Italy. The technique used to produce the required fields consists of charging high voltage cables of various lengths and subsequently discharge them on a cylindrical cell. The pulse intensity can be adjusted to reach a maximum electric field in the cell of about 35 kV/cm and the pulse frequency can reach 10 Hz. We describe the PEF system in some detail and, as a benchmark of its performances, we report preliminary results obtained on Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922) at 10{sup 9} Cfu/ml concentration suspended in a McIlvaine buffer (pH 7.2).

  13. Temperature control of bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with a monofluid heating/cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Hai-peng; Song, Yi-ming

    2014-04-01

    An advanced control concept, Predictive Functional Control (PFC), is applied for temperature control of a bench-scaled batch reactor equipped with monofluid heating/cooling system. First principles process models are developed. Based on achieved models, significant process variables, which are difficult or impossible to measure online, are estimated from easily measured variables, and cascade PFC control strategy has been projected and implemented in Matlab R14. The dynamics of individual subunits is explicitly taken into consideration by internal model in the control algorithms, and model uncertainty, various process disturbances are compensated by modification of internal model. The experimental results present an excellent capability of tracking the set point, and the success of PFC technique as a process control paradigm is illustratively demonstrated.

  14. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 4, October--December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, K.

    1994-01-25

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  15. Bench and Full Scale Study of Removal Effect and Mutagenicity on Mesocyclops Leukarti with Chlorine Dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; YANG Wei; LIU Yan-an; LIN Tao

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops Leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it can not be effectively inactivated by the conventional process in drinking waterworks for its special surface structure. In this paper, a study of removal efficiency on Mesocyclops Leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a drinking waterworks was performed.Bench scale results showed that chlorine dioxide is more effective against Mesocyclops Leukarti. And Mesocyclops Leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation cooperated with the conventional process during the full scale study. The chlorite, by-preduct of prechlorine dioxide, was constant at 0.45 mg/L after filtration, which was lower than the critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination and Ames test showed that the quantity of organics and the mutagenicity in the water treated by chlorine dioxide is obviously less than that of prechlorination.

  16. "Virtual" in-vivo bench test for bifurcation stenting with "StentBoost".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostoni, Pierfrancesco; Verheye, Stefan; Vermeersch, Paul; Cornelis, Kristoff; Van Langenhove, Glenn

    2009-04-01

    "StentBoost" is a new angiographic technique that allows improved angiographic visualization of stents deployed in coronary arteries, by enhancing the X-ray focus of the region where the stent is placed. Using this technique we were able to assess the deformation and the expansion of a stent deployed to treat a bifurcation lesion between the mid-left anterior descending (LAD) artery and a big second diagonal branch, during sequential inflations of: (1) the stent per se in the LAD, (2) the ostium of the diagonal branch through the stent struts, (3) the stent again with a non compliant balloon, and (4) both branches with the kissing balloon technique. "StentBoost" guided our clinical and angiographic decision-making process and allowed us to create a "virtual" bench test of the stent deployed at the level of the bifurcation treated.

  17. Bench-Scale Filtration Testing in Support of the Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billing, Justin M.; Daniel, Richard C.; Kurath, Dean E.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2009-09-28

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes.” The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP testing program specifies that bench-scale testing is to be performed in support of specific operations, including filtration, caustic leaching, and oxidative leaching.

  18. Bench-mark solution for a penny-shaped hydraulic fracture driven by a thinning fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Linkov, Aleksandr

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents a solution for axisymmetric propagation of a penny-shaped crack driven by a thinning fluid. The solution to the accuracy of four significant digits, at least, is obtained on the basis of the modified formulation of hydraulic fracture problem by employing the particle velocity, rather than conventionally used flux. This serves to properly organize iterations in the opening after reducing the problem to the self-similar form. Numerical results obtained show relatively small dependence of self-similar quantities (fracture radius, propagation speed, opening, particle velocity, pressure, flux) on the behavior index of a thinning fluid. The results provide bench marks for the accuracy control of truly 3D simulators and they serve for assigning an apparent viscosity when simulating the action of a thinning fluid by replacing it with an equivalent Newtonian fluid.

  19. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  20. Characterisation of oxidised aluminium powder: Validation of a new anodic oxidation bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gascoin, Nicolas, E-mail: Nicolas.Gascoin@univ-orleans.fr [PRISME Institute, Orleans University, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France); Gillard, Philippe; Baudry, Guillaume [PRISME Institute, Orleans University, 63 avenue de Lattre de Tassigny, 18020 Bourges (France)

    2009-11-15

    Aluminium powder is of major interest in many applications but it presents a risk due to its high explosibility, particularly when dispersed in air. The safety is directly linked to the particles oxidation because the Minimum Ignition Energy (MIE), which is required to initiate an Al dust explosion, increases with the oxide layer thickness. This study provides a controlled method to furnish reproducible homogeneous set of powder for such safety studies. Thanks to a new experimental bench, the influence on the oxidation rate of seven treatment parameters is investigated (current density, time of treatment, acid concentration, mass of powder, particles size, stirring, neutralisation by ammonia solution). The oxide content is plotted versus the current density, the time and the acid concentration to provide reference curves for further elaboration of oxidised powder. The particles size of sieved powder is measured before and after treatment by different methods (optical and Scanning Electron Microscopes, laser measurement). A high refinement of the powder in terms of size distribution is achieved thanks to the employed sieving. The present bench and the elaborated procedure are of great interest to provide well-calibrated oxidised powder directly available for safety studies. The time must be adjusted, depending on the wanted oxide content - from 2 to 18 wt.% - and the other treatment parameters must be kept constant: acid concentration (5 wt.%), current density (1 A dm{sup -2}), treated powder (20 g). In these conditions, the ratio of the oxide layer thickness on the particles diameter is found to be constant for a given oxide content whatever the particles size.

  1. Using wesBench to Study the Rendering Performance of Graphics Processing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bethel, Edward W

    2010-01-08

    Graphics operations consist of two broad operations. The first, which we refer to here as vertex operations, consists of transformation, lighting, primitive assembly, and so forth. The second, which we refer to as pixel or fragment operations, consist of rasterization, texturing, scissoring, blending, and fill. Overall GPU rendering performance is a function of throughput of both these interdependent stages: if one stage is slower than the other, the faster stage will be forced to run more slowly and overall rendering performance will be adversely affected. This relationship is commutative: if the later stage has a greater workload than the earlier stage, the earlier stage will be forced to 'slow down.' For example, a large triangle that covers many screen pixels will incur a very small amount of work in the vertex stage while at the same time incurring a relatively large amount of work in the fragment stage. Rendering performance of a scene consisting of many large-area triangles will be limited by throughput of the fragment stage, which will have relatively more work than the vertex stage. There are two main objectives for this document. First, we introduce a new graphics benchmark, wesBench, which is useful for measuring performance of both stages of the rendering pipeline under varying conditions. Second, we present its methodology for measuring performance and show results of several performance measurement studies aimed at producing better understanding of GPU rendering performance characteristics and limits under varying configurations. First, in Section 2, we explore the 'crossover' point between geometry and rasterization. Second, in Section 3, we explore additional performance characteristics, some of which are ill- or un-documented. Lastly, several appendices provide additional material concerning problems with the gfxbench benchmark, and details about the new wesBench graphics benchmark.

  2. "Enzyme Test Bench," a high-throughput enzyme characterization technique including the long-term stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskiy, Kirill; Schultze, Hergen; Boy, Matthias; Bornscheuer, Uwe; Büchs, Jochen

    2009-06-01

    A new high throughput technique for enzyme characterization with specific attention to the long term stability, called "Enzyme Test Bench," is presented. The concept of the Enzyme Test Bench consists of short term enzyme tests in 96-well microtiter plates under partly extreme conditions to predict the enzyme long term stability under moderate conditions. The technique is based on the mathematical modeling of temperature dependent enzyme activation and deactivation. Adapting the temperature profiles in sequential experiments by optimal non-linear experimental design, the long term deactivation effects can be purposefully accelerated and detected within hours. During the experiment the enzyme activity is measured online to estimate the model parameters from the obtained data. Thus, the enzyme activity and long term stability can be calculated as a function of temperature. The engineered instrumentation provides for simultaneous automated assaying by fluorescent measurements, mixing and homogenous temperature control in the range of 10-85 +/- 0.5 degrees C. A universal fluorescent assay for online acquisition of ester hydrolysis reactions by pH-shift is developed and established. The developed instrumentation and assay are applied to characterize two esterases. The results of the characterization, carried out in microtiter plates applying short term experiments of hours, are in good agreement with the results of long term experiments at different temperatures in 1 L stirred tank reactors of a week. Thus, the new technique allows for both: the enzyme screening with regard to the long term stability and the choice of the optimal process temperature regarding such process parameters as turn over number, space time yield or optimal process duration. The comparison of the temperature dependent behavior of both characterized enzymes clearly demonstrates that the frequently applied estimation of long term stability at moderate temperatures by simple activity measurements

  3. From bench to bedside: use of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feisst V

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Vaughan Feisst,1 Sarah Meidinger,1 Michelle B Locke2 1Dunbar Laboratory, School of Biological Sciences, 2Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand Abstract: Since the discovery of adipose-derived stem cells (ASC in human adipose tissue nearly 15 years ago, significant advances have been made in progressing this promising cell therapy tool from the laboratory bench to bedside usage. Standardization of nomenclature around the different cell types used is finally being adopted, which facilitates comparison of results between research groups. In vitro studies have assessed the ability of ASC to undergo mesenchymal differentiation as well as differentiation along alternate lineages (transdifferentiation. Recently, focus has shifted to the immune modulatory and paracrine effects of transplanted ASC, with growing interest in the ASC secretome as a source of clinical effect. Bedside use of ASC is advancing alongside basic research. An increasing number of safety-focused Phase I and Phase IIb trials have been published without identifying any significant risks or adverse events in the short term. Phase III trials to assess efficacy are currently underway. In many countries, regulatory frameworks are being developed to monitor their use and assure their safety. As many trials rely on ASC injected at a distant site from the area of clinical need, strategies to improve the homing and efficacy of transplanted cells are also being explored. This review highlights each of these aspects of the bench-to-bedside use of ASC and summarizes their clinical utility across a variety of medical specialties. Keywords: standardization, bystander effect, stromal cells, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal vascular fraction

  4. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  5. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-22

    This document contains the first quarterly technical progress report for PTI's Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI's KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI's On-Line Quality Monitor Control System. The twelve-month project will involve installation of a 300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC's Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) and testing of two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelvemonth project. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I - Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI's Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing. Phase II - ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project will be performed at PETC's CPPRF from January through May, 1993, and will be the major focus of the project. It will involve testing of the continuous 300 lb/hr. circuit. Phase II - Project Finalization: The project finalization phase will occur from June through September, 1993, at PTI's Calumet offices and will involve finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This quarterly progress report principally summarizes the results from the Phase I preparation work and the plan for the early portions of the Phase 11 installation and commissioning, which will occur in January and the first week of February, 1993.

  6. A systematic review of surface electromyography analyses of the bench press movement task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gołaś, Artur; Blazek, Dusan; Maszczyk, Adam; Wilk, Michał; Pietraszewski, Przemysław; Petr, Miroslav; Uhlir, Petr; Zając, Adam

    2017-01-01

    Background The bench press exercise (BP) plays an important role in recreational and professional training, in which muscle activity is an important multifactorial phenomenon. The objective of this paper is to systematically review electromyography (EMG) studies performed on the barbell BP exercise to answer the following research questions: Which muscles show the greatest activity during the flat BP? Which changes in muscle activity are related to specific conditions under which the BP movement is performed? Strategy PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library were searched through June 10, 2016. A combination of the following search terms was used: bench press, chest press, board press, test, measure, assessment, dynamometer, kinematics and biomechanics. Only original, full-text articles were considered. Results The search process resulted in 14 relevant studies that were included in the discussion. The triceps brachii (TB) and pectoralis major (PM) muscles were found to have similar activity during the BP, which was significantly higher than the activity of the anterior deltoid. During the BP movement, muscle activity changes with exercise intensity, velocity of movement, fatigue, mental focus, movement phase and stability conditions, such as bar vibration or unstable surfaces. Under these circumstances, TB is the most common object of activity change. Conclusions PM and TB EMG activity is more dominant and shows greater EMG amplitude than anterior deltoid during the BP. There are six factors that can influence muscle activity during the BP; however, the most important factor is exercise intensity, which interacts with all other factors. The research on muscle activity in the BP has several unresolved areas, such as clearly and strongly defined guidelines to perform EMG measurements (e.g., how to elaborate with surface EMG limits) or guidelines for the use of exact muscle models. PMID

  7. Design and bench tests of converter driven 1kW underwater induction generator for the deep wind project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Ewen; Leban, Krisztina; Trintis, Ionut;

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a 1 kW generator and converter applied to a floating Darreius type wind turbine system [1], 121, 131. The completed system is floated in the sea with the generator 5m below the surface. The present paper sketches the design and presents the laboratory bench test results, as well...

  8. Bench scale steam explosion pretreatment of acid impregnated elephant grass biomass and its impacts on biomass composition, structure and hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kataria, Rashmi; Mol, Annemerel; Schulten, Els; Happel, Anton; Mussatto, Solange I.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, an acid mediated steam explosion process was evaluated for pretreatment of elephant grass biomass in a bench scale reactor. Different combinations of H2SO4 concentration, reaction time and temperature (leading to different values of combined severity fa

  9. Recycling of polyethene and polypropene in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor by high temperature pyrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis of polyethene (PE), polypropene (PP), and mixtures of these polymers was studied in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor (RCR). Experiments showed that the effect of the sand or reactor temperature on the product spectrum obtained is large compared to the effect o

  10. The Hundred-Year Emotion War: Are Emotions Natural Kinds or Psychological Constructions? Comment on Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, Kristen A.; Siegel, Erika H.; Quigley, Karen S.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    For the last century, there has been a continuing debate about the nature of emotion. In the most recent offering in this scientific dialogue, Lench, Flores, and Bench (2011) reported a meta-analysis of emotion induction research and claimed support for the natural kind hypothesis that discrete emotions (e.g., happiness, sadness, anger, and…

  11. Simulation-based cutaneous surgical-skill training on a chicken-skin bench model in a medical undergraduate program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Because of ethical and medico-legal aspects involved in the training of cutaneous surgical skills on living patients, human cadavers and living animals, it is necessary the search for alternative and effective forms of training simulation. Aims: To propose and describe an alternative methodology for teaching and learning the principles of cutaneous surgery in a medical undergraduate program by using a chicken-skin bench model. Materials and Methods: One instructor for every four students, teaching materials on cutaneous surgical skills, chicken trunks, wings, or thighs, a rigid platform support, needled threads, needle holders, surgical blades with scalpel handles, rat-tooth tweezers, scissors, and marking pens were necessary for training simulation. Results: A proposal for simulation-based training on incision, suture, biopsy, and on reconstruction techniques using a chicken-skin bench model distributed in several sessions and with increasing levels of difficultywas structured. Both feedback and objective evaluations always directed to individual students were also outlined. Conclusion: The teaching of a methodology for the principles of cutaneous surgery using a chicken-skin bench model versatile, portable, easy to assemble, and inexpensive is an alternative and complementary option to the armamentarium of methods based on other bench models described.

  12. Bench heating for potplant cultivation: analysis of effects of root- and airtemperature on growth, development and production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogelezang, J.V.M.

    1993-01-01

    This thesis deals with the application of bench heating systems for potplant cultivation, which were developed for application of low temperature heating water from flue gas condensers and external waste heat sources. Compared to the traditional way of heating, a 'reversed' temperature gradient is c

  13. Effects of 4 weeks of creatine supplementation in junior swimmers on freestyle sprint and swim bench performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Brian; Vladich, Todd; Blanksby, Brian A

    2002-11-01

    To determine whether 4 weeks of oral creatine (Cr) supplementation could enhance single freestyle sprint and swim bench performance in experienced competitive junior swimmers, 10 young men and 10 young women (x age = 16.4 +/- 1.8 years) participated in a 27-day supplementation period and pre- and posttesting sessions. In session 1 (presupplementation testing), subjects swam one 50-m freestyle and then (after approximately 5 minutes of active recovery) one 100-m freestyle at maximum speed. Blood lactate was measured before and 1 minute after each swim trial. Forty-eight hours later, height, mass, and the sum of 6 skinfolds were recorded, and a Biokinetic Swim Bench total work output test (2 x 30-second trials, with a 10-minute passive recovery in between) was undertaken. After the pretests were completed, participants were divided into 2 groups (n = 10, Cr; and n = 10, placebo) by means of matched pairs on the basis of gender and 50-m swim times. A Cr loading phase of 20 g x d(-1) for 5 days was then instituted, followed by a maintenance phase of 5 g x d(-1) for 22 days. Postsupplementation testing replicated the presupplementation tests. Four weeks of Cr supplementation did not influence single sprint performance in the pool or body mass and composition. However, 30-second swim bench total work scores for trial 1 and trial 2 increased after Cr (p swimmers, but it did enhance swim bench test performance.

  14. Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Billich

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimal Velocity to Achieve Maximum Power Output – Bench Press for Trained Footballers In today’s world of strength training there are many myths surrounding effective exercising with the least possible negative effect on one’s health. In this experiment we focus on the finding of a relationship between maximum output, used load and the velocity with which the exercise is performed. The main objective is to find the optimal speed of the exercise motion which would allow us to reach the maximum mechanic muscle output during a bench press exercise. This information could be beneficial to sporting coaches and recreational sportsmen alike in helping them improve the effectiveness of fast strength training. Fifteen football players of the FK Třinec football club participated in the experiment. The measurements were made with the use of 3D cinematic and dynamic analysis, both experimental methods. The research subjects participated in a strength test, in which the mechanic muscle output of 0, 10, 30, 50, 70, 90% and one repetition maximum (1RM was measured. The acquired result values and other required data were modified using Qualisys Track Manager and Visual 3D software (C-motion, Rockville, MD, USA. During the bench press exercise the maximum mechanic muscle output of the set of research subjects was reached at 75% of maximum exercise motion velocity. Optimální rychlost pohybu pro dosažení maxima výstupního výkonu – bench press u trénovaných fotbalistů Dnešní svět silového tréninku přináší řadu mýtů o tom, jak cvičit efektivně a zároveň s co nejmenším negativním vlivem na zdraví člověka. V tomto experimentu se zabýváme nalezením vztahu mezi maximálním výkonem, použitou zátěží a rychlostí. Hlavním úkolem je nalezení optimální rychlosti pohybu pro dosažení maximálního mechanického svalového výkonu při cvičení bench press, což pomůže nejenom trenérům, ale i rekreačním sportovc

  15. 'Enzyme Test Bench': A biochemical application of the multi-rate modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachinskiy, K.; Schultze, H.; Boy, M.; Büchs, J.

    2008-11-01

    In the expanding field of 'white biotechnology' enzymes are frequently applied to catalyze the biochemical reaction from a resource material to a valuable product. Evolutionary designed to catalyze the metabolism in any life form, they selectively accelerate complex reactions under physiological conditions. Modern techniques, such as directed evolution, have been developed to satisfy the increasing demand on enzymes. Applying these techniques together with rational protein design, we aim at improving of enzymes' activity, selectivity and stability. To tap the full potential of these techniques, it is essential to combine them with adequate screening methods. Nowadays a great number of high throughput colorimetric and fluorescent enzyme assays are applied to measure the initial enzyme activity with high throughput. However, the prediction of enzyme long term stability within short experiments is still a challenge. A new high throughput technique for enzyme characterization with specific attention to the long term stability, called 'Enzyme Test Bench', is presented. The concept of the Enzyme Test Bench consists of short term enzyme tests conducted under partly extreme conditions to predict the enzyme long term stability under moderate conditions. The technique is based on the mathematical modeling of temperature dependent enzyme activation and deactivation. Adapting the temperature profiles in sequential experiments by optimum non-linear experimental design, the long term deactivation effects can be purposefully accelerated and detected within hours. During the experiment the enzyme activity is measured online to estimate the model parameters from the obtained data. Thus, the enzyme activity and long term stability can be calculated as a function of temperature. The results of the characterization, based on micro liter format experiments of hours, are in good agreement with the results of long term experiments in 1L format. Thus, the new technique allows for both

  16. 'Enzyme Test Bench': A biochemical application of the multi-rate modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachinskiy, K; Buechs, J [Department of Biochemical Engineering, Sammelbau Biologie, RWTH-Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Schultze, H; Boy, M [BASF Aktiengesellschaft, Ludwigshafen (Germany)], E-mail: buechs@biovt.rwth-aachen.de

    2008-11-01

    In the expanding field of 'white biotechnology' enzymes are frequently applied to catalyze the biochemical reaction from a resource material to a valuable product. Evolutionary designed to catalyze the metabolism in any life form, they selectively accelerate complex reactions under physiological conditions. Modern techniques, such as directed evolution, have been developed to satisfy the increasing demand on enzymes. Applying these techniques together with rational protein design, we aim at improving of enzymes' activity, selectivity and stability. To tap the full potential of these techniques, it is essential to combine them with adequate screening methods. Nowadays a great number of high throughput colorimetric and fluorescent enzyme assays are applied to measure the initial enzyme activity with high throughput. However, the prediction of enzyme long term stability within short experiments is still a challenge. A new high throughput technique for enzyme characterization with specific attention to the long term stability, called 'Enzyme Test Bench', is presented. The concept of the Enzyme Test Bench consists of short term enzyme tests conducted under partly extreme conditions to predict the enzyme long term stability under moderate conditions. The technique is based on the mathematical modeling of temperature dependent enzyme activation and deactivation. Adapting the temperature profiles in sequential experiments by optimum non-linear experimental design, the long term deactivation effects can be purposefully accelerated and detected within hours. During the experiment the enzyme activity is measured online to estimate the model parameters from the obtained data. Thus, the enzyme activity and long term stability can be calculated as a function of temperature. The results of the characterization, based on micro liter format experiments of hours, are in good agreement with the results of long term experiments in 1L format. Thus, the new

  17. Bench measurements of the LHC injection kicker low frequency impedance properties

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; CERN. Geneva. SPS and LHC Division

    2002-01-01

    The LHC injection kicker contains a ceramic tube with inside printed metallic strips as a RF bypass in order to minimise the beam coupling impedance. These strips are capacitively coupled at one side to avoid eddy current during kicker transients. Experimentally it was found already earlier, using bench techniques, that in the region between 10 and 30 MHz certain resonances and thus peaks in the coupling impedance occur, related to the transition of the image current from the “cold conductor" to the bypass strips. The presence of these resonances has been reconfirmed as well as their properties. A practical method for reducing their influence by attaching lossy ferrite rings to the ends of the ceramic pipe is proposed and has partly been tested. As the present measurements were done on a mock-up for this RF bypass, which has limited validity towards higher frequencies, a full scale test should be repeated, once the first prototype of the 3 meter long ceramic chamber with printed bypass strips is ava...

  18. EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED MUSIC ON MAXIMAL BENCH PRESS STRENGTH AND STRENGTH ENDURANCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolomei, Sandro; Di Michele, Rocco; Merni, Franco

    2015-06-01

    Listening to music during strength workouts has become a very common practice. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of listening to self-selected music on strength performances. Thirty-one resistance-trained men (M age = 24.7 yr., SD = 5.9; M height = 178.7 cm, SD = 4.7; M body mass = 83.54 kg, SD = 12.0) were randomly assigned to either a Music group (n = 19) or to a Control group (n = 12). Both groups took part in two separate sessions; each session consisted in a maximal strength test (1-RM) and a strength-endurance test (repetitions to failure at 60% 1-RM) using the bench press exercise. The music group listened to music in the second assessment session, while the control group performed both tests without music. Listening to music induced a significant increase of strength endurance performance and no effects on maximal strength. These findings have implications for the use of music during strength workouts.

  19. Delivery of RNAi Therapeutics to the Airways-From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Yingshan; Lam, Jenny K W; Leung, Susan W S; Liang, Wanling

    2016-09-20

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a potent and specific post-transcriptional gene silencing process. Since its discovery, tremendous efforts have been made to translate RNAi technology into therapeutic applications for the treatment of different human diseases including respiratory diseases, by manipulating the expression of disease-associated gene(s). Similar to other nucleic acid-based therapeutics, the major hurdle of RNAi therapy is delivery. Pulmonary delivery is a promising approach of delivering RNAi therapeutics directly to the airways for treating local conditions and minimizing systemic side effects. It is a non-invasive route of administration that is generally well accepted by patients. However, pulmonary drug delivery is a challenge as the lungs pose a series of anatomical, physiological and immunological barriers to drug delivery. Understanding these barriers is essential for the development an effective RNA delivery system. In this review, the different barriers to pulmonary drug delivery are introduced. The potential of RNAi molecules as new class of therapeutics, and the latest preclinical and clinical studies of using RNAi therapeutics in different respiratory conditions are discussed in details. We hope this review can provide some useful insights for moving inhaled RNAi therapeutics from bench to bedside.

  20. Ammonium bisulfate formation temperature in a bench-scale single-channel air preheater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Menasha; D. Dunn-Rankin; L. Muzio; J. Stallings [University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States). Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Ammonium bisulfate (ABS) forms in coal-fired power plant exhaust systems when ammonia slip from the NOx control system reacts with the sulfur oxides and water in the flue gas. The critical temperature range for ABS formation occurs in the air preheater, where ABS is known to cause corrosion and pluggage that can require unplanned outages and expensive cleaning. To develop mitigation strategies for the deleterious effects of ABS in air preheaters, it is important to know its formation temperature and deposition process. This paper describes a bench-scale experimental simulation of a single-channel air preheater, with the appropriate temperature gradient, used in conjunction with simulated coal combustion flue gas, including sulfur oxides, ammonia, and water vapor, to investigate the formation of ABS. Formation was observed optically, and the formation temperature, as well as deposition characteristics for a realistic range of reactant concentrations are presented and compared with previous studies on ABS formation. This study presents data at realistic concentrations not earlier tested, and the reported data has smaller experimental uncertainty than previously obtained. We found that the measured ABS formation temperatures under air preheater channel conditions lies between the temperatures reported by others, and is in the range of 500-520 K for typical flue gas concentrations of ammonia and sulfur oxide species. The results also show that, at least for this experimental configuration, ABS forms predominantly as an aerosol in the gas phase rather than as a condensate on the channel walls. 13 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Temperature control of a PEM fuel cell test bench for experimental MEA assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    More, J.J.; Puleston, P.F.; Kunusch, C. [LEICI, Departamento de Electrotecnia, Universidad Nacional de La Plata (UNLP), calle 1 esq. 47 s/n, 1900 La Plata (Argentina); Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia, N 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Visintin, A. [Consejo de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Av. Rivadavia, N 1917, C1033AAJ, Ciudad Autonoma de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisico-Quimicas Teoricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), Diag. 113 y 64 s/n, 1900, La Plata (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    This paper presents the design, implementation and testing of a temperature control for a laboratory PEM fuel cell stack work bench intended for evaluation of experimental MEAs. The controller design is based on a thermal model of the fuel cell stack developed by the authors. The model is extended to the complete temperature range by considering a nonlinear description of the heating resistances. Its parameters are experimentally adjusted and its accuracy is validated in all the temperature operating range. Then, the temperature control is developed, using a proportional-integral structure with anti-windup features. It is implemented in a PC connected to an ad-hoc equipment of acquisition and control, that drives distributed cycles actuators to energize two heating resistances. The controller proved to be capable of regulating the stack temperature in a wide operating range, while eliminating the ripple typical of ON-OFF actuators. Finally, experimental results of closed loop operation are presented, demonstrating the good performance of the proposed control set up and thermal model. (author)

  2. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  3. Comparing coronary stent material performance on a common geometric platform through simulated bench testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan, J A; Leen, S B; McHugh, P E

    2012-08-01

    Absorbable metallic stents (AMSs) are a newly emerging cardiovascular technology which has the potential to eliminate long-term patient health risks associated with conventional permanent stents. AMSs developed to date have consisted of magnesium alloys or iron, materials with inferior mechanical properties to those used in permanent stents, such as stainless steel and cobalt-chromium alloys. However, for AMSs to be feasible for widespread clinical use it is important that their performance is comparable to modern permanent stents. To date, the performances of magnesium, iron, and permanent stent materials have not been compared on a common stent platform for a range of stent performance metrics, such as flexibility, radial strength, and recoil. In this study, this comparison is made through simulated bench testing, based on finite-element modelling. The significance of this study is that it allows potential limitations in current AMS performance to be identified, which will aid in focusing future AMS design. This study also allows the identification of limitations in current AMS materials, thereby informing the on-going development of candidate biodegradable alloys. The results indicate that the AMSs studied here can match the recoil characteristics and radial strength of modern permanent stents; however, to achieve this, larger strut dimensions are required. It is also predicted that the AMSs studied are inferior to permanent stents in terms of maximum absolute curvature and longitudinal stiffness.

  4. Bench Testing Results for the Electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaClair, Tim J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gao, Zhiming [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-20

    Bench testing of the Electrical PCM-Assisted Thermal Heating System (ePATHS) was completed at the Building Technologies Research and Integration Center (BTRIC) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The ePATHS is a thermal energy storage device designed to reduce the energy required from the battery for cabin heating of electric vehicles (EVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). ORNL s testing of the ePATHS assessed three main aspects of operation of the device: 1.ePATHS charging evaluation: measure the time to charge and the energy input needed to fully charge the PCM for a range of different ambient conditions. 2.ePATHS Discharge Evaluations: measure the energy provided by the PCM HX, both during mode 1 and mode 2 operation, and confirm the cabin heating duration that can be provided by the ePATHS. This is the primary evaluation to validate the system performance, and an array of multiple ambient conditions and operating scenarios were tested. 3.Evaluation of Thermal Losses from the ePATHS during Cold Soak: this test will evaluate the performance of the insulation system for the ePATHS. The charged ePATHS undergoes a long-term soak in cold ambient temperature conditions, and the heat losses will be evaluated to validate that the performance meets the maximum energy loss requirement.

  5. On-line monitoring of chemical reactions by using bench-top nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danieli, E; Perlo, J; Duchateau, A L L; Verzijl, G K M; Litvinov, V M; Blümich, B; Casanova, F

    2014-10-06

    Real-time nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy measurements carried out with a bench-top system installed next to the reactor inside the fume hood of the chemistry laboratory are presented. To test the system for on-line monitoring, a transfer hydrogenation reaction was studied by continuously pumping the reaction mixture from the reactor to the magnet and back in a closed loop. In addition to improving the time resolution provided by standard sampling methods, the use of such a flow setup eliminates the need for sample preparation. Owing to the progress in terms of field homogeneity and sensitivity now available with compact NMR spectrometers, small molecules dissolved at concentrations on the order of 1 mmol L(-1) can be characterized in single-scan measurements with 1 Hz resolution. Owing to the reduced field strength of compact low-field systems compared to that of conventional high-field magnets, the overlap in the spectrum of different NMR signals is a typical situation. The data processing required to obtain concentrations in the presence of signal overlap are discussed in detail, methods such as plain integration and line-fitting approaches are compared, and the accuracy of each method is determined. The kinetic rates measured for different catalytic concentrations show good agreement with those obtained with gas chromatography as a reference analytical method. Finally, as the measurements are performed under continuous flow conditions, the experimental setup and the flow parameters are optimized to maximize time resolution and signal-to-noise ratio.

  6. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  7. Endotoxin release from biologically active bench-scale drinking water anthracite/sand filters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, W.B.; Mayfield, C.I.; Huck, P.M. [University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON (Canada). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2008-12-15

    Endotoxin release from biologically active dual-media (anthracite/sand) bench-scale drinking water filters was investigated. The biological filters were typically net producers of endotoxin during normal operation with mean concentrations increasing from 6 endotoxin units (EU)/mL to 16 EU/mL in filter influent and effluent, respectively. The filter operating condition resulting in the greatest release of endotoxin occurred upon shutdown and subsequent restart, with the highest observed filter effluent endotoxin concentration being 745 EU/mL in the first pore volume following the return of flow through the filter. Effluent samples collected following filter shutdowns were chlorinated to determine the effect of bacterial cell death on endotoxin release. Chlorination did not induce immediate 'dumping' of endotoxin, nor did holding the chlorinated samples for 5 d result in an increase in aqueous endotoxin concentration. In addition to endotoxin, measurable quantities of potassium were detected in the interstitial water in the biofilter during shutdown periods. In order to reduce potential risk to dialysis patients and humidifier users, it is recommended that, following even short biofilter shutdowns, filters should be immediately backwashed or, failing this, the first five pore volumes of effluent water be discharged to waste to allow endotoxin levels to return to pre-shutdown values.

  8. Continuous alkaline pretreatment of Miscanthus sacchariflorus using a bench-scale single screw reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Young-Lok; Yang, Jungwoo; Park, Yuri; An, Gi Hong; Ahn, Jong-Woong; Moon, Youn-Ho; Yoon, Young-Mi; Yu, Gyeong-Dan; Choi, In-Hu

    2015-04-01

    Miscanthus sacchariflorus 'Goedae-Uksae 1' (GU) was developed as an energy crop of high productivity in Korea. For the practical use of GU for bioethanol production, a bench-scale continuous pretreatment system was developed. The reactor performed screw extrusion, soaking and thermochemical pretreatment at the following operating conditions: 3 mm particle size, 22% moisture content, 140 °C reaction temperature, 8 min residence time, 15 g/min biomass feeding and 120 mL/min NaOH input. As a result of minimizing NaOH concentration and enzyme dosage, 90.8±0.49% glucose yield was obtained from 0.5 M NaOH-pretreated GU containing 3% glucan with 10 FPU cellulase/g cellulose at 50 °C for 72 h. The separate hydrolysis and fermentation of 0.5 M NaOH-pretreated GU containing 10% glucan with 10-30 FPU for 102 h produced 43.0-49.6 g/L bioethanol (theoretical yield, 75.8-87.6%). Thus, this study demonstrated that continuous pretreatment using a single screw reactor is effective for bioethanol production from Miscanthus biomass.

  9. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Great expectations - Epigenetics and the meandering path from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Häfner, Sophia J; Lund, Anders H

    2016-06-01

    Making quick promises of major biomedical breakthroughs based on exciting discoveries at the bench is tempting. But the meandering path from fundamental science to life-saving clinical applications can be fraught with many hurdles. Epigenetics, the study of potentially heritable changes of gene function without modification of the underlying DNA sequence, has dominated the biological research field during the last decade and encountered a large public success. Driven by the unfolding of molecular biology and recent technological progress, the term has evolved significantly and shifted from a conceptual framework to a mechanistic understanding. This shift was accompanied by much hype and raised high hopes that epigenetics might hold both the key to deciphering the molecular underpinning of complex, non-Mendelian diseases and offer novel therapeutic approaches for a large panel of pathologies. However, while exciting reports of biological phenomena involving DNA methylation and histone modifications fill up the scientific literature, the realistic clinical applications of epigenetic medicines remain somewhat blurry. Here, we discuss the state of the art and speculate how epigenetics might contribute to prognostic and therapy approaches in the future.

  11. Bench-scale testing of the multi-gravity separator in combination with microcel. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luttrell, G.H.; Venkatraman, P.; Phillips, D.I.; Yoon, Roe-Hoan [Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing, Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    It was the purpose of this investigation to test a new fine coal cleaning system, in which a coal is cleaned first by column flotation to remove primarily ash-forming minerals and then by an enhanced gravity separation technique to remove the pyrite remaining in the flotation product. Of the various column flotation technologies developed under the auspices of the US Department of Energy, the Microcel{sup TM} flotation column was chosen because it is being used commercially in the US coal industry, particularly by low-sulfur coal producers. Of the various enhanced gravity separation technologies used in minerals industry, Multi-Gravity Separator (MGS) was chosen because it shows promise for pyrite rejection from fine coal streams containing a wide range of particle sizes. The bench-scale tests were conducted using three different circuit configurations, i.e.; Microcel{sup TM} column alone; MGS alone; and Microcel{sup Tm} and MGS in series. In general, high ash-rejections were achieved using Microcel{sup TM} column and an MGS unit in series, both the ash and pyritic sulfur rejections exceeded what can be achieved using either the Microcel{sup TM} column or the MGS unit alone, demonstrating a synergistic effect.

  12. Characterization of Japanese cedar bio-oil produced using a bench-scale auger pyrolyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Yoshiaki; Enomoto, Ryohei; Akazawa, Minami; Kojima, Yasuo

    2016-01-01

    A bench-scale auger reactor was designed for use as a laboratory-scale fast pyrolyzer for producing bio-oil from Japanese cedar. An analytical pyrolysis method was performed simultaneously to determine the distribution of pyrolysis products. The pyrolysis temperature was found to have the greatest influence on the bio-oil characteristics; bio-oil yields increased as the pyrolysis temperature increased from 450 to 550 °C. The concentration of levoglucosan in the bio-oil, however, decreased significantly with increasing pyrolysis temperature, while it increased following analytical pyrolysis. The same results were obtained for 4-vinylguaiacol and E-isoeugenol, which were the major secondary products produced in the present study. Compared to the yields of these major products obtained via analytical pyrolysis, the yields from the auger reactor were very low, indicating that the auger reactor process had a longer vapor residence time than the analytical pyrolysis process, resulting in the acceleration of secondary reactions of the pyrolysates. The pH values and densities of the bio-oils produced in the auger reactor were similar to those reported by researchers using woody biomass, despite their lower viscosities. From these results, it was concluded that the pyrolysis temperature and residence time of the pyrolysates played a significant role in determining the characteristics of the cedar bio-oil.

  13. The electron lens test bench for the relativistic heavy ion collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, X., E-mail: xgu@bnl.gov; Altinbas, F.Z.; Beebe, E.; Fischer, W.; Frak, B.M.; Gassner, D.M.; Hamdi, K.; Hock, J.; Hoff, L.; Kankiya, P.; Lambiase, R.; Luo, Y.; Mapes, M.; Mi, J.; Miller, T.; Montag, C.; Nemesure, S.; Okamura, M.; Olsen, R.H.; Pikin, A.I.; and others

    2014-04-11

    To compensate for the beam–beam effects from the proton–proton interactions at the two interaction points IP6 and IP8 in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), we are constructing two electron lenses (e-lenses) that we plan to install in the interaction region IR10. Before installing them, the electron gun, collector, instrumentation were tested and the electron beam properties were qualified on an electron lens test bench. We will present the test results and discuss our measurement of the electron beam current and of the electron gun perveance. We achieved a maximum current of 1 A with 5 kV energy for both the pulsed- and the DC-beam (which is a long turn-by-turn pulse beam). We measured beam transverse profiles with an yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG) screen and pinhole detector, and compared those to simulated beam profiles. Measurements of the pulsed electron beam stability were obtained by measuring the modulator voltage.

  14. Spectrophotometric bench dedicated to the characterization of micro-patterned optical coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorce, Stéphane; Abel-Tiberini, Laetitia; Lequime, Michel

    2011-10-01

    Characterization of the spectral transmission of micro-patterned optical coatings requires accurate and highly localized measurement means. However, the capabilities of commercial equipments are generally limited, and either they do not provide sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, or they modify the spectral transmittance properties of the sample by using a large half angle illuminating light cone. In this work, we propose a new approach based on the recording, using a high performance photodiode array camera, of monochromatic magnified images of the sample illuminated by a filtered and fiber-coupled super-continuum laser source. In such case, the spatial resolution is directly given by the size of the individual CCD pixels and by the magnification of the imaging objective, while the spectral resolution is defined by the slit width of the filtering monochromator. This paper will give a detailed description of the main features of this spectrophotometric bench, and will demonstrate its ability to record the spectral transmittance of patterned samples with micrometer spatial resolution and sub-nanometer spectral resolution in the visible and near infrared ranges.

