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Sample records for bench-scale tube wall

  1. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Gattiker, J. R.; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on the computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.

  2. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  3. Double wall steam generator tubing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padden, T.R.; Uber, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    Double-walled steam generator tubing for the steam generators of a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor prevents sliding between the surfaces due to a mechanical interlock. Forces resulting from differential thermal expansion between the outer tube and the inner tube are insufficient in magnitude to cause shearing of base metal. The interlock is formed by jointly drawing the tubing, with the inside wall of the outer tube being already formed with grooves. The drawing causes the outer wall of the inner tube to form corrugations locking with the grooves. (author)

  4. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge TN

    2017-10-24

    The first part of this paper (Part 1) presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. To generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work has the ability to account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. The calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  5. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environment Directorate; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2017-10-24

    Part 1 of this paper presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. In this study, to generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work can account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry's constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. Finally, the calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  6. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  7. Failure analysis of the boiler water-wall tube

    OpenAIRE

    S.W. Liu; W.Z. Wang; C.J. Liu

    2017-01-01

    Failure analysis of the boiler water-wall tube is presented in this work. In order to examine the causes of failure, various techniques including visual inspection, chemical analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were carried out. Tube wall thickness measurements were performed on the ruptured tube. The fire-facing side of the tube was observed to have experienced significant wall thinning. The composition of the matrix material of the tu...

  8. Nondestructive testing of welds on thin-walled tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemaier, D. J.; Posakony, G. J.

    1969-01-01

    Special ultrasonic search unit, or transducer assembly, reliably inspects the quality of melt-through welds of fusion welded tubing couplers for hydraulic lines. This instrumentation can also be used to detect faulty braze bonds in thin-walled, small diameter joints and wall thickness of thin-walled metal tubing.

  9. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  10. Failure analysis of the boiler water-wall tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.W. Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Failure analysis of the boiler water-wall tube is presented in this work. In order to examine the causes of failure, various techniques including visual inspection, chemical analysis, optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were carried out. Tube wall thickness measurements were performed on the ruptured tube. The fire-facing side of the tube was observed to have experienced significant wall thinning. The composition of the matrix material of the tube meets the requirements of the relevant standards. Microscopic examinations showed that the spheroidization of pearlite is not very obvious. The failure mechanism is identified as a result of the significant localized wall thinning of the boiler water-wall tube due to oxidation.

  11. Leakproof Swaged Joints in Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckenberg, F. H.; Crockett, L. K.; Snyder, W. E.

    1986-01-01

    Tubular inserts reinforce joints, reducing incidence of leaks. In new swaging technique, tubular inserts placed inside ends of both tubes to be joined. Made from thicker-wall tubing with outside diameter that matches inside diameter of thin tubing swaged, inserts support tube ends at joint. They ensure more uniform contact between swage fitting and tubing. New swaging technique developed for Al/Ti/V-alloy hydraulic supply lines.

  12. Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Patino, R.; Stockar, von U.

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale biocalorimetry (=1 L) allows for the determination of the metabolic heat flow during bioprocesses under complete control of all process conditions for extended periods of time. It can be combined with a number of on-line and off-line measurement techniques. This combination can

  13. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  14. Stability of spiral welded tubes in Quay Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gresnigt, A.M.; van Es, S.H.J.

    2013-01-01

    A European research project (RFCS) has started to provide economic and safe guidance for the design of spirally welded tubes in combined walls. The main motivation for this project called COMBITUBE is that the current Eurocode 3 regulations for tubes in quay walls lead to uneconomic designs, because

  15. Expander for Thin-Wall Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessin, R.

    1983-01-01

    Tool locally expands small-diameter tubes. Tube expander locally expands and deforms tube: Compressive lateral stress induced in elastomeric sleeve by squeezing axially between two metal tool parts. Adaptable to situations in which tube must have small bulge for mechanical support or flow control.

  16. Cell Wall Composition, Biosynthesis and Remodeling during Pollen Tube Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Mollet

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The pollen tube is a fast tip-growing cell carrying the two sperm cells to the ovule allowing the double fertilization process and seed setting. To succeed in this process, the spatial and temporal controls of pollen tube growth within the female organ are critical. It requires a massive cell wall deposition to promote fast pollen tube elongation and a tight control of the cell wall remodeling to modify the mechanical properties. In addition, during its journey, the pollen tube interacts with the pistil, which plays key roles in pollen tube nutrition, guidance and in the rejection of the self-incompatible pollen. This review focuses on our current knowledge in the biochemistry and localization of the main cell wall polymers including pectin, hemicellulose, cellulose and callose from several pollen tube species. Moreover, based on transcriptomic data and functional genomic studies, the possible enzymes involved in the cell wall remodeling during pollen tube growth and their impact on the cell wall mechanics are also described. Finally, mutant analyses have permitted to gain insight in the function of several genes involved in the pollen tube cell wall biosynthesis and their roles in pollen tube growth are further discussed.

  17. Control of Cell Wall Extensibility during Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Hepler, Peter K.; Rounds, Caleb M.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Tip-growing pollen tubes achieve rapid elongation while maintaining cell wall integrity by balancing local expansion, controlled by local changes in wall viscosity, against exocytosis, influenced by the activity of the actin cytoskeleton, cellular energetics, and calcium and proton physiology.

  18. Bench-scale magnetic separation of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and 11 materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in an open-gradient mode with dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both open- and high-gradient modes and could be an important application of the technology

  19. Flame oscillations in tubes with nonslip at the walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkerman, V' yacheslav; Bychkov, Vitaly; Petchenko, Arkady [Institute of Physics, Umeaa University, SE-901 87 Umeaa (Sweden); Eriksson, Lars-Erik [Department of Applied Mechanics, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2006-06-15

    A laminar premixed flame front propagating in a two-dimensional tube is considered with nonslip at the walls and with both ends open. The problem of flame propagation is solved using direct numerical simulations of the complete set of hydrodynamic equations including thermal conduction, diffusion, viscosity, and chemical kinetics. As a result, it is shown that flame interaction with the walls leads to the oscillating regime of burning. The oscillations involve variations of the curved flame shape and the velocity of flame propagation. The oscillation parameters depend on the characteristic tube width, which controls the Reynolds number of the flow. In narrow tubes the oscillations are rather weak, while in wider tubes they become stronger with well-pronounced nonlinear effects. The period of oscillations increases for wider tubes, while the average flame length scaled by the tube diameter decreases only slightly with increasing tube width. The average flame length calculated in the present work is in agreement with that obtained in the experiments. Numerical results reduce the gap between the theory of turbulent flames and the experiments on turbulent combustion in tubes. (author)

  20. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  1. No rotating U.S. Testing of thin walled tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Boulanger, G.; Mogavero, R.

    1981-07-01

    Thin walled tube ultrasonic testing is performed, with Lamb waves, using annular transducers and conical or helicoidal mirrors. The main advantage of this already known system is dispensing with rotation of tube and/or transducer. High speed control (30 cm/s and more) is then allowed. The present paper describes the parameters influencing the sensitivity has been improved by searching, theoretically and practically, the best suited Lamb wave modes, and by using transducers which are well characterized. Practical example of cladding tube U.S. testing is described

  2. Creep behaviour of thin walled composite tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiebaud, F.; Muzic, B.; Perreux, D.; Varchon, D.; Oytana, C.; Lebras, J.

    1993-01-01

    Fiber reinforced composites are more and more employed in high performance structure for nuclear power plant, mainly as water piping tubes. The increase of the use of composites is due to the advantages that they give : high stiffness, large ultimate strength, corrosion resistance. This last advantage is sought for the pieces in contact with water, and it's one of the reason why the composite can be preferred to metal. However the mechanical behaviour of composite is actually poorly known. The high anisotropy is the main difficulty to obtain a realistic model of behaviour. This problem implies that the safety factor used in the design of structure is often too large. In this article a general overview of the mechanical behaviour of tube made in glass epoxy material is proposed. We discuss especially the creep behaviour under biaxial loadings. The form of the proposed model presently allows predicting a nonlinearity of the behaviour and provides a good correlation with the experimental data of several tests not described in this paper. It accounts for the change of the Poisson ratio during creep and cyclic tests. However the complete identification requires long time testings and consequently the model must be corrected to take into account the damage which occurs in these cases

  3. Multi-wall nanotube as tube dislocation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berredo-Peixoto, G. de; Shapiro, I.L.; Katanaev, M.O.; Konstantinova, E.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The recently invented cylindrical geometric space defect is applied to the electron behaviour in the system which can be regarded as a simplified model of a double-wall nanotube. By solving the Schrodinger equation in the region of space with cylindrical geometric defect we explore the influence of such geometric defect on the energy gap and charge distribution. The effect is qualitatively similar to the one obtained earlier by means of traditional simulation methods. In general, the geometric approach can not compete with the known methods of theoretical study of the nanostructures, such as molecular dynamics. However it may be useful for better qualitative understanding of the electronic properties of the nanosystems. It is obvious that the method based on geometric defects can not compete with the standard approaches based on molecular dynamics. The reason is that the geometric defects method can not take into account full details of the structure of the compound and is, in some sense, too general. At the same time this method may become much more interesting if one develops it further and, in particular, learns how to deal with more sophisticated versions of geometric defects. In particular, it looks possible to take into account the chirality of the nanotube and, also, include the external magnetic field. We expect to consider these issues elsewhere. (author)

  4. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  5. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  6. Development of the double-wall-tube steam generator. Evaluation of inner tube leak detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teraoku, Takuji; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    1995-01-01

    A double-wall-tube steam generator (DWT-SG) is considered to have possibility of eliminating a secondary heat transport system to realize a reliable and simplified FBR plant. Thus, basic tests for inner/outer tube leak detection and prototypical leak tests by use of the 1MWt DWT-SG model have been performed to evaluate the feasibility of DWT-SG. Their results demonstrated that the inner leak detection system can definitely detect a steam leak from an inner tube flaw. Analyses of the inner tube leak and detection behavior obtained in the 1MWt DWT-SG test enabled to estimate the performance of the inner tube detection system of the commercial DWT-SG system. (author)

  7. Geometric Relations for CYLEX Test Tube-Wall Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Larry

    2015-06-01

    The CYLinder EXpansion (CYLEX) test is a (precision, instrumented, high-purity annealed copper) pipe bomb. Its essential measured quantities are detonation speed and tube-wall motion. Its main purpose is to calibrate detonation product equations of state (EOS) by measuring how product fluid pushes metal. In its full complexity, CYLEX is an integral test, for which EOS calibration requires the entire system to be computationally modeled and compared to salient data. Stripped to its essence, CYLEX is a non-integral test for which one may perform the inverse problem, to infer the EOS directly from data. CYLEX analysis can be simplified by the fact that the test constituents achieve a steady traveling wave structure; this allows derivation of several useful geometric relationships regarding tube wall motion. The first such treatment was by G.I. Taylor. Although his analysis was limited to small wall deflection angles, he asserted that the results remain valid for arbitrary ones. I confirm this attribute and present additional useful relationships. In the past decade, CYLEX wall-motion instrumentation has migrated almost entirely from streak camera to PDV, yet discrepancies remain between the two methods. I further present geometric relationships that shed light on this issue. Work supported by the U.S. DOE.

  8. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOXSM catalyzed wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX SM catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals' fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes

  9. Shock-tube study of fusion plasma-wall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gross, R.A.; Tien, J.K.; Jensen, B.; Panayotou, N.F.; Feinberg, B.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental studies have been made of phenomena which occur when a hot (T 1 approximately equal to 6 x 10 6 0 K), dense (n approximately equal to 10 16 cm -3 ), deuterium plasma containing a transverse magnetic field is brought into sudden contact with a cold metal wall. These studies are motivated by the need to understand plasma and metallurgical conditions at the first-wall of a fusion reactor. Experiments were carried out in the Columbia high energy electromagnetic shock tube. Computational simulation was used to investigate the detailed physics of the fusion plasma boundary layer which develops at the wall. The rate of energy transfer from the plasma to the wall was calculated and conditions under which surface melting occurs are estimated. Experimental measurements of plasma-wall heat transfer rates up to 3 x 10 5 watts/cm 2 were obtained and agreement with computed values are good. Fusion reactor first-wall materials have been exposed to 6.0 x 10 21 eV cm -2 (1,000 shots) of deuterium plasma bombardment. Scanning electron micrograph photographs show preferential erosion at grain boundaries, formation of deuterium surface blisters, and evidence of local surface melting. Some cracking is observed along grain boundaries, and a decrease in tensile ductiity is measured

  10. Investigation of the Geometry of Metal Tube Walls after Necking in Uniaxial Tension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chong Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: In order to characterize the deformation and true stress–strain relation of metal tubes, the geometry of tube walls after necking in uniaxial tension need to be determined. The paper investigated the necking process of metal tube. A large number of tensile tests and finite element analysis of 1Cr18Ni9Ti tubes with different sizes were conducted. It was found that the geometry of outer tube wall in the necking region can be described using a logistic regression model. The final geometry of the tube is determined by original tube diameter and wall thickness. The offset of tube walls are affected by two competing factors: volume constancy and necking. The offset distances of outer and inner walls are mainly affected by original wall thickness. The length of the necking zone is more influenced by original tube diameter. Tube elongation at fracture increases slightly as tube diameter gets larger, while the wall thickness has almost no impact on the elongation.

  11. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  12. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  13. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  14. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  15. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater - Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T L; Palumbo, A V; Boerman, P A; Jennings, H L; Lucero, A J; Tyndall, R L; Strandberg, G W; Morris, M I [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system. (author)

  16. 75 FR 82070 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ...-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, and Mexico AGENCY: United States International Trade... from China, Korea, and Mexico that were found to be sold at less than fair value. Nacional de Acero S... panel proceeding in Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Mexico, USA-MEX-1904-04, to file...

  17. Impact of plasma tube wall thickness on power coupling in ICP sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nawaz, Anuscheh; Herdrich, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The inductively heated plasma source at the Institute of Space Systems was investigated with respect to the wall thickness of the plasma tube using an air plasma. For this, the wall thickness of the quartz tube was reduced in steps from 2.5 to 1.25 mm. The significance of reducing the wall thickness was analyzed with respect to both the maximum allowable tube cooling power and the coupling efficiency. While the former results from thermal stresses in the tube's wall, the latter results from a minimization of magnetic field losses near the coil turns of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source. Analysis of the thermal stress could be validated by experimental data, i.e. the measurement of the tube cooling power when the respective tube structure failed. The coupling efficiency could be assessed qualitatively by simplified models, and the experimental data recorded show that coupling was improved far more than predicted.

  18. Multiaxial loading of large-diameter, thin-walled tube rock specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecker, S.S.; Petrovic, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    A large-scale mechanical testing facility permits previously impossible thin-walled tube multiaxial loading experiments on rock materials. Constraints are removed regarding tube wall thickness in relation to rock microstructural features and tube diameter as well as test machine load capacity. Thin-walled tube studies clarify the influence of intermediate principal stress sigma 2 on rock fracture and help define a realistic rock fracture criterion for all multiaxial stressing situations. By comparing results of thin-walled and thick-walled tube fracture investigations, effects of stress gradients can be established. Finally, influence of stress path on rock fracture, an area largely ignored in current rock failure criteria, can be examined in detail using controlled loading changes as well as specimen prestrains

  19. Wall thickness measurements of tubes by Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS)- a comparative study with metallography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramanian, C.V.; Joseph, A.; Ramesh, A.S.; Jayakumar, T.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Baldev Raj

    1996-01-01

    Internal Rotary Inspection System (IRIS) is a relatively new ultrasonic system of heat exchanger/ steam condenser tubes and pipelines for measurement of wall thinning and pitting due to corrosion. The wall thickness measurements made during a scan around the circumference of the tube are displayed as a stationary rectilinear display of circumferential cross section (Bscan) of the tube. The paper describes the results obtained on tubes of various materials used in process industries having corrosion on inner and outer surfaces of the tube. (author)

  20. Analysis of prestressed double-wall tubing for LMFBR steam generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uber, C.F.; Langford, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    A radial interface pressure is provided between the inner and outer tubes of each double-wall tube in a steam generator design now being developed for commercial breeder reactor plants. This paper describes a finite element analysis of the manufacturing technique used to prestress the double-wall tube. The analytical predictions are compared with experimental measurements of the residual interface pressure. Resulting residual stress states are used as the starting point for operating condition analyses. 9 refs

  1. Current Status on the Development of a Double Wall Tube Steam Generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Choi, Byoung Hae; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Byung Ho

    2007-12-15

    A fast reactor, which uses sodium as a coolant, has a lot of merits as a next generation nuclear reactor. However, the possibility of a sodium-water reaction occurrence hinders the commercialization of this reactor. As one way to improve the reliability of a steam generator, a double-wall tube steam generator is being developed in GEN-4 program. In this report, the current state of the technical developments for a double-wall tube steam generator are reviewed and a future plan for the development of a double-wall tube steam generator is established. The current focuses of this research are an improvement of the heat transfer capability for a double-wall tube and the development of a proper leak detection method for the failure of a double-wall tube during a reactor operation. The ideal goal is an on-line leak detection of a double wall tube to prevent the sodium-water reaction. However, such a method is not developed as yet. An alternative method is being used to improve the reliability of a steam generator by performing a non-destructive test of a double wall tube during the refueling period of a reactor. In this method a straight double wall tube is employed to perform this test easily, but has a difficulty regarding an absorption of a thermal expansion of the used materials. If an on-line leak detection method is developed, the demerits of a straight double-wall tube are avoided by using a helical type double-wall tube, and the probability of a sodium-water reaction can be reduced to a level less than the design-based accident.

  2. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  3. Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Bench Scale Technology Evaluation Project (WE&RF Report LIFT6T14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350◦C ...

  4. Study on saccharification of cellulosic wastes with bench scale test plant, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that were obtained on the studies of continuous saccharification of radiation pretreated chaff with a saccharification equipment unit of bench scale test plant for cellulosic wastes. The problem on the continuous saccharification in bench scale and its countermeasure were clarified. The glucose concentration obtained in the continuous saccharification was examined from the point of a scale up effect. It was found that there are not a scale up effect between flask scale (100 ml) and bench scale (50 l) and then the same concentration of glucose was obtained in both scales. It was clarified that the contamination of the process let decrease markedly the concentration of produced glucose solution and brings on a large trouble for the saccharification. The addition of 1 % ethyl acetate made it possible to prevent the contamination of the saccharification process in flask scale. However, in the case of continuous saccharification in bench scale, the addition of ethyl acetate in nitrogen gas atmosphere was necessary to prevent the contamination. It was found that the solution of 1.7 % glucose concentration was continuously produced in the continuous saccharification with the most longest period for 26 days. It was, also, suggested that the selection of a suitable retention time is necessary to attain a high glucose productivity in the continuous saccharification. (author)

  5. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  6. Development of a helical-coil double wall tube steam generator for 4S reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitajima, Yuko; Maruyama, Shigeki; Jimbo, Noboru; Hino, Takehisa; Sato, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    The 4S, Super-Safe Small and Simple, is a small-sized sodium-cooled fast reactor. A fast reactor usually uses sodium as a coolant to transfer heat from core to turbine/generator system. The heat of the intermediate heat transport system and that of the water stream systems are exchanged by the steam generator (SG) tubes. If the tube failure occurs, a sodium/water reaction could be occurred. To prevent the reaction and enhance safety, a helical-coil-type double wall tube with wire mesh interlayer and continuous monitoring systems of tube failure are applied to the SG of the 4S. The development and general features of this type double wall tube were described in Ref. 1) and Ref. 2). Those paper summarized following results; The tubes studied in these references were straight type. To establish this SG, development of manufacturing method of helical-coil-type double wall tube and validation of the tube failure monitoring system are needed. In this study, three demonstration tests have been performed; welding test of the double wall tube to manufacture the tubes with 70-80m length, assembling test of the helical-coil tube, and confirmation test of the tube processing system using the fabricated helical-coil tubes. As a result, following technologies have been successfully established. (1) Development of the welding techniques for manufacturing of the helical-coil-type double wall tube with wire mesh interlayer. (2) The confirmation test for manufacturing the helical coil tube of the SG. (author)

  7. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  8. Creep collapse of thick-walled heat transfer tube subjected to external pressure at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioka, Ikuo; Kaji, Yoshiyuki; Terunuma, Isao; Nekoya, Shin-ichi; Miyamoto, Yoshiaki

    1994-09-01

    A series of creep collapse tests of thick-walled heat transfer tube were examined experimentally and analytically to confirm an analytical method for creep deformation behavior of a heat transfer tube of an intermediate heat exchanger (IHX) at a depressurization accident of secondary cooling system of HTTR (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor). The tests were carried out using thick-walled heat transfer tubes made of Hastelloy XR at 950degC in helium gas environment. The predictions of creep collapse time obtained by a general purpose FEM-code ABAQUS were in good agreement with the experimental results. A lot of cracks were observed on the outer surface of the test tubes after the creep collapse. However, the cracks did not pass through the tube wall and, therefore, the leak tightness was maintained regardless of a collapse deformation for all tubes tested. (author)

  9. Reliability of double-wall-tube steam generator for FBR considering water leak accident frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Nobuyuki; Kinoshita, Izumi; Nishi, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    For early realization, a fast breeder reactor (FBR) is required to reduce construction cost. A reactor concept in which the intermediate heat transport system is eliminated by introducing a double-wall-tube steam generator is one convincing approach. The reliability of the double-wall-tube SG in a water leak accident (sodium-water reaction accident) due to tube failure is strongly related to the mitigating system design. The safety design of the double-wall-tube SG approach is investigated to limit the accident occurrence below 10 -7 (1/ry. A tube-to-tube weld is excluded from the reference design, because the welding process is too difficult and complicated to effectively prevent adhesion of the double-wall-tube. The reliability of the tube-to-tube plate was evaluated at 10 -10 (l/hr) for an inner tube and 10 -9 (l/hr) for an outer with reference to the failure experience of previous SGs. The failure must be detected within 30 to 60 minutes. (author)

  10. 78 FR 42546 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey: Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ...-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey: Notice of Commission... countervailing duty order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from China and the antidumping duty orders on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey would be likely to lead to...

  11. 78 FR 74161 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ...-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey; Scheduling of Full Five-Year... the Antidumping Duty Orders on Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From China, Korea, Mexico, and... on light- walled rectangular pipe and tube from China, Korea, Mexico, and Turkey would be likely to...

  12. Location and optimization analysis of capillary tube network embedded in active tuning building wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Fuxin; Yu, Yuebin

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a building wall with a thermal tuning function is further investigated. This design turns the building wall from a passive thermal system to an active system. A capillary tube network is installed inside the wall to manipulate the thermodynamics and realize more flexibility and potentials of the wall. This novel building wall structure performs efficiently in terms of building load reduction and supplementary heating and cooling, and the structure is convenient for applying low grade or natural energy with a wider temperature range. The capillary tube network's location inside the wall greatly impacts the thermal and energy performance of the building wall. The effects of three locations including external, middle and internal side are analyzed. The results indicate that the internal wall surface temperature can be neutralized from the ambient environment when the embedded tubes are fed with thermal water. The wall can work with a wide range of water temperature and the optimal location of the tube network is relatively constant in different modes. Power benefit with the wall changes from 2 W to 39 W when the outdoor air temperature changes, higher in summer than in winter. - Highlights: • A building wall with a tuning function is proposed using a capillary pipe network. • Low-grade thermal water can be used to actively manipulate the thermal mass. • Location of the capillary network is investigated to maximize the performance. • The innovation can potentially lower down the grade of energy use in buildings.

  13. Studying energy absorption in tapered thick walled tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hosseini Tehrani

    Full Text Available In many engineering structures different energy absorption systems may be used to improve crashworthiness capability of the system and to control damages that may occur in a system during an accident. Therefore, extensive research has been done on the energy-absorbing cells. In this paper, energy absorption in tapered thick walled tubes has been investigated. As a practical case, studies have been focused on the crush element of Siemens ER24PC locomotive. To investigate performance of this part at collision time, it has been modeled in Abaqus software and its collision characteristics have been evaluated. Considering that the crash element is folded at time of collision, an analytical approach has been presented for calculation of instantaneous folding force under axial load. Basis of this method is definition and analysis of main folding mechanism and calculation of average folding force. This method has been used for validation of the results of numerical solution. Since sheet thickness of the crash element is high and may be ruptured at time of collision, some damage models have been used for numerical simulations. One of the three damage models used in this paper is available in the software and coding has been done for two other damage models and desirable damage model has been specified by comparing results of numerical solution with results of laboratory test. In addition, authenticity of the desirable damage model has been studied through ECE R 66 standard. To improve crashworthiness characteristic some attempts, such as use of metal foam and creation of trigger in suitable situations to reduce maximum force resulting from collision, have been performed. Finally though different simulation optimal crush element has been introduced and its performance and efficiency have been evaluated.

  14. Thin-walled beam tubes for the SIS. Construction and manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malwitz, E.

    1985-06-01

    The vacuum system of the SIS consists essentially of torus-shaped vacuum chamber with an annulus-circumference of 216 m which is composed by several beam-tube and chamber elements. In order to reach the desired final pressure of -11 mbar (5 . 10 -9 Pa) a heating of the whole vacuum system to 300 0 C is required. The beam tubes within magnets have regularly an elliptic tube cross section. Within bending magnets the beam tubes are curved in a plane through the large ellipse axis with a bending radius of 10 m. During the development work for the beam tubes within magnets to construction variants were studied until construction maturity. Generally thin-walled beam tubes with elliptic tube cross section are fabricated similarly to spring bellows as corrugated tubes. In this report however beam tubes with elliptic tube cross section are discussed the tube walls of which are smooth and stabilized against the atmospheric pressure by hard-soldered ribs. The report reproduces mainly the most important know how respectively serves as instruction for new constructions. Such beam tubes are planned for the dipole magnets and the quadrupole group consisting of two long quadrupoles, a short quadrupole, and a sextupole. (orig./HSI) [de

  15. Radiometric measurements of wall temperatures in the 800 K to 1150 K range for a quartz radiant heating tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blevins, L.G.; Sivathanu, Y.R.; Gore, J.P.; Shahien, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    Many industrial applications require heat transfer to a load in an inert environment, which can be achieved by using gas-fired radiant tubes. A radiant tube consists of a flame confined in a cylindrical metal or ceramic chamber. The flame heats the tube wall, which in turn radiates to the load. One important characteristic of radiant heating tubes is wall temperature uniformity. Numerical models of radiant tubes have been used to predict wall temperatures, but there is a lack of experimental data for validation. Recently, Namazian et al., Singh and Gorski, and Peters et al. have measured wall temperature profiles of radiant tubes using thermocouples. 13 refs., 3 figs

  16. Standard practice for estimating the approximate residual circumferential stress in straight thin-walled tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 A qualitative estimate of the residual circumferential stress in thin-walled tubing may be calculated from the change in outside diameter that occurs upon splitting a length of the tubing. This practice assumes a linear stress distribution through the tube wall thickness and will not provide an estimate of local stress distributions such as surface stresses. (Very high local residual stress gradients are common at the surface of metal tubing due to cold drawing, peening, grinding, etc.) The Hatfield and Thirkell formula, as later modified by Sachs and Espey, provides a simple method for calculating the approximate circumferential stress from the change in diameter of straight, thin-walled, metal tubing. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  17. On the characteristics and application of thin wall welded titanium tubes for heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Takashi; Miyamoto, Yoshiyuki

    1985-01-01

    Because of the excellent corrosion resistance, thin wall welded titanium tubes have become to be used in large number as the heat transfer tubes of condensers and seawater desalting plants using seawater in place of conventional copper alloy tubes. Especially in nuclear power plants, the all titanium condensers using thin wall welded titanium tubes and titanium tube plates were adopted in the almost all plants under construction or expected to be constructed. In this report, the various characteristics of thin wall welded titanium tubes required for using them as heat transfer tubes, such as corrosion resistance, heat transfer characteristics, fatigue strength and expanding characteristics, are outlined, and the state of use is described. At first, relatively thick seamless titanium tubes were used for chemical industry, but thereafter, due to the advance of the mass production techniques, the welded titanium tubes of less than 0.7 mm thickness and high quality have become to be supplied at low cost. In 1969, titanium tubes were used for the first time in Japan for the air cooler in the condenser of Akita Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. The features of titanium are small specific gravity, small linear expansion coefficient and small Young's modulus. (Kako, I.)

  18. Light hydrogen isotopes in the single - walled carbon nano tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khugaev, A.V.; Sultanov, R.A.; Guster, D.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Progress of our understanding of the molecular hydrogen behavior in the nano tube interior open an intriguing possibility for the applications of these knowledge's to the solution of the hydrogen storage problem and light isotopes gas selectivity. That can strongly change the situation at the energy production in the world and completely change our civil life. These investigations underline the influence of the quantum effects on the properties of molecular hydrogen in the nano tube interior and it leads to the pure quantum-mechanical reformulation of the problem for the hydrogen behavior inside carbon nano tube as a problem of molecular quantum system behavior in the external field induced by the regular nano tube surface. In the present paper the molecular hydrogen behavior in the carbon nano tube was considered in the simple quantum mechanical manner. The main attention was paid to the investigation of the quantum sieving selectivity in the dependence of nano tube composition, radius and symmetry properties. For the interaction potential between hydrogen and nano tube surface was taken some phenomenological LJ(12,6) - (Lennard - Jones) potential and the external field induced by the nano tube in its interior is considered as a simple sum over the all nano tube carbon atoms. Influence of the structure of rotation (vibration) spectrum of the energy levels of diatomic molecules, such as H 2 , HD and D 2 on the final results and finite size of the nano tube along the axis of symmetry, its boundary effects is discussed in details. Thermal oscillations of nano tube surface were considered separately in the dependence of the temperature gradient along of the axis of symmetry

  19. Collapse of thin wall tubes with small initial ovality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model of creep collapse of tubes based on the bending theory of curved beams is developed. The model is compared with more complex models. The main result of this study is the definition of a new model of creep collapse of tubes with a minimum of limited hypothesis. (author) [es

  20. Collapse of thin wall tubes small initial ovality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, A.

    1977-01-01

    In this work a simple model of creep collapse of tubes based on the bending theory of curved beams, is developed. The model is compared with more complex models. The main result of this work is the definition of a new model of creep collapse of tubes with a minimum of limitative hypothesis. (Author) 6 refs

  1. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples For Bench-Scale Reformer Treatability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  2. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  3. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  4. Thin-walled large-diameter zirconium alloy tubes in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Richinson, P.J.

    1978-08-01

    The requirements of the thin-walled large-diameter Zircaloy-2 tubing used in CANDU reactors are reviewed. Strength, residual stress patterns, texture and prior deformation contribute to the stability of these tubes. The extent to which the present manufacturing route meets these requirements is discussed. (author)

  5. 77 FR 3497 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    ... Rectangular Pipe and Tube From Taiwan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on light-walled rectangular pipe and tube from Taiwan would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry in the United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. \\1...

  6. How to operate safely steam generators with multiple tube through-wall defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernalsteen, P.

    1993-01-01

    For a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) of the Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) type, the Steam Generator (SG) tube bundle represents the major but also the thinnest part of the primary pressure boundary. To the extent that no tube material has yet been identified to be immune to corrosion, defects may initiate in service and easily propagate through wall. While not a desirable feature, a Through Wall Deep (TWD) defect does not necessarily pose a threat to either the structural integrity or leaktightness and this paper shows how SG can (and indeed, do) operate safely and reliably while having many tubes affected by deep and even TWD defects

  7. Characterization of Thin Walled Mo Tubing produced by FBCVD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-01-21

    The goal of this report is to delineate the results of material characterization performed on Mo tubing produced via the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (FBCVD) method. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging reveals that small randomly oriented grains are achieved in the Mo deposition, but do not persist throughout the entire thickness of the material. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) reveals the Mo tubes contain residual chlorine and oxygen. EDS measurements on the tube surfaces separated from glass and quartz substrates reveal substrate material adhered to this surface. X-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the presence of carbon contaminant in the form of Mo2C and oxygen in the form of MoO2. Combustion infrared detection (CID) and inert gas fusion (IGF) performed at Luvak Inc. was used to quantify weight percentages of oxygen and carbon in the tubes produced. Hardness value of the FBCVD Mo was found to be comparable to low carbon arc cast molybdenum.

  8. Current-driven vortex domain wall motion in wire-tube nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espejo, A. P. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Institute of Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Vidal-Silva, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); López-López, J. A. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Av. España 1680, Valparaíso (Chile); Goerlitz, D.; Nielsch, K. [Institute of Nanostructure and Solid State Physics, University of Hamburg, Jungiusstrasse 11, D-20355 Hamburg (Germany); Escrig, J. [Departamento de Física, Universidad de Santiago de Chile (USACH), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile); Center for the Development of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology (CEDENNA), Av. Ecuador 3493, 9170124 Santiago (Chile)

    2015-03-30

    We have investigated the current-driven domain wall motion in nanostructures comprised of a pair of nanotube and nanowire segments. Under certain values of external magnetic fields, it is possible to pin a vortex domain wall in the transition zone between the wire and tube segments. We explored the behavior of this domain wall under the action of an electron flow applied in the opposite direction to the magnetic field. Thus, for a fixed magnetic field, it is possible to release a domain wall pinned simply by increasing the intensity of the current density, or conversely, for a fixed current density, it is possible to release the domain wall simply decreasing the magnetic external field. When the domain wall remains pinned due to the competition between the current density and the magnetic external field, it exhibits a oscillation frequency close to 8 GHz. The amplitude of the oscillations increases with the current density and decreases over time. On the other hand, when the domain wall is released and propagated through the tube segment, this shows the standard separation between a steady and a precessional regime. The ability to pin and release a domain wall by varying the geometric parameters, the current density, or the magnetic field transforms these wire-tube nanostructures in an interesting alternative as an on/off switch nano-transistor.

  9. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 Cs and 226 Ra from existing waste solutions

  10. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  11. Experimental facility design for a gap heat transfer in a double wall tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Ho Yun; Hong, Jong Gan; Kim, Jong Man; Kim, Jong Bum; Jeong, Ji Young

    2012-01-01

    A reliable steam generator design is one of the most critical issues in developing a sodium cooled fast reactor (SFR), and various efforts to avoid potential sodium water reaction (SWR) have been made. For this reason, SFR steam generators have been developed to improve its reliability using a double wall tube (DWT), which has two barriers between the sodium and water. Most steam generators for SFRs are the shell and tube type. Steam at high pressure and low temperature flows inside the inner tubes, which are heated by the shell side sodium at low pressure and high temperature. Since the inner and outer tubes of conventional DWTs are made of identical materials, the degree of thermal expansion is somewhat different between the two concentric tubes owing to their temperature difference. Therefore, a greater temperature difference results in less contact pressures between the inner and outer tubes. This feature results in a deterioration of the heat transfer capability of DWTs. Current developments are focused on an improvement of heat transfer capability by investigating the gap conductance between the two concentric tubes. To improve the heat transfer capability of DWTs, it is preferable to use different tube materials (Fig. 1). It is recommended to choose the inner tube material whose thermal expansion coefficient is greater than that of the outer tube by 10 to 15%

  12. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  13. Evaluation of the inner wall axial cracks of steam generator tubes by eddy current test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hur, Do Haeng; Choi, Myung Sik; Lee, Doek Hyun; Han, Jung Ho

    2001-01-01

    For the enhancement of ECT reliability on the primary water stress corrosion cracks of nuclear steam generator tubes, it is important to comprehend the signal characteristics on crack morphology and to select an appropriate probe type. In this paper, the sizing accuracy and the detectability for the inner wall axial cracks of tubes were quantitatively evaluated using the electric discharge machined notches and the corrosion cracks which were developed on the operating steam generator tubes. The difference of eddy current signal characteristics between pancake and axial coil were also investigated. The results obtained from this study provide a useful information for more precise evaluation on the inner wall axial cracks of steam generator tubes.

  14. Evaluation of Eddy Current Signals from the Inner Wall Axial Cracks of Steam Generator Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Myung Sik; Hur, Do Haeng; Lee, Doek Hyun; Han, Jung Ho; Park, Jung Am

    2001-01-01

    For the enhancement of ECT reliability on the primary water stress corrosion cracks of nuclear steam generator tubes, of which the occurrence is on the increase, it is important to comprehend the signal characteristics on crack morphology and to select an appropriate probe type. In this paper, the sizing accuracy and the detectability for the inner wall axial cracks of tubes were quantitatively evaluated using the following specimens: the electric discharge machined notches and the corrosion cracks which were developed on the operating steam generator tubes. The difference of eddy current signal characteristics between pancake and axial coil were also Investigated. The results obtained from this study provide a useful information for more precise evaluation on the inner wall axial tracks oi steam generator tubes

  15. Place Atrium to Water Seal (PAWS): Assessing Wall Suction Versus No Suction for Chest Tubes After Open Heart Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Tamara; Wahl, Sharon; Guthrie, Patricia Finch; Sendelbach, Sue

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally chest tubes are set to -20 cm H 2 O wall suctioning until removal to facilitate drainage of blood, fluid, and air from the pleural or mediastinal space in patients after open heart surgery. However, no clear evidence supports using wall suction in these patients. Some studies in patients after pulmonary surgery indicate that using chest tubes with a water seal is safer, because this practice decreases duration of chest tube placement and eliminates air leaks. To show that changing chest tubes to a water seal after 12 hours of wall suction (intervention) is a safe alternative to using chest tubes with wall suction until removal of the tubes (usual care) in patients after open heart surgery. A before-and-after quality improvement design was used to evaluate the differences between the 2 chest tube management approaches in chest tube complications, output, and duration of placement. A total of 48 patients received the intervention; 52 received usual care. The 2 groups (intervention vs usual care) did not differ significantly in complications (0 vs 2 events; P = .23), chest tube output (H 1 = 0.001, P = .97), or duration of placement (median, 47 hours for both groups). Changing chest tubes from wall suction to water seal after 12 hours of wall suction is a safe alternative to using wall suctioning until removal of the tubes. ©2017 American Association of Critical-Care Nurses.

  16. Hydrogen storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes by means of laser excitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oksengorn, B.

    2010-01-01

    A new mode for hydrogen adsorption and storage in single-wall carbon nano-tubes is used, on the basis of laser excitation. Remember that this method has been useful to obtain, in the case of the fullerene C 60 , many complex C 60 -atoms or C 60 -molecules, where atoms or molecular particles are trapped inside the C 60 -molecules. We think this method might be important to store many hydrogen molecules inside carbon nano-tubes. (author)

  17. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  18. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  19. Hydrogen embrittlement corrosion failure of water wall tubes in large power station boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathur, P.K.

    1981-01-01

    In the present paper, causes and mechanism of hydrogen embrittlement failure of water wall tubes in high pressure boilers have been discussed. A low pH boiler water environment, produced as a result of condenser leakage or some other type of system contamination and presence of internal metal oxide deposits, which permit boiler water solids to concentrate during the process of steam generation, have been ascribed to accelerate the formation of local corrosion cells conducive for acid attack resulting in hydrogen damage failure of water wall tubes. (author)

  20. The effect of atomic hydrogen adsorption on single-walled carbon nano tubes properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalili, S.; Majidi, R.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the adsorption of hydrogen atoms on metallic single-walled carbon nano tubes using ab initio molecular dynamics method. It was found that the geometric structures and the electronic properties of hydrogenated SWNTs can be strongly changed by varying hydrogen coverage. The circular cross sections of the CNTs were changed with different hydrogen coverage. When hydrogen is chemisorbed on the surface of the carbon nano tube, the energy gap will be appeared. This is due to the degree of the Sp 3 hybridization, and the hydrogen coverage can control the band gap of the carbon nano tube

  1. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Y; Hayashi, T; Kawashima, K [National Food Research Inst., Yatabe, Ibaraki (Japan); Oka, O

    1981-03-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigerator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days.

  2. Preparation of tubular urease immobilized on the inner wall of glass tube by radiation-polymerization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikazu; Hayashi, Toru; Kawashima, Koji; Oka, Osamu.