  15. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  16. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG, (HOC(2)H(4))2S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  17. DRAGON-NG: a configurable and capable AO test-bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharmal, Nazim A.; Bitenc, Urban; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Dubbeldam, Cornelis M.; Reeves, Andrew P.; Dunlop, Colin; Rolt, Stephen; Younger, Eddy J.; Myers, Richard M.

    2016-07-01

    An astronomical adaptive optics test-bench, designed to replicate the conditions of a 4 m-class telescope, is presented. Named DRAGON-Next Generation, it is constructed primarily from commercial off-the-shelf components with minimal customization (approximately a 90:10 ratio). This permits an optical design which is modular and this leads to a reconfigurability. DRAGON-NG has been designed for operation for the following modes: (high-order) SCAO, (twin-DM) MOAO, and (twin-DM) MCAO. It is capable of open-loop or closed-loop operation, with (3) natural and (3) laser guide-star emulation at loop rates of up to 200Hz. Field angles of up-to 2.4 arcmin (4m pupil emulation) can pass through the system. The design is dioptric and permits long cable runs to a compact real-time control system which is on-sky compatible. Therefore experimental validation can be carried out on DRAGON-NG before transferring to an on-sky system, which is a significant risk mitigation.

  18. From bench to bedside and to health policies (and back: ethics in translational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The medical aim of translational research is to smooth the transition of discoveries made through basic research from the laboratory bench to their diagnostic or therapeutic applications for patients. These applications may be extended to current clinical practice and to health policies. AIM: The converse is also important: health policies should provide a point of departure when identifying research priorities. Translational research poses the same ethical problems as trials with human subjects - albeit in different ways. One of the more significant problems is the risk for participants in trials: it is thus necessary to ensure that the risks to which these subjects are exposed are not out of proportion to the expected benefits. DISCUSSION: Translational research does not require new ethical principles, but existing biomedical principles need to be adjusted to the specific context. The well-being of participants should always be the primary objective; these persons should never be considered as means for the advancement of knowledge or for the improvement of applications.

  19. Ce-MXRF: the power of separation with bench top element sensitive detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T. C. (Thomasin C.); Joseph, M. R. (Martha R.); Havrilla, G. J. (George J.)

    2002-01-01

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is a proven separation technique that offers highly efficient separation, rapid analysis, and minute sample consumption. When combined with a element specific detection scheme, it can be used for chemical speciation of biologically and environmentally relevant species such as metal containing proteins. In this study, a new tool was developed for separation and elemental detection. Specifically, a simple CE apparatus was constructed using a thin-walled fused Si capillary and interfaced with a bench top micro x-ray fluorescence (MXRF) system. X-ray excitation and detection of the separated sample volumes was performed using an EDAX Eagle II micro x-ray fluorescence system equipped with a Rh target excitation source and a SiLi detector. It was demonstrated that the system could be used for the separation and detection of two metals from one another, specifically Cu{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+}. Free Co{sup 2+} could also be isolated from Co{sup 2+} bound to cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B-12). Other systems that were explored were the separation of two organics, ferritin from cyanocobalamin as well as the separation of the different Cu and Zn isoforms of metallothinein. CE-MXRF was also used to separate the important serum isoforms of transferrin. Direct comparisons were made between CE-MXRF system and other elemental separation techniques such as CE-PIXE, CE-synchrotron-XRF, and CE-ICPMS.

  20. Study on hydrogen sulfide removal based on bench-scale experiment by bio-trickling filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Shu-lei; ZHANG Lan-he; WANG Qun-hui; WANG Xu-ming; XIE Wei-min

    2007-01-01

    A bench-scale experiment for control of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) emissions was carried out continuously for nearly four months by using bio-trickling filter packed with ZX01 stuffing. The results suggested that the bio-trickling filter had proven excellent performance over substantial operational periods. Removal efficiency of H2S was nearly 100% when volumetric loading of the bio-trickling filter varied from 0.64 g/(m3·h)to 38.20 g/(m3·h) and metabolism products of H2S were mainly composed of SO42-. When inlet concentration of H2S was 250 mg/m3, the optimum gas retention time was 30 s and the optimum spray water not blocked during experiments for nearly four months during which resistance was maintained at relatively lower value, so that the bio-trickling filter need not carry out back washing frequently and can be operated steadily for long-term.

  1. Accuracy improvement in a calibration test bench for accelerometers by a vision system

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Emilia, Giulio; Di Gasbarro, David; Gaspari, Antonella; Natale, Emanuela

    2016-06-01

    A procedure is described in this paper for the accuracy improvement of calibration of low-cost accelerometers in a prototype rotary test bench, driven by a brushless servo-motor and operating in a low frequency range of vibrations (0 to 5 Hz). Vibration measurements by a vision system based on a low frequency camera have been carried out, in order to reduce the uncertainty of the real acceleration evaluation at the installation point of the sensor to be calibrated. A preliminary test device has been realized and operated in order to evaluate the metrological performances of the vision system, showing a satisfactory behavior if the uncertainty measurement is taken into account. A combination of suitable settings of the control parameters of the motion control system and of the information gained by the vision system allowed to fit the information about the reference acceleration at the installation point to the needs of the procedure for static and dynamic calibration of three-axis accelerometers.

  2. DRAGON, the Durham real-time, tomographic adaptive optics test bench: progress and results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Andrew P.; Myers, Richard M.; Morris, Timothy J.; Basden, Alastair G.; Bharmal, Nazim A.; Rolt, Stephen; Bramall, David G.; Dipper, Nigel A.; Younger, Edward J.

    2014-08-01

    DRAGON is a real-time, tomographic Adaptive Optics test bench currently under development at Durham University. Optical and mechanical design work for DRAGON is now complete, and the system is close to becoming fully operational. DRAGON emulates current 4.2 m and 8 m telescopes, and can also be used to investigate ELT scale issues. The full system features 4 Laser Guide Star (LGS) Wavefront Sensors (WFS), 3 Natural Guide Star (NGS) WFSs and one Truth Sensor, all of which are 31 × 31 sub-aperture Shack-Hartmann WFS. Two Deformable Mirrors (DMs), a Boston MEMS Kilo DM and a Xinetics 97 actuator DM, correct for turbulence induced aberrations and these can be configured to be either open or closed loop of the WFS. A novel method of LGS emulation is implemented which includes the effects of uplink turbulence and elongation in real-time. The atmosphere is emulated by 4 rotating phase screens which can be translated in real-time to replicate altitude evolution of turbulent layers. DRAGON will be used to extensively study tomographic AO algorithms, such as those required for Multi-Object AO. As DRAGON has been designed to be compatible with CANARY, the MOAO demonstrator, results can be compared to those from the CANARY MOAO demonstrator on the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope. We present here an overview of the current status of DRAGON and some early results, including investigations into the validity of the LGS emulation method.

  3. Plate coil thermal test bench for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) carousel cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelps, LeEllen; Murga, Gaizka; Montijo, Guillermo; Hauth, David

    2014-08-01

    Analyses have shown that even a white-painted enclosure requires active exterior skin-cooling systems to mitigate dome seeing which is driven by thermal nonuniformities that change the refractive index of the air. For the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST) Enclosure, this active surface temperature control will take the form of a system of water cooled plate coils integrated into the enclosure cladding system. The main objective of this system is to maintain the surface temperature of the enclosure as close as possible to, but always below, local ambient temperature in order to mitigate this effect. The results of analyses using a multi-layer cladding temperature model were applied to predict the behavior of the plate coil cladding system and ultimately, with safety margins incorporated into the resulting design thermal loads, the detailed designs. Construction drawings and specifications have been produced. Based on these designs and prior to procurement of the system components, a test system was constructed in order to measure actual system behavior. The data collected during seasonal test runs at the DKIST construction site on Haleakalā are used to validate and/or refine the design models and construction documents as appropriate. The test fixture was also used to compare competing hardware, software, components, control strategies, and configurations. This paper outlines the design, construction, test protocols, and results obtained of the plate coil thermal test bench for the DKIST carousel cooling system.

  4. Bench-scale reactor tests of low-temperature, catalytic gasification of wet, industrial wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, D.C.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Baker, E.G.; Butner, R.S.; Sealock, L.J.

    1990-04-01

    Bench-scale reactor tests are under way at Pacific Northwest Laboratory to develop a low-temperature, catalytic gasification system. The system, licensed under the trade name Thermochemical Environmental Energy System (TEES{reg sign}), is designed for to a wide variety of feedstocks ranging from dilute organics in water to waste sludges from food processing. The current research program is focused on the use of a continuous-feed, tubular reactor. The catalyst is nickel metal on an inert support. Typical results show that feedstocks such as solutions of 2% para-cresol or 5% and 10% lactose in water or cheese whey can be processed to >99% reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) at a rate of up to 2 L/hr. The estimated residence time is less than 5 min at 360{degree}C and 3000 psig, not including 1 to 2 min required in the preheating zone of the reactor. The liquid hourly space velocity has been varied from 1.8 to 2.9 L feedstock/L catalyst/hr depending on the feedstock. The product fuel gas contains 40% to 55% methane, 35% to 50% carbon dioxide, and 5% to 10% hydrogen with as much as 2% ethane, but less than 0.1% ethylene or carbon monoxide, and small amounts of higher hydrocarbons. The byproduct water stream carries residual organics amounting to less than 500 mg/L COD. 9 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  5. Destruction of methylphosphonic acid in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale double wall reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bambang Veriansyah; Eun-Seok Song; Jae-Duck Kim

    2011-01-01

    The destruction of methylphosphonic acid (MPA), a final product by hydrolysis/neutralization of organophosphorus agents such as satin and VX (O-ethyl S-[2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl] methylphosphonothionate), was investigated in a a bench-scale, continuous concentric vertical double wall reactor under supercritical water oxidation condition. The experiments were conducted at a temperature range of 450-600~C and a fixed pressure of 25 MPa. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an oxidant. The destruction efficiency (DE) was monitored by analyzing total organic carbon (TOC) and MPA concentrations using ion chromatography on the liquid effluent samples. The results showed that the DE of MPA up to 99.999% was achieved at a reaction temperature of 600~C, oxygen concentration of 113% storichiometric requirement, and reactor residence time of 8 sec. On the basis of the data derived from experiments, a global kinetic rate equation for the DE of MPA and DE of TOC were developed by nonlinear regression analysis. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data.

  6. Molecular Mechanisms of Bone Metastasis: Which Targets Came from the Bench to the Bedside?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Casimiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bone metastases ultimately result from a complex interaction between cancer cells and bone microenvironment. However, prior to the colonization of the bone, cancer cells must succeed through a series of steps that will allow them to detach from the primary tumor, enter into circulation, recognize and adhere to specific endothelium, and overcome dormancy. We now know that as important as the metastatic cascade, tumor cells prime the secondary organ microenvironment prior to their arrival, reflecting the existence of specific metastasis-initiating cells in the primary tumor and circulating osteotropic factors. The deep comprehension of the molecular mechanisms of bone metastases may allow the future development of specific anti-tumoral therapies, but so far the approved and effective therapies for bone metastatic disease are mostly based in bone-targeted agents, like bisphosphonates, denosumab and, for prostate cancer, radium-223. Bisphosphonates and denosumab have proven to be effective in blocking bone resorption and decreasing morbidity; furthermore, in the adjuvant setting, these agents can decrease bone relapse after breast cancer surgery in postmenopausal women. In this review, we will present and discuss some examples of applied knowledge from the bench to the bed side in the field of bone metastasis.

  7. Performance of manual ventilation: how to define its efficiency in bench studies? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, A; De Luca, A; Sall, F S; Pazart, L; Capellier, G

    2015-08-01

    Bench studies have become the preferred way to evaluate the performance of airway equipment, since clinical trials are not specifically required before marketing these devices. However, it is difficult to assess the efficiency of ventilation without recording physiological data. This review analyses how efficiency of manual ventilation has been defined in recent studies, and how their results may be affected. We searched electronic databases from 2000 to April 2014. The main inclusion criterion was the analysis of performance of ventilation. Nine relevant articles were selected from 53 eligible publications. Most studies used the same parameters; tidal volume and ventilation rate. However, there were significant differences between the definitions of performance of ventilation, both in terms of criteria of judgement and methods of analysis. None of these approaches is able to provide a clear understanding of variability of ventilation during a given period. A new definition may increase the relevance of bench studies to clinical medicine, by more appropriately assessing the performance of ventilation.

  8. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  9. ValWorkBench: an open source Java library for cluster validation, with applications to microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giancarlo, R; Scaturro, D; Utro, F

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of the number of clusters in a dataset, in particular microarrays, is a fundamental task in biological data analysis, usually performed via validation measures. Unfortunately, it has received very little attention and in fact there is a growing need for software tools/libraries dedicated to it. Here we present ValWorkBench, a software library consisting of eleven well known validation measures, together with novel heuristic approximations for some of them. The main objective of this paper is to provide the interested researcher with the full software documentation of an open source cluster validation platform having the main features of being easily extendible in a homogeneous way and of offering software components that can be readily re-used. Consequently, the focus of the presentation is on the architecture of the library, since it provides an essential map that can be used to access the full software documentation, which is available at the supplementary material website [1]. The mentioned main features of ValWorkBench are also discussed and exemplified, with emphasis on software abstraction design and re-usability. A comparison with existing cluster validation software libraries, mainly in terms of the mentioned features, is also offered. It suggests that ValWorkBench is a much needed contribution to the microarray software development/algorithm engineering community. For completeness, it is important to mention that previous accurate algorithmic experimental analysis of the relative merits of each of the implemented measures [19,23,25], carried out specifically on microarray data, gives useful insights on the effectiveness of ValWorkBench for cluster validation to researchers in the microarray community interested in its use for the mentioned task.

  10. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) process bench studies with bituminous coal. Final report, [October 1, 1988--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported herein are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using bituminous coal concluded at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE contract during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with the application of coal cleaning methods and solids separation methods to the Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL) Process. Additionally a predispersed catalyst was evaluated in a thermal/catalytic configuration, and an alternative nickel molybdenum catalyst was evaluated for the CTSL process. Three coals were evaluated in this program: Bituminous Illinois No. 6 Burning Star and Sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The tests involving the Illinois coal are reported herein, and the tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico coals are described in Topical Report No. 1. On the laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects are reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests, such as tests on rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids, and cleaned coals, are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL process are described in the CTSL Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  11. Theoretical Analysis and Bench Tests of a Control-Surface Booster Employing a Variable Displacement Hydraulic Pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Charles W.; Kleckner, Harold F.

    1947-01-01

    The NACA is conducting a general investigation of servo-mechanisms for use in powering aircraft control surfaces. This paper presents a theoretical analysis and the results of bench tests of a control-booster system which employs a variable displacement hydraulic pump. The booster is intended for use in a flight investigation to determine the effects of various booster parameters on the handling qualities of airplanes. Such a flight investigation would aid in formulating specific requirements concerning the design of control boosters in general. Results of the theoretical analysis and the bench tests indicate that the subject booster is representative of types which show promise of satisfactory performance. The bench tests showed that the following desirable features were inherent in this booster system: (1) No lost motion or play in any part of the system; (2) no detectable lag between motion of the contra1 stick and control surface; and (3) Good agreement between control displacements and stick-force variations with no hysteresis in the stick-force characteristics. The final design configuration of this booster system showed no tendency to oscillate, overshoot, or have other undesirable transient characteristics common to boosters.

  12. Effects of bench step exercise intervention on work ability in terms of cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Masanori; Eguchi, Yasumasa; Inoue, Tomohiro; Honda, Toru; Morita, Yusaku; Konno, Yoshimasa; Yamato, Hiroshi; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2015-01-01

    Work ability is partly determined by physical and mental fitness. Bench step exercise can be practiced anywhere at any time. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a bench step exercise on work ability by examining cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress. Thirteen volunteers working in a warehousing industry comprised the bench step exercise group (n=7) and the control group (n=6). The participants in the step exercise group were encouraged to practice the step exercise at home for 16 weeks. The step exercise improved glucose metabolism and antioxidative capacity and increased work ability by reducing absences from work and improving the prognosis of work ability. The improvement in work ability was related to a reduction in oxidative stress. These results suggest that a bench step exercise may improve work ability by reducing cardiovascular risk factors and oxidative stress.

  13. ExoGeoLab Test Bench for Landers, Rovers and Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, B. H.

    2009-04-01

    In the frame of ESTEC technology and research pilot project, we have started a small pilot facility with a ExoGeoLab and a mini-Habitat, supported by two design and control offices in the European Space Incubator (ESI), as well as infrastructure support and manpower. We have in addition to contribution on external instruments and manpower from partner institutes. From this test bench and kit of ExoGeoLab instruments, we plan to operate comprehensive instruments packages that could help in the technical research and science preparation of lander/rover missions studied in the frame of Cosmic Vision or the Exploration programme. The ExoGeoLab research incubator project includes a sequence of activities: - Data analysis and interpretation of remote sensing data (MEX, SMART-1, VEX, Cassini-Huygens) and in-situ (Huygens, MER) , and merging of multi-scale data sets - Procurement and integration of geophysical, geochemical and astrobiological breadboard instruments in an surface station and rover (ExoGeoLab) - Research operations and exploitation of ExoGeoLab test bench for various conceptual configurations (Moon, Mars, NEO, Titan) - Contribution to the exploitation of surface lander results (MER, Phenix, MSL, preparation Exomars) - Scientific simulation of planetary surfaces using laboratory and modelling tools - Support research for definition and design of science surface packages on the Moon, Mars, NEO, Titan - Research support to community preparation of payload for surface lander opportunities Specific goals and methods of ESTEC ExoGeoLab: we have started to integrate instruments in an ExoGeoLab crossing various techniques. The methodic steps for this hands-on research are: 1) We have procured and adapted instruments to equip a mid-size ExoGeoRover (made available in collaboration with ESTEC robotics section), and a small surface station. 2) This terrestrial payload (instruments, sensors, data handling) will be deployed, operated and used as collaborative research

  14. Prevalence of ectoparasite infestations of cattle in Bench Maji zone, southwest Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesfaheywet Zeryehun Shiferaw

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was conducted with the aim of determining the prevalence and type of ectoparasitic fauna and associated host-related risk factors in cattle in Bench Maji Zone, Southwestern, Ethiopia, from October 2011 to April 2012. Materials and Methods: A total of 212 cattle (84 male and 128 female were sampled and examined. Both physical examination and laboratory investigation were employed in the study. Results: The study revealed that cattle in the study area were infested with single (24.5% and multiple (2.8% ectoparasites with an overall prevalence of 27.3% (58/212. Overall seven species of ectoparasites which belong to tick (16.0%, lice (10.4% and mite (0.9%, were identified. Seven species of ticks which belong to three genera (Boophilus sp., Amblyoma sp., and Rhipicephalus sp. were identified. Among the species of ticks Boophilus decoloratus (8.0%, Amblyoma variegatum (4.7% and Amblyoma coherens (4.2% were the dominant ones in a decreasing order. Among the three species of lice, the most prevalent was Linognathus vituli (4.7% followed by Haematopinus euysternus (3.8% and Damalina bovis (1.9%. Psoroptes bovis (0.9% was the only mite species recorded in this study. For all ectoparasites there was no statistical deference (p>0.05 between the prevalence of any of the ectoparaisite infestation with regard to sex, age and body condition score. Conclusion: The present study revealed a high prevalence and diverse fauna of ectoparasites that could potentially hamper the productivity of cattle in the study area, hence serious attention is warranted. [Vet World 2013; 6(6.000: 291-294

  15. A Lego Mindstorms NXT based test bench for multiagent exploratory systems and distributed network partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Riya Raghuvir

    Networks of communicating agents require distributed algorithms for a variety of tasks in the field of network analysis and control. For applications such as swarms of autonomous vehicles, ad hoc and wireless sensor networks, and such military and civilian applications as exploring and patrolling a robust autonomous system that uses a distributed algorithm for selfpartitioning can be significantly helpful. A single team of autonomous vehicles in a field may need to self-dissemble into multiple teams, conducive to completing multiple control tasks. Moreover, because communicating agents are subject to changes, namely, addition or failure of an agent or link, a distributed or decentralized algorithm is favorable over having a central agent. A framework to help with the study of self-partitioning of such multi agent systems that have most basic mobility model not only saves our time in conception but also gives us a cost effective prototype without negotiating the physical realization of the proposed idea. In this thesis I present my work on the implementation of a flexible and distributed stochastic partitioning algorithm on the LegoRTM Mindstorms' NXT on a graphical programming platform using National Instruments' LabVIEW(TM) forming a team of communicating agents via NXT-Bee radio module. We single out mobility, communication and self-partition as the core elements of the work. The goal is to randomly explore a precinct for reference sites. Agents who have discovered the reference sites announce their target acquisition to form a network formed based upon the distance of each agent with the other wherein the self-partitioning begins to find an optimal partition. Further, to illustrate the work, an experimental test-bench of five Lego NXT robots is presented.

  16. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Connolly, J.R. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m{sup 3} at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s to 6.6 x 10-7 m{sup 2}/s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed.

  17. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius.

  18. Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegele, P R; Mumford, K G

    2014-09-01

    The effective remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones using in situ thermal treatment requires successful capture of gas that is produced. Replicate electrical resistance heating experiments were performed in a thin bench-scale apparatus, where water was boiled and pooled dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) trichloroethene (TCE) and water were co-boiled in unconsolidated silica sand. Quantitative light transmission visualization was used to assess gas production and transport mechanisms. In the water boiling experiments, nucleation, growth and coalescence of the gas phase into connected channels were observed at critical gas saturations of Sgc=0.233±0.017, which allowed for continuous gas transport out of the sand. In experiments containing a colder region above a target heated zone, condensation prevented the formation of steam channels and discrete gas clusters that mobilized into colder regions were trapped soon after discontinuous transport began. In the TCE-water experiments, co-boiling at immiscible fluid interfaces resulted in discontinuous gas transport above the DNAPL pool. Redistribution of DNAPL was also observed above the pool and at the edge of the vapor front that propagated upwards through colder regions. These results suggest that the subsurface should be heated to water boiling temperatures to facilitate gas transport from specific locations of DNAPL to extraction points and reduce the potential for DNAPL redistribution. Decreases in electric current were observed at the onset of gas phase production, which suggests that coupled electrical current and temperature measurements may provide a reliable metric to assess gas phase development.

  19. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  20. Computational Bench Testing to Evaluate the Short-Term Mechanical Performance of a Polymeric Stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobel, A C; Petisco, S; Sarasua, J R; Wang, W; McHugh, P E

    2015-12-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a significant volume of research focussed on the utilization of biodegradable polymers such as poly-L-lactide-acid (PLLA) for applications associated with cardiovascular disease. More specifically, there has been an emphasis on upgrading current clinical shortfalls experienced with conventional bare metal stents and drug eluting stents. One such approach, the adaption of fully formed polymeric stents has led to a small number of products being commercialized. Unfortunately, these products are still in their market infancy, meaning there is a clear non-occurrence of long term data which can support their mechanical performance in vivo. Moreover, the load carry capacity and other mechanical properties essential to a fully optimized polymeric stent are difficult, timely and costly to establish. With the aim of compiling rapid and representative performance data for specific stent geometries, materials and designs, in addition to reducing experimental timeframes, Computational bench testing via finite element analysis (FEA) offers itself as a very powerful tool. On this basis, the research presented in this paper is concentrated on the finite element simulation of the mechanical performance of PLLA, which is a fully biodegradable polymer, in the stent application, using a non-linear viscous material model. Three physical stent geometries, typically used for fully polymeric stents, are selected, and a comparative study is performed in relation to their short-term mechanical performance, with the aid of experimental data. From the simulated output results, an informed understanding can be established in relation to radial strength, flexibility and longitudinal resistance, that can be compared with conventional permanent metal stent functionality, and the results show that it is indeed possible to generate a PLLA stent with comparable and sufficient mechanical performance. The paper also demonstrates the attractiveness of FEA as a tool

  1. Effect of jet injection on infectivity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine in a bench model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Collins, Marcus; Saxon, Gene; Jarrahian, Courtney; Zehrung, Darin; Cappello, Chris; Dhere, Rajeev; Royals, Michael; Papania, Mark; Rota, Paul A

    2015-08-26

    Disposable-syringe jet injectors (DSJIs) with single-use, auto disable, needle-free syringes offer the opportunity to avoid hazards associated with injection using a needle and syringe. Clinical studies have evaluated DSJIs for vaccine delivery, but most studies have focused on inactivated, subunit, or DNA vaccines. Questions have been raised about possible damage to live attenuated viral vaccines by forces generated during the jet injection process. This study examines the effect of jet injection on the integrity of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR), measured by viral RNA content and infectivity. Three models of DSJIs were evaluated, each generating a different ejection force. Following jet injection, the RNA content for each of the vaccine components was measured using RT-qPCR immediately after injection and following passage in Vero cells. Jet injection was performed with and without pig skin as a simulation of human skin. There was little to no reduction of RNA content immediately following jet injection with any of the three DSJIs. Samples passaged in Vero cells showed no loss in infectivity of the measles vaccine following jet injection. Mumps vaccine consistently showed increased replication following jet injection. Rubella vaccine showed no loss after jet injection alone but some infectivity loss following injection through pig skin with two of the devices. Overall, these data demonstrated that forces exerted on a live attenuated MMR vaccine did not compromise vaccine infectivity. The bench model and protocol used in this study can be applied to evaluate the impact of jet injection on other live virus vaccines.

  2. Development and experimental validation of a thermoelectric test bench for laboratory lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodríguez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The refrigeration process reduces the temperature of a space or a given volume while the power generation process employs a source of thermal energy to generate electrical power. Because of the importance of these two processes, training of engineers in this area is of great interest. In engineering courses it is normally studied the vapor compression and absorption refrigeration, and power generation systems such as gas turbine and steam turbine. Another type of cooling and generation less studied within the engineering curriculum, having a great interest, it is cooling and thermal generation based on Peltier and Seebeck effects. The theoretical concepts are useful, but students have difficulties understanding the physical meaning of their possible applications. Providing students with tools to test and apply the theory in real applications, will lead to a better understanding of the subject. Engineers must have strong theoretical, computational and also experimental skills. A prototype test bench has been built and experimentally validated to perform practical lessons of thermoelectric generation and refrigeration. Using this prototype students learn the most effective way of cooling systems and thermal power generation as well as basic concepts associated with thermoelectricity. It has been proven that students learn the process of data acquisition, and the technology used in thermoelectric devices. These practical lessons are implemented for a 60 people group of students in the development of subject of Thermodynamic including in the Degree in Engineering in Industrial Technologies of Public University of Navarra. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE Measurements of rain splash on bench terraces in a humid tropical steepland environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Wiegman, S. E.

    2003-02-01

    Soil loss continues to threaten Java's predominantly bench-terraced volcanic uplands. Sediment transport processes on back-sloping terraces with well-aggregated clay-rich oxisols in West Java were studied using two different techniques. Splash on bare, cropped, or mulched sub-horizontal (2-3°) terrace beds was studied using splash cups of different sizes, whereas transport of sediment on the predominantly bare and steep (30-40/deg ) terrace risers was measured using a novel device combining a Gerlach-type trough with a splash box to enable the separate measurement of transport by wash and splash processes. Measurements were made during two consecutive rainy seasons. The results were interpreted using a recently developed splash distribution theory and related to effective rainfall erosive energy. Splash transportability (i.e. transport per unit contour length and unit erosive energy) on the terrace risers was more than an order of magnitude greater than on bare terrace beds (0·39-0·57 versus 0·013-0·016 g m J-1). This was caused primarily by a greater average splash distance on the short, steep risers (>11 cm versus c. 1 cm on the beds). Splashed amounts were reduced by the gradual formation of a protective pavement of coarser aggregates, in particular on the terrace beds. Soil aggregate size exhibited an inverse relationship with detachability (i.e. detachment per unit area and unit erosive energy) and average splash length, and therefore also with transportability, as did the degree of canopy and mulch cover. On the terrace risers, splash-creep and gravitational processes transported an additional 6-50% of measured rain splash, whereas transport by wash played a marginal role.

  3. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  4. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  5. COMPARISON OF RADIAL AND AXIAL FLOW CHROMATOGRAPHY FOR MONOCLONAL ANTIBODY DOWNSTREAM PROCESSING AT BENCH AND PILOT SCALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Demirci

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Axial Flow Chromatography (AFC is widely used for the purification of therapeutic Monoclonal Antibodies (MAbs. However, AFC columns can generate high pressure drops across the resin bed, preventing operation of the column at high flow rates especially at pilot or manufacturing-scales. Radial Flow Chromatography (RFC was developed to provide lower pressure drops during chromatographic separations. In these studies, small and pilot-scale columns were used to evaluate purification of a MAb using both AFC and RFC technologies. A bench-scale, wedge RFC column (250 mL was compared to a bench-scale AFC column at various linear velocities with resulting Residence Times (RT using Protein A resin for the recovery of a monoclonal antibody. The bench RFC column was successfully operated at 4.5 min RT for equilibration and loading steps and 2 min RT for washing, elution and cleaning steps without compromising yield. The RFC column had approximately 50% lower pressure drop than the AFC column at similar flow rates. The process was then scaled-up to 5 L using a pilot-scale RFC column. The 5-L RFC column was operated at 4.5 min RT for equilibration and loading and 2 min. RT for washing, elution and cleaning with no loss of yield. However, pressure drop across the 5 L RFC column was higher than expected, but antibody recovery yields were similar for both column types. Subsequent investigations revealed a potential design issue with the RFC column. Overall, RFC has great potential to be used for pilot or manufacturing scale without high pressure drop concerns, which will certainly improve processing efficiency.

  6. Design of an FPGA-based embedded system for the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter front-end electronics test-bench

    CERN Document Server

    Carrio, F; The ATLAS collaboration; Moreno, P; Reed, R; Sandrock, C; Shalyugin, A; Schettino, V; Solans, C; Souza, J; Usai, G; Valero, A

    2013-01-01

    The portable test bench (VME based) used for the certification of the Tile calorimeter front-end electronics has been redesigned for the LHC Long Shutdown (2013-2014) improving its portability. The new version is based on a Xilinx Virtex 5 FPGA that implements an embedded system using a hard core PowerPC 440 microprocessor and custom IP cores. The PowerPC microprocessor runs a light Linux version and handles the IP cores written in VHDL that implement the different functionalities (TTC, G-Link, CAN-Bus) Description of the system and performance measurements of the different components will be shown.

  7. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled....../h could easily be determined at 7.5 g NH4+–N/m3 packed sand/h. This assay, with conditions reflecting full-scale observations, and where the biological activity is subject to minimal physical disturbance, provides a simple and fast, yet powerful tool to gain insight in nitrification kinetics in rapid sand...

  8. From bench to bedside: successful translational nanomedicine: highlights of the Third Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chiming; Liu, Nanhai; Xu, Pingyi; Heller, Mike; Tomalia, Donald A; Haynie, Donald T; Chang, Esther H; Wang, Kuan; Lee, Yoon-Sik; Lyubchenko, Yuri L; Bawa, Raj; Tian, Ryan; Hanes, Justin; Pun, Suzie; Meiners, Jens-Christian; Guo, Peixuan

    2007-12-01

    The Third Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Nanomedicine (AANM) was held at the University of California San Diego, in San Diego, California during September 7-8, 2007. The meeting was focused on successful translational nanomedicine: from bench to bedside. There were four keynote lectures and eight scientific symposiums in this meeting. The researchers and investigators reported the results and process of current nanomedicine research and approaches to clinical applications. The meeting provided exciting information for nanomedicine clinical-related researches and strategy for further development of nanomedicine research which will be benefits to clinical practice.

  9. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  10. SparsePak: A Formatted Fiber Field Unit for The WIYN Telescope Bench Spectrograph. I. Design, Construction, and Calibration

    CERN Document Server

    Bershady, M A; Harker, J; Ramsey, L W; Verheijen, M A W

    2004-01-01

    We describe the design and construction of a formatted fiber field-unit, SparsePak, and characterize its optical and astrometric performance. This array is optimized for spectroscopy of low-surface brightness, extended sources in the visible and near-infrared. SparsePak contains 82, 4.7" fibers subtending an area of 72"x71" in the telescope focal plane, and feeds the WIYN Bench spectrograph. Together, these instruments are capable of achieving spectral resolutions of lambda/dlambda ~ 20000 and an area--solid-angle product of ~140 arcsec^2 m^2 per fiber. Laboratory measurements of SparsePak lead to several important conclusions on the design of fiber termination and cable curvature to minimize focal ratio degradation. SparsePak itself has throughput >80% redwards of 5200 A, and 90-92% in the red. Fed at f/6.3, the cable delivers an output 90% encircled energy at nearly f/5.2. This has implications for performance gains if the WIYN Bench Spectrograph had a faster collimator. Our approach to integral-field spect...

  11. Effect of Red Bull energy drink on repeated Wingate cycle performance and bench-press muscle endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Scott C; Candow, Darren G; Little, Jonathan P; Magnus, Charlene; Chilibeck, Philip D

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Red Bull energy drink on Wingate cycle performance and muscle endurance. Healthy young adults (N = 15, 11 men, 4 women, 21 +/- 5 y old) participated in a crossover study in which they were randomized to supplement with Red Bull (2 mg/kg body mass of caffeine) or isoenergetic, isovolumetric, noncaffeinated placebo, separated by 7 d. Muscle endurance (bench press) was assessed by the maximum number of repetitions over 3 sets (separated by 1-min rest intervals) at an intensity corresponding to 70% of baseline 1-repetition maximum. Three 30-s Wingate cycling tests (load = 0.075 kp/kg body mass), with 2 min recovery between tests, were used to assess peak and average power output. Red Bull energy drink significantly increased total bench-press repetitions over 3 sets (Red Bull = 34 +/- 9 vs. placebo = 32 +/- 8, P %%%lt; 0.05) but had no effect on Wingate peak or average power (Red Bull = 701 +/- 124 W vs. placebo = 700 +/- 132 W, Red Bull = 479 +/- 74 W vs. placebo = 471 +/- 74 W, respectively). Red Bull energy drink significantly increased upper body muscle endurance but had no effect on anaerobic peak or average power during repeated Wingate cycling tests in young healthy adults.

  12. Development of Real-Time Dual-Display Handheld and Bench-Top Hybrid-Mode SD-OCTs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Hyun Cho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of a dual-display handheld optical coherence tomography (OCT system for retina and optic-nerve-head diagnosis beyond the volunteer motion constraints is reported. The developed system is portable and easily movable, containing the compact portable OCT system that includes the handheld probe and computer. Eye posterior chambers were diagnosed using the handheld probe, and the probe could be fixed to the bench-top cradle depending on the volunteers’ physical condition. The images obtained using this handheld probe were displayed in real time on the computer monitor and on a small secondary built-in monitor; the displayed images were saved using the handheld probe’s built-in button. Large-scale signal-processing procedures such as k-domain linearization, fast Fourier transform (FFT, and log-scaling signal processing can be rapidly applied using graphics-processing-unit (GPU accelerated processing rather than central-processing-unit (CPU processing. The Labview-based system resolution is 1,024 × 512 pixels, and the frame rate is 56 frames/s, useful for real-time display. The 3D images of the posterior chambers including the retina, optic-nerve head, blood vessels, and optic nerve were composed using real-time displayed images with 500 × 500 × 500 pixel resolution. A handheld and bench-top hybrid mode with a dual-display handheld OCT was developed to overcome the drawbacks of the conventional method.

  13. A kinetic and Kinematic analysis in two assessment situation with bench press. Free Weight vs Smith Machine. Project pilot.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Bautista

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examines the most relevant kinetic and kinematics variables in two bench press exercises; Smith Machine (PMS vs. free weights (PBL. Two trained subjects participated in the research following informed consent. To determine the maximum load (1-RM, two incremental protocols were used for PMS and PBL. Subject 1 (S-1 produced force values of 770N and 837N, peak force of 28ms and 12ms, in PBL and PMS respectively. Values for subject 2 (S-2 were 693N and 849N, PMF of 60ms and 66ms for PBL and PMS respectively. Detailed analyses of the following variables were performed; velocity curves for each load, the “sticking period”, the distances of grip width, and changes in bar inclination during the ascent phase of the lift were examined. The key findings of this research, and the basis for future research demonstrate that PBL is recommended as a training exercise, while more reliable information regarding force variables can be attained through using PMS in measurement sessions. Key Words: Bench Press, smith machine, free weight, strength assessment, upper limb.

  14. Experimental tests on a high-temperature H{sub 2}S removal bench-scale system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caterina Frau; Alessandra Madeddu; M. Giorgia Cutrufello; Carla Cannas; Giampaolo Mura; Paolo Deiana [Sotacarbo S.p.A., Carbonia (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    The behaviour of different commercial sorbents based on zinc oxides has been investigated as high temperature desulphurizing agents from a syngas from high sulphur content coal. A non-reducing gaseous streams containing 1.5 % H{sub 2}S diluted in N{sub 2} has been used as simulated syngas. Comparative tests have been performed isothermally in a bench-scale fixed-bed reactor. In order to check the modifications induced by desulphurization process and to correlate the physicochemical properties of different samples with their performance as H{sub 2}S sorbents, fresh and sulphurized samples were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} physisorption at -196{sup o}C, CHS Elemental Analysis (EA), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Temperature-Programmed Desorption/Reduction/Oxidation (TPD/R/O). Sorbents showed a good performance as desulphurizing agents and maintained the H{sub 2}S concentration in the outlet gas below 10 ppm. This paper shows the main results of the experimental tests on the bench-scale reactor. Moreover a simulation model has been developed and validated. Under the operating conditions considered, the rate of ZnO pellet sulphidation was limited by mass-transfer resistance, and kinetic parameters of overall reaction were obtained assuming a shrinking core model. A good agreement was obtained between theoretical and experimental results. 14 refs., 10 figs.

  15. Bench-scale demonstration of hot-gas desulfurization technology. Quarterly report, January 1--March 31, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-12-31

    At the start of the current project, the DSRP (Direct Sulfur Recovery Process) technology was at the bench-scale development stage with a skid-mounted system ready for field testing. The process had been extended to fluidized-bed operation in the Stage 1 reactor. A preliminary economic study for a 100 MW plant in which the two-stage DSRP was compared to conventional processes indicated the economic attractiveness of the DSRP. Through bench-scale development, both fluidized-bed zinc titanate and DSRP technologies have been shown to be technically and economically attractive. The demonstrations prior to the start of this project, however, had only been conducted using simulated (rather than real) coal gas and simulated regeneration off-gas. Thus, the effect of trace contaminants in real coal gases on the sorbent and DSRP catalyst was not known. Also, the zinc titanate desulfurization unit and DSRP had not been demonstrated in an integrated manner. The overall goal of this project is to continue further development of the zinc titanate desulfurization and DSRP technologies by scale-up and field testing (with actual coal gas) of the zinc titanate fluidized-bed reactor system, and the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process.

  16. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  17. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  18. SUMMARY PLAN FOR BENCH-SCALE REFORMER AND PRODUCT TESTING TREATABILITY STUDIES USING HANFORD TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB

    2010-08-19

    ) was found to be comparable to immobilized low-activity waste glass waste form in the initial supplemental LAW treatment technology risk assessment (Mann 2003). To confirm this hypothesis, DOE is funding a treatability study where three actual Hanford tank waste samples (containing both {sup 99}Tc and {sup 125}I) will be processed in Savannah River National Laboratory's (SRNL) Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) to form the mineral product, similar to the granular NAS waste form, that will then be subject to a number of waste form qualification tests. In previous tests, SRNL have demonstrated that the BSR product is chemically and physically equivalent to the FBSR product (Janzen 2005). The objective of this paper is to describe the sample selection, sample preparation, and environmental and regulatory considerations for treatability studies of the FBSR process using Hanford tank waste samples at the SNRL. The SNRL will process samples in its BSR. These samples will be decontaminated in the 222-S Laboratory to remove undissolved solids and selected radioisotopes to comply with Department of Transportation (DOT) shipping regulations and to ensure worker safety by limiting radiation exposure to As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). These decontamination levels will also meet the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC's) definition of low activity waste (LAW). After the SNRL has processed the tank samples to a granular mineral form, SRNL and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) will conduct waste form testing on both the granular material and monoliths prepared from the granular material. The tests being performed are outlined in Appendix A.

  19. DESIGN, FABRICATION, ASSEMBLY AND BENCH TESTING OF A TEXACO INFRARED RATIO PYROMETER SYSTEM FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF REACTION CHAMBER TEMPERATURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Leininger

    2001-03-31

    Reliable measurement of gasifier reaction chamber temperature is important for the proper operation of slagging, entrained-flow gasification processes. Historically, thermocouples have been used as the main measurement technique, with the temperature inferred from syngas methane concentration being used as a backup measurement. While these have been sufficient for plant operation in many cases, both techniques suffer from limitations. The response time of methane measurements is too slow to detect rapid upset conditions, and thermocouples are subject to long-term drift, as well as slag attack, which eventually leads to failure of the thermocouple. Texaco's Montebello Technology Center (MTC) has developed an infrared ratio pyrometer system for measuring gasifier reaction chamber temperature. This system has a faster response time than both methane and thermocouples, and has been demonstrated to provide reliable temperature measurements for longer periods of time when compared to thermocouples installed in the same MTC gasifier. In addition, the system can be applied to commercial gasifiers without any significant scale-up issues. The major equipment items, the purge system, and the safety shutdown system in a commercial plant are essentially identical to the prototypes at MTC. The desired result of this DOE program is ''a bench-scale prototype, either assembled or with critical components (laboratory) tested in a convincing manner.'' The prototype of the pyrometer system (including gasifier optical access port) that was designed, assembled and tested for this program, has had previous prototypes that have been built and successfully tested under actual coal and coke gasification conditions in three pilot units at MTC. It was the intent of the work performed under the auspices of this program to review and update the existing design, and to fabricate and bench test an updated system that can be field tested in one or more commercial gasifiers

  1. Accuracy determination of the CERN Linac4 emittance measurements at the test bench for 3 and 12 Mev

    CERN Document Server

    Roncarolo, F; Bravin, E; Raich, U

    2010-01-01

    The CERN LINAC4 commissioning will start in 2011, at first in a laboratory test stand where the 45 KeV Hsource is already installed and presently tested, and later in the LINAC4 tunnel. A movable diagnostics bench will be equipped with the necessary sensors capable of characterizing the H- beam in different stages, from 3 MeV up to the first DTL tank at 12 MeV. In this paper we will discuss the accuracy of the transverse emittance measurement that will be performed with the slit-grid method. The system’s mechanical and geometric parameters have been determined in order to achieve the required resolution and sensitivity. Space charge effects during the beam transfer from the slit to the grid and scattering effects at the slit have been considered to determine the overall emittance measurement accuracy.

  2. Design of the 15 GHz BPM test bench for the CLIC test facility to perform precise stretchedwire RF measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Silvia Zorzetti, Silvia; Galindo Muño, Natalia; Wendt, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    The Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) requires a low emittance beam transport and preservation, thus a precise control of the beam orbit along up to 50 km of the accelerator components in the sub-m regime is required. Within the PACMAN3 (Particle Accelerator Components Metrology and Alignment to the Nanometer Scale) PhD training action a study with the objective of pre-aligning the electrical centre of a 15 GHz cavity beam position monitor (BPM) to the magnetic centre of the main beam quadrupole is initiated. Of particular importance is the design of a specific test bench to study the stretched-wire setup for the CLIC Test Facility (CTF3) BPM, focusing on the aspects of microwave signal excitation, transmission and impedance-matching, as well as the mechanical setup and reproducibility of the measurement method.

  3. Sizing of rock fragmentation modeling due to bench blasting using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karami Alireza; Afiuni-Zadeh Somaieh

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important characters of blasting, a basic step of surface mining, is rock fragmentation because it directly effects on the costs of drilling and economics of the subsequent operations of loading, hauling and crushing in mines. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and radial basis function (RBF) show potentials for modeling the behavior of complex nonlinear processes such as those involved in fragmentation due to blasting of rocks. We developed ANFIS and RBF methods for modeling of sizing of rock fragmentation due to bench blasting by estimation of 80%passing size (K80) of Golgohar iron mine of Sirjan, Iran. Comparing the results of ANFIS and RBF models shows that although the statistical parame-ters RBF model is acceptable but ANFIS proposed model is superior and also simpler because ANFIS model is constructed using only two input parameters while seven input parameters used for construction of RBF model.

  4. Immobilized lysozyme for the continuous lysis of lactic bacteria in wine: Bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappannella, Elena; Benucci, Ilaria; Lombardelli, Claudio; Liburdi, Katia; Bavaro, Teodora; Esti, Marco

    2016-11-01

    Lysozyme from hen egg white (HEWL) was covalently immobilized on spherical supports based on microbial chitosan in order to develop a system for the continuous, efficient and food-grade enzymatic lysis of lactic bacteria (Oenococcus oeni) in white and red wine. The objective is to limit the sulfur dioxide dosage required to control malolactic fermentation, via a cell concentration typical during this process. The immobilization procedure was optimized in batch mode, evaluating the enzyme loading, the specific activity, and the kinetic parameters in model wine. Subsequently, a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor was developed, applying the optimized process conditions. HEWL appeared more effective in the immobilized form than in the free one, when the reactor was applied in real white and red wine. This preliminary study suggests that covalent immobilization renders the enzyme less sensitive to the inhibitory effect of wine flavans.

  5. Investigation of E. coli and Virus Reductions Using Replicate, Bench-Scale Biosand Filter Columns and Two Filter Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Elliott

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The biosand filter (BSF is an intermittently operated, household-scale slow sand filter for which little data are available on the effect of sand composition on treatment performance. Therefore, bench-scale columns were prepared according to the then-current (2006–2007 guidance on BSF design and run in parallel to conduct two microbial challenge experiments of eight-week duration. Triplicate columns were loaded with Accusand silica or crushed granite to compare virus and E. coli reduction performance. Bench-scale experiments provided confirmation that increased schmutzdecke growth, as indicated by decline in filtration rate, is the primary factor causing increased E. coli reductions of up to 5-log10. However, reductions of challenge viruses improved only modestly with increased schmutzdecke growth. Filter media type (Accusand silica vs. crushed granite did not influence reduction of E. coli bacteria. The granite media without backwashing yielded superior virus reductions when compared to Accusand. However, for columns in which the granite media was first backwashed (to yield a more consistent distribution of grains and remove the finest size fraction, virus reductions were not significantly greater than in columns with Accusand media. It was postulated that a decline in surface area with backwashing decreased the sites and surface area available for virus sorption and/or biofilm growth and thus decreased the extent of virus reduction. Additionally, backwashing caused preferential flow paths and deviation from plug flow; backwashing is not part of standard BSF field preparation and is not recommended for BSF column studies. Overall, virus reductions were modest and did not meet the 5- or 3-log10 World Health Organization performance targets.

  6. A bench-top K X-ray fluorescence system for quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticles for biological sample diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricketts, K., E-mail: k.ricketts@ucl.ac.uk [Division of Surgery and Interventional Sciences, University College London, Royal Free Campus, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (United Kingdom); Guazzoni, C.; Castoldi, A. [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria Politecnico di Milano and INFN, Sezione di Milano P.za Leonardo da Vinci, 32-20133 Milano (Italy); Royle, G. [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-21

    Gold nanoparticles can be targeted to biomarkers to give functional information on a range of tumour characteristics. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) techniques offer potential quantitative measurement of the distribution of such heavy metal nanoparticles. Biologists are developing 3D tissue engineered cellular models on the centimetre scale to optimise targeting techniques of nanoparticles to a range of tumour characteristics. Here we present a high energy bench-top K-X-ray fluorescence system designed for sensitivity to bulk measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration for intended use in such thick biological samples. Previous work has demonstrated use of a L-XRF system in measuring gold concentrations but being a low energy technique it is restricted to thin samples or superficial tumours. The presented system comprised a high purity germanium detector and filtered tungsten X-ray source, capable of quantitative measurement of gold nanoparticle concentration of thicker samples. The developed system achieved a measured detection limit of between 0.2 and 0.6 mgAu/ml, meeting specifications of biologists and being approximately one order of magnitude better than the detection limit of alternative K-XRF nanoparticle detection techniques. The scatter-corrected K-XRF signal of gold was linear with GNP concentrations down to the detection limit, thus demonstrating potential in GNP concentration quantification. The K-XRF system demonstrated between 5 and 9 times less sensitivity than a previous L-XRF bench-top system, due to a fundamental limitation of lower photoelectric interaction probabilities at higher K-edge energies. Importantly, the K-XRF technique is however less affected by overlying thickness, and so offers future potential in interrogating thick biological samples.

  7. Preliminary results from bench-scale testing of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, D.; Allen, C.; Besenbruch, G.; McCorkle, K.; Norman, J.; Sharp, R.

    1980-07-01

    Portions of a bench-scale model of a sulfur-iodine thermochemical water-splitting cycle have been operated at General Atomic Company as part of a comprehensive program to demonstrate the technology for hydrogen production from nonfossil sources. The hydrogen program is funded by the US Department of Energy, the Gas Research Institute, and General Atomic Company. The bench-scale model consists of three subunits which can be operated separately or together and is capable of producing as much as 4 std liters/min (6.7 x 10/sup -5/ m/sup 3//s at standard conditions) of gaseous hydrogen. One subunit (main solution reaction) reacts liquid water, liquid iodine (I/sub 2/) and gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) to form two separable liquid phases: 50 wt % sulfuric acid (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/) and a solution of iodine in hydriodic acid (HI/sub x/). Another subunit (H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ concentration and decomposition) concentrates the H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ phase to the azeotropic composition, then decomposes it at high temperature over a catalyst to form gaseous SO/sub 2/ and oxygen. The third subunit (HI separation and decomposition) separates the HI from water and I/sub 2/ by extractive distillation with phosphoric acid (H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/) and decomposes the HI in the vapor phase over a catalyst to form I/sub 2/ and product hydrogen. This paper presents the results of on-going parametric studies to determine the operating characteristics, performance, and capacity limitations of major components.

  8. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    2016-01-01

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  9. 传动系统试验台架共性技术研究%Research on Generic Technology of Transmission System Test Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石献金; 刘红旗

    2013-01-01

    Test bench plays an important role in the detection of transmission system comprehensive performance,reliability,durability and other technology index.On the basis of extensive literature reading,through the analysis,induction and summary of the test parameters,realization way and system matching relationship between driving and loading system,generic technology and method of the transmission system test-bench are extracted from many specific transmission system test benches and it formed a systematic test method.A comprehensive theoretical guidance and systematic method for the development of transmission system test benches are provided.%通过广泛阅读相关文献资料,重点就试验技术参数、试验实现方式以及驱动和加载系统匹配关系3个方面进行了分析、归纳和总结,从众多具体的传动系统试验台架中抽离出试验方法的共性技术,使其形成一种体系化试验方法,为传动系统试验提供了综合性理论指导,同时为具体试验台架的构建提供了系统性方法借鉴.

  10. Efficacy of the National Football League-225 Test to Track Changes in One Repetition Maximum Bench Press After Training in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, J Bryan; Ivey, Pat A; Stoner, Josh D; Mayhew, Jerry L; Brechue, William F

    2015-11-01

    Numerous investigations have attested to the efficacy of the National Football League (NFL)-225 test to estimate one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press. However, no studies have assessed the efficacy of the test to track changes in strength across a training program. The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of the NFL-225 test for determining the change in 1RM bench press in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division IA college football players after training. Over a 4-year period, players (n = 203) were assessed before and after a 6-week off-season resistance program for 1RM bench press and repetitions completed with 102.3 kg (225 lbs). Test sessions typically occurred within 1 week of each other. Players significantly increased 1RM by 4.2 ± 8.6 kg and NFL-225 repetitions by 0.9 ± 2.3, although the effect size (ES) for each was trivial (ES = 0.03 and 0.07, respectively). National Football League 225 prediction equations had higher correlations with 1RM before training (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.95) than after training (ICC = 0.75). The correlation between the change in NFL-225 repetitions and change in 1RM was low and negative (r = -0.22, p football players and render the NFL-225 test less effective in predicting the change in 1RM bench press strength after short-term training.

  11. Bench and full-scale studies for odor control from lime stabilized biosolids: the effect of mixing on odor generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krach, Kenneth R; Li, Baikun; Burns, Benjamin R; Mangus, Jessica; Butler, Howard G; Cole, Charles

    2008-09-01

    Lime stabilization is a means to raise the pH of biosolids to meet specific pathogen requirements. Along with controlling the microbial growth, lime stabilization reduces the potential for offensive odors. Lime stabilized biosolids can be beneficially used as a soil amendment and also for land reclamation. However, if biosolids are not properly incorporated with the lime, there is a potential for microbial growth, which consequently leads to the emanation of offensive odors and growth of pathogens. Proper mixing was found to be an important factor for the reduction of offensive odors in biosolids treatment. To better understand the effects of mixing on odorous products, bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted to assess the lime stabilization process and investigate mixing quality at a wastewater treatment plant to help reduce odors associated with known odorants. The results of 4-week laboratory bench-scale tests showed that mixing had the largest effect on odor. The hedonic tone test of the control samples with poor mixing showed a hedonic tone of -2.9 initially and then dropped to -7.3 on Day 29. The hedonic tone of the 3.5%, 7%, and 10% lime mixed biosolids had similar hedonic tones (-2.8 to -2.5) on Day 1 and slightly fluctuated over time and ended at -1.6 to -2.7 on Day 29, which was less odorous than the controls. The control sample with poor mixing showed a rapid pH drop from 12.1 on Day 1 to 8.4 on Day 7. The pH of the control sample was considerably lower than the mixed samples and ended up on Day 28 with a pH of 8.0. The pH of the 7% and 10% samples were relatively stable throughout the 4-week period with a pH still higher than 12 on Day 28. The biosolids with better mixing had a less offensive odor and weaker odor strength than the controls collected at the plant with poor mixing. The lime stabilization process in the wastewater treatment plant was modified in a full-scale study by prolonging the mixing time. The samples collected from the

  12. 刀库专用测试台的设计%Design of Special Tool Magazine Testing Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张中明; 吴晓苏; 陈加明

    2015-01-01

    In order to conveniently apply the stimulus signals to the tool magazine and dynamically observe the instantaneously response of the device in repair process, three layer network structure was adopted to connect the personal computer, programmer con-troller and touch screen aiming to construct a special testing bench topologically. The device could be used to test tool disk, tool pocket and tool arm respectively and comprehensively. The research shows that the testing bench plays an important role in fault location, per-formance analysis and mechanical adjustment in the process of maintaining tool magazine. The displacement of local mechanical parts accompanying signal sampling, curve formation and mathematical modeling can help repair workers find out hidden deeply fault or pro-vide valuable information about the regulation.%为了在刀库维修过程中方便地对其施加激励信号并动态地观测设备的响应状态, 采用三层网络结构将个人计算机、 可编程控制器、 触摸屏以及现场设备进行拓扑连接, 从而构建一个专用测试台. 该设备能够对刀盘、 刀臂和刀套等单元进行分段或综合测试. 研究表明: 测试台在刀库维修过程中的故障定位、 性能分析以及机构调整方面起到了关键作用.伴随着局部机械零件位移过程中的信号采集、 曲线生成以及数学建模可以帮助维修工作者查找隐匿很深的故障或提供有价值的调试过程信息.

  13. Performance of ICU ventilators during noninvasive ventilation with large leaks in a total face mask: a bench study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida Miyuki Nakamura

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Discomfort and noncompliance with noninvasive ventilation (NIV interfaces are obstacles to NIV success. Total face masks (TFMs are considered to be a very comfortable NIV interface. However, due to their large internal volume and consequent increased CO2 rebreathing, their orifices allow proximal leaks to enhance CO2 elimination. The ventilators used in the ICU might not adequately compensate for such leakage. In this study, we attempted to determine whether ICU ventilators in NIV mode are suitable for use with a leaky TFM. Methods: This was a bench study carried out in a university research laboratory. Eight ICU ventilators equipped with NIV mode and one NIV ventilator were connected to a TFM with major leaks. All were tested at two positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP levels and three pressure support levels. The variables analyzed were ventilation trigger, cycling off, total leak, and pressurization. Results: Of the eight ICU ventilators tested, four did not work (autotriggering or inappropriate turning off due to misdetection of disconnection; three worked with some problems (low PEEP or high cycling delay; and one worked properly. Conclusions: The majority of the ICU ventilators tested were not suitable for NIV with a leaky TFM.

  14. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate.

  15. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  16. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O' Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

    1982-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

  17. Evaluation of the 8310-N-S manufactured by Sutron–Results of bench, temperature, and field deployment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2016-01-07

    The Sutron 8310-N-S (8310) data collection platform (DCP) manufactured by Sutron Corporation was evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s specifications for recording and transmitting data. The 8310-N-S is a National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA)-enclosed DCP with a built-in Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite transmitter that operates over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). The evaluation procedures followed and the results obtained are described in this report for bench, temperature chamber, and outdoor deployment testing. The three units tested met the manufacturer’s stated specifications for the tested conditions, but two of the units had transmission errors either during temperature chamber or deployment testing. During outdoor deployment testing, 6.72 percent of transmissions by serial number 1206109 contained errors, resulting in missing data. Transmission errors were also observed during temperature chamber testing with serial number 1208283, at an error rate of 3.22 percent. Overall, the 8310 has good logging capabilities, but the transmission errors are a concern for users who require reliable telemetered data.

  18. Cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics: Analysis of the measurements at the Diamond Light Source and impedance bench measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voutta, R.; Gerstl, S.; Casalbuoni, S.; Grau, A. W.; Holubek, T.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Bartolini, R.; Cox, M. P.; Longhi, E. C.; Rehm, G.; Schouten, J. C.; Walker, R. P.; Migliorati, M.; Spataro, B.

    2016-05-01

    The beam heat load is an important input parameter needed for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices. Theoretical models taking into account the different heating mechanisms of an electron beam to a cold bore predict smaller values than the ones measured with several superconducting insertion devices installed in different electron storage rings. In order to measure and possibly understand the beam heat load to a cold bore, a cold vacuum chamber for diagnostics (COLDDIAG) has been built. COLDDIAG is equipped with temperature sensors, pressure gauges, mass spectrometers as well as retarding field analyzers which allow to measure the beam heat load, total pressure, and gas content as well as the flux of particles hitting the chamber walls. COLDDIAG was installed in a straight section of the Diamond Light Source (DLS). In a previous paper the experimental equipment as well as the installation of COLDDIAG in the DLS are described [S. Gerstl et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 17, 103201 (2014)]. In this paper we present an overview of all the measurements performed with COLDDIAG at the DLS and their detailed analysis, as well as impedance bench measurements of the cold beam vacuum chamber performed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology after removal from the DLS. Relevant conclusions for the cryogenic design of superconducting insertion devices are drawn from the obtained results.

  19. Sizing of rock fragmentation modeling due to bench blasting using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system and radial basis function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Karami Alireza; Afiuni-Zadeh Somaieh

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important characters of blasting,a basic step of surface mining,is rock fragmentation.It directly effects on the costs of drilling and economics of the subsequent operations of loading,hauling and crushing in mines.Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and radial basis function (RBF)show potentials for modeling the behavior of complex nonlinear processes such as those involved in fragmentation due to blasting of rocks.In this paper we developed ANFIS and RBF methods for modeling of sizing of rock fragmentation due to bench blasting by estimation of 80% passing size (K80) of Golgohar iron ore mine of Sir jan,Iran.Comparing the results of ANFIS and RBF models shows that although the statistical parameters RBF model is acceptable but the ANFIS proposed model is superior and also simpler because the ANFIS model is constructed using only two input parameters while seven input parameters used for construction of the RBF model.

  20. DockBench as docking selector tool: the lesson learned from D3R Grand Challenge 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmaso, Veronica; Sturlese, Mattia; Cuzzolin, Alberto; Moro, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    Structure-based drug design (SBDD) has matured within the last two decades as a valuable tool for the optimization of low molecular weight lead compounds to highly potent drugs. The key step in SBDD requires knowledge of the three-dimensional structure of the target-ligand complex, which is usually determined by X-ray crystallography. In the absence of structural information for the complex, SBDD relies on the generation of plausible molecular docking models. However, molecular docking protocols suffer from inaccuracies in the description of the interaction energies between the ligand and the target molecule, and often fail in the prediction of the correct binding mode. In this context, the appropriate selection of the most accurate docking protocol is absolutely relevant for the final molecular docking result, even if addressing this point is absolutely not a trivial task. D3R Grand Challenge 2015 has represented a precious opportunity to test the performance of DockBench, an integrate informatics platform to automatically compare RMDS-based molecular docking performances of different docking/scoring methods. The overall performance resulted in the blind prediction are encouraging in particular for the pose prediction task, in which several complex were predicted with a sufficient accuracy for medicinal chemistry purposes.

  1. Clearing up the hazy road from bench to bedside: A framework for integrating the fourth hurdle into translational medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Jürgen H

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New products evolving from research and development can only be translated to medical practice on a large scale if they are reimbursed by third-party payers. Yet the decision processes regarding reimbursement are highly complex and internationally heterogeneous. This study develops a process-oriented framework for monitoring these so-called fourth hurdle procedures in the context of product development from bench to bedside. The framework is suitable both for new drugs and other medical technologies. Methods The study is based on expert interviews and literature searches, as well as an analysis of 47 websites of coverage decision-makers in England, Germany and the USA. Results Eight key steps for monitoring fourth hurdle procedures from a company perspective were determined: entering the scope of a healthcare payer; trigger of decision process; assessment; appraisal; setting level of reimbursement; establishing rules for service provision; formal and informal participation; and publication of the decision and supplementary information. Details are given for the English National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence, the German Federal Joint Committee, Medicare's National and Local Coverage Determinations, and for Blue Cross Blue Shield companies. Conclusion Coverage determination decisions for new procedures tend to be less formalized than for novel drugs. The analysis of coverage procedures and requirements shows that the proof of patient benefit is essential. Cost-effectiveness is likely to gain importance in future.

  2. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified.

  3. Design studies for a tracking upgrade of the Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA and installation of tracking test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winnebeck, Alexander

    2009-12-17

    Ever since mankind was interested in the understanding of the universe and especially the matter in it. The fundamental building blocks of matter seem to be quarks and gluons, whose interactions are investigated in hadron physics. To study this strong interaction different experimental approaches can be used. One way is to do spectroscopy similar to atomic physics. The Crystal Barrel experiment at ELSA performs spectroscopy of nucleons to learn more about the strong interaction. A major improvement of this experimental setup will be the introducing of charged particle tracking as it is shown in this thesis. Different detector concepts are discussed concerning feasibility, material budget and especially momentum resolution. It turns out that a Time Projection Chamber (TPC) is the optimal solution. Then it is shown how a prototype TPC is tested using a newly installed tracking test bench with an electron beam, and obtained results are presented. The design of the final TPC and its integration into the Crystal Barrel experiment are discussed as well as methods to calibrate the detector. (orig.)

  4. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Second quarterly technical progress report, January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-16

    This document contains the second quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTE{trademark} Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). The project schedule timeline by task series for the twelve month project, as it was laid out in the initial Project Work Plan. At the present time, all tasks are progressing according to schedule with the exception of the Task 800 Circuit Testing and Sample Prep and Task 1000 Circuit Decommissioning, which have slipped approximately five weeks due to delays incurred within in the project.

  5. Setup of a bench for short time laser flash diffusivity measurement; Mise en place d`un banc de mesure de diffusivite flash laser aux temps courts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remy, B.; Maillet, D.; Degiovanni, A. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)

    1996-12-31

    In the domain of thermal engineering, new materials have been developed which are characterized by a high thermal diffusivity (5 to 10 times greater than the best usual conductors: gold, copper, silicon..) but also by a small thickness (from few hundreds of microns to few microns). Their time of response is very short (some few milliseconds to some few microseconds) and they are mainly used as heat dissipating materials. The classical thermal diffusivity measurement techniques are unable to analyze the thermal properties of these materials. Therefore, a bench for fast thermal diffusivity measurements has been developed that uses a laser system for the excitation and for the measurement of temperature (infrared detector). In this study, the measurement bench is described and the metrological problems encountered are discussed. (J.S.) 10 refs.

  6. Close-coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies. Final report, [October 1, 1988--July 31, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.; Popper, G.A.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-06-01

    This is the final report of a four year and ten month contract starting on October 1, 1988 to July 31, 1993 with the US Department of Energy to study and improve Close-Coupled Catalytic Two-Stage Direct Liquefaction of coal by producing high yields of distillate with improved quality at lower capital and production costs in comparison to existing technologies. Laboratory, Bench and PDU scale studies on sub-bituminous and bituminous coals are summarized and referenced in this volume. Details are presented in the three topical reports of this contract; CTSL Process Bench Studies and PDU Scale-Up with Sub-Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-1, CTSL Process Bench Studies with Bituminous Coal-DE-88818-TOP-2, and CTSL Process Laboratory Scale Studies, Modelling and Technical Assessment-DE-88818-TOP-3. Results are summarized on experiments and studies covering several process configurations, cleaned coals, solid separation methods, additives and catalysts both dispersed and supported. Laboratory microautoclave scale experiments, economic analysis and modelling studies are also included along with the PDU-Scale-Up of the CTSL processing of sub-bituminous Black Thunder Mine Wyoming coal. During this DOE/HRI effort, high distillate yields were maintained at higher throughput rates while quality was markedly improved using on-line hydrotreating and cleaned coals. Solid separations options of filtration and delayed coking were evaluated on a Bench-Scale with filtration successfully scaled to a PDU demonstration. Directions for future direct coal liquefaction related work are outlined herein based on the results from this and previous programs.

  7. Development of an Integrated Test Bench for Automotive Occupant Restraint System%汽车乘员约束系统综合试验台的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白中浩; 徐正; 颜强; 张前斌

    2013-01-01

    Based on regulations both at home and abroad for the strength test of automotive seats and safety belt anchorage, an integrated test bench for occupant restraint system is developed, with which the tests of seat stiffness , safety belt anchorage strength and the performance of head-rest can be conducted. A FE model of the master frame of test bench is built and its strength is analyzed with software ANSYS. The control system of test bench is developed by using virtual instrument technology, and the strength test of seats assembly and safety belt anchorage are performed on the test bench. The results demonstrate that the test bed developed can meet the requirements of relevant test regulations and can be used for the research and development of automotive occupant restraint system.%基于国内外汽车座椅和安全带固定点强度试验法规,开发了可同时进行座椅刚度、安全带固定点强度测试和头枕性能等测试的乘员约束系统综合试验台.采用ANSYS软件建立了试验台主台架的有限元模型对主台架进行强度分析;应用虚拟仪器技术开发了该试验台的控制系统,并利用该试验台进行了座椅总成静强度试验和安全带固定点强度试验.结果表明,该试验台能满足相关试验法规的要求,可用于对乘员约束系统的研究和开发.

  8. Study and designing of the ''caliprax'' measurement bench; Etude et realisation du banc ''caliprax''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barriere, J.Ch

    2001-09-01

    Probing the matter in order to check its elementary constituents, that is the goal of the particle physic. In this field, the experiments consist in colliding highly energetic particle beams and observing the new born particles. These observations are based on big particle detectors whose running is dependant on the precise knowledge of their geometry (position of the detection chambers). To achieve this, the detectors are equipped with alignment sensors, which have to be calibrated before. This document describes the study and the making of a calibration bench for the 'Praxial' (PRoximity AXIAL) type sensors, and other works related to these sensors. In a first part, we determine and apply a method to set the tools used to fix the sensor stands on the detection chambers. These settings are made with the use of a tridimensional measuring machine. Then, we study the stands themselves. These investigations concern mechanics: positioning quality of the sensors in their stands, bending of the supports due to the tightening. In this part too, the studies are in the field of dimensional metrology. After this, the works are reoriented toward the bench, with the choice of the displacement sensors among two different technologies: optical, with the Rasnik system, and mechanical, with linear probes as LVDT (Linear Variable Differential Transformer). Following the discovery of an ambiguity on the Rasnik system, we go on the tests to understand its behaviour. We introduce the theory of the alignment sensors calibration, which is based on a minimization calculation. The computer programs are explained in a chapter, and in an other, the implementation of the quality assurance procedures. An other part describes the mechanical studies and the problems they cause. Because of a delay onset of the project, we make a model of the bench. This dummy allows us to test every single function of the final bench. With this device, we record manually the first calibration data and

  9. AMT执行机构多轴道路模拟试验台设计%Design of Multi- axial Road Simulation Test Bench for AMT Actuator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹤; 石晓辉; 邹喜红

    2012-01-01

    A type of multi - axial road simulation test bench based on RPC( Remote Parameter Control) for AMT actuator is proposed, the fixture design of the test bench as well as its kinematics is mainly analyzed. A set of fixtures are designed according to the actual assembly on the car, and the test bench simulation model of both kinematics and dynamics is established in ADAMS, the problem of interference is solved and the range of motion is optimized through simulation and analysis. Road load spectrum of AMT actuator can be reproduced on the multi - axial test bench so that the fatigue reliability of AMT actuator can be appraised and assessed in the laboratory.%提出了一种基于远程参数控制(RPC)的电控机械式自动变速器(AMT)执行机构多轴道路模拟试验台,重点对试验台装夹部分和运动学进行了设计和分析.结合AMT在实车上的安装情况,设计了一套夹具装置,并在动力学仿真软件ADAMS中建立了试验台运动学和动力学仿真模型,通过仿真分析,解决了运动干涉问题,优化了试验台运动范围.结合RPC技术,可以在所设计的多轴试验台上复现AMT执行机构的实际行驶道路载荷谱,从而在室内对AMT执行机构疲劳可靠性进行评价和考核.

  10. 客车制动能量回收试验装置的研究%Research on Bus Braking Energy Recovery Test Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 马腾腾; 陈峰磊; 杨云东

    2015-01-01

    The authors design a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL)braking energy recovery test bench which takes the bus real driving axle as the basis, uses the flywheels to simulate the vehicle inertia, and uses the drive system to sim-ulate the real vehicle. The test bench is designed with modular structure, the CAN bus is used to connect each grade of the controls, and the regenerative braking control strategy and composite braking force distribution strategy are designed based on the maximum energy recovery, so the test bench can realize a variety of the simulation of many braking conditions.%本文设计的半实物制动能量回收试验台,以客车真实驱动后桥为基础,以飞轮组模拟整车惯量,驱动系统模拟实车。采用模块化结构设计,各级之间采用CAN总线连接,设计了基于最大能量回收的再生制动控制策略及复合制动力的分配策略,可实现多种制动工况的模拟。

  11. Evaluation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection using a handheld and a bench-top Raman spectrometer: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jinkai; Pang, Shintaro; Labuza, Theodore P; He, Lili

    2014-11-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection using a handheld Raman spectrometer and a bench-top Raman spectrometer was systemically evaluated and compared in this study. Silver dendrites were used as the SERS substrate, and two pesticides, maneb and pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate-ammonium salt (PDCA) were used as the analytes. Capacity and performance were evaluated based on spectral resolution, signal variation, quantitative capacity, sensitivity, flexibility and intelligence for SERS detection. The results showed that the handheld Raman spectrometer had better data consistency, more accurate quantification capacity, as well as the capacity of on-site and intelligence for qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis. On the other hand, the bench-top Raman spectrometer showed about 10 times higher sensitivity, as well as flexibility for optimization of the SERS measurements under different parameters such as laser power output, collective time, and objective magnification. The study on the optimization of SERS measurements on a bench-top spectrometer provides a useful guide for designing a handheld Raman spectrometer, specifically for SERS detection. This evaluation can advance the application of a handheld Raman spectrometer for the on-site measurement of trace amounts of pesticides or other chemicals.

  12. 装甲车辆热管理试验台的建模与试验%Modeling and Test of Thermal Management Test Bench of Armored Vehicles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为研究装甲车辆的热管理系统,搭建了具有高、低温双循环的装甲车辆热管理试验台,在 Matlab 中建立了热管理试验台各部件的流动和传热模型,并针对模型的稳态特性和动态特性分别进行了仿真计算和试验验证。结果表明:所建立的流动和传热模型能够准确反映试验台特性,为进一步利用热管理试验台进行热管理技术研究奠定了基础。%To study the thermal management system of armored vehicles,a thermal management test bench with high and low dual cycle is fabricated.The models of flow and heat transfer are built in Mat-lab.A series of laboratory tests and simulation are conducted aiming at the steady state characteristics and dynamic characteristics of the thermal test bench.The results show that the mathematical models are ac-curate and reliable,and could reflect real features of the test bench which provide a basis for further re-search.

  13. Thermical Load Calculation and Capacity of Cooling and Venting Equipment of a Diesel Engine Emissions Study Bench; Calculo de Cargas Termicas y Capacidad de los Equipos de Refrigeracion y Ventilacion de un Banco de Estudio de Emisiones de Motores Diesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Garcia, E.; Fonseca Gonzalez, N. A.

    2005-07-01

    The present report tries to develop the calculation of thermical loads and to define the capacity of the equipments of cooling and ventilation that should have the engines test bench that is being ensemble in the installation of the CIEMAT named {sup D}iesel engine emissions study bench (E65-P0). The test bench is formed essentially by a dynamometrical brake and an engine connected at previous one, both of them inside a cabin of isolation acoustic. The thermical loads to be dissipated will be calculated for all the elements that compose the bench and considering his maximum values, to determine the suitable system of cooling air - water of the devices and ventilation in the cabin. (Author) 2 refs.

  14. Organic bench model to complement the teaching and learning on basic surgical skills Modelo de bancada orgânico para complementar o ensino-aprendizagem de habilidades cirúrgicas básicas

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Denadai; Luís Ricardo Martinhão Souto

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: To propose an organic bench model made with fruits/vegetables as an alternative to complement the arsenal of simulators used in the teaching and learning of basic surgical skills during medical graduation and education. METHODS: They were described the training strategies, through the use of fruits (or vegetables) to the learning of different techniques of incision, sutures, biopsies and basic principles of reconstruction. The preparation of bench model, the processes of skill acquis...

  15. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi

    2017-02-01

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe3O4@ZrO2) were created by a facile method and a bench-scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe3O4@ZrO2 was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH-lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption-desorption-regeneration studies showed that Fe3O4@ZrO2 could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe3O4@ZrO2 shifted the isoelectric point of Fe3O4@ZrO2 from 9.0 to 3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO2(OH) complex was proposed.

  16. An assessment of alternatives for replacing Freon 113 in bench type electrical circuit board cleaning at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isakson, K.; Vessell, A.L.

    1994-07-01

    Fermilab is presently phasing out all solvents containing Freon-113 (CFC-113) as part of the continuing Waste Minimization Program. These solvents are used primarily in cleaning the flux off of electronic circuit boards after soldering, specifically in bench type work. Title VI of the Clean Air Act mandates a production phase-out for ozone depleting substances, like CFC-113, by the year 2000. Our study addresses this issue by evaluating and choosing alternative non-CFC solvents to replace the CFC-1 13 solvents at Fermilab. Several potential non-CFC cleaning solvents were tested. The evaluation took place in three parts: controlled experimental evaluation, chemical composition evaluation, and employee performed evaluation. First, we performed a controlled nine-step procedure with the potential solvents where each was evaluated in categories such as cleaning effectiveness, odor, residue, type of output and drying time. Next, we listed the chemical composition of each solvent. We noted which solvents contained hydrochlorofluorocarbons because they are targeted for phase-out in the future and will be recognized as interim solutions only. Finally, after preliminary testing, five solvents were chosen as the best options. These solvents were sent to be tested by Fermilab employees who use such materials. Their opinions are valuable not only because they are knowledgeable in this field, but also because they will be using the solvents chosen to replace the CFC-113 solvents. The results favored two ``best alternatives``: Safezone Solvent Flux Remover by Miller-Stephenson and E-Series CFC Free Flux-Off 2000 by Chemtech. Another possible solution also pursued is the no-clean solder option. In our study, we were not able to thoroughly investigate the many types of no-clean solders because of time and financial constraints. The testing that was done, however, showed that no-clean solder was a viable alternative in many cases.

  17. Towards clinical molecular diagnosis of inherited cardiac conditions: a comparison of bench-top genome DNA sequencers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzhong Li

    Full Text Available Molecular genetic testing is recommended for diagnosis of inherited cardiac disease, to guide prognosis and treatment, but access is often limited by cost and availability. Recently introduced high-throughput bench-top DNA sequencing platforms have the potential to overcome these limitations.We evaluated two next-generation sequencing (NGS platforms for molecular diagnostics. The protein-coding regions of six genes associated with inherited arrhythmia syndromes were amplified from 15 human samples using parallelised multiplex PCR (Access Array, Fluidigm, and sequenced on the MiSeq (Illumina and Ion Torrent PGM (Life Technologies. Overall, 97.9% of the target was sequenced adequately for variant calling on the MiSeq, and 96.8% on the Ion Torrent PGM. Regions missed tended to be of high GC-content, and most were problematic for both platforms. Variant calling was assessed using 107 variants detected using Sanger sequencing: within adequately sequenced regions, variant calling on both platforms was highly accurate (Sensitivity: MiSeq 100%, PGM 99.1%. Positive predictive value: MiSeq 95.9%, PGM 95.5%. At the time of the study the Ion Torrent PGM had a lower capital cost and individual runs were cheaper and faster. The MiSeq had a higher capacity (requiring fewer runs, with reduced hands-on time and simpler laboratory workflows. Both provide significant cost and time savings over conventional methods, even allowing for adjunct Sanger sequencing to validate findings and sequence exons missed by NGS.MiSeq and Ion Torrent PGM both provide accurate variant detection as part of a PCR-based molecular diagnostic workflow, and provide alternative platforms for molecular diagnosis of inherited cardiac conditions. Though there were performance differences at this throughput, platforms differed primarily in terms of cost, scalability, protocol stability and ease of use. Compared with current molecular genetic diagnostic tests for inherited cardiac arrhythmias

  18. Electromyographic amplitude ratio of serratus anterior and upper trapezius muscles during modified push-ups and bench press exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Jaqueline; Tucci, Helga T; Andrade, Rodrigo; Araújo, Rodrigo C; Bevilaqua-Grossi, Débora; Oliveira, Anamaria S

    2008-03-01

    Imbalance and weakness of the serratus anterior and upper trapezius force couple have been described in patients with shoulder dysfunction. There is interest in identifying exercises that selectively activate these muscles and including it in rehabilitation protocols. This study aims to verify the UT/SA electromyographic (EMG) amplitude ratio, performed in different upper limb exercises and on two bases of support. Twelve healthy men were tested (average age = 22.8 +/- 3.1 years), and surface EMG was recorded from the upper trapezius and serratus anterior using single differential surface electrodes. Volunteers performed isometric contractions over a stable base of support and on a Swiss ball during the wall push-up (WP), bench press (BP), and push-up (PU) exercises. All SEMG data are reported as a percentage of root mean square or integral of linear envelope from the maximal value obtained in one of three maximal voluntary contractions for each muscle studied. A linear mixed-effect model was performed to compare UT/SA ratio values. The WP, BP, and PU exercises showed UT/SA ratio mean +/- SD values of 0.69 +/- 0.72, 0.14 +/- 0.12, and 0.39 +/- 0.37 for stable surfaces, respectively, whereas for unstable surfaces, the values were 0.73 +/- 0.67, 0.43 +/- 0.39, and 0.32 +/- 0.30. The results demonstrate that UT/SA ratio was influenced by the exercises and by the upper limb base of support. The practical application is to show that BP on a stable surface is the exercise preferred over WP and PU on either surfaces for serratus anterior muscle training in patients with imbalance between the UT/SA force couple or serratus anterior weakness.