    1981-01-01

    A method to prepare immobilized urease on the inner wall of a glass tube by radiation-polymerization under frozen state was investigated. As a part of a continuous flow analyzer, i.w.. Technicon Auto Analyzer II, the immobilized urease tube of 1 cm length was set and used for the routine determination of urea. This flow-through system could measure urea concentration of up to 30 mM at rate of 30 samples per hour. The system were possible to assay 2000 to 3000 samples, continuously in practice. The activity of the urease tube stored in a refrigirator maintained 94% of the initial activity after 115 days. (author)

  3. Calculation of nonstationary two-dimensional temperature field in a tube wall in burnout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashcheev, V.M.; Pykhtina, T.V.; Yur'ev, Yu.S.

    1977-01-01

    Numerically solved is a nonstationary two-dimensional equation of heat conduction for a tube wall of fuel element simulator with arbitrary energy release. The tube is heat-insulated from the outside. The vapour-liquid mixture flows inside the tube. The burnout is realized, when the heat transfer coefficient corresponds to the developed boiling in one part of the tube, and to the deteriorated regime in the other part of it. The thermal losses are regarded on both ends of the tube. Given are the statement of the problem, the algorithm of the solution, the results of the test adjusting problem. Obtained is the satisfactory agreement of calculated fixed temperature with experimental one

  4. Heat transfer enhancement in a tube using circular cross sectional rings separated from wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozceyhan, Veysel; Gunes, Sibel; Buyukalaca, Orhan; Altuntop, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    A numerical study was undertaken for investigating the heat transfer enhancement in a tube with the circular cross sectional rings. The rings were inserted near the tube wall. Five different spacings between the rings were considered as p = d/2, p = d, p = 3d/2, p = 2d and p = 3d. Uniform heat flux was applied to the external surface of the tube and air was selected as working fluid. Numerical calculations were performed with FLUENT 6.1.22 code, in the range of Reynolds number 4475-43725. The results obtained from a smooth tube were compared with those from the studies in literature in order to validate the numerical method. Consequently, the variation of Nusselt number, friction factor and overall enhancement ratios for the tube with rings were presented and the best overall enhancement of 18% was achieved for Re = 15,600 for which the spacing between the rings is 3d

  5. Probability of a steam generator tube rupture due to the presence of axial through wall cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Cizelj, L.

    1991-01-01

    Using the Leak-Before-Break (LBB) approach to define tube plugging criteria a possibility to operate with through wall crack(s) in steam generator tubes may be considered. This fact may imply an increase in tube rupture probability. Improved examination techniques (in addition to the 100% tube examination) have been developed and introduced to counterbalance the associated risk. However no estimates of the amount of total increase or decrease of risk due to the introduction of LBB have been made. A scheme to predict this change of risk is proposed in the paper, based on probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis of axial cracks combined with available data of steam generator tube nondestructive examination reliability. (author)

  6. Viability of thin wall tube forming of ATF FeCrAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maloy, Stuart Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Aydogan, Eda [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderoglu, Osman [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lavender, Curt [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yamamoto, Yukinori [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Fabrication of thin walled tubing of FeCrAl alloys is critical to its success as a candidate enhanced accident-tolerant fuel cladding material. Alloys that are being investigated are Generation I and Generation II FeCrAl alloys produced at ORNL and an ODS FeCrAl alloy, MA-956 produced by Special Metals. Gen I and Gen II FeCrAl alloys were provided by ORNL and MA-956 was provided by LANL (initially produced by Special Metals). Three tube development efforts were undertaken. ORNL led the FeCrAl Gen I and Gen II alloy development and tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Rhenium Corporation. LANL received alloys from ORNL and led tube processing studies through drawing tubes at Century Tubing. PNNL led the development of tube processing studies on MA-956 through pilger processing working with Sandvik Corporation. A summary of the recent progress on tube development is provided in the following report and a separate ORNL report: ORNL/TM-2015/478, “Development and Quality Assessments of Commercial Heat Production of ATF FeCrAl Tubes”.

  7. Effects of Two Purification Pretreatments on Electroless Copper Coating over Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Z.; Li, L.; Dong, Sh.; Li, Sh.; Xiao, A.; Sun, Sh.

    2014-01-01

    To achieve the reinforcement of copper matrix composite by single-walled carbon nano tubes, a three-step-refluxing purification of carbon nano tubes sample with HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl was proposed and demonstrated. A previously reported purification process using an electromagnetic stirring with H 2 O 2 /HCl mixture was also repeated. Then, the purified carbon nano tubes were coated with copper by the same electroless plating process. At the end, the effects of the method on carbon nano tubes themselves and on copper coating were determined by transmission electron microscope spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and energy dispersive spectrometry. It was clearly confirmed that both of the two processes could remove most of iron catalyst particles and carbonaceous impurities without significant damage to carbon nano tubes. The thermal stability of the sample purified by H 2 O 2 /HCl treatment was slightly higher than that purified by HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl treatment. Nevertheless, the purification by HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl treatment was more effective for carboxyl functionalization on nano tubes than that by H 2 O 2 /HCl treatment. The Cu-coating on carbon nano tubes purified by both purification processes was complete, homogenous, and continuous. However, the Cu-coating on carbon nano tubes purified by H 2 O 2 /HCl was oxidized more seriously than those on carbon nano tubes purified by HNO 3 -NaOH-HCl treatment.

  8. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexeev, G. D.; Glonti, L. N.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Malyshev, V. L.; Piskun, A. A.; Potrbenikov, Yu. K.; Rodionov, V. K.; Samsonov, V. A.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Shkarovskiy, S. N.

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. "Self-centering" spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum.

  9. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alexeev, G.D.; Glonti, L.N.; Kekelidze, V.D.; Malyshev, V.L.; Piskun, A.A.; Potrbenikov, Yu.K.; Rodionov, V.K.; Samsonov, V.A.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Shkarovskiy, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. “Self-centering” spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum

  10. The thin-wall tube drift chamber operating in vacuum (prototype)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexeev, G.D. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Glonti, L.N., E-mail: glonti@sunse.jinr.ru [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kekelidze, V.D.; Malyshev, V.L.; Piskun, A.A.; Potrbenikov, Yu.K.; Rodionov, V.K.; Samsonov, V.A.; Tokmenin, V.V.; Shkarovskiy, S.N. [Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation)

    2013-08-01

    The goal of this work was to design drift tubes and a chamber operating in vacuum, and to develop technologies for tubes independent assembly and mounting in the chamber. These design and technology were tested on the prototype. The main features of the chamber are the following: the drift tubes are made of flexible mylar film (wall thickness 36 μm, diameter 9.80 mm, length 2160 mm) using ultrasonic welding along the generatrix; the welding device and methods were developed at JINR. Drift tubes with end plugs, anode wires and spacers were completely assembled outside the chamber. “Self-centering” spacers and bushes were used for precise setting of the anode wires and tubes. The assembled tubes were sealed with O-rings in their seats in the chamber which simplified the chamber assembling. Moreover the tube assembly and the chamber manufacture can be performed independently and in parallel; this sufficiently reduces the total time of chamber manufacture and assembling, its cost and allows tubes to be tested outside the chamber. The technology of independent tube assembling is suitable for a chamber of any shape but a round chamber is preferable for operation in vacuum. Single channel amplifier-discriminator boards which are more stable against cross talks were used for testing the tubes. Independently assembled tubes were mounted into the chamber prototype and its performance characteristic measured under the vacuum conditions. The results showed that both the structure and the tubes themselves normally operate. They are suitable for making a full-scale drift chamber for vacuum.

  11. Manufacture of thin-walled clad tubes by pressure welding of roll bonded sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Hans Christian; Grydin, Olexandr; Stolbchenko, Mykhailo; Homberg, Werner; Schaper, Mirko

    2017-10-01

    Clad tubes are commonly manufactured by fusion welding of roll bonded metal sheets or, mechanically, by hydroforming. In this work, a new approach towards the manufacture of thin-walled tubes with an outer diameter to wall thickness ratio of about 12 is investigated, involving the pressure welding of hot roll bonded aluminium-steel strips. By preparing non-welded edges during the roll bonding process, the strips can be zip-folded and (cold) pressure welded together. This process routine could be used to manufacture clad tubes in a continuous process. In order to investigate the process, sample tube sections with a wall thickness of 2.1 mm were manufactured by U-and O-bending from hot roll bonded aluminium-stainless steel strips. The forming and welding were carried out in a temperature range between RT and 400°C. It was found that, with the given geometry, a pressure weld is established at temperatures starting above 100°C. The tensile tests yield a maximum bond strength at 340°C. Micrograph images show a consistent weld of the aluminium layer over the whole tube section.

  12. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  13. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-01

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  14. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  15. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  16. The hot bench scale plant Ester for the vitrification of high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannicini, R.; Strazzer, A.; Cantale, C; Donato, A.; Grossi, G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the hot bench-scale plant ESTER for the vitrification of the high-level radioactive wastes is described, and the main results of the first radioactive campaign are reported. The ESTER plant, which is placed in the ADECO-ESSOR hot cells of the C.C.R.-EURATOM-ISPRA, has been built and is operated by the ENEA, Departement of Fuel Cycle. It began operating with real radioactive wastes about 1 year ago, solidifying a total of 12 Ci of fission products into 2,02 Kg of borosilicate glass, corresponding to 757 ml of glass. During the vitrification many samples of liquid and gaseous streams have been taken and analyzed. A radioactivity balance in the plant has been calculated, as well as a mass balance of nitrates and of the 137 Cs and 106 Ru volatized in the process

  17. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  18. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  19. 76 FR 64312 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-18

    ... Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Final Results of the Expedited Sunset Review of the Antidumping... the antidumping duty order on light-walled welded rectangular carbon steel tubing from Taiwan pursuant... steel tubing from Taiwan pursuant to section 751(c) of the Act. See Initiation of Five-Year (``Sunset...

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes Suspended in Different Surfactants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, L.; Alex Henderson, A.; Field, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antibacterial activity of single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) dispersed in surfactant solutions of sodium cholate, sodium dodecylbenzene sulfonate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate. Among the three surfactants, sodium cholate demonstrated the weakest antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus faecium and thereby was used to disperse bundled SWCNTs in order to study nano tube antibiotic activity. SWCNTs exhibited antibacterial characteristics for both S. enterica and E. coli. With the increase of nano tube concentrations from 0.3 mg/mL to 1.5 mg/mL, the growth curves had plateaus at lower absorbance values whereas the absorbance value was not obviously affected by the incubation ranging from 5?min to 2 h. Our findings indicate that carbon nano tubes could become an effective alternative to antibiotics in dealing with drug-resistant and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains because of the physical mode of bactericidal action that SWCNTs display

  1. Preparation of Multi-walled Carbon Nano tubes/ Natural Rubber Composite by Wet Mixing Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azira Abdul Aziz; Azira Abdul Aziz; Che Su Mat Saad; Mohamad Rusop Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Natural rubber/multi-walled carbon nano tubes (Nr/MWCNTs) nanocomposite is formed by incorporating nano tubes in a polymer solution and subsequently evaporating the solvent. Using this technique, nano tubes will be dispersed homogeneously in the NR matrix in an attempt to increase the mechanical properties of these nano composites. Mechanical test results show an increase in the tensile strength for up to 19 times in relation to pure NR. In addition to mechanical testing, the morphology of the MWNTs into NR was studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) in order to understand the morphology of the resulting system. Slight shift noted from Raman analyses from each different wt. % of MWCNTs with the NR due to the stress transfer that indicates reinforcement of the nano tubes. (author)

  2. Axial Crushing Behaviors of Thin-Walled Corrugated and Circular Tubes - A Comparative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyaz-Ur-Rahim, Mohd.; Bharti, P. K.; Umer, Afaque

    2017-10-01

    With the help of finite element analysis, this research paper deals with the energy absorption and collapse behavior with different corrugated section geometries of hollow tubes made of aluminum alloy 6060-T4. Literature available experimental data were used to validate the numerical models of the structures investigated. Based on the results available for symmetric crushing of circular tubes, models were developed to investigate corrugated thin-walled structures behavior. To study the collapse mechanism and energy absorbing ability in axial compression, the simulation was carried in ABAQUS /EXPLICIT code. In the simulation part, specimens were prepared and axially crushed to one-fourth length of the tube and the energy diagram of crushing force versus axial displacement is shown. The effect of various parameters such as pitch, mean diameter, corrugation, amplitude, the thickness is demonstrated with the help of diagrams. The overall result shows that the corrugated section geometry could be a good alternative to the conventional tubes.

  3. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  4. Ultrasonic inspection of steam generator tubing for cracks, wall thinning and cross-sectional deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, P.A.; Carodiskey, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Periodic inspection of steam generator tubing is an important consideration in the efficient operation of a power generating facility. Since the operating life of these generators is finite, failures will occur. Due to the chemistry of the environment, thermal cycling, and other factors, flaws may develop that can cause rapid deterioration of the tubing while the overall performance of the unit may appear normal. In earlier presentation, the authors presented an ultrasonic bore-side array transducer which can be used with a conventional flaw detector instrument for the location of circumferential crack type defects on the outside tube surface. since that time, much additional experience has been gained on the performance of these probes. Probe performance has been characterized using fatigue crack samples and these results are reviewed. Probes have also been developed having 16 elements for use in larger diameter (25 mm) tubes. The bore-side array concept has been expanded to normal incidence tube well inspection allowing simultaneous wall thickness and eccentricity measurement which is very useful in the assessment of tube wastage and deformation. Preliminary data obtained in this area is presented

  5. Pectin and the role of the physical properties of the cell wall in pollen tube growth of Solanum chacoense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parre, Elodie; Geitmann, Anja

    2005-02-01

    The cell wall is one of the structural key players regulating pollen tube growth, since plant cell expansion depends on an interplay between intracellular driving forces and the controlled yielding of the cell wall. Pectin is the main cell wall component at the growing pollen tube apex. We therefore assessed its role in pollen tube growth and cytomechanics using the enzymes pectinase and pectin methyl esterase (PME). Pectinase activity was able to stimulate pollen germination and tube growth at moderate concentrations whereas higher concentrations caused apical swelling or bursting in Solanum chacoense Bitt. pollen tubes. This is consistent with a modification of the physical properties of the cell wall affecting its extensibility and thus the growth rate, as well as its capacity to withstand turgor. To prove that the enzyme-induced effects were due to the altered cell wall mechanics, we subjected pollen tubes to micro-indentation experiments. We observed that cellular stiffness was reduced and visco-elasticity increased in the presence of pectinase. These are the first mechanical data that confirm the influence of the amount of pectins in the pollen tube cell wall on the physical parameters characterizing overall cellular architecture. Cytomechanical data were also obtained to analyze the role of the degree of pectin methyl-esterification, which is known to exhibit a gradient along the pollen tube axis. This feature has frequently been suggested to result in a gradient of the physical properties characterizing the cell wall and our data provide, for the first time, mechanical support for this concept. The gradient in cell wall composition from apical esterified to distal de-esterified pectins seems to be correlated with an increase in the degree of cell wall rigidity and a decrease of visco-elasticity. Our mechanical approach provides new insights concerning the mechanics of pollen tube growth and the architecture of living plant cells.

  6. Magnesium diboride on inner wall of copper tube: A test case for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenura K. Withanage

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Superconductor magnesium diboride is considered one of the viable materials to substitute bulk niobium for superconducting radio frequency cavities. Utilizing a MgB_{2} coating on the inner wall of a copper cavity will allow operation at higher temperatures (20–25 K than Nb cavities due to the high transition temperature of MgB_{2} (39 K and the high thermal conductivity of Cu. In this paper, we present results of MgB_{2} coating on Cu tubes with similar dimensions to a 3 GHz cavity, as the first step towards coating the actual cavity, using the hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition technique. The results show successful coating of a uniform MgB_{2} layer on the inner wall of the Cu tubes with T_{c} as high as 37 K.

  7. Magnesium diboride on inner wall of copper tube: A test case for superconducting radio frequency cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withanage, Wenura K.; Lee, N. H.; Penmatsa, Sashank V.; Wolak, M. A.; Nassiri, A.; Xi, X. X.

    2017-10-01

    Superconductor magnesium diboride is considered one of the viable materials to substitute bulk niobium for superconducting radio frequency cavities. Utilizing a MgB2 coating on the inner wall of a copper cavity will allow operation at higher temperatures (20-25 K) than Nb cavities due to the high transition temperature of MgB2 (39 K) and the high thermal conductivity of Cu. In this paper, we present results of MgB2 coating on Cu tubes with similar dimensions to a 3 GHz cavity, as the first step towards coating the actual cavity, using the hybrid physical chemical vapor deposition technique. The results show successful coating of a uniform MgB2 layer on the inner wall of the Cu tubes with Tc as high as 37 K.

  8. Assessment of thin-walled cladding tube mechanical properties by segmented expanding Mandrel test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, Karl-Fredrik

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the principles of the segmented expanding mandrel test for thin-walled cladding tubes, which can be used as a basic material characterisation test to determine stress-strain curves and ductility or as a test to simulate mechanical pellet-cladding interaction. The paper discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the test method and it illustrates how the test can be used to simulate hydride reorientations in zirconium claddings and quantify how hydride reorientation affects ductility. (authors)

  9. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznetsov, E A; Poniaev, S A

    2015-01-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux. (paper)

  10. Numerical simulation of heat fluxes in a two-temperature plasma at shock tube walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, E. A.; Poniaev, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Numerical simulation of a two-temperature three-component Xenon plasma flow is presented. A solver based on the OpenFOAM CFD software package is developed. The heat flux at the shock tube end wall is calculated and compared with experimental data. It is shown that the heat flux due to electrons can be as high as 14% of the total heat flux.

  11. Multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for energy storage and production applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrews, R.; Jacques, D.; Likpa, S.; Qian, D.; Rantell, T.; Anthony, J.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Since their discovery, carbon nano-tubes have been proposed as candidate materials for a broad range of applications, including high strength composites, molecular electronics, and energy storage. In many cases, nano-tubes have been proposed to replace traditional carbon materials, such as activated carbons in energy storage devices. In other cases, novel applications have been proposed, such as the use of carbon nano-tube arrays in photovoltaic devices. The use of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes in energy storage devices has generated great interest due to their high inherent conductivity, layered structure, and high surface area per volume compared to traditional graphitic materials. However as produced nano-tubes do not possess ideal properties, and exhibit only modest charge storage. We have explored the charge storage abilities of nano-tubes with varying morphologies (fullerenic versus stacked cones), nano-tubes containing N or B dopants, as well as various post-treatments of the nano-tubes. The use of nano-tubes in charge storage devices will be described, as well as modification of the nano-tube surfaces or morphology to improve this performance. The synthesis of nano-tubes with several differing hetero-atom dopants will also be described, as well as the effect of heat treatment on these structures. One of the most significant problems in organic photovoltaics is the typically low charge-carrier mobility in organic thin films which, coupled with short exciton diffusion lengths, means that photo-generated charge-carrier pairs are more likely to re-combine than reach an electrode to generate current. Two organic systems with high charge-carrier mobilities are carbon nano-tubes (here, MWNTs) and acene-based organic semiconductors. We believe that blended devices based on MWNTs and organic semiconductors could lead to the next class of efficient, flexible and inexpensive organic photovoltaic systems. We have developed methods to

  12. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  13. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  14. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  15. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  17. Continuous thermal degradation of pyrolytic oil in a bench scale CSTR reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Hwan; Nam, Ki Yun [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous thermal degradation of two pyrolytic oils with low (LPO) and high boiling point distribution (HPO) was conducted in a constant stirrer tank reactor (CSTR) with bench scale. Raw pyrolytic oil as a reactant was obtained from the commercial rotary kiln pyrolysis plant for municipal plastic waste. The degradation experiment was conducted by temperature programming with 10 C/min of heating rate up to 450 C and then maintained with long lapse time at 450 C. Liquid product was sampled at initial reaction time with different degradation temperatures up to 450 C and then constant interval lapse time at 450 C. The product characteristics over two pyrolytic oils were compared by using a continuous reaction system. As a reactant, heavy pyrolytic oil (HPO) showed higher boiling point distribution than that of diesel and also light pyrolytic oil (LPO) was mainly consisting of a mixture of gasoline and kerosene range components. In the continuous reaction, LPO showed higher yield of liquid product and lower residue than those of HPO. The characteristics of liquid products were influenced by the type of raw pyrolytic oil. Also, the result obtained under degradation temperature programming was described. (author)

  18. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  19. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  20. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137 Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137 Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  1. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  2. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  3. Simulation of large scale air detritiation operations by computer modeling and bench-scale experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Mintz, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Although some experience has been gained in the design and construction of 0.5 to 5 m 3 /s air-detritiation systems, little information is available on the performance of these systems under realistic conditions. Recently completed studies at ANL have attempted to provide some perspective on this subject. A time-dependent computer model was developed to study the effects of various reaction and soaking mechanisms that could occur in a typically-sized fusion reactor building (approximately 10 5 m 3 ) following a range of tritium releases (2 to 200 g). In parallel with the computer study, a small (approximately 50 liter) test chamber was set up to investigate cleanup characteristics under conditions which could also be simulated with the computer code. Whereas results of computer analyses indicated that only approximately 10 -3 percent of the tritium released to an ambient enclosure should be converted to tritiated water, the bench-scale experiments gave evidence of conversions to water greater than 1%. Furthermore, although the amounts (both calculated and observed) of soaked-in tritium are usually only a very small fraction of the total tritium release, the soaked tritium is significant, in that its continuous return to the enclosure extends the cleanup time beyond the predicted value in the absence of any soaking mechanisms

  4. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  5. Ultrasonic wall thickness gauging for ferritic steam generator tubing as an in-service inspection tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesen, W.M.J.; Tromp, Th.J.

    1980-01-01

    In-service inspection of LWR steam generators is more or less a standard routine operation. The situation can be very different for LMFBRs. For the SNR 300 (Kalkar Power Station) the situation is different because the steam generators have ferritic tubing. The tube walls are comparatively thick, 2 to 4.5 mm. During inservice examinations the steam generators will be drained on both sides, however on the sodium side a sodium film will be present. Furthermore the SNR 300 will have two types of steam generator. A straight tube design and a helical coil design will be used. Both types consist of a evaporator and superheater. The steam generators are of course not radioactive. It is obvious that in this case the eddy current (EC) technique is not an enviable inservice inspection tool. Basically EC is a surface flaw detection technique. Only the saturation magnetisation method will improve the EC technique sufficiently for ferritic material. However the 'in bore examination' with the saturation technique was, in case of the SNR 300 steam generator tubing, considered impossible since the inner diameters are fairly small. Furthermore sodium traces may influence the EC method. Although multifrequency methods can solve this problem, EC is not considered as a useful tool for examining ferritic tubing. Another method is to employ the 'stray flux' method which is under development with the TNO organization in Holland. The EC and stray flux method do have one drawback, these methods do not detect gradual changes in wall thickness. Ultrasonic examinations will be used in the SNR 300 as the main inspection tool for the steam generators. In this paper the reasons why ultrasonic examination was selected are explained. The results of the development work on this subject are discussed

  6. Laminar free convection in a vertical tube with constant wall temperature considering the variation of fluid properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senna, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    A model to analyze Laminar Free convection with variable properties in the entrance of a vertical open tube with constant wall temperature and for one Prandtl number (0.7), is studied. The velocity and temperature profiles are determined by finite difference methods for different rates of wall to ambient temperatures and different values of the velocity in the entrance of the tube. The results will be compared with those obtained in the same problem with constant properties. (Author) [pt

  7. Dissecting the regulation of pollen tube growth by modelling the interplay of hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junli eLiu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrodynamics, cell wall and ion dynamics are all important properties that regulate pollen tube growth. Currently, the two main pollen tube growth models, the cell wall model and the hydrodynamic model do not appear to be reconcilable. Here we develop an integrative model for pollen tube growth and show that our model reproduces key experimental observations: 1 that the hypertonic condition leads to a much longer oscillatory period and that the hypotonic condition halves the oscillatory period; 2 that oscillations in turgor are experimentally undetectable; 3 that increasing the extracellular calcium concentration or decreasing the pH decreases the growth oscillatory amplitude; 4 that knockout of Raba4d, a member of the Rab family of small GTPase proteins, decreases pollen tube length after germination for 24 hours. Using the model generated here, we reveal that 1 when cell wall extensibility is large, pollen tube may sustain growth at different volume changes and maintain relatively stable turgor; 2 turgor increases if cell wall extensibility decreases; 3 increasing turgor due to decrease in osmolarity in the media, although very small, increases volume change . However, increasing turgor due to decrease in cell wall extensibility decreases volume change. In this way regulation of pollen tube growth by turgor is context dependent. By changing the osmolarity in the media, the main regulatory points are extracellular osmolarity for water flow and turgor for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. However, if the viscosity of cell wall changes, the main regulatory points are turgor for water flow and wall extensibility for the volume encompassed by the cell wall. The novel methodology developed here reveals the underlying context-dependent regulatory principle of pollen tube growth.

  8. 77 FR 5240 - Light-Walled Welded Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-02

    ... Rectangular Carbon Steel Tubing From Taiwan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order AGENCY: Import... revocation of the antidumping duty order on light-walled welded rectangular carbon steel tubing from Taiwan would likely lead to a continuation or recurrence of dumping and material injury to an industry in the...

  9. Thin chest wall is an independent risk factor for the development of pneumothorax after chest tube removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Rahul J; Whelan, James F; Ferrada, Paula; Duane, Therese M; Malhotra, Ajai K; Aboutanos, Michel B; Ivatury, Rao R

    2012-04-01

    The factors contributing to the development of pneumothorax after removal of chest tube thoracostomy are not fully understood. We hypothesized that development of post pull pneumothorax (PPP) after chest tube removal would be significantly lower in those patients with thicker chest walls, due to the "protective" layer of adipose tissue. All patients on our trauma service who underwent chest tube thoracostomy from July 2010 to February 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient age, mechanism of trauma, and chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score were analyzed. Thoracic CTs were reviewed to ascertain chest wall thickness (CW). Thickness was measured at the level of the nipple at the midaxillary line, as perpendicular distance between skin and pleural cavity. Chest X-ray reports from immediately prior and after chest tube removal were reviewed for interval development of PPP. Data are presented as average ± standard deviation. Ninety-one chest tubes were inserted into 81 patients. Patients who died before chest tube removal (n = 11), or those without thoracic CT scans (n = 13) were excluded. PPP occurred in 29.9 per cent of chest tube removals (20/67). When PPP was encountered, repeat chest tube was necessary in 20 per cent of cases (4/20). After univariate analysis, younger age, penetrating mechanism, and thin chest wall were found to be significant risk factors for development of PPP. Chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score was similar in both groups. Logistic regression showed only chest wall thickness to be an independent risk factor for development of PPP.

  10. 76 FR 33200 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-08

    ...) metallic coating; (3) painted/non-painted; (4) perimeter; (5) wall thickness; and (6) shape. See the... pipe and tube from Turkey. Atlas Tube, Inc. and Searing Industries, Inc. are petitioners in this case... through April 2010. Our analysis indicated, based on record evidence, that the appropriate date of sale of...

  11. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  12. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  13. Bench-scale studies of reactor-based treatment of fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.D.; Britto, R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of hazardous wastes from accidental spills or underground storage tank leaks has generated interest in bioremediation as a natural, economical mechanism for site decontamination. Because of drawbacks of batch systems, and the successful use of continuous flow treatment of wastewater for several decades, it was felt that continuous treatment of such soils would be a feasible alternative treatment technique. Therefore, bench-scale bioreactor treatability studies were conducted and used contaminated soil made in the laboratory using No. 2 diesel fuel and sand. Contamination levels studied were from 1,335--6,675 mg (TPH) as derived from No. 2 fuel oil per kg sand. Variation in mean cell age was obtained between reactors, with sufficient nutrients and oxygen made available to ensure the fuel oil organics were the only limit to microbial growth. A theoretical biokinetic model was formulated based on Monod's theory of limiting substrate and continuous cultures. Biokinetic constants and removal efficiencies were evaluated. The off-gases, CO 2 , and volatile hydrocarbons were monitored for mass balance analysis of the process. The solids retention times for evaluating final TPH concentration of 100 mg/kg were also calculated. Removal efficiencies of up to 91% were attained at a loading of 1,335 mg TPH/kg wet sand, operated at a biological solid retention time (BSRT) of 60 days. Experiments also showed that TPH desorption and volatilization were not rate-limiting in the overall removal process. Sand-to-moisture ratios in excess of 3:1 were also shown to retard TPH removal rates very little. However, biokinetic constants were found to vary over a range of values. This was particularly true at varying diesel loading levels. Nevertheless, significant removal efficiency (up to 86%) was noted at the highest loading level tested, 6,675 mg TPH/kg wet sand

  14. Bench-scale arc melter for R ampersand D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800 degrees C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter's ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions

  15. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  16. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  17. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m 3 at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m 2 /s to 6.6 x 10-7 m 2 /s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed

  18. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  19. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  20. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  1. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  2. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  3. Anharmonic properties of Raman modes in double wall carbon nano tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquina, J. [Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Optica, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Power, Ch.; Gonzalez, J. [Universidad de los Andes, Facultad de Ciencias, Centro de Estudios en Semiconductores, 5101 Merida (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Broto, J. M. [Universite de Toulouse, Laboratoire National des Champs Magnetiques Intenses, CNRS UPR 3228, 31400 Toulouse (France); Flahaut, E., E-mail: castella@ula.v [Universite Paul Sabatier, Laboratoire de Chimie des Materiaux Inorganiques, UMR CNRS 5085, 31062 Toulouse (France)

    2011-07-01

    The temperature dependence of the radial breathing modes (RB Ms) and the zone-center tangential optical phonons (G-bands) of double-walled carbon nano tubes has been investigated between 300 and 700 K using Raman scattering. As expected, with increasing temperature, the frequencies of the Raman peaks, including the RB Ms and G-bands downshift simultaneously. We show here that the temperature dependence of the RB Ms can be fitted by a simple linear dependence and different RB Ms have different frequency shifts. We observe a noticeable nonlinearity in the temperature dependence of the G-band associated with the outer semiconducting tube G+ext (s). The deviation from the linear trend is due to the contribution of the third-order anharmonic term in the lattice potential energy with a pure temperature effect. An estimated value of 1.5 for the Grueneisen parameter of the G+ext (s) band was found. (Author)

  4. A study of cladding technology on tube wall surface by a hand-held laser torch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya; Nishimura, Akihiko; Oka, Kiyoshi; Moriyama, Taku; Matsuda, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    New maintenance technique was proposed using a hand-held laser torch for aging chemical plants and power plants. The hand-held laser torch was specially designed to be able to access limited tubular space in various cases. A composite-type optical fiberscope was composed of a center fiber for beam delivery and surrounded fibers for visible image delivery. Laser irradiation on a work pieces with the best accuracy of filler wire was carried out. And, we found that the optimized wire-feed speed was 2 mm/s in laser cladding. We succeeded to make a line clad on the inner wall of 23 mm tube. This technique was discussed to be applied to the maintenance for cracks or corrosions of tubes in various harsh environments. (author)

  5. Modelling complex draft-tube flows using near-wall turbulence closures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ventikos, Y.; Sotiropoulos, F. [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). School of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Patel, V.C. [Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City, IA (United States). Iowa Institute of Hydraulic Research

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a finite-volume method for simulating flows through complex hydroturbine draft-tube configurations using near-wall turbulence closures. The method employs the artificial-compressibility pressure-velocity coupling approach in conjunction with multigrid acceleration for fast convergence on very fine grids. Calculations are carried out for a draft tube with two downstream piers on a computational mesh consisting of 1.2x10{sup 6} nodes. Comparisons of the computed results with measurements demonstrate the ability of the method to capture most experimental trends with reasonable accuracy. Calculated three-dimensional particle traces reveal very complex flow features in the vicinity of the piers, including horse-shoe longitudinal vortices and and regions of flow reversal.

  6. Studies on transport phenomena in polymer solutions and suspensions flowing through tubes of tortuous wall geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, C. M.

    2014-02-01

    Attempts have been made to analyse the momentum and heat transfer characteristics in tortuous flow of non-Newtonian fluids such as suspensions and polymer solutions through tubes of diverging-converging geometry. The results of the study indicate that the transfer coefficients are significantly higher in such systems as compared to the conventional couette flow (through uniform cylindrical tubes). Moreover, the simultaneous increase in pressure drop due to the tortuous wall geometry has been observed to be relatively insignificant. Fluids with different rheological characteristics such as Bingham plastic fluids, pseudoplastic fluids, Ellis model fluids and fluids obeying Reiner-Philippoff rheology have been studied. The specific advantages of these geometries in providing enhanced performance efficiency have been effectively highlighted.

  7. Development of an ECT technique for discriminating between a through-wall/non through-wall crack in a steam generator tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.H.; Choi, M.S.; Hur, D.H.; Han, J.H.; Lee, U.C.

    2004-01-01

    In a lot of pressurized water reactors, PWSCC (primary water stress corrosion cracking) has been observed in the expansion or u-bend transitions of the alloy 600 steam generator tubes. Particularly, the development of a through-wall crack may cause leakage of the primary coolant during operation and the resultant forced outage, and the in-situ pressure test has often been used to evaluate the integrity and the leakage of the cracked tube during an in-service inspection. However, this process requires additional equipment and hours, and the tested tubes are plugged due to the plastic deformation induced by the internal pressurization. This paper describes a new evaluation technique of the Eddy current test, by which it can be determined whether the crack is through-wall or non through-wall. The technique is based upon the analysis of the characteristics in the Eddy current signals from the crack and also includes the method of measuring exact through-wall length of the crack. The proof and applicability of the technique is discussed with the results of the destructive tests on cracked tubes extracted from a commercial power plant. Also, the effect of crack opening, which reflects the driving force for a crack propagation of non through-wall crack and the leak rate of a through-wall crack, upon the characteristics of the Eddy current signals from the coils of the motorized rotating probe is investigated and discussed using steam generator tube samples with manufactured axial cracks of a through-wall and non through-wall. (orig.)

  8. Development of on-line wall thickness gauge for small size seamless tube. Shokei seamless netsukan nikuatsukei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okumura, T; Konya, N; Oka, H; Kasuya, T [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1991-03-01

    In order to heighten the accuracy of small size seamless tube wall thickness, hot wall thickness gauge was developed to be installed, immediately behind the finishing/rolling mill, for the on-line measurement, of which the method was by the parallel-beam transmissivity of gamma-ray. The measurement unit, aiming at flexible manufacturing system (FMS), is completely automated in correcting the accuracy, changing the sizes, etc. The damping characteristics of gamma-ray beam can be expressed by a characteristic function, taking the outside diameter and wall thickness of subject tube as parameters. The functional calculation, as based on measurement of transmitted quantity of gamma-ray through the three-dimensional steel material, changes, depending upon the outside diameter, wall thickness and material specification of subject tube. System was so applied as to calculate it therefore on a case-by-case basis. Though in the vicinity of tube end, the transmitted quantity of gamma-ray is largely influenced by the horizontal dislocation, that influence is slack in the middle part of tube. Therefore, the cross sectional division was made dense and sparse in the end part and middle part, respectively of tube, which division could diminish the error from several percent to less than 0.1%. The static noise was compressed by the optimized digital filter. That gauge is presently applied for the operational administration of small size seamless tube rolling. 2 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Vortical and acoustical mode coupling inside a porous tube with uniform wall suction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowskia, T A; Majdalani, J

    2005-06-01

    This paper considers the oscillatory motion of gases inside a long porous tube of the closed-open type. In particular, the focus is placed on describing an analytical solution for the internal acoustico-vortical coupling that arises in the presence of appreciable wall suction. This unsteady field is driven by longitudinal oscillatory waves that are triggered by small unavoidable fluctuations in the wall suction speed. Under the assumption of small amplitude oscillations, the time-dependent governing equations are linearized through a regular perturbation of the dependent variables. Further application of the Helmholtz vector decomposition theorem enables us to discriminate between acoustical and vortical equations. After solving the wave equation for the acoustical contribution, the boundary-driven vortical field is considered. The method of matched-asymptotic expansions is then used to obtain a closed-form solution for the unsteady momentum equation developing from flow decomposition. An exact series expansion is also derived and shown to coincide with the numerical solution for the problem. The numerically verified end results suggest that the asymptotic scheme is capable of providing a sufficiently accurate solution. This is due to the error associated with the matched-asymptotic expansion being smaller than the error introduced in the Navier-Stokes linearization. A basis for comparison is established by examining the evolution of the oscillatory field in both space and time. The corresponding boundary-layer behavior is also characterized over a range of oscillation frequencies and wall suction velocities. In general, the current solution is found to exhibit features that are consistent with the laminar theory of periodic flows. By comparison to the Sexl profile in nonporous tubes, the critically damped solution obtained here exhibits a slightly smaller overshoot and depth of penetration. These features may be attributed to the suction effect that tends to

  10. Thermal fatigue crack growth on a thick wall tube containing a semi elliptical circumferential crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deschanels, H.; Wakai, T.; Lacire, M.H.; Michel, B.

    2001-01-01

    In order to check the ability of the simplified assessment procedure (A16 guide) to predict fatigue crack growth, a benchmark problem was conducted. This work is carried out under the project ''agreement on the Exchange of Information and Collaboration in the field of Research and Development of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) between Europe (EU) and Japan''. Experimental work is conducted by PNC using Air cooled Thermal transient Test Facility (ATTF). Specimen is a thick wall tube containing a semi elliptical (3-D) circumferential crack and subjected to cyclic thermal transients. The constitutive material is the 304 austenitic stainless steel type SUS304. Due to thermal shock (650 C-300 C) the stress distribution through the wall is non-linear and well approximated using a 3 rd order polynomial. When comparing computations and tests data we observe a good agreement for the crack propagation in length. In crack depth, accurate results are obtained in the first part of the test, but on the later stage of the experiment the computations slightly underestimate the propagation (deep crack). In addition, we notice the importance of good evaluation of fracture mechanics parameters for non-linear stress distribution through the wall. At present A16 guide handbook gives stress intensity factor solutions for non-linear stress distribution through the wall. (author)

  11. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  12. A long-term bench-scale investigation of permanganate consumption by aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuyuan; Thomson, Neil R

    2009-11-20

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications using permanganate involve the injection or release of permanganate into the subsurface to destroy various target contaminants. Naturally occurring reduced components associated with aquifer materials can exert a significant oxidant demand thereby reducing the amount of permanganate available for the destruction of contaminants as well as reducing the overall rate of oxidation. Quantification of this natural oxidant demand (NOD) is a requirement for site-specific assessment and the design of cost-effective oxidant delivery systems. To further our understanding of the interaction between permanganate and aquifer materials, aerobic and anaerobic aquifer materials from eight representative sites throughout North America were tested in a series of systematic bench-scale experiments. Various permanganate to aquifer solids mass loading ratios at different initial permanganate concentrations in well-mixed batch reactors were monitored for >300 days. All NOD temporal profiles demonstrated an initial fast consumption rate followed by a persistent slower consumption rate. The data generated show that the mass loading ratio, the initial permanganate concentration, and the nature and quantity of reduced aquifer material species are the main factors controlling permanganate consumption rates. A higher initial permanganate concentration or a larger mass loading ratio produced a larger fast NOD consumption rate and generated a corresponding higher maximum NOD value. Hence, both the NOD temporal profile and the maximum NOD are not single-valued but are heavily dependent on the experimental conditions. Predictive relationships were developed to estimate the maximum NOD and the NOD at 7 days based on aquifer material properties. The concentration of manganese oxides deposited on the aquifer solids was highly correlated with the mass of permanganate consumed suggesting that passivation of NOD reaction sites occurred due to the formation

  13. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  14. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  15. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  16. Simultaneous and long-lasting hydrophilization of inner and outer wall surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene tubes by transferring atmospheric pressure plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Faze; Song, Jinlong; Huang, Shuai; Xu, Wenji; Sun, Jing; Liu, Xin; Xu, Sihao; Xia, Guangqing; Yang, Dezheng

    2016-01-01

    Plasma hydrophilization is a general method to increase the surface free energy of materials. However, only a few works about plasma modification focus on the hydrophilization of tube inner and outer walls. In this paper, we realize simultaneous and long-lasting plasma hydrophilization on the inner and outer walls of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) tubes by atmospheric pressure plasmas (APPs). Specifically, an Ar atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) is used to modify the PTFE tube’s outer wall and meanwhile to induce transferred He APP inside the PTFE tube to modify its inner wall surface. The optical emission spectrum (OES) shows that the plasmas contain many chemically active species, which are known as enablers for various applications. Water contact angle (WCA) measurements, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are used to characterize the plasma hydrophilization. Results demonstrate that the wettability of the tube walls are well improved due to the replacement of the surface fluorine by oxygen and the change of surface roughness. The obtained hydrophilicity decreases slowly during more than 180 d aging, indicating a long-lasting hydrophilization. The results presented here clearly demonstrate the great potential of transferring APPs for surface modification of the tube’s inner and outer walls simultaneously. (paper)

  17. Guidelines for Selecting Plugs Used in Thin-Walled Tube Drawing Processes of Metallic Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva María Rubio

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, some practical guidelines to select the plug or set of plugs more adequate to carry out drawing processes of thin-walled tubes carried out with fixed conical inner plug are presented. For this purpose, the most relevant input parameters have been considered in this study: the tube material, the most important geometrical parameters of the process (die semiangle, α , and cross-sectional area reduction, r and the friction conditions (Coulomb friction coefficients, μ 1 , between the die and the tube outer surface, and μ 2 , between the plug and the tube inner surface. Three work-hardening materials are analyzed: the annealed copper UNS C11000, the aluminum UNS A91100, and the stainless steel UNS S34000. The analysis is realized by means of the upper bound method (UBM, modelling the plastic deformation zone by triangular rigid zones (TRZ, under the validated assumption that the process occurs under plane strain conditions. The obtained results allow establishing, for each material, a group of geometrical parameters, friction conditions, a set of plugs that make possible to carry out the process under good conditions, and the optimum plug to carry out the process using the minimum amount of energy. The proposed model is validated by means of an own finite element analysis (FEA carried out under different conditions and, in addition, by other finite element method (FEM simulations and real experiments taken from other researchers found in the literature (called literature simulations and literature experimental results, respectively. As a main conclusion, it is possible to affirm that the plug that allows carrying out the process with minimum quantity of energy is cylindrical in most cases.