  19. Bench-scale gasification of cedar wood--part II: effect of operational conditions on contaminant release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljbour, Salah H; Kawamoto, Katsuya

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present the evolution profile of tar in the product gas during cedar biomass gasification. We also discuss the evolution of other contaminants (H(2)S, COS, NH(3), HCN, and HCl). The cedar wood was gasified under various operating conditions in a bench-scale externally heated updraft gasifier; this was followed by thermal reforming. Tar levels in the product gas were significantly affected by the operating conditions used. At a gasification temperature of 923 K, there was no clear relation between the evolution of phenolic tar in the product gas as a function of residence time. The evolution of PAH tar at a low gasification temperature was lower than the evolution of phenolic tar. With increasing temperature, the proportion of PAH tar content became significant. At a gasification temperature of 1223 K, increasing the residence time reduced the content of PAH tar owing to a catalytic effect associated with ash generation at high temperatures. Increasing the steam-to-carbon (S/C) ratio under thermal conditions had a slight effect on PAH conversion. However, increasing the equivalence ratio (ER) effectively reduced the tar levels. The conversion of fuel-sulfur and fuel-nitrogen to volatile-sulfur and volatile-nitrogen, respectively, increased with increasing S/C ratio and ER. The evolutions of COS and HCN gases were much smaller than the evolution of H(2)S and NH(3). The evolution of HCl in the product gas decreased slightly with increasing ER. Increasing the S/C ratio decreased the HCl levels in the product gas. The effect of temperature on contaminant levels could not be fully understood due to limited availability of experimental data at various temperatures. We also compare our findings with data in the literature.

  20. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Bench-Scale Monolith Autothermal Reformer Catalyst Screening Evaluations in a Micro-Reactor With Jet-A Fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsik, Thomas M.; Yen, Judy C.H.; Budge, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cell systems used in the aerospace or commercial aviation environment require a compact, light-weight and highly durable catalytic fuel processor. The fuel processing method considered here is an autothermal reforming (ATR) step. The ATR converts Jet-A fuel by a reaction with steam and air forming hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) to be used for production of electrical power in the fuel cell. This paper addresses the first phase of an experimental catalyst screening study, looking at the relative effectiveness of several monolith catalyst types when operating with untreated Jet-A fuel. Six monolith catalyst materials were selected for preliminary evaluation and experimental bench-scale screening in a small 0.05 kWe micro-reactor test apparatus. These tests were conducted to assess relative catalyst performance under atmospheric pressure ATR conditions and processing Jet-A fuel at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 3.5, a value higher than anticipated to be run in an optimized system. The average reformer efficiencies for the six catalysts tested ranged from 75 to 83 percent at a constant gas-hourly space velocity of 12,000 hr 1. The corresponding hydrocarbon conversion efficiency varied from 86 to 95 percent during experiments run at reaction temperatures between 750 to 830 C. Based on the results of the short-duration 100 hr tests reported herein, two of the highest performing catalysts were selected for further evaluation in a follow-on 1000 hr life durability study in Phase II.

  2. Comparison and evaluation of seven different bench-top flow cytometers with a modified six-plexed mycotoxin kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeh, Arpad; Schwartz, Abe; Mandy, Frank; Szoke, Zsuzsanna; Koszegi, Balazs; Feher-Toth, Szilvia; Nagyeri, Gyorgy; Jakso, Pal; Katona, Robert L; Kemeny, Agnes; Woth, Gabor; Lustyik, Gyorgy

    2013-12-01

    Many bench-top flow cytometers (b-FCs) are compatible with microsphere-based multiplexed assays. Disciplines implementing b-FCs-based assays are expanding; they include monitoring and validating food quality. A multiplexed platform protocol was evaluated for poly-mycotoxin assays, which is compatible with a variety of b-FC models. The seven instruments included: BD FACSCalibur(™) , BD FACSArray(™) Bioanalyzer, Accuri C6, Partec CyFlow(®) Space, Beckman Coulter FC 500, Guava EasyCyte Mini, and Luminex 100 (™) . Current reports related to the food industry describe fungal co-infections leading to poly-mycotoxin contamination in grain (Sulyok M, Berthiller F, Krska R, Schuhmacher R, Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2006;20:2649-2659). It is imperative to determine whether b-FC-based assays can replace traditional single-mycotoxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A six-plexed poly-mycotoxin kit was tested on seven different b-FCs. The modified kit was initially developed for the BD FACSArray(™) Bioanalyzer (BD Biosciences) (Czeh A, Mandy F, Feher-Toth S, Torok L, Mike Z, Koszegi B, Lustyik G, J Immunol Methods 2012;384:71-80). With the multiplexed platform, it is possible to identify up to six mycotoxin contaminants simultaneously at regional grain collection/transfer/inspection facilities. In the future, elimination of contaminated food threat may be better achieved with the inclusion of b-FCs in the food protection arsenal. A universal protocol, matched with postacquisition software, offers an effective alternative platform compared to using a series of ELISA kits. To support side-by-side evaluation of seven flow cytometers, an instrument-independent fluorescence emission calibration was added to the protocol. All instrument performances were evaluated for strength of agreement based on paired sets of evaluation to predicate method. The results suggest that all b-FCs were acceptable of performing with the multiplexed kit for five of six mycotoxins. For

  3. Bench experiments comparing simulated inspiratory effort when breathing helium-oxygen mixtures to that during positive pressure support with air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew R

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inhalation of helium-oxygen (He/O2 mixtures has been explored as a means to lower the work of breathing of patients with obstructive lung disease. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV with positive pressure support is also used for this purpose. The bench experiments presented herein were conducted in order to compare simulated patient inspiratory effort breathing He/O2 with that breathing medical air, with or without pressure support, across a range of adult, obstructive disease patterns. Methods Patient breathing was simulated using a dual-chamber mechanical test lung, with the breathing compartment connected to an ICU ventilator operated in NIV mode with medical air or He/O2 (78/22 or 65/35%. Parabolic or linear resistances were inserted at the inlet to the breathing chamber. Breathing chamber compliance was also varied. The inspiratory effort was assessed for the different gas mixtures, for three breathing patterns, with zero pressure support (simulating unassisted spontaneous breathing, and with varying levels of pressure support. Results Inspiratory effort increased with increasing resistance and decreasing compliance. At a fixed resistance and compliance, inspiratory effort increased with increasing minute ventilation, and decreased with increasing pressure support. For parabolic resistors, inspiratory effort was lower for He/O2 mixtures than for air, whereas little difference was measured for nominally linear resistance. Relatively small differences in inspiratory effort were measured between the two He/O2 mixtures. Used in combination, reductions in inspiratory effort provided by He/O2 and pressure support were additive. Conclusions The reduction in inspiratory effort afforded by breathing He/O2 is strongly dependent on the severity and type of airway obstruction. Varying helium concentration between 78% and 65% has small impact on inspiratory effort, while combining He/O2 with pressure support provides an additive

  4. Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process bench studies and PDU scale-up with sub-bituminous coal. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Comolli, A.G.; Johanson, E.S.; Karolkiewicz, W.F.; Lee, L.K.T.; Stalzer, R.H.; Smith, T.O.

    1993-03-01

    Reported are the details and results of Laboratory and Bench-Scale experiments using sub-bituminous coal conducted at Hydrocarbon Research, Inc., under DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88818 during the period October 1, 1988 to December 31, 1992. The work described is primarily concerned with testing of the baseline Catalytic Two-Stage Liquefaction (CTSL{trademark}) process with comparisons with other two stage process configurations, catalyst evaluations and unit operations such as solid separation, pretreatments, on-line hydrotreating, and an examination of new concepts. In the overall program, three coals were evaluated, bituminous Illinois No. 6, Burning Star and sub-bituminous Wyoming Black Thunder and New Mexico McKinley Mine seams. The results from a total of 16 bench-scale runs are reported and analyzed in detail. The runs (experiments) concern process variables, variable reactor volumes, catalysts (both supported, dispersed and rejuvenated), coal cleaned by agglomeration, hot slurry treatments, reactor sequence, on-line hydrotreating, dispersed catalyst with pretreatment reactors and CO{sub 2}/coal effects. The tests involving the Wyoming and New Mexico Coals are reported herein, and the tests involving the Illinois coal are described in Topical Report No. 2. On a laboratory scale, microautoclave tests evaluating coal, start-up oils, catalysts, thermal treatment, CO{sub 2} addition and sulfur compound effects were conducted and reported in Topical Report No. 3. Other microautoclave tests are described in the Bench Run sections to which they refer such as: rejuvenated catalyst, coker liquids and cleaned coals. The microautoclave tests conducted for modelling the CTSL{trademark} process are described in the CTSL{trademark} Modelling section of Topical Report No. 3 under this contract.

  5. Design of CRDM noise waveform recording test bench based on LabVIEW%基于LabVIEW的CRDM噪声录波试验台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王斌; 高夫领; 张立蕊

    2015-01-01

    控制棒驱动机构(CRDM)是控制棒的驱动装置,它是核反应堆压力容器内惟一的可动部件,也是关键部件之一。为了提高大亚湾核电站在大修期间CRDM噪声录波试验的效率、简化试验的过程,通过对CRDM噪声录波试验进行分析研究,合理设计CRDM噪声录波试验台结构,并采用LabVIEW软件编程实现信息采集、数据记录、分析等多种功能,设计一种新的CRDM噪声录波试验台。该试验台解决了试验数据分析困难等问题,简便易行,对大亚湾核电站大修期间的CRDM试验具有重要意义。%Control rod drive mechanism (CRDM) is the driving device of control rod. It is the moveable part only and also one of the key components in nuclear reactor pressure vessel. To improve the efficiency of CRDM noise waveform recording test and simplify the test process during overhaul of Daya Bay nuclear power plant,the structure of CRDM noise waveform recording test bench was designed by analyzing the CRDM noise waveform recording test. Functions of information acquisition,data record and analysis were realized by using LabVIEW software. Then a new CRDM noise waveform recording test bench was designed, which solves the problems that is hard to analyze the test data. This test bench is meaningful for CRDM test of Daya Bay nuclear power plant.

  6. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  7. Evaluation of the Storm 3 data logger manufactured by WaterLOG/Xylem Incorporated—Results of bench, temperature, and field deployment testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkle, Gerald A.

    2016-05-04

    The Storm 3 is a browser-based data logger manufactured by WaterLOG/Xylem Incorporated that operates over a temperature range of −40 to 60 degrees Celsius (°C). A Storm logger with no built-in telemetry (Storm3-00) and a logger with built-in cellular modem (Storm3-03) were evaluated by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Hydrologic Instrumentation Facility (HIF) for conformance to the manufacturer’s specifications with bench tests, for recording data over the device’s operating temperature range with temperature chamber tests, and for field performance with an outdoor deployment test.

  8. Test of the electric vehicles at the roller bench; Prove al banco a rulli del veicolo elettrico porter Piaggio/Microvett

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervati, L.; Cipolletta, L.; De Andreis, L.; Indiano, E. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, RM (Italy). Dipt. Energia

    1999-07-01

    Starting from the existing international regulations on the test of the electric vehicles a series of specific test to carry out at the roller bench of ENEA (National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) has been defined. The paper presents the numeric result applying such procedures to the test on an electric vehicles, whose main performances are described. [Italian] Partendo dalle normative internazionali esistenti sulla prova dei veicoli elettrici sono state definite una serie di prove specifiche da effettuare presso il banco a rulli dell'ENEA. Il presente lavoro riporta i risultati ottenuti applicando le procedure ad un veicolo elettrico. Le principali prestazioni sono messe in evidenza.

  9. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report presents results from the solvent selection, fermentation, and product recovery studies performed thus far in the development of a bench scale unit for the production of ethanol from coal-derived synthesis gas. Several additional solvents have been compared for their ability to extract ethanol from aqueous solutions of ethanol in water and fermentation permeate. The solvent 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanol still appears to be the solvent of choice. Liquid-liquid equilibrium data have been collected for ethanol and 2,6-dimethyl-4-heptanol.

  10. Axial measuring system of passenger car cardan shaft for test bench and road experiments. Axialkraft-Messsystem fuer PKW-Gelenkwellen im Pruefstands- und Fahrversuch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermann, J.W. (Inst. fuer Kraftfahrwesen, Aachen (Germany)); Ganzmann, R. (Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen mbH, Aachen (Germany))

    1991-01-01

    The stimulation of vibrations by periodically alternating forces of homocinetic slip joints, particularly in cars with front-wheel drives, can lead to a loss in comfort. For the evaluation and further development of shafts, the detection of these alternating forces by measuring procedures on the test bench and in road experiments is required. For this purpose, the Forschungsgesellschaft Kraftfahrwesen Aachen (research society for motor vehicles in Aachen), fka, has developed a measuring system which facilitates an on-line indication of the periodical axial forces of displaceable joints in dynamic operation mode. (orig./HW)

  11. Cultivation of Chlorella sp. using raw dairy wastewater for nutrient removal and biodiesel production: Characteristics comparison of indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Wang, Xuewei; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    The biomass productivity and nutrient removal capacity of simultaneous Chlorella sp. cultivation for biodiesel production and nutrient removal in raw dairy wastewater (RDW) in indoor bench-scale and outdoor pilot-scale photobioreactors were compared. Results from the current work show that maximum biomass productivity in indoor bench-scale cultures can reach 260 mg L(-1) day(-1), compared to that of 110 mg L(-1) day(-1) in outdoor pilot-scale cultures. Maximum chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorous (TP) removal rate obtained in indoor conditions was 88.38, 38.34, and 2.03 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, this compared to 41.31, 6.58, and 2.74 mg L(-1) day(-1), respectively, for outdoor conditions. Finally, dominant fatty acids determined to be C16/C18 in outdoor pilot-scale cultures indicated great potential for scale up of Chlorella sp. cultivation in RDW for high quality biodiesel production coupling with RDW treatment.

  12. DockBench: An Integrated Informatic Platform Bridging the Gap between the Robust Validation of Docking Protocols and Virtual Screening Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Cuzzolin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Virtual screening (VS is a computational methodology that streamlines the drug discovery process by reducing costs and required resources through the in silico identification of potential drug candidates. Structure-based VS (SBVS exploits knowledge about the three-dimensional (3D structure of protein targets and uses the docking methodology as search engine for novel hits. The success of a SBVS campaign strongly depends upon the accuracy of the docking protocol used to select the candidates from large chemical libraries. The identification of suitable protocols is therefore a crucial step in the setup of SBVS experiments. Carrying out extensive benchmark studies, however, is usually a tangled task that requires users’ proficiency in handling different file formats and philosophies at the basis of the plethora of existing software packages. We present here DockBench 1.0, a platform available free of charge that eases the pipeline by automating the entire procedure, from docking benchmark to VS setups. In its current implementation, DockBench 1.0 handles seven docking software packages and offers the possibility to test up to seventeen different protocols. The main features of our platform are presented here and the results of the benchmark study of human Checkpoint kinase 1 (hChk1 are discussed as validation test.

  13. The hydrologic bench-mark program; a standard to evaluate time-series trends in selected water-quality constituents for streams in Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buell, G.R.; Grams, S.C.

    1985-01-01

    Significant temporal trends in monthly pH, specific conductance, total alkalinity, hardness, total nitrite-plus-nitrite nitrogen, and total phosphorus measurements at five stream sites in Georgia were identified using a rank correlation technique, the seasonal Kendall test and slope estimator. These sites include a U.S. Geological Survey Hydrologic Bench-Mark site, Falling Creek near Juliette, and four periodic water-quality monitoring sites. Comparison of raw data trends with streamflow-residual trends and, where applicable, with chemical-discharge trends (instantaneous fluxes) shws that some of these trends are responses to factors other than changing streamflow. Percentages of forested, agricultural, and urban cover with each basin did not change much during the periods of water-quality record, and therefore these non-flow-related trends are not obviously related to changes in land cover or land use. Flow-residual water-quality trends at the Hydrologic Bench-Mark site and at the Chattooga River site probably indicate basin reponses to changes in the chemical quality of atmospheric deposition. These two basins are predominantly forested and have received little recent human use. Observed trends at the other three sites probably indicate basin responses to various land uses and water uses associated with agricultural and urban land or to changes in specific uses. (USGS)

  14. Release of K, Cl, and S during combustion and co-combustion with wood of high-chlorine biomass in bench and pilot scale fuel beds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Joakim Myung; Aho, Martti; Paakkinen, Kari

    2013-01-01

    Studies of the release of critical ash-forming elements from combustion of biomass are typically conducted with small sample masses under well controlled conditions. In biomass combustion on a grate, secondary recapture and release reactions in the fuel-bed may affect the overall release...... and partitioning of these elements. Earlier work by the authors on the release of K, Cl, and S from a high-chlorine biomass (corn stover) in a lab-scale setup is, in the present work, supplemented with novel results from a bench-scale fixed bed reactor and a 100kW moving grate pilot facility. The results from...... the bench-scale reactor indicate that S and K release are not significantly affected by secondary reactions, while Cl is partly recaptured by secondary reactions in the char. A linear increase in K-release was observed from 50% at 906°C to almost 80wt.% at 1234°C when firing only corn stover. A similar...

  15. 液压泵性能测试实验台设计%Design of Performance Test Bench for Hydraulic Pump

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑明辉; 江吉彬; 郭熛

    2011-01-01

    Hydraulic pump as hydraulic system's power part, is one of important parts of engineering machinery product. The hydraulic pump performance test bench is the necessary device for hydraulic pump product quality examination which is the main safe guard of pump product quality. A hydraulic pump performance test bench was designed. The composition, working principle and char acteristics of the hydraulic system were introduced. Data test and analysis were carried on.%液压泵作为液压系统的动力元件,是工程机械产品的重要部件之一.液压泵性能测试实验台是进行液压泵产品质量检测的必要设备,是泵产品质量监控的主要保障.设计了液压泵性能测试实验台,介绍液压系统组成、工作原理和特点,并进行了数据测试及分析.

  16. Control System for Bench Test of CVCT%连续可变凸轮相位台架试验控制系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建荣; 秦文虎; 李诚

    2011-01-01

    The control system based on Compact RIO platform for bench test of CVCT is developed according to the requirements of bench test. The hardware and software structure of system are introduced, the detailed design of crankshaft speed measurement, phase calculation and control algorithms are presented. Test results show that the parameters of control system has good reliability and can meet the requirements.%针对连续可变凸轮相位(CVCT,continue variable camshaft timing)系统台架试验控制需求,研制了一套基于CompactRIO平台的CVCT台架试验控制系统.介绍了系统的硬件组成和软件结构,重点给出了转速测量、相位计算和控制算法的详细设计.试验结果表明系统各项指标均符合要求,可靠性好.

  17. From the Bench to the Bedside: The Role of Semantic Web and Translational Medicine for Enabling the Next Generation Healthcare Enterprise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Vipul

    The success of new innovations and technologies are very often disruptive in nature. At the same time, they enable novel next generation infrastructures and solutions. These solutions introduce great efficiencies in the form of efficient processes and the ability to create, organize, share and manage knowledge effectively; and the same time provide crucial enablers for proposing and realizing new visions. In this paper, we propose a new vision of the next generation healthcare enterprise and discuss how Translational Medicine, which aims to improve communication between the basic and clinical sciences, is a key requirement for achieving this vision. This will lead therapeutic insights may be derived from new scientific ideas - and vice versa. Translation research goes from bench to bedside, where theories emerging from preclinical experimentation are tested on disease-affected human subjects, and from bedside to bench, where information obtained from preliminary human experimentation can be used to refine our understanding of the biological principles underpinning the heterogeneity of human disease and polymorphism(s). Informatics and semantic technologies in particular, has a big role to play in making this a reality. We identify critical requirements, viz., data integration, clinical decision support and knowledge maintenance and provenance; and illustrate semantics-based solutions wrt example scenarios and use cases.

  18. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM) and its Effects on Continental Biotas: Evidence from Polecat Bench in Northwestern Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, P. D.

    2012-12-01

    Many important environmental events in the geological past were first recognized by their effects on the associated biota, and this is true for the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum or PETM global greenhouse warming event, which happened 55 million years before present. In the Southern Ocean, PETM carbon and oxygen isotope anomalies were found to coincide with a major terminal-Paleocene disappearance or extinction of benthic foraminiferans. On North America the PETM carbon isotope excursion (CIE) was found to coincide with mammalian dwarfing and a major initial-Eocene appearance or origination event of continental mammals. Linking the two records, marine and continental, resolved a long-standing disagreement over competing definitions of the Paleocene-Eocene epoch boundary, and more importantly indicated that the PETM greenhouse warming event was global. Dwarfing of herbivorous mammals can be interpreted as a response to elevated atmospheric CO2. The origin of modern orders of mammals including Artiodactyla, Perissodactyla, and Primates ('APP' taxa) is more complicated and difficult to explain but the origin of these orders may also be a response, directly or indirectly, to PETM warming. We now know from Polecat Bench and elsewhere in North America that the biotic response to PETM greenhouse warming involved the appearance of at least two new mammalian faunas distinct from previously known Clarkforkian mammals of the upper or late Paleocene and previously known Wasatchian mammals of the lower or early Eocene. Three stages and ages of the former are known (Cf-1 to Cf-3) and seven stages and ages of the latter are known (Wa-1 to Wa-7), each occupying about a hundred meters of strata representing a half-million years or so of time. Between the standard Clarkforkian and Wasatchian faunal zones is an initial 'Wa-M' faunal zone of only five or so meters in thickness and something on the order of 20 thousand years of geological time. The Wa-M fauna includes the first

  19. Design of a test-bench to validate a model of a thermal window design; Diseno de un banco de ensayos para la validacion de un modelo de diseno termico de ventanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saavedra O, Claudio; Fissore Sch, Adelqui; Mottard, Jean-Michel [Universidad de Concepcion (Chile). Facultad de Ingenieria. Dept. de Ingenieria Mecanica]. E-mail: clsaaved @udec.cl; afissore@udec.cl

    2000-07-01

    Paper presents the design of a test-bench and instrumentation to validate a window thermal mathematical model. The test-bench simulate the thermal performance of a office with a only one wall in directly contact with outdoors, where a single glass window is mounted. To obtain a similar heat transfer relation as the real building, the chamber has been designed and manufactured with an inner and an outer envelope, and with an air spacing maintaining at the same temperature that the test chamber. To change the window size, the test-bench is equipped with a single modifiable outer wall. Instrumentation and methods of measurement for solar radiation, infra red outdoor radiation, indoor and outdoor air temperatures, wind velocity, heat transfer, air ventilating flow and temperature, wall temperatures, etc. are specified. (author)

  20. Airlaid test bench with narrow production width%窄幅非织造产品气流成网试验生产线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亚琛工业大学 纺织技术研究所 德国

    2016-01-01

    在已成功完成的 IGF 17101N/1项目“提高短纤维气流成网工艺的能源效率”中,0.5 m 幅宽的气流成网试验生产线已成功在德国亚琛工业大学纺织技术研究所(ITA)投入使用。模块化的试验生产线设计,使得在试验生产线上整合不同的创新型气流成网成型头理念进行测评成为可能。项目的总体目标是提高能源效率和窄幅非织造产品的均匀性。气流成网由于对场地的要求较小,厂房成本较低,其吸引力不断增加,尤其是对于中小企业而言。基于纤维成网概念,有可能利用气流成网生产小批量的定制产品,还能为生产废料(如通过热回收再利用获得的残留纤维)的加工提供可能。%In the successfully completed IGF project 17101 N/1 “Increase of energy efficiency in the short fiber airlaid nonwoven forming process”an airlaid test bench with a process width of 0.5 m has been successfully put into operation at the ITA.Due to the modular design of the test bench,it is possible to integrate different,innovative airlaid forming head concepts into the test bench for evaluation.The overall aim is to increase energy efficiency and the homogeneity of the nonwovens at narrow production widths.The attractiveness of the airlaid process increase especially for SMEs,due to lower construction cost of the plant and lesser space requirement.Depending on the fiber forming concept it is thus possible,to produce niche products in the airlaid process at small quantities.Moreover,the process provides potential for the processing of production waste such as residual fibers that are previously reclaimed by thermal recycling.

  1. Achieving high throughput sequencing of a cDNA library utilizing an alternative protocol for the bench top next-generation sequencing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Minxi; Faruq, Junaid; Rosenberg, Julian N; Xia, Jinlan; Oyler, George A; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2013-02-15

    The development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies has provided novel tools for genome analysis and expression profiling. A high throughput cDNA sequencing method using a bench top next-generation sequencing system, GS Junior, is now available. Here, we used an alternative protocol to the standard method for generating the cDNA library. This protocol can decrease the number of processing steps to manipulate RNA when constructing a cDNA library from an RNA sample, and does not require mRNA isolation from total RNA. Thus it can decrease the risk of RNA degradation and the cost for preparing a cDNA library. Also, the efficiency of sequencing data obtained with this approach is comparable to the standard method as verified by sequencing characteristics and expression levels of the reference gene glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

  2. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  3. Facility Bench of Stationary Engines for Study of Emissions (E65-PO) CIEMAT; Instalacion Banco de Motores Estacionarios para Estudio de Emisiones (E65-PO) CIEMAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rojas Garcia, E.; Rodriguez Maroto, J.J.

    2007-07-01

    The Project of Technology of Aerosols in Generation of Energy, of the Department of Fossil Fuels of the CIEMAT, began in the year 2004, a research activity line, based on the study of the emissions coming from internal combustion engines, particularly of Diesel technology. Activity was continued by the Polluting Emissions Group of the Department of Environment, when becoming the original Project in this Group. From the concession to the Group, of the project GR/AMB/0119/2004 Evaluation of the Emissions of Biodiesel supported by the Autonomous Community of Madrid together with the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), this activity was encourage, with the design, assembly and to get ready of the facility Bench of stationary engines for study of emissions, located in the building 65 at CIEMAT, Madrid. The present report constitutes a detailed technical description of each one of the elements that the installation Bench of stationary engines for study of emissions it integrated within the framework of the referred project (GR/AMB/0119/2004) and whose capacity includes studies of the effects of the engine, fuel, operation conditions, and methodology of sampling and measurement of emissions (gases and particles). The fundamental parts of facility describes in the present report are: engine test cell (cabin of sound insulation , ventilation and refrigeration system, anti vibrations mounting, engine, dynamometric brake), lines of preconditioning of particles and gases emissions (exhaust line, primary and secondary dilution lines, gases cleaning system...), other general parts of facility (sampling and measurement station, service lines...). The present report not only reflects the characteristics of the systems involved, but rather also in certain cases specified the procedure and reason for their choice. (Author) 10 refs.

  4. The acute effect of upper-body complex training on power output of martial art athletes as measured by the bench press throw exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liossis, Loudovikos Dimitrios; Forsyth, Jacky; Liossis, Ceorge; Tsolakis, Charilaos

    2013-12-18

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effect of upper body complex training on power output, as well as to determine the requisite preload intensity and intra-complex recovery interval needed to induce power output increases. Nine amateur-level combat/martial art athletes completed four distinct experimental protocols, which consisted of 5 bench press repetitions at either: 65% of one-repetition maximum (1RM) with a 4 min rest interval; 65% of 1RM with an 8 min rest; 85% of 1RM with a 4 min rest; or 85% of 1RM with an 8 min rest interval, performed on different days. Before (pre-conditioning) and after (post-conditioning) each experimental protocol, three bench press throws at 30% of 1RM were performed. Significant differences in power output pre-post conditioning were observed across all experimental protocols (F=26.489, partial eta2=0.768, p=0.001). Mean power output significantly increased when the preload stimulus of 65% 1RM was matched with 4 min of rest (p=0.001), and when the 85% 1RM preload stimulus was matched with 8 min of rest (p=0.001). Moreover, a statistically significant difference in power output was observed between the four conditioning protocols (F= 21.101, partial eta(2)=0.913, p=0.001). It was concluded that, in complex training, matching a heavy preload stimulus with a longer rest interval, and a lighter preload stimulus with a shorter rest interval is important for athletes wishing to increase their power production before training or competition.

  5. Test Bench for Two Gear Pure Electric Driving System%两挡纯电动驱动系统试验台架研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡灿; 徐达伟; 田韶鹏

    2014-01-01

    介绍了电驱动机械式变速器( EMT)结构原理,针对该两挡EMT变速器设计了纯电动驱动系统试验台架。重点叙述了该系统结构布置,以驱动系统传动效率试验为例,阐述了系统试验原理。整个测试过程利用CAN总线网络,连同可编程逻辑控制器( PLC),实现了数据的集中采集与各设备的分布控制,并对驱动系统传动效率试验结果进行了分析。试验结果表明,该套测试系统完全达到预定要求,可为纯电动驱动系统参数匹配与优化提供数据支持与参考。%The structure and principle of electric driving mechanical transmission were introduced.The test bench of pure e-lectric driving system for two gear EMT transmission was designed.On account of driving system transmission efficiency test, the construction and principle of test bench was emphasized.The whole experiment system uses CAN bus network and programmable logic controller ( PLC) to achieve centralized acquisition for data and distributed control of equipment.The transmission efficien-cy test and analysis of power train system was realized.The results show that this test system entirely meets requirements, which provides data support and reference for parameter matching and optimization of pure electric driving system.

  6. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Quarterly technical progress report, September 21, 1992--December 31, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-22

    This document contains the first quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor Control System. The twelve-month project will involve installation of a 300 lb/hr. bench-scale testing circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) and testing of two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelvemonth project. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I - Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing. Phase II - ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project will be performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through May, 1993, and will be the major focus of the project. It will involve testing of the continuous 300 lb/hr. circuit. Phase II - Project Finalization: The project finalization phase will occur from June through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and will involve finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This quarterly progress report principally summarizes the results from the Phase I preparation work and the plan for the early portions of the Phase 11 installation and commissioning, which will occur in January and the first week of February, 1993.

  7. 铁路机车车辆用制动动力试验台的特点及分析%Characteristics and analysis of braking dynamic test bench for railway rolling stocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李卫东; 董丰收; 张广勇

    2012-01-01

    The working principles, design requirements and characteristics of both the mechanical analogue test bench and mechanical analogue plus electric flywheel analogue test bench for braking dynamics of the railway rolling stocks are analyzed. The real-time compensation of energy needed in the test and the inherent resistance of the system are adopted by the mechanical analogue plus electric flywheel analogue test bench to realize the precise match for rotary inertia and achieve higher test accuracy. It is convenient to configure the electromechanical parameters of the test bench and give full play to its performance.%本文对机械模拟和机械模拟+电惯量模拟铁路机车车辆用1∶1制动动力试验台的工作原理、特点进行了分析.机械模拟+电惯量模拟试验台采用电机实时补偿试验所需能量和系统固有阻力的方法,能实现转动惯量的精确匹配和更高的试验精度,便于优化配置试验台机电参数并充分发挥其性能,优越性明显.

  8. BigDataBench:An Open-source Big Data Benchmark Suite%BigDataBench:开源的大数据系统评测基准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹剑锋; 高婉铃; 王磊; 李经伟; 魏凯; 罗纯杰; 韩锐; 田昕晖; 姜春宇

    2016-01-01

    Booming big data sparks tremendous outpouring of interest in storing and processing these data,and consequently a variety of big data systems emerge,giving rise to great pressure on big data benchmarking.However,complexity and diversity of big data raise great challenges in big data benchmarking.Most of the related benchmark efforts either target at specific application domains and software stacks,or choose workloads subjectively according to so-called popularity, thus fail to cover the diversity and complexity of big data.In this paper,we discuss the requirements for big data benchmarking and present our open source big data benchmark suite—BigDataBench, which is a multi-discipline research and engineering effort,i.e.system,architecture,and data management.BigDataBench adopts an iterative and incremental methodology,not only covering five representative application domains,but also containing diverse data models and workload types.Currently,it includes 14 real-world data sets,scalable data generation tools for 3 kinds of data types,and 33 workloads implemented using competitive technologies.BigDataBench has been used both in academia and industry,with typical use cases of workload characterization, architecture design and system optimization.Based on BigDataBench,Chinese Academy of Information and Communications releases China’s first industry-standard big data benchmark suite together with ICT,CAS,Huawei and other well-known companies and research institutions.%大数据系统的蓬勃发展催生了大数据基准测试的研究,如何公正地评价不同的大数据系统以及怎样根据需求选取合适的系统成为了热点问题.然而,应用领域的广泛性、数据类型的多样性和数据操作的复杂性使得大数据基准测试集的设计面临很大的挑战.现有的相关基准测试工作要么针对某一类特定的应用或软件栈,要么根据流行度主观地选择大数据负载,难以全面覆盖大数据的

  9. 汽车电动轮再生制动试验台的开发%Development of Automobile Electric Wheel Regenerative Braking Test Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奇; 贺萍; 韩承伟; 颜伏伍; 杜常青

    2015-01-01

    为研究轮毂电机驱动电动汽车再生制动的性能,基于DC/DC变换器和超级电容搭建了电动汽车再生制动系统,并设计开发了汽车电动轮再生制动试验台。对再生制动过程中制动力的调节进行理论分析,确立了通过调节DC/DC变换器输出电流的方法来调控再生制动力的控制方案。使用Matlab/Simulink对恒流再生制动过程进行建模仿真,并在试验台上进行再生制动实验,实验结果与仿真结果相吻合,表明所开发的电动轮再生制动试验台能实现制动能量回收的研究目标。%To study the regenerative braking performance of electric vehicle driven by hub motor , the electric vehicle regen-erative braking system based on DC/DC and super capacitor was constructed .And an automobile electric wheel regenerative bra-king test bench was designed and developed .The regenerative braking force adjustment during recovered braking was theoretically analyzed.The scheme of control regenerative braking force by the methods of adjusting the DC /DC output current was estab-lished.Using MATLAB/SIMULINK, the process of constant current recovery braking was simulated .And regenerative braking test was done on electric wheel comprehensive performance test bed .Through contrasting the simulation results and the experi-mental results, it can be found that the two trends are consistent with each other .The results show that the test bench can achieve the research goal of the braking energy recovery .

  10. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  11. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seubert, Erica L; Trussell, Shane; Eagleton, John; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton H; Caron, David A

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  12. Algal toxins and reverse osmosis desalination operations: Laboratory bench testing and field monitoring of domoic acid, saxitoxin, brevetoxin and okadaic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Seubert, Erica L.

    2012-12-01

    The occurrence and intensity of harmful algal blooms (HABs) have been increasing globally during the past few decades. The impact of these events on seawater desalination facilities has become an important topic in recent years due to enhanced societal interest and reliance on this technology for augmenting world water supplies. A variety of harmful bloom-forming species of microalgae occur in southern California, as well as many other locations throughout the world, and several of these species are known to produce potent neurotoxins. These algal toxins can cause a myriad of human health issues, including death, when ingested via contaminated seafood. This study was designed to investigate the impact that algal toxin presence may have on both the intake and reverse osmosis (RO) desalination process; most importantly, whether or not the naturally occurring algal toxins can pass through the RO membrane and into the desalination product. Bench-scale RO experiments were conducted to explore the potential of extracellular algal toxins contaminating the RO product. Concentrations exceeding maximal values previously reported during natural blooms were used in the laboratory experiments, with treatments comprised of 50 μg/L of domoic acid (DA), 2 μg/L of saxitoxin (STX) and 20 μg/L of brevetoxin (PbTx). None of the algal toxins used in the bench-scale experiments were detectable in the desalinated product water. Monitoring for intracellular and extracellular concentrations of DA, STX, PbTx and okadaic acid (OA) within the intake and desalinated water from a pilot RO desalination plant in El Segundo, CA, was conducted from 2005 to 2009. During the five-year monitoring period, DA and STX were detected sporadically in the intake waters but never in the desalinated water. PbTx and OA were not detected in either the intake or desalinated water. The results of this study demonstrate the potential for HAB toxins to be inducted into coastal RO intake facilities, and the

  13. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101/102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-06-08

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-10-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FB SR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-S.2.1-20 1 0-00 1, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, 'Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies

  14. In-vivo monitoring of acute DSS-Colitis using Colonoscopy, high resolution Ultrasound and bench-top Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walldorf, J.; Hermann, M.; Pohl, S.; Zipprich, A. [Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Internal Medicine I, Halle (Germany); Porzner, M.; Seufferlein, T. [University of Ulm, Department of Internal Medicine I, Ulm (Germany); Metz, H.; Maeder, K. [Martin Luther University, Institut of Pharmacy, Halle-Wittenberg (Germany); Christ, B. [University of Leipzig, Department of Surgery II, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-10-15

    The aim of this study was to establish and evaluate (colour Doppler-) high-resolution-ultrasound (hrUS) and bench-top magnetic resonance imaging (btMRI) as new methods to monitor experimental colitis. hrUS, btMRI and endoscopy were performed in mice without colitis (n = 15), in mice with acute colitis (n = 14) and in mice with acute colitis and simultaneous treatment with infliximab (n = 19). Determination of colon wall thickness using hrUS (32 MHz) and measurement of the cross-sectional colonic areas by btMRI allowed discrimination between the treatment groups (mean a vs. b vs. c - btMRI: 922 vs. 2051 vs. 1472 pixel, hrUS: 0.26 vs. 0.45 vs. 0.31 mm). btMRI, endoscopy, hrUS and colour Doppler-hrUS correlated to histological scoring (p < 0.05), while endoscopy and btMRI correlated to post-mortem colon length (p < 0.05). The innovative in vivo techniques btMRI and hrUS are safe and technically feasible. They differentiate between distinct grades of colitis in an experimental setting, and correlate with established post-mortem parameters. In addition to endoscopic procedures, these techniques provide information regarding colon wall thickness and perfusion. Depending on the availability of these techniques, their application increases the value of in vivo monitoring in experimental acute colitis in small rodents. (orig.)

  15. 涡轮轴疲劳试验台系统设计%Design for Fatigue Test Bench System of Turbo-shaft

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈曼龙

    2013-01-01

    In order to accomplish the turbo shaft fatigue test under combined load,the turbo-shaft fatigue test bench was designed with combination of computer,machinery,electric and hydraulic technology.The process of applying torque and bending moment load synchronously was realized efficiently by the test system through extracting signal from banding moment and adopting electro-hydraulic servo valve.The computer measurement and control system can be adopted to accomplish various cyclic loading schemes or adjusting the load exerted on shaft expediently in test.%为了实现涡轮轴在综合载荷作用下疲劳强度的试验,采用机、电、液、计算机技术相结合的方法设计了涡轮轴疲劳试验台.该试验系统通过信号提取和采用电液伺服阀有效实现了扭矩载荷与弯矩载荷同步加载过程,利用计算机测控系统能够方便地实现测试过程中多种循环加载方式以及加载载荷大小的调整.