  18. Low-cost fabrication of thin-walled solid electrolyte tubes from doctor-bladed ceramic tape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirstine, R T

    1979-01-01

    Sodium ..beta..-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ tubes having wall thicknesses of typically 0.4 mm were fabricated from doctor-bladed (cast) ceramic tape by use of proprietary organic slip compositions and zeta-processed, lithia-stabilized alumina power. The ceramic tubes fabricated from cast tape had low porosity, low resistivity (approx. 4 ohm-cm at 300/sup 0/C), and good mechanical strength. Alternative fabrication techniques for manufacture of tubes from tape were evaluated, and the primary processing requirements/obstacls were identified. Closed-end tubes, nominally 10 mm outer diameter, 60 mm in length, and with a wall thickness of 0.3 mm, were supplied to the Department of Energy. 26 figures, 10 tables.

  19. Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the influence of fluid dynamics on desulfurization in Bench scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.L.; Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany); Hardy, E.H. [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of fluid dynamics on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of a diesel oil in bench-scale reactors was evaluated. The porosities and liquid saturations of catalyst beds were quantified by using the MRI technique. The gas-liquid systems used in the experiments were nitrogen diesel and hydrogen diesel. An apparatus was especially constructed, allowing in situ measurements of gas and liquid distributions in packed beds at elevated pressure and temperature up to 20 bar and 200 C, respectively. The reactor itself had a length of 500 mm and an internal diameter of 19 mm. The packed beds used in this MRI study consisted of: (1) 2 mm diameter nonporous spherical glass beads and (2) 1.3 mm diameter porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trilobes having the same size as the original trilobe catalyst used in HDS bench-scale experiments. The superficial gas and liquid velocities were set within the range of trickle flow, e.g., u{sub 0G} = 20-500 mm/s and u{sub 0L} = 0.1-6 mm/s. In parallel with the MRI experiments, the hydrodesulfurization of a gas oil was investigated in a bench-scale plant. Its reactor had the same dimensions of the trickle-bed column used in the MRI experiments and was filled with original trilobe catalyst. These catalytic experiments were carried out at a wide range of operating conditions (p = 30-80 bar, T = 300-380 C, LHSV = 1-4 h{sup -1}). The results of both fluid dynamic and catalytic reaction experiments were then combined for developing a simulation model to predict the HDS performance by accounting for fluid dynamic nonidealities. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  1. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) of multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNT) onto indium-tin-oxide (ITO) glass substrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Roslie Ali; Shahrul Nizam Mohd Salleh

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were deposited onto Indium-Tin-Oxide (ITO)-coated glass substrates by introducing the use of Electrophoretic Deposition (EPD) as the method. The Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were dispersed ultrasonically in ethanol and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to form stable suspension. The addition of Sodium Hydroxide in ethanol can stabilize the suspension, which was very important step before the deposition take place. Two substrates of Indium-Tin-Oxide(ITO)-coated glass placed in parallel facing each other (conductive side) into the suspension. The deposition occurs at room temperature, which the distance fixed at 1 cm between both electrodes and the voltage level applied was fixed at 400 V, respectively. The deposition time also was fixed at 30 minutes. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) will be characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), and Raman Microscope. The images of SEM shows that the Multi -Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) were distributed uniformly onto the surface of ITO-Glass. The deposited ITO-Glass with Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) could be the potential material in various practical applications such as field emission devices, fuel cells, and super capacitors. Electrophoretic deposition (EPD) technique was found to be an efficient technique in forming well distribution of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes (MWCNT) onto ITO-Glass substrates, as proved in characterization methods, in which the optimum conditions will play the major role. (author)

  2. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  3. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  4. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Thick-walled anisotropic elliptic tube analyzed via curvilinear tensor calculus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareš T.

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available After a brief introduction into the tensor calculus, the thick-walled anisotropic elliptic tube is analyzed. A procedure of the analysis is described in a stepwise manner. A choice of the appropriate coordinate systems is the first step. The second step consists of the determination of corresponding metric tensors. Then the elasticity tensor of a local orthotropy is transformed into a global computational coordinate system. Next the appropriate Christoffel symbols of the second kind are determined and the total potential energy of the system is expressed. At the end the solution is approximated by a Fourier series and for given geometrical values and loading the numerical results are obtained and graphically represented.It must be said that throughout the calculation the free software only was used and for the numerical operations an old laptop is sufficient. The author regards both the former and the latter as a great advantage of the demonstrated method.

  6. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B.H. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)]. E-mail: bhl@physics.uwa.edu.au; Ju, L. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia); Blair, D.G. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-02-13

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB.

  7. Thin walled Nb tubes for suspending test masses in interferometric gravitational wave detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.H.; Ju, L.; Blair, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous Letter, we have shown that the use of orthogonal ribbons could provide a better mirror suspension technique in interferometric gravitational wave antennas. One of the key improvements presented by the orthogonal ribbon is the reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser. We have considered more elaborate geometries in recent simulations and obtained a suspension that provides further reduction in the number of violin string modes in the direction of the laser, as well as in the direction orthogonal to the laser. This thin walled niobium tube suspension exhibits a reduction in the number of violin modes to 5 in each direction up to a frequency of 5 kHz. Furthermore, the violin mode thermal noise peaks can be reduced in amplitude by 30 dB

  8. Nonlinear free vibration of single walled Carbone NanoTubes conveying fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azrar A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear free vibration of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs conveying fluid are modeled and numerically simulated based on von Kármán geometric nonlinearity and Eringen’s nonlocal elasticity theory. The CNTs are modelled as nanobeams where the effects of transverse shear deformation and rotary inertia are considered within the framework of Timoshenko beam theory. The governing equations and boundary conditions are derived using the Hamilton’s principle and the nonlinear equation of motion is solved by the Galerkin’s method. The small scale parameter and the fluid-tube interaction effects on the dynamic behaviours of the CNT-fluid system as well as the instabilities induced by the fluid-velocity can be investigated. The critical fluid-velocity and frequency-amplitude relationships as well as the flutter and divergence instability types and the associated time responses are obtained based on the presented methodological approach.

  9. Hydrogen adsorption in microporous alkali-doped carbons (single-wall carbon nano-tubes and activated carbons)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent Duclaux; Szymon Los; Michel Letellier; Philippe Azais; Roland Pellenq; Thomas Roussel; Xavier Fuhr

    2006-01-01

    Doping of microporous carbon by Li or K leads to an increase in the energy of adsorption of H 2 or D 2 molecules. Thus, the room temperature sorption capacities (at P≤3 MPa) can be higher than the ones of the raw materials after slight doping. However, the maximum H 2 (or D 2 ) storage uptake measured at T≤ 77 K is lower than the one of pristine materials as the sites of adsorption are occupied by alkali ions inserted in the micropores. The microporous adsorption sites of doped single-walled carbon nano-tubes, identified by neutron diffraction, are both the interstitial voids (in electric-arc or HiPCO tubes) in between the tubes and the central canals of the tubes (only in HiPCO tubes). (authors)

  10. Evaluation of plugging criteria on steam generator tubes and coalescence model of collinear axial through-wall cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Ho; Park, Youn Won; Song, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jin; Moon, Seong In

    2000-01-01

    In a nuclear power plant, steam generator tubes cover a major portion of the primary pressure-retaining boundary. Thus very conservative approaches have been taken in the light of steam generator tube integrity. According to the present criteria, tubes wall-thinned in excess 40% should be plugged whatever causes are. However, many analytical and experimental results have shown that no safety problems exist even with thickness reductions greater than 40%. The present criterion was developed about twenty years ago when wear and pitting were dominant causes for steam generator tube degradation. And it is based on tubes with single cracks regardless of the fact that the appearance of multiple cracks is more common in general. The objective of this study is to review the conservatism of the present plugging criteria of steam generator tubes and to propose a new coalescence model for two adjacent through-wall cracks existing in steam generator tubes. Using the existing failure models and experimental results, we reviewed the conservatism of the present plugging criteria. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed new coalescence model, we performed finite element analysis and some parametric studies. Then, we developed a coalescence evaluation diagram

  11. Conservatism of present plugging criteria on steam generator tubes and coalescence model of collinear through-wall axial cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jin Ho; Park, Youn Won; Song, Myung Ho; Kim, Young Jin; Moon, Seong In

    1999-01-01

    The steam generator tubing covers a major portion of the primary pressure-retaining boundary, so that very conservative approaches were taken in the light of steam generator tube integrity. According to the present criteria, tubes wall-thinned in excess of 40% should be plugged whatever the cause was. However, it is reported that there is no safety problem even with thickness reductions greater than 40%. Recently, the plant specific plugging criteria are introduced in many countries by demonstrating that the cracked tube has a sufficient safety margin. One of the drawbacks of such criteria, even though not yet codified, is that it is developed based on tubes with single cracks regardless of the fact that the appearance of multiple cracks is general. Their failure analyses have been, therefore, carried out using an idealized single crack to reduce complexity till now. The objective of this paper is to review the conservatism of the present plugging criteria of steam generator tubes and to propose a new coalescence criterion for twin through-wall cracks existing in steam generator tubes. Using the existing failure models and experimental results, we review the conservatism of the present plugging criteria. In order to verify the usefulness of the proposed new coalescence criterion, we perform finite element analysis

  12. A tale of two neglected systems - structure and function of the thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes in monocotyledonous leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted eBotha

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a large body of information relating to the ontogeny, development and the vasculature of eudicotyledonous leaves. However there is less information available concerning the vascular anatomy of monocotyledonous leaves. This is surprising, given that there are two uniquely different phloem systems present in large groups such as grasses and sedges. Monocotyledonous leaves contain marginal, large, intermediate and small longitudinal veins that are interconnected by numerous transverse veins. The longitudinal veins contain two metaphloem sieve tube types, which, based upon their ontogeny and position within the phloem, are termed early (thin-walled and late (thick-walled sieve tubes. Early metaphloem comprises sieve tubes, companion cells and vascular parenchyma cells, whilst the late metaphloem, contains thick-walled sieve tubes that lack companion cells. Thick-walled sieve tubes are generally adjacent to, or no more than one cell removed from the metaxylem. Unlike thin-walled sieve tube-companion cell complexes, thick-walled sieve tubes are connected to parenchyma by pore-plasmodesma units and are generally symplasmically isolated from the thin walled sieve tubes. This paper addresses key structural and functional differences between thin- and thick-walled sieve tubes and explores the unique advantages of alternate transport strategies that this 5 to 7 million year old dual system may offer. It would seem that these two systems may enhance, add to, or play a significant role in increasing the efficiency of solute retrieval as well as of assimilate transfer.

  13. Bench scale studies: Ozonation as a potential treatment for waters contaminated with hydrocarbons or dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaal, W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the bench scale studies was to examine the destruction efficiency and efficacy of ozone on chemicals of concern (COC's) commonly found in contaminated ground water and rhenoformer wash water. The ground water used in these tests contained aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits. The rhenoformer wash water used in these tests contained a variety of dioxins (including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and furans. Summaries are presented of the bench scale studies by describing the COCs, methodologies, test reactors, observations, and results. The summaries also detail which applications hold promise with respect to ozonation and which ones do not. Bench test results for the experiments in which aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits where the COCs were relatively successful. Concentrations for the COCs ranging from 300 to 3,400 micrograms per liter (microg/L) were brought below levels specified for storm sewer discharge per the National Priority Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit requirements. Bench test results for the experiments in which dioxins and furans were the COCs were less promising and revealed that additional processes would have to be used in conjunction with ozonation to bring the concentration of COCs within the targeted ranges. It was realized, however, that the effectiveness and efficacy of ozonation were diminished by the presence of particulates, to which some of the dioxin and furan compounds adhered

  14. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  15. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  16. Study of tensile test behavior of austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes in cold worked condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terui, Clarice, E-mail: clarice.terui@marinha.mil.br [Centro Tecnológico da Marinha em São Paulo (CINA/CTMSP), Iperó, SP (Brazil). Centro Industrial Nuclear da Marinha; Lima, Nelson B. de, E-mail: nblima@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    These austenitic stainless steel type 347 seamless thin-walled tubes are potential candidates to be used in fuel elements of nuclear power plants (as PWR - Pressurized Water Reactor). So, their metallurgical condition and mechanical properties, as the tensile strength and yield strength, normally are very restrict in demanding project and design requirements. Several full size tensile tests at room temperature and high temperature (315 deg C) were performed in these seamless tubes in cold-worked condition. The results of specified tensile and yield strengths were achieved but the elongation of the tube, in the geometry of the component, could not be measured at high temperature due to unconventional mode of rupture (helical mode without separation of parts). The average value of elongation was obtained from stress-strain curves of hot tensile tests and was around 5%. The results obtained in this research show that this behavior of the full size tensile test samples of thin-walled tube (wall thickness less than 0.5 mm) in high temperature (315°C) is due to the combination of the manufacturing process, the material (crystallographic structure and chemical composition) and the final geometry of the component. In other words, the strong crystallographic texture of material induced by tube drawing process in addition with the geometry of the component are responsible for the behavior in hot uniaxial tensile tests. (author)

  17. Two simple methods for calculating the penetration time of a longitudinal magnetic field through the wall of a metallic tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jimenez D, H.; Colunga S, S.; Lopez C, R.; Melendez L, L.; Ramos S, J.; Cabral P, A.; Gonzalez T, L.; Chavez A, E.; Valencia A, R.

    1991-06-01

    Two simple and fast methods to calculate the penetration time of a longitudinal magnetic field through the wall of a long metallic tube of circular cross section are presented. The first method is based upon the proposition of an 'effective penetration thickness' given by the polar angle average of all possible straight-line transverse penetration paths of field lines through the tube wall. This method provides a quick calculation that yields a remarkably good approximation to experimental and reported values of the penetration time. In the second method the tube is considered as a RL circuit. Thus the penetration time is given by the ratio L T /R T where L T is the inductance of the tube considered as a one turn coil, and R T is the tube resistance. This method is faster to apply than the previous one but the values obtained provide only a rough approximation to the penetration time. Applications of the two methods are given for the tokamak chambers of the Japanese 'HYBTOK', the Brazilian 'TBR' and the Mexican 'Novillo'. The resulting values of the penetration time approximate very well to the reported ones in the first two cases and to the experimental one in the last. The methods are also applied to calculate the penetration time in two long tubes, one of aluminum and other of copper. Calculated values approximate very well to measured values. (Author)

  18. Radiant and convective heat transfer for flow of a transparent gas in a short tube with prescribed sinusoidal wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lemos, M.J.S.

    1982-01-01

    The present analysis accounts for radiant and convective heat transfer for a transparent fluid flowing in a short tube with prescribed wall heat flux. The heat flux distribution used was of sine shape with maximum at the middle of the tube. Such a solution is the approximate one for axial power in a nuclear reactor. The solutions for the tube wall and gas bulk temperatures were obtained by successive substitutions for the wall and gas balance energy equations. The results show a decrease of 30% for the maximum wall temperature using black surface (e = 1). In this same case, the increasing in the gas temperature shows a decrease of 58%

  19. Status of Joining Thin Sheet and Thin Wall Tubes of 14YWT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Unocic, Kinga A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-18

    Beginning this fiscal year, the FCRD research project initiated an investigation on joining thin sections of the advanced ODS 14YWT ferritic alloy. Friction stir welding (FSW) was investigated as a method to join thin plate and tubing of 14YWT since it is a solid state joining method that has been shown in past studies to be a promising method for joining plates of ODS alloys, such as 14YWT. However, this study will attempt to be the first to demonstrate if FSW can successfully join thin plates and thin wall tubing of 14YWT. In the first FSW attempt, a 1.06 cm thick plate of 14YWT (SM13 heat) was successfully rolled at 1000ºC to the target thickness of 0.1 cm with no edge cracking. This achievement is a highlight since previous attempts to roll 14YWT plates have resulted in extensive cracking. For the FSW run, a pin tool being developed by the ORNL FSW Process Development effort was used. The first FSW run successfully produced a bead-on-plate weld in the 0.1 cm thick plate. The quality of the weld zone appears very good with no evidence of large defects such as cavities. The microstructural characterization study of the bead-on-plate weld zone has been initiated to compare the results of the microstructure analysis with those obtained in the reference microstructural analysis of the 14YWT (SM13 heat) that showed ultra-fine grain size of 0.43 μm and a high number density of ~2-5 nm sizes oxygen-enriched nanoclusters.

  20. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  1. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  2. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otano, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1 ) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60 Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater

  3. The apical actin fringe contributes to localized cell wall deposition and polarized growth in the lily pollen tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M; Hepler, Peter K; Winship, Lawrence J

    2014-09-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. © 2014 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  4. The influence of triggers geometry upon the stiffness of cylindrical thin walled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soica, Adrian; Radu, Gheorghe N.

    2014-06-01

    Today's automobile manufacturers are increasingly using lightweight materials to reduce weight; these include plastics, composites, aluminium, magnesium alloys, and also new types of high strength steels. Many of these materials have limited strength or ductility, therefore in many cases the rupture being serious consequences during crashes, underscore Picketta et al. in their studies. Automotive structures must deform plastically in a short period of time, a few milliseconds, to absorb the crash energy in a controllable manner. It must be light and enable economically mass-production [1]. FE models rapidly gained acceptance among engineers. Many other factors facilitated the development of vehicle models by shell finite elements since most of the geometry of the structural surfaces was already on computer graphic files. Kee Poong Kim and Hoon Huh emphasize that the crashworthiness of each vehicle part needs to be evaluated at the initial stage of design for good performance of an assembled vehicle. As the dynamic behaviour of structural members is different from the static one, the crashworthiness of the vehicle structures has to be assessed by impact analysis. The paper analyzes the influence of trigger geometry upon the compression of thin-walled cylindrical tubes. Simulations performed on a simple model showed the dependence between triggers area and deformation times as well as the maximum deformations obtained for various speeds at which the simulations ware carried out. Likewise, the geometry of trigger leads to different results.

  5. Copper hexacyanoferrate functionalized single-walled carbon nano-tubes for selective cesium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draouil, H.; Alvarez, L.; Bantignies, J.L.; Causse, J.; Cambedouzou, J.; Flaud, V.; Zaibi, M.A.; Oueslati, M.

    2017-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nano-tubes (SWCNTs) are functionalized with copper hexacyanoferrate (CuHCF) nanoparticles to prepare solid substrates for sorption of cesium ions (Cs + ) from liquid outflows. The high mechanical resistance and large electrical conductivity of SWCNTs are associated with the ability of CuHCF nanoparticles to selectively complex Cs + ions in order to achieve membrane-like buckypapers presenting high loading capacity of cesium. The materials are thoroughly characterized using electron microscopy, Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analyses. Cs sorption isotherms are plotted after having measured the Cs + concentration by liquid phase ionic chromatography in the solution before and after exposure to the materials. It is found that the total sorption capacity of the material reaches 230 mg.g -1 , and that about one third of the sorbed Cs (80 mg.g -1 ) is selectively complexed in the CuHCF nanoparticles grafted on SWCNTs. The quantification of Cs + ions on different sorption sites is made for the first time, and the high sorption rates open interesting outlooks in the integration of such materials in devices for the controlled sorption and desorption of these ions. (authors)

  6. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Yong Ki [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Heat Treatment and Surface Engineering R and D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 406-840 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong [Department of Molecular Biology, Dankook University, Yongin 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hong Ja [Department of Internal Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan 330-714 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Donggeun, E-mail: djung@skku.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts. • Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment using micro plasma discharge. - Abstract: Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature

  7. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Yong Ki; Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong; Kim, Hong Ja; Jung, Donggeun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts. • Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment using micro plasma discharge. - Abstract: Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature

  8. State-variable analysis of inelastic deformation of thin-walled tubes. II. Data analysis and simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wire, G.L.; Duncan, D.R.; Cannon, N.S.; Johnson, G.D.; Alexopoulos, P.S.; Li, C.Y.

    Inelastic analysis is performed to calculate the deformation of thin-walled, internally pressurized, tube under a variety of loading modes. A state-variable approach was used to describe the material properties. The material parameters of the constitutive equations used were determined based on uniaxial, load relaxation, tensile tests, and internally pressurized tubes under creep and constant-displacement-rate modes of loading. The simulated results were compared with the experimental data. The significance of the comparison is discussed in terms of the validity of a state-variable approach used to describe the deformation properties in mechanical testing

  9. Effect of two dimensional heat conduction within the wall on heat transfer of a tube partially heated on its circumference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Isao; Kurosaki, Yasuo

    1987-01-01

    This paper dealt with the numerical calculations of the heat transfer of a tube partially heated on its circumference, considering two-dimensional heat conduction within the wall. The contribution of the unheated region of the tube wall to heat tranfer of the heated region was explained by the term of 'fin efficiency of psuedo-fin', it was clarified that the fin efficiency of the unheated region was little affected by the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces of the wall, and could be approximated by the fin efficency of a rectangular fin. Both the circumferential and radial heat conductions within the wall affected the temperature difference between the inner and outer surfaces of the heated region; however, the effect of the temperature difference on the circumferentially average Nusselt number could be obtained by using the analytical solution of radially one-dimensional heat conduction. Using these results, a diagram showing the effect of wall conduction on heat transfer, which is useful for designing the circumferentially nonuniformly heated coolant passages, was obtained. (author)

  10. Mathematical Model for Thin-walled Corrugated Tube under Axial Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyvazian Arameh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, theoretical investigation of corrugated aluminum tubes is performed to predicting the energy absorption characteristics. Aim to deform plastic tubes in predetermined intervals, corrugations are introduced on its surface. Theoretical relations are presented for predicting the energy absorption and mean crushing load of corrugated tubes. Other than that, corrugation helps to control the failure mode.

  11. Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.

    2013-12-01

    In this work, we consider a sinusoidal-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re=449 for which unsteady flow was observed. The longitudinal dispersion observed for the flow was computed using a random walk particle tracking method, and this was compared to the longitudinal dispersion predicted from a volume-averaged macroscopic mass balance using the method of volume averaging; the results of the two methods were consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for both the low-Re, Stokes flow regime and for values of Re representing the steady inertial regime. In the steady inertial regime, a power-law increase in the effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re was found, and this is consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). One unsteady (but non-turbulent) flow case (Re=449) was also examined. For this case, the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion. The observed tailing was further explored through analysis of concentration skewness (third moment) and its assymptotic convergence to conventional advection-dispersion behavior (skewness = 0). The method of volume averaging was

  12. A Eutectic Melting Study of Double Wall Cladding Tubes of FeCrAl and Zircaloy-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Woojin; Son, Seongmin; Lee, You Ho; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ryu, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Eun [Kyunghee University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The eutectic melting behavior of FeCrAl/Zircaloy-4 double wall cladding tubes was investigated by annealing at various temperatures ranging from 900 .deg. C to 1300 .deg. C. It was found that significant eutectic melting occurred after annealing at temperatures equal to or higher than 1150 .deg. C. It means that an additional diffusion barrier layer is necessary to limit the eutectic melting between FeCrAl and Zircaloy-4 alloy cladding tubes. Coating of FeCrAl layers on the Zr alloy cladding tube is being investigated for the development of accident tolerant fuel by exploiting of both the oxidation resistance of FeCrAl alloys and the neutronic advantages of Zr alloys. Coating of FeCrAl alloys on Zr alloy cladding tubes can be performed by various techniques including thermal spray, laser cladding, and co-extrusion. Son et al. also reported the fabrication of FeCrAl/Zr ally double wall cladding by the shrink fit method. For the double layered cladding tubes, the thermal expansion mismatch between the dissimilar materials, severe deformation or mechanical failure due to the evolution of thermal stresses can occur when there is a thermal cycling. In addition to the thermal stress problems, chemical compatibilities between the two different alloys should be investigated in order to check the stability and thermal margin of the double wall cladding at a high temperature. Generally, it is considered that Zr alloy cladding will maintain its mechanical integrity up to 1204 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F) to satisfy the acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems.

  13. A standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barat, P.; Raj, B.; Bhattacharya, D.K.

    1982-01-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed. (author)

  14. Standardized procedure for eddy-current testing of stainless steel, thin-walled nuclear fuel element cladding tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barat, P; Raj, B; Bhattacharya, D K [Reactor Research Centre, Kalpakkam (India)

    1982-10-01

    Thin-walled nuclear fuel cladding tubes made of AISI 316 stainless steel have been examined by eddy-current testing. Standardization of the procedures has required investigations on optimizing the test frequency, finding a method to locate a defect with respect to the probe reference end, and the use of standard defects and sequential metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing, to understand the influence of the nature of defects on the impedance output signals. Test frequency and method of locating the defect were optimized by the use of standard defects made by machining in reference cladding tubes. Subsequent metallography of natural defects detected by eddy-current testing revealed mainly clusters of inclusions but also other types of defects. The effect of the distribution of inclusions along the length of the tube on the impedance output is discussed.

  15. Developmental evolution of flowering plant pollen tube cell walls: callose synthase (CalS gene expression patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abercrombie Jason M

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A number of innovations underlie the origin of rapid reproductive cycles in angiosperms. A critical early step involved the modification of an ancestrally short and slow-growing pollen tube for faster and longer distance transport of sperm to egg. Associated with this shift are the predominantly callose (1,3-β-glucan walls and septae (callose plugs of angiosperm pollen tubes. Callose synthesis is mediated by callose synthase (CalS. Of 12 CalS gene family members in Arabidopsis, only one (CalS5 has been directly linked to pollen tube callose. CalS5 orthologues are present in several monocot and eudicot genomes, but little is known about the evolutionary origin of CalS5 or what its ancestral function may have been. Results We investigated expression of CalS in pollen and pollen tubes of selected non-flowering seed plants (gymnosperms and angiosperms within lineages that diverged below the monocot/eudicot node. First, we determined the nearly full length coding sequence of a CalS5 orthologue from Cabomba caroliniana (CcCalS5 (Nymphaeales. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR demonstrated low CcCalS5 expression within several vegetative tissues, but strong expression in mature pollen. CalS transcripts were detected in pollen tubes of several species within Nymphaeales and Austrobaileyales, and comparative analyses with a phylogenetically diverse group of sequenced genomes indicated homology to CalS5. We also report in silico evidence of a putative CalS5 orthologue from Amborella. Among gymnosperms, CalS5 transcripts were recovered from germinating pollen of Gnetum and Ginkgo, but a novel CalS paralog was instead amplified from germinating pollen of Pinus taeda. Conclusion The finding that CalS5 is the predominant callose synthase in pollen tubes of both early-diverging and model system angiosperms is an indicator of the homology of their novel callosic pollen tube walls and callose plugs. The data suggest that CalS5 had transient expression

  16. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  17. Removal of Malachite Green Dye from Aqueous Solution Using Multi-Walled Carbon Nano tubes: An Application of Experimental Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Aminah Zulkepli; Md Pauzi Abdullah; Md Pauzi Abdullah; Wan Mohd Afiq Wan Mohd Khalik

    2016-01-01

    An experimental design methodology was performed in the optimization of removal of malachite green dye by multi-walled carbon nano tubes. A Central Composite Design (25) was chosen to develop a mathematical model and determine the optimum condition for adsorption of malachite green by carbon nano tubes. Five experimental factors, namely initial dye concentration, mass of adsorbent, pH, contact time and agitation speed were studied. Maximum adsorption of malachite green was achieved at the suggested optimum conditions: initial dye concentration (20 ppm), weight of adsorbent (0.03 g), pH solution (7) contact time (17 min) and agitation speed (150 strokes per min). The experimental value of adsorption by multi-walled carbon nano tubes were found to be in good agreement with the predicted value (R"2 = 0.922).The experimental equilibrium data were best fitted to isotherm model (Langmuir) and kinetic model (pseudo second-order) respectively. Maximum adsorption by carbon nano tubes at monolayer for malachite green was obtained at 112.36 mg/ g while kinetic rate constant was calculated to be 0.0017 g mg"-"1 min"-"1. (author)

  18. Perspectives of Single-Wall Carbon Nano-tube Production in the Arc Discharge Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krestinin, A.V.; Kiselev, N.A.; Raevskii, A.V; Ryabenko, A.G.; Zakharov, D.N.; Zvereva, G.I.

    2003-01-01

    Single-wall carbon nano tubes (SWNTs) promise wide applications in many technical fields. As a result purified SWNT material is sold now on the West market at more than 1000 dollars per 1 gram. Thus developing an effective technology for SWNTs production rises to a very important sintofene problem. The perspectives of three existing methods providing raw material in the technology of SWNT production have been analyzed. They are i) pulsed laser evaporation of graphite/metal composites, ii) evaporation of graphite electrodes with metal content in the are discharge process, and iii) catalytic decomposition of the mixture of CO and metal carbonyl catalyst precursor. The observed dynamites of SWNT market points to replacing the laser method of SWNTs production by the are process. The conclusion has been made that the technology based on the are process will be the major one for the fabrication of purified SWNTs at least for the next five years. A reliable estimation of a low price limit of SWNTs was derived from a comparison of two technologies based on the are discharge process: the first one is the production of SWNTs and the second one is the production of a fullerene mixture C 6 0 + C 7 0. The main conclusion was made that the price of purified SWNTs should always be more by 2-3 times the price of fullerene mixture. The parameters of a lab-scale technology for the production of purified SWNTs are listed. A large-scale application of the developed technology is expected to reduce the price of purified SWNTs by approximately ten times. The methods now employed for the characterization of products containing SWNTs are briefly observed. It is concluded that electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, absorption and Raman spectroscopy, measurement of the specific surface aria, optical microscopy - each in separation is not enough for extensive characterization of a sample containing SWNTs, and all these methods should be used together. (author)

  19. Uptake of gaseous formaldehyde onto soil surfaces: a coated-wall flow tube study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo; Su, Hang; Li, Xin; Meusel, Hannah; Kuhn, Uwe; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shao, Min; Cheng, Yafang

    2015-04-01

    Gaseous formaldehyde (HCHO) is an important intermediate molecule and source of HO2 radicals. However, discrepancies exist between model simulated and observed HCHO concentrations, suggesting missing sources or sinks in the HCHO budget. Multiphase processes on the surface of soil and airborne soil-derived particles have been suggested as an important mechanism for the production/removal of atmospheric trace gases and aerosols. In this work, the uptake of gaseous HCHO on soil surfaces were investigated through coated-wall flow tube experiments with HCHO concentration ranging from 10 to 40 ppbv. The results show that the adsorption of HCHO occurred on soil surfaces, and the uptake coefficient dropped gradually (i.e., by a factor of 5 after 1 hour) as the reactive surface sites were consumed. The HCHO uptake coefficient was found to be affected by the relative humidity (RH), decreasing from (2.4 ± 0.5) × 10-4 at 0% RH to (3.0 ± 0.08) × 10-5 at 70% RH, due to competition of water molecule absorption on the soil surface. A release of HCHO from reacted soil was also detected by applying zero air, suggesting the nature of reversible physical absorption and the existence of an equilibrium at the soil-gas interface. It implies that soil could be either a source or a sink for HCHO, depending on the ambient HCHO concentration. We also develop a Matlab program to calculate the uptake coefficient under laminar flow conditions based on the Cooney-Kim-Davis method.

  20. Convective heat transport of high-pressure flows inside active, thick walled-tubes with isothermal outer surfaces: usage of Nusselt correlation equations for an inactive, thin walled-tube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Antonio [Idaho State Univ., Nuclear Engineering Dept., Pocatello, ID (United States); Sanchez, Alejo [Universidad de los Andes, Depto. de Ingenieria Mecanica, Merida (Venezuela)

    1998-03-01

    A semi-analytical analysis was conducted for the prediction of the mean bulk- and interface temperatures of gaseous and liquid fluids moving laminarly at high pressures inside thick-walled metallic tubes. The outer surfaces of the tubes are isothermal. The central goal of this article is to critically examine the thermal response of this kind of in-tube flows utilizing two versions of the 1-D lumped model: one is differential-numerical while the other is differential-algebraic. For the former, the local Nusselt number characterizing an inactive, isothermal tube was taken from correlation equations reported in the heat transfer literature. For the latter, a streamwise-mean Nusselt number associated with an active, isothermal tube was taken from standard correlation equations that appear in text-books on basic heat transfer. For the two different versions of the 1-D lumped model tested, the computed results consistently demonstrate that the differential-algebraic, provides accurate estimates of both the mean bulk- and the interface temperatures when compared with those temperature results computed with formal 2-D differential models. (author)

  1. Evaluation on double-wall-tube residual stress distribution of sodium-heated steam generator by neutron diffraction and numerical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, N.; Suzuki, H.; Akita, K.; Kasahara, N.

    2012-01-01

    A double-wall-tube is nominated for the steam generator heat transfer tube of future sodium fast reactors (SFRs) in Japan, to decrease the possibility of sodium/water reaction. The double-wall-tube consists of an inner tube and an outer tube, and they are mechanically contacted to keep the heat transfer of the interface between the inner and outer tubes by their residual stress. During long term SG operation, the contact stress at the interface gradually falls down due to stress relaxation. This phenomenon might increase the thermal resistance of the interface and degrade the tube heat transfer performance. The contact stress relaxation can be predicted by numerical analysis, and the analysis requires the data of the initial residual stress distributions in the tubes. However, unclear initial residual stress distributions prevent precious relaxation evaluation. In order to resolve this issue, a neutron diffraction method was employed to reveal the tri-axial (radius, hoop and longitudinal) initial residual stress distributions in the double-wall-tube. Strain gauges also were used to evaluate the contact stress. The measurement results were analyzed using a JAEA's structural computer code to determine the initial residual stress distributions. Based on the stress distributions, the structural computer code has predicted the transition of the relaxation and the decrease of the contact stress. The radial and longitudinal temperature distributions in the tubes were input to the structural analysis model. Since the radial thermal expansion difference between the inner (colder) and outer (hotter) tube reduces the contact stress and the tube inside steam pressure contributes to increasing it, the analytical model also took these effects into consideration. It has been conduced that the inner and outer tubes are contacted with sufficient stresses during the plant life time, and that effective heat transfer degradation dose not occur in the double-wall-tube SG. (authors)

  2. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  3. Strength and Stability Analysis of a Single Walled Black Phosphorus Tube under Axial Compression

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, Kun; Wan, Jing; Wei, Ning; Qin, Qinghua

    2016-01-01

    Few-layered black phosphorus materials recently attract much attention due to its special electronic properties. As a Consequence, the nano-tube from a single-layer black phosphorus has been theoretically built. The corresponding electronic properties of such black phosphorus nano-tube were also evaluated numerically.

  4. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  5. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  6. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  7. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  8. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1997-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ( 90 Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 μCi/ml ( 90 Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization

  10. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  11. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  12. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C.; Schmal, M.; Cantao, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb 2 O 5 catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb 2 O 5 is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu I (55%) or Cu II (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m 2 /g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu II to Cu, at 245 o C and 306 o C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb 2 O 5 . The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO 2 as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300 o C to 400 o C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  13. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Methods of Investigation of Equations that Describe Waves in Tubes with Elastic Walls and Application of the Theory of Reversible and Weak Dissipative Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakholdin, Igor

    2018-02-01

    Various models of a tube with elastic walls are investigated: with controlled pressure, filled with incompressible fluid, filled with compressible gas. The non-linear theory of hyperelasticity is applied. The walls of a tube are described with complete membrane model. It is proposed to use linear model of plate in order to take the bending resistance of walls into account. The walls of the tube were treated previously as inviscid and incompressible. Compressibility of material of walls and viscosity of material, either gas or liquid are considered. Equations are solved numerically. Three-layer time and space centered reversible numerical scheme and similar two-layer space reversible numerical scheme with approximation of time derivatives by Runge-Kutta method are used. A method of correction of numerical schemes by inclusion of terms with highorder derivatives is developed. Simplified hyperbolic equations are derived.

  16. The role of the velocity gradient in laminar convective heat transfer through a tube with a uniform wall heat flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Liangbi; Zhang Qiang; Li Xiaoxia

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to contribute to a better understanding of convective heat transfer. For this purpose, the reason why thermal diffusivity should be placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux, and the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer are analysed. The background to these analyses is that, when the energy conservation equation of convective heat transfer is used to explain convective heat transfer there are two points that are difficult for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand: thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of temperature; on the wall surface (the fluid side) the velocity is zero, a diffusion equation of temperature is gained from energy conservation equation, however, temperature cannot be transported. Consequently, the real physical meaning of thermal diffusivity is not clearly reflected in the energy conservation equation, and whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process on the wall surface is not clear. Through a simple convective heat transfer case: laminar convective heat transfer in a tube with a uniform wall heat flux on the tube wall, this paper explains these points more clearly. The results declare that it is easier for teachers to explain and for undergraduates to understand these points when a description of heat transfer in terms of the heat flux is used. In this description, thermal diffusivity is placed before the Laplacian operator of the heat flux; the role of the velocity gradient in convective heat transfer appears, on the wall surface, the fact whether heat transfer occurs through a diffusion process or a convection process can be explained and understood easily. The results are not only essential for teachers to improve the efficiency of university-level physics education regarding heat transfer, but they also enrich the theories for understanding heat transfer

  17. Heat transfer augmentation along the tube wall of a louvered fin heat exchanger using practical delta winglets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, Michael J.; Thole, Karen A. [Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering Department, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2008-05-15

    Delta winglets are known to induce the formation of streamwise vortices and increase heat transfer between a working fluid and the surface on which the winglets are placed. This study investigates the use of delta winglets to augment heat transfer on the tube surface of louvered fin heat exchangers. It is shown that delta winglets placed on louvered fins produce augmentations in heat transfer along the tube wall as high as 47% with a corresponding increase of 19% in pressure losses. Manufacturing constraints are considered in this study whereby piercings in the louvered fins resulting from stamping the winglets into the louvered fins are simulated. Comparisons of measured heat transfer coefficients with and without piercings indicate that piercings reduce average heat transfer augmentations, but significant increases still occur with respect to no winglets present. (author)

  18. Bioactive surface modifications on inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene tubes using dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Yong Ki; Park, Daewon; Kim, Hoonbae; Lee, Hyerim; Park, Heonyong; Kim, Hong Ja; Jung, Donggeun

    2014-03-01

    Bioactive surface modification can be used in a variety of medical polymeric materials in the fields of biochips and biosensors, artificial membranes, and vascular grafts. In this study, the surface modification of the inner walls of poly-tetra-fluoro-ethylene (PTFE) tubing was carried out to improve vascular grafts, which are made of biocompatible material for the human body in the medical field. Focus was centered on the cell attachment of the inner wall of the PTFE by sequential processes of hydrogen plasma treatment, hydrocarbon deposition, and reactive plasma treatment on the PFTE surface using micro plasma discharge. Micro plasma was generated by a medium-frequency alternating current high-voltage generator. The preliminary modification of PTFE was conducted by a plasma of hydrogen and argon gases. The hydrocarbon thin film was deposited on modified PTFE with a mixture of acetylene and argon gases. The reactive plasma treatment using oxygen plasma was done to give biocompatible functionality to the inner wall surface. The hydrophobic surface of bare PTFE is made hydrophilic by the reactive plasma treatment due to the formation of carbonyl groups on the surface. The reactive treatment could lead to improved attachment of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) on the modified PTFE tubing. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and water contact angle measurement were used for the analysis of the surface modification. The SMC-attached PTFE tube developed will be applicable to in vitro human vasculature-mimetic model systems, and to medical vascular grafts.