  16. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  17. Numerical Studies of the Gas-Solid Hydrodynamics at High Temperature in the Riser of a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximilian J. Hodapp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrodynamics of circulating fluidized beds (CFBs is a complex phenomenon that can drastically vary depending on operational setup and geometrical configuration. A research of the literature shows that studies for the prediction of key variables in CFB systems operating at high temperature still need to be implemented aiming at applications in energy conversion, such as combustion, gasification, or fast pyrolysis of solid fuels. In this work the computational fluid dynamics (CFD technique was used for modeling and simulation of the hydrodynamics of a preheating gas-solid flow in a cylindrical bed section. For the CFD simulations, the two-fluid approach was used to represent the gas-solid flow with the k-epsilon turbulence model being applied for the gas phase and the kinetic theory of granular flow (KTGF for the properties of the dispersed phase. The information obtained from a semiempirical model was used to implement the initial condition of the simulation. The CFD results were in accordance with experimental data obtained from a bench-scale CFB system and from predictions of the semiempirical model. The initial condition applied in this work was shown to be a viable alternative to a more common constant solid mass flux boundary condition.

  18. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  19. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  20. Use of lysis and recycle to control excess sludge production in activated sludge treatment: bench scale study and effect of chlorinated organic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolasco, M A; Campos, A L O; Springer, A M; Pires, E C

    2002-01-01

    The most widely used treatment system in the pulp and paper industry--the activated sludge--produces high quantities of sludge which need proper disposal. In this paper a modified activated sludge process is presented. A synthetic wastewater, prepared to simulate the effluent of bleached and unbleached pulp and paper plant wastewater, was submitted to treatment in a bench scale aerobic reactor. The excess sludge was lysed in a mechanical mill--Kaddy mill--and totally recycled to the aeration tank. In the first phase the synthetic wastewater, without the chlorinated compounds, was fed to the reactor. In the second phase increasing dosages of the chlorinated compounds were used. Total recycle of excess sludge after disintegration did not produce adverse effects. During the first phase average COD removal efficiency was 65% for the control unit, which operated in a conventional way, and 63% for the treatment unit, which operated with total recycle. During the second phase the COD removal efficiency increased to 77% in the control unit and 75% in the treatment unit. Chlorinated organics removal was 85% in the treatment unit and 86% for the control unit. These differences are not significant.

  1. HexPak and GradPak: variable-pitch dual-head IFUs for the WIYN 3.5m Telescope Bench Spectrograph

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Corey M; Eigenbrot, Arthur D; Buckley, Scott A; Gallagher, John S; Hooper, Eric J; Sheinis, Andrew I; Smith, Michael P; Wolf, Marsha J

    2012-01-01

    We describe the design, construction, and expected performance of two new fiber integral field units (IFUs) --- HexPak and GradPak --- for the WIYN 3.5m Telescope Nasmyth focus and Bench Spectrograph. These are the first IFUs to provide formatted fiber integral field spectroscopy with simultaneous sampling of varying angular scales. HexPak and GradPak are in a single cable with a dual-head design, permitting easy switching between the two different IFU heads on the telescope without changing the spectrograph feed: the two heads feed a variable-width double-slit. Each IFU head is comprised of a fixed arrangement of fibers with a range of fiber diameters. The layout and diameters of the fibers within each array are scientifically-driven for observations of galaxies: HexPak is designed to observe face-on spiral or spheroidal galaxies while GradPak is optimized for edge-on studies of galaxy disks. HexPak is a hexagonal array of 2.9 arcsec fibers subtending a 40.9 arcsec diameter, with a high-resolution circular c...

  2. Web Server Benchmark Application WiiBench using Erlang/OTP R11 and Fedora-Core Linux 5.0

    CERN Document Server

    Mutiara, A B

    2007-01-01

    As the web grows and the amount of traffics on the web server increase, problems related to performance begin to appear. Some of the problems, such as the number of users that can access the server simultaneously, the number of requests that can be handled by the server per second (requests per second) to bandwidth consumption and hardware utilization like memories and CPU. To give better quality of service (\\textbf{\\textit{QoS}}), web hosting providers and also the system administrators and network administrators who manage the server need a benchmark application to measure the capabilities of their servers. Later, the application intends to work under Linux/Unix -- like platforms and built using Erlang/OTP R11 as a concurrent oriented language under Fedora Core Linux 5.0. \\textbf{\\textit{WiiBench}} is divided into two main parts, the controller section and the launcher section. Controller is the core of the application. It has several duties, such as read the benchmark scenario file, configure the program b...

  3. A microdevice assisted approach for the preparation, characterization and selection of continuous aqueous two-phase systems: from micro to bench-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Villegas, Patricia; Ouellet, Eric; González, Claudia; Ruiz-Ruiz, Federico; Rito-Palomares, Marco; Haynes, Charles A; Aguilar, Oscar

    2016-07-05

    Aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) have emerged as an alternative strategy for the recovery and purification of a wide variety of biological products. Typical process development requires a large screening of experimental conditions towards industrial adoption where continuous processes are preferred. In this work, it was proved that under certain flow conditions, ATPS could be formed continuously inside a microchannel, starting from stocks of phase components. Staggered herringbone chaotic micromixers included within the device sequentially and rapidly prepare two-phase systems across an entire range of useful phase compositions. Two-phase diagrams (binodal curves) were easily plotted using the cloud-point method for systems of different components and compared with previously reported curves for each system, proving that phase formation inside the device correlated with the previously reported diagrams. A proof of concept for sample partitioning in such a microdevice was performed with two different experimental models: BSA and red blood cells. Finally, the microdevice was employed to obtain information about the recovery and partition coefficient of invertase from a real complex mixture of proteins (yeast extract) to design a process for the recovery of the enzyme selecting a suitable system and composition to perform the process at bench-scale.

  4. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity.

  5. Standardized surgical techniques for adult living donor liver transplantation using a modified right lobe graft: a video presentation from bench to reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Shin; Ha, Tae-Yong; Ahn, Chul-Soo; Moon, Deok-Bog; Kim, Ki-Hun; Song, Gi-Won; Jung, Dong-Hwan; Park, Gil-Chun; Lee, Sung-Gyu

    2016-08-01

    After having experienced more than 2,000 cases of adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), we established the concepts of right liver graft standardization. Right liver graft standardization intends to provide hemodynamics-based and regeneration-compliant reconstruction of vascular inflow and outflow. Right liver graft standardization consists of the following components: Right hepatic vein reconstruction includes a combination of caudal-side deep incision and patch venoplasty of the graft right hepatic vein to remove the acute angle between the graft right hepatic vein and the inferior vena cava; middle hepatic vein reconstruction includes interposition of a uniform-shaped conduit with large-sized homologous or prosthetic grafts; if the inferior right hepatic vein is present, its reconstruction includes funneling and unification venoplasty for multiple short hepatic veins; if donor portal vein anomaly is present, its reconstruction includes conjoined unification venoplasty for two or more portal vein orifices. This video clip that shows the surgical technique from bench to reperfusion was a case presentation of adult LDLT using a modified right liver graft from the patient's son. Our intention behind proposing the concept of right liver graft standardization is that it can be universally applicable and may guarantee nearly the same outcomes regardless of the surgeon's experience. We believe that this reconstruction model would be primarily applied to a majority of adult LDLT cases.

  6. CO2 Employment as Refrigerant Fluid with a Low Environmental Impact. Experimental Tests on Arugula and Design Criteria for a Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biagio Bianchi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to define design criteria for CO2 refrigeration systems to be used for agricultural products and foodstuff storage, a variable geometrical system was realized, with the goal of meeting a wide range of environmental and process conditions, such as producing low environmental impact and maintaining the highest Coefficient of Performance (COP, at the same time. This test-bench, at semi-industrial scale, was designed as a result of experimental tests carried out on Arugula. The storage tests showed that all samples stored in cold rooms with R.H. control showed a slight increase of weight but also small rot zones in all the boxes due to an excessive accumulation of water condensation; thus, the system may not have achieved conditions that RH requires in a given range, without reaching saturation condition. At the same time, the use of CO2 must be adequately tested along its thermodynamic cycle, during steady state and/or transient conditions, imposing variable working conditions that can simulate plant starting phase or some striking conservation process, like those that characterize sausages. The designed plant will allow studying these specific performances and evaluate COP variation, according to environmental and plant operating conditions.

  7. Characteristics of structured lipid prepared by lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of roasted sesame oil and caprylic acid in a bench-scale continuous packed bed reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byung Hee; Akoh, Casimir C

    2006-07-12

    Structured lipid (SL) was prepared from roasted sesame oil and caprylic acid (CA) by Rhizomucor miehei lipase-catalyzed acidolysis in a bench-scale continuous packed bed reactor. Total incorporation and acyl migration of CA in the SL were 42.5 and 3.1 mol %, respectively, and the half-life of the lipase was 19.2 days. The SL displayed different physical and chemical properties, less saturated dark brown color, lower viscosity, lower melting and crystallization temperature ranges, higher melting and crystallization enthalpies, higher smoke point, higher saponification value, and lower iodine value, in comparison to those of unmodified sesame oil. The oxidative stability of purified SL was lower than that of sesame oil. There were no differences in the contents of unsaponifiables including tocopherols and phytosterols. However, total sesame lignans content was decreased in SL due to the loss of sesamol when compared to sesame oil. Most of the 70 volatiles present in roasted sesame oil were removed from SL during short-path distillation of SL. These results indicate that the characteristics of SL are different from those of original sesame oil in several aspects except for the contents of tocopherols and phytosterols.

  8. Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Quarterly report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    Three bacteria, Clostridium ljungdahlii and isolates ERI-8 and 0-52, have been utilized in CSTR studies in order to directly compare the performance of the bacteria in continuous culture in converting synthesis gas components to ethanol. C. ljungdahlii is able to produce higher concentrations of ethanol than the other bacteria, largely because medium development with this bacterium has been ongoing for 2--3 years. However, both of the ERI isolates are quite promising for ethanol production and, therefore, will be studied further in the CSTR. A comparison of the energy costs for various ethanol recovery techniques has been made for use in the bench scale system. The techniques considered include direct distillation, extraction with various solvents followed by distillation, air stripping followed by distillation, pervaporation followed by distillation, reverse osmosis and temperature swing extraction. Extraction with a solvent possessing a relatively high distribution coefficient for ethanol and a high separation factor (relative ability to extract ethanol in favor of water), followed by distillation, is the most desirable technology.

  9. 摇摆台升沉运动液压系统设计%Design of Hydraulic Lift System for Swing Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑜; 王红艳; 沈延康; 田魁岳; 鲁士军

    2012-01-01

    This swing bench(oscillating table) is a precise piece of equipment for physical simulation that it can simulate a boat oscillating under various sea water conditions. The text introduces how the up-down motion hydraulic system was designed for the oscillating table, and how to analyze the oil-pneumatic spring-balance system and the hydraulic servo system which was consisted of bag-type accumulator and hydraulic cylinders while pointing out superiorities of the system's minimized inertial impact, lower power drive rate, and lower cost.%摇摆试验台(摇摆台)是一种高精度物理仿真设备,它可以模拟舰船在不同海况下的摇摆运动.介绍摇摆台的升沉运动液压系统的设计,对囊式蓄能器和液压缸组成的油气弹簧平衡系统和液压伺服系统进行分析.指出此系统在减小惯性冲击,降低系统驱动功率,降低成本方面的优势.

  10. Bench-scale production of acrylamide using the resting cells of Brevibacterium sp. CH2 in a fed-batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C Y; Choi, S K; Chang, H N

    1993-11-01

    Effects of various organic acids and salts on the stabilization of nitrile hydratase were investigated. The stability of the nitrile hydratase of Brevibacterium CH2 during storage was greatly enhanced by the addition of n-butyric acid. Effects of temperature, pH, and concentrations of acrylonitrile and n-butyric acid on acrylamide production by the resting cells were also investigated. Acrylamide production per unit dry weight of the cells increased 1.33 times by the addition of 0.05% n-butyric acid. A 20% acrylamide solution was successfully produced in a bench-scale reactor (12 l) with only a trace amount of salts after 10 h of hydration reaction under optimum reaction conditions without using an isotonic substrate. The conversion yield was nearly 100%, and acrylic acid as a by-product was not produced. Final acrylamide production of 400 g g-1 cells and productivity of 20 g/(g cells l-1 x h-1) were obtained.

  11. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  12. Cutting weed with an improved test bench and measurement of cutting resistance%3种杂草切割阻力试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张林; 李明; 裴毅; 刘仲华

    2013-01-01

    对PC-B型带传动试验台进行改进:将主电机的传动轮改成切割装置,安装试验台架及夹持装置,更换更精确的压力传感器,研制出杂草切割试验台,以蒿草、狗尾草和牛筋草为材料,通过切割试验,确定杂草直径、含水率、电机转速、削切角对切割阻力的影响.结果表明,杂草切割阻力与电机转速平方成反比,与杂草直径平方成正比,与削切角平方成反比;不同杂草含水率对切割阻力影响不同,蒿草与狗尾草切割阻力与含水率平方成反比,狗尾草反之.单因素试验中,蒿草直径3.5~4.5mm,风干10h,含水率33.54%时,最大切割阻力为11.06N.以蒿草为材料的正交试验结果表明,直径、含水率、削切角和电机转速依次影响切割阻力.Spss软件分析表明,在风干含水率48.53%、削切角60°、直径最大组(3.5 ~ 4.5 mm)、电机转速为最低切断转速1.2倍时为最优组合.%PC-B type belt driving test bench was improved and modified into a test bench for cutting weed by modifying the driving wheel of the main motor into the cutting and the holding device and installing a pressure sensor which is more accurate than the original one.Humilis, Setaria and goose grass were cut to determine the influence of diameter and moisture content of weed, rotational speeds of motor and cutting angle on cutting resistance.The result suggests that cutting resistance was inversely proportional to the square of the rotational speed and the square of the cutting angle, and proportional to the square of the diameter of weed.Moisture content with different weeds showed different influence on cutting resistance.In contrast to goose grass, cutting resistances for Humilis and Setaria were inversely proportional to the moisture content.Single-factor test showed that a maximum strength of 11.06 N was achieved when the diameter of Humilis was 3.5-4.5 mm, and the moisture content of Humilis was 33.54% (achieved after 10 h drying

  13. Evapotranspiration of osteospermum 'Denebola' and New Guinea impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches as affected by climate conditions and soil water potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Treder

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Daily evapotranspiration (EVPT of two bedding plants osteospermum 'Denebola' and impatiens 'Timor' grown on ebb-and-flow benches was measured by weighing method, together with assessment of indoor climate parameters (solar radiation, temperature, humidity and leaf area index (LAI at different growth phases. The evaporation inside the greenhouse as affected by climatic factors i.e.: solar radiation, temperature, humidity and air velocity was also measured using Piche's evaporometer. Plants were irrigated according to soil water potential (irrigation at -0,5; -3; -10 and -20 kPa. Irrigation at high water potential decreased plant growth and leaf area of both plants. LAI of osteospermum decreased as water deficit increased. In the case of impatiens, the highest LAI at full flowering obtained plants irrigated at -3 kPa. The actual, daily EVPT of plants irrigated at -0,5 kPa increased with plant growth in the case ofosteospermum while that of impatiens remained at similar level. At flowering water stress decreased strongly EVPT of osteospermum and in lesser extent EVPT of impatiens. Osteospermum irrigated at -0,5 kPa had 2,5 higher EVPT than impatiens. For both plants good, positive correlation between EVPT and daily mean temperature, temperature between 7-17 h and evaporation according to Piche's evaporometer readings were obtained. As expected EVPT was negatively correlated with relative humidity, irrespective the growth phase and soil water potential. The correlation between EVPT and solar radiation, was changed during plant growth due to differences in temperature under shading screen, used during sunny days.

  14. Design of Sheep with Material Test Bench and Test System%羊用撒料试验台测试系统的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚凤娇; 李景彬; 坎杂

    2016-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of uneven sprinkle material and low feeding efficiency of Double Helix Caesar feeding car,while maintaining the original working conditions, a Test bench with test system is established.Based on the forming of the dragon skip,the mechanical system is designed,with labwindows /CVI as the development tool combining with PLC control technology so as to simultaneously monitor uniformity factor and its real -time dynamic key rotation axis force.The testing rig is combined with the control system to avoid inconsistency of the traditional test and the dynamic force and to provide real-time dynamic force data for the latter mechanical optimization design.%为了解决羊用搅龙式撒料车撒料不均匀、投料效率低等问题,在维持原有工况条件下,研制开发了具有测试系统的撒料试验台.该试验台基于成型的搅龙撒料车设计的机械系统,以labwindows/CVI为开发工具,结合PLC控制技术建立了撒料试验台测试系统.试验台同步监测均匀性影响因子及其关键转动轴实时动态受力,测控系统与试验台的结合避免了传统试验与动态受力的不一致性,为后期撒料车优化设计提供了理论依据.

  15. Simulation research on electrical inertia of the transmission test bench%基于simulink的变速器试验台电惯量模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵奇平; 朱斑斓; 蔡晓霞

    2016-01-01

    传统的变速器试验台惯量模拟用的是机械惯量盘,但是机械式惯量模拟有着机械结构复杂、安装调整困难等问题。文章从汽车行驶阻力入手分析变速器负载,通过电惯量模拟理论分析、异步电机矢量控制设计基于电惯量模拟的变速器试验台加载系统。基于MATLAB/simulink仿真平台对其模型进行仿真研究,结果表明使用异步电机进行惯量模拟,既可达到变速器试验台负载模拟要求,又能解决传统机械式惯量盘安装困难、不能无极惯量模拟的一些问题。%The traditional transmission test-bed inertia simulation using the mechanical flywheel, but the mechanical structure of the flywheel is complicated and difficult for install. Therefore, this paper through analysis of the Transmission load with automobile driving resistance, and through the electrical inertia simulation theory and the vector control of asynchronous motor , to design the loading system of the transmission test bench. Based on MATLAB/simulink, the model of the electrical inertia loading system of the transmission test-bed is built. The results show that using asynchronous motor to simulate the inertia, can meet the requirements of transmission test-bed load simulation.

  16. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States). Combustion Lab.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  17. Design of Loading Test Bench for Ball Screw%滚珠丝杠副加载测试试验台设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    时超; 范元勋

    2016-01-01

    针对航天飞行器伺服控制系统中滚珠丝杠副受载情况的特殊性,开展对滚珠丝杠副的模拟加载和性能测试的研究,设计出一套伺服加载测试试验台,利用该试验台可测试精密滚珠丝杠副的多变载荷承载能力、轴向刚度、传动效率和启动力矩等性能,为用户提供准确可靠的检测报告。阐述了此加载测试系统的主要功能和工作原理、结构组成、电气硬件控制和系统软件的设计。%According to the particularity of the bal screw loading in aero craft servo control system, this paper researches on the bal screw simulation loading and performance test and designs a set of servo loading test benches which can be used to precisely test the changeable load bearing capacity, axial stiffness, transmission efficiency and starting torque and other performance of the lal screw pair. The accurate and reliable detection report is provided for the user. This paper describes the main functions and working principle and structure, of the load testing system and hardware and software design of the electrical control system.

  18. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  19. A translational study "case report" on the small molecule "energy blocker" 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) as a potent anticancer agent: from bench side to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Y H; Verhoeven, H A; Lee, M J; Corbin, D J; Vogl, T J; Pedersen, P L

    2012-02-01

    The small alkylating molecule, 3-bromopyruvate (3BP), is a potent and specific anticancer agent. 3BP is different in its action from most currently available chemo-drugs. Thus, 3BP targets cancer cells' energy metabolism, both its high glycolysis ("Warburg Effect") and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. This inhibits/ blocks total energy production leading to a depletion of energy reserves. Moreover, 3BP as an "Energy Blocker", is very rapid in killing such cells. This is in sharp contrast to most commonly used anticancer agents that usually take longer to show a noticeable effect. In addition, 3BP at its effective concentrations that kill cancer cells has little or no effect on normal cells. Therefore, 3BP can be considered a member, perhaps one of the first, of a new class of anticancer agents. Following 3BP's discovery as a novel anticancer agent in vitro in the Year 2000 (Published in Ko et al. Can Lett 173:83-91, 2001), and also as a highly effective and rapid anticancer agent in vivo shortly thereafter (Ko et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 324:269-275, 2004), its efficacy as a potent anticancer agent in humans was demonstrated. Here, based on translational research, we report results of a case study in a young adult cancer patient with fibrolamellar hepatocellular carcinoma. Thus, a bench side discovery in the Department of Biological Chemistry at Johns Hopkins University, School of Medicine was taken effectively to bedside treatment at Johann Wolfgang Goethe University Frankfurt/Main Hospital, Germany. The results obtained hold promise for 3BP as a future cancer therapeutic without apparent cyto-toxicity when formulated properly.

  20. Scientists May Approach the Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available NASA science is lightening up and embracing microgravity research on the International Space Station, reports Nature in this week’s lead article. Science’s lead story covers a group of litigious tissue donors who are trying to recover control of their genes.

  1. Thoracocentesis: from bench to bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalifatidis, Alexandros; Lazaridis, George; Baka, Sofia; Mpoukovinas, Ioannis; Karavasilis, Vasilis; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Papaiwannou, Antonis; Karavergou, Anastasia; Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Sarika, Eirini; Kapanidis, Konstantinos; Sakkas, Leonidas; Korantzis, Ipokratis; Lampaki, Sofia; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Zarogoulidis, Paul

    2015-02-01

    Lung cancer can be diagnosed with minimal interventional procedures such as: bronchoscopy, endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS), fine needle aspiration under CT guidance and esophageal ultrasound. In our current editorial we will provide a definition and current up to date information regarding fine needle aspiration under CT guidance. We will focus on pneumothorax and treatment methods.

  2. Bench-to-bedside review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Arash; Schrenzel, Jacques; Ieven, Margareta;

    2012-01-01

    of providing a faster, more sensitive and direct identification of causative pathogens without prior need for cultivation. This may ultimately impact clinical decision-making and antimicrobial treatment. This review summarises the currently available technologies, their strengths and limitations...

  3. Bench-to-bedside review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janum, Susanne; Zingg, Walter; Classen, Volker;

    2013-01-01

    Central venous catheters (CVCs) are indispensable in modern pediatric medicine. CVCs provide secure vascular access, but are associated with a risk of severe complications, in particular bloodstream infection. We provide a review of the recent literature about the diagnostic and therapeutic...... diagnostic limitations of conventional blood sampling in children, they still need to solidly prove their accuracy and reliability in clinical practice. Standardized practices of catheter insertion and care remain the cornerstone of CRBSI prevention although their implementation in daily practice may...... challenges of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) in children and its prevention. Variations in blood sampling and limitations in blood culturing interfere with accurate and timely diagnosis of CRBSI. Although novel molecular testing methods appear promising in overcoming some of the present...

  4. Bench and mathematical modeling of the effects of breathing a helium/oxygen mixture on expiratory time constants in the presence of heterogeneous airway obstructions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Andrew R

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Expiratory time constants are used to quantify emptying of the lung as a whole, and emptying of individual lung compartments. Breathing low-density helium/oxygen mixtures may modify regional time constants so as to redistribute ventilation, potentially reducing gas trapping and hyperinflation for patients with obstructive lung disease. In the present work, bench and mathematical models of the lung were used to study the influence of heterogeneous patterns of obstruction on compartmental and whole-lung time constants. Methods A two-compartment mechanical test lung was used with the resistance in one compartment held constant, and a series of increasing resistances placed in the opposite compartment. Measurements were made over a range of lung compliances during ventilation with air or with a 78/22% mixture of helium/oxygen. The resistance imposed by the breathing circuit was assessed for both gases. Experimental results were compared with predictions of a mathematical model applied to the test lung and breathing circuit. In addition, compartmental and whole-lung time constants were compared with those reported by the ventilator. Results Time constants were greater for larger minute ventilation, and were reduced by substituting helium/oxygen in place of air. Notably, where time constants were long due to high lung compliance (i.e. low elasticity, helium/oxygen improved expiratory flow even for a low level of resistance representative of healthy, adult airways. In such circumstances, the resistance imposed by the external breathing circuit was significant. Mathematical predictions were in agreement with experimental results. Time constants reported by the ventilator were well-correlated with those determined for the whole-lung and for the low-resistance compartment, but poorly correlated with time constants determined for the high-resistance compartment. Conclusions It was concluded that breathing a low-density gas mixture, such

  5. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  6. Characterization of the acoustic-vortex shedding coupling inside a validation bench; Caracterisation du couplage acoustique. Detachement tourbillonnaire a l'interieur d'un montage de validation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dupays, J.; Prevost, M.; Tarrin, P.; Vuillot, F.

    1998-07-01

    Two campaigns of tests based on a small bench test installation, naturally instable and using various propellants with or without calibrated particles, were carried out at the Onera. The numerous pressure measurements performed along the engine have permitted to explain the wave system that takes place inside the combustion chamber as the sum of two acoustic waves and a convective wave with the same frequency, and linked with the evolution of vortices. This result shows that a coupling exists between the acoustic properties of the chamber and the vortex shedding whatever is the propellant used. (J.S.)

  7. Development of the Hydraulic System Performance Test Bench for the Intelligent Drilling Tools%智能钻井工具液压系统性能测试台的研制∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白大鹏; 李绍辉; 马哲; 王海岩; 黄峰

    2016-01-01

    为节省智能钻井工具液压系统的维修和测试时间,提高智能钻井工具技术服务质量,研制了用于检测智能钻井工具液压系统性能的测试台。该测试台根据智能钻井工具液压系统工作原理而设计,选用BH系列智能钻井工具中的测量和控制电路作为测试台的测量和控制电路。测试台通过模拟液压系统的工作过程,对各液压部件进行性能检测和故障排查。现场试验结果表明:测试台可对液压系统各部件的性能单独进行测试,测试结果能准确反映其工作性能和故障原因。所得结论对提高工具的组装和测试效率具有重要意义。%In order to reduce the repair and test time for the hydraulic system of intelligent drilling tool and to improve the quality of technical services, a test bench which could simulate the hydraulic system of the intelligent drilling tool was developed�The test bench was designed based on the operating principle of the hydraulic system for the intelligent drilling tool and uses the measuring and control circuit in BH series intelligent drilling tool as its own measuring and control circuit�By simulating the working process of the hydraulic system, the test bench makes functional experiment and troubleshooting of each hydraulic part�The result showed that the test bench could test each part in the hydraulic system separately and the result of experiment could accurately indicate its working per⁃formance and fault reason�Therefore, the conclusion obtained is of important significance to improvement of tool as⁃sembly and test efficiency.

  8. Bench-Scale Testing and Process Performance Projections of CO2 Capture by CO2–Binding Organic Liquids (CO2BOLs) With and Without Polarity-Swing-Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Feng; Heldebrant, David J.; Mathias, Paul M.; Koech, Phillip K.; Bhakta, Mukund; Freeman, Charles J.; Bearden, Mark D.; Zwoster, Andy

    2016-01-12

    This manuscript provides a detailed analysis of a continuous flow, bench scale study of the CO2BOL solvent platform with and without its Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study encompassed four months of continuous flow testing of a candidate CO2BOL with a thermal regeneration and PSAR regeneration using decane antisolvent. In both regeneration schemes, steady state capture of >90 %CO2 was achieved using simulated flue gas at acceptable L/G ratios. Aspen Plus™ modeling was performed to assess process performance compared to previous equilibrium performance projections. This paper also includes net power projections, and comparisons to DOE’s Case 10 amine baseline.

  9. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  10. 直流无刷电机再生制动系统试验台的设计与验证%Design and Verification of Brushless DC Motor Regenerative Braking System Test Bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    隋妮; 王广萍; 李仲兴; 张德望; 顾剑波

    2011-01-01

    基于再生制动理论,以电动汽车用轮毂电机为主体,搭建了直流无刷电机再生制动试验台.以回收能量最大化为目标,提出了相应的再生制动控制策略.结合电机的输出特性和工作原理,利用SIMULINK软件建立了再生制动系统模型.通过模型仿真和试验台试验结果的对比分析,验证了再生制动试验台设计方案的可行性和控制策略的合理性.%Basod on theory of regenerative braking, with electric vehicle hub motor as subject, a brushless DC motor regenerative braking test bench is built. To maximize energy recovery, regenerative braking control strategy is proposed in the paper. In accordance with output characteristic and working principle of motor,regenerative braking system is established with software SIMULINK.By modeling simulation and contrastive analysis of the test result, feasibility of design program of regenerative braking test bench and rationality of control strategy are validated.

  11. Design of a Gear Transmission Loading Fatigue Test Bench Have Ability of Hydraulic Power Recovery%一种液压功率回收型齿轮传动加载疲劳试验台的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王延忠; 刘文; 潘广悦; 刘元鹏

    2016-01-01

    基于液压补偿功率回收理论,采用容积调压加载的方式,结合PLC在液压系统的控制应用,针对试验台的液压系统及测控系统进行设计,并对液压系统的主要液压元件试验参数匹配关系进行理论计算.由理论关系式得出液压马达排量的调节对试验台的驱动转速与加载转矩的影响,并依照系统原理搭建试验台,通过试验检测,得到功率回收效率.%Based on the hydraulic power recovery compensation theory,by ways of regulating the volume of loaded and PLC control applications in the hydraulic system,the hydraulic system,the measurement and control system of the test bench are designed primarily.The composition principle of the hydraulic system and the matching relationship of main hy-draulic components test parameters are calculated.The influence of hydraulic motor displacement on the driving speed and the load torque can be obtained by the theoretical formula,and a test bench is set up to detect the power recovery efficiency.

  12. Application of Doubly-fed Induction Motor in 3 MW Gearbox Test Bench%双馈电机在3MW齿轮箱试验台中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张乐

    2011-01-01

    在分析同步电机、双馈电机的特性基础上,提出了一种采用双馈电机对拖的方式来实现3 MW齿轮箱的试验方法.采用2台双馈电机和1台变频电机进行控制,变频电机控制试验台的速度以及补偿试验台的功率损耗,分别控制双馈电机转子的电流和频率来达到控制负载功率的目的.该方法具有良好的控制精度、高效节能,投资成本低.%On the base of analyzing features of synchronous motor and doubly-fed induction motor, a method which is used to complete the test of 3 MW gearbox by dragging two doubly-fed induction generators themselves was brought forward. This method uses two doubly-fed induction motors and a variable-frequency motor to control. The variable-frequency motor controls the speed of test bench and equalizes the power losses of test bench. The current and frequency of doubly-fed induction motor's rotor are controlled to control the load power. This method has a excellence control accuracy, is energy-efficient and low investment cost.

  13. Open-pit Mine Bench Blasting Design and the Application based on Three-dimensional Model%基于三维模型的露天矿台阶爆破设计及其应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段玉贤; 李发本

    2011-01-01

    Based on three-dimensional orebody modeling technology,the blast-hole distributing and blasting network design of open-pit mine bench blasting was studied.Which had been successfully used in blasting project design at 1414 northern bench of Sandaozhuang Open-pit Mine of Luoyang Luanchuan Molybdenum Industry Group Co,Ltd.The result indicated that the blasting design system blasting plan is scientific and effective,and the blasting design working efficiency has been improved greatly.%基于三维矿体建模技术,针对露天矿台阶爆破的布孔和爆破网络设计展开研究,并在洛钼集团三道庄露天矿1414台阶北部的爆破工程设计中成功应用。实践表明,该爆破设计系统爆破方案科学有效,大大提高了爆破设计工作效率。

  14. Research on Bench-marking Analysis Model of Competitive Intelligence Integrated Text Automatic Classification%融合文本自动分类的竞争情报定标比超分析模型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉峰; 黄姮

    2011-01-01

    本文分析了传统定标比超方法的思想和缺陷,提出将传统情报分析方法与智能分析技术相结合,构建了融合文本自动分类的竞争情报定标比超分析模型。本文提出构建定标比超内容层次指标体系,将其作为文本自动分类的分类体系。两种方法相辅相成、相互优化,实现竞争情报的良性循环型、科学的智能分析。进而,深入研究了该模型的功能任务和情报分析过程与算法。最后,从科学性、时效性、全面性、准确性和动态性方面对该模型进行了性能评价。%This paper analyses the theories and defects of traditional bench-marking and proposes a bench-marking analysis model of competitive intelligence integrated text automatic classification,which integrates traditional intelligence analytical method and inte

  15. Comparison of automated and manual determination of HER2 status in breast cancer for diagnostic use: a comparative methodological study using the Ventana BenchMark automated staining system and manual tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bánkfalvi, Agnes; Boecker, Werner; Reiner, Angelika

    2004-10-01

    This study was performed to test the validity of manual and automated HER2 tests in one hundred routinely formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded diagnostic breast carcinoma tissues. Immunohistochemical (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assays for HER2 were separately carried out in two institutes of pathology specialised in diagnostics of breast diseases. Manual immunostaining was performed by the Dako-HercepTest. Automated IHC and FISH were carried out in the Ventana BenchMark platform by using the Pathway-CB11 antibody and the INFORM(R) HER2 probe, respectively. Positivity rates varied between HercepTest (26%), automated CB11 IHC (23%) and automated FISH (22%). Overall concordance between positive (2+, 3+) and negative (0; 1+) results of manual and automated IHC was 97%, between automated FISH and IHC 92%, and between automated FISH and HercepTest 89%. The frequency of 2+ IHC scores was 13% using the BenchMark and 14% with the HercepTest; 6/12 and 8/14 of the respective cases were not amplified by FISH. Automated FISH was not interpretable in 11 of 100 specimens. In the 89 informative cases, automated IHC resulted in increased specificity (92% vs. 88%), increased positive predictive value (73% vs. 64%) and increased efficiency (92% vs. 89%). We conclude that automation improves the accuracy of HER2 detection in diagnostic breast carcinoma tissues and provides a new approach for the global standardization of clinical HER2 tests.

  16. Tribological Bench and Engine Dynamometer Tests of a Low Viscosity SAE 0W-16 Engine Oil Using a Combination of Ionic Liquid and ZDDP as Anti-wear Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C Barnhill

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We have previously reported an oil-miscible phosphonium-organophosphate ionic liquid (IL with effective anti-wear functionality when added to a base oil by itself or combined with a conventional zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP for a synergistic effect. In this research, we investigated whether this synergy manifests in formulated engine oils. An experimental SAE 0W-16 engine oil was generated using a combination of IL and ZDDP with equal phosphorus contribution. The prototype engine oil was first evaluated using tribological bench tests: anti-wear performance in boundary lubrication and friction behavior (Stribeck curves in elastohydrodynamic, mixed, and boundary lubrication. The forthcoming standard Sequence VIE engine dynamometer test was then conducted to demonstrate improved fuel economy. Results were benchmarked against those of another experimental engine oil with almost the same formulation except using ZDDP only without the IL (similar total phosphorus content and a baseline SAE 20W-30 engine oil. The IL-ZDDP formulation consistently outperformed the ZDDP-only formulation and the results from the bench and engine tests are well correlated.

  17. Indirect research of weight of one repetation maximum in Bench Press techniqueBench Press tekniğinde bir tekrarda kaldırılan maksimum ağırlığın indirekt olarak araştırılması

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim Ümran Akdağcık

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to find the weight of 1 Repetation Maximum (1RM in reality by using the method of 3, 6 and 10 Repetation Maximums. For this reason, the group of 45 men subjects engaged in sport actively  whose ages between (ort= 18±0.6396, height (ort= 174.37±4.44, weight (ort= 62.91±6.77 and somatotype values (1.43±0.14 / 4.7±1.33 / 3.5±0.90 were constituted. The regresion formulas for prediction of 1 Repetation Maximum was improved in bench press by using the method of 1, 3, 6 and 10 Repetation Maximums. Besides, it was not found statistical difference (p>0.01 between 1 Repetation Maximum found by regresion formulas (Conjectural 1 Repetetion Maximum and 1 Repetation Maximum found in reality. More, the proportion of the weight of 3, 6 and 10  Repetation Maximums to 1 Repetation Maximum was calculated (3TM  %91.95,  6TM %83.37, 10TM %71.46. As a result, the regresion formula whose standard foult (sh= ±1.120 is minimum was found the formula of getting with the method of 3 Repetation Maximum (3RM.  Y = 1.619 + (1.062 * 3 RM ÖzetBu çalışmanın amacı 3, 6 ve 10 tekrarlı maksimum yöntemi kullanarak, gerçekte kaldırılabilecek bir tekrardaki maksimum ağırlığı bulmaktır. Bu amaçla yaşları 17-19 ( ort= 18±0.6396 , boyları 165-183 cm ( ort= 174.37±4.44 , kiloları 50-75 (ort= 62.91±6.77 ve somatotip değerleri (1.43±0.14 / 4.7±1.33 / 3.5±0.90 olan 45 sporla aktif uğraşan  erkek deneğin, bench press’teki 1,3, 6 ve 10 tekrarda kaldırılan maksimal ağırlıkları bulunarak, bir tekrarda kaldırılabilecek maksimal ağırlığı (1TM tahmin etmek için regresyon formülleri geliştirilmiştir. Ayrıca deneklerin 3, 6 ve 10 tekrarda kaldırdıkları maksimal ağırlıklardan elde edilen tahmini 1TM  ile gerçekte kaldırılan 1TM arasında istatistiksel olarak  fark bulunamamıştır ( p> 0.01 . Yine 3, 6 ve 10 tekrarda kaldırılan maksimal ağırlığın, bir tekrarda kaldırılan maksimal a

  18. 基于SimMechanics模块的转盘轴承实验台模型的建立%The Establishment of Wheel Bearing Test Bench Model Based on SimMechanics Module

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金美付; 鲜洁宇; 张正伟; 吴洪彬

    2014-01-01

    转盘轴承实验台是一种根据转盘轴承工作特点设计的专用实验设备。本文采用Simulink软件中的SimMechanics模块搭建实验台机械结构的仿真模型。仿真模型是在有限元计算的基础上,将实验台结构简化为线性弹簧。仿真模型中的转盘轴承采用Zupan等提供的解析法简化。通过滚珠最大应力验证仿真模型结果的正确性,参照标准是美国国家可再生能源实验室提供的经验公式。SimMechanics仿真结果与经验公式、有限元模型结果比较,误差在10%以内,误差可以接受。SimMechanics仿真模型的精度不及有限元模型,但仿真模型实现了机械系统与控制系统在同一仿真环境中搭建,并且仿真模型的计算成本远小于有限元模型。%Wheel bearing test bench is a special experiment equipment based on the work features of wheel bearing. This paper uses SimMechanics module of Simulink software to build bench mechanical structure simulation models. The simulation model simplifies the bench to a linear spring on the basis of finite element method. The wheel bearing of simulation model uses analytical method provided by Zupan. The correctness of simulation results is validated by balls maximum stress, the reference standard is the empirical formula provided by U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Compared to SimMechanics simulation results, empirical formula and finite element model results, the error is acceptable when less than 10%.