  19. The effect of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of high slagged deposit fuel-fired boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasiliev, V V; Kovalevitch, I A; Maidanik, M N [All-Union Heat Engineering Institute, Siberian Branch, Krasnoyarsk (USSR)

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the results of investigating the effectiveness of water jet lancing on furnace wall tubes of slagged deposits fuels fired boilers type E-500, P-64, P-67 are given. The boilers of these types are designed to burn Jugoslavian lignites are Beresovo lignites of the Kansk-Achinsk deposits. Recommendations for usage of low retractable, long retractable and long-range water blowers, depending on the design, produced in the USSR, the furnace dimension and stability of deposits are given as well.

  20. Complete Status Report Documenting Development of Friction Stir Welding for Joining Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bunn, Jeffrey R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The development of friction stir welding (FSW) for joining thin sections of the advanced oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) 14YWT ferritic alloy was initiated in Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD), now the Nuclear Technology Research and Development (NTRD), in 2015. The first FSW experiment was conducted in late FY15 and successfully produced a bead-on-plate stir zone (SZ) on a 1 mm thick plate of 14YWT (SM13 heat). The goal of this research task is to ultimately demonstrate that FSW is a feasible method for joining thin wall (0.5 mm thick) tubing of 14YWT.

  1. Dynamic behavior of radiant cooling system based on capillary tubes in walls made of high performance concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Svendsen, Svend

    2015-01-01

    elements made of high performance concrete. The influence of the radiant cooling system on the indoor climate of the test room in terms of the air, surface and operative temperatures and velocities was investigated.The results show that the temperature of the room air can be kept in a comfortable range...... using cooling water for the radiant cooling system with a temperature only about 4K lower than the temperature of the room air. The relatively high speed reaction of the designed system is a result of the slim construction of the sandwich wall elements made of high performance concrete. (C) 2015...... the small amount of fresh air required by standards to provide a healthy indoor environment.This paper reports on experimental analyses evaluating the dynamic behavior of a test room equipped with a radiant cooling system composed of plastic capillary tubes integrated into the inner layer of sandwich wall...

  2. Uncertainty Quantification Analysis of Both Experimental and CFD Simulation Data of a Bench-scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnam, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Gel, Aytekin [ALPEMI Consulting, LLC, Phoeniz, AZ (United States); Subramaniyan, Arun K. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Musser, Jordan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Dietiker, Jean-Francois [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Adequate assessment of the uncertainties in modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the simulation based engineering design. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the application of non-intrusive Bayesian uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology in multiphase (gas-solid) flows with experimental and simulation data, as part of our research efforts to determine the most suited approach for UQ of a bench scale fluidized bed gasifier. UQ analysis was first performed on the available experimental data. Global sensitivity analysis performed as part of the UQ analysis shows that among the three operating factors, steam to oxygen ratio has the most influence on syngas composition in the bench-scale gasifier experiments. An analysis for forward propagation of uncertainties was performed and results show that an increase in steam to oxygen ratio leads to an increase in H2 mole fraction and a decrease in CO mole fraction. These findings are in agreement with the ANOVA analysis performed in the reference experimental study. Another contribution in addition to the UQ analysis is the optimization-based approach to guide to identify next best set of additional experimental samples, should the possibility arise for additional experiments. Hence, the surrogate models constructed as part of the UQ analysis is employed to improve the information gain and make incremental recommendation, should the possibility to add more experiments arise. In the second step, series of simulations were carried out with the open-source computational fluid dynamics software MFiX to reproduce the experimental conditions, where three operating factors, i.e., coal flow rate, coal particle diameter, and steam-to-oxygen ratio, were systematically varied to understand their effect on the syngas composition. Bayesian UQ analysis was performed on the numerical results. As part of Bayesian UQ analysis, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on the simulation results, which shows

  3. Complete Status Report Documenting Weld Development for Thin Wall Tubing of ODS Ferritic Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, David T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Edmondson, Philip D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gussev, Maxim N. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Tang, Wei [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Feng, Zhili [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-16

    Beginning in 2015, research in the FCRD program began the development of FSW for joining thin sections of 14YWT in the form of thin (0.5 mm) plate and ultimately thin wall tubing. In the previous fiscal year, a ~1 mm thick plate, or sheet, of 14YWT was produced by hot rolling with no edge cracking. The initial FSW experiment was performed on the 1 mm thick plate and involved a bead-on-plate weld in which the spinning pin tool is plunged into the plate surface, but does not penetrate the thickness of the plate, and then travels the length of the plate. The FSW run successfully produced a bead-on-plate stir zone on the 1 mm thick plate of 14YWT, but no characterization studies of the stir zone were performed by the end of FY15. Therefore, the results presented in this report cover the microstructural analysis of the bead-on-plate stir zone and the initial research task on obtaining tensile properties of the stir zone using the digital image correlation (DIC) approach during testing of miniature tensile specimens to assess the quality of the FSW parameters used in the initial experiment. The results of the microstructural characterization study using optical, scanning electron and scanning transmission electron microscopies showed the grain structure in the SZ to have isotropic and irregular shape but very similar size compared to the highly elongated grains oriented horizontally with the plane of the plate that were observed in the unaffected zone of 14YWT. Several cracks oriented horizontally were observed mostly on the retreating side of the SZ in both the SZ and TMAZ. These cracks may have formed due to insufficient pressure being exerted on the top surface of the plate by the shoulder and pin tool during the FSW run. High resolution STEM-EDS analysis showed the presence of the Y-Ti-O particles in the SZ, but that some particles exhibited coarsening. Overall, the FSW parameters used to produce the bead-on-plate SZ in the 0.1 cm thick plate of 14YWT were nearly

  4. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation.The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70 degrees C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques.Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results

  6. Treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid: Bench-scale study on hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.L.W.; Ritter, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was constructed to vitrify high-level radioactive liquid waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. Formic acid, which serves as both an acid and a reducing agent, is used to treat the washed alkaline sludge during melter feed preparation primarily to improve the processability of the feed and to reduce mercury to its zero state for steam stripping. The high-level sludge is composed of many transition metal hydroxides. Among them, there are small quantities of platinum group metals. During the treatment of simulated sludge with formic acid, significant amounts of hydrogen were generated when the platinum group metals were included in the sludge. Apparently the noble metals in the sludge were reduced to their zero states and caused formic acid to decompose catalytically into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, usually with an induction period. The production of hydrogen gas presented the DWPF with a safety issue. Therefore, the objective of this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of what controlled the hydrogen evolution so that a practical solution to the safety issue could be obtained. A bench-scale parametric study revealed the following: increasing the amount of formic acid added to the sludge increased the hydrogen generation rate dramatically; once the catalysts were activated, the hydrogen generation rate decreased significantly with a lowering of the temperature of the sludge; the relative catalytic activities of the noble metals in the sludge decreased in the following order: rhodium > ruthenium much-gt palladium; ammonium ions were generated catalytically from the reaction between formic acid and nitrate; and when present, the noble metals caused higher upward drifts of the sludge pH

  7. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  9. Theoretical Analysis of Effects of Wall Suction on Entropy Generation Rate in Laminar Condensate Layer on Horizontal Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong-Bou Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of wall suction on the entropy generation rate in a two-dimensional steady film condensation flow on a horizontal tube are investigated theoretically. In analyzing the liquid flow, the effects of both the gravitational force and the viscous force are taken into account. In addition, a film thickness reduction ratio, Sf, is introduced to evaluate the effect of wall suction on the thickness of the condensate layer. The analytical results show that, the entropy generation rate depends on the Jakob number Ja, the Rayleigh number Ra, the Brinkman number Br, the dimensionless temperature difference ψ, and the wall suction parameter Sw. In addition, it is shown that in the absence of wall suction, a closed-form correlation for the Nusselt number can be derived. Finally, it is shown that the dimensionless entropy generation due to heat transfer, NT, increases with an increasing suction parameter Sw, whereas the dimensionless entropy generation due to liquid film flow friction, NF, decreases.

  10. Fatigue of thin walled tubes in copper alloy CuNi10

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertsen, Søren Heide; Damkilde, Lars; Jepsen, Michael S.

    2016-01-01

    The current work concerns the investigation of the fatigue resistance of CuNi10 tubes, which are frequently used in heat exchangers of large ship engines. The lifetime performances of the exchanger tubes are greatly affected by the environmental conditions, where especially the temperature...... by means of the ASTM E739 guideline and one-sided tolerance limits factor method. The tests show good fatigue resistance and the risk for a failure is low in aspect to the case of a ship heat exchanger....

  11. Effects of tube diameter and chirality on the stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Zijian; Zhang Wei; Zhu Zhiyuan; Ren Cuilan; Li Yong; Huai Ping

    2009-01-01

    Using molecular dynamics method, we investigated the influence of tube diameter and chirality on the stability of single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) under ion irradiation. We found that in the energy range below 1 keV, the dependence of CNT stability on the tube diameter is no longer monotonic under C ion irradiation, and the thinner (5, 5) CNT may be more stable than the thicker (7, 7) CNT, while under Ar irradiation, the CNT stability increases still monotonically with the CNT diameter. This stability behavior was further verified by the calculations of the threshold ion energies to produce displacement damage in CNTs. The abnormal stability of thin CNTs is related to their resistance to the instantaneous deformation in the wall induced by ion pushing, the high self-healing capacity, as well as the different interaction properties of C and Ar ions with CNT atoms. We also found that under ion irradiation the stability of a zigzag CNT is better than that of an armchair CNT with the same diameter. This is because of the bonding structure difference between the armchair and the zigzag CNTs with respect to the orientations of graphitic networks as well as the self-healing capacity difference.

  12. Design of welding parameters for laser welding of thin-walled stainless steel tubes using numerical simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, M.; Behúlová, M.

    2017-11-01

    Nowadays, the laser technology is used in a wide spectrum of applications, especially in engineering, electronics, medicine, automotive, aeronautic or military industries. In the field of mechanical engineering, the laser technology reaches the biggest increase in the automotive industry, mainly due to the introduction of automation utilizing 5-axial movements. Modelling and numerical simulation of laser welding processes has been exploited with many advantages for the investigation of physical principles and complex phenomena connected with this joining technology. The paper is focused on the application of numerical simulation to the design of welding parameters for the circumferential laser welding of thin-walled exhaust pipes from theAISI 304 steel for automotive industry. Using the developed and experimentally verified simulation model for laser welding of tubes, the influence of welding parameters including the laser velocity from 30 mm.s-1 to 60 mm.s-1 and the laser power from 500 W to 1200 W on the temperature fields and dimensions of fusion zone was investigated using the program code ANSYS. Based on obtained results, the welding schedule for the laser beam welding of thin-walled tubes from the AISI 304 steel was suggested.

  13. A Study On Critical Thinning In Thin-walled Tube Bending Of Al-Alloy 5052O Via Coupled Ductile Fracture Criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Heng; Yang He; Zhan Mei

    2010-01-01

    Thin-walled tube bending(TWTB) method of Al-alloy tube has attracted wide applications in aerospace, aviation and automobile,etc. While, under in-plane double tensile stress states at the extrados of bending tube, the over-thinning induced ductile fracture is one dominant defect in Al-alloy tube bending. The main objective of this study is to predict the critical wall-thinning of Al-alloy tube bending by coupling two ductile fracture criteria(DFCs) into FE simulation. The DFCs include Continuum Damage Mechanics(CDM)-based model and GTN porous model. Through the uniaxial tensile test of the curved specimen, the basic material properties of the Al-alloy 5052O tube is obtained; via the inverse problem solution, the damage parameters of both the two fracture criteria are interatively determined. Thus the application study of the above DFCs in the TWTB is performed, and the more reasonable one is selected to obtain the critical thinning of Al-alloy tube in bending. The virtual damage initiation and evolution (when and where the ductile fracture occurs) in TWTB are investigated, and the fracture mechanisms of the voided Al-alloy tube in tube bending are consequently discussed.

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  15. Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes as Fluorescence Biosensors for Pathogen Recognition in Water Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyayula, V.K.K

    2008-01-01

    The possibility of using single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) aggregates as fluorescence sensors for pathogen recognition in drinking water treatment applications has been studied. Batch adsorption study is conducted to adsorb large concentrations of Staphylococcus aureus aureus SH 1000 and Escherichia coli pKV-11 on single-walled carbon nanotubes. Subsequently the immobilized bacteria are detected with confocal microscopy by coating the nanotubes with fluorescence emitting antibodies. The Freundlich adsorption equilibrium constant (k) for S.aureus and E.coli determined from batch adsorption study was found to be 9 x108 and 2 x108 ml/g, respectively. The visualization of bacterial cells adsorbed on fluorescently modified carbon nanotubes is also clearly seen. The results indicate that hydrophobic single-walled carbon nanotubes have excellent bacterial adsorption capacity and fluorescent detection capability. This is an important advancement in designing fluorescence biosensors for pathogen recognition in water systems.

  16. Thermodynamic optimization of a coiled tube heat exchanger under constant wall heat flux condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satapathy, Ashok K.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the second law analysis of thermodynamic irreversibilities in a coiled tube heat exchanger has been carried out for both laminar and turbulent flow conditions. The expression for the scaled non-dimensional entropy generation rate for such a system is derived in terms of four dimensionless parameters: Prandtl number, heat exchanger duty parameter, Dean number and coil to tube diameter ratio. It has been observed that for a particular value of Prandtl number, Dean number and duty parameter, there exists an optimum diameter ratio where the entropy generation rate is minimum. It is also found that with increase in Dean number or Reynolds number, the optimum value of the diameter ratio decreases for a particular value of Prandtl number and heat exchanger duty parameter.

  17. Sucrose Synthase Is Associated with the Cell Wall of Tobacco Pollen Tubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Persia, D.; Cai, G.; Casino, C.; Willemse, M.T.M.; Cresti, M.

    2008-01-01

    Sucrose synthase (Sus; EC 2.4.1.13) is a key enzyme of sucrose metabolism in plant cells, providing carbon for respiration and for the synthesis of cell wall polymers and starch. Since Sus is important for plant cell growth, insights into its structure, localization, and features are useful for

  18. SPONTANEOUS FALLOPIAN TUBE EVISCERATION IN PROCIDENTIA AND PERFORATING CARCINOMATOUS VAGINAL WALL ULCER – CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijan Lužnik

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Total prolapse of female pelvic organs is not only painful and troublesome because of difficulties with micturition and defecation but it could be very dangerous since prolapsed vagina presents a predilection area for ulcer and/or rupture of different etiology and with evisceration of abdominal content. Eviscerations usually occur rarely, but when they do occur, it is important to intervene quickly. Most frequent is the evisceration of small bowel, rarely omentum and sporadically other abdominal structures. Neither in literature nor on the internet there were not any examples of primary eviscerated fallopian tube which was not a consequence of preceeding gynecological-surgical procedure found. Methods. 77-year-old woman was appointed to our out patient department with diagnosis of Prolapsus uteri totalis and Dolores abdominalis. In history there was prevulvar bulge in the size of an apple, which persisted for 20 years, and almost disappeared when lying supine. Three days before admission to the hospital the bulge was exceedingly enlarged by straining and did not diminish when lying supine. The patient walked only hardly and could not sit. Micturition and defecation was possible only in the upright position. There were also difficulties while placing the patient on a gynecologic chair, because between her legs there was a bulge in the size of 14 × 10 × 9 cm3 with fallopian tube hanging out (Figure 1. On the outermost part of total uterovaginal prolapse the outer ostium of the cervical canal was recognizable. The bulge was fully stretched, painful and unreponible. Around a hole where a fallopian tube exits, vagina was eritematous, rough folded – swollen and vulnerable (Figure 2. In outpatient department eviscerated fallopian tube and prolapsed vagina with its contents were aseptically treated and Dalacin and Orho Gynest crème were applicated. Foley catheter was inserted. Prolapsed vagina with uterus and other contents remained

  19. Characterization of mechanical properties of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys for biomedical application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Sengstock, Christina; Motemani, Yahya; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther; Köller, Manfred

    2016-06-01

    Release of Ni(1+) ions from NiTi alloy into tissue environment, biological response on the surface of NiTi and the allergic reaction of atopic people towards Ni are challengeable issues for biomedical application. In this study, composite coatings of hydroxyapatite-silicon multi walled carbon nano-tubes with 20wt% Silicon and 1wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes of HA were deposited on a NiTi substrate using electrophoretic methods. The SEM images of coated samples exhibit a continuous and compact morphology for hydroxyapatite-silicon and hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings. Nano-indentation analysis on different locations of coatings represents the highest elastic modulus (45.8GPa) for HA-Si-MWCNTs which is between the elastic modulus of NiTi substrate (66.5GPa) and bone tissue (≈30GPa). This results in decrease of stress gradient on coating-substrate-bone interfaces during performance. The results of nano-scratch analysis show the highest critical distance of delamination (2.5mm) and normal load before failure (837mN) as well as highest critical contact pressure for hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes coating. The cell culture results show that human mesenchymal stem cells are able to adhere and proliferate on the pure hydroxyapatite and composite coatings. The presence of both silicon and multi walled carbon nano-tubes (CS3) in the hydroxyapatite coating induce more adherence of viable human mesenchymal stem cells in contrast to the HA coated samples with only silicon (CS2). These results make hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes a promising composite coating for future bone implant application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Standard guide for mutual inductance bridge applications for wall thickness determinations in boiler tubing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This guide describes a procedure for obtaining relative wall thickness indications in ferromagnetic and non-ferromagnetic steels using the mutual inductance bridge method. The procedure is intended for use with instruments capable of inducing two substantially identical magnetic fields and noting the change in inductance resulting from differing amounts of steel. It is used to distinguish acceptable wall thickness conditions from those which could place tubular vessels or piping at risk of bursting under high temperature and pressure conditions. 1.2 This guide is intended to satisfy two general needs for users of industrial Mutual Inductance Bridge (MIB) equipment: (1) the need for a tutorial guide addressing the general principles of Mutual Inductance Bridges as they apply to industrial piping; and (2) the need for a consistent set of MIB performance parameter definitions, including how these performance parameters relate to MIB system specifications. Potential users and buyers, as well as experienced M...

  1. Stress in closed thin-walled tubes of single box subjected by shear forces and application to airfoils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zebbiche Toufik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The presented work is to develop a numerical computation program to determine the distribution of the shear stress to shear in closed tubes with asymmetric single thin wall section with a constant thickness and applications to airfoils and therefore determining the position and value of the maximum stress. In the literature, there are exact analytical solutions only for some sections of simple geometries such as circular section. Hence our interest is focused on the search of approximate numerical solutions for more complex sections used in aeronautics. In the second stage the position of the shear center is determined so that the section does not undergo torsion. The analytic function of the boundary of the airfoil is obtained by using the cubic spline interpolation since it is given in the form of tabulated points.

  2. The Effect of DNA and Sodium Cholate Dispersed Single-Walled Carbon Nano tubes on the Green Algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, R.M.; Cox, Z.; Dolash, B.D.; Sooter, L.J.; Williams, R.M.; Taylor, H.K.; Thomas, J.

    2014-01-01

    Increasing use of single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) will lead to their increased release into the environment. Previous work has shown negative effects of SWCNT on growth and survival of model organisms. The aim of the current study was to determine the effect of SWCNT well-dispersed by either DNA or sodium cholate (SC) on the unicellular green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in stagnant water conditions. Growth measurements were taken up to ten days for algae treated with varied levels of DNA:SWCNT or SC:SWCNT or controls, and chlorophyll content after 10 days was determined. Results show no effect on either growth or chlorophyll content of algae at any concentration or duration. This is in contradiction to prior work showing toxicity of SWCNT to environmental model organisms.

  3. Mathematical Model of Stress-Strain State of Curved Tube of Non-Circular Cross-Section with Account of Technological Wall Thickness Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirogov, S. P.; Ustinov, N. N.; Smolin, N. I.

    2018-05-01

    A mathematical model of the stress-strain state of a curved tube of a non-circular cross-section is presented, taking into account the technological wall thickness variation. On the basis of the semi-membrane shell theory, a system of linear differential equations describing the deformation of a tube under the effect of pressure is obtained. To solve the boundary value problem, the method of shooting is applied. The adequacy of the proposed mathematical model is verified by comparison with the experimental data and the results of the calculation of tubes by the energy method.

  4. Simulating wall and corner fire tests on wood products with the OSU room fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran

    1994-01-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity of modeling wall and corner fires in a compartment. The model chosen for this purpose is the Ohio State University (OSU) room fire model. This model was designed to simulate fire growth on walls in a compartment and therefore lends itself to direct comparison with standard room test results. The model input were bench-scale data...

  5. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain time-dependent thermoplastic analysis has been developed for the ballooning deformation of a thin-wall tube subjected to internal pressure, axial loading, and fast thermal transients. This deformation initiates with the onset of plastic instability in the material, the onset being determined by a plastic-instability criterion for strain-rate sensitive materials. The interaction among the local ballooning geometry, the state of stress, and the plastic flow process was considered, and integration of the flow equations yields the local curvature and the states of stress and strain in the vicinity of the maximum ballooning site. The effects of axial constraint and heating rate were also discussed. The analysis was applied to a LWR Zircaloy cladding subjected to a constant heating rate and a range of internal pressures. The results agree very well with experimental strain-time data obtained from tube-burst tests. In most cases, the time of rupture was accurately predicted despite the lack of complete material-property data

  6. Biliary peritonitis caused by a leaking T-tube fistula disconnected at the point of contact with the anterior abdominal wall: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Marko

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Operations on the common bile duct may lead to potentially serious complications such as biliary peritonitis. T-tube insertion is performed to reduce the risk of this occurring postoperatively. Biliary leakage at the point of insertion into the common bile duct, or along the fistula, can sometimes occur after T-tube removal and this has been reported extensively in the literature. We report a case where the site at which the T-tube fistula leaked proved to be the point of contact between the fistula and the anterior abdominal wall, a previously unreported complication. Case presentation A 36-year-old sub-Saharan African woman presented with gallstone-induced pancreatitis and, once her symptoms settled, laparoscopic cholecystectomy was performed, common bile duct stones were removed and a T-tube was inserted. Three weeks later, T-tube removal led to biliary peritonitis due to the disconnection of the T-tube fistula which was recannulated laparoscopically using a Latex drain. Conclusion This case highlights a previously unreported mechanism for bile leak following T-tube removal caused by detachment of a fistula tract at its contact point with the anterior abdominal wall. Hepatobiliary surgeons should be aware of this mechanism of biliary leakage and the use of laparoscopy to recannulate the fistula.

  7. Investigation on Nano composite Membrane of Multi walled Carbon Nano tube Reinforced Polycarbonate Blend for Gas Separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kausar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon nano tube has been explored as a nano filler in high performance polymeric membrane for gas separation. In this regard, nano composite membrane of polycarbonate (PC), poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVFHFP), and multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNT) was fabricated via phase inversion technique. Poly (ethylene glycol) (PEG) was employed for the compatibilization of the blend system. Two series of PC/PVFHFP/PEG were developed using purified P-MWCNT and acid functional A-MWCNT nano filler. Scanning and transmission electron micrographs have shown fine nano tube dispersion and wetting by matrix, compared with the purified system. Tensile strength and Young s modulus of PC/PVFHFP/PEG/MWCNT-A 1-5 were found to be in the range of 63.6-72.5 MPa and 110.6-122.1 MPa, respectively. The nano composite revealed 51% increase in Young s modulus and 28% increase in tensile stress relative to the pristine blend. The A-MWCNT was also effective in enhancing the perm selectivity αCO 2 /N 2 (31.2-39.9) of nano composite membrane relative to the blend membrane (21.6). The permeability ρCO 2 of blend was 125.6 barrer; however, the functional series had enhancedρCO 2 values ranging from 142.8 to 186.6 barrer. Moreover, A-MWCNT loading improved the gas diffusivity of PC/PVFHFP/PEG/MWCNT-A 1-5; however, filler content did not significantly influence the CO 2 and N 2 solubility.

  8. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  9. Failure analysis of large tube of maraging steel 350 (145 mm dia, 1 mm wall thickness)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, A.

    1997-01-01

    A steady of opening mode of crack initiation in maraging steel 350 rotor tubes aged and rolled condition (1 mm thick sheet) has been constructed, with the aid of a (NEOPHOT 2) microscope. Observations were made from several orientations including the top view of the specimen which showed the profile and the edge view of the specimen which showed the entire notch front along the specimen thickness. It was found that the edge view exhibited the first signs of permanent deformation. These changes took the form of deformation bends which were aligned in direction of the tensile axis and apparently defined limiting regions of homogeneous slip. It is felt that the appearance of microcracks at loads approaching the breaking strength was of fundamental importance in the formation of the final fracture surface. Many of these microcracks were initiated at intermetallic particles and other metallurgically weak regions on the notch surface. (author)

  10. Technical note: Influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Coated-wall flow tube reactors are frequently used to investigate gas uptake and heterogeneous or multiphase reaction kinetics under laminar flow conditions. Coating surface roughness may potentially distort the laminar flow pattern, induce turbulence and introduce uncertainties in the calculated uptake coefficient based on molecular diffusion assumptions (e.g., Brown/Cooney–Kim–Davis (CKD/Knopf–Pöschl–Shiraiwa (KPS methods, which has not been fully resolved in earlier studies. Here, we investigate the influence of surface roughness and local turbulence on coated-wall flow tube experiments for gas uptake and kinetic studies. According to laminar boundary theory and considering the specific flow conditions in a coated-wall flow tube, we derive and propose a critical height δc to evaluate turbulence effects in the design and analysis of coated-wall flow tube experiments. If a geometric coating thickness δg is larger than δc, the roughness elements of the coating may cause local turbulence and result in overestimation of the real uptake coefficient (γ. We further develop modified CKD/KPS methods (i.e., CKD-LT/KPS-LT to account for roughness-induced local turbulence effects. By combination of the original methods and their modified versions, the maximum error range of γCKD (derived with the CKD method or γKPS (derived with the KPS method can be quantified and finally γ can be constrained. When turbulence is generated, γCKD or γKPS can bear large difference compared to γ. Their difference becomes smaller for gas reactants with lower uptake (i.e., smaller γ and/or for a smaller ratio of the geometric coating thickness to the flow tube radius (δg ∕ R0. On the other hand, the critical height δc can also be adjusted by optimizing flow tube configurations and operating conditions (i.e., tube diameter, length, and flow velocity, to ensure not only unaffected laminar flow patterns but also other specific requirements for an

  11. Radiographic testing methods for welds of thin titanium plates and thin wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    This standard stipulates the testing method by X-ray radiography for the welded parts of titanium plates and titanium tubes with thickness not exceeding 8 mm. The other items than those stipulated here shall be in accordance with JIS Z 3107-1973 ''Testing method by radiography for the welded part of titanium and method of grade classification of radiographs''. As the photographing method of radiographs, the performance of the equipment and materials for testing, the direction of X-ray irradiation, the thickness of parent materials and welds, the use of penetrameters, the arrangement for photographing, the requirement for radiographs and the observation of radiographs are specified. The X-ray apparatuses, photo-sensitive materials and the tools for photographing and observation must be such that the radiographs clearly showing the defects in the welds being tested can be taken or observed. The JIS Z 3107 is insufficient for the test of thin materials like titanium, therefore, this standard was set down. As the thickness of welds, the thickness of parent materials was taken. In this standard, the titanium penetrameters were adopted because they can be made and they conform to practical state. If magnified photographing is carried out with microfocus X-ray apparatuses, precise photographing can be made. (Kako, I.)

  12. Thin-walled composite tubes using fillers subjected to quasistatic axial compression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AL-Qrimli, Haidar F; Mahdi, Fadhil A; Ismail, Firas B; Alzorqi, Ibrahim S

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that composites are lightweight, fatigue resistant and easily melded, a seemingly attractive alternative to metals. However, there has been no widespread switch from metals to composites in the automotive sector. This is because there are a number of technical issues relating to the use of composite materials that still need to be resolved including accurate material characterization, manufacturing and joining process. The total of 36 specimens have been fabricated using the fibre-glass and resin (epoxy) with a two different geometries (circular and corrugated) each one will be filled with five types of filler (Rice Husk, Wood Chips, Aluminium Chips, Coconut Fibre, Palm Oil Fibre) all these type will be compared with empty Tubes for circular and corrugated in order to comprehend the crashworthiness parameters (initial failure load, average load, maximum crushing load, load ratio, energy absorption, specific energy absorption, volumetric energy absorption, crushing force efficiency and crush strain relation) which are considered very sufficient parameters in the design of automotive industry parts. All the tests have been done using the “INSTRON Universal machine” which is computerized in order to simply give a high precision to the collection of the results, along with the use of quasi-static load to test and observe the behaviour of the fabricated specimens. (paper)

  13. Thin-walled composite tubes using fillers subjected to quasistatic axial compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    AL-Qrimli, Haidar F.; Mahdi, Fadhil A.; Ismail, Firas B.; Alzorqi, Ibrahim S.

    2015-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that composites are lightweight, fatigue resistant and easily melded, a seemingly attractive alternative to metals. However, there has been no widespread switch from metals to composites in the automotive sector. This is because there are a number of technical issues relating to the use of composite materials that still need to be resolved including accurate material characterization, manufacturing and joining process. The total of 36 specimens have been fabricated using the fibre-glass and resin (epoxy) with a two different geometries (circular and corrugated) each one will be filled with five types of filler (Rice Husk, Wood Chips, Aluminium Chips, Coconut Fibre, Palm Oil Fibre) all these type will be compared with empty Tubes for circular and corrugated in order to comprehend the crashworthiness parameters (initial failure load, average load, maximum crushing load, load ratio, energy absorption, specific energy absorption, volumetric energy absorption, crushing force efficiency and crush strain relation) which are considered very sufficient parameters in the design of automotive industry parts. All the tests have been done using the “INSTRON Universal machine” which is computerized in order to simply give a high precision to the collection of the results, along with the use of quasi-static load to test and observe the behaviour of the fabricated specimens.

  14. Analytic model of the stress waves propagation in thin wall tubes, seeking the location of a harmonic point source in its surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boaratti, Mario Francisco Guerra

    2006-01-01

    Leaks in pressurized tubes generate acoustic waves that propagate through the walls of these tubes, which can be captured by accelerometers or by acoustic emission sensors. The knowledge of how these walls can vibrate, or in another way, how these acoustic waves propagate in this material is fundamental in the detection and localization process of the leak source. In this work an analytic model was implemented, through the motion equations of a cylindrical shell, with the objective to understand the behavior of the tube surface excited by a point source. Since the cylindrical surface has a closed pattern in the circumferential direction, waves that are beginning their trajectory will meet with another that has already completed the turn over the cylindrical shell, in the clockwise direction as well as in the counter clockwise direction, generating constructive and destructive interferences. After enough time of propagation, peaks and valleys in the shell surface are formed, which can be visualized through a graphic representation of the analytic solution created. The theoretical results were proven through measures accomplished in an experimental setup composed of a steel tube finished in sand box, simulating the condition of infinite tube. To determine the location of the point source on the surface, the process of inverse solution was adopted, that is to say, known the signals of the sensor disposed in the tube surface , it is determined through the theoretical model where the source that generated these signals can be. (author)

  15. Comparison of characteristics parameters in the evaluation of wall thickness diminishing in admiralty brass tubes of the steam condenser, tested by eddy currents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, Alba E.; Mendez, Jorge A.; Acosta, Cesar D.; Scopelliti, Jose D.

    1999-01-01

    This work is aimed to appraise the measure of the wall thickness diminishing in the signals evaluation obtained in the inspection of steam condenser by eddy currents. In the analysis of the obtained signals were observed in the brass tubes a great quantity of internal defects whose signal indicates that there were diminishing of the wall thickness between 80% and 100%. With all this information and analyzing the data acquired, the tubes with more important indications were selected to make a more exhaustive study of the found defectology. As first test, it was measured the thickness of the worn tubes, comparing them with the original ones that are in stock. It was verified that the tubes separated for this study presented a 30% less thickness in comparison with the new tubes. A semiquantitative chemical test (EDAX) was made to verify if it was the same material. One of the extracted tubes (066 Y1) was reinspected in order to isolate the area with indications. Once this was performed, it was decided to cut the tube to make a visual inspection and to evaluate to what type of defect corresponds to the signals obtained. In the metallography it was confirm that it was a horseshoe type defect. When performing a dimensional control test of the found real defect, it was checked that the information obtained by eddy currents regarding the diminishing of the wall thickness diminishing was valid. At a last stage of the test, it was proceed to make an study and verification of the used parameters, probes, standards and finally determine which shall be the convenient modifications to minimize errors. (author)

  16. Augmentative effect of pulsatility on the wall shear stress in tube flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, M; Tatsumi, E; Tsukiya, T; Taenaka, Y; Nishimura, T; Nishinaka, T; Takano, H; Masuzawa, T; Ohba, K

    1999-08-01

    Wall shear stress (WSS) has been considered to play an important role in the physiological and metabolic functions of the vascular endothelial cells. We investigated the effects of the pulse rate and the maximum flow rate on the WSS to clarify the influence of pulsatility. Water was perfused in a 1/2 inch transparent straight cylinder with a nonpulsatile centrifugal pump and a pulsatile pneumatic ventricular assist device (VAD). In nonpulsatile flow (NF), the flow rate was changed 1 to 6 L/min by 1 L/min increments to obtain standard values of WSS at each flow rate. In pulsatile flow (PF), the pulse rate was controlled at 40, 60, and 80 bpm, and the maximum flow rate was varied from 3.3 to 12.0 L/min while the mean flow rate was kept at 3 L/min. The WSS was estimated from the velocity profile at measuring points using the laser illuminated fluorescence method. In NF, the WSS was 12.0 dyne/cm2 at 3 L/min and 33.0 dyne/cm2 at 6 L/min. In PF, the pulse rate change with the same mean, and the maximum flow rate did not affect WSS. On the other hand, the increase in the maximum flow rate at the constant mean flow rate of 3 L/min augmented the mean WSS from 13.1 to 32.9 dyne/cm2. We concluded that the maximum flow rate exerted a substantial augmentative effect on WSS, and the maximum flow rate was a dominant factor of pulsatility in this effect.

  17. The Apical Actin Fringe Contributes to Localized Cell Wall Deposition and Polarized Growth in the Lily Pollen Tube1[W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounds, Caleb M.; Hepler, Peter K.; Winship, Lawrence J.

    2014-01-01

    In lily (Lilium formosanum) pollen tubes, pectin, a major component of the cell wall, is delivered through regulated exocytosis. The targeted transport and secretion of the pectin-containing vesicles may be controlled by the cortical actin fringe at the pollen tube apex. Here, we address the role of the actin fringe using three different inhibitors of growth: brefeldin A, latrunculin B, and potassium cyanide. Brefeldin A blocks membrane trafficking and inhibits exocytosis in pollen tubes; it also leads to the degradation of the actin fringe and the formation of an aggregate of filamentous actin at the base of the clear zone. Latrunculin B, which depolymerizes filamentous actin, markedly slows growth but allows focused pectin deposition to continue. Of note, the locus of deposition shifts frequently and correlates with changes in the direction of growth. Finally, potassium cyanide, an electron transport chain inhibitor, briefly stops growth while causing the actin fringe to completely disappear. Pectin deposition continues but lacks focus, instead being delivered in a wide arc across the pollen tube tip. These data support a model in which the actin fringe contributes to the focused secretion of pectin to the apical cell wall and, thus, to the polarized growth of the pollen tube. PMID:25037212

  18. Electromechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes; Proprietes electromecaniques des nanotubes de carbone multiparois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, R

    2005-12-15

    In this PhD thesis, we tackled theoretically and experimentally the problem of designing nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) based on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs). Furthermore, we applied our know-how to perform components like switches. We developed a theoretical model to describe the deflection of a suspended MWCNT stressed by an attractive electrostatic force. Our model highlights a scaling law linking up the electrostatic deflection, geometrical, electrical and physical parameters of MWCNTs based NEMS. This result constitutes a practical designing tool because it predicts their electromechanical behaviour on a 'large' range of operational parameters. At the same time, we developed several processes to fabricate nano-structures incorporating a suspended MWCNT electrostatically actuated. Among these different structures, the simplest was used to develop a method for probing electromechanical properties of MWCNTs. Our method is based on atomic force microscopy measurements on a doubly clamped suspended MWCNT electrostatically deflected by a drive voltage. These measurements show clearly for different MWCNTs (different diameter and length) the existence of such scaling law in agreement with the continuum model prediction. From these results, we extracted the Young's modulus of MWCNTs. For diameters smaller than 30 nm it is constant and its average value equals 400 GPa. Above, we observed a strong decrease that could be explained by the entry in a non-linear regime of deformation. Finally, we show the realization of an electromechanical switch based on a suspended MWCNT which presents good switching behaviour. (author)

  19. Nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) composite thin films with multi walled carbon nano tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagaraja, K.K. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Pramodini, S. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering and Technology, Jain University, Jakkasandra Post, Bengaluru 5621112, Karnataka (India); Poornesh, P., E-mail: poorneshp@gmail.com [Nonlinear Optics Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Manipal Institute of Technology, Manipal University, Manipal 576 104, Karnataka (India); Telenkov, M.P. [National University of Science and Technology “MISiS”, Leninskii pr. 4, Moscow 119049 (Russian Federation); Kityk, I.V. [Electrical Engineering Department, Czestochowa University Technology, Czestochowa (Poland)

    2017-05-01

    We report the improved third-order nonlinear optical properties of polyaniline and poly (o-toluidine) with different doping concentrations of multi walled carbon nano tube (MWCNTs) composite thin films investigated using z-scan technique and continuous wave He–Ne laser at 633 nm wavelength was used as source of excitation. Thin films were prepared by spin coating technique on glass substrate. The structural properties of the composite films were analysed by X-ray diffraction studies and the characteristic peaks corresponding to MWCNTs and polymers have been observed. The surface morphology of the deposited films was analysed using scanning electron microscopy and it confirms that the polymer in the composites has been coated on the MWCNTs homogeneously. The z-scan results reveal that the films exhibit reverse saturable absorption and self-defocusing nonlinearity. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility χ{sup (3)} is found to be of the order of 10{sup −3} esu. Also, optical power limiting and clamping experiment was performed. The clamping values increases with increase in concentration and the lowest clamping observed for composite films are 1 mW and 0.7 mW.

  20. Electromechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes; Proprietes electromecaniques des nanotubes de carbone multiparois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, R.

    2005-12-15

    In this PhD thesis, we tackled theoretically and experimentally the problem of designing nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) based on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes (MWCNTs). Furthermore, we applied our know-how to perform components like switches. We developed a theoretical model to describe the deflection of a suspended MWCNT stressed by an attractive electrostatic force. Our model highlights a scaling law linking up the electrostatic deflection, geometrical, electrical and physical parameters of MWCNTs based NEMS. This result constitutes a practical designing tool because it predicts their electromechanical behaviour on a 'large' range of operational parameters. At the same time, we developed several processes to fabricate nano-structures incorporating a suspended MWCNT electrostatically actuated. Among these different structures, the simplest was used to develop a method for probing electromechanical properties of MWCNTs. Our method is based on atomic force microscopy measurements on a doubly clamped suspended MWCNT electrostatically deflected by a drive voltage. These measurements show clearly for different MWCNTs (different diameter and length) the existence of such scaling law in agreement with the continuum model prediction. From these results, we extracted the Young's modulus of MWCNTs. For diameters smaller than 30 nm it is constant and its average value equals 400 GPa. Above, we observed a strong decrease that could be explained by the entry in a non-linear regime of deformation. Finally, we show the realization of an electromechanical switch based on a suspended MWCNT which presents good switching behaviour. (author)

  1. Mount Protects Thin-Walled Glass or Ceramic Tubes from Large Thermal and Vibration Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Michael; Schmidt, Stephen; Marsh. James; Dahya, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The design allows for the low-stress mounting of fragile objects, like thin walled glass, by using particular ways of compensating, isolating, or releasing the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) differences between the mounted object and the mount itself. This mount profile is lower than true full kinematic mounting. Also, this approach enables accurate positioning of the component for electrical and optical interfaces. It avoids the higher and unpredictable stress issues that often result from potting the object. The mount has been built and tested to space-flight specifications, and has been used for fiber-optic, optical, and electrical interfaces for a spaceflight mission. This mount design is often metal and is slightly larger than the object to be mounted. The objects are optical or optical/electrical, and optical and/or electrical interfaces are required from the top and bottom. This requires the mount to be open at both ends, and for the object s position to be controlled. Thin inside inserts at the top and bottom contact the housing at defined lips, or edges, and hold the fragile object in the mount. The inserts can be customized to mimic the outer surface of the object, which further reduces stress. The inserts have the opposite CTE of the housing material, partially compensating for the CTE difference that causes thermal stress. A spring washer is inserted at one end to compensate for more CTE difference and to hold the object against the location edge of the mount for any optical position requirements. The spring also ensures that any fiber-optic or optic interface, which often requires some pressure to ensure a good interface, does not overstress the fragile object. The insert thickness, material, and spring washer size can be traded against each other to optimize the mount and stresses for various thermal and vibration load ranges and other mounting requirements. The alternate design uses two separate, unique features to reduce stress and hold the

  2. Flow instability research on steam generator with straight double-walled heat transfer tube for FBR. Pressure drop under high pressure condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wei; Tamai, Hidesada; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Takase, Kazuyuki; Hayafune, Hiroki; Futagami, Satoshi; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    For the Steam Generator (SG) with straight double-walled heat transfer tube that used in sodium cooled Faster Breeder Reactor, flow instability is one of the most important items need researching. As the first step of the research, thermal hydraulics experiments were performed under high pressure condition in JAEA with using a straight tube. Pressure drop, heat transfer coefficients and void fraction data were derived. This paper evaluates the pressure drop data with TRAC-BF1 code. The Pffan's correlation for single phase flow and the Martinelli-Nelson's two-phase flow multiplier are found can be well predicted the present pressure drop data under high pressure condition. (author)

  3. The aspects regarding plugging the defective tubes of the steam generator using plastic deformation of the plug wall by conventional or unconventional techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyongyosi, Tiberiu

    2006-01-01

    After a brief introduction the advantages and disadvantages of two plugging methods of the defective tubes from steam generator by plastic deformation of the wall of the plug, deformation performed by mechanical rolling (conventional technique) and by electrohydraulic shock (unconventional technique), respectively, are showed. The paper gives the results of the experimental tests to install the plugs at the end of the tube having the same geometry with those of the steam generator, the performance reached in this stage and some conclusions in the end

  4. Effects of Gas-Wall Partitioning in Teflon Tubing, Instrumentation and Other Materials on Time-Resolved Measurements of Gas-Phase Organic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, D.; Deming, B.; Krechmer, J. E.; De Gouw, J. A.; Jimenez, J. L.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    Recently it has been shown that gas-phase organic compounds partition to and from the walls of Teflon environmental chambers. This process is fast, reversible, and can be modeled as absorptive partitioning. Here these studies were extended to investigate gas-wall partitioning inside Teflon tubing by introducing step function changes in the concentration of compounds being sampled and measuring the delay in the response of a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). We find that these delays are significant for compounds with a saturation vapor concentration (c*) below 106 μg m-3, and that the Teflon tubing and the PTR-MS both contribute to the delays. Tubing delays range from minutes to hours under common sampling conditions and can be accurately predicted by a simple chromatography model across a range of tubing lengths and diameters, flow rates, compound functional groups, and c*. This method also allows one to determine the volatility-dependent response function of an instrument, which can be convolved with the output of the tubing model to correct for delays in instrument response time for these "sticky" compounds. This correction is expected to be of particular interest to researchers utilizing and developing chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) techniques, since many of the multifunctional organic compounds detected by CIMS show significant tubing and instrument delays. These results also enable better design of sampling systems, in particular when fast instrument response is needed, such as for rapid transients, aircraft, or eddy covariance measurements. Additional results presented here extend this method to quantify the relative sorptive capacities for other commonly used tubing materials, including PFA, FEP, PTFE, PEEK, glass, copper, stainless steel, and passivated steel.

  5. Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Chatzakis, I.N.; Lim, J.-Y.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1999-01-01

    A wire-mesh reactor has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed bed `hot-rod` reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be used for eventual process development. Experiments have been carried out at 600{degree}C at pressures up to 70 bar. Structural features of the bio-oils have been examined by size exclusion chromatography and FT-infrared spectroscopy. In both reactors the effect of increasing pressure was to reduce the bio-oil and total volatile yields: hydropyrolysis bio-oil yields were marginally higher than pyrolysis yields under equivalent operating conditions. The data indicate that about one-third of the original biomass may be converted to oil by direct pyrolysis. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  6. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  7. Calculation of concrete shielding wall thickness for 450kVp X-ray tube with MCNP simulation and result comparison with half value layer method calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Lee, Eun Joong; Kim, Chan Kyu; Cho, Gyu Seong [Dept. of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Sam Suk [Sam Yong Inspection Engineering Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-11-15

    Radiation generating devices must be properly shielded for their safe application. Although institutes such as US National Bureau of Standards and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have provided guidelines for shielding X-ray tube of various purposes, industry people tend to rely on 'Half Value Layer (HVL) method' which requires relatively simple calculation compared to the case of those guidelines. The method is based on the fact that the intensity, dose, and air kerma of narrow beam incident on shielding wall decreases by about half as the beam penetrates the HVL thickness of the wall. One can adjust shielding wall thickness to satisfy outside wall dose or air kerma requirements with this calculation. However, this may not always be the case because 1) The strict definition of HVL deals with only Intensity, 2) The situation is different when the beam is not 'narrow'; the beam quality inside the wall is distorted and related changes on outside wall dose or air kerma such as buildup effect occurs. Therefore, sometimes more careful research should be done in order to verify the effect of shielding specific radiation generating device. High energy X-ray tubes which is operated at the voltage above 400 kV that are used for 'heavy' nondestructive inspection is an example. People have less experience in running and shielding such device than in the case of widely-used low energy X-ray tubes operated at the voltage below 300 kV. In this study, Air Kerma value per week, outside concrete shielding wall of various thickness surrounding 450 kVp X-ray tube were calculated using MCNP simulation with the aid of Geometry Splitting method which is a famous Variance Reduction technique. The comparison between simulated result, HVL method result, and NCRP Report 147 safety goal 0.02 mGy wk-1 on Air Kerma for the place where the public are free to pass showed that concrete wall of thickness 80 cm is needed to achieve the

  8. Calculation of concrete shielding wall thickness for 450kVp X-ray tube with MCNP simulation and result comparison with half value layer method calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Lee, Eun Joong; Kim, Chan Kyu; Cho, Gyu Seong; Hur, Sam Suk

    2016-01-01

    Radiation generating devices must be properly shielded for their safe application. Although institutes such as US National Bureau of Standards and National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) have provided guidelines for shielding X-ray tube of various purposes, industry people tend to rely on 'Half Value Layer (HVL) method' which requires relatively simple calculation compared to the case of those guidelines. The method is based on the fact that the intensity, dose, and air kerma of narrow beam incident on shielding wall decreases by about half as the beam penetrates the HVL thickness of the wall. One can adjust shielding wall thickness to satisfy outside wall dose or air kerma requirements with this calculation. However, this may not always be the case because 1) The strict definition of HVL deals with only Intensity, 2) The situation is different when the beam is not 'narrow'; the beam quality inside the wall is distorted and related changes on outside wall dose or air kerma such as buildup effect occurs. Therefore, sometimes more careful research should be done in order to verify the effect of shielding specific radiation generating device. High energy X-ray tubes which is operated at the voltage above 400 kV that are used for 'heavy' nondestructive inspection is an example. People have less experience in running and shielding such device than in the case of widely-used low energy X-ray tubes operated at the voltage below 300 kV. In this study, Air Kerma value per week, outside concrete shielding wall of various thickness surrounding 450 kVp X-ray tube were calculated using MCNP simulation with the aid of Geometry Splitting method which is a famous Variance Reduction technique. The comparison between simulated result, HVL method result, and NCRP Report 147 safety goal 0.02 mGy wk-1 on Air Kerma for the place where the public are free to pass showed that concrete wall of thickness 80 cm is needed to achieve the safety goal

  9. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  10. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  11. High-speed growth of TiO2 nanotube arrays with gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall under high-field anodization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaoliang; Zheng, Maojun; Ma, Li; Shen, Wenzhong

    2010-10-01

    Highly ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays have been prepared by two-step anodization under high field. The high anodizing current densities lead to a high-speed film growth (0.40-1.00 µm min - 1), which is nearly 16 times faster than traditional fabrication of TiO2 at low field. It was found that an annealing process of Ti foil is an effective approach to get a monodisperse and double-pass TiO2 nanotubular layer with a gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall (nearly 10 nm). A higher anodic voltage and longer anodization time are beneficial to the formation of ultrathin tube walls. This approach is simple and cost-effective in fabricating high-quality ordered TiO2 nanotubular arrays for practical applications.

  12. High-speed growth of TiO{sub 2} nanotube arrays with gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall under high-field anodization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Xiaoliang; Zheng Maojun; Shen Wenzhong [Key Laboratory of Artificial Structures and Quantum Control, Ministry of Education, Department of Physics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Ma Li, E-mail: mjzheng@sjtu.edu.cn [School of Chemistry and Chemical Technology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

    2010-10-08

    Highly ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays have been prepared by two-step anodization under high field. The high anodizing current densities lead to a high-speed film growth (0.40-1.00 {mu}m min{sup -1}), which is nearly 16 times faster than traditional fabrication of TiO{sub 2} at low field. It was found that an annealing process of Ti foil is an effective approach to get a monodisperse and double-pass TiO{sub 2} nanotubular layer with a gradient pore diameter and ultrathin tube wall (nearly 10 nm). A higher anodic voltage and longer anodization time are beneficial to the formation of ultrathin tube walls. This approach is simple and cost-effective in fabricating high-quality ordered TiO{sub 2} nanotubular arrays for practical applications.

  13. A numerical study on the heat transfer in a swirl-tube heated/cooled on the half periphery of the tube wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Kunugi, Tomoaki

    2002-01-01

    Convection heat transfer in a swirl tube was numerically analyzed so as to investigate a characteristic of heat removal when the cooling fluid flows within the swirl tube mounted in a solid structure represented as like a slab. Since the condition of heat inflow was treated as being transmitted only on the one-side surface of the structure, heat conduction through the structure was analyzed in linkage with the convection. Some results for the change in the coefficient of heat transmission along the tube axis are shown. The performance of heat removal was found to be strengthened due to the continuous renovation of thermal boundary layer close to the inside tube surface because the fluid flows in helical motion to shift the range alternate higher and lower temperature. (author)

  14. Effects of gas–wall partitioning in Teflon tubing and instrumentation on time-resolved measurements of gas-phase organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagonis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have demonstrated that organic compounds can partition from the gas phase to the walls in Teflon environmental chambers and that the process can be modeled as absorptive partitioning. Here these studies were extended to investigate gas–wall partitioning of organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS used to monitor compound concentrations. Rapid partitioning of C8–C14 2-ketones and C11–C16 1-alkenes was observed for compounds with saturation concentrations (c∗ in the range of 3 × 104 to 1 × 107 µg m−3, causing delays in instrument response to step-function changes in the concentration of compounds being measured. These delays vary proportionally with tubing length and diameter and inversely with flow rate and c∗. The gas–wall partitioning process that occurs in tubing is similar to what occurs in a gas chromatography column, and the measured delay times (analogous to retention times were accurately described using a linear chromatography model where the walls were treated as an equivalent absorbing mass that is consistent with values determined for Teflon environmental chambers. The effect of PTR-MS surfaces on delay times was also quantified and incorporated into the model. The model predicts delays of an hour or more for semivolatile compounds measured under commonly employed conditions. These results and the model can enable better quantitative design of sampling systems, in particular when fast response is needed, such as for rapid transients, aircraft, or eddy covariance measurements. They may also allow estimation of c∗ values for unidentified organic compounds detected by mass spectrometry and could be employed to introduce differences in time series of compounds for use with factor analysis methods. Best practices are suggested for sampling organic compounds through Teflon tubing.

  15. Effects of gas-wall partitioning in Teflon tubing and instrumentation on time-resolved measurements of gas-phase organic compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagonis, Demetrios; Krechmer, Jordan E.; de Gouw, Joost; Jimenez, Jose L.; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that organic compounds can partition from the gas phase to the walls in Teflon environmental chambers and that the process can be modeled as absorptive partitioning. Here these studies were extended to investigate gas-wall partitioning of organic compounds in Teflon tubing and inside a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) used to monitor compound concentrations. Rapid partitioning of C8-C14 2-ketones and C11-C16 1-alkenes was observed for compounds with saturation concentrations (c∗) in the range of 3 × 104 to 1 × 107 µg m-3, causing delays in instrument response to step-function changes in the concentration of compounds being measured. These delays vary proportionally with tubing length and diameter and inversely with flow rate and c∗. The gas-wall partitioning process that occurs in tubing is similar to what occurs in a gas chromatography column, and the measured delay times (analogous to retention times) were accurately described using a linear chromatography model where the walls were treated as an equivalent absorbing mass that is consistent with values determined for Teflon environmental chambers. The effect of PTR-MS surfaces on delay times was also quantified and incorporated into the model. The model predicts delays of an hour or more for semivolatile compounds measured under commonly employed conditions. These results and the model can enable better quantitative design of sampling systems, in particular when fast response is needed, such as for rapid transients, aircraft, or eddy covariance measurements. They may also allow estimation of c∗ values for unidentified organic compounds detected by mass spectrometry and could be employed to introduce differences in time series of compounds for use with factor analysis methods. Best practices are suggested for sampling organic compounds through Teflon tubing.

  16. Integrated straight - through automatic non-destructive examination and data acquisition system for thin-wall tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoessel, A.; Boulanger, G.; Furlan, J.; Mogavero, R.

    1981-09-01

    This non-destructive testing unit inspects the cladding tubes for the SUPER-PHENIX fast neutron reactor. The quality level demanded for these tubes, as well as their number, required designing an installation that combined high performance with a great testing rate and complete automation. The testing is effected under immersion by means of six transducers, focused in line, working at 30 MHz. The tubes are numbered on an automatic rig; marking is by dark rings obtained by superficial electrolysis of the tube and regularly distributed on the abscissa; the quality of the tube is not affected by this. The advantage of this numbering system is that it enables the tubes to be fed to the test set in any order. An acquisition unit, constituted of a microprocessor, a semi-graphical printer and a double floppy disk unit, makes it possible to enter, edit and store the information for each tube [fr

  17. Influence of Mn contents in 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tube on TIG girth weld quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo

    2017-03-01

    Three kinds of cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti thin wall stainless steel tubes with the manganese contents of 1.27%, 1.35% and 1.44% and the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel end plug with manganese content of 1.35% were used for TIG girth welding in the present investigation. The effect of different manganese contents in stainless steel tube on weld quality was studied. The results showed that under the same welding conditions, the metallographic performance of the girth weld for the thin wall stainless steel tube with the manganese element content 1.44% welded with end plug was the best. Under the appropriate welding conditions, the quality of the girth weld increased with the increase of the manganese content till 1.44%. It was found that in the case of the Mn content of 1.44%, and under the proper welding condition the welding defects, such as welding cracks were effectively avoided, and the qualified weld penetration can be obtained.. It is concluded that the appropriate increase of the manganese content can significantly improve the TIG girth weld quality of the cold worked 0Cr18Ni10Ti stainless steel tube.

  18. Application of elastic wave dispersion relations to estimate thermal properties of nanoscale wires and tubes of varying wall thickness and diameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bifano, Michael F P; Kaul, Pankaj B; Prakash, Vikas

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports dependency of specific heat and ballistic thermal conductance on cross-sectional geometry (tube versus rod) and size (i.e., diameter and wall thickness), in free-standing isotropic non-metallic crystalline nanostructures. The analysis is performed using dispersion relations found by numerically solving the Pochhammer-Chree frequency equation for a tube. Estimates for the allowable phonon dispersion relations within the crystal lattice are obtained by modifying the elastic acoustic dispersion relations so as to account for the discrete nature of the material's crystal lattice. These phonon dispersion relations are then used to evaluate the specific heat and ballistic thermal conductance in the nanostructures as a function of the nanostructure geometry and size. Two major results are revealed in the analysis: increasing the outer diameter of a nanotube while keeping the ratio of the inner to outer tube radius (γ) fixed increases the total number of available phonon modes capable of thermal population. Secondly, decreasing the wall thickness of a nanotube (i.e., increasing γ) while keeping its outer diameter fixed, results in a drastic decrease in the available phonon mode density and a reduction in the frequency of the longitudinal and flexural acoustic phonon modes in the nanostructure. The dependency of the nanostructure's specific heat on temperature indicates 1D, 2D, and 3D geometric phonon confinement regimes. Transition temperatures for each phonon confinement regime are shown to depend on both the nanostructure's wall thickness and outer radius. Compared to nanowires (γ = 0), the frequency reduction of acoustic phonon modes in thinner walled nanotubes (γ = 0.96) is shown to elevate the ballistic thermal conductance of the thin-walled nanotube between 0.2 and 150 K. At 20 K, the ballistic thermal conductance of the thin-walled nanotube (γ = 0.96) becomes 300% greater than that of a solid nanowire. For temperatures above 150 K, the trend

  19. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

    2013-06-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-∊ models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Collapse of thin wall tubes small initial ovality; Colapso de tubos de pared delgada con pequena ovalidad inicial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, A

    1977-07-01

    In this work a simple model of creep collapse of tubes based on the bending theory of curved beams, is developed. The model is compared with more complex models. The main result of this work is the definition of a new model of creep collapse of tubes with a minimum of limitative hypothesis. (Author) 6 refs.

  1. Cesium Removal From Tanks 241-AN-103 and 241-SX-105 and 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Composite For Testing In Bench Scale Steam Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  2. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  3. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  4. Characterization of L-asparaginase from marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU, its antiproliferative activity and bench scale production using industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K; Sachaniya, Bhumi; Dudhagara, Dushyant; Panseriya, Haresh Z; Gosai, Haren; Rawal, Rakesh; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-03-01

    L-asparaginase (LA), an enzyme with anticancer activities, produced by marine-derived Aspergillus niger was subjected to purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was observed to have molecular weight ∼90KDa. The enzyme retained activity over a wide range of pH, i.e. pH 4-10. The enzyme was quite stable in temperature range 20-40°C. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were observed to enhance LA activity while inhibition of LA activity was observed in presence of heavy metals. The values for K m was found to be 0.8141 mM and V max was 6.228μM/mg/min. The enzyme exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines tested. Successful bench scale production (in 5L bioreacator) of LA using groundnut oil cake as low cost substrate has also been carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of toluene and salinity on biosurfactant production by Bacillus sp.: scale up from flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To select the best biosurfactant producer, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis were cultured in flasks on media with different salinity [low salinity (LS, Bushnell-Haas (BH and artificial sea water (SW media] supplemented or not with toluene as a model pollutant. Toluene inhibited the growth of all microorganisms and stimulated the biosurfactant production. B. subtilis exhibited the best performance, being able to lower the surface tension (ST in the LS medium to 65.5 mN/min in the absence of toluene, and to 46.5 mN/min in the BH medium in the presence of toluene, corresponding to ST reductions of 13.0 and 27.5 mN/m, respectively. Scaling up the process to a bench-scale fermentor, the best results were obtained in the LS medium, where B. subtilis was able to reduce the toluene concentration from 26.0 to 4.3 g/L within 12 h and ST by 17.2 mN/m within 18 h. The results of this study point out that B. subtilis is an interesting biosurfactant producer, which could be used in the bioremediation of toluene-contaminated water.

  6. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  7. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  8. 75 FR 33779 - Light-Walled Rectangular Pipe and Tube from Turkey; Notice of Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ..., Inc. and Searing Industries, Inc. are petitioners in this case. The review covers exports of the..., Atlas Tube, Inc. and Searing Industries, Inc. (``Petitioners'') made an entry of appearance in this...

  9. AC dielectrophoresis alignment of single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWNTS) and palladium nano wires for hydrogen gas sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Nur Ubaidah Saidin; Ying, K.K.; KKhuan, N.I.; Mohammad Hafizuddin Jumali

    2013-01-01

    Full-text: Using AC electric field, nano wires or nano tubes can be aligned, chained or accelerated in a direction parallel to the applied field, oriented or concentrated onto designated locations as well as dispersed in controlled manner under high efficiencies. In this work, systematic study on the alignment of nano wires/ nano tubes across the 3 μm-gaps between pairs of micro fabricated gold electrodes was carried out using AC dielectrophoresis technique. Densities and alignment of the nano wires/ nano tubes across the gaps of the electrodes were controlled by the applied AC field strengths and frequencies on the electrodes. Good alignments of SWNTs and Pd nano wires were achieved at an applied frequency of 5 MHz and a field strength as high as 25 V pp for Pd nano wires compared to only 2 V pp for SWNTs. The aligned nano wires/ nano tubes will be functioned as sensor elements for hydrogen gas sensing. (author)

  10. Analysis of a multi pass weld of a thick walled tube made of austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scholtes, B.; Zinn, W.; Ilg, U.; Backfisch, W.; Gibmeier, J.; Kirch, D.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, microstructure and residual stresses of a multi pass welding of a thick-walled tube made of austenitic stainless steel X6 CrNiNb 18 10 (1.4550) are systematically characterized and assessed. Results of microstructural and phase analyses, residual stress and hardness measurements as well as of a tensile test using micro specimen and SEM analyses are presented. Using these data, plastic deformations occurring during the welding process in the vicinity of the weld seam are evaluated. Finally, consequences of an additional heat treatment at 400 C/24 h are studied. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.) [de

  11. Full Scale Measurements and CFD Investigations of a Wall Radiant Cooling System Based on Plastic Capillary Tubes in Thin Concrete Walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikeska, Tomás; Fan, Jianhua; Svendsen, Svend

    2017-01-01

    Densely occupied spaces such as classrooms can very often have problems with overheating. It can be difficult to cool such spaces by means of a ventilation system without creating draughts and causing discomfort for occupants. The use of a wall radiant cooling system is a suitable option for spaces...

  12. Wall and corner fire tests on selected wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran; M. L. Janssens

    1991-01-01

    As part of a fire growth program to develop and validate a compartment fire model, several bench-scale and full-scale tests were conducted. This paper reports the full-scale wall and corner test results of step 2 of this study. A room fire test following the ASTM proposed standard specifications was used for these full-scale tests. In step 1, we investigated the...

  13. Application of Response Surface Methodology for Optimization of Urea Grafted Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes in Enhancing Nitrogen Use Efficiency and Nitrogen Uptake by Paddy Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yatim, N. M.; Shaaban, A.; Dimin, M. F.; Yusof, F.; Abo Razak, J.

    2016-01-01

    Efficient use of urea fertilizer (UF) as important nitrogen (N) source in the world’s rice production has been a concern. Carbon-based materials developed to improve UF performance still represent a great challenge to be formulated for plant nutrition. Advanced N nano carrier is developed based on functionalized multi wall carbon nano tubes (f-MWCNTs) grafted with UF to produce urea-multi wall carbon nano tubes (UF-MWCNTs) for enhancing the nitrogen uptake (NU) and use efficiency (NUE). The grafted N can be absorbed and utilized by rice efficiently to overcome the N loss from soil-plant systems. The individual and interaction effect between the specified factors of f-MWCNTs amount (0.10-0.60 wt%) and functionalization reflux time (12-24 hrs) with the corresponding responses (NUE, NU) were structured via the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on five-level CCD. The UF-MWCNTs with optimized 0.5 wt% f-MWCNTs treated at 21 hrs reflux time achieve tremendous NUE up to 96% and NU at 1180 mg/pot. Significant model terms (Þ value < 0.05) for NUE and NU responses were confirmed by the ANOVA. Homogeneous dispersion of UF-MWCNTs was observed via FESEM and TEM. The chemical changes were monitored by FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. Hence, this UF-MWCNTs’ approach provides a promising strategy in enhancing plant nutrition for rice.

  14. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  15. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  16. Influence of a boatlanding and j-tubes on wave loads and wall thickness of the monopile support structure design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Segeren, M.L.A.

    2011-01-01

    Support structures for offshore wind turbines play a significant part in the cost of offshore wind energy. With current access systems a conventional boat landing is not necessary. Secondary steel, such as a boat landing and J-tube, influences wave loads. A way of taking the secondary steel items

  17. Sealing device and method for sealing fractures or leaks in wall or formation surrounding tube-shaped channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The sealing device (1) includes an elongated body (5) adapted to be introduced into a tube-shaped channel (2) and including a sealing fluid placement section (6) arranged between a first and a second annular flow barrier (7, 8). The elongated body further includes a sealing fluid activation secti...

  18. Power spectral estimation of high-harmonics in echoes of wall resonances to improve resolution in non-invasive measurements of wall mechanical properties in rubber tube and ex-vivo artery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazan, I; Ramos, A; Balay, G; Negreira, C

    2018-07-01

    The aim of this work is to develop a new type of ultrasonic analysis of the mechanical properties of an arterial wall with improved resolution, and to confirm its feasibility under laboratory conditions. it is expected that this would facilitate a non-invasive path for accurate predictive diagnosis that enables an early detection & therapy of vascular pathologies. In particular, the objective is to detect and quantify the small elasticity changes (in Young's modulus E) of arterial walls, which precede pathology. A submicron axial resolution is required for this analysis, as the periodic widening of the wall (under oscillatory arterial pressure) varies between ±10 and 20 μm. This high resolution represents less than 1% of the parietal thickness (e.g., harmonics of the wall internal resonance f 0 . This was attained via the implementation of an autoregressive parametric algorithm that accurately detects parietal echo-dynamics during a heartbeat. Thus, it was possible to measure the punctual elasticity of the wall, with a higher resolution (> an order of magnitude) compared to conventional approaches. The resolution of a typical ultrasonic image is limited to several hundred microns, and thus, such small changes are undetected. The proposed procedure provides a non-invasive and direct measure of elasticity by doing an estimation of changes in the Nf 0 harmonics and wall thickness with a resolution of 0.1%, for first time. The results obtained by using the classic temporal cross-correlation method (TCC) were compared to those obtained with the new procedure. The latter allowed the evaluation of alterations in the elastic properties of arterial walls that are 30 times smaller than those being detectable with TCC; in fact, the depth resolution of the TCC approach is limited to ≈20 μm for typical SNRs. These values were calculated based on echoes obtained using a reference pattern (rubber tube). The application of the proposed procedure was also confirmed via

  19. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  20. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  1. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  2. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer (μm) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg -1 , respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg -1 ). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 μm (sand) or less than 53 μm (silt and clay) soil fraction

  3. Heat transfer improvement due to the imposition of non-uniform wall heating for in-tube laminar forced convection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajmohammadi, M.R.; Poozesh, S.; Rahmani, M.; Campo, A.

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the bearing that a non-uniform distribution of heat flux used as a wall boundary condition exerts on the heat transfer improvement in a round pipe. Because the overall heat load is considered fixed, the heat transfer improvement is viewed through a reduction in the maximum temperature (‘hot spot’) by imposing optimal distribution of heat flux. Two cases are studied in detail 1) fully developed and 2) developing flow. Peak temperatures in the heated pipe wall are calculated via an analytical approach for the fully developed case, while a numerical simulation based on CFD is employed for the developing case. By relaxing the heat flux distribution on the pipe wall, the numerical results imply that the optimum distribution of heat flux, which minimizes the peak temperatures corresponds with the ‘descending’ distribution. Given that the foregoing approach is quite different from the ‘ascending’ heat flux distribution recommended in the literature by means of the entropy generation minimization (EGM) method, it is inferred that the optimization of heat transfer and fluid flow, in comparison with the thermodynamic optimization, may bring forth quite different guidelines for the designs of thermal systems under the same constraints and circumstances. -- Highlights: • Considered the bearing of non-uniform distribution of heat flux on the hot spots. • Determined the optimal distribution of heat flux that minimizes the hot spots. • Results are compared with those obtained by EGM method

  4. Electronic setup for fluorescence emission measurements and long-time constant-temperature maintenance of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes in water solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Rosa Matteo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In our previous research we have observed that the fluorescence emission from water solutions of Single-Walled Carbon Nano-Tubes (SWCNT, excited by a laser with a wavelength of 830nm, diminishes with the time. We have already proved that such a fading is a function of the storage time and the storage temperature. In order to study the emission of the SWCNT as a function of these two parameters we have designed and realized a special measurement compartment with a cuvette holder where the SWCNT solutions can be measured and stored at a fixed constant temperature for periods of time as long as several weeks. To maintain the measurement setup under a constant temperature we have designed special experimental setup based on two Peltier cells with electronic temperature control.

  5. Bioactivity and electrochemical behavior of hydroxyapatite-silicon-multi walled carbon nano-tubes composite coatings synthesized by EPD on NiTi alloys in simulated body fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalili, V., E-mail: V_khalili@sut.ac.ir [Department of Materials Engineering, Engineering Faculty, University of Bonab, Bonab (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalil-Allafi, J. [Research Center for Advanced Materials and Mineral Processing, Faculty of Materials Engineering, Sahand University of Technology, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Frenzel, J.; Eggeler, G. [Institute for Materials, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum, 44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2017-02-01

    In order to improve the surface bioactivity of NiTi bone implant and corrosion resistance, hydroxyapatite coating with addition of 20 wt% silicon, 1 wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes and both of them were deposited on a NiTi substrate using a cathodic electrophoretic method. The apatite formation ability was estimated using immersion test in the simulated body fluid for 10 days. The SEM images of the surface of coatings after immersion in simulated body fluid show that the presence of silicon in the hydroxyapatite coatings accelerates in vitro growth of apatite layer on the coatings. The Open-circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy were measured to evaluate the electrochemical behavior of the coatings in the simulated body fluid at 37 °C. The results indicate that the compact structure of hydroxyapatite-20 wt% silicon and hydroxyapatite-20 wt% silicon-1 wt% multi walled carbon nano-tubes coatings could efficiently increase the corrosion resistance of NiTi substrate. - Highlights: • The composite coatings of HA, Si and MWCNTs was prepared using electrophoretic deposition. • The presence of 1 wt.% MWCNTs in the HA coating provides more nucleation cites of apatite crystallites in SBF. • The presence of Si in HA coating increases the growth rate of apatite crystallites with the Ca/P atomic ratio of 1.67. • The EIS indicate the compact HA-20%Si and HA-20%Si-1%MWCNTs coatings efficiently increase corrosion resistance of NiTi. • The porous HA and HA-1%MWCNTs do not increase significantly corrosion resistance due to the easy diffusion path.

  6. Investigation of Mild Steel Thin-Wall Tubes in Unfilled and Foam-Filled Triangle, Square, and Hexagonal Cross Sections Under Compression Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajak, Dipen Kumar; Kumaraswamidhas, L. A.; Das, S.

    2018-02-01

    This study has examined proposed structures with mild steel-reinforced LM30 aluminum (Al) alloy having diversely unfilled and 10 wt.% SiCp composite foam-filled tubes for improving axial compression performance. This class of material has novel physical, mechanical, and electrical properties along with low density. In the present experiment, Al alloy foams were prepared by the melt route technique using metal hydride powder as a foaming agent. Crash energy phenomena for diverse unfilled and foam-filled in mild steel thin-wall tubes (triangular, square and hexagonal) were studied as well. Compression deformation investigation was conducted at strain rates of 0.001-0.1/s for evaluating specific energy absorption (SEA) under axial loading conditions. The results were examined to measure plateau stress, maximum densification strain, and deformation mechanism of the materials. Specific energy absorption and total energy absorption capacities of the unfilled and filled sections were determined from the compressive stress-strain curves, which were then compared with each other.

  7. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  8. Measuring a film flowing down a tube inner wall using a laser focus displacement meter and an image-processing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takamasa, Tomoji; Kobayashi, Kenji

    1999-01-01

    To elucidate details of the fascinating nonlinear phenomena of waves on a film, spatial temporal knowledge of the interfacial waves is essential. This paper presents an experimental study on waves on a film flowing down a vertical tube inner wall measured with a laser focus displacement meter (LFD) and an image-processing method. As a result, the film thickness was measured within a 1% margin of error by LFD, and the wave velocity was measured within a 10% margin of error by the image-processing. The experimental results are summarized as follows: At entry length L = 900 mm, the wave becomes a two-wave system. In the entry region, L = 216 mm, and 400 mm, the wave amplitude decreases as the flow rate increases, in the same manner as that in a film flowing down a plate wall. The velocity measured by the image processing agreed well with that calculated using Nusselt's theoretical equation and the Ito-Sasaki empirical equation for Reynolds numbers < 250. (author)

  9. Prediction of the Wall Factor of Arbitrary Particle Settling through Various Fluid Media in a Cylindrical Tube Using Artificial Intelligence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Considering the influence of particle shape and the rheological properties of fluid, two artificial intelligence methods (Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machine were used to predict the wall factor which is widely introduced to deduce the net hydrodynamic drag force of confining boundaries on settling particles. 513 data points were culled from the experimental data of previous studies, which were divided into training set and test set. Particles with various shapes were divided into three kinds: sphere, cylinder, and rectangular prism; feature parameters of each kind of particle were extracted; prediction models of sphere and cylinder using artificial neural network were established. Due to the little number of rectangular prism sample, support vector machine was used to predict the wall factor, which is more suitable for addressing the problem of small samples. The characteristic dimension was presented to describe the shape and size of the diverse particles and a comprehensive prediction model of particles with arbitrary shapes was established to cover all types of conditions. Comparisons were conducted between the predicted values and the experimental results.

  10. Prediction of the Wall Factor of Arbitrary Particle Settling through Various Fluid Media in a Cylindrical Tube Using Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mingzhong; Xue, Jianquan; Li, Yanchao; Tang, Shukai

    2014-01-01

    Considering the influence of particle shape and the rheological properties of fluid, two artificial intelligence methods (Artificial Neural Network and Support Vector Machine) were used to predict the wall factor which is widely introduced to deduce the net hydrodynamic drag force of confining boundaries on settling particles. 513 data points were culled from the experimental data of previous studies, which were divided into training set and test set. Particles with various shapes were divided into three kinds: sphere, cylinder, and rectangular prism; feature parameters of each kind of particle were extracted; prediction models of sphere and cylinder using artificial neural network were established. Due to the little number of rectangular prism sample, support vector machine was used to predict the wall factor, which is more suitable for addressing the problem of small samples. The characteristic dimension was presented to describe the shape and size of the diverse particles and a comprehensive prediction model of particles with arbitrary shapes was established to cover all types of conditions. Comparisons were conducted between the predicted values and the experimental results. PMID:24772024

  11. Corrosion and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Water Dispersed with Carboxylate Additives and Multi Walled Carbon Nano Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorthy, Chellapilla V. K. N. S. N.; Srinivas, Vadapalli

    2016-10-01

    This paper summarizes a recent work on anti-corrosive properties and enhanced heat transfer properties of carboxylated water based nanofluids. Water mixed with sebacic acid as carboxylate additive found to be resistant to corrosion and suitable for automotive environment. The carboxylated water is dispersed with very low mass concentration of carbon nano tubes at 0.025, 0.05 and 0.1 %. The stability of nanofluids in terms of zeta potential is found to be good with carboxylated water compared to normal water. The heat transfer performance of nanofluids is carried out on an air cooled heat exchanger similar to an automotive radiator with incoming air velocities across radiator at 5, 10 and 15 m/s. The flow Reynolds number of water is in the range of 2500-6000 indicating developing flow regime. The corrosion resistance of nanofluids is found to be good indicating its suitability to automotive environment. There is a slight increase in viscosity and marginal decrease in the specific heat of nanofluids with addition of carboxylate as well as CNTs. Significant improvement is observed in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids dispersed with CNTs. During heat transfer experimentation, the inside heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient has also improved markedly. It is also found that the velocity of air and flow rate of coolant plays an important role in enhancement of the heat transfer coefficient and overall heat transfer coefficient.

  12. Preparing hydroxyapatite-silicon composite suspensions with homogeneous distribution of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes for electrophoretic coating of NiTi bone implant and their effect on the surface morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalili, Vida; Khalil-Allafi, Jafar; Xia, Wei; Parsa, Alireza B.; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Eggeler, Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The stable composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes was prepared using functionalization of and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes in HNO_3 vapor and triethanolamine as dispersing agent. • The zeta potential of composite suspensions is less than that of hydroxyapatite suspension. • The silicon particles presence in suspension causes to decrease the charge carrier in suspension and current density during electrophoretic deposition. • The orientation of multi-walled carbon nano-tubes to parallel direction of the applied electric field during electrophoretic deposition can facilitate their moving towards the cathode and increase current density. • The more zeta potential of suspension, the lower roughness of coatings during electrophoretic deposition. - Abstract: Preparing a stable suspension is a main step towards the electrophoretically depositing of homogeneous and dense composite coatings on NiTi for its biomedical application. In the present study, different composite suspensions of hydroxyapatite, silicon and multi-walled carbon nano-tubes were prepared using n-butanol and triethanolamine as media and dispersing agent, respectively. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were first functionalized in the nitric acid vapor for 15 h at 175 °C, and then mixed into suspensions. Thermal desorption spectroscopy profiles indicate the formation of functional groups on multi-walled carbon nano-tubes. An excellent suspension stability can be achieved for different amounts of triethanolamine. The amount of triethanolamine can be increased by adding a second component to a stable hydroxyapatite suspension due to an electrostatic interaction between components in suspension. The stability of composite suspension is less than that of the hydroxyapatite suspension, due to density differences, which under the gravitational force promote the demixing. The scanning electron microscopy images of the

  13. Analysis of the ballooning deformation of an internally pressurized thin-wall tube during fast thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, E.I.H.