  19. 双支架术式的体外模拟研究%Two-stent techniques for coronary bifurcation:insight from in vitro and virtual bench testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晓飞; 张俊杰; 葛震; 肖平喜; 叶飞; 陈绍良

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the differences of various two-stent techniques in vitro and virtual bench testing. Methods Stent implantation with classic crush, double kissing ( DK) crush and culotte stenting techniques were performed in the silicone simulation model of bifurcation vessels with various distal bifurcation angles. The whole processes were recorded by a micro-focus camera. Results Distal side branch (SB) re-crossing in classical crush technique left a significant gap without stent coverage near the carina in T type bifurcation model after final kissing balloon inflation (FKBI) . The gap was also noted in either classic crush with proximal SB re-crossing or DK crush with two times proximal SB re-crossing in T type bifurcation model. The size of the gap in DK crush technique was smaller than that of classic crush. In Y type bifurcation model, both DK crush and culotte stenting left no gap compared to T type bifurcation model. Two times proximal SB re-crossing in culotte stenting resulted in a new stent carina formation after FKBI. Conclusions Distal bifurcation angle was an anatomatic predictor of gap formation in two-stent technique. In T type bifurcation model, the size of gap in DK crush technique was smaller than that of classic crush. It was suggested to perform two times proximal SB re-crossing for DK crush technique and distal SB re-crossing for culotte stenting.%目的:研究不同双支架术式(包括经典挤压支架术、双对吻挤压支架术和裙裤支架术)在不同分叉角度的分叉血管模型中的表现。方法基于不同分叉角度的硅树脂分叉血管模型,全程使用微聚焦相机照相,观察运用不同双支架术后的支架形态学以及分支开口间隙区的差异。结果基于“T”型分叉(远端分叉角度90°):运用经典挤压支架术,再次放置导丝从远端网眼进入分支,完成对吻扩张后,分支开口嵴侧无支架钢梁覆盖;无论是经典挤压支架术(再次放置

  20. Functional profile determination "trained" and "untrained" by the speed of the bar on the bench press DETERMINACIÓN DEL PERFIL FUNCIONAL “ENTRENADOS” Y “NO ENTRENADOS” SEGÚN LA VELOCIDAD DE LA BARRA EN EL PRESS DE BANCA [Functional profile determination "trained" and "untrained" by the speed of the bar on the bench press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. J. Chirosa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A descriptive study was designed to explore differences in strength, power and velocity in an incremental load protocol in bench press (PB, to obtain an indicator to catalogue a subject as “trained“ or “untrained” in the PB exercise.. Thirty male subjects consisted two groups, “trained group”, consisted of the participants whose one repetition maximum (1RM exceeded his body weight (BW and “untrained group” consisted of participants whose 1RM was less than their BW. The value of 1RM was 82.33 ± 11.09 kg and 59.67 ± 5.16 kg, in the trained and untrained groups, respectively. The indicator of the level of strength (kg 1RM / kg BW in the trained group was greater than 1, and lower in the untrained group. The average strength showed significant differences (p BW, while when this ratio is less than 1 (1RMKeywords: 1RM, Evaluation of the strength, functional profile, manifestations of strength.Un estudio descriptivo fue diseñado para explorar diferencias en fuerza, potencia y velocidad, en un protocolo incremental de cargas en press de banca (PB, de esta forma se pretendió obtener un indicador para catalogar el perfil de un sujeto como “entrenado” y “no entrenado” en el ejercicio del PB. Treinta participantes varones conformaron los grupos; “grupo entrenados” conformado por los participantes con una repetición máxima (1RM superior a su peso corporal (BW y “grupo no entrenados” conformado por los participantes con 1RM menor a su BW. El valor de 1RM fue 82.33 ± 11.09 kg y 59.67 ± 5.16  kg, en el grupo entrenados y no entrenados respectivamente. El indicador del nivel de fuerza (kg 1RM / kg BW en el grupo entrenados fue superior a 1 e inferior en el grupo no entrenados. La fuerza media mostró diferencias significativas (p BW, cuando esta relación es inferior a 1 (1RMPalabras clave: 1RM, evaluación de la fuerza, perfil funcional, manifestaciones de fuerza.

  1. Design and analysis of fingerprint firearms box based on Think Design and ANSYS WorkBench%利用Think Design和WorkBench的指纹枪械盒设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈东帆; 王照亮; 汪红; 李良

    2011-01-01

    为给国家公安机关、司法机关提供更为安全的保管枪支方案,设计出一套更为先进、稳妥的指纹枪械盒.结合成熟的指纹识别技术与计算机仿真技术,在三维造型软件Think Design中进行指纹枪械盒的结构设计,并通过 Think Design 与 ANSYS的接口模块将模型导入ANSYS WorkBench软件中进行力学分析和疲劳测试,设计出满足使用要求的模型.在ANSYS环境中,验证盒体结构设计的合理性,并进行结构优化,设计出合理、稳固的指纹枪械盒.该设计同时验证了Think Design与ANSYS结合的技术路线更为高效.%As to provide a more secure storage design of firearms for the national public security organs and judicial organs,design a more advanced and reliable fingerprint firearms box. Combining fingerprint recognition technology with sophisticated computer simulation technology,in 3D modeling software Think Design, make structure design of fingerprint firearms box, and lead the model into ANSYS WorkBench through one interface module which is provided by Think Design company. Then,make mechanical analysis and fatigue test in WorkBench environment for the purpose of designing one perfect model. Finally,integrate fingerprint identification technology with model to develop a fingerprint firearms box meets the market demand. This design solution also proves the technical route of integrating Think Design and ANSYS more efficient.

  2. 电动助力转向系统控制策略快速测试平台研究%Rapid Test-bench for Electric Power Steering Control Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜常清; 李晃; 颜伏伍

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility and reliability of control strategy for electric power steering system ( EPS) needed to be verified un-der various working conditions.The test was based on the fast and real-time simulation of resistance torque of EPS system and input torque of steering wheel.According to the convenience of graphical programming of Matlab/Simulink and real -time of dSPACE systems, the EPS rapid control prototype was established.The signal of control EPS system service torque simulating the motor was generated.The EPS input signals including engine signals and vehicle speed signals were simulated in automotive envi-ronment.Various kinds of information were collected during the course of EPS work.The obtained test results were displayed and analyzed based on the interface of man-machine in the Control-Desk environment.The test bench of EPS control strategy was eventually built.The debugging and actual application results showed that the test bench was easy and stable to use and the test precision met the design requirements.%为了实时测试验证在各种服役条件下电动助力转向系统( EPS)控制策略的可行性与可靠性,基于灵活、快速和实时的模拟EPS系统阻力矩和方向盘输入力矩,运用Matlab/Simulink图形化编程的便利性和dSPACE系统的实时性建立EPS快速控制原型,产生控制EPS系统服役力矩模拟电机的控制信号,模拟车载环境下的发动机信号、车速信号等EPS输入信号,采集EPS工作过程中的各种信息,并将测试结果在Con-trolDesk环境的人机交互界面进行显示和分析,最终搭建了EPS控制策略快速测试平台。测试与运用结果表明,试验台使用方便稳定,测试精度满足设计要求。

  3. 基于 TwinCAT 的主减速器试车台监测系统设计%Design of monitoring system for a main gearbox bench based on TwinCAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雄斌; 夏继强; 满庆丰

    2015-01-01

    Against the requirements of signal acquisition and monitoring of type X helicopter main gearbox bench,the bench moni-toring system based on TwinCAT was designed.With EtherCAT and the fieldbus CANopen and PROFIBUS-DP,two distributed bus networks were constituted for a variety of signal;the soft-PLC technology TwinCAT was used for data processing,monitoring and alarming,and communicated with HMI through ADS;HMI functions including user management,display of monitoring and a-larming data,inquiry of history data were realized based on.NET,and data management through the database Microsoft SQL Serv-er 2008.The design and development of the system was introduced detailed.Practice showed that the system had a good stability and real-time performance.%针对某型号直升机主减速器试车台的信号采集与监测要求,设计了以TwinCAT为核心的试车台监测系统。采用CANopen与PROFIBUS-DP现场总线和EtherCAT总线构成二级分布式总线网络,实现对多种信号的数据采集;采用基于TwinCAT软PLC技术进行数据的处理、监测报警,并通过ADS通信与上位机人机接口( HMI)进行交互;基于.NET平台实现上位机用户管理、监测报警数据显示及历史数据查询等,使用Microsoft SQL Server 2008大型关系数据库实现数据管理。详细介绍了系统的设计与开发过程,现场应用表明,系统具有较好的稳定性和实时性。

  4. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  5. Risk assessment of coumarin using the bench mark dose (BMD) approach: children in Norway which regularly eat oatmeal porridge with cinnamon may exceed the TDI for coumarin with several folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotland, T Ø; Paulsen, J E; Sanner, T; Alexander, J; Husøy, T

    2012-03-01

    Coumarin is a naturally occurring flavouring substance in cinnamon and many other plants. It is known that coumarin can cause liver toxicity in several species, and it is considered a non-genotoxic carcinogen in rodents. By using the bench mark dose approach we re-assessed coumarin toxicity and established a new TDI for coumarin of 0.07 mg/kg bw/day. Oral intake of coumarin is related to consumption of cinnamon-containing foods and food supplements. Cinnamon is a widely used spice in Norway, and can be used as topping on oatmeal porridge. Based on analyses of coumarin in Norwegian foods, intake calculations for children and adults were conducted, and a risk assessment of coumarin in the Norwegian population was performed. Intake estimates of coumarin show that small children eating oatmeal porridge several times a week sprinkled with cinnamon could have a coumarin intake of 1.63 mg/kg bw/day and may exceeding the TDI with several folds. Adults drinking cinnamon-based tea and consuming cinnamon supplements also can exceed TDI. The coumarin intake could exceed the TDI by 7- to 20-fold in some intake scenarios. Such large daily exceedances of TDI, even for a limited time period of 1-2 weeks, cause concern of adverse health effects.

  6. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  7. A Bench Top Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer System for Accurate Analysis of Trace Noble Gas%准确分析微量惰性气体的轻便四极杆质谱系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张子斌; Adolf.Goetz; 韦冠一; 李雪松; H.Gerken; 常永福

    2004-01-01

    A Bench top Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer System for Accurate Analysis of Trace Noble Gas was introduced in this paper. The inlet system was a especially designed one. And a capacitance pressure gauge with its linearity less than 0.01% was used to measure the fixed volume sample ratio. By using the calibration gas with the uncertainty of which less than 0.1% ,isotope condensed diluent could be quantified online. The procedure is done by alternate online mixture gas measurement of diluent gas, calibration gas to quantify the diluent gas, and diluent gas, sample gas to quantify the sample gas. The precision of six inlet from the same sample is +_0.13%0; The precision of six getting sample from the same source is less than ±0.5%. Self test was done by testing the mixture gas got with weighing method, in which consists Kr and Xe of 30 mg/kg. The system uncertainty tested to be below ±1%.

  8. On the Folk Sports of Sacrificial Ceremony of Rural Temple in North Fujian---Taking Bench Dragon Dance as an Example%闽北村庙祭祀仪式中的民俗体育---以舞板凳龙为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙荣艾

    2015-01-01

    This article analyzes the contemporary remains, cultural characteristics, cultural changes and modern inheritance of bench dragon dance in sacrificial ceremony of rural temple in Northern Fujian by using field investigation, literature date and so on. The result shows that the rural temple culture could provide an important carrier for bench dragon in Northern Fujian. Bench dragon dance in sacrifi-cial ceremony of rural temple in Northern Fujian has five characteristics:religiousness, amalgamation, regionality, entertainment and group character. The basic sustainable development strategy of bench dragon dance in sacrificial ceremony of rural temple in Northern Fujian in-cludes:cling to the parent folk activities, building of cultural-ecological villages, government support and so on.%采用田野调查﹑文献资料等研究方法,对闽北村庙祭祀仪式中的舞板凳龙习俗在当代遗存﹑文化特点﹑文化变迁和现代传承进行研究。研究结果表明:村庙文化是闽北板凳龙得以活态传承的重要载体;闽北村庙祭祀仪式中的板凳龙习俗具有宗教性﹑融合性﹑区域性﹑娱乐性和群体性等文化特点。依附民俗母体﹑文化生态村建设和政府支持等是闽北板凳龙可持续发展的主要策略。

  9. 基于C/S模式的成像测井仪器调试台架软件系统研制%Development of the Test-bench Software System for Imaging Logging Tool Based on the C/S Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨喜峰; 鞠晓东; 吴文河

    2013-01-01

    根据微电阻率扫描测井仪调试台架软件功能需求,在对比C/S和B/S两种通讯模式基础上,确定基于C/S模式的软件通讯结构.为提高调试台架软件的可移植和扩展性,引入相应软件技术:前端机通过内核模块方法和多线程技术实现驱动程序动态管理和功能模块独立;上位机中采用MDI软件框架和组件技术实现结构开放和功能独立.微电阻率扫描测井仪调试台架软件系统设计结构扩展性强,组件功能可复用性强,方便移植到同类调试台架.%According to demand of the Micro-resistivity canning tool test-bench software demand, C/S and B/S two kinds of communication modes are contrasted, then confirms the software communication structure based on C/ S mode. In order to improve the portability and expansibility of the test-bench software, the corresponding software technology is introduced: front end machine realizes driver dynamic management and the independent function through the kernel modules method and multithread technology, main machine brings about the opening up of software structure and independent function through the MDI software framework and component technology. Based on the micro-resistivity scanning tool test-bench software system of above software technology has stronger portability and scalability, can easily transplant to other test- bench.

  10. 高速列车车端关系综合试验台试验研究%Experimental study on the comprehensive test bench of high-speed train cabinet-end relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王英波; 李明; 丛大成; 许宏光; 韩俊伟

    2012-01-01

    To verify whether the comprehensive test bench of cabinet-end relationship for high-speed train can meet the demand or not, the positioning precision, maximum motion range, forward kinematics, dynamic tracking performance and maximum output speed tests were carried out. The results indicate that the maximum positioning error of translational motion is 0. 1 mm and the maximum positioning error of rotation motion is 0. 1 °, far superior to the actual demand. The forward kinematics of the Stewart parallel manipulator is precise enough and ean be used for monitoring the real-time state of the system. In the dynamic tracking test, the maximum aptitude attenuation and the maximum phase lag occur in the Ydirection, 0. 755 dB and 25.92°, respectively, significantly better than the amplitude attenuation 3 dB and phase lag 90°. The maximum output speed of three translational motion can meet the 0. 2 m/s requirement. The results show that cabinet-end relationship comprehensive test bench can fully meet the demand of the high-speed train cabinet-end relationship test and has space for further improving performance.%为了验证基于Stewart并联机器人的车端关系综合试验台能否满足车端关系试验的要求,进行静态定位精度、最大运动范围、运动学正解、动态跟踪特性和最大输出速度试验.结果表明,试验台最大平移运动定位误差0.1mm,最大旋转运动定位误差0.1°,远优于车端关系试验实际需求,Stewart并联机器人运动学正解精确,可用于系统状态实时监控;动态跟踪特性中,最大幅值衰减和相位滞后均发生在Y向,分别为0.755dB和25.92°,明显优于幅值衰减3dB和相位滞后小于90°的要求;三向平移运动最大输出速度均能够达到0.2m/s的要求.表明车端关系综合试验台完全能够满足高速列车车端关系试验的要求,并且具备进一步提升性能的空间.

  11. Hardware-in-the-loop test bench research of hybrid energy storage systems in electric vehicles%纯电动汽车车载电源性能在环测试平台研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; Mehrdad Kazerani; 马飞

    2014-01-01

    为研究纯电动汽车车载电源性能,提出并搭建了由异步电动机和直流电动机组成的在环测试平台。异步电动机用来模拟纯电动汽车的牵引电动机,直流电动机用来模拟汽车行驶时的阻力和惯量,对异步电动机和直流电动机分别实施转速控制和转矩控制。分析了电动汽车行驶工况,给出了简单循环工况下参考转速、转距和功率。设计了异步电动机调速系统转速控制器和电流控制器,建立了异步电动机调速系统的数学模型,提出了基于自适应模糊神经网络控制的异步电动机调速系统。仿真和实验结果表明,基于自适应模糊神经网络控制的调速系统明显优于PID控制的交流调速系统,在环测试平台能够较好跟踪参考转速和参考转距的变化。%Hybrid energy storage systems (HESS) play an important role in electric vehicles. This paper mainly focuses on a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for testing the performance of HESS. The scenario of an induction motor and a DC motor was proposed. The induction motor was used as a traction motor while the DC motor worked as the load and moment of inertia of the vehicle. Speed control was implemented on the induction motor while torque control was applied to the DC motor. The speed, torque and power of the traction motor were obtained from a simple drive cycle based on real parameters. The motor speed was given as a reference of the induction motor while the load torque was used as a reference of the DC motor. The speed control system of the induction motor and the torque control of the DC motor were analyzed and designed. Meanwhile, the speed control system of the induction motor was modeled. Adaptive fuzzy neural-network control was proposed to achieve high accuracy due to the low accuracy of PID control. Simulation and experimental results agreed with the proposal. The test bench follows the reference speed and reference torque

  12. Enxertia de mesa de Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. sobre Passiflora alata Curtis, em ambiente de nebulização intermitente Bench graft of Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. on Passiflora alata Curtis, in intermittent misty atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávia Matos Silva

    2005-04-01

    diseases. The experiment has had as objective to verify the viability of the bench graft of yellow passion fruit plant (Passiflora edulis Sims f. flavicarpa Deg. on to the sweet passion fruit plant (Passiflora alata Curtis, in greenhouse with 50% of light reduction, endowed with system of intermittent misty. It was conducted from August 2001 to May 2002 at Experimental Station of UNESP - Campus of Ilha Solteira, Selvíria - MS/Brazil. The used experimental design was randomized blocks, totalizing four treatments (T1 - cleft grafting, with graft of the terminal part of the branches; T2 - whip grafting, with graft of the terminal part of the branches; T3 - cleft grafting, with graft of the medium part of the branches; T4 - whip grafting, with graft of the medium part of the branches, with five repetitions and 25 cuttings grafted for portion. The evaluated variabilities were: a percentage of survival of the grafted cuttings; b percentage of rooted grafted cuttings; c number of emitted sprouts by grafted cutting; d number of leaves emitted by grafted cutting; e dry matter mass of the root, stem, leaf and plant. It can be concluded that: the technique of bench graft applied to the passion fruit plant was shown viable, with excellent survival and rooting percentages.

  13. Simulation of regulatory driving cycle for motorcycle on the engine test bench%摩托车法规行驶循环的发动机台架模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尚会超; 张力; 陈江; 侯建军; 徐凤雏; 曾凡镔

    2013-01-01

    Dynamic performance test methods and experiments of motorcycle engine are investigated. The models of clutch, transmission and brake are simulated by changing the resistance torque imposed by the dynamometer to the engine and with the moment of inertia and road resistance data, the model of a 125 mL motorcycle is established on the dynamic engine test bench. On this basis, the road tests are simulated with models of different inertial mass. Compared with the experiments on the drum tester, the results show that when the inertial mass is set to 1.1 times the datum mass of the motorcycle, the deviations of its maximum speed, sliding distance and acceleration time are no more than 3% and the fuel consumption of 100 km is no more than 5% except the speed of 35 km/h. Through driver operational model, the effect of different gear change models on vehicle acceleration performance is studied. Finally, the regulatory driving cycle for motorcycle is implemented on the dynamic bench and the measurements show that it has high ability to accurately control speed.%开展了摩托车发动机动态性能测试方法和试验的研究.在动态台架上,通过改变测功机施加到发动机连接轴上的阻力矩来模拟离合器、变速器及制动器等模型,并根据测试的转动惯量及道路阻力等数据,完成了某款125mL摩托车整车模型的建立.分别对采用不同惯性质量模型的道路试验进行模拟,并与转鼓试验台上的测试数据进行对比.结果表明,当惯性质量为整车基准质量1.1倍时,其最大车速、滑行距离和5挡超越加速时间的误差都在3%以内,而等速百公里油耗试验,除了车速在35 km/h外,其余误差都在5%以内,模拟结果与试验结果吻合良好.利用驾驶员操作特性模型,研究了不同换挡规律对车辆加速性能的影响.最后,在动态台架上完成了摩托车法规行驶循环的模拟,其具有较高的控制车速轨迹精度的能力.

  14. Cryopreserved tracheal segments: a new tool for bench surgical training in thoracic surgery Segmentos criopreservados de traqueia: uma nova ferramenta para auxiliar o treinamento na cirurgia torácica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avelina Sotres-Vega

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To present a new low-cost high fidelity bench model of cryopreserved trachea that can be used to learn surgical skills from medical students to cardiothoracic surgery fellows. METHODS: Ten tracheas were harvested from ten non-trachea related research dogs at the moment of euthanasia. Each trachea was trimmed in six or seven rings segments. They were cryopreserved and stored during 60 days. The day programmed for surgical skills practice, they were thawed to room temperature. RESULTS: Forty segments have been used. After defrosting, all the segments kept their normal anatomic shape and structural integrity. Two incisions were made on every tracheal segment and sutured with running or separate stitches with 5-0 polypropilene. There were no complications such as cartilage ruptures, neither tears on the mucosae, the cartilages nor the membranous posterior membrane. CONCLUSIONS: The cryopreserved trachea is a high fidelity, practical, reproducible, portable, low-cost bench model. It allows cardiothoracic fellows to learn how to handle a trachea, as well as to perfect their surgical and suture abilities before applying them on a real patient's trachea.OBJETIVO: Apresentar novo modelo de traquéia criopreservada de baixo custo e alta fidelidade que pode ser usado tanto por estudantes de medicina como por cirurgiões cardiotorácicos no aprendizado e desenvolvimento de suas habilidades cirúrgicas. MÉTODOS: Foram coletados amostras de dez traquéias de dez cães utilizados para pesquisa após a eutanásia. Cada segmento de traquéia foi dividida em seis ou sete anéis, criopreservadas e armazenadas durante 60 dias. No dia programado para a prática cirúrgica os segmentos foram descongelados a temperatura ambiente. RESULTADOS: Foram utilizados 40 segmentos no estudo. Após o descongelamento todos os segmentos mantiveram sua forma anatômica e sua integridade estrutural. Foram realizadas duas incisões em cada segmento traqueal que foram

  15. Research of Braking Energy Recovery Control Algorithm Based on Single Wheel Bench%基于单轮台架制动能量回收控制算法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘喜明; 孙仁云; 张霞

    2011-01-01

    Electric vehicle can provide a good braking performance under braking,while energy recovery can be guaranteed is an important feature for the electric vehicle control system.We propose a control algorithm which takes single-wheel ABS brake in our laboratory as the prototype bench,which can allocate the relationship between the braking force and the electronic brake force properly,and meanwhile,the braking energy recovery is also considered when the electric vehicle is under braking.It can make the electric vehicle has a good economic fitness in the premise of getting a safety brake,which has an important practical significance to extend driving range of electric vehicles.%电动汽车在制动情况下提供一个良好制动性能的同时保证其能进行能量回收是电动汽车能量回收控制系统的一个重要特性。针对此特性,以本实验室的单轮ABS制动台架为原型,提出了一套控制算法,不仅合理地分配了制动器制动力和电机制动力之间的关系,而且顾及到了制动时进行制动能量回收的问题,使得电动汽车在获得制动安全性的前提下有一个良好的经济适用性,这对延长电动汽车的续驶里程有着重要的实际意义。

  16. 测试台中自制数字式定时器的实现与应用%Realization and application of the self digital timer instrument in test bench system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂新; 蒋敏玉

    2014-01-01

    首先阐述了数字式定时器在回旋管测试台系统中的组成框图及其重要性。研究并利用数字处理器的外部总线接口实现了对可编程器件的连接控制,并重点叙述了总线的读写时序关系和有关接口模块的实现代码。在系统设计中考虑了过脉宽和过占空比现象对设备的影响并给出了有效解决方案。借助人机界面设备可以很方便地实现对定时器的输出脉冲宽度和重复频率的设置,同时还解决了参数记忆保存的问题。基于数据总线实现了对嵌入式芯片的控制,该方式对普通自制式仪表设计具有借鉴意义。%This paper firstly introduces the system composition of the self digital timer in the gyrotron test bench system and the equipment importance. Research and using digital signal process' external bus interface connect with the complex programmable logic device. The bus read-write timing diagram include the interface program code is described emphatically. In this system design, the fault protection of over pulse width and over pulse duty is covered with solution. It is easy to set and store the pulse timer's pulse width and frequency value. The application results of controlling embedded chip based on bus show the reference to similar self instrument design.

  17. A kinetic and Kinematic analysis in two assessment situation with bench press. Free Weight vs Smith Machine. Project pilot. ANÁLISIS CINÉTICO Y CINEMÁTICO DEL PRESS DE BANCA EN DOS SITUACIONES DE EVALUACIÓN: PRESS BANCA LIBRE VS PRESS BANCA MÁQUINA SMITH. PROYECTO PILOTO [A kinetic and Kinematic analysis in two assessment situation with bench press. Free Weight vs Smith Mach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Monje

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study examines the most relevant kinetic and kinematics variables in two bench press exercises; Smith Machine (PMS vs. free weights (PBL. Two trained subjects participated in the research following informed consent. To determine the maximum load (1-RM, two incremental protocols were used for PMS and PBL. Subject 1 (S-1 produced force values of 770N and 837N, peak force of 28ms and 12ms, in PBL and PMS respectively. Values for subject 2 (S-2 were 693N and 849N, PMF of 60ms and 66ms for PBL and PMS respectively. Detailed analyses of the following variables were performed; velocity curves for each load, the “sticking period”, the distances of grip width, and changes in bar inclination during the ascent phase of the lift were examined. The key findings of this research, and the basis for future research demonstrate that PBL is recommended as a training exercise, while more reliable information regarding force variables can be attained through using PMS in measurement sessions. Key Words: Bench Press, smith machine, free weight, strength assessment, upper limb. En este estudio piloto se analizan algunas de las variables cinéticas y cinemáticas que pueden afectar a la situación de ejecución/evaluación del Press de Banca, en máquina Smith (PMS vs con barra y discos (PBL. Dos sujetos entrenados participaron en esta investigación habiendo sido informados previamente de la finalidad de la misma. En dos momentos se llevó a cabo un protocolo incremental de cargas hasta alcanzar su máximo peso a desplazar en una repetición (1-RM, uno para el PMS y otro para el PBL. El Sujeto 1 (S-1 manifestó valores de fuerza de 770 y 837 N, en PBL y PMS, alcanzando este pico máximo de fuerza (PMF a los 28 y 12 ms, respectivamente. En el caso del Sujeto 2 (S-2, los valores de PMF fueron de 693 y 849 N, empleando un tiempo en alcanzar estos PMF fue de 60 y 66 ms, en PBL y PMS, respectivamente. Se realizó un análisis detallado de las curvas de 

  18. Air-Decking Technique in Bench Blasting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Hong-bing; LU Wen-bo; WU Liang

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism and the design parameters of blasting with air-decking are studied. The theory of detonation waves is used to investigate the processes of the one-dimensional plane detonation wave within a borehole. The interaction of the rarefaction wave with an interface and reflection on a rigid wall is also analyzed. The same courses of the shock wave are also investigated. This decides the distribution of the pressure of the explosion products changing with time along the borehole. Based on the above theoretical analysis, two conditions should be met for a reasonable range of values of the air-decking ratio in blasting rock. First, the rarefaction wave from the contact interface between detonation products and air reaches the bottom earlier than that of the reflected shock wave from the end of the stemming. Second,the reflected shock wave reaches the contact interface between the detonation products and air earlier than that of the reflected rarefaction wave from the bottom of the borehole. Finally, the reasonable value of the air-decking ratio must be decided theoretically in air-decking blasting. For different explosives, the reasonable range of air-decking ratio varies from 0.15 to 0.4. This result is well consistent with what was obtained by previous researchers.

  19. Bench Measurements of Low Frequency Transverse Impedance

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, Friedhelm; Mostacci, A

    2003-01-01

    For frequencies below 10 MHz the classical two wire transmission line method is subject to difficulties in sensitivity and measurement uncertainties. Thus for evaluation of the low frequency transverse impedance properties of the LHC dump kicker a modified version of the two wire transmission line has been used. It consists, in the present case, of a 10 turn loop of approximately 1 meter length and 2 cm width. The change of input impedance of the loop is measured as a function of the surroundings and by using a proper reference (metallic beampipe) these changes are converted into a meaningful transverse beam coupling impedance. Measurements of several calibration objects have shown close agreement with theoretical results.

  20. The last magnet on the bench

    CERN Document Server

    2007-01-01

    A ceremony was held on Thursday, 1st March, to commemorate the end of the cryostat assembly and cryogenic testing on the LHC super-conducting magnets. The team, consisting of CERN staff, several industrial support teams and a hundred guest engineers from India, have tested 2000 magnets over the last four years.

  1. Nutrition in cachexia: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konishi, Masaaki; Ishida, Junichi; von Haehling, Stephan; Anker, Stefan D; Springer, Jochen

    2016-05-01

    As malnutrition is often present in cachexia, nutritional intervention has been one of the widely accepted strategies. A literature review of cachexia models with dietary interventions in the present issue of this journal pointed out that the majority of nutrient intervention studies were of n-3 fatty acid, mainly eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. Effect on protein catabolism and anti-inflammation are most pronounced benefits of n-3 fatty acid. The effectiveness of n-3 fatty acid may depend on control diet or even be attributed to the polyunsaturated fatty acid deficiency inadvertently produced in control group. However, there is not enough clinical evidence to support a benefit of n-3 fatty acid substitution in patients with cachexia. The second important result from this review is that the majority of studies did not provide information about dietary design or did not standardize design, content, source, and overall composition. To guide dietary design for researchers in preclinical studies, a model has been proposed in this review, which may be useful to predict the efficacy of new dietary intervention in cachexia science. From a clinical point of view, the limited effectiveness of nutritional support in cachexia may partly be explained by the multifactorial nature of this condition. Cachexia differs from malnutrition inasmuch as malnutrition can be reversed by adequate nutrition and/or by overcoming problems of absorption or utilization of nutrients, but cachexia cannot be successfully treated by nutrition alone. Multidisciplinary approach including the assessment and intervention in feeding, appetite, swallowing, exercise, psychosocial, and psychological issue may be needed to improve nutrition in patients with cachexia.

  2. Modifiable futures: science fiction at the bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Colin

    2010-09-01

    Science fiction remains an alien dimension of the history of science. Historical and literary studies of science have become increasingly attentive to various "literary technologies" in scientific practice, the metaphorical features of scientific discourse, and the impact of popular science writing on the social development of scientific knowledge. But the function of science fiction and even literature as such in the history of scientific and technological innovation has often been obscured, misconstrued, or repudiated owing to conventional notions of authorship, influence, and the organic unity of texts. The better to address those close encounters where scientific practice makes use of speculative fiction, this essay proposes that we instead analyze such exchanges as processes of appropriation, remixing, and modification.

  3. Helicobacter pylori: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Chiba

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available With the exponential increase in research in the field of Helicobacter pylori a paradigm shift has occurred. It is now recognized that H pylori is a chronic infection of the stomach causing inflammation. Some patients remain asymptomatic, while others may develop dyspepsia, duodenal or gastric ulcer, gastric cancer or a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, the role of H pylori in contributing to nonulcer dyspepsia or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug gastropathy remains controversial. An effective vaccine against H pylori is years away. Major interest has focused on the questions "who should be investigated and therefore treated" and "what is the latest gold standard for eradication of H pylori"? In Europe, guidelines have been developed to help the practitioner answer these important questions. Canadian guidelines will soon be available. For persons with known peptic ulcer disease there should be unequivocal acceptance that the good clinical practice of eradicating H pylori will result in substantial savings in health care expenses. The original 'classical triple therapy' (bismuth, metronidazole and tetracycline [BMT] has now been surpassed by the combination of a proton pump inhibitor (PPI plus two antibiotics (metronidazole plus clarithromycin; amoxicillin plus clarithromycin; or amoxicillin plus metronidazole, each given twice a day for one week. In Canada, the regimen of omeprazole plus one antibiotic (amoxicillin or clarithromycin was approved recently but gives an eradication rate that is lower than the current target of 90%. According to the European (Mäastricht recommendations, if a single treatment attempt with PPI plus two antibiotics fails, PPI plus BMT is recommended.

  4. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  5. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  6. Imaging Neuroinflammation – from Bench to Bedside

    OpenAIRE

    Pulli, Benjamin; John W. Chen

    2014-01-01

    Neuroinflammation plays a central role in a variety of neurological diseases, including stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, and malignant CNS neoplasms, among many other. Different cell types and molecular mediators participate in a cascade of events in the brain that is ultimately aimed at control, regeneration and repair, but leads to damage of brain tissue under pathological conditions. Non-invasive molecular imaging of key players in the inflammation cascade holds promise for...

  7. Characterization of Flow Bench Engine Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voris, Alex; Riley, Lauren; Puzinauskas, Paul

    2015-11-01

    This project was an attempt at characterizing particle image velocimetry (PIV) and swirl-meter test procedures. The flow direction and PIV seeding were evaluated for in-cylinder steady state flow of a spark ignition engine. For PIV seeding, both wet and dry options were tested. The dry particles tested were baby powder, glass particulate, and titanium dioxide. The wet particles tested were fogs created with olive oil, vegetable oil, DEHS, and silicon oil. The seeding was evaluated at 0.1 and 0.25 Lift/Diameter and at cylinder pressures of 10, 25 and 40 inches of H2O. PIV results were evaluated through visual and fluid momentum comparisons. Seeding particles were also evaluated based on particle size and cost. It was found that baby powder and glass particulate were the most effective seeding options for the current setup. The oil fogs and titanium dioxide were found to deposit very quickly on the mock cylinder and obscure the motion of the particles. Based on initial calculations and flow measurements, the flow direction should have a negligible impact on PIV and swirl-meter results. The characterizations found in this project will be used in future engine research examining the effects of intake port geometry on in-cylinder fluid motion and exhaust gas recirculation tolerances. Thanks to NSF site grant #1358991.

  8. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  9. Pancreatic cancer: from bench to bedside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yaokai; Wu, Qing; Li, Xin; Gu, Xiaoqiang; Xu, Jiahua

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is recognized as the king of carcinoma, and the gap between basic research and clinical practice is difficult to improve the treatment effect. Translational medicine builds an important bridge between pancreatic cancer basic research and clinical practice from the pathogenesis, early diagnosis of pancreatic carcinoma, drug screening, treatment strategies and metastasis prediction. This article will carry on the concrete elaboration to the above several aspects.

  10. Periprosthetic Joint Infections: Clinical and Bench Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Legout

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Prosthetic joint infection is a devastating complication with high morbidity and substantial cost. The incidence is low but probably underestimated. Despite a significant basic and clinical research in this field, many questions concerning the definition of prosthetic infection as well the diagnosis and the management of these infections remained unanswered. We review the current literature about the new diagnostic methods, the management and the prevention of prosthetic joint infections.

  11. The Disability Dilemma: A Skeptical Bench & Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy F. Hensel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The legal profession is no stranger to the bias and prejudice present in American society. Members of the bar have been shown to engage in both conscious and subconscious sexism and racism, posing challenges to the profession as the profile of those practicing law has changed over the last several decades to admit increasing numbers of women and minorities.1 Nevertheless, it is notable that few, if any, members of the bar today would question openly whether women or people of color have the ability to be successful, productive members of the profession. Instead, the conventional wisdom is that the greatest obstacles to their success will come in the form of external barriers and institutional policies based on preconceived norms that do not acknowledge the divergent challenges faced by these group members.

  12. Thiomers--from bench to market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonengel, Sonja; Bernkop-Schnürch, Andreas

    2014-12-10

    Thiolated polymers or designated thiomers are obtained by immobilization of sulhydryl bearing ligands on the polymeric backbone of well-established polymers such as poly(acrylates) or chitosans. This functionalization leads to significantly improved mucoadhesive properties compared to the corresponding unmodified polymers, as disulfide bonds between thiol groups of thiomers and cysteine-rich glycoproteins of the mucus gel layer are formed. Furthermore, enzyme- and efflux-pump inhibiting as well as improved permeation-enhancing properties are advantages of thiolization. By the covalent attachment of mercaptonicotinamide substructures via disulfide bonds to thiolated polymers these properties are even substantially further improved and stability towards oxidation even in aqueous media can be provided. Meanwhile, more than 50 research groups worldwide are working on thiolated polymers. For certain thiomers the scale up process for industrial production has already been done and GMP material is available. Furthermore, safety of thiolated poly(acrylic acid), thiolated chitosan and thiolated hyaluronic acid could be demonstrated via orientating studies in human volunteers and via various clinical trials. The first product (Lacrimera® eye drops, Croma-Pharma) containing a chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate for treatment of dry eye syndrome will enter the European market this year. It is the only product providing a sustained protective effect on the ocular surface due to its comparatively much more prolonged residence time worldwide. Various further products utilizing, for instance, thiolated hyaluronic acid in ocular surgery are in the pipeline.

  13. Biomarkers of fever: from bench to bedside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Limper (Maarten)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This thesis aims to study biomarkers in inflammation and infection, with a special focus on the distinction between infectious and non-infectious fever. The thesis consists of three parts, part I being this introduction, in which the concept of fever in infectious and n

  14. Bench-top NMR-food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voda, M.A.; Duynhoven, Van J.

    2016-01-01

    In food research and development, relaxometric and diffusometric benchtop NMR methods have been used to obtain quantitative phase compositional and food microstructural parameters in a routine manner. The most commonly used applications are assessment of solid fat content, and water and oil dropl

  15. Controlled atmosphere bench-scale calorimetry revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Brohez, Sylvain; Fourneau, C.; Marlair, Guy; Breulet, Hervé

    2007-01-01

    International audience; The standard Cone Calorimeter has been designed with an "open configuration", allowing for testing of specimens through use of freely driven room air for combustion. For testing specimens in oxygen depleted atmospheres or in fuel rich combustion a modified apparatus working under controlled atmosphere can be used. To our Knowledge there is very few publications describing the use of such modified cone calorimeters and providing data regarding the effect of ventilation ...

  16. Of Pill Boxes and Piano Benches:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palen, Leysia Ann; Ballegaard, Stinne Aaløkke

    We report on the results of an ethnographic study of how elders manage their medication with the objective of informing the de-sign of in-home assistive health technology to support “medication adherence.” We describe the methods by which elders organize and remember to take their medication—meth...

  17. Design of Touch Screen Man-Machine Interface Test Bench for Vehicle Power Steering Pump%汽车动力转向油泵试验台触摸屏人-机界面设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玉琳; 王运; 刘光复

    2013-01-01

    传统的汽车动力转向油泵试验台采用键盘输入和LED显示实现人机交互,这种操作界面对人员的素质要求比较高,操作不直观也不方便,降低了产品的测试速率.触摸屏具有坚固耐用、反应速度快、节省空间、易于交流等诸多优点,使人与机交互更为直截了当.基于以上原因,采用MODBUS通信协议编写单片机通信程序,实现触摸屏和单片机的通信.根据试验大纲流程设计人-机界面的画面,该界面包含手动和自动两种方式,可以实现数据显示、参数设置、自动测试、报警提示等功能.使用结果表明,该人-机界面友好,测控精度高,操作简单方便,应用前景广阔.%Keyboard input and LED display are used in traditional vehicle power steering pump test bench to achieve man-machine interaction, in this interface, a high quality of personnel is required, and operation is neither visualized nor convenient, hence the rate of product testing is reduced. Touch screen has such advantages as a rugged-endurable in use, fast response, space-saving and easy to communicate, and many others, so the interaction between human and machine are made more straightforward. Based on above matters, by using MODBUS communication protocol to write single-chip communication program, the purpose of communication between the touch screen and single-chip was realized. According to the test outline process to design the man-machine interface screen, in the interface, the two modes; manual and automatic operation was contained, and data showing, parameter setting, automatic testing, alarm and other functions could be achieved. The usage results show that this man-machine interface possesses the attributes of friendliness, highly-precision in monitoring, convenient and simple in operation, therefore it has a broad application prospect.

  18. Experimental investigation of the physical & chemical properties and bench test of the marine biodiesel%船用生物柴油的理化指标及台架试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马林才; 周志国; 夏良耀; 刘大学; 季永青

    2012-01-01

    Several physical and chemical indicators of marine biodiesel such as surface tension, viscosity, its influence on rubber and copper were studied in this paper. The bench tests were carried out from a YC6J190 diesel engine fueled with marine biodiesel. The results showed that the proportion of marine biodiesel in the blended fuel should be 0 ~20%. Marine biodiesel swelled the rubber tube and eroded the copper. When fueled with the B20 marine blended biodiesel, the test results showed that the effective power decreased by 1. 8% , the fuel consumption rate increased by 0. 07% , HC emissions decreased by an average of 19. 17% and the soot decreased by an average of 25% at full engine load. HC decreased by an average of 23. 4% and the soot decreased by an average of 23% at part engine load. The soot emissions decreased by an average of 28. 8% in the free acceleration condition.%选取了船用生物柴油的部分理化指标如表面张力和粘度对橡胶件及铜片的影响进行了研究,并在YC6J190柴油机上进行了燃用船用生物柴油的台架试验.结果表明,船用生物柴油的掺混比例取0~20%时较为合适.船用生物柴油对橡胶件有溶胀作用,对铜片有腐蚀作用.燃用船用B20混合燃料后,柴油机在全负荷时,有效功率平均下降1.8%;燃油消耗率平均上升0.07%;HC排放平均下降19.17%,排气烟度平均下降25%.在1 500 r/min部分负荷时,HC平均下降23.4%,排气烟度平均下降23%.在自由加速时,炭烟排放平均下降28.8%.

  19. Does bench model fidelity interfere in the acquisition of suture skills by novice medical students? Será que a fidelidade do modelo de bancada interfere na aquisição das habilidades de sutura por estudantes de medicina iniciantes na prática cirúrgica?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Denadai

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Although several inanimate bench models have been described for training of suture skills, so far, there is no ideal method for teaching and learning this skill during medical education. The aim was to evaluate whether bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of suture skills by novice medical students. METHODS: 36 medical students with no surgical skills' background (novices were randomized to three groups (n = 12: theoretical suture training alone (control; low-fidelity suture training model (synthetic ethylene-vinyl acetate bench model; or high-fidelity suture training model (pig feet skin bench model. Pre- and post-tests were applied (performance of simple interrupted sutures and subdermal interrupted sutures on ox tongue. Three tools (Global Rating Scale with blinded assessment, effect size, and self-perceived confidence based on Likert scale were used to measure all suture performances. RESULTS: The post-training analysis showed that the students that practiced on bench models (hands-on training presented better (all p 0.80 in all measurements. Students felt more confident (all p OBJETIVO: Embora vários modelos de bancada inanimados tenham sido descritos para o treinamento de habilidades de sutura, até o momento, não existe um método ideal para esse ensino e aprendizagem durante a formação médica. O objetivo foi avaliar se a fidelidade dos modelos de bancada interfere na aquisição de habilidades de sutura em estudantes de medicina iniciantes na prática cirúrgica. MÉTODOS: 36 estudantes de medicina sem exposição prévia a habilidades cirúrgicas foram randomizados em três grupos (n = 12: treinamento de suturas baseado em materiais didáticos (controle; treinamento de suturas em modelo de baixa-fidelidade (modelo de bancada de etileno vinil acetato; ou treinamento de suturas em modelo de alta-fidelidade (modelo de bancada de pele de pata de porco. Foram aplicados pré e pós-testes (realização de pontos

  20. The Influence of Long Bench Training with Dynamic Postural Balance Instrument on Walking Function of Patients with Parkinson's Disease%动态姿态平衡仪长台训练对帕金森病患者步行功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑文华; 冯重睿; 张新斐

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of long bench training with dynamic postural balance instrument on the walking function of pa-tients with Parkinson's disease. Methods:60 cases of patients with Parkinson's disease were randomly divided into treatment group (30 cases) and control group (30 cases). The control group treated by conventional gait training;while the treatment group trained by long bench at the instrument according to the assessment result of dynamic postural balance instrument. Both two groups trained 30min per day, 5 day per week, and totally 8 weeks. Used WLK and SNT, TUGT in the long bench of dynamic postural balance instrument to evaluate the walking balance ability of patients be-fore treatment and after 8 weeks of the treatment. Results:The WLK, SNT, TUGT after treatment of both groups were all improved, but the degree of treatment group was significantly better than that of control group (P<0.05). Conclusion:The effect of long bench training with dynamic postural bal-ance instrument in improving the gait and walking balance ability of patients with Parkinson's disease is better than conventional training.%目的:探讨动态姿态平衡仪长台训练对帕金森病患者步行功能的影响。方法:选取60例符合标准的帕金森病患者,随机分为治疗组和对照组各30例。对照组进行传统的步态训练;治疗组根据动态姿态平衡仪评估结果采用仪器长台对患者进行步态训练。两组训练时间均为30min/d,5d/周,共8周。在治疗前和治疗8周后分别采用动态姿态平衡仪长台中的步行测试(WLK)和步行转向测试(SNT)、计时“起立-行走”测试(TUGT)评估患者的步行平衡能力。结果:两组治疗后步行测试(WLK)、步行转向测试(SNT)、TUGT结果均较前改善,但治疗组的改善程度明显大于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:运用动态姿态平衡系统长台步态训练对改善帕金森病患者步态及步

  1. 航空发动机数控系统在台架试验中的电磁干扰与防治研究%Research on Electromagnetic Interference and Prevention in the Bench Test Of Numerical Control System for Aircraft Engine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐奇军; 易伟; 李烨

    2013-01-01

    应用电磁干扰理论,分析了干扰案例的干扰机理和耦合通道,导出了干扰案例的等效电路,建立了Matlab仿真模型并进行了验证,最后根据上述模型给出了消除干扰的解决措施.Matlab仿真和台架试验结果表明,仿真模型和解决方案是合理、正确、可行的.该研究能够为航空发动机数控系统电磁干扰故障理论分析起一定的指导作用,有利于采取针对性措施,提高应急能力.%The electromagnetic interference case in the bench test of numerical control system for the aircraft engine is studied by using electromagnetic interference theory.Firstly,the major sources of interference and the major coupling channels are analyzed.Secondly,the equivalent circuit of the electromagnetic interference case is gotten,and the Matlab simulation model is built and verified.Finally,according to the proposed model,the solutions to eliminate interference are given.The simulation and bench test results show that the simulation model and the solutions are reasonable,correct and feasible.The study plays a guiding role in theory analysis on electromagnetic interference which is found in numerical control system of aircraft engines,and it is helpful to take specific measures and improve the capability of the emergency response.

  2. Study on Vickers 20VQ5 High-Pressure Pump Bench Evaluation Method for the Oxidation Durability of Hydraulic Oils%液压油氧化耐久性Vickers 20VQ5高压泵台架评定方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄胜军; 王泽恩

    2012-01-01

    To study the oxidation durability of hydraulic oils,the Vickers 20VQ5 high pressure vane pump test-bed system and hydraulic oil oxidation durability evaluation method were designed to do air entrainment test under high temperature and high pressure.The situation of oil viscosity,acid value increase and sludge formation was investigated.Reference oil experiment showed that the bench system keeps smooth operation,and can be used to distinguish different hydraulic oil oxidation durability and sludge formation trend,and can meet the testing and evaluation requirements of the development of long-lived hydraulic oil new products.%为考察液压油的氧化耐久性能,设计建立了Vickers 20VQ5高压叶片泵台架系统及液压油氧化耐久性评定方法,在高温、高压下进行空气夹带试验。考察油品黏度变化、酸值增加和油泥生成情况。参比油实验表明,台架运行平稳,能较好地区分不同液压油品氧化耐久性能和油泥生成趋势,满足长寿命液压油新产品开发的试验评定需求。

  3. Effects of static-stretching and whole-body-vibration during warm-ups on bench-press kinematics in males and females college-aged. [Efectos de los estiramientos estáticos y vibraciones durante el calentamiento en los parámetros cinemáticos del press banca en hombres y mujeres estudiantes].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esperanza Martín-Santana

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the effects of different specific warm-up protocols including static stretching (SS and whole body vibrations (WBV on kinematics and number of repetitions during a bench press set to failure in physically active male and female subjects. A secondary purpose was to analyze the role of sex on the warm-up induced effects. 24 participants (13 females and 11 males were randomly assigned to complete 3 experimental conditions in a cross-over design: SS, WBV and SS+WBV. After each condition, participants performed one bench-press set to volitional exhaustion with a load equivalent to the 60% of one-repetition maximum (1RM. No significant differences (P>0.05 were observed in number of repetitions, mean and maximal accelerative portion (AP, mean and maximal velocity, and lifting velocity time-course pattern. Males showed significantly higher values regarding number of repetitions achieved and maximal and mean lifting velocity. However, regarding the percentage of the concentric phase in which barbell is accelerated, there were no sex differences. In conclusion, no relevant difference in kinematics variables can be shown when applying any of these three different warm-up protocols, these results may be useful when designing training programs. We recommend the protocol SS due to the cost-benefit relationship. Resumen El objetivo de este estudio fue examinar el efecto de diferentes protocolos de calentamiento incluyendo estiramientos estáticos (EE y vibraciones de cuerpo entero (WBV en variables cinemáticas y número de repeticiones completadas en una serie de press banca realizada hasta el fallo muscular, en hombres y mujeres físicamente activos. Un segundo objetivo fue analizar el papel de la variable sexo en los efectos inducidos por el calentamiento. 24 participantes (13 mujeres y 11 hombres completaron, de forma aleatoria, 3 condiciones experimentales con un diseño cruzado: EE, WBV, y EE+WBV. Al terminar cada protocolo de

  4. Cancer chemoprevention with green tea catechins: from bench to bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirakami, Yohei; Shimizu, Masahito; Moriwaki, Hisataka

    2012-12-01

    Many epidemiological studies and a large number of experimental studies using a variety of animal models have observed that consumption or administration of green tea appears to exert cancer chemopreventive activity. Based on the results of numerous laboratory cell culture investigations, several mechanisms have been hypothesized to underlie the anti-cancer activity of green tea catechins, especially that of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the most abundant and active constituent in green tea. These mechanisms include promotion of anti-oxidant activity, inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1, regulation of the cell cycle, inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinase pathways, control of epigenetic modifications, and modulation of the immune system. Several recent interventional studies examining the anti-carcinogenic properties of green tea catechins in humans have yielded promising results that suggest the possibility of their application to human clinical trials. This review article analyzes the results of these studies to explicate the effects of consumption or administration of green tea and its constituents on malignancies observed to date and discuss future directions in this research field.

  5. Nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L. [RUST - Clemson Technical Center, Anderson, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. A process to reduce the nitrates to ammonia has been developed at ORNL. This technology creates a sludge lower in nitrates. This report describes stabilization possibilities of the sludge.

  6. Pseudoachondroplasia/COMP - translating from the bench to the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posey, Karen LaShea; Alcorn, Joseph L; Hecht, Jacqueline T

    2014-07-01

    Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) is a skeletal dysplasia characterized by disproportionate short stature, small hands and feet, abnormal joints and early onset osteoarthritis. PSACH is caused by mutations in thrombospondin-5 (TSP-5, also known as cartilage oligomeric matrix protein or COMP), a pentameric extracellular matrix protein primarily expressed in chondrocytes and musculoskeletal tissues. The thrombospondin gene family is composed of matricellular proteins that associate with the extracellular matrix (ECM) and regulate processes in the matrix. Mutations in COMP interfere with calcium-binding, protein conformation and export to the extracellular matrix, resulting in inappropriate intracellular COMP retention. This accumulation of misfolded protein is cytotoxic and triggers premature death of chondrocytes during linear bone growth, leading to shortened long bones. Both in vitro and in vivo models have been employed to study the molecular processes underlying development of the PSACH pathology. Here, we compare the strengths and weaknesses of current mouse models of PSACH and discuss how the resulting phenotypes may be translated to clinical therapies.

  7. Epigenetic control of autoimmune diseases: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picascia, Antonietta; Grimaldi, Vincenzo; Pignalosa, Orlando; De Pascale, Maria Rosaria; Schiano, Concetta; Napoli, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed several genes predisposing to autoimmunity, however, concordance rates in monozygotic twins are significantly below 50% for several autoimmune diseases. The limited presence of a strong genetic association only in some patients supports that other non-genetic mechanisms are active in these pathologies. Epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA signaling regulate gene expression and are sensitive to external stimuli and they might be as bridging between genetic and environmental factors. Some evidence has highlighted the involvement of epigenetic alterations in the pathogenesis of various autoimmune diseases giving rise to great expectations among clinicians and researchers. The direct role of these alterations in the initiation/progression of autoimmune diseases is still unclear. The knowledge in depth of these pathogenic and epigenetic mechanisms will increase the possibility of the control and/or prevention of autoimmune diseases through the use of drugs that target epigenetic pathways. Moreover, we could use epigenetic-related biomarkers to follow this complicated framework (for example H3K4me3 and miRNA-155 are among those proposed biomarkers). This article reviews current understanding of the epigenetic involvement in the field of autoimmune diseases especially in systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, sclerosis multiple and type 1 diabetes.

  8. Developing the Bench: Building An Effective Homeland Security Undergraduate Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-01

    University Savannah State University Jacksonville State University AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY University of Maryland University College...DATA University Courses American Public University - Charles Town, WV Emergency Planning Emergency Response to Terrorism Chemical...0195095707 AMERICAN PUBLIC UNIVERSITY 0195142632 University of Central Missouri 0195158342 Empire State College 0195332474 Virginia Commonwealth

  9. Nephrotic Syndrome in Children: From Bench to Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-C. Davin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome (INS is the most frequent form of NS in children. INS is defined by the association of the clinical features of NS with renal biopsy findings of minimal changes, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS, or mesangial proliferation (MP on light microscopy and effacement of foot processes on electron microscopy. Actually the podocyte has become the favourite candidate for constituting the main part of the glomerular filtration barrier. Most cases are steroid sensitive (SSINS. Fifty percents of the latter recur frequently and necessitate a prevention of relapses by nonsteroid drugs. On the contrary to SSINS, steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRINS leads often to end-stage renal failure. Thirty to forty percents of the latter are associated with mutations of genes coding for podocyte proteins. The rest is due to one or several different circulating factors. New strategies are in development to antagonize the effect of the latter.

  10. Ultrastable, Zerodur-based optical benches for quantum gas experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Hannes; Hellmig, Ortwin; Wenzlawski, André; Grote, Alexander; Rafipoor, Amir Jones; Rafipoor, Mona; Sengstock, Klaus; Windpassinger, Patrick

    2014-07-10

    Operating ultracold quantum gas experiments outside of a laboratory environment has so far been a challenging goal, largely due to the lack of sufficiently stable optical systems. In order to increase the thermal stability of free-space laser systems, the application of nonstandard materials such as glass ceramics is required. Here, we report on Zerodur-based optical systems which include single-mode fiber couplers consisting of multiple components jointed by light-curing adhesives. The thermal stability is thoroughly investigated, revealing excellent fiber-coupling efficiencies between 0.85 and 0.92 in the temperature range from 17°C to 36°C. In conjunction with successfully performed vibration tests, these findings qualify our highly compact systems for atom interferometry experiments aboard a sounding rocket as well as various other quantum information and sensing applications.

  11. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peltier, Amanda C; Donofrio, Peter D

    2012-07-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is the most common treatable chronic autoimmune neuropathy. Multiple diagnostic criteria have been established, with the primary goal of identifying neurophysiologic hallmarks of acquired demyelination. Treatment modalities have expanded to include numerous immunomodulatory therapies, although the best evidence continues to be for corticosteroids, plasma exchange, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). This review describes the pathology, epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of CIDP.

  12. Methanation of Bio-Syngas in a Bench Scale Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seemann, M.; Biollaz, S.; Binkert, P.; Hottinger, P.; Marti, T.; Schneebeli, J.

    2004-03-01

    Contaminants are the main obstacle for the use of biomass derived synthesis gas (bio-syngas) in catalytic thermochemical conversion processes for the generation of biofuels. To avoid excessive preliminary purification the overall process has to be very tolerant towards these contaminants. A suitable catalyst was characterised and favourable process parameters were identified to perform a long-term experiment with a slip-stream from an industrial biomass gasifier. Via stepwise removing of the cleaning units the amount of contaminants was increased during the experiment. A set of process parameters was found, which allowed to run the system with a minimum of purification resulting in a chemical efficiency of ca. 85 %. (author)

  13. Good Laboratory Practice Preventing Introduction of Bias at the Bench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macleod, Malcolm R.; Fisher, Marc; O'Collins, Victoria; Sena, Emily S.; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Bath, Philip M. W.; Buchan, Alistair; van der Worp, H. Bart; Traystman, Richard; Minematsu, Kazuo; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Howells, David W.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Purpose - As a research community, we have failed to demonstrate that drugs which show substantial efficacy in animal models of cerebral ischemia can also improve outcome in human stroke. Summary of Review - Accumulating evidence suggests this may be due, at least in part, to problems

  14. Natural killer cell immunotherapy: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna eDomogala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential of natural Killer (NK cells to target numerous malignancies in vitro has been well documented, however, only limited success has been seen in the clinic. Although NK cells prove non-toxic and safe regardless of the cell numbers injected, there is often little persistence and expansion observed in a patient which is vital for mounting an effective cellular response. NK cells can be isolated directly from peripheral blood (PB, umbilical cord blood (CB or bone marrow (BM, expanded in vitro using cytokines or differentiated in vitro from hematopoietic stem cells (HSC. Drugs that support NK cell function such as lenalidomide and bortezomib have also been studied in the clinic, however, the optimum combination, which can vary amongst different malignancies, is yet to be identified. NK cell proliferation, persistence and function can further be improved by various activation techniques such as priming and cytokine addition though whether stimulation pre or post injection is more favorable is another obstacle to be tackled. Here we review the various methods of obtaining and activating NK cells for use in the clinic whilst considering the ideal product and drug complement for the most successful cellular therapy.

  15. Immune regulation during parasitic infections : from bench to field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wammes, Linda Judith

    2013-01-01

    Helminth parasites are able to induce immune regulation in their host. Suppression of the host immune system is beneficial for both the parasite, by inhibiting anti-parasite immunity, and for the host, by preventing tissue damage due to excessive inflammation. There are indications that in countrie

  16. abc: The AspectBench Compiler for AspectJ

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allan, Chris; Avgustinov, Pavel; Christensen, Aske Simon;

    2005-01-01

    abc is an extensible, optimising compiler for AspectJ. It has been designed as a workbench for experimental research in aspect-oriented programming languages and compilers. We outline a programme of research in these areas, and we review how abc can help in achieving those research goals...

  17. Luminescent lanthanide cryptates: from the bench to the bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwier, Jurriaan M; Bazin, Hervé; Lamarque, Laurent; Mathis, Gérard

    2014-02-17

    The design and application of luminescent lanthanide cryptates for sensing biological interactions is highlighted through the review of the work performed in our laboratory and with academic collaborations. The path from the initial applications probing biochemical interaction in vitro to "state-of-the-art" cellular assays toward clinical applications using homogeneous time-resolved fluorescence technology is described. An overview of the luminescent lanthanide macrocyclic compounds developed at Cisbio in the recent past is given with an emphasis on specific constraints required by specific applications. Recent assays for drug-discovery and diagnostic purposes using both antibody-based and suicide-enzyme-based technology are illustrated. New perspectives in the field of molecular medicine and time-resolved microscopy are discussed.

  18. The NF1 gene revisited - from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Yoon-Sim; McPherson, John R; Ong, Choon-Kiat; Rozen, Steven G; Teh, Bin-Tean; Lee, Ann S G; Callen, David F

    2014-08-15

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a relatively common tumour predisposition syndrome related to germline aberrations of NF1, a tumour suppressor gene. The gene product neurofibromin is a negative regulator of the Ras cellular proliferation pathway, and also exerts tumour suppression via other mechanisms. Recent next-generation sequencing projects have revealed somatic NF1 aberrations in various sporadic tumours. NF1 plays a critical role in a wide range of tumours. NF1 alterations appear to be associated with resistance to therapy and adverse outcomes in several tumour types. Identification of a patient's germline or somatic NF1 aberrations can be challenging, as NF1 is one of the largest human genes, with a myriad of possible mutations. Epigenetic factors may also also contribute to inadequate levels of neurofibromin in cancer cells. Clinical trials of NF1-based therapeutic approaches are currently limited. Preclinical studies on neurofibromin-deficient malignancies have mainly been on malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumour cell lines or xenografts derived from NF1 patients. However, the emerging recognition of the role of NF1 in sporadic cancers may lead to the development of NF1-based treatments for other tumour types. Improved understanding of the implications of NF1 aberrations is critical for the development of novel therapeutic strategies.

  19. The NF1 gene revisited – from bench to bedside

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Yoon-Sim; McPherson, John R.; Ong, Choon-Kiat; Rozen, Steven G.; Teh, Bin-Tean; Lee, Ann SG; Callen, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a relatively common tumour predisposition syndrome related to germline aberrations of NF1, a tumour suppressor gene. The gene product neurofibromin is a negative regulator of the Ras cellular proliferation pathway, and also exerts tumour suppression via other mechanisms. Recent next-generation sequencing projects have revealed somatic NF1 aberrations in various sporadic tumours. NF1 plays a critical role in a wide range of tumours. NF1 alterations appear to b...

  20. Clinical utility of asthma biomarkers: from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijverberg SJH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Susanne JH Vijverberg,1,2,* Bart Hilvering,2,* Jan AM Raaijmakers,1 Jan-Willem J Lammers,2 Anke-Hilse Maitland-van der Zee,1,* Leo Koenderman2,* 1Division of Pharmacoepidemiology and Clinical Pharmacology, Utrecht Institute for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Science, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands; 2Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Medical Centre Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Asthma is a chronic disease characterized by airway inflammation, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and recurrent episodes of reversible airway obstruction. The disease is very heterogeneous in onset, course, and response to treatment, and seems to encompass a broad collection of heterogeneous disease subtypes with different underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. There is a strong need for easily interpreted clinical biomarkers to assess the nature and severity of the disease. Currently available biomarkers for clinical practice – for example markers in bronchial lavage, bronchial biopsies, sputum, or fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO – are limited due to invasiveness or lack of specificity. The assessment of markers in peripheral blood might be a good alternative to study airway inflammation more specifically, compared to FeNO, and in a less invasive manner, compared to bronchoalveolar lavage, biopsies, or sputum induction. In addition, promising novel biomarkers are discovered in the field of breath metabolomics (eg, volatile organic compounds and (pharmacogenomics. Biomarker research in asthma is increasingly shifting from the assessment of the value of single biomarkers to multidimensional approaches in which the clinical value of a combination of various markers is studied. This could eventually lead to the development of a clinically applicable algorithm composed of various markers and clinical features to phenotype asthma and improve diagnosis and asthma management. Keywords: asthma, airway inflammation, biological markers, pharmacogenomics, metabolomics

  1. Careers in Government: Bench Scientist to Policy Wonk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Katharine B.

    1998-04-01

    The U.S. system for graduate education in physics is arguably the most effective system yet devised for advanced training in physics. Focused as it is on original research, it teaches students to identify significant problems, study them in depth, and communicate the results. Because it trains them to be analytical, adaptable, persevering, and pragmatic problem solvers, it prepares them for a wide variety of nontraditional careers. Hence the demand for physicists by Wall Street and management consultant teams. Yet, as stressed in the 1995 report by the Committee on Science, Engineering and Public Policy (COSEPUP)("Reshaping the Graduate Education of Scientists and Engineers," COSEPUP; National Academy of Sciences/National Academy of Engineering/Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press, 1995), what is lacking is exposure to career information and guidance. Many students appear to be unaware of the range and richness of opportunities outside academe. In an effort to fill this gap, illustrative examples of diverse careers and career changes in government will be presented, together with examples of cooperative programs that can enhance the student's appreciation of career possibilities.

  2. Bias on the Bench: Sex, Judges, and Mock Trial Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noblitt, Lynnette S.; Zeigler, Sara L.; Westbrook, Miranda N.

    2011-01-01

    Given substantial evidence of sex discrimination in the legal profession and the role of attorneys and judges in perpetuating gender stereotypes, educators have an obligation to prepare female students for the challenges they will face, educate students of both sexes about the role of bias in litigation, and seek to mitigate the influence of…

  3. Dendritic Cell Cancer Vaccines: From the Bench to the Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamar Katz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recognition that the development of cancer is associated with acquired immunodeficiency, mostly against cancer cells themselves, and understanding pathways inducing this immunosuppression, has led to a tremendous development of new immunological approaches, both vaccines and drugs, which overcome this inhibition. Both “passive” (e.g. strategies relying on the administration of specific T cells and “active” vaccines (e.g. peptide-directed or whole-cell vaccines have become attractive immunological approaches, inducing cell death by targeting tumor-associated antigens. Whereas peptide-targeted vaccines are usually directed against a single antigen, whole-cell vaccines (e.g. dendritic cell vaccines are aimed to induce robust responsiveness by targeting several tumor-related antigens simultaneously. The combination of vaccines with new immuno-stimulating agents which target “immunosuppressive checkpoints” (anti-CTLA-4, PD-1, etc. is likely to improve and maintain immune response induced by vaccination.

  4. Performance of a bench-scale fast fluidized bed carbonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2014-01-01

    The carbonate looping process is a promising technology for CO2 capture from flue gas. In this process, the CO2 capture efficiency depends on the performance of a carbonator that may be operated as a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). In this paper, the carbonator performance is investigated...... by applying a new experimental method with accurate control of the particle recirculation rate. The experimental results show that the inlet calcium to carbon molar ratio is the main factor on the CO2 capture efficiency in the carbonator, that is, increasing the inlet Ca/C from 4 to 13 results in increasing...... the CO2 capture efficiency from 40 to 85% with limestone having a maximum CO2 capture capacity of only 11.5%. Furthermore, a reactor model for a carbonator is developed based on the Kunii-Levenspiels model. A key parameter in the model is the particle distribution along the height of the reactor, which...

  5. From Bench to Bedside: Immunotherapy for Prostate Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Wan-Chi Tse

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mainstay therapeutic strategy for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC continues to be androgen deprivation therapy usually in combination with chemotherapy or androgen receptor targeting therapy in either sequence, or recently approved novel agents such as Radium 223. However, immunotherapy has also emerged as an option for the treatment of this disease following the approval of sipuleucel-T by the FDA in 2010. Immunotherapy is a rational approach for prostate cancer based on a body of evidence suggesting these cancers are inherently immunogenic and, most importantly, that immunological interventions can induce protective antitumour responses. Various forms of immunotherapy are currently being explored clinically, with the most common being cancer vaccines (dendritic-cell, viral, and whole tumour cell-based and immune checkpoint inhibition. This review will discuss recent clinical developments of immune-based therapies for prostate cancer that have reached the phase III clinical trial stage. A perspective of how immunotherapy could be best employed within current treatment regimes to achieve most clinical benefits is also provided.

  6. Preventing deaths from cryptococcal meningitis: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Monika; Chiller, Tom

    2011-09-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis (CM), a fungal disease caused by Cryptococcus spp., is the most common form of meningitis and a leading cause of death among persons with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa. Detection of cryptococcal antigen, which is present several weeks before overt signs of meningitis develop, provides an opportunity to detect infection early. Screening persons with HIV for cryptococcal infection when they access healthcare can identify asymptomatic infected patients allowing for prompt treatment and prevention of death. A newly developed point-of-care assay for cryptococcal antigen, as well as growing evidence supporting the utility and cost-effectiveness of screening, are further reasons to consider broad implementation of cryptococcal screening in countries with a high burden of cryptococcal disease.

  7. Cardiac arrhythmia and heart failure: From bench to bedside

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Fu Xiao

    2011-01-01

    @@ Cardiac arrhythmia is an abnormal rate and/or rhythm of a heart due to its abnormal electrical impulse origination and/or propagation.Various etiologies can cause arrhythnuas.Heart failure(HF)is a clinical syndrome due to an impaired heart that can not pump sufficient blood to meet the systemic metabolic needs.The common causes of HF include myocardial infarction,hypertension,valvular heart disease,and cardiomyopathy.

  8. Intensive Sleep Re-Training: From Bench to Bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Lack

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Intensive sleep re-training is a promising new therapy for chronic insomnia. Therapy is completed over a 24-h period during a state of sleep deprivation. Improvements of sleep and daytime impairments are comparable to the use of stimulus control therapy but with the advantage of a rapid reversal of the insomnia. The initial studies have been laboratory based and not readily accessible to the patient population. However, new smart phone technology, using a behavioral response to external stimuli as a measure of sleep/wake state instead of EEG determination of sleep, has made this new therapy readily available. Technological improvements are still being made allowing the therapy to provide further improvements in the effectiveness of Intensive Sleep Re-training.

  9. Emerging therapies for Parkinson's disease: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarazi, F I; Sahli, Z T; Wolny, M; Mousa, S A

    2014-11-01

    The prevalence of Parkinson's disease (PD) increases with age and is projected to increase in parallel to the rising average age of the population. The disease can have significant health-related, social, and financial implications not only for the patient and the caregiver, but for the health care system as well. While the neuropathology of this neurodegenerative disorder is fairly well understood, its etiology remains a mystery, making it difficult to target therapy. The currently available drugs for treatment provide only symptomatic relief and do not control or prevent disease progression, and as a result patient compliance and satisfaction are low. Several emerging pharmacotherapies for PD are in different stages of clinical development. These therapies include adenosine A2A receptor antagonists, glutamate receptor antagonists, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, anti-apoptotic agents, and antioxidants such as coenzyme Q10, N-acetyl cysteine, and edaravone. Other emerging non-pharmacotherapies include viral vector gene therapy, microRNAs, transglutaminases, RTP801, stem cells and glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF). In addition, surgical procedures including deep brain stimulation, pallidotomy, thalamotomy and gamma knife surgery have emerged as alternative interventions for advanced PD patients who have completely utilized standard treatments and still suffer from persistent motor fluctuations. While several of these therapies hold much promise in delaying the onset of the disease and slowing its progression, more pharmacotherapies and surgical interventions need to be investigated in different stages of PD. It is hoped that these emerging therapies and surgical procedures will strengthen our clinical armamentarium for improved treatment of PD.

  10. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

  11. Membranous Nephropathy: A Journey From Bench to Bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Jean M; Beck, Laurence H; Salant, David J

    2016-07-01

    Lessons from an animal model that faithfully resembles human membranous nephropathy (MN) have informed our understanding of the pathogenesis of this organ-specific autoimmune disease and common cause of nephrotic syndrome. After it was established that the subepithelial immune deposits that characterize experimental MN form in situ when circulating antibodies bind to an intrinsic podocyte antigen, it was merely a matter of time before the human antigen was identified. The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor 1 (PLA2R) represents the major target antigen in primary MN, and thrombospondin type 1 domain-containing 7A (THSD7A) was more recently identified as a minor antigen. Serologic tests for anti-PLA2R and kidney biopsy specimen staining for PLA2R show >90% specificity and 70% to 80% sensitivity for the diagnosis of primary MN in most populations. The assays distinguish most cases of primary MN from MN associated with other systemic diseases, and sequential anti-PLA2R titers are useful to monitor treatment response. A positive pretransplantation test result for anti-PLA2R is also helpful for predicting the risk for posttransplantation recurrence. Identification of target epitopes within PLA2R and the genetic association of primary MN with class II major histocompatibility and PLA2R1 variants are 2 additional examples of our evolving understanding of this disease.

  12. From the drawing board to the test bench

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2014-01-01

    After seven years of design, prototyping and manufacturing, the Linac4 Drift Tube Linac (DTL) is being assembled in CERN's Building 181. In fact, the first DTL tank is just a few tests away from installation into the Linac4 tunnel. Let's check in on how this essential element of the accelerator complex has - at last - come into being.   A peek inside a Linac4 DTL tank. The Linac4 DTL is designed to take the new linear accelerator's H- ion beams from 3 to 50 MeV. Divided into three tanks, holding a total of 108 drift tubes in vacuum, each made from a dozen parts, and assembled with ancillary elements, cooling circuits and hundreds of bolts and screws, it’s no surprise it has been nicknamed a 'puzzle with thousands of pieces'. A trying tale Although the first tank will soon be ready for installation, constructing the DTLs has been a trying tale for the Linac4 team. “Not only were we tasked to design CERN's first drift tube lin...

  13. Atherosclerosis: from Bench to Bedside and from Pathophysiology to Treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.K. den Dekker (Wijnand)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractDespite continuous advances in therapeutic options, cardiovascular disease is still the leading cause of death worldwide1. The WHO estimated that in 2008 17.3 million people died from cardiovascular disease, accounting for 30% of all deaths world-wide. Of these deaths, approximately

  14. CARDIOPROTECTION BY VOLATILE ANESTHETICS: FROM BENCH TO BEDSIDE AND BACK

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlić, Filip; Šepac, A; Muravyeva, M; Bošnjak, Željko

    2011-01-01

    Ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) injury of the heart can be ameliorated by volatile anesthetics (VAs). Application of VAs prior to the ischemic event triggers endogenous cardioprotective program that persists even after anesthetic removal, and it is called anesthetic-induced preconditioning (APC) (1). VAs can also reduce infarct size if applied during the reperfusion period (anesthetic postconditioning), where they can also exert protection by the direct effects on cardiac cel...

  15. Putting computational modeling at the fingertips of bench biologists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenschein, Nikolaus; Herrgard, Markus

    Communication is key in successful collaborations between theoretical and experimental life scientists. In our line of work we integrate physiological and systems-level data of cell factories with constraint-based Modeling approaches to predict suitable targets for metabolic engineering. The most...

  16. Cardiovascular physiology at the bench for application in the clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cuihua

    2011-02-26

    Our research focuses on microphysiological aspects of the cardiovascular system, with an emphasis on what is occurring in heart tissues, to learn more about how various diseases arise and how they can be avoided or cured. These diseases include atherosclerosis, diabetes, myocardial infarction, obesity and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). We use animal models, particularly mice, to aid us in these studies. A key feature of our work centers on dissection of coronary arterioles and examining their functionality using drugs, electrophysiology, fluoroscopy, genomics, proteomics, and standard chemical analyses to determine their physiological status, and compare it with other treated animals. My laboratory is focusing on anti-inflammatory and antioxidative stress therapeutic effects, the roles of sodium salicylate, exercise and resveratrol in type 2 diabetes, I/R injury, obesity, and atherosclerosis. Recently, we began investigations of the effects of stem cells and gastric bypass surgery on vascular dysfunction in obesity and diabetes. Our work identifies how diet, exercise, surgical interventions and drugs can be considered to combat these diseases in a clinical setting.

  17. Collaborative WorkBench for Researchers - Work Smarter, Not Harder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Rahul; Kuo, Kwo-sen; Maskey, Manil; Lynnes, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    It is important to define some commonly used terminology related to collaboration to facilitate clarity in later discussions. We define provisioning as infrastructure capabilities such as computation, storage, data, and tools provided by some agency or similarly trusted institution. Sharing is defined as the process of exchanging data, programs, and knowledge among individuals (often strangers) and groups. Collaboration is a specialized case of sharing. In collaboration, sharing with others (usually known colleagues) is done in pursuit of a common scientific goal or objective. Collaboration entails more dynamic and frequent interactions and can occur at different speeds. Synchronous collaboration occurs in real time such as editing a shared document on the fly, chatting, video conference, etc., and typically requires a peer-to-peer connection. Asynchronous collaboration is episodic in nature based on a push-pull model. Examples of asynchronous collaboration include email exchanges, blogging, repositories, etc. The purpose of a workbench is to provide a customizable framework for different applications. Since the workbench will be common to all the customized tools, it promotes building modular functionality that can be used and reused by multiple tools. The objective of our Collaborative Workbench (CWB) is thus to create such an open and extensible framework for the Earth Science community via a set of plug-ins. Our CWB is based on the Eclipse [2] Integrated Development Environment (IDE), which is designed as a small kernel containing a plug-in loader for hundreds of plug-ins. The kernel itself is an implementation of a known specification to provide an environment for the plug-ins to execute. This design enables modularity, where discrete chunks of functionality can be reused to build new applications. The minimal set of plug-ins necessary to create a client application is called the Eclipse Rich Client Platform (RCP) [3]; The Eclipse RCP also supports thousands of community-contributed plug-ins, making it a popular development platform for many diverse applications including the Science Activity Planner developed at JPL for the Mars rovers [4] and the scientific experiment tool Gumtree [5]. By leveraging the Eclipse RCP to provide an open, extensible framework, a CWB supports customizations via plug-ins to build rich user applications specific for Earth Science. More importantly, CWB plug-ins can be used by existing science tools built off Eclipse such as IDL or PyDev to provide seamless collaboration functionalities.

  18. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  19. Evaluating genomic tests from bench to bedside: a practical framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jennifer S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of genomic tests is one of the most significant technological advances in medical testing in recent decades. As these tests become increasingly available, so does the need for a pragmatic framework to evaluate the evidence base and evidence gaps in order to facilitate informed decision-making. In this article we describe such a framework that can provide a common language and benchmarks for different stakeholders of genomic testing. Each stakeholder can use this framework to specify their respective thresholds for decision-making, depending on their perspective and particular needs. This framework is applicable across a broad range of test applications and can be helpful in the application and communication of a regulatory science for genomic testing. Our framework builds upon existing work and incorporates principles familiar to researchers involved in medical testing (both diagnostic and prognostic generally, as well as those involved in genomic testing. This framework is organized around six phases in the development of genomic tests beginning with marker identification and ending with population impact, and highlights the important knowledge gaps that need to be filled in establishing the clinical relevance of a test. Our framework focuses on the clinical appropriateness of the four main dimensions of test research questions (population/setting, intervention/index test, comparators/reference test, and outcomes rather than prescribing a hierarchy of study designs that should be used to address each phase.

  20. Innate danger signals in acute injury: From bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Mathieu; Lepape, Alain; Piriou, Vincent; Venet, Fabienne; Friggeri, Arnaud

    2016-08-01

    The description of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) as a reaction to numerous insults marked a turning point in the understanding of acute critical states, which are intensive care basic cases. This concept highlighted the final inflammatory response features whichever the injury mechanism is: infectious, or non-infectious such as extensive burns, traumas, major surgery or acute pancreatitis. In these cases of severe non-infectious insult, many endogenous mediators are released. Like infectious agents components, they can activate the immune system (via common signaling pathways) and initiate an inflammatory response. They are danger signals or alarmins. These molecules generally play an intracellular physiological role and acquire new functions when released in extracellular space. Many progresses brought new information on these molecules and on their function in infectious and non-infectious inflammation. These danger signals can be used as biomarkers and provide new pathophysiological and therapeutic approaches, particularly for immune dysfunctions occurring after an acute injury. We present herein the danger model, the main danger signals and the clinical consequences.

  1. Extended Dry Storage Signature Bench Scale Detector Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This report is the conceptual design of a detector based on research within the Extended Dry Storage Signature Development project under the DOE-­NE MPACT campaign. This is the second year of the project; from this year’s positive results, the next step is building a prototype and testing with real materials .