    1977-01-01

    A large-strain, time-dependent thermoplastic analysis of ballooning deformation was developed. The true (or lagorithmic) strains, the Von Mises yield criterion and Prandtl-Reuss flow rules were used. The constitutive equation was expressed in terms of the temperature, effective stress, strain and strain rate. Material isotropy was assumed as a first approximation; note that at high temperatures even zircaloy tends to lose a substantial amount of its low-temperature anisotropy. The axisymmetry of ballooning was also assumed, which has actually been verified by numerous experiments to be accurate throughout the course of ballooning, except in the final stage when rupture is imminent. The thin-shell approximation was made, which proved to be adequate for the standard fuel claddings and which was advantageous in that the averaged state of stress was rendered determinate. The analysis led to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equations, which was then integrated by a fifth-order Runge-Kutta routine. The general formulation allows for a direct interpretation of the experimentally-observed effects of the heating rate and cladding axial constraints on the ballooning behavior. Its implications on the flow-blockage and cladding-rupture evaluations were discussed. The analysis was applied to zircaloy claddings subjected to simulated thermal transient conditions. Most of the required material properties were taken from the existing uniaxial tensile test data. Analyses were performed at a uniform heating rate of 115 0 C/sec with internal pressures ranging from 100 to 1200 psi. Satisfactory agreement was obtained between the predictions and the diametral strain-time data available from tube-burst tests

  14. Room temperature elastic--plastic response of thin-walled tubes subjected to nonradial combinations of axial and torsional loadings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, K.C.

    1975-01-01

    Two tubular specimens of type 304 stainless steel with uniform thin walls were subjected to a program of segmental combined tension/compression and torsion loadings at room temperature. A proportional, or radial, loading into the plastic range was initially applied to each specimen. Two nonproportional (nonradial) loadings along straight line segments for which neither the loading paths nor their linear extrapolations passed through the origin of the stress space were then applied. The axial and torsional stress-strain curves for these segmental prestress loadings were plotted. Hence, the stress-strain response characteristics for nonproportional loadings as well as for proportional loading can be studied. In addition, the axial and torsional plastic strain components were calculated, and the total plastic strain trajectories were plotted in a plastic strain space. Finally, using results from a detailed study of yield surfaces, which was performed for the first specimen, a spectrum of initial and subsequent yield curves corresponding to the segmental prestress loadings is presented. (U.S.)

  15. Functionalized Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes-Reinforced Viny lester/Epoxy Blend Based Nano composites: Enhanced Mechanical, Thermal, and Electrical Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Praharaj, A. P.; Behera, D.; Bastia, T. K.; Rout, A. K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a study on the mechanical, thermal, and electrical characterization of a new class of low cost multiphase nano composites consisting of Vinyl ester resin/epoxy (VER/EP) blend (40:60 w/w) reinforced with amine functionalized multi walled carbon nano tubes (f-MWCNTs). Five different sets of VER/EP nano composites are fabricated with addition of 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 wt.% of f-MWCNTs. A detailed investigation of mechanical properties like tensile strength, impact strength, Young’s modulus, and hardness, thermal properties like thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and thermal conductivity, electrical properties like dielectric strength, dielectric constant, and electrical conductivity, and corrosive and swelling properties of the nano composites has been carried out. Here, we report significant improvement in all the above properties of the fabricated nano composites with nano filler (f-MWCNTs) addition compared to the virgin blend (0 wt. nano filler loading). The properties are best observed in case of 5 wt.% nano filler loading with gradual deterioration thereafter which may be due to the nucleating tendency of the nano filler particles. Thus the above nano composites could be a preferable candidate for a wide range of structural, thermal, electrical, and solvent based applications.

  16. Determining the Surfactant Consistent with Concrete in order to Achieve the Maximum Possible Dispersion of Multi walled Carbon Nano tubes in Keeping the Plain Concrete Properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adresi, M.; Hassani, A.; Javadian, S.; Tulliani, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    A new surfactant combination compatible with concrete formulation is proposed to avoid unwanted air bubbles created during mixing process in the absence of a defoamer and to achieve the uniform and the maximum possible dispersion of multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) in water and subsequently in concrete. To achieve this goal, three steps have been defined: (1) concrete was made with different types and amount of surfactants containing a constant amount of MWCNTs (0.05 wt%) and the air bubbles were eliminated with a proper defoamer. (2) Finding a compatible surfactant with concrete compositions and eliminating unwanted air bubbles in the absence of a common defoamer are of fundamental importance to significantly increase concrete mechanical properties. In this step, the results showed that the poly carboxylate super plasticizer (SP-C) (as a compatible surfactant) dispersed MWCNTs worse than SDS/DTAB but unwanted air bubbles were removed, so the defoamer can be omitted in the mixing process. (3) To solve the problem, a new compatible surfactant composition was developed and different ratios of surfactants were tested and evaluated by means of performance criteria mentioned above. The results showed that the new surfactant composition (SDS and SP-C) can disperse MWCNTs around 24% more efficiently than the other surfactant compositions.

  17. Technique for joining metal tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    Uniform wall thickness and uninterrupted heat transfer is achieved by using shaped metal insert as wall material for joint. Insert acts as support during brazing, after which excess material is ground away to bring joint to original tubing size.

  18. Fabrication of seamless calandria tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saibaba, N.; Phanibabu, C.; Bhaskara Rao, C.V.; Kalidas, R.; Ganguly, C.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Calandria tube is a large diameter, thin walled zircaloy-4 tube and is an important structural component of PHWR type of reactors. These tubes are lifetime components and remain during the full life of the reactor. Calandria tubes are classified as extremely thin walled tubes with a diameter to wall thickness ratio of around 96. Such thin walled tubes are conventionally produced by seam welded route comprising of extrusion of slabs followed by a series of hot and rolling passes, shaping into O-shape and eventual welding. An alternative and superior method of fabricating the calandria tubes, the seamless route, has been developed, which involves hot extrusion of mother blanks followed by three successive cold pilger reductions. Eccentricity correction of the extruded blanks is carried out on a special purpose grinding equipment to bring the wall thickness variation within permissible limits. Predominant wall thickness reductions are given during cold pilgering to ensure high Q-factor values. The texture in the finished tubes could be closely, controlled with an average f r value of 0.65. Pilgering parameters and tube guiding system have been specially designed to facilities rolling of thin walled tubes. Seamless calandria tubes have distinct advantages over welded tubes. In addition to the absence of weld, they are dimensionally more stable, lighter in weight and possess uniform grains with superior grain size. The cycle time from billet to finished product is substantially reduced and the product is amenable to high level of quality assurance. The most significant feature of the seamless route is its material recovery over welded route. Residual stresses measured in the tubes indicate that these are negligible and uniform along the length of the tube. In view of their superior quality, the first charge of seamless calandria tubes will be rolled into the first 500 MWe Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor at Tarapur

  19. Guide tube sleeve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attix, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The invention increases the operating capacity of a nuclear reactor by causing a modification in the flow pattern of the coolant which enhances the coolant's effectiveness. The apparatus provides a thin-walled tubular sleeve closely surrounding but not attached to the exterior surface of a guide tube in a fuel assembly. The wall of the sleeve has tabs projecting outwardly into adjacent flow channels. The sleeve is attached to the wall of a cellular void through which passes the guide tube associated with said sleeve. The tabs increase the flow of water in the channel and thus increase the heat transfer

  20. Development and validation of an elastic and inelastic calculation method for tubes, based on beam models and taking into account the thermal stresses on the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krakowiak, C.

    1989-11-01

    A simplified model for the elastic-plastic calculations of thin and flexible tubes submitted to thermal stresses is presented. The method is based on beam models and provides satisfactory results concerning the displacement of the whole tube system. These results can be justified by the fact that the modifications of the tube cross sections (from circular to elliptical), the flexibility of the elbow joints and the radial temperature profile are included in the calculations. The thermoplasticity analysis is performed by defining independent and general flow directions and determining the corresponding behavior laws. The model is limited to proportional monotonous charging, however the obtained results are promissing [fr

  1. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  2. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  3. Tube-in-shell heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richardson, J.

    1976-01-01

    Tube-in-shell heat exchangers normally comprise a bundle of parallel tubes within a shell container, with a fluid arranged to flow through the tubes in heat exchange with a second fluid flowing through the shell. The tubes are usually end supported by the tube plates that separate the two fluids, and in use the tube attachments to the tube plates and the tube plates can be subject to severe stress by thermal shock and frequent inspection and servicing are required. Where the heat exchangers are immersed in a coolant such as liquid Na such inspection is difficult. In the arrangement described a longitudinally extending central tube is provided incorporating axially spaced cylindrical tube plates to which the opposite ends of the tubes are attached. Within this tube there is a tubular baffle that slidably seals against the wall of the tube between the cylindrical tube plates to define two co-axial flow ducts. These ducts are interconnected at the closed end of the tube by the heat exchange tubes and the baffle comprises inner and outer spaced walls with the interspace containing Ar. The baffle is easily removable and can be withdrawn to enable insertion of equipment for inspecting the wall of the tube and tube attachments and to facilitate plugging of defective tubes. Cylindrical tube plates are believed to be superior for carrying pressure loads and resisting the effects of thermal shock. Some protection against thermal shock can be effected by arranging that the secondary heat exchange fluid is on the tube side, and by providing a thermal baffle to prevent direct impingement of hot primary fluid on to the cylindrical tube plates. The inner wall of the tubular baffle may have flexible expansible region. Some nuclear reactor constructions incorporating such an arrangement are described, including liquid metal reactors. (U.K.)

  4. Contribution to the study of turbulent flow in cylindrical tubing with porous walls; Contribution a l'etude de l'ecoulement turbulent dans une conduite cylindrique a paroi poreuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnage, H

    1962-07-01

    A theoretical study has been made of a fully developed turbulent flow in cylindrical tubing of circular cross-section subjected to a uniform suction through the walls. This study has made it possible to find a relationship giving the friction coefficient at the wall in terms of the amount of local suction and of the longitudinal static pressure gradient. A method for calculating the Reynolds tensions from the pressure measurements has been devised. An experimental system has been developed. Pressure measurements have been made. By using experimental results it has been possible to obtain a semi empirical expression for the friction coefficient at the wall, in terms of the amount of suction of the inlet Reynolds number, and of the abscissa. (author) [French] Une etude theorique de refoulement turbulent pleinement developpe dans une conduite cylindrique de section circulaire soumise a une aspiration parietale uniforme a ete entreprise. Elle a permis de trouver une relation donnant le coefficient de frottement a la paroi en fonction du taux d'aspiration local et du gradient de pression statique longitudinal. Une methode de calcul des tensions de Reynolds a partir des mesures de pression a ete etablie. Un dispositif experimental a ete realise et mis au point. Des mesures de pression ont ete effectuees. L'utilisation des resultats experimentaux a permis d'obtenir une expression semi-empirique du coefficient de frottement a la paroi en fonction du taux d'aspiration, du nombre de Reynolds d'entree et de l'abscisse. (auteur)

  5. Polymeric Traypack Integrity: Bench-Scale Unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canavan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Additional experimentation was conducted to determine the applicability of the unit for non-destructive residual gas testing since current destructive tests represent a substantial continuing expense...

  6. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  7. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  8. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  9. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  10. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  11. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  12. Flowmeter with silicon flow tube

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammerink, Theodorus S.J.; Dijkstra, Marcel; Haneveld, J.; Lötters, Joost Conrad

    2009-01-01

    A flowmeter comprising a system chip with a silicon substrate provided on a carrier, in an opening whereof at least one silicon flow tube is provided for transporting a medium whose flow rate is to be measured, said tube having two ends that issue via a wall of the opening into channels coated with

  13. Flow laminarization and heat transfer crisis in tubes while intense heating of turbulent flow of a gas endothermically dissociating on a wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurganov, V.A.; Gladuntsov, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    Analysed are the experimental data obtained for heat transfer to gaseous dissociating ammonium (NH 3 ) under heating in round pipes (steel Kh18N10T) at developed eddying input flow and marginal condition of heat supply gsub(c) approximately equal to const in the ranges of the following parameters: p=3-10 atm; Tsub(input)=310-720 K; Tsub(c) ( 3 ; gsub(c)/-anti rho W 8.8 kJ/kg; gsub(c)/(anti rho WCsub(p) sub(input)Tsub(input)) (<=) 0.0104; 1/d (<=) 150 (where Tsub(c) is the wall temperature, gsub(c) the heat flow density on wall, and anti rho W velocity). The discussion involves phenomena of worsened heat transfer at high heat loads. The authors show the basic relationship between these phenomena and laminarization of the near-wall flow at the input site of the pipe. The regularities of heat transfer were noted to undergo substantial transformation under laminarized flow

  14. Enhanced Hot Tensile Ductility of Mg-3Al-1Zn Alloy Thin-Walled Tubes Processed Via a Combined Severe Plastic Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fata, A.; Eftekhari, M.; Faraji, G.; Mosavi Mashhadi, M.

    2018-05-01

    In the current study, combined parallel tubular channel angular pressing (PTCAP) and tube backward extrusion (TBE), as a recently developed severe plastic deformation (SPD) method, were applied at 300 °C on a commercial Mg-3Al-1Zn alloy tubes to achieve an ultrafine grained structure. Then, the microstructure, hardness, tensile properties, and fractography evaluations were done at room temperature on the SPD-processed samples. Also, to study the hot tensile ductility of the SPD-processed samples, tensile testing was performed at an elevated temperature of 400 °C, and then, the fractured surface of the tensile samples was studied. It was observed that a bimodal microstructure, with large gains surrounded by many tiny ones, was created in the sample processed by PTCAP followed by TBE. This microstructure led to reach higher hardness and higher strength at room temperature and also led to reach very high elongation to failure ( 181%) at 400 °C. Also, the value of elongation to failure for this sample was 14.1% at room temperature. The fractographic SEM images showed the occurrence of predominately ductile fracture in the samples pulled at 400 °C. This was mostly due to the nucleation of microvoids and their subsequent growth and coalescence with each other.

  15. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Osamu; Kumasaka, Katsuyuki.

    1988-01-01

    Purpose: To remove the heat of reactor core using a great amount of moderators at the periphery of the reactor core as coolants. Constitution: Heat of a reactor core is removed by disposing a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling moderators in a moderator tank, without using additional power driven equipments. That is, a spontaneous recycling cooling device for cooling the moderators in the moderator tank is disposed. Further, the gap between the inner wall of a pressure tube guide pipe disposed through the vertical direction of a moderator tank and the outer wall of a pressure tube inserted through the guide pipe is made smaller than the rupture distortion caused by the thermal expansion upon overheating of the pressure tube and greater than the minimum gap required for heat shiels between the pressure tube and the pressure tube guide pipe during usual operation. In this way, even if such an accident as can not using a coolant cooling device comprising power driven equipment should occur in the pressure tube type reactor, the rise in the temperature of the reactor core can be retarded to obtain a margin with time. (Kamimura, M.)

  16. PEG Tube Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saptarshi Biswas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG has been used for providing enteral access to patients who require long-term enteral nutrition for years. Although generally considered safe, PEG tube placement can be associated with many immediate and delayed complications. Buried bumper syndrome (BBS is one of the uncommon and late complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG placement. It occurs when the internal bumper of the PEG tube erodes into the gastric wall and lodges itself between the gastric wall and skin. This can lead to a variety of additional complications such as wound infection, peritonitis, and necrotizing fasciitis. We present here a case of buried bumper syndrome which caused extensive necrosis of the anterior abdominal wall.

  17. Tube plug

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafred, P. R.

    1985-01-01

    The tube plug comprises a one piece mechanical plug having one open end and one closed end which is capable of being inserted in a heat exchange tube and internally expanded into contact with the inside surface of the heat exchange tube for preventing flow of a coolant through the heat exchange tube. The tube plug also comprises a groove extending around the outside circumference thereof which has an elastomeric material disposed in the groove for enhancing the seal between the tube plug and the tube

  18. Anti-corrosive Effects of Multi-Walled Carbon Nano Tube and Zinc Particle Shapes on Zinc Ethyl Silicate Coated Carbon Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, JiMan; Shon, MinYoung; Kwak, SamTak [Pukyong National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Zinc ethyl silicate coatings containing multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were prepared, to which we added spherical and flake shaped zinc particles. The anti-corrosive effects of MWCNTs and zinc shapes on the zinc ethyl silicate coated carbon steel was examined, using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and corrosion potential measurement. The results of EIS and corrosion potential measurement showed that the zinc ethyl silicate coated with flake shaped zinc particles and MWCNT showed lesser protection to corrosion. These outcomes were in agreement with previous results of corrosion potential and corrosion occurrence.

  19. Experimental study of heat transfer to the N2O4 dissociating coolant in the circular tube with variable heat load on the wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golovnya, V.N.; Kolykhan, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    The results of the experimental study of heat transfer to N 2 O 4 dissociating coolant with a sinusoidal law of heat flux density variation by length are presented. The heat transfer process has been studied at subcritical and supercritical parameters and different substance aggregation states. Maximum error of heat transfer coefficient determination don't exceed 15%. The esimation of the effect of variable heat load on heat transfer has been condUcted by comparison of experimental data on the Nusselt number change along the tube length with that calculated using conventional relations for the conditions of uniform heat release. It is shown that heat transfer is enhanced in the region of heat load qsub(c) growth while its intensity is decreased in the region of heat flux reduction. The quantitative effect of qsub(c) variation on heat transfer can be regarded for by the method of superpositions

  20. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any of these problems: a dislodged tube a blocked or clogged tube any signs of infection (including redness, swelling, or warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain lasting ...

  1. Strong, corrosion-resistant aluminum tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.; Adams, F. F.

    1980-01-01

    When aluminum tubing having good corrosion resistance and postweld strength is needed, type 5083 alloy should be considered. Chemical composition is carefully controlled and can be drawn into thin-wall tubing with excellent mechanical properties. Uses of tubing are in aircraft, boats, docks, and process equipment.

  2. Grooved tube plug rolls in

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krausser, P.

    1991-01-01

    The removable plugs used to date by the Power Generation Group (KWU) of Siemens to seal defective steam generator tubes have a good track record. Their sealing principle is based on the elastic tensioning of three seal disks against the inside wall of the tube. Now a further removable plug is available -a roll-in plug with a metal-coated surface. It is particularly suitable for use in the roller-expanded zone of the tubes at the tube sheet. The plugs can be used in both Siemens-KWU steam generators and in steam generators manufactured in compliance with the guidelines of the ASME Code. (author)

  3. PRODUCTION OF URANIUM TUBING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creutz, E.C.

    1958-04-15

    The manufacture of thin-walled uranium tubing by the hot-piercing techique is described. Uranium billets are preheated to a temperature above 780 d C. The heated billet is fed to a station where it is engaged on its external surface by three convex-surfaced rotating rollers which are set at an angle to the axis of the billet to produce a surface friction force in one direction to force the billet over a piercing mandrel. While being formed around the mandrel and before losing the desired shape, the tube thus formed is cooled by a water spray.

  4. Is MSAFP still a useful test for detecting open neural tube defects and ventral wall defects in the era of first-trimester and early second-trimester fetal anatomical ultrasounds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Ashley S; Gupta, Simi; Fox, Nathan S; Saltzman, Daniel; Klauser, Chad K; Rebarber, Andrei

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate whether maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) improves the detection rate for open neural tube defects (ONTDs) and ventral wall defects (VWD) in patients undergoing first-trimester and early second-trimester fetal anatomical survey. A cohort of women undergoing screening between 2005 and 2012 was identified. All patients were offered an ultrasound at between 11 weeks and 13 weeks and 6 days of gestational age for nuchal translucency/fetal anatomy followed by an early second-trimester ultrasound at between 15 weeks and 17 weeks and 6 days of gestational age for fetal anatomy and MSAFP screening. All cases of ONTD and VWD were identified via query of billing and reporting software. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of ONTD/VWD were calculated, and groups were compared using the Fisher exact test, with p met the criteria for inclusion. Overall, 15 cases of ONTD and 17 cases of VWD were identified; 100% of cases were diagnosed by ultrasound prior to 18 weeks' gestation; none were diagnosed via MSAFP screening (p < 0.001). First-trimester and early second-trimester ultrasound had 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity for diagnosing ONTD/VWD. Ultrasound for fetal anatomy during the first and early second trimester detected 100% of ONTD/VWD in our population. MSAFP is not useful as a screening tool for ONTD and VWD in the setting of this ultrasound screening protocol. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. SEISMIC RESISTING PERFORMANCE OF A NEW DOUBLE TUBE HYBRID SYSTEM FOR MULTI-STORY BUILDINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    Investigation on Double Tube Hybrid System (DTHS) through experimental work and analytical study are conducted as a part of the proposal on the seismic design method for Double Tubes Hybrid System (DTHS) for buildings. This structural system comprises Energy Dissipation Structural Walls (EDSW) as the interior tube and Spandrel Wall Frame (SWF) as the exterior tube. EDSW is composed of two reinforced concrete walls linked by steel coupling girders. The RC walls are not anchored to the foundati...

  6. Virtual gap dielectric wall accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caporaso, George James; Chen, Yu-Jiuan; Nelson, Scott; Sullivan, Jim; Hawkins, Steven A

    2013-11-05

    A virtual, moving accelerating gap is formed along an insulating tube in a dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) by locally controlling the conductivity of the tube. Localized voltage concentration is thus achieved by sequential activation of a variable resistive tube or stalk down the axis of an inductive voltage adder, producing a "virtual" traveling wave along the tube. The tube conductivity can be controlled at a desired location, which can be moved at a desired rate, by light illumination, or by photoconductive switches, or by other means. As a result, an impressed voltage along the tube appears predominantly over a local region, the virtual gap. By making the length of the tube large in comparison to the virtual gap length, the effective gain of the accelerator can be made very large.

  7. Tube to limit a bundle of penetrating rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arauner, A.

    1980-01-01

    The tube of the X-ray therapy equipment, which is adjustable in width, guarantees the same dose rate in the edge zone for all tube widths which can be set. The tube for this purpose consists of wall segments, which can be individually moved via shafts at right angles to their own axis and the axis of symmetry of the tube. The inclination of the wall elements to the axis of symmetry is adjustable by levers running in a curve. (RW) [de

  8. Steam generator tubing development for commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, C.E.; Uber, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    The development work to design, manufacture, and evaluate pre-stressed double-wall 2/one quarter/ Cr-1 Mo steel tubing for commercial fast breeder reactor steam generator application is discussed. The Westinghouse plan for qualifying tubing vendors to produce this tubing is described. The results achieved to date show that a long length pre-stressed double-wall tube is both feasible and commercially available. The evaluation included structural analysis and experimental measurement of the pre-stress within tubes, as well as dimensional, metallurgical, and interface wear tests of tube samples produced. This work is summarized and found to meet the steam generator design requirements. 10 refs

  9. Boiling and condensation in microfin tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlager, Lynn M.

    A general overview of microfin tubes and their applications is presented. Manufacturing processes, commercial availability, experimental heat transfer, and pressure drop data for various refrigerants (including alternative refrigerants and refrigerant-oil mixtures), physical mechanisms of enhancement, and the incorporation of microfin tubes in common heat exchanger configurations are discussed. Microfin tubes, also known by various trade names, are characterized by numerous small fins which typically spiral down the inside wall of tubes at angles ranging from 10 to 30 degrees. The number of fins ranges from 48 to 70 with typical fin heights of 0.12 to 0.30 mm (fin height generally less than 3 percent of the inside diameter of the tube). Fin shapes may vary and the inside surface area of microfin tubes is 10 to 70 percent greater than the area of equivalent smooth tubes. Heat transfer can be enhanced by up to a factor of three with microfin tubes.

  10. Liquid loading experiments with tube wall modifications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belfroid, S.P.C.; Schiferli, W.; Veltin, J.; Veeken, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses the multiphase flow mechanism responsible for gas-well liquid loading. It demonstrates that the conventional idea of droplet flow reversal (Turner et al. (1)) does not capture reality and that actual observations are better described by film flow reversal phenomenon. The

  11. Residual stresses estimation in tubes after rapid heating of surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serikov, S.V.

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented on estimation of residual stresses in tubes of steel types ShKh15, EhP836 and 12KIMF after heating by burning pyrotechnic substance inside tubes. External tube surface was heated up to 400-450 deg C under such treatment. Axial stresses distribution over tube wall thickness was determined for initial state, after routine heat treatment and after heating with the use of fireworks. Inner surface heating was shown to essentially decrease axial stresses in tubes

  12. Feeding Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding therapies have been exhausted. Please review product brand and method of placement carefully with your physician ... Total Parenteral Nutrition. Resources: Oley Foundation Feeding Tube Awareness Foundation Children’s Medical Nutrition Alliance APFED’s Educational Webinar ...

  13. Changing the Diameter of a Viewing Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obara, Samuel

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the students' investigation about the relationship between the diameter of the view tubes (x) of constant lengths and the viewable vertical distance (y) on the wall while keeping the perpendicular distance from the eyeball to the wall constant. The students collected data and used and represented it in tabular and graphical…

  14. Steam generator tube extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delorme, H.

    1985-05-01

    To enable tube examination on steam generators in service, Framatome has now developed a process for removing sections of steam generator tubes. Tube sections can be removed without being damaged for treating the tube section expanded in the tube sheet

  15. Geometric theory of flexible and expandable tubes conveying fluid: equations, solutions and shock waves

    OpenAIRE

    Gay-Balmaz, François; Putkaradze, Vakhtang

    2018-01-01

    We present a theory for the three-dimensional evolution of tubes with expandable walls conveying fluid. Our theory can accommodate arbitrary deformations of the tube, arbitrary elasticity of the walls, and both compressible and incompressible flows inside the tube. We also present the theory of propagation of shock waves in such tubes and derive the conservation laws and Rankine-Hugoniot conditions in arbitrary spatial configuration of the tubes, and compute several examples of particular sol...

  16. Precision heat forming of tetrafluoroethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, W. V.; Thatcher, C. S. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    An invention that provides a method of altering the size of tetrafluoroethylene tubing which is only available in limited combination of wall thicknesses and diameter are discussed. The method includes the steps of sliding the tetrafluoroethylene tubing onto an aluminum mandrel and clamping the ends of the tubing to the mandrel by means of clamps. The tetrafluorethylene tubing and mandrel are then placed in a supporting coil which with the mandrel and tetrafluorethylene tubing are then positioned in a insulated steel pipe which is normally covered with a fiber glass insulator to smooth out temperature distribution therein. The entire structure is then placed in an event which heats the tetrafluorethylene tubing which is then shrunk by the heat to the outer dimension of the aluminum mandrel. After cooling the aluminum mandrel is removed from the newly sized tetrafluorethylene tubing by a conventional chemical milling process.

  17. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, S. H.; Wesson, D. K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A. T.; Robertson, W. J.; Walker, W. D.

    1991-06-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider.

  18. Test Station for Measuring Aluminum Tube Geometrical Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Oansea, D; Gongadze, A L; Gostkin, M I; Dedovich, D V; Evtoukhovitch, P G; Comanescu, B; Kotov, S A; Necsoiu, T; Potrap, I N; Rogalev, E V; Tskhadadze, E G; Chelkov, G A

    2001-01-01

    A test station for quality control of aluminum tube outer diameter and wall thickness is presented. The tested tubes are used for drift detector assembly of ATLAS (LHC, CERN) muon system. The outer diameter and wall thickness of aluminium tubes are measured by means of noncontact optical and ultrasonic methods respectively with the accuracy of 3 {\\mu}m. The testing process is automatic and interacts with the production data base.

  19. Spring/dimple instrument tube restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeMario, E.E.; Lawson, C.N.

    1993-01-01

    A nuclear fuel assembly for a pressurized water nuclear reactor has a spring and dimple structure formed in a non-radioactive insert tube placed in the top of a sensor receiving instrumentation tube thimble disposed in the fuel assembly and attached at a top nozzle, a bottom nozzle, and intermediate grids. The instrumentation tube thimble is open at the top, where the sensor or its connection extends through the cooling water for coupling to a sensor signal processor. The spring and dimple insert tube is mounted within the instrumentation tube thimble and extends downwardly adjacent the top. The springs and dimples restrain the sensor and its connections against lateral displacement causing impact with the instrumentation tube thimble due to the strong axial flow of cooling water. The instrumentation tube has a stainless steel outer sleeve and a zirconium alloy inner sleeve below the insert tube adjacent the top. The insert tube is relatively non-radioactivated inconel alloy. The opposed springs and dimples are formed on diametrically opposite inner walls of the insert tube, the springs being formed as spaced axial cuts in the insert tube, with a web of the insert tube between the cuts bowed radially inwardly for forming the spring, and the dimples being formed as radially inward protrusions opposed to the springs. 7 figures

  20. Ear Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the ear drum or eustachian tube, Down Syndrome, cleft palate, and barotrauma (injury to the middle ear caused by a reduction of air pressure, ... specialist) may be warranted if you or your child has experienced repeated ... fluid in the middle ear, barotrauma, or have an anatomic abnormality that ...

  1. Analysis of autofrettaged metal tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, M. Afzaal; Khan, Muddasar; Rashid, Badar; Khushnood, Shahab

    2007-01-01

    Thick-walled cylinders are widely used as compressor cylinders, pump cylinders, high pressure tubing, process reactors and vessels, nuclear reactors, isostatic vessels and gun barrels. In practice, cylinders are generally subjected to sudden and frequently drastic pressure fluctuations, such as the pressure generated in a gun barrel upon the firing of the weapon, pressure reversals in pump cylinders or in process reactors employing high-pressure piping, necessitating enhanced strength of such cylinders. A process for enhancing the strength of thick-walled cylinders has been in service, and is referred to as 'autofrettage'. It extends the service life of the cylinder. The autofrettage is achieved by increasing elastic strength of a cylinder with various methods such as hydraulic pressurization, mechanical swaging, or by utilizing the pressure of a powder gas. This research work deals with the hydraulic and mechanical autofrettage of metal tubes with the objective to attain enhanced strength. Five metal tubes are taken randomly for analysis purpose. The experimental data for five metal tubes is obtained to analyze the behavior of different parameters used during, before, and after autofrettage process. For this research, two-stage autofrettage is taken into consideration. The modeling of the metal tube is carried out in WildFire-ProEngineering, and for analysis purpose, finite element software ANSYS7 and COSMOS are used. The graphical analysis of swage autofrettage is carried out using MATLAB7. The results are validated using available experimental and numerical data. (author)

  2. CFD modeling of a boiler's tubes rupture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Khoshhal, Abbas; Shariati, Seyed Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a study on the reason for tubes damage in the superheater Platen section of the 320 MW Bisotoun power plant, Iran. The boiler has three types of superheater tubes and the damage occurs in a series of elbows belongs to the long tubes. A three-dimensional modeling was performed using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the reason. The code has ability of simultaneous solving of the continuity, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and employing the turbulence, combustion and radiation models. The whole boiler including; walls, burners, air channels, three types of tubes, etc., was modeled in the real scale. The boiler was meshed into almost 2,000,000 tetrahedral control volumes and the standard k-ε turbulence model and the Rosseland radiation model were used in the model. The theoretical results showed that the inlet 18.9 MPa saturated steam becomes superheated inside the tubes and exit at a pressure of 17.8 MPa. The predicted results showed that the temperature of the steam and tube's wall in the long tubes is higher than the short and medium size tubes. In addition, the predicted steam mass flow rate in the long tube was lower than other ones. Therefore, it was concluded that the main reason for the rupture in the long tubes elbow is changing of the tube's metal microstructure due to working in a temperature higher than the design temperature. In addition, the structural fatigue tension makes the last elbow of the long tube more ready for rupture in comparison with the other places. The concluded result was validated by observations from the photomicrograph of the tube's metal samples taken from the damaged and undamaged sections

  3. Electron tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  4. Heat treated tube for cladding nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddens, F.C.; White, D.W.; Harmon, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    The zirconium alloy tube comprises a metallurgical gradient across the width of the tube wall wherein the tube has a more corrosion-resistant metallurgical condition at the outer circumference and a less corrosion-resistant metallurgical condition at the inner circumference. The metallurgical gradient can be generated by heating an outer circumferential portion of the tube to the high alpha or mixed alpha plus beta range while maintaining the inner surface at a lower temperature, followed by cooling of the tube. Preferably the tube is made of Zircaloy. (author)

  5. Chest tube insertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... Be careful there are no kinks in your tube. The drainage system should always sit upright and be placed ...

  6. Dynamics of explosively imploded pressurized tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szirti, Daniel; Loiseau, Jason; Higgins, Andrew; Tanguay, Vincent

    2011-04-01

    The detonation of an explosive layer surrounding a pressurized thin-walled tube causes the formation of a virtual piston that drives a precursor shock wave ahead of the detonation, generating very high temperatures and pressures in the gas contained within the tube. Such a device can be used as the driver for a high energy density shock tube or hypervelocity gas gun. The dynamics of the precursor shock wave were investigated for different tube sizes and initial fill pressures. Shock velocity and standoff distance were found to decrease with increasing fill pressure, mainly due to radial expansion of the tube. Adding a tamper can reduce this effect, but may increase jetting. A simple analytical model based on acoustic wave interactions was developed to calculate pump tube expansion and the resulting effect on the shock velocity and standoff distance. Results from this model agree quite well with experimental data.

  7. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanazawa, Nobuhiro; Kaneto, Kunikazu.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To attain uniform fluid poison distribution in a calandria tank by downwardly projecting, at an equal distance to the reactor core, a spacer wall from the periphery of an anti-vibration plate in the vicinity of a heavy water flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate, thereby decrease the amount of heavy water flowing into the heavy water flow passage. Constitution: A projecting wall concentrical with a calandria tank is suspended vertically from the boundary side at the peripheral portion of an anti-vibration plate to a water heavy flow passage in the periphery of the anti-vibration plate. The projecting wall has such a vertical length as about equal to the width of the heavy water flow passage, prevents heavy water flowing through apertures of a control rod guide tube from entering into the heavy water passage and increases the ratio of heavy water that flows through the heavy water flow passage in the anti-vibration plate. Consequently, if the liquid poison density in heavy water is varied, the ununiform poison density in the calandria tank can be prevented. (Seki, T.)

  8. Process and device for extracting a cylindrical element such a plug of a small diameter tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferlay, J.C.; Gente, D.; Jouin, D.

    1992-01-01

    The plug engaged in a steam generator tube is extracted by first machining away the expander and a part of its side wall then pulling the remainder of the plug from the tube with a tool engaging its closed end

  9. Confined Tube Crimp Using Portable Hand Tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reynolds, Joseph James [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Pereyra, R. A. [LANL Retired; Archuleta, Jeffrey Christopher [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Martinez, Isaac P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Nelson, A. M. [MST-16 Summer Student (2007); Allen, Ronald Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Page, R. L. [LANL Retired; Freer, Jerry Eugene [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dozhier, Nathan Gus [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2016-04-04

    The Lawrence Radiation Laboratory developed handheld tools that crimp a 1/16 inch OD tube, forming a leak tight seal1 (see Figure 1). The leak tight seal forms by confining the 1/16 inch OD tubing inside a die while applying crimp pressure. Under confined pressure, the tube walls weld at the crimp. The purpose of this study was to determine conditions for fabricating a leak tight tube weld. The equipment was used on a trial-and-error basis, changing the conditions after each attempt until successful welds were fabricated. To better confine the tube, the die faces were polished. Polishing removed a few thousandths of an inch from the die face, resulting in a tighter grip on the tubing wall. Using detergent in an ultrasonic bath, the tubing was cleaned. Also, the time under crimp pressure was increased to 30 seconds. With these modifications, acceptable cold welds were fabricated. After setting the conditions for an acceptable cold weld, the tube was TIG welded across the crimped face.

  10. photomultiplier tubes

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  11. photomultiplier tube

    CERN Multimedia

    photomultiplier tubes. A device to convert light into an electric signal (the name is often abbreviated to PM). Photomultipliers are used in all detectors based on scintillating material (i.e. based on large numbers of fibres which produce scintillation light at the passage of a charged particle). A photomultiplier consists of 3 main parts: firstly, a photocathode where photons are converted into electrons by the photoelectric effect; secondly, a multiplier chain consisting of a serie of dynodes which multiply the number of electron; finally, an anode, which collects the resulting current.

  12. First wall of thermonuclear device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Nobuharu.

    1992-01-01

    In a first wall of a thermonuclear device, armour tiles are metallurgically bonded to a support substrate only for the narrow area of the central portion thereof, while bonded by metallurgical bonding with cooling tubes of low mechanical toughness, separated from each other in other regions. Since the bonding area with the support substrate of great mechanical rigidity is limited to the narrow region at the central portion of the armour tiles, cracking are scarcely caused at the end portion of the bonding surface. In other regions, since cooling tubes of low mechanical rigidity are bonded metallurgically, they can be sufficiently withstand to high thermal load. That is, even if the armour tiles are deformed while undergoing thermal load from plasmas, since the cooling tubes absorb it, there is no worry of damaging the metallurgically bonded face. Since the cooling tubes are bonded directly to the armour tiles, they absorb the heat of the armour tiles efficiently. (N.H.)

  13. Performance of a tapered pulse tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, G.; Allen, M.; Woolan, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    In a well instrumented pulse tube refrigerator having 1,500 W of cooling power at 125 K, the authors have measured the figure of merit of a tapered pulse tube at several operating points. At operating points near the operating point for which the taper was designed, the figure of merit is 0.96. This is close to the theoretical optimum figure of merit 0.97 calculated for this pulse tube considering only two loss mechanisms: heat conduction in the metal pulse tube wall and ordinary thermoacoustic heat transport in the gas within a few thermal penetration depths of the wall. At operating points farther from the design operating point, the measured figure of merit is much lower, as streaming driven convection adds a third loss mechanism

  14. Penetrameter positioner for bore-side radiography of tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, E.V.; Foster, B.E.

    1983-01-01

    A positioner is provided for placing plaque or wire penetrameters, as used in radiographic inspection, in close proximity with the inner wall of tubing at any desired location along the tubing. The positioner head carrying the penetrameter is inflatable whereby it is positioned in the deflated condition, inflated to place the penetrameter against a weld to be inspected in the tubing wall, and then deflated during removal. If desired, the penetrameter holder may be used to center the radiographic source on the axis of the tube

  15. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how wall...

  16. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Michihira.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To equalize heavy water flow distribution by providing a nozzle for externally injecting heavy water from a vibration preventive plate to the upper portion to feed the heavy water in a pressure tube reactor and swallowing up heavy water in a calandria tank to supply the heavy water to the reactor core above the vibration preventive plate. Constitution: A moderator injection nozzle is mounted on the inner wall of a calandria tank. Heavy water is externally injected above the vibration preventive plate, and heavy water in the calandria tank is swallowed up to supply the heavy water to the core reactor above the vibration preventive plate. Therefore, the heavy water flow distribution can be equalized over the entire reactor core, and the distribution of neutron absorber dissolved in the heavy water is equalized. (Yoshihara, H.)

  17. Ambiguous walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mody, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    The introduction of Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) in the built environment has encouraged myriad applications, often embedded in surfaces as an integrated part of the architecture. Thus the wall as responsive luminous skin is becoming, if not common, at least familiar. Taking into account how walls...... have encouraged architectural thinking of enclosure, materiality, construction and inhabitation in architectural history, the paper’s aim is to define new directions for the integration of LEDs in walls, challenging the thinking of inhabitation and program. This paper introduces the notion...... of “ambiguous walls” as a more “critical” approach to design [1]. The concept of ambiguous walls refers to the diffuse status a lumious and possibly responsive wall will have. Instead of confining it can open up. Instead of having a static appearance, it becomes a context over time. Instead of being hard...

  18. Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, David W.

    2016-09-27

    Self-assembling segmented coiled tubing is a concept that allows the strength of thick-wall rigid pipe, and the flexibility of thin-wall tubing, to be realized in a single design. The primary use is for a drillstring tubular, but it has potential for other applications requiring transmission of mechanical loads (forces and torques) through an initially coiled tubular. The concept uses a spring-loaded spherical `ball-and-socket` type joint to interconnect two or more short, rigid segments of pipe. Use of an optional snap ring allows the joint to be permanently made, in a `self-assembling` manner.

  19. SAFIRA project B.3.3: in-situ-treatment of contaminated ground water by catalytic oxidation. Final report; Sanierungsforschung in regional kontaminierten Aquiferen (SAFIRA). Projekt B.3.3: In situ-Behandlung von kontaminierten Grundwaessern durch katalytische Oxidation. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Teilvorhaben 2: Tests in der bench-scale-Anlage und Teilvorhaben 3: Die Erprobung in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, J.; Haentzschel, D.; Freier, U.; Wecks, M.