  2. Aspirin and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: bedside to bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Peng; Cheng Rui; Zhang Shutian

    2014-01-01

    Objective To review the advances of studies on clinical results of aspirin's chemopreventive effect against esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and evidences for mechanisms of the antitumoural effects of aspirin in experimental research.Data sources A comprehensive search of the PubMed literatures without restriction on the publication date was carried out using keywords such as aspirin and esophageal cancer.Study selection Articles associated with aspirin and esophageal cancer are analyzed.Results This review focuses on the current evidence for use of aspirin as a chemopreventive agent in ESCC.Aspirin is the most widely used among all nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs),which is cheap and acceptable to patients.Several observational results provide the further investigation of prevention and therapy of aspirin or similar drugs in esophageal cancer.Data from case control studies,cohort studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) also give some support of a beneficial role of aspirin on ESCC.Experimental data suggest that aspirin may prevent carcinogenesis of ESCC by favorably affecting proliferation,apoptosis,or other as yet unidentified growth-regulating processes.But the mechanism by which aspirin influence on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma needs further investigation.Conclusion A wealth of evidences ranging from clinical data to experimental results are building to suggest that aspirin has significant effects in reducing both the incidence and mortality of ESCC.

  3. Equine cellular therapy--from stall to bench to bedside?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burk, Janina; Badylak, Stephen F; Kelly, Jeremy; Brehm, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Pioneering clinical stem cell research is being performed in the horse, a recipient of cutting edge veterinary medicine as well as a unique animal model, paving the way for human medical applications. Although demonstrable progress has been made on the clinical front, in vitro characterization of equine stem cells is still in comparatively early stages. To translate the promising results of clinical stem cell therapy in the horse, advances must be made in the characterization of equine stem cells. Aiming to improve communication between veterinarians and other natural scientists, this review gives an overview of veterinary "bedside" achievements, focusing on stem cell therapies in equine orthopedics as well as the current state of in vitro characterization of equine multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and equine embryonic stem cells (ESCs).

  4. Practical UAV Optical Sensor Bench with Minimal Adjustability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilgrim, Jeffrey; Gonzales, Paula

    2013-01-01

    A multiple-pass optical platform eliminates essentially all optical alignment degrees of freedom, save one. A four-pass absorption spectrometer architecture is made rigid by firmly mounting dielectric-coated mirror prisms with no alignment capability to the platform. The laser diode beam is collimated by a small, custom-developed lens, which has only a rotational degree of freedom along the standard optical "z" axis. This degree is itself eliminated by adhesive after laser collimation. Only one degree of freedom is preserved by allowing the laser diode chip and mount subassembly to move relative to the collimating lens by using over-sized mounting holes. This allows full 360 deg motion of a few millimeters relative to the lens, which, due to the high numerical aperture of the lens, provides wide directional steering of the collimated laser beam.

  5. Moss-made pharmaceuticals: from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reski, Ralf; Parsons, Juliana; Decker, Eva L

    2015-10-01

    Over the past two decades, the moss Physcomitrella patens has been developed from scratch to a model species in basic research and in biotechnology. A fully sequenced genome, outstanding possibilities for precise genome-engineering via homologous recombination (knockout moss), a certified GMP production in moss bioreactors, successful upscaling to 500 L wave reactors, excellent homogeneity of protein glycosylation, remarkable batch-to-batch stability and a safe cryopreservation for master cell banking are some of the key features of the moss system. Several human proteins are being produced in this system as potential biopharmaceuticals. Among the products are tumour-directed monoclonal antibodies with enhanced antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), complement factor H (FH), keratinocyte growth factor (FGF7/KGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), asialo-erythropoietin (asialo-EPO, AEPO), alpha-galactosidase (aGal) and beta-glucocerebrosidase (GBA). Further, an Env-derived multi-epitope HIV protein as a candidate vaccine was produced, and first steps for a metabolic engineering of P. patens have been made. Some of the recombinant biopharmaceuticals from moss bioreactors are not only similar to those produced in mammalian systems such as CHO cells, but are of superior quality (biobetters). The first moss-made pharmaceutical, aGal to treat Morbus Fabry, is in clinical trials.

  6. Pharmacogenetics : From Bench to Byte-An Update of Guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swen, J.J.; Nijenhuis, M.; De Boer, A.; Grandia, L.; Maitland-Van Der Zee, A.H.; Mulder, H.; Rongen, G.A.P.J.M.; Van Schaik, R.H.N.; Schalekamp, T.; Touw, D.J.; Van Der Weide, J.; Wilffert, B.; Deneer, V.H.M.; Guchelaar, H.-J.

    2011-01-01

    Currently, there are very few guidelines linking the results of pharmacogenetic tests to specific therapeutic recommendations. Therefore, the Royal Dutch Association for the Advancement of Pharmacy established the Pharmacogenetics Working Group with the objective of developing pharmacogenetics-based

  7. Advances in cardiovascular fluid mechanics: bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasi, Lakshmi P; Sucosky, Philippe; de Zelicourt, Diane; Sundareswaran, Kartik; Jimenez, Jorge; Yoganathan, Ajit P

    2009-04-01

    This paper presents recent advances in cardiovascular fluid mechanics that define the current state of the art. These studies include complex multimodal investigations with advanced measurement and simulation techniques. We first discuss the complex flows within the total cavopulmonary connection in Fontan patients. We emphasize the quantification of energy losses by studying the importance of caval offsets as well as the differences among various Fontan surgical protocols. In our studies of the fluid mechanics of prosthetic heart valves, we reveal for the first time the full three-dimensional complexity of flow fields in the vicinity of bileaflet and trileaflet valves and the microscopic hinge flow dynamics. We also present results of these valves functioning in a patient-specific native aorta geometry. Our in vitro mitral valve studies show the complex mechanism of the native mitral valve apparatus. We demonstrate that the different components of the mitral valve have independent and synergistically complex functions that allow the valve to operate efficiently. We also show how valve mechanics change under pathological and repair conditions associated with enlarged ventricles. Finally, our ex vivo studies on the interactions between the aortic valve and its surrounding hemodynamic environment are aimed at providing insights into normal valve function and valve pathology. We describe the development of organ- and tissue-culture systems and the biological response of the tissue subjected to their respective simulated mechanical environment. The studies noted above have enhanced our understanding of the complex fluid mechanics associated with the cardiovascular system and have led to new translational technologies.

  8. Chemotherapy induced intestinal mucositis; from bench to bed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.A.E. Koning, de (Barbara)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPart 1 focuses primarily on the pathophysiology of mucositis, in order to gain more insight different experimental mouse models were used. Chapter 2 describes mucositis induced by high dose doxorubicin (DOX)- treatment. DOX is a frequently used cytostatic drug in childhood cancer,

  9. Conversion of Bench Demonstration Using the Overhead Projector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnstone, A. H.; Al-Shuaili, Ali

    2001-01-01

    Presents a new technique for projecting science demonstrations, enabling a larger number of students to see the demonstration without scaling up the experiment. Describes innovative attachments that magnify projector images using mirrors, solutions to the problem of convergent test tubes, development of overhead projection experiments, necessary…

  10. Mania in Wolfram’s Disease: From Bedside to Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Seshadri Sekhar; Mitra, Sayantanava; Pal, Salil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Wolfram syndrome is a relatively unexplored entity in clinical psychiatry. Historically, the discovery of a specific WFS1 gene had generated huge fanfare regarding specific genetic causations of psychiatric disorders. While the initial enthusiasm has faded now, association of Wolfram syndrome with psychiatric illnesses like schizophrenia, psychosis and suicidal behavior still remain important for understanding biological underpinnings of such disorders. We report a case of Wolfram syndrome presenting with multiple manic episodes, discuss possible genetic underpinnings for the affective symptoms and then discuss certain issues regarding management. PMID:28138115

  11. Validação da equação de Brzycki para a estimativa de 1-RM no exercício supino em banco horizontal Validez de la ecuación de Brzycki para la estimativa de 1-RM en ejercicio press de banco Validation of the Brzycki equation for the estimation of 1-RM in the bench press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Amarante do Nascimento

    2007-02-01

    intervalo entre cada sesión, para determinar la carga máxima. Posteriormente, un protocolo de resistencia de fuerza fue ejecutado para determinar de 7-10-RM. Los criterios utilizados para la validación incluyeron: test "t" de Student para muestras dependientes, para comparar los valores medios obtenidos por la ecuación predictiva y por el test de 1-RM; coeficiente de correlación de Pearson, para analizar el grado de asociación entre las medidas; error padrón de estimativa (EPE, para la evaluación del grado del desvío de los datos individuales a lo largo de la recta producida; error total (ET, para verificar el desvío medio de los valores individuales de la recta de identidad; error constante (EC, para el análisis de la diferencia entre los valores medios obtenidos en el test de 1-RM y proveídos por la ecuación propuesta. Ninguna diferencia estadística significante fue verificada entre los valores producidos por el test de 1-RM y la ecuación de Brzycki (P > 0,05. Tanto el EPE como el ET fueron relativamente bajos (2,42 kg o 3,4% y 1,55 kg o 2,2%, respectivamente, así como el EC (0,22 kg o 0,3%. Además de esto, el valor del coeficiente de correlación encontrado fue extremamente elevado (r = 0,99; P The aim of the present study was to analyze the validation of the equation proposed by Brzycki for the prediction of a maximum repetition (1-RM in the bench press. Fifty sedentary or moderately active male subjects (22.2 ± 3.5 years; 64.7 ± 8.6 kg, were initially submitted to six test sessions of 1-RM in the bench press, with 48 hours of interval between each session, in order to determine the maximum workload. A protocol of force resistance was then performed for the determination of 7-10-RM. The used criteria for the validation included: t-Student test for dependent samples, for comparison among the mean values obtained by the predictive equation and by the 1-RM test; Pearson correlation coefficient for analysis of the association degree among the measurements

  12. 民间龙舞文化旅游资源整合开发研究①--以安仁板凳龙石桥火龙为例%The integrated development of cultural tourism resources of folk dragon dance Research--On the Anren bench dragon stone dragon as an example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史明娜; 孙亮亮

    2015-01-01

    By using the method of literature,logical analysis and other research methods,on the Anren bench dragon and the stone dragon is the representative of the folk dragon dance culture of quality of historical culture and the origin of the myth of scanning, dragon culture process from cultural production situation formed interactive experience,but also stimulating economic development, culture and customs of dragon dance culture rich local experience show and profound cultural accumulation, cultural and artistic scene ornamental show authentic aspects of dragon dance culture and art attraction analysis,based on this proposed space-time dragon dance culture tourism street building, Long Wuwen in the travel scene reappearance,Dragon Culture Museum Construction of creative tourism, so as to promote the cultural heritage folk dragon dance and dragon dance culture tourism development.%采用文献资料法、逻辑分析法等研究方法,对以安仁板凳龙和石桥火龙为代表的民间龙舞文化精品进行了历史文化及起源神话扫描,从龙舞文化工艺文化制作形成互动体验的局面,同时也拉动经济发展、文化习俗体验展现当地龙舞文化的浓郁和深厚的文化积淀、文化艺术场景观赏展现龙舞文化艺术的本真性等方面进行旅游卖点分析,基于此提出龙舞文化旅游一条街打造、龙舞文化在旅游场景的时空再现、龙舞文化博物馆构建等旅游创意,以此促进民间龙舞文化传承及龙舞文化旅游发展。

  13. Measurement of delta13C and delta18O Isotopic Ratios of CaCO3 by a Thermoquest Finnigan GasBench II Delta Plus XL Continous Flow Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer with Application to Devils Hole Core DH-11 Calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revesz, Kinga M.; Landwehr, Jurate Maciunas; Keybl, Jaroslav Edward

    2001-01-01

    A new method was developed to analyze the stable carbon and oxygen isotope ratios of small samples (400?20 ?g) of calcium carbonate. This new method streamlines the classical phosphoric acid - calcium carbonate (H3PO4 - CaCO3) reaction method by making use of a Thermoquest-Finnigan GasBench II preparation device and a Delta Plus XL continuous flow isotope ratio mass spectrometer. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, optimal conditions for the H3PO4 - CaCO3 reaction had to be determined. At the acid-carbonate reaction temperature suggested by the equipment manufacturer, the oxygen isotope ratio results were unsatisfactory (standard deviation () greater than 1.5 per mill), probably because of a secondary reaction. When the acid-carbonate reaction temperature was lowered to 26?C and the reaction time was increased to 24 hours, the precision of the carbon and oxygen isotope ratios for duplicate analyses improved to 0.1 and 0.2 per mill, respectively. The method was tested by analyzing calcite from Devils Hole, Nevada, which was formed by precipitation from ground water onto the walls of a sub-aqueous cavern during the last 500,000 years. Isotope-ratio values previously had been obtained by the classical method for Devils Hole core DH-11. The DH-11 core had been recently re-sampled, and isotope-ratio values were obtained using this new method. The results were comparable to those obtained by the classical method. The consistency of the isotopic results is such that an alignment offset could be identified in the re-sampled core material, a cutting error that was then independently confirmed. The reproducibility of the isotopic values is demonstrated by a correlation of approximately 0.96 for both isotopes, after correcting for an alignment offset. This result indicates that the new method is a viable alternative to the classical method. In particular, the new method requires less sample material permitting finer resolution and allows automation of some processes

  14. Efeito da amplitude de movimento no número máximo de repetições no exercício supino livre Efectos de la amplitud de movimiento em el número máximo de repeticiones em el ejercicio de supino libre Effect of range of motion in the maximum number of repetitions in the bench press exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Vitor Lima

    2012-12-01

    about increases in strength using different ranges of motion (ROM. The aim of this study was to compare the maximum number of repetitions (MNR in bench press with two different ROM. Fourteen subjects performed familiarization and one repetition maximum (1 RM tests in sessions 1 and 2. MNR in four sets at 50% of 1 RM, one-minute rest with partial (ROMP and complete ROM (ROMC were performed in the third and fourth sessions. The ROMP used half of the bar vertical displacement compared to ROMC. Two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to compare the experimental conditions, followed by post hoc Scheffe. There was a significant decrease of the MNR among sets, except from third to fourth sets in both ROM. MNR in all sets was higher in ROMP than ROMC. The reduction of ROM allow to perform higher number of repetitions.

  15. Effect of nutrient sources on bench scale vinegar production using response surface methodology Efeito das fontes de nutrientes sobre a produção de vinagre em escala de bancada, usando-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate on a bench scale, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient source concentrations in vinegar production, a process that is used by small scale industries in the State of Paraiba. The response surface methodology has been utilized for modeling and optimization of the fermentation process. Initially a 2³ complete factorial design was used, where the effects of initial concentrations of ethyl alcohol, phosphorous and nitrogen sources were observed. After this analysis the concentration range of the nutrient variables were extended and a two level plus a star configuration factorial experimental design was performed. The experimental values are well represented by the linear and quadratic model equations obtained. The optimum concentration of ethanol was 4% in which the yield and the productivity of the acetic acid were maximized to the values of 70% and 0.87 g L-1 h-1 respectively, for a 24 hours fermentation period. The evaluation of the quadratic models showed that the yield of vinegar is maximized from 28.1 to 51.04% and the productivity from 0.69 to 1.29 g L-1 h-1 when the concentration of the nitrogen nutrient in the medium is increased from 0.2 to 2.3 g mL-1. Thus, at the optimized nitrogen nutrient concentration both the yield and the productivity of the vinegar are increased by 1.85 times.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, estudar em escala de bancada, os efeitos de concentrações de fontes dos nutrientes nitrogênio e fósforo sobre a produção de vinagre de álcool, um processo muito utilizado nas indústrias de pequeno porte do Estado da Paraíba. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada na modelagem e otimização de processo de fermentação acética. Inicialmente, a metodologia de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ foi utilizada, onde os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de etanol, de fontes de fósforo e de nitrogênio foram observados. Após esta análise as faixas das

  16. 2PSD110X型单体泵试验台设计%Test bench design of 2PSD110X individual fuel injection pump test bench

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴俊; 张士强

    2012-01-01

    随着柴油机应用的日益广泛,喷油泵的调整试验工作日益被人们所重视.2PSD110X型单体泵试验台是适应单体泵技术发展要求而研制成的.2PSD110X型单体泵试验台主要由嵌入式CPU工作站、变频调速系统、机械传动系统、燃油供应系统、压缩机冷却系统、喷油量计量系统及辅助装置等组成.操作及控制部分采用先进的微电软、硬件技术,量油装置采用新型的质量式量油装置,大幅提高了燃油量测量的准确性.%Along with diesel engine application day by day widespread,injection pump' s tune-up test work is taken day by day by the people. The 2PSD110X monomer pump test platform adapts the monomer pump technological development request. The 2PSD110X monomer pump test platform mainly is composed by the embedded CPU workstation, the frequency conversion velocity modulation system, the mechanical drive system, the fuel supply system, the compressor cooling system, the distributive value measuring system and the auxiliary unit and so on. The operation and the control section use the advanced micro electricity soft and hard technology, the measureing oil installment uses the new quality formula weight oil installment, enhanced the fuel hold-up survey accuracy largely.

  17. Bench-scale composting of source-separated human faeces for sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwagaba, C; Nalubega, M; Vinnerås, B; Sundberg, C; Jönsson, H

    2009-02-01

    In urine-diverting toilets, urine and faeces are collected separately so that nutrient content can be recycled unmixed. Faeces should be sanitized before use in agriculture fields due to the presence of possible enteric pathogens. Composting of human faeces with food waste was evaluated as a possible method for this treatment. Temperatures were monitored in three 78-L wooden compost reactors fed with faeces-to-food waste substrates (F:FW) in wet weight ratios of 1:0, 3:1 and 1:1, which were observed for approximately 20 days. To achieve temperatures higher than 15 degrees C above ambient, insulation was required for the reactors. Use of 25-mm thick styrofoam insulation around the entire exterior of the compost reactors and turning of the compost twice a week resulted in sanitizing temperatures (>or=50 degrees C) to be maintained for 8 days in the F:FW=1:1 compost and for 4 days in the F:FW=3:1 compost. In these composts, a reduction of >3 log(10) for E. coli and >4 log(10) for Enterococcus spp. was achieved. The F:FW=1:0 compost, which did not maintain >or=50 degrees C for a sufficiently long period, was not sanitized, as the counts of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. increased between days 11 and 15. This research provides useful information on the design and operation of family-size compost units for the treatment of source-separated faeces and starchy food residues, most likely available amongst the less affluent rural/urban society in Uganda.

  18. Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel; Yinesor, Guzide [Marmara University-Goztepe Campus, Faculty of Engineering - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34722 Kuyubasi Kadikoy Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    A small scale fixed bed downdraft gasifier system to be fed with agricultural and forestry residues has been designed and constructed. The downdraft gasifier has four consecutive reaction zones from the top to the bottom, namely drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones. Both the biomass fuel and the gases move in the same direction. A throat has been incorporated into the design to achieve gasification with lower tar production. The experimental system consists of the downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning unit made up by a cyclone, a scrubber and a filter box. A pilot burner is utilized for initial ignition of the biomass fuel. The product gases are combusted in the flare built up as part of the gasification system. The gasification medium is air. The air to fuel ratio is adjusted to produce a gas with acceptably high heating value and low pollutants. Within this frame, different types of biomass, namely wood chips, barks, olive pomace and hazelnut shells are to be processed. The developed downdraft gasifier appears to handle the investigated biomass sources in a technically and environmentally feasible manner. This paper summarizes selected design related issues along with the results obtained with wood chips and hazelnut shells. (author)

  19. From the bench to clinical practice: understanding the challenges and uncertainties in immunogenicity testing for biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, G R; Sealey, D C F; Jamali, F; Meibohm, B; Ghosh, S; Shankar, G

    2016-05-01

    Unlike conventional chemical drugs where immunogenicity typically does not occur, the development of anti-drug antibodies following treatment with biologics has led to concerns about their impact on clinical safety and efficacy. Hence the elucidation of the immunogenicity of biologics is required for drug approval by health regulatory authorities worldwide. Published ADA 'incidence' rates can vary greatly between same-class products and different patient populations. Such differences are due to disparate bioanalytical methods and interpretation approaches, as well as a plethora of product-specific and patient-specific factors that are not fully understood. Therefore, the incidence of ADA and their association with clinical consequences cannot be generalized across products. In this context, the intent of this review article is to discuss the complex nature of ADA and key nuances of the methodologies used for immunogenicity assessments, and to dispel some fallacies and myths.

  20. Personalized medicine in hematology — A landmark from bench to bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gayane Badalian-Very

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Personalized medicine is the cornerstone of medical practice. It tailors treatments for specific conditions of an affected individual. The borders of personalized medicine are defined by limitations in technology and our understanding of biology, physiology and pathology of various conditions. Current advances in technology have provided physicians with the tools to investigate the molecular makeup of the disease. Translating these molecular make-ups to actionable targets has led to the development of small molecular inhibitors. Also, detailed understanding of genetic makeup has allowed us to develop prognostic markers, better known as companion diagnostics. Current attempts in the development of drug delivery systems offer the opportunity of delivering specific inhibitors to affected cells in an attempt to reduce the unwanted side effects of drugs.

  1. CELL THERAPY FOR INTERVERTEBRAL DISC REPAIR: ADVANCING CELL THERAPY FROM BENCH TO CLINICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benneker, L.M.; Andersson, G.; Iatridis, J.C.; Sakai, D.; Härtl, R.; Ito, K.; Grad, S.

    2016-01-01

    Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is a major cause of pain and disability; yet therapeutic options are limited and treatment often remains unsatisfactory. In recent years, research activities have intensified in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated encourageing results. Nonetheless, the translation of new biological therapies into clinical practice faces substantial barriers. During the symposium “Where Science meets Clinics”, sponsored by the AO Foundation and held in Davos, Switzerland, from September 5–7, 2013, hurdles for translation were outlined, and ways to overcome them were discussed. With respect to cell therapy for IVD repair, it is obvious that regenerative treatment is indicated at early stages of disc degeneration, before structural changes have occurred. It is envisaged that in the near future, screening techniques and non-invasive imageing methods will be available to detect early degenerative changes. The promises of cell therapy include a sustained effect on matrix synthesis, inflammation control, and prevention of angio- and neurogenesis. Discogenic pain, originating from “black discs” or annular injury, prevention of adjacent segment disease, and prevention of post-discectomy syndrome were identified as prospective indications for cell therapy. Before such therapy can safely and effectively be introduced into clinics, the identification of the patient population and proper standardisation of diagnostic parameters and outcome measurements are indispensable. Furthermore, open questions regarding the optimal cell type and delivery method need to be resolved in outline order to overcome the safety concerns implied with certain procedures. Finally, appropriate large animal models and well-designed clinical studies will be required, particularly addressing safety aspects. PMID:24802611

  2. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Solar water disinfection (SODIS): a review from bench-top to roof-top.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuigan, Kevin G; Conroy, Ronán M; Mosler, Hans-Joachim; du Preez, Martella; Ubomba-Jaswa, Eunice; Fernandez-Ibañez, Pilar

    2012-10-15

    Solar water disinfection (SODIS) has been known for more than 30 years. The technique consists of placing water into transparent plastic or glass containers (normally 2L PET beverage bottles) which are then exposed to the sun. Exposure times vary from 6 to depending on the intensity of sunlight and sensitivity of the pathogens. Its germicidal effect is based on the combined effect of thermal heating of solar light and UV radiation. It has been repeatedly shown to be effective for eliminating microbial pathogens and reduce diarrhoeal morbidity including cholera. Since 1980 much research has been carried out to investigate the mechanisms of solar radiation induced cell death in water and possible enhancement technologies to make it faster and safer. Since SODIS is simple to use and inexpensive, the method has spread throughout the developing world and is in daily use in more than 50 countries in Asia, Latin America, and Africa. More than 5 million people disinfect their drinking water with the solar disinfection (SODIS) technique. This review attempts to revise all relevant knowledge about solar disinfection from microbiological issues, laboratory research, solar testing, up to and including real application studies, limitations, factors influencing adoption of the technique and health impact.

  4. Imaging, scattering, and spectroscopic systems for biomedical optics: Tools for bench top and clinical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, William J.

    Optical advances have had a profound impact on biology and medicine. The capabilities range from sensing biological analytes to whole animal and subcellular imaging and clinical therapies. The work presented in this thesis describes three independent and multifunctional optical systems, which explore clinical therapy at the tissue level, biological structure at the cell/organelle level, and the function of underlying fundamental cellular processes. First, we present a portable clinical instrument for delivering delta-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) while performing noninvasive spectroscopic monitoring in vivo. Using an off-surface probe, the instrument delivered the treatment beam to a user-defined field on the skin and performed reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopies at two regions within this field. The instrument was used to monitor photosensitizer fluorescence photobleaching, fluorescent photoproduct kinetics, and blood oxygen saturation during a clinical ALA-PDT trial on superficial basal cell carcinoma (sBCC). Protoporphyrin IX and photoproduct fluorescence excited by the 632.8 nm PDT treatment laser was collected between 665 and 775 nm. During a series of brief treatment interruptions at programmable time points, white-light reflectance spectra between 475 and 775 nm were acquired. Fluorescence spectra were corrected for the effects of absorption and scattering, informed by the reflectance measurements, and then decomposed into known fluorophore contributions in real time using a robust singular-value decomposition fitting routine. Reflectance spectra additionally provided information on hemoglobin oxygen saturation. We next describe the incorporation of this instrument into clinical trials at Roswell Park Cancer Institute (Buffalo, NY). In this trial we examined the effects of light irradiance on photodynamic efficiency and pain. The rate of singlet-oxygen production depends on the product of irradiance and photosensitizer and oxygen concentrations. High irradiance and/or photosensitizer levels cause inefficient treatment from oxygen depletion in preclinical models. This trial established the irradiance-dependence of patient tolerability to ALA-PDT of sBCC and a pain-threshold irradiance, below which patients did not experience significant pain or require anesthetic. The irradiance-dependence of sensitizer photobleaching was also used to determine an optimal irradiance that maximized treatment efficiency. The optimal fluence at a single low irradiance is yet to be determined. We additionally report the design, construction, and initial characterization of two optical systems used for cellular scattering measurements: a forward scattering white-light spectroscopy system used to characterize lysosomal refractive index and a multifunctional scattering and fluorescence microscope that exploited an angle-resolved forward-scattering geometry. The multifunctional scattering and fluorescence microscope employed brightfield, Fourier-filtered darkfield, direct imaging of the Fourier plane, angle-resolved scattering, and white-light scattering spectroscopy while preserving a fluorescence imaging channel. Lastly, we report on the development of a microscope-based system used for high-powered, focal laser photolysis. This system was used with cell-permeable caged messenger molecules and analyte specific fluorophores to provide local stimulation of intact cells and subsequent analyte monitoring. This provided a high-precision, non-invasive means for studying Ca2+ dynamics between cell types and between sub-cellular regions within a single cell type. The resulting studies compared the mechanisms underlying the Ca2+ signal globalization in these individual exocrine cell types and under regional messenger release.

  5. Genome editing: the road of CRISPR/Cas9 from bench to clinic

    KAUST Repository

    Eid, Ayman

    2016-10-14

    Molecular scissors engineered for site-specific modification of the genome hold great promise for effective functional analyses of genes, genomes and epigenomes and could improve our understanding of the molecular underpinnings of disease states and facilitate novel therapeutic applications. Several platforms for molecular scissors that enable targeted genome engineering have been developed, including zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) and, most recently, clustered regularly interspaced palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated-9 (Cas9). The CRISPR/Cas9 system\\'s simplicity, facile engineering and amenability to multiplexing make it the system of choice for many applications. CRISPR/Cas9 has been used to generate disease models to study genetic diseases. Improvements are urgently needed for various aspects of the CRISPR/Cas9 system, including the system\\'s precision, delivery and control over the outcome of the repair process. Here, we discuss the current status of genome engineering and its implications for the future of biological research and gene therapy.

  6. The CRISPR Growth Spurt: from Bench to Clinic on Versatile Small RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Hadi; Omidi, Meysam; Rajabibazl, Masoumeh; Sabri, Suriana; Rahimpour, Azam

    2017-02-28

    Clustered regulatory interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) in association with CRISPR-associated protein (Cas) is an adaptive immune system, playing a pivotal role in the defense of bacteria and archaea. Ease of handling and cost effectiveness make the CRISPR-Cas system an ideal programmable nuclease tool. Recent advances in understanding the CRISPR-Cas system have tremendously improved its efficiency. For instance, it is possible to recapitulate the chronicle CRISPR-Cas from its infancy and inaugurate a developed version by generating novel variants of Cas proteins, subduing off-target effects, and optimizing of innovative strategies. In summary, the CRISPR-Cas system could be employed in a number of applications, including providing model systems, rectification of detrimental mutations, and antiviral therapies.

  7. Distorting Genetic Research about Cancer: From Bench Science to Press Release to Published News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brechman, Jean M; Lee, Chul-Joo; Cappella, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    This study considered genetic research relating to cancer outcomes and behaviors, specifically investigating the extent to which claims made in press releases (N=23) and mainstream print media (N=71) were fairly derived from their original presentation in scholarly journals (N=20). Central claims expressing gene-outcome relationships were evaluated by a large pool (N=40) of genetics graduate students. Raters judged press release claims as significantly more representative of material within the original science journal article compared with news article claims. Claims originating in news articles which demonstrated contact with individuals not directly involved in the research were judged by experts to be more representative of the original science as compared with those that demonstrated contact with individuals directly involved in the research.

  8. Probing protein interactions in living mammalian cells on a microtubule bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boca, Mirela; Kretov, Dmitry A; Desforges, Bénédicte; Mephon-Gaspard, Alix; Curmi, Patrick A; Pastré, David

    2015-01-01

    Microtubules are μm-long cylinders of about 25 nm in diameter which are present in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Here, we have developed a new method which uses these cylindrical structures as platforms to detect protein interactions in cells. The principle is simple: a protein of interest used as bait is brought to microtubules by fusing it to Tau, a microtubule-associated protein. The presence of a protein prey on microtubules then reveals an interaction between bait and prey. This method requires only a conventional optical microscope and straightforward fluorescence image analysis for detection and quantification of protein interactions. To test the reliability of this detection scheme, we used it to probe the interactions among three mRNA-binding proteins in both fixed and living cells and compared the results to those obtained by pull-down assays. We also tested whether the molecular interactions of Cx43, a membrane protein, can be investigated with this system. Altogether, the results indicate that microtubules can be used as platforms to detect protein interactions in mammalian cells, which should provide a basis for investigating pathogenic protein interactions involved in human diseases.

  9. Development and bench testing of a multi-spectral imaging technology built on a smartphone platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolton, Frank J.; Weiser, Reuven; Kass, Alex J.; Rose, Donny; Safir, Amit; Levitz, David

    2016-03-01

    Cervical cancer screening presents a great challenge for clinicians across the developing world. In many countries, cervical cancer screening is done by visualization with the naked eye. Simple brightfield white light imaging with photo documentation has been shown to make a significant impact on cervical cancer care. Adoption of smartphone based cervical imaging devices is increasing across Africa. However, advanced imaging technologies such as multispectral imaging systems, are seldom deployed in low resource settings, where they are needed most. To address this challenge, the optical system of a smartphone-based mobile colposcopy imaging system was refined, integrating components required for low cost, portable multi-spectral imaging of the cervix. This paper describes the refinement of the mobile colposcope to enable it to acquire images of the cervix at multiple illumination wavelengths, including modeling and laboratory testing. Wavelengths were selected to enable quantifying the main absorbers in tissue (oxyand deoxy-hemoglobin, and water), as well as scattering parameters that describe the size distribution of scatterers. The necessary hardware and software modifications are reviewed. Initial testing suggests the multi-spectral mobile device holds promise for use in low-resource settings.

  10. Bench-Scale Testing of Zinc Ferrite Sorbent for Hot Gas Clean-up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meisheng Liang; Hongyan Xu; Kechang Xie

    2007-01-01

    Advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power generation systems require the development of high-temperature, regenerable desulfurization sorbents, which are capable of removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gasifier gas to very low levels. In this paper, zinc ferrites prepared by co-precipitation were identified as a novel coal gas desulfurization sorbent at high temperature. Preparation of zinc ferrite and effects of binders on pore volume, strength and desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrite desulfurizer were studied. Moreover, the behavior of zinc ferrite sorbent during desulfurization and regeneration under the temperature range of 350-400 ℃ are investigated. Effects of binders on the pore volume, mechanical strength and desulfurization efficiency of zinc ferrite sorbents indicated that the addition of kaolinite to zinc ferrite desulfurizer seems to be superior to other binders under the experimental conditions.

  11. From the Bench -- Juvenile Courts: How and Why They Have Changed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Nuys, Heather; Blitzman, Jay; Hibbler, William; Wakefield, Dana

    2000-01-01

    Offers four judges' perspectives on the various changes in the juvenile court system focusing on the increased violence among juveniles as having the greatest effect on the courts; includes issues such as juveniles being tried in adult courts, the need to improve juvenile courts, and the role of public interest. (CMK)

  12. Oncolytic viruses: From bench to bedside with a focus on safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buijs, Pascal RA; Verhagen, Judith HE; van Eijck, Casper HJ; van den Hoogen, Bernadette G

    2015-01-01

    Oncolytic viruses are a relatively new class of anti-cancer immunotherapy agents. Several viruses have undergone evaluation in clinical trials in the last decades, and the first agent is about to be approved to be used as a novel cancer therapy modality. In the current review, an overview is presented on recent (pre)clinical developments in the field of oncolytic viruses that have previously been or currently are being evaluated in clinical trials. Special attention is given to possible safety issues like toxicity, environmental shedding, mutation and reversion to wildtype virus. PMID:25996182

  13. Analytic modeling, simulation and interpretation of broadband beam coupling impedance bench measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niedermayer, U., E-mail: niedermayer@temf.tu-darmstadt.de [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Eidam, L. [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); Boine-Frankenheim, O. [Institut für Theorie Elektromagnetischer Felder (TEMF), Technische Universität Darmstadt, Schloßgartenstraße 8, 64289 Darmstadt (Germany); GSI Helmholzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstraße 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2015-03-11

    First, a generalized theoretical approach towards beam coupling impedances and stretched-wire measurements is introduced. Applied to a circular symmetric setup, this approach allows to compare beam and wire impedances. The conversion formulas for TEM scattering parameters from measurements to impedances are thoroughly analyzed and compared to the analytical beam impedance solution. A proof of validity for the distributed impedance formula is given. The interaction of the beam or the TEM wave with dispersive material such as ferrite is discussed. The dependence of the obtained beam impedance on the relativistic velocity β is investigated and found as material property dependent. Second, numerical simulations of wakefields and scattering parameters are compared. The applicability of scattering parameter conversion formulas for finite device length is investigated. Laboratory measurement results for a circularly symmetric test setup, i.e. a ferrite ring, are shown and compared to analytic and numeric models. The optimization of the measurement process and error reduction strategies are discussed.

  14. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  15. Bench-to-bedside review: Citrate for continuous renal replacement therapy, from science to practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oudemans-van Straaten, Heleen M; Ostermann, Marlies

    2012-12-07

    To prevent clotting in the extracorporeal circuit during continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) anticoagulation is required. Heparin is still the most commonly used anticoagulant. However, heparins increase the risk of bleeding, especially in critically ill patients. Evidence has accumulated that regional anticoagulation of the CRRT circuit with citrate is feasible and safe. Compared to heparin, citrate anticoagulation reduces the risk of bleeding and requirement for blood products, not only in patients with coagulopathy, but also in those without. Metabolic complications are largely prevented by the use of a strict protocol, comprehensive training and integrated citrate software. Recent studies indicate that citrate can even be used in patients with significant liver disease provided that monitoring is intensified and the dose is carefully adjusted. Since the citric acid cycle is oxygen dependent, patients at greatest risk of accumulation seem to be those with persistent lactic acidosis due to poor tissue perfusion. The use of citrate may also be associated with less inflammation due to hypocalcemia-induced suppression of intracellular signaling at the membrane and avoidance of heparin, which may have proinflammatory properties. Whether these beneficial effects increase patient survival needs to be confirmed. However, other benefits are the reason that citrate should become the first choice anticoagulant for CRRT provided that its safe use can be guaranteed.

  16. Lipid nanoparticles for targeted siRNA delivery – going from bench to bedside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zatsepin TS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Timofei S Zatsepin,1–3 Yuri V Kotelevtsev,1 Victor Koteliansky1,2 1Center of Functional Genomics, Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology, 2Department of Chemistry, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 3Production Department, Central Research Institute of Epidemiology, Moscow, Russia Abstract: This review covers the basic aspects of small interfering RNA delivery by lipid nanoparticles (LNPs and elaborates on the current status of clinical trials for these systems. We briefly describe the roles of all LNP components and possible strategies for their improvement. We also focus on the current clinical trials using LNP-formulated RNA and the possible outcomes for therapy in the near future. Also, we present a critical analysis of selected clinical trials that reveals the common logic behind target selection. We address this review to a wide audience, especially to medical doctors who are interested in the application of RNA interference–based treatment platforms. We anticipate that this review may spark interest in this particular audience and generate new ideas in target selection for the disorders they are dealing with. Keywords: RNA therapeutics, siRNA, mRNA, lipid nanoparticle, targeted delivery, clinical trial

  17. Lipid nanoparticles for targeted siRNA delivery - going from bench to bedside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatsepin, Timofei S; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Koteliansky, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This review covers the basic aspects of small interfering RNA delivery by lipid nano-particles (LNPs) and elaborates on the current status of clinical trials for these systems. We briefly describe the roles of all LNP components and possible strategies for their improvement. We also focus on the current clinical trials using LNP-formulated RNA and the possible outcomes for therapy in the near future. Also, we present a critical analysis of selected clinical trials that reveals the common logic behind target selection. We address this review to a wide audience, especially to medical doctors who are interested in the application of RNA interference-based treatment platforms. We anticipate that this review may spark interest in this particular audience and generate new ideas in target selection for the disorders they are dealing with.

  18. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 {degrees}C) at {ge} 900{degrees}C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL`s studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO{sub x}, emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO{sub x}, emissions are relatively low ( < 5 ppm) at temperatures < 1000{degrees}C. However, most (85--100%) of the nitrogen in the feed as organic nitrate or amine was released as NO{sub x}, The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls.

  19. Bench scale testing - Phase I, Task 4. Topical progress report, September 1994--January 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is now faced with the task of meeting decontamination and decommissioning obligations at numerous facilities by the year 2019. Due to the tremendous volume of material involved, innovative decontamination technologies are being sought that can reduce the volumes of contaminated waste materials and secondary wastes requiring disposal. With sufficient decontamination, some of the material from DOE facilities could be released as scrap into the commercial sector for recycle, thereby reducing the volume of radioactive waste requiring disposal. Although recycling may initially prove to be more costly than current disposal practices, rapidly increasing disposal costs are expected to make recycling more and more cost effective. Additionally, recycling is now perceived as the ethical choice in a world where the consequences of replacing resources and throwing away reusable materials are impacting the well-being of the environment.

  20. Reprint : Good laboratory practice: preventing introduction of bias at the bench

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macleod, Malcolm R.; Fisher, Marc; O'Collins, Victoria; Sena, Emily S.; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Bath, Philip M. W.; Buchan, Alistair; van der Worp, H. Bart; Traystman, Richard J.; Minematsu, Kazuo; Donnan, Geoffrey A.; Howells, David W.

    2009-01-01

    As a research community, we have failed to show that drugs, which show substantial efficacy in animal models of cerebral ischemia, can also improve outcome in human stroke. Accumulating evidence suggests this may be due, at least in part, to problems in the design, conduct, and reporting of animal e