    2003-06-27

    A new technology for treatment of contaminated ground water was developed. In this process heterogeneous catalysts (full metal catalyst, mixed oxide catalyst or iron-containing zeolites) in combination with hydrogen peroxide are used. In the reactor catalytic oxidation and aerob biological degradation occur simultaneously. A complete degradation of chlorobenzene was observed in a bench-scale-equipment (2 liter) and also in the pilot plant at the model site located in Bitterfeld (30 liter reactor). The technology can be applied to the ground and waste water treatment. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Behandlung von Grundwaessern, die mit organischen Schadstoffen belastet sind, wurde ein neuartiges Verfahren entwickelt. Bei der katalytischen Oxidation werden heterogene Katalysatoren in Form von Vollmetall-, Mischoxid- und Traegerkatalysatoren in Verbindung mit Wasserstoffperoxid als Oxidationsmittel eingesetzt. In den Katalysereaktoren laufen die heterogen-katalytische Oxidation und der aerob-biologische Abbau nebeneinander ab. Es werden synergistische Effekte erzielt. Mit dem Verfahren wurde in einer bench-scale-Angle (2 Liter) und in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort in Bitterfeld (30 l Reaktor) der Schadstoff Chlorbenzol vollstaendig umgesetzt. Das Verfahren kann zur Grund- und Abwasserbehandlung eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  20. Tube leak detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Bunji; Takamura, Koichi; Matsuda, Shigehiro; Kiyosawa, Shun-ichi; Asami, Toru; Yamada, Hiroshi; Naruse, Shin-ichi.

    1995-01-01

    The device of the present invention detects occurrence of leakage in a steam generator, a steam heating tube, or a heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant. Namely, an vibration sensor is disposed at the rear end of a rod-like supersonic resonance member. A node portion for the vibrations of the resonance member is held by a holding member and attached to a wall surface of a can such as a boiler. With such a constitution, the resonance member is resonated by supersonic waves generated upon leakage of the tube. The vibrations are measured by the vibration sensor at the rear end. Presence of leakage is detected by utilizing one or more of resonance frequencies. Since the device adopts a resonance phenomenon, a conduction efficiency of the vibrations is high, thereby enabling to detect leakage at high sensitivity. In addition, the supersonic wave resonance member has its top end directly protruded into a pressure vessel such as a boiler by using a metal or a ceramic which is excellent in heat and pressure resistance. Accordingly, the sound of leak can be detected efficiently. (I.S.)

  1. 46 CFR 58.30-15 - Pipe, tubing, valves, fittings, pumps, and motors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... hydraulic and pneumatic systems listed in § 58.30-1. (b) Materials used in the manufacture of tubing, pipes... 6, the wall thickness may be established on the basis of an applicable thick-wall cylinder equation...

  2. A Method to Establishing Tube Plugging Criterion for Heat Exchangers with Straight Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyungnam [KHNP CRI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The difference of thermal expansion coefficients between the shell and tube materials causes the stress in axial direction of tube. Because of the axial stress due to thermal load, the straight tubes are used for heat exchangers operated in low temperature such as CCW (Component Cooling Water) heat exchangers and condensers. It is inevitable for the materials of the components to be degraded as the power plants become older. The degradation accompanies increasing maintenance cost as well as creating safety issues. The materials and wall thickness of heat exchanger tubes in nuclear power plants are selected to withstand system temperature, pressure, and corrosion. There are many codes and standards to be referred for calculating the minimum thickness of the heat exchanger tube in the designing stage. However, the codes and standards related to show the tube plugging criteria may not exist currently. In this paper, a method to establish the tube plugging criteria of BOP heat exchangers, which is based on the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.121, is introduced and the tube plugging criteria for the TPCCW heat exchanger of Yonggwang NPP No. 1 and 2. A method to establish the tube plugging criteria of heat exchangers with straight tubes are introduced based on the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.121. As an example, the tube plugging criterion for the CCW heat exchanger of a nuclear power plant is provided.

  3. Manipulation and functionalization of nano-tubes: application to boron nitride nano-tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maguer, A.

    2007-01-01

    This PhD work is divided into two parts dealing with boron nitride (BNNT) and carbon nano-tubes. The first part is about synthesis, purification and chemical functionalization of BNNT. Single-walled BNNT are synthesized by LASER ablation of a hBN target. Improving the synthesis parameters first allowed us to limit the byproducts (hBN, boric acid). A specific purification process was then developed in order to enrich the samples in nano-tubes. Purified samples were then used to develop two new chemical functionalization methods. They both involve chemical molecules that present a high affinity towards the BN network. The use of long chain-substituted quinuclidines and borazines actually allowed the solubilization of BNNT in organic media. Purification and functionalization were developed for single-walled BNNT and were successfully applied to multi-walled BNNT. Sensibility of boron to thermic neutrons finally gave birth to a study about covalent functionalization possibilities of the network. The second part of the PhD work deals with separation of carbon nano-tubes depending on their properties. Microwave irradiation of carbon nano-tubes first allowed the enrichment of initially polydisperse samples in large diameter nano-tubes. A second strategy involving selective interaction between one type of tubes and fullerene micelles was finally envisaged to selectively solubilize carbon nano-tubes with specific electronic properties. (author) [fr

  4. Study of low vibration 4 K pulse tube cryocoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mingyao; Nakano, Kyosuke; Saito, Motokazu; Takayama, Hirokazu; Tsuchiya, Akihiro; Maruyama, Hiroki

    2012-06-01

    Sumitomo Heavy Industries, Ltd. (SHI) has been continuously improving the efficiency and reducing the vibration of a 4 K pulse tube cryocooler. One advantage of a pulse tube cryocooler over a GM cryocooler is low vibration. In order to reduce vibration, both the displacement and the acceleration have to be reduced. The vibration acceleration can be reduced by splitting the valve unit from the cold head. One simple way to reduce vibration displacement is to increase the wall thickness of the tubes on the cylinder. However, heat conduction loss increases while the wall thickness increases. To overcome this dilemma, a novel concept, a tube with non-uniform wall thickness, is proposed. Theoretical analysis of this concept, and the measured vibration results of an SHI lowvibration pulse tube cryocooler, will be introduced in this paper.

  5. A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H.O.; Rust, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls. (orig.)

  6. A drift chamber constructed of aluminized mylar tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baringer, P.; Jung, C.; Ogren, H. O.; Rust, D. R.

    1987-03-01

    A thin reliable drift chamber has been constructed to be used near the interaction point of the PEP storage ring in the HRS detector. It is composed of individual drift tubes with aluminized mylar walls.

  7. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  8. Eustachian tube patency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eustachian tube patency refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep ...

  9. Feeding tube - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007235.htm Feeding tube - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A feeding tube is a small, soft, plastic tube placed ...

  10. Feedwater heater tube-to-tubesheet connections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokell, S.

    1993-01-01

    This paper discusses some practical aspects of expanded, welded, and welded-and-expanded feedwater heater tube-to-tubesheet joints. It outlines elastic-plastic tube expanding theory. It examines uniform-pressure-expanded tube joint strength and correlating roller-expanded joint strength with wall reduction and rolling torque. For materials subject to stress-corrosion cracking (SCC), it recommends heat treating tube ends before expanding. For materials subject to fatigue and tube-end cracking, it advocates two-stage expanding: (1) expanding enough to create firm tube-hole contact over the full tubesheet thickness; and (2) re-expanding at full pressure or torque. The paper emphasizes the desirability of segregating heats of tubing, mapping the tube-heat locations and making the heat map a permanent part of the heater maintenance file. It recommends when to provide TEMA/HEI Power Plant Standard annular grooves for roller-expanding and provides an equation for determining optimum groove width for uniform-pressure expanding. The paper also reviews welding requirements for welds of tubes to tubesheets. The review covers front-face welding before and after expanding and the reasons for welding first. It outlines current thinking about definitions of strength- and seal-welds of front-face welded joint in terms of their functions and load-carrying abilities. It presents a proposal for determining the required size of strength welds for use in Section VIII of the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (the Code). It shows why welded-and-expanded feedwater heater tube-to-tubesheet joints should be full-strength and full-depth expanded. It makes recommendations for pressure- and leak-testing. This work also proposes the industry consider butt welding the tubes to the steam-side face of the tubesheet as a regular method of tube joining. The results of a survey of manufacturers practices are appended. 30 refs., 14 figs

  11. The use of thick-walled hollow cylinder creep tests for evaluating flow criteria for rock salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, H.S.; Wawersik, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Finite element simulations of two laboratory creep tests on thick-walled hollow cylinders of rock salt are evaluated to determine if such bench-scale experiments can be used to establish applicability of either von Mises or Tresca stress measures and associated flow conditions. In the tests, the cylinders were loaded axially and pressurized both internally and externally to produce stress fields similar to those found around underground excavations in rock salt. Several different loading stages were used in each test. The simulations show that for each of two creep models studied, quite different deformations of the cylinders are predicted with the Mises and Tresca flow criteria, especially if friction between the cylinders and axial loading platens is ignored. When friction is included in the simulations, the differences in deformation are changed but are sill clearly distinguishable. 10 refs., 10 figs

  12. Tube holding system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, R.C.

    1978-01-01

    A tube holding rig is described for the lateral support of tubes arranged in tight parcels in a heat exchanger. This tube holding rig includes not less than two tube supporting assemblies, with a space between them, located crosswise with respect to the tubes, each supporting assembly comprising a first set of parallel components in contact with the tubes, whilst a second set of components is also in contact with the tubes. These two sets of parts together define apertures through which the tubes pass [fr

  13. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.; Keilova, E.; Krhounek, V.; Turek, J.

    1996-01-01

    The leakage and plugging limits were derived for WWER steam generators based on leak and burst tests using tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects. The following conclusions were arrived at: (i) The permissible primary-to-secondary leak rate with respect to the permissible through-wall defect size of WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generator tubes is 8 l/h. (ii) The primary-to-secondary leak rate is reduced by the blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other substances. (iii) The rate of crack penetration through the tube wall is higher than the crack widening. (iv) The validity of the criterion of instability for tubes with through-wall cracks was confirmed experimentally. For the WWER-440 and WWER-1000 steam generators, the critical size of axial through-wall cracks, for the threshold primary-to-secondary pressure difference, is 13.8 and 12.0 mm, respectively. (v) The calculated leakage for the rupture of one tube and for the assumed extreme defects is two orders and one order of magnitude, respectively, higher than the proposed primary water leakage limit of 8 l/h. (vi) The experiments gave evidence that the use of the permissible thinning limit of 80% for the heat exchange tube plugging does not bring about uncontrollable leakage or unstable crack growth. This is consistent with experience gained at WWER-440 type nuclear power plants. 4 tabs., 5 figs., 9 refs

  14. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter's operating characteristics

  15. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  16. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Combined torrefaction and pelletization is used to increase the fuel value of biomass by increasing its energy density and improving its handling and combustion properties. In the present study, a single-pellet press tool was used to screen for the effects of pellet die temperature, moisture cont...... of the torrefied pellets was higher and the particle size distribution after grinding the pellets was more uniform compared to conventional wood pellets....

  17. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  18. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  19. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2H(sub 2)S(yields) 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 2H(sub 2)O; Regeneration: 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 3O(sub 2)(yields) Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2SO(sub 2) The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  20. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  1. Bench-Scale Studies with Argentine Ion Exchange Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero-Herman, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (DOE), as well as international atomic energy commission, facilities use ion exchange materials for purification of aqueous streams in the nuclear industry. Unfortunately, the use of the ion exchange materials creates a waste stream that can be very high in both organic and radioactive constituents. Therefore, disposal of the spent resins often becomes an economic problem because of the large volumes of resin produced and the relatively few technologies that are capable of economically stabilizing this waste. Vitrification of this waste stream presents a reasonable disposable alternative because of its inherent destruction capabilities, the volume reductions obtainable, and the durable product that it produces

  2. Implementation of Canflex bundle manufacture - from 'bench scale' to production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, A.

    1999-01-01

    Zircatec Precision Industries (ZPI) has been involved with the development of the 43 element Canflex bundle design since 1986. This development included several 'prototype' campaigns involving the manufacture of small quantities of test bundles using enriched fuel. Manufacturing and inspection methods for this fuel were developed at ZPI as the design progressed. The most recent campaign involved the production of 26 bundles of the final Canflex design for a demonstration irradiation in the Point Lepreau Generating Station. This presentation will explore issues pertaining to the introduction of a new product line from initial trial quantities to full production levels. The Canflex fuel experience and a brief review of development efforts will be used as an example. (author)

  3. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the ferrous ion, Fe{sup 2+}-Fe{sup 2+} is oxidized to Fe{sup 3+} - in the presence of goethite seed particles. Rhenium does not mimic that process; it is not a strong enough reducing agent to duplicate the TcO{sub 4}{sup -}/Fe{sup 2+} redox reactions. Laboratory tests conducted in parallel with these scaled tests identified modifications to the liquid chemistry necessary to reduce ReO{sub 4}{sup -} and capture rhenium in the solids at levels similar to those achieved by Um (2010) for inclusion of Tc into goethite. By implementing these changes, Re was incorporated into Fe-rich solids for testing at VSL. The changes also changed the phase of iron that was in the slurry product: rather than forming goethite ({alpha}-FeOOH), the process produced magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Magnetite was considered by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and VSL to probably be a better product to improve Re retention in the melter because it decomposes at a higher temperature than goethite (1538 C vs. 136 C). The feasibility tests at VSL were conducted using Re-rich magnetite. The tests did not indicate an improved retention of Re in the glass during vitrification, but they did indicate an improved melting rate (+60%), which could have significant impact on HLW processing. It is still to be shown whether the Re is a solid solution in the magnetite as {sup 99}Tc was determined to be in goethite.

  4. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  5. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial soluti...

  6. Development of austenitic stainless steel tubes for nuclear reactor cladding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padilha, A.F.; Ferreira, P.I.; Andrade, P.I.; Andrade, A.H.P. de; Meyerhof, S.; Mauricio, J.

    1984-01-01

    In the development of thin wall tubes for nuclear reactor fuel cladding applications, a great number of activities, related to the fabrication process as the qualification are involved. A test program was envisaged to verify the quality of seam welded stainless steel tubes (AISI 304), obtained as a result of an effort by the IPEN-CNEN/SP and the brazilian industry. The relevant aspects involved in the preparation of the tubes and some preliminary test results are presented. (Author) [pt

  7. Design and performance of a straw tube drift chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, S.H.; Wesson, D.K.; Cooke, J.; Goshaw, A.T.; Robertson, W.J.; Walker, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The design and performance of the straw drift chambers used in E735 is reported. The chambers are constructed from 2.5 cm radius aluminized mylar straw tubes with wall thickness less than 0.2 mm. Also, presented are the results of tests with 2 mm radius straw tubes. The small tube has a direct detector application at the Superconducting Super Collider. (orig.)

  8. WWER steam generator tube structural and leakage integrity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Krhounek, Vl.; Otruba, J.; Ruscak, M.

    1998-01-01

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the lifetime of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirements are to assure very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evaluation and heat exchange tubes plugging. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damages of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through wall cracks, oriented preferentially in the axial direction. The paper presents the leakage and plugging limits for WWER steam generators, which have been determined from leak tests and burst tests. The tubes with axial part-through and through-wall defects have been used. The permissible value of primary to secondary leak rate was evaluated with respect to permissible axial through-wall defect size of WWER 440 and 1000 steam generator tubes. Blocking of the tube cracks by corrosion product particles and other compounds reduces the primary to secondary leak rate. The plugging limits involve the following factors: permissible tube wall thickness which determine further operation of the tubes with defects and assures their integrity under operating conditions and permissible size of a through-wall crack which is sufficiently stable under normal and accident conditions in relation to the critical crack length. For the evaluation of burst test of heat exchange tubes with longitudinal through-wall defects the instability criterion has been used and the dependence of the normalised burst pressure on the normalised length of an axial through-wall defect has been determined. The validity of the criterion of instability for WWER tubes with through-wall

  9. The YouTube Project: “The PewDiePie versus The Wall Street Journal Scandal – an in-depth analysis of PewDiePie’s online audience”

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Rasmussen, Anna Melanie Bæckmann; Cillo, Dominic

    2017-01-01

    In this dissertation, the aim is to investigate the multi-faceted events and belonging themes within The PewDiePie versus The Wall Street Journal Scandal – henceforth described as The PewDiePie Scandal. Here, the main goal within this dissertation is to answer questions in regards to PewDiePie’s online audience, how they perceive him and the relationship between the YouTuber and the viewership. Furthermore, the investigation will delve into matters of the major support provided by his audienc...

  10. Design and optimization of the low frequency eddy current technique for the volumetric inspection of austenitic small diameter tubes with a wall thickness up to 12 mm; Auslegung und Optimierung des Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahrens fuer die volumetrische Pruefung von austenitischen Neben- und Kleinleitungen mit Wandstaerken bis 12 mm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, R; Bessert, S; Disque, M; Weiss, R [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Zerstoerungsfreie Pruefverfahren, Saarbruecken (Germany)

    1998-11-01

    The low-frequency eddy current technique discussed is a suitable external inspection technique detecting defects at the inner walls of small-diameter tubes and measuring their depths via the ligament. A testing system with optimized sensor lus software for image recording, evaluation, display and documentation is available. The current state of development of the system permits detection and measurement of defects up to 20 mm in size in austenitic inner walls 12.5 mm thick down to a depth of 3 mm. This applies both to the homogenous base metal and the weld with {delta} ferrite. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Das vorgestellte Niederfrequenz-Wirbelstrom-Verfahren ist geeignet, bei Pruefung von aussen Fehler an der Innenseite von Klein- und Nebenleitungen nachzuweisen und ueber das Ligament deren Tiefe zu bestimmen. Ein entsprechendes Pruefsystem mit optimiertem Sensor und der Software zur Aufnahme, Auswertung, Darstellung und Dokumentation der Wirbelstrom-Urdaten steht zur Verfuegung. Beim jetzigen Entwicklungsstand liegt die Nachweisgrenze fuer einen 20 mm langen Innenfehler in einer 12.5 mm dicken austenitischen Wandung bei einer Fehlertiefe von 3 mm. Dies gilt sowohl fuer den homogenen Grundwerkstoff als auch fuer Schweissgefuege mit {delta}-Ferrit. (orig./MM)

  11. System and method having multi-tube fuel nozzle with differential flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Michael John; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Berry, Jonathan Dwight; York, William David

    2017-01-03

    A system includes a multi-tube fuel nozzle with a fuel nozzle body and a plurality of tubes. The fuel nozzle body includes a nozzle wall surrounding a chamber. The plurality of tubes extend through the chamber, wherein each tube of the plurality of tubes includes an air intake portion, a fuel intake portion, and an air-fuel mixture outlet portion. The multi-tube fuel nozzle also includes a differential configuration of the air intake portions among the plurality of tubes.

  12. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  13. Internal ultrasonic testing of steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furlan, J.; Soleille, G.; Chalaye, H.

    1983-01-01

    The ''in situ'' inspection of steam generator tubes uses generally Foucault currents before starting and along its life. This inspection aims at searching cracks and corrosion defects. The Foucault current method is quite badly adapted to ''closed crack'' detection, for it doesn't introduce neither resistivity or magnetic permeability variation, or lack of matter. More, it is sensible to the magnetic properties of the tube itself and to its environment (tubular or support plates). It is why, this first systematic inspection has to be completed by an ultrasonic one allowing to bring new elements in the uncertain cases. A device with an internal probe has been developed. It ''lights'' the tube wall with the aid of a transducer of which beam reflects on a mirror. Operating conditions are the same as for Foucault current testing, that is to say the probe moves inside the tube without rotation of the device (bent parts are excluded) [fr

  14. Control rod guide tube of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, Yoshitaka; Ito, Kenji; Matsumoto, Kunio.

    1994-01-01

    Zr having a residual tensile stress of 3 to 10kg/mm 2 in a circumferential direction is used for the main ingredient of a control guide tube of a nuclear reactor. For this purpose, an appropriate correction method such as a roll-correction, tension-correction and press-correction method is applied to an existent Zr-base alloy tube with no substantial residual stress. If the residual tensile stress in the circumferential direction is smaller than 3kg/mm 2 , an effect sufficient to suppress irradiation growth is not obtainable, if it exceeds 10kg/mm 2 , dimensional changes, cracks or the like occurs locally since the wall thickness of the control rod guide tube is small and, accordingly, this often results in failed products as the control guide tube. (N.H.)

  15. Indication chamber of liquid metal fired steam generators with double wall for heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matal, O.; Martoch, J.

    1982-01-01

    The double wall of the steam generator consists of inner and outer tubes anchored in a tube plate. Between the tubes are indication spaces which end in recesses formed at least in one of the tube plates and coaxial with the outer tubes. The recesses interconnected with channels form the indication chamber to which is connected at least one sensor of the alarm signal equipment. (B.S.)

  16. The root caused analysis of leakaged heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamsudin, Shaiful Rizam; Salleh, M.A.A. Mohd; Rahmat, Azmi; Anuar, Mohd Arif; Harun, Mohd; Zayid, Hafizal; Noor, Mazlee Mohd

    2015-01-01

    AISI type 316L stainless steel was used as a heat exchanger tube material in an inter-cooler column. After less than a year of operation, severe corrosion failures occurred and a transverse opening leakage was observed on one of the heat exchanger tubes. The failed tube was carefully analyzed using various metallurgical laboratory equipments. The root cause of the tube leakage was believed due to the presence of horizontal micro and macro pores as a hydrogen gas entrapment during casting of the parent ingot. The overlapped and gaping pores formed notch on the shell side of the tube surface, and it increasingly evident when the use of a high-energy water-jet and metal brush as cleaning procedure results in an establishment of pitting type local-action corrosion cells penetrated the tube wall. As a result, corrosive fluid in the tube side dissolved into the cooling water, accelerating the corrosion process.

  17. Use of CATHENA to model calandria-tube/moderator heat transfer after pressure-tube/calandria-tube ballooning contact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, H.Z.; Bilanovic, Z.; Nitheanandan, T.

    2004-01-01

    A study was performed to assess the effect of the calandria-tube/moderator heat transfer after pressure-tube/calandria tube ballooning contact using CATHENA. Results of this study indicated that the analytical tool, CATHENA, can be applied for pool boiling heat transfer on the external surface of a large diameter tube, such as the calandria tube used in CANDU reactors. The methodology in such CANDU-generic study can be used to simulate the tube surface with multiple boiling regimes and to assess the benefits of closely coupling thermalhydraulics modelling and fuel/fuel channel behaviour modelling. CATHENA (Canadian Algorithm for THErmalhydraulic Network Analysis) is a one-dimensional, two-fluid thermalhydraulic simulation code designed by AECL to analyse two-phase flow and heat transfer in piping networks. The detailed heat transfer package in CATHENA allows a connection to be established from the multiple solid surfaces of tubes to the surrounding large amount of moderator water, which acts as a heat sink during a postulated loss of coolant event. The generalized heat transfer package within CATHENA allows the tube walls to be divided into several layers in the radial direction and several sectors in the circumferential direction, to account for heat transfer conditions in these two directions. The CATHENA code with the generalized heat transfer package is capable of capturing key pool-boiling phenomena such as nucleate, transition and film boiling heat transfer as well as an ability to model the rewet phenomenon to some extent. A CATHENA input model was generated and used in simulations of selected contact boiling experiment test cases. The transient wall temperatures have been calculated in different portions of the calandria tube. By using this model an adequate agreement was achieved between CATHENA calculation and experimental measurement The CATHENA code enables one to investigate the transient and local thermal-mechanical behaviour of the calandria tube

  18. Formability of Micro-Tubes in Hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartl, Christoph; Anyasodor, Gerald; Lungershausen, Joern

    2011-01-01

    Micro-hydroforming is a down-scaled metal forming process, based on the expansion of micro-tubes by internal pressurization within a die cavity. The objective of micro-hydroforming is to provide a technology for the economic mass production of complex shaped hollow micro-components. Influence of size effects in metal forming processes increases with scaling down of metal parts. Investigations into the change in formability of micro-tubes due to metal part scaling down constituted an important subject within the conducted fundamental research work. Experimental results are presented, concerning the analysis of the formability of micro-tubes made from stainless steel AISI 304 with an outer diameter of 800 μm and a wall thickness of 40 μm. An average ratio of tube wall thickness to grain size of 1.54 of up to 2.56 was analyzed. Miniaturised mechanical standard methods as well as bulge tests with internal hydrostatic pressurization of the tubular specimens were applied to analyze the influence of size-dependent effects. A test device was developed for the bulge experiments which enabled the pressurization of micro-tubes with internal pressures up to 4000 bar. To determine the attainable maximum achievable expansion ratio the tubes were pressurized in the bulge tests with increasing internal pressure until instability due to necking and subsequent bursting occurred. Comparisons with corresponding tests of macro-tubes, made from the here investigated material, showed a change in formability of micro-tubes which was attributed to the scaling down of the hydroforming process. In addition, a restricted applicability of existing theoretical correlations for the determination of the maximum pressure at bursting was observed for down-scaled micro-hydroforming.

  19. Dryout in sodium-heated helically-coiled steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Y.; Kosugi, T.; Kubota, J.; Nakajima, K.; Tsuchiya, T.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental research on the dryout phenomenon in sodium heated, helically coiled steam generator tubes was carried out. The fluctuation of the tube wall temperature caused by dryout was measured with thermocouples installed in the center of the tube wall. Empirical correlations of dryout quality were developed as functions of critical heat flux, water mass velocity and saturation pressure. These correlations confirmed that the design criterion of the MONJU steam generator was reasonable. (author)

  20. Coating requirements for an ICF dry-wall design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, L.H.; Sucov, E.W.

    1981-01-01

    A new concept for protecting the first wall of an ICF reactor has been developed which relies heavily on a coating to protect the steel tubes which comprise the first wall. This coating must survive the pellet explosion, be ductile, and be compatible with the materials in the ICF pellet. Calculations indicate that tantalum is the best choice for the coating material and that tantalum coated steel tubes can handle fusion thermal powers of 3500 MW in a 10 m radius spherical chamber

  1. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J. [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies in a vortex tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Chang Hyun; Kim, Chang Soo; Gowda, B. H. L Lakshmana; Jung, Ui Hyun

    2006-01-01

    The present investigation deals with the study of the internal flow phenomena of the counter-flow type vortex tube using experimental testing and numerical simulation. Visualization was carried out using the surface tracing method, injecting dye on the vortex tube wall using a needle. Vortex tube is made of acrylic to visualize the surface particle tracing and the input air pressure was varied from 0.1 MPa to 0.3 MPa. The experimentally visualized results on the tube show that there is an apparent sudden changing of the trajectory on the vortex tube wall which was observed in every experimental test case. This may indicate the stagnation position of the vortex flow. The visualized stagnation position moves towards the vortex generator with increase in cold flow ratio and input pressure. Three-dimensional computational study is also conducted to obtain more detailed flow information in the vortex tube. Calculated total pressure, static pressure and total temperature distributions in the vortex tube were in good agreement with the experimental data. The computational particle trace on the vortex tube wall is very similar to that observed in experiments

  3. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Splichal, K.; Otruba, J.

    1997-01-01

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction

  4. Structural and leakage integrity assessment of WWER steam generator tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Splichal, K; Otruba, J [Nuclear Research Inst., Rez (Switzerland)

    1998-12-31

    The integrity of heat exchange tubes may influence the life-time of WWER steam generators and appears to be an important criterion for the evaluation of their safety and operational reliability. The basic requirement is to assure a very low probability of radioactive water leakage, preventing unstable crack growth and sudden tube rupture. These requirements led to development of permissible limits for primary to secondary leak evolution and heat exchange tubes plugging based on eddy current test inspection. The stress corrosion cracking and pitting are the main corrosion damage of WWER heat exchange tubes and are initiated from the outer surface. They are influenced by water chemistry, temperature and tube wall stress level. They take place under crevice corrosion condition and are indicated especially (1) under the tube support plates, where up to 90-95 % of defects detected by the ECT method occur, and (2) on free spans under tube deposit layers. Both the initiation and crack growth cause thinning of the tube wall and lead to part thickness cracks and through-wall cracks, oriented above all in the axial direction. 10 refs.

  5. Numerical simulation of draft tube flow of a bulb turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coelho, J.G. [Federal University of Triangulo Mineiro, Institute of Technological and Exact Sciences, Avenida Doutor Randolfo Borges Junior, 1250 – Uberaba – MG (Brazil); Brasil, A.C.P. Jr. [University of Brasilia, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Campus Darcy Ribeiro, Brasilia – DF (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    In this work a numerical study of draft tube of a bulb hydraulic turbine is presented, where a new geometry is proposed. This new proposal of draft tube has the unaffected ratio area, a great reduction in his length and approximately the same efficiency of the draft tube conventionally used. The numerical simulations were obtained in commercial software of calculation of flow (CFX-14), using the turbulence model SST, that allows a description of the field fluid dynamic near to the wall. The simulation strategy has an intention of identifying the stall of the boundary layer precisely limits near to the wall and recirculations in the central part, once those are the great causes of the decrease of efficiency of a draft tube. Finally, it is obtained qualitative and quantitative results about the flow in draft tubes.

  6. Experimental study and modelisation of a pulse tube refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravex, A.; Rolland, P.; Liang, J.

    1992-01-01

    A test bench for pulse tube refrigerator characterization has been built. In various configurations (basic pulse tube, orifice pulse tube and double inlet pulse tube), the ultimate temperature and the cooling power have been measured as a function of pressure wave amplitude and frequency for various geometries. A lowest temperature of 28 K has been achieved in a single staged double inlet configuration. A modelisation taking into account wall heat pumping, enthalpy flow and regenerator inefficiency is under development. Preliminary calculation results are compared with experimental data

  7. Ultrasonic inspection of inpile tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, D.M.; Bossi, H.

    1985-01-01

    The in-service inspection (ISI) of inpile tubes can be performed accurately and safely with a semiautomatic ultrasonic inspection system. The ultrasonic technique uses a set of multiple transducers to detect and size cracks, voids, and laminations radially and circumferentially. Welds are also inspected for defects. The system is designed to inspect stainless steel and Inconel tubes ranging from 53.8 mm (2.12 in.) to 101.6 mm (4 in.) inner diameter with wall thickness on the order of 5 mm. The inspection head contains seven transducers mounted in a surface-following device. Six angle-beam transducers generate shear waves in the tubes. Two of the six are oriented to detect circumferential cracks, and two detect axial cracks. Although each of these four transducers is used in the pulse-echo mode, they are oriented in aligned sets so pitch-catch operation is possible if desired. The remaining angle-beam transducers are angulated to detect flaws that are off axial or circumferential orientation. The seventh transducer is used for longitudinal inspection and detects and sizes laminar-type defects

  8. Operating properties of straw-tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alekseev, G.D.; Bonyushkin, Yu.E.; Korytov, A.V.; Malyshev, V.L.

    1990-01-01

    The initial results of the study of thin-wall mylar tubes (called straws) made under the laboratory conditions are presented. The maximal avalanche charge allowing the reliable detector operation is ∼ 10 pC, the spatial accuracy σ x near the anode wire at 3 atm of pure isobutane is ≅ 45 μm. The good separation of charge signals from electrons and X-rays was obtained with the Xe:iso-C 4 H 10 = 94:6 gas mixture. Tubes 5 mm in diameter withstand the pressure of 8-12 atm. 11 refs.; 5 figs

  9. X-ray tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, R.W.

    1979-01-01

    A form of x-ray tube is described which provides satisfactory focussing of the electron beam when the beam extends for several feet from gun to target. Such a tube can be used for computerised tomographic scanning. (UK)

  10. Pressure tube type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komada, Masaoki.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the safety of pressure tube type reactors by providing an additional ECCS system to an ordinary ECCS system and injecting heavy water in the reactor core tank into pressure tubes upon fractures of the tubes. Constitution: Upon fractures of pressure tubes, reduction of the pressure in the fractured tubes to the atmospheric pressure in confirmed and the electromagnetic valve is operated to completely isolate the pressure tubes from the fractured portion. Then, the heavy water in the reactor core tank flows into and spontaneously recycles through the pressure tubes to cool the fuels in the tube to prevent their meltdown. By additionally providing the separate ECCS system to the ordinary ECCS system, fuels can be cooled upon loss of coolant accidents to improve the safety of the reactors. (Moriyama, K.)

  11. Gastrostomy feeding tube - bolus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeding - gastrostomy tube - bolus; G-tube - bolus; Gastrostomy button - bolus; Bard Button - bolus; MIC-KEY - bolus ... KEY, 3 to 8 weeks after surgery. These feedings will help your child grow strong and healthy. ...

  12. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002937.htm Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A gastrostomy feeding tube insertion is the placement of a feeding ...

  13. Neural Tube Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the ... that she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In ...

  14. CFD modeling of a boiler's tubes rupture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahimi, Masoud; Khoshhal, Abbas; Shariati, Seyed Mehdi [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran)

    2006-12-15

    This paper reports the results of a study on the reason for tubes damage in the superheater Platen section of the 320MW Bisotoun power plant, Iran. The boiler has three types of superheater tubes and the damage occurs in a series of elbows belongs to the long tubes. A three-dimensional modeling was performed using an in-house computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code in order to explore the reason. The code has ability of simultaneous solving of the continuity, the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations and employing the turbulence, combustion and radiation models. The whole boiler including; walls, burners, air channels, three types of tubes, etc., was modeled in the real scale. The boiler was meshed into almost 2,000,000 tetrahedral control volumes and the standard k-{epsilon} turbulence model and the Rosseland radiation model were used in the model. The theoretical results showed that the inlet 18.9MPa saturated steam becomes superheated inside the tubes and exit at a pressure of 17.8MPa. The predicted results showed that the temperature of the steam and tube's wall in the long tubes is higher than the short and medium size tubes. In addition, the predicted steam mass flow rate in the long tube was lower than other ones. Therefore, it was concluded that the main reason for the rupture in the long tubes elbow is changing of the tube's metal microstructure due to working in a temperature higher than the design temperature. In addition, the structural fatigue tension makes the last elbow of the long tube more ready for rupture in comparison with the other places. The concluded result was validated by observations from the photomicrograph of the tube's metal samples taken from the damaged and undamaged sections. (author)

  15. Characteristics of Pilger Die Materials for Nuclear Zirconium Alloy Tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ki Bum; Kim, In Kyu; Park, Min Young; Kahng, Jong Yeol; Kim, Sun Doo

    2011-01-01

    KEPCO Nuclear Fuel Company's (KEPCO NF) tube manufacturing facility, Techno Special Alloy (TSA) Plant, has started cold pilgering operation since 2008. It is obvious that the cold pilgering process is one of the key processes controlling the quality and the characteristics of the tubes manufactured, i.e. nuclear zirconium alloy tube in KEPCO NF. Cold pilgering is a rolling process for forming metal tubes in which diameter and wall thickness are reduced in a number of forming steps, using ring dies at outside of the tube and a curved mandrel at inside to reduce tube cross sections by up to 90 percent. The OD size of tube is reduced by a pair of dies, and ID size and wall thickness is controlled simultaneously by mandrel. During the cold pilgering process, both tools are the critical components for providing qualified tube. Development of pilger die and mandrel has been a significant importance in the zirconium tube manufacturing and a major goal of KEPCO NF. The objective of this study is to evaluate the life time of pilger die during pilgering. Therefore, a comparison of the heat treatment and mechanical properties of between AISI 52100 and AISI H13 materials was made in this study

  16. Ballooning of CANDU pressure tube in local thermal transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihalache, Maria; Ionescu, Viorel

    2008-01-01

    In certain LOCA scenarios for the CANDU fuel channel, the ballooning of the pressure tube and contact with the calandria tube can occur. After the contact moment, a radial heat transfer from cooling fluid to moderator takes place through the contact area. If the temperature of channel walls increases, the contact area is drying and the heat transfer becomes inefficiently. In INR-Pitesti the DELOCA code was developed to simulate the mechanical behaviour of pressure tube during pre-contact transition, and mechanical and thermal behaviour of pressure tube and calandria tube after occurrence of the contact between the two tubes. The code contains few models: thermal creep of Zr-2.5%Nb alloy, the heat transfer by conduction through the cylindrical walls, channel failure criteria and calculus of heat transfer at the calandria tube - moderator interface. This code evaluates the contact and channel failure moments. This paper gives a DELOCA code description and the fuel channel behaviour analysis, in transient temperature conditions of the pressure tube, using the materials properties, time and temperature dependencies of these properties as obtained in the different laboratories of the world and in the INR - Pitesti in the last years. DELOCA computer code simulated the fuel channel response to the constant heating rates of inside pressure tube surface. The paper presents contact temperature and time dependencies on the heating rate, and the appropriate fitting functions. (authors)

  17. The effect of intracellular calcium level regulators on the synthesis of pollen tube callose in Oenothera biennis L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Bednarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that callose synthesis in the Oenothera biennis pollen tube is regulated by the endogenous Ca2+ level. Calcium antagonists reduced the amount of callose in the wall above the tip of the pollen tube (Verapamil - calcium channels blocker and at the tube tip after stopping tube growth (La3+ - a Ca2+ substitute. Ruthenium red and ionophore A 23187, which raise the Ca 21 level in the cytoplasm, induced callose synthesis at the tip of pollen tube.

  18. A novel investigation of heat transfer characteristics in rifled tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegan, C. Dhayananth; Azhagesan, N.

    2018-05-01

    The experimental investigation of heat transfer of water flowing in a rifled tube was explored at different pressures and at various operating conditions in a rifled tube heat exchanger. The specifications for the inner and outer diameters of the inner tube are 25.8 and 50.6 mm, respectively. The working fluids used in shell side and tube side are cold and hot water. The rifled tube was made of the stainless steel with 4 ribs, 50.6 mm outer diameter, 0.775 mm rib height, 58o helix angle and the length 1500 mm. The effect of pressure, wall heat flux and friction factor were discussed. The results confirm that even at low pressures the rifled tubes has an obvious enhancement in heat transfer compared with smooth tube. Results depicts that the Nusselt number increases with Reynolds number and the friction factor decreases with increase in Reynolds number and the heat transfer rate is higher for the rifled tube when compared to smooth tube, because of strong swirl flow due to centrifugal action. It also confirms that, the friction factor obtained from the rifled tube is significantly higher than that of smooth tube.

  19. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into a...

  20. Boiler tube failure prevention in fossil fired boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    It is the common experience of power generating companies worldwide that the main causes of forced outages on power plant are those due to boiler tube failures on fossil units. The main reason for the large number of failures are the severe environmental conditions in fossil boilers as the effects of stress, temperature, temperature gradients, corrosion, erosion and vibration combine to produce degradation of the tube steel. Corrosion by oxidation, by combustion products and by impure boiler water can significantly reduce the tube wall thickness and result in failure of a tube many years before its designed service life. Errors can also occur in the design manufacturer, storage, operation, and maintenance of boiler tubing and the wrong material installed in a critical location can lead to premature failure. Altogether, experts in the US and UK, from many different disciplines, have identified seven broad categories of boiler tube failure mechanisms. 1 tab., 2 figs

  1. Some Observations on Carbon Nano tubes Susceptibility to Cell Phagocytosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraczek-Szczypta, A.; Menaszek, E.; Blazewicz, S.; Menaszek, E.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of different types of carbon nano tubes (CNTs) on cell phagocytosis. Three kinds of carbon nano tubes: single-walled carbon nano horns (SWCNHs), multi walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs), and ultra-long single-walled carbon nano tubes (ULSWCNTs) before and after additional chemical functionalization were seeded with macrophage cell culture. Prior to biological testing, the CNTs were subjected to dispersion process with the use of phosphate buffered solution (PBS) and PBS containing surfactant (Tween 20) or dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). The results indicate that the cells interaction with an individual nano tube is entirely different as compared to CNTs in the form of aggregate. The presence of the surfactant favors the CNTs dispersion in culture media and facilitates phagocytosis process, while it has disadvantageous influence on cells morphology. The cells phagocytosis is a more effective for MWCNTs and SWCNHs after their chemical functionalization. Moreover, these nano tubes were well dispersed in culture media without using DMSO or surfactant. The functionalized carbon nano tubes were easily dispersed in pure PBS and seeded with cells

  2. Positioning a thin-wall round wrapper within a heavy wall out-of-round shell of a heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, H.G.; Thompson, E.G.; Bayless, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    A thin-wall, generally round wrapper is installed within a heavy wall, rolled heat exchanger shell which has greater out-of-round tolerances than the wrapper and the wrapper is maintained in its round state by utilizing a plurality of jacks disposed adjacent spaced tube support plates within the wrapper. (author)

  3. Effects of Liquid Transpiration Cooling on Heat Transfer to the Diverging Region of a Porous-Walled Nozzle

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schieb, Daniel

    1997-01-01

    This research effort investigated the effects of evaporation of water on the heat transferred to the wall of the diverging portion of a porous walled nozzle The AFIT High Pressure Shock Tube was used...

  4. Heat exchanger tube tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gugel, G.

    1976-01-01

    Certain types of heat-exchangers have tubes opening through a tube sheet to a manifold having an access opening offset from alignment with the tube ends. A tool for inserting a device, such as for inspection or repair, is provided for use in such instances. The tool is formed by a flexible guide tube insertable through the access opening and having an inner end provided with a connector for connection with the opening of the tube in which the device is to be inserted, and an outer end which remains outside of the chamber, the guide tube having adequate length for this arrangement. A flexible transport hose for internally transporting the device slides inside of the guide tube. This hose is long enough to slide through the guide tube, into the heat-exchanger tube, and through the latter to the extent required for the use of the device. The guide tube must be bent to reach the end of the heat-exchanger tube and the latter may be constructed with a bend, the hose carrying anit-friction elements at interspaced locations along its length to make it possible for the hose to negotiate such bends while sliding to the location where the use of the device is required

  5. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  6. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anitha, N; Kamath, S Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure.

  7. NEI You Tube Videos: Amblyopia

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...

  8. Dynamics of miscible displacements in round tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiburg, E.; Maxworthy, T.; Chen, C.Y. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Petitjeans, P. [Ecole Superieure de Physique et de Chimie Industrielles, Paris (France)

    1995-12-31

    A combined experimental and numerical investigation of miscible two-phase flow in a capillary tube is reported. The fraction of fluid left behind on the wall is obtained as a function of the Peclet, Atwood, and Froude numbers. Scaling arguments are presented for two distinct flow regimes, dominated by diffusion and convection, respectively. In the latter one, an effective surface tension value can be estimated.

  9. Ferromagnetic material inspection for feedwater heater and condenser tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    In recent years, special ferritic stainless steels, such as AL29-4C/sup TM/, Sea-Cure/sup TM/, E-Brite/sup TM/, 439, and similar alloys have been introduced as tube material in condensers, feedwater heaters, moisture separator/reheaters, and other heat exchangers. In addition, carbon steel tubes are widely used in feedwater heaters and heat exchangers in chemical plants. The main problem with the in-service inspection of these ferritic alloys and carbon steel tubes lies in their highly ferromagnetic properties. These properties severely limit the application of the standard eddy current techniques. The effort was undertaken under EPRI sponsorship to develop a reliable technique for in-service inspection of ferromagnetic tubes. The new method combines the measurement of magnetic flux leakage generated around the defects with measurement of total flux in the tube wall. The heart of the inspection system is a special ID probe that magnetizes the tube and generates signals for any tube defect. A permanent record of inspection is provided with a strip-chart or magnetic tape recorder. The laboratory and field evaluation of this new system demonstrated its very good sensitivity to small defects, its reliability, and its ruggedness. Defects as small as 10% external wall loss in heavy wall carbon steel tube were detected. Tubes in the power plant were inspected at a rate of 300-500 tubes per eight-hour shift. The other advantages of this newly developed technique are its simplicity, low cost of instrumentation, easy data interpretation, and full portability

  10. ELASTO-PLASTIC BEHAVIOR OF RC FRAMES COMPOSED OF STEEL JACKETTED RC SHORT COLUMNS AND SPANDREL WALLS

    OpenAIRE

    Nasruddin

    2012-01-01

    This experimental study is a part of the investigation on the seismic design method for Double Tubes Hybrid System (DTHS) for buildings. This structural system consists of RC core walls as the interior tube, and the exterior frames composed of RC short columns and RC spandrel walls as the exterior tube. The RC core walls are designed as the Energy Dissipation Structural Walls (EDSW), which are composed of RC coupled shear walls linked by short steel H-shaped beams as the energy dissipation de...

  11. Effect of nutrient sources on bench scale vinegar production using response surface methodology Efeito das fontes de nutrientes sobre a produção de vinagre em escala de bancada, usando-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate on a bench scale, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient source concentrations in vinegar production, a process that is used by small scale industries in the State of Paraiba. The response surface methodology has been utilized for modeling and optimization of the fermentation process. Initially a 2³ complete factorial design was used, where the effects of initial concentrations of ethyl alcohol, phosphorous and nitrogen sources were observed. After this analysis the concentration range of the nutrient variables were extended and a two level plus a star configuration factorial experimental design was performed. The experimental values are well represented by the linear and quadratic model equations obtained. The optimum concentration of ethanol was 4% in which the yield and the productivity of the acetic acid were maximized to the values of 70% and 0.87 g L-1 h-1 respectively, for a 24 hours fermentation period. The evaluation of the quadratic models showed that the yield of vinegar is maximized from 28.1 to 51.04% and the productivity from 0.69 to 1.29 g L-1 h-1 when the concentration of the nitrogen nutrient in the medium is increased from 0.2 to 2.3 g mL-1. Thus, at the optimized nitrogen nutrient concentration both the yield and the productivity of the vinegar are increased by 1.85 times.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, estudar em escala de bancada, os efeitos de concentrações de fontes dos nutrientes nitrogênio e fósforo sobre a produção de vinagre de álcool, um processo muito utilizado nas indústrias de pequeno porte do Estado da Paraíba. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada na modelagem e otimização de processo de fermentação acética. Inicialmente, a metodologia de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ foi utilizada, onde os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de etanol, de fontes de fósforo e de nitrogênio foram observados. Após esta análise as faixas das

  12. Effect of wall thermal conductivity on the heat transfer process in annular turbulent gas flow for constant wall temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groshev, A.I.; Anisimov, V.V.; Kashcheev, V.M.; Khudasko, V.V.; Yur'ev, Yu.S.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of wall material on convective heat transfer of turbulent gas flow in an annular tube with account of longitudinal diffusion both in the wall and in the liquid is studied numerically. The conjugated problem is solved for P r =0.7 (Re=10 4 -10 6 ). Based on numerical calculations it is stated that thermal conductivity of the wall and gas essentially affects the degree of preliminary heating of liquid in the range of a non-heated section

  13. Pediatric cuffed endotracheal tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neerja Bhardwaj

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Endotracheal intubation in children is usually performed utilizing uncuffed endotracheal tubes for conduct of anesthesia as well as for prolonged ventilation in critical care units. However, uncuffed tubes may require multiple changes to avoid excessive air leak, with subsequent environmental pollution making the technique uneconomical. In addition, monitoring of ventilatory parameters, exhaled volumes, and end-expiratory gases may be unreliable. All these problems can be avoided by use of cuffed endotracheal tubes. Besides, cuffed endotracheal tubes may be of advantage in special situations like laparoscopic surgery and in surgical conditions at risk of aspiration. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI scans in children have found the narrowest portion of larynx at rima glottides. Cuffed endotracheal tubes, therefore, will form a complete seal with low cuff pressure of <15 cm H 2 O without any increase in airway complications. Till recently, the use of cuffed endotracheal tubes was limited by variations in the tube design marketed by different manufacturers. The introduction of a new cuffed endotracheal tube in the market with improved tracheal sealing characteristics may encourage increased safe use of these tubes in clinical practice. A literature search using search words "cuffed endotracheal tube" and "children" from 1980 to January 2012 in PUBMED was conducted. Based on the search, the advantages and potential benefits of cuffed ETT are reviewed in this article.

  14. Heat removal capability of divertor coaxial tube assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibui, Masanao; Nakahira, Masataka; Tada, Eisuke; Takatsu, Hideyuki

    1994-05-01

    To deal with high power flowing in the divertor region, an advanced divertor concept with gas target has been proposed for use in ITER/EDA. The concept uses a divertor channel to remove the radiated power while allowing neutrals to recirculate. Candidate channel wall designs include a tube array design where many coaxial tubes are arranged in the toroidal direction to make louver. The coaxial tube consists of a Be protection tube encases many supply tubes wound helically around a return tube. V-alloy and hardened Cu-alloy have been proposed for use in the supply and return tubes. Some coolants have also been proposed for the design including pressurized He and liquid metals, because these coolants are consistent with the selection of coolants for the blanket and also meet the requirement of high temperature operation. In the coaxial tube design, the coolant area is restricted and brittle Be material is used under severe thermal cyclings. Thus, to obtain the coaxial tube with sufficient safety margin for the expected fusion power excursion, it is essential to understand its applicability limit. The paper discusses heat removal capability of the coaxial tube and recommends some design modifications. (author)

  15. On random pressure pulses in the turbine draft tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuibin, P. A.; Shtork, S. I.; Skripkin, S. G.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2017-04-01

    The flow in the conical part of the hydroturbine draft tube undergoes various instabilities due to deceleration and flow swirling at off-design operation points. In particular, the precessing vortex rope develops at part-load regimes in the draft tube. This rope induces periodical low-frequency pressure oscillations in the draft tube. Interaction of rotational (asynchronous) mode of disturbances with the elbow can bring to strong oscillations in the whole hydrodynamical system. Recent researches on flow structure in the discharge cone in a regime of free runner had revealed that helical-like vortex rope can be unstable itself. Some coils of helix close to each other and reconnection appears with generation of a vortex ring. The vortex ring moves toward the draft tube wall and downstream. The present research is focused on interaction of vortex ring with wall and generation of pressure pulses.

  16. Investigation of gas molecules adsorption on carbon nano tubes electric properties in tight binding model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moradian, R.; Mohammadi, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Based on tight binding model we investigated effects of bi-atomic molecules gas(in the general form denoted by X 2 )on single-walled carbon nano tubes electronic properties. We found for some specified values of hopping integrals and random on-site energies, adsorbed molecules bound states located inside of the (10,0) single-walled carbon nano tubes energy gap, where it is similar to the reported experimental results for O 2 adsorption while for other values there is no bound states inside of energy gap. This is similar to the N 2 adsorption on semiconductor single-walled carbon nano tubes.

  17. Application of radioisotope methods of investigation and control techniques in tube production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chizh, V.A.; Drabkin, L.A.

    1975-01-01

    Various spheres of radioactive isotopes application of closed and open type in tube production are described. Due to the usage of radioactive indicator method in combination with physicochemical methods and metallography new data are obtained in the theory and practice of tube centrifugal casting, rolling and pressing. Adsorption properties of lubricants and element distribution in the joint weld region of the big diameter tubes are investigated. The application of radioactive isotopes as ionizing radiation source made it possible to develop some radioisotope methods and instruments for tube wall thickness and the wall thickness difference control. Short characteristics of such instruments are given

  18. First wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omori, Junji.

    1991-01-01

    Graphite and C/C composite are used recently for the first wall of a thermonuclear device since materials with small atom number have great impurity allowable capacity for plasmas. Among them, those materials having high thermal conduction are generally anisotropic and have an upper limit for the thickness upon production. Then, anisotropic materials are used for a heat receiving plate, such that the surfaces of the heat receiving plate on the side of lower heat conductivity are brought into contact with each other, and the side of higher thermal conductivity is arranged in parallel with small radius direction and the toroidal direction of the thermonuclear device. As a result, the incident heat on an edge portion can be transferred rapidly to the heat receiving plate, which can suppress the temperature elevation at the surface to thereby reduce the amount of abrasion. Since the heat expansion coefficient of the anisotropic materials is great in the direction of the lower heat conductivity and small in the direction of the higher heat conductivity, the gradient of a thermal load distribution in the direction of the higher heat expansion coefficient is small, and occurrence of thermal stresses due to temperature difference is reduced, to improve the reliability. (N.H.)

  19. Falling walls

    CERN Multimedia

    It was 20 years ago this week that the Berlin wall was opened for the first time since its construction began in 1961. Although the signs of a thaw had been in the air for some time, few predicted the speed of the change that would ensue. As members of the scientific community, we can take a moment to reflect on the role our field played in bringing East and West together. CERN’s collaboration with the East, primarily through links with the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, JINR, in Dubna, Russia, is well documented. Less well known, however, is the role CERN played in bringing the scientists of East and West Germany together. As the Iron curtain was going up, particle physicists on both sides were already creating the conditions that would allow it to be torn down. Cold war historian Thomas Stange tells the story in his 2002 CERN Courier article. It was my privilege to be in Berlin on Monday, the anniversary of the wall’s opening, to take part in a conference entitled &lsquo...

  20. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.

  1. Categorising YouTube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube......’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a user-driven bottom-up folksonomy and a hierarchical browsing system that emphasises a culture of competition...... and which favours the already popular content of YouTube. With this taxonomic approach, the UGC videos are registered and analysed in terms of empirically based observations. The article identifies various UGC categories and their principal characteristics. Furthermore, general tendencies of the UGC within...

  2. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1983-08-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 110 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 46 (42 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service increased from 1900 (0.14 percent) in 1980 to 4692 (0.30 percent) in 1981. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that used all-volatile treatment since start-up. At one reactor a large number of degraded tubes were repaired by sleeving which is expected to become an important method of tube repair in the future

  3. Difficulty with cuff deflation of reinforced tracheal tube caused by inflation line occlusion with silk thread ligation and fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, Sayoko; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Imai, Eriko; Kawamata, Mikito

    2015-03-05

    A reinforced tracheal tube, ligated with silk threads, was inserted into a tracheostomy orifice and fixed to the skin. The cuff inflation line of the reinforced tracheal tube became occluded. Reinforced 'armoured' tracheal tubes have a spiral of wire embedded into the wall of the tube to give strength and flexibility, and may be sharply bent without compromising the tube lumen. The tracheal cuff attached to the tube is inflated by injecting air through a narrow-diameter tube welded to the outside of the tracheal tube. When a reinforced tracheal tube is ligated and fixed with silk threads, it should be confirmed whether the tracheal tube cuff can be deflated and inflated after fixation. Moreover, because occlusion can be eliminated by removing all silk threads used to ligate a tracheal tube, they should be removed before extubation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  4. Rectangular drift tube characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, D.S.; Musienko, Yu.V.

    1985-01-01

    Results on the study of the characteristics of a 50 x 100 mm aluminium drift tube are presented. The tube was filled with argon-methane and argon-isobutane mixtures. With 16 per cent methane concentration the largest deviation from a linear relation between the drift time and the drift path over 50 mm is less than 2 mm. The tube filled with argon-isobutane mixture is capable of operating in a limited streamer mode

  5. Development of P4140 video data wall projector; Video data wall projector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, H.; Inoue, H. [Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    The P4140 is a 3 cathode-ray tube (CRT) video data wall projector for super video graphics array (SVGA) signals. It is used as an image display unit, providing a large screen when several sets are put together. A high-quality picture has been realized by higher resolution and improved color uniformity technology. A new convergence adjustment system has also been developed through the optimal combination of digital and analog technologies. This video data wall installation has been greatly enhanced by the automation of cubes and cube performance settings. The P4140 video data wall projector can be used for displaying not only data but video as well. (author)

  6. Categorising YouTube

    OpenAIRE

    Simonsen, Thomas Mosebo

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a genre analytical approach to creating a typology of the User Generated Content (UGC) of YouTube. The article investigates the construction of navigation processes on the YouTube website. It suggests a pragmatic genre approach that is expanded through a focus on YouTube’s technological affordances. Through an analysis of the different pragmatic contexts of YouTube, it is argued that a taxonomic understanding of YouTube must be analysed in regards to the vacillation of a...

  7. Pressure tube reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Susuki, Akira; Murata, Shigeto; Minato, Akihiko.

    1993-01-01

    In a pressure tube reactor, a reactor core is constituted by arranging more than two units of a minimum unit combination of a moderator sealing pipe containing a calandria tube having moderators there between and a calandria tube and moderators. The upper header and a lower header of the calandria tank containing moderators are communicated by way of the moderator sealing tube. Further, a gravitationally dropping mechanism is disposed for injecting neutron absorbing liquid to a calandria gas injection portion. A ratio between a moderator volume and a fuel volume is defined as a function of the inner diameter of the moderator sealing tube, the outer diameter of the calandria tube and the diameter of fuel pellets, and has no influence to intervals of a pressure tube lattice. The interval of the pressure tube lattice is enlarged without increasing the size of the pressure tube, to improve production efficiency of the reactor and set a coolant void coefficient more negative, thereby enabling to improve self controllability and safety. Further, the reactor scram can be conducted by injecting neutron absorbing liquid. (N.H.)

  8. Heated Tube Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Heated Tube Facility at NASA GRC investigates cooling issues by simulating conditions characteristic of rocket engine thrust chambers and high speed airbreathing...

  9. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Pathania, R.S.

    1984-10-01

    A review of the performance of steam generator tubes in 116 water-cooled nuclear power reactors showed that tubes were plugged at 54 (46 percent) of the reactors. The number of tubes removed from service decreased from 4 692 (0.30 percent) in 1981 to 3 222 (0.20 percent) in 1982. The leading causes of tube failures were stress corrosion cracking from the primary side, stress corrosion cracking (or intergranular attack) from the secondary side and pitting corrosion. The lowest incidence of corrosion-induced defects from the secondary side occurred in reactors that have used only volatile treatment, with or without condensate demineralization

  10. Steam generator tube performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatone, O.S.; Tapping, R.L.; Stipan, L.

    1992-03-01

    A survey of steam generator operating experience for 1986 has been carried out for 184 pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors, and 1 water-cooled, graphite-moderated reactor. Tubes were plugged at 75 of the reactors (40.5%). In 1986, 3737 tubes were plugged (0.14% of those in service) and 3148 tubes were repaired by sleeving. A small number of reactors accounted for the bulk of the plugged tubes, a phenomenon consistent with previous years. For 1986, the available tubesheet sludge data for 38 reactors has been compiled into tabular form, and sludge/deposit data will be incorporated into all future surveys

  11. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo; Min, Kyong Mahn

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 applied to the detection of tapered wear volumetric indications and depth sizing within the free span area, loose part not present was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation. The experiment to demonstrate the applicability of EPRI ETSS was performed by the employment of the newly prepared STD tube and resulted in ensuring the effectiveness and equivalency of the EPRI ETSS as well. The authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes. The testing results were reviewed with the influences of SG tube material and the support structure. The impact of the tube materials was insignificant and that of the tube support structure showed somewhat conservative results. The testing resulted in successful demonstration of applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG tube wear defects at the tube support. One of the major flaw mechanisms detected in the currently operating domestic OPR-1000 pressurized water reactors(PWR's) steam generator(SG) tubes is wear defect. In general, wear defect has been constantly detected in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration interaction between tube and its support structure, and the quantity of the affected tubes has also shown the tendency to increase as plant operation life is added. In order to take appropriate measures and maintain the structural integrity for the SG tubes, wear defect is currently categorized as active damage mechanism and the tubes containing 40% or greater wear depth of the nominal tube wall thickness shall be plugged per SGMP(SG Management Program) Recently, a fairly large amplitude of wear defects on the Batwing(BW), one of the upper tube support structures in the SG tubes

  12. Demonstration for the Applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG Tube Wear Defects Formed at the Tube Support Structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki Seok; Cheon, Keun Young; Nam, Min Woo [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. Ltd, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Min, Kyong Mahn [Universal Monitoring and Inspection Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    In this paper, the authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 applied to the detection of tapered wear volumetric indications and depth sizing within the free span area, loose part not present was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation. The experiment to demonstrate the applicability of EPRI ETSS was performed by the employment of the newly prepared STD tube and resulted in ensuring the effectiveness and equivalency of the EPRI ETSS as well. The authorized EPRI ETSS 27906.2 for getting the actual value of the wear depth and providing structural integrity interpretation based on engineering evaluation was reviewed and applied to the site SG tubes. The testing results were reviewed with the influences of SG tube material and the support structure. The impact of the tube materials was insignificant and that of the tube support structure showed somewhat conservative results. The testing resulted in successful demonstration of applicability of the EPRI ETSS on the SG tube wear defects at the tube support. One of the major flaw mechanisms detected in the currently operating domestic OPR-1000 pressurized water reactors(PWR's) steam generator(SG) tubes is wear defect. In general, wear defect has been constantly detected in the upper tube bundle imposed to the flow induced vibration interaction between tube and its support structure, and the quantity of the affected tubes has also shown the tendency to increase as plant operation life is added. In order to take appropriate measures and maintain the structural integrity for the SG tubes, wear defect is currently categorized as active damage mechanism and the tubes containing 40% or greater wear depth of the nominal tube wall thickness shall be plugged per SGMP(SG Management Program) Recently, a fairly large amplitude of wear defects on the Batwing(BW), one of the upper tube support structures in the SG

  13. Sustainable wall construction and exterior insulation retrofit technology process and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vohra, Arun

    2000-01-01

    A low-cost process for exterior wall insulation retrofit, or new wall construction by stacking layers of fabric tube filled with insulating material against a wall and covering them with mesh and stucco provides a durable structure with good insulating value.

  14. A study on LMFBR steam generator design without tube failure propagation in water leak events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futagami, Satoshi; Hayafune, Hiroki; Fujimura, Ken; Sato, Mitsuru

    2009-01-01

    The major target performance of the SG for commercialized FBR is not only economic performance but also property protection performance. The candidate SG design will be selected at the end of JFY 2010. The straight double wall tube SG is one of the SG candidates for commercialized FBR, and other SG concepts were studied in this paper. In proposing an alternative SG, alternative technological measures with a double wall tube were investigated and included reinforcing the tube against wastage and quick detection of initial tube leaks. Alternative SG concept candidates for preventing tube failure propagation and mitigation of water leak accidents were proposed through a combination of technological measures. The candidates were then comparatively evaluated from the point of view of property protection performance, total weight, technological issues, and so on. A coated wall tube SG and protective wall tube SG were decided on as the alternative SGs because of superior property protection performance and with the technological issues. At the end of JFY 2010, the straight double wall tube SG will be decided upon as the result of R and D activities, and alternative SGs evaluated in feasibility studies. A plan for studying feasibility with the technological issues of the alternative SG was proposed. (author)

  15. Electroacoustic control of Rijke tube instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumin; Huang, Lixi

    2017-11-01

    Unsteady heat release coupled with pressure fluctuation triggers the thermoacoustic instability which may damage a combustion chamber severely. This study demonstrates an electroacoustic control approach of suppressing the thermoacoustic instability in a Rijke tube by altering the wall boundary condition. An electrically shunted loudspeaker driver device is connected as a side-branch to the main tube via a small aperture. Tests in an impedance tube show that this device has sound absorption coefficient up to 40% under normal incidence from 100 Hz to 400 Hz, namely over two octaves. Experimental result demonstrates that such a broadband acoustic performance can effectively eliminate the Rijke-tube instability from 94 Hz to 378 Hz (when the tube length varies from 1.8 m to 0.9 m, the first mode frequency for the former is 94 Hz and the second mode frequency for the latter is 378 Hz). Theoretical investigation reveals that the devices act as a damper draining out sound energy through a tiny hole to eliminate the instability. Finally, it is also estimated based on the experimental data that small amount of sound energy is actually absorbed when the system undergoes a transition from the unstable to stable state if the contrpaol is activated. When the system is actually stabilized, no sound is radiated so no sound energy needs to be absorbed by the control device.

  16. Steam generator tube failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service

  17. Holographic NDE of pressure tubes for Cirene nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Chirico, G.; Pirodda, L.; Villani, A.

    1985-01-01

    Pressure tubes for CIRENE nuclear reactor can be subjected to fretting corrosion of the inner walls. The resulting marks exhibit different geometries, whose influence on the structural behaviour of the tubes has been evaluated by means of a real time holographic technique. The paper shows the results of this investigation. Position and shape of internal defects have been directly visualized by observing holographic fringe distorsions on the outside surface of the tubes. Furthermore, through the fringe patterns, circumferential stress values have also been obtained. (Author) [pt

  18. Gas laser tube and method of fabricating same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garman, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved gas laser tube is fabricated by counter boring the ends of a tubular aluminum extrusion having an inner tubular portion supported from an outer tubular portion via the intermediary of a plurality of radially directed support vanes or legs. Metallic transverse walls are sealed across the ends of the tubular extrusion to define the ends of a gas tight metallic envelope. An electrically insulative glow discharge tube is axially disposed within and supported by the inner tubular portion of the extrusion in axial alignment with an optical resonator of the laser tube. (U.S.)

  19. Modifying the Heysham 2 and Torness guide tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salter, I.D.

    1988-01-01

    In 1986 the National Nuclear Corporation carried out the unfuelled engineering run on Torness Reactor One. Subsequent inspection revealed wear on the reactor control rods, following severe spinning caused by gas cross flow swirls at the guide tube castellated ring. The adopted solution was to machine 32 radial holes through the guide tube wall and blank off the existing castellated slots, however, man access to the guide tubes is extremely difficult. This paper describes how Taylor Hitec produced, in only 12 weeks, three remote drilling machines, together with associated debris collection systems, cleaning equipment and remote video/CCTV inspection systems, and then carried out the modifications to the reactors. (author)

  20. Method for shaping polyethylene tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, R. C.

    1981-01-01

    Method forms polyethylene plastic tubing into configurations previously only possible with metal tubing. By using polyethylene in place of copper or stain less steel tubing inlow pressure systems, fabrication costs are significantly reduced. Polyethylene tubing can be used whenever low pressure tubing is needed in oil operations, aircraft and space applications, powerplants, and testing laboratories.

  1. Pyrotechnic Tubing Connector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Thomas J.; Yang, Robert A.

    1988-01-01

    Tool forms mechanical seal at joint without levers or hydraulic apparatus. Proposed tool intended for use in outer space used on Earth by heavily garbed workers to join tubing in difficult environments. Called Pyrotool, used with Lokring (or equivalent) fittings. Piston slides in cylinder when pushed by gas from detonating pyrotechnic charge. Impulse of piston compresses fittings, sealing around butting ends of tubes.

  2. Tube Plugging Criterion for the TPCCW Heat Exchanger of Yonggwang NPP 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sung Nam; Song, Seok Yoon

    2009-01-01

    The turbine plant component cooling water(TPCCW) system circulates the cooling water to cool the components in the turbine building and discharges the heat from the components through the TPCCW heat exchanger. Recently, Yonggwang NPP 1 and 2 replaced the TPCCW heat exchanger because of tube degradation. The tubing material of new TPCCW heat exchanger of Yonggwang NPP 1 and 2 is titanium. If the tube wall cannot withstand the pressure, the cooling water with the chemicals flows into the tube side and it is discharged to the open water. The chemicals can pollute the open water. Therefore, the tubes of the TPCCW heat exchanger should be inspected and degraded tubes should be plugged. It is inevitable for the materials of the components to be degraded as the power plants become older. The degradation accompanies increasing maintenance cost as well as creating safety issues. The materials and wall thickness of heat exchanger tubes in nuclear power plants are selected to withstand system temperature, pressure, and corrosion. However, tubes have experienced leaks and failures and plugged based upon eddy current testing (ET) results. There are some problems for plugging the heat exchanger tubes since the criterion and its basis are not clearly described. For this reason, the criteria for the tube wall thickness are addressed in order to operate the heat exchangers in nuclear power plant without trouble during the cycle. There are many codes and standards to be referred for calculating the minimum thickness of the heat exchanger tube in the designing stage. However, the codes and standards related to show the tube plugging criteria may not exist currently. In this paper, a method to establish the tube plugging criteria of BOP heat exchangers, which is based on the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.121, is introduced and the tube plugging criteria for the TPCCW heat exchanger of Yonggwang NPP No. 1 and 2. This method relies on the similar plugging criteria used in the steam generator

  3. Tube Plugging Criterion for the TPCCW Heat Exchanger of Yonggwang NPP 1 and 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Nam; Yoo, Hyun Ju; Choi, Sung Nam; Song, Seok Yoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-05-15

    The turbine plant component cooling water(TPCCW) system circulates the cooling water to cool the components in the turbine building and discharges the heat from the components through the TPCCW heat exchanger. Recently, Yonggwang NPP 1 and 2 replaced the TPCCW heat exchanger because of tube degradation. The tubing material of new TPCCW heat exchanger of Yonggwang NPP 1 and 2 is titanium. If the tube wall cannot withstand the pressure, the cooling water with the chemicals flows into the tube side and it is discharged to the open water. The chemicals can pollute the open water. Therefore, the tubes of the TPCCW heat exchanger should be inspected and degraded tubes should be plugged. It is inevitable for the materials of the components to be degraded as the power plants become older. The degradation accompanies increasing maintenance cost as well as creating safety issues. The materials and wall thickness of heat exchanger tubes in nuclear power plants are selected to withstand system temperature, pressure, and corrosion. However, tubes have experienced leaks and failures and plugged based upon eddy current testing (ET) results. There are some problems for plugging the heat exchanger tubes since the criterion and its basis are not clearly described. For this reason, the criteria for the tube wall thickness are addressed in order to operate the heat exchangers in nuclear power plant without trouble during the cycle. There are many codes and standards to be referred for calculating the minimum thickness of the heat exchanger tube in the designing stage. However, the codes and standards related to show the tube plugging criteria may not exist currently. In this paper, a method to establish the tube plugging criteria of BOP heat exchangers, which is based on the USNRC Regulatory Guide 1.121, is introduced and the tube plugging criteria for the TPCCW heat exchanger of Yonggwang NPP No. 1 and 2. This method relies on the similar plugging criteria used in the steam generator

  4. Passive heat transfer enhancement in 3D corrugated tube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt; Bahl, Christian

    transfer and fluid flow with a constant wall temperature and total pressure drop. The governing equations for these problems were solved using the Finite Element Method. The results of numerical modelling show significant increase in NTU for double corrugated tubes compared to a circular tube. The friction......An innovative hydraulic design was studied for corrugated tube geometry for a heat exchanger. An ellipse based double corrugation was used as a concept of the geometry. The hydraulic diameter (Dh) is maintained over the tube length while the shape of the cross section varies continuously along...... the flow direction. 38 corrugated tubes with a Dh of 5 mm were studied numerically with corrugation heights from 0.23 to 0.69 mm and corrugation periods from 5 to 50 mm for laminar flow with water. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used as a tool to study the effect of corrugation geometry on heat...

  5. Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eto, Minoru; Ohashi, Keisuke; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.

    2012-11-01

    We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a ''bamboo''-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.

  6. Cosmic R-string, R-tube and vacuum instability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Hamada, Yuta; Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ohashi, Keisuke [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Mathematics and Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2012-11-15

    We show that a cosmic string associated with spontaneous U(1) R symmetry breaking gives a constraint for supersymmetric model building. In some models, the string can be viewed as a tube-like domain wall with a winding number interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. Such string causes inhomogeneous decay of the false vacuum to the true vacuum via rapid expansion of the radius of the tube and hence its formation would be inconsistent with the present Universe. However, we demonstrate that there exist metastable solutions which do not expand rapidly. Furthermore, when the true vacua are degenerate, the structure inside the tube becomes involved. As an example, we show a ''bamboo''-like solution, which suggests a possibility observing an information of true vacua from outside of the tube through the shape and the tension of the tube.

  7. Method of fabricating a poision tube for reactor control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Toshimi; Masaoka, Isao; Naruse, Akisuke

    1983-04-28

    A method to unify the neutron absorbing performance, enhance the workability in the insertion of neutron absorber tube and further decrease the stresses acting on the neutron absorber coating tube is described. The neutron absorber coated rod comprising neutron absorbing substance and a metal pipe is fabricated by compressing a metal pipe filled with the neutron absorber. Specifically, neutron absorbing substance such as boron carbide powder or the like is filled in a metal pipe such as made of stainless steel tube by way of vibration packing or the like. Then, after heating the metal pipe, it is applied with compression working such as swaging into a fine tube to increase the packing density of the absorbing substance filled in the pipe to greater than 60% of the theoretical density and completely contacted closely to the inner wall of the pipe. The neutron absorber coated rod thus fabricated can be inserted to an external coating tube with ease at a predetermined gap.

  8. Carbon nano tubes embedded in polymer nano fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dror, Y.; Kedem, S.; Khalfin, R.L.; Paz, Y.; Cohenl, Y.; Salalha, Y.; Yarin, A.L.; Zussman, A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: The electro spinning process was used successfully to embed Multi-walled carbon nano tubes (MWCNTs) and single-walled carbon nano tubes (SWCNTs) in a matrix of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) forming composite nano fibers. Initial dispersion of SWCNTs in water was achieved by the use of an amphphilic alternating copolymer of styrene and sodium maleate. MWNT dispersion was achieved by ionic and nonionic surfactants. The distribution and conformation of the nano tubes in the nano fibers were studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Oxygen plasma etching was used to expose the nano tubes within the nano fibers to facilitate direct observation. Nano tube alignment within the nano fibers was shown to depend strongly on the quality of the initial dispersions. Well-dispersed and separated nano tubes were embedded in a straight and aligned form while entangled non-separated nano tubes were incorporated as dense aggregates. X-ray diffraction demonstrated a high degree of orientation of the PEO crystals in the electro spun nano fibers with embedded SWCNTs, whereas incorporation of MVCNTs had a detrimental effect on the polymer orientation. Composite polymer nano fibers containing dispersed phases of nanometric TiO 2 particles and MWCNTs were also prepared electro spinning. In this case, the polymer matrix was poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN). The morphology and possible applications of these composite nano fibers will be discussed

  9. Molybdenum Tube Characterization report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaux II, Miles Frank [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Usov, Igor Olegovich [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques have been utilized to produce free-standing molybdenum tubes with the end goal of nuclear fuel clad applications. In order to produce tubes with properties desirable for this application, deposition rates were lowered requiring long deposition durations on the order of 50 hours. Standard CVD methods as well as fluidized-bed CVD (FBCVD) methods were applied towards these objectives. Characterization of the tubes produced in this manner revealed material suitable for fuel clad applications, but lacking necessary uniformity across the length of the tubes. The production of freestanding Mo tubes that possess the desired properties across their entire length represents an engineering challenge that can be overcome in a next iteration of the deposition system.

  10. Numerical simulation of induction heating thick-walled tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenhard Richard

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In the paper is shown the connection of two toolboxes in an Ansys Workbench solution for induction heating. In Ansys Workbench, Maxwell electromagnetism programs and Fluent have been linked. In Maxwell, a simulation of electromagnetic induction was performed, where data on the magnetic field distribution in the heated material was obtained and then transformed into the Fluent program in which the induction heating simulation was performed.

  11. Qualification Test for Korean Mockups of ITER Blanket First Wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W.; Bae, Y. D.; Hong, B. G.; Jung, H. K.; Jung, Y. I.; Park, J. Y.; Jeong, Y. H.; Choi, B. K.; Kim, B. Y.

    2009-01-01

    ITER First Wall (FW) includes the beryllium armor tiles joined to CuCrZr heat sink with stainless steel cooling tubes. This first wall panels are one of the critical components in the ITER machine with the surface heat flux of 0.5 MW/m 2 or above. So qualification program needs to be performed with the goal to qualify the joining technologies required for the ITER First Wall. Based on the results of tests, the acceptance of the developed joining technologies will be established. The results of this qualification test will affect the final selection of the manufacturers for the ITER First Wall

  12. Stable single helical C- and I-chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Z; Li Y; Jing X D; Meng F S; Zhao X; Li J H; Qiu Z Y; Yuan Q; Wang W X; Bi L; Liu H; Zhang Y P; Liu C J; Zheng S P; Liu B B

    2016-01-01

    The helicity of stable single helical carbon chains and iodine chains inside single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) is studied by calculating the systematic van der Waals interaction energy. The results show that the optimal helical radius increases linearly with increasing tube radius, which produces a constant separation between the chain structure and the tube wall. The helical angle exhibits a ladder-like decrease with increasing tube radius, indicating that a large tube can produce a small helicity in the helical structures. (paper)

  13. Characterization of bundled and individual triple-walled carbon nanotubes by resonant Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschmann, Thomas Ch; Araujo, Paulo T; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Zhang, Xu; Nielsch, Kornelius; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2013-03-26

    The optical characterization of bundled and individual triple-walled carbon nanotubes was studied for the first time in detail by using resonant Raman spectroscopy. In our approach, the outer tube of a triple-walled carbon nanotube system protects the two inner tubes (or equivalently the inner double-walled carbon nanotube) from external environment interactions making them a partially isolated system. Following the spectral changes and line-widths of the radial breathing modes and G-band by performing laser energy dependent Raman spectroscopy, it is possible to extract important information as regards to the electronic and vibrational properties, tube diameters, wall-to-wall distances, radial breathing mode, and G-band resonance evolutions as well as high-curvature intertube interactions in isolated double- and triple-walled carbon nanotube systems.

  14. Automation in tube finishing bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatnagar, Prateek; Satyadev, B.; Raghuraman, S.; Syama Sundara Rao, B.

    1997-01-01

    Automation concept in tube finishing bay, introduced after the final pass annealing of PHWR tubes resulted in integration of number of sub-systems in synchronisation with each other to produce final cut fuel tubes of specified length, tube finish etc. The tube finishing bay which was physically segregated into four distinct areas: 1. tube spreader and stacking area, 2. I.D. sand blasting area, 3. end conditioning, wad blowing, end capping and O.D. wet grinding area, 4. tube inspection, tube cutting and stacking area has been studied

  15. Noise characteristics of single-walled carbon nanotube network transistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Un Jeong; Kim, Kang Hyun; Kim, Kyu Tae; Min, Yo-Sep; Park, Wanjun

    2008-01-01

    The noise characteristics of randomly networked single-walled carbon nanotubes grown directly by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) are studied with field effect transistors (FETs). Due to the geometrical complexity of nanotube networks in the channel area and the large number of tube-tube/tube-metal junctions, the inverse frequency, 1/f, dependence of the noise shows a similar level to that of a single single-walled carbon nanotube transistor. Detailed analysis is performed with the parameters of number of mobile carriers and mobility in the different environment. This shows that the change in the number of mobile carriers resulting in the mobility change due to adsorption and desorption of gas molecules (mostly oxygen molecules) to the tube surface is a key factor in the 1/f noise level for carbon nanotube network transistors

  16. Emergency transfer tube closure and process for sealing transfer tube under emergency conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardin, R.T. Jr.; Marshall, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    In a nuclear fuel reactor well that includes a transfer tube projecting outwardly from wall thereof, the transfer tube is described having a first closure assembly. The transfer tube has a circumferential flange extending outwardly laterally therefrom, an emergency transfer tube closure therefor comprising; a pair of elongated, vertically-extending U-shaped guides, one U-shaped guide disposed laterally on each side of the transfer tube, each of the U-shaped guides comprising a base and laterally extending flanges thereon, the U-shaped guides having their open ends facing each other, a closure plate, having a surface facing the circumferential flange greater in area than the area circumscribed by the outer circumference of the circumferential flange, vertically disposed the U-shaped guides, the closure plate normally being disposed in a vertical plane just slightly in front of the vertical plane of the circumferential flange, two pairs of rollers, one pair of which is rotatably mounted on each side of the closure plate adjacent the U-shaped guides, riding on the inner portion of each of the flanges of each of the U-shaped guides. Each of the U-shaped guides is provided with a pair of spatially disposed openings on a flange thereof adjacent the wall of the nuclear fuel reactor well, each of the pairs of openings being disposed on each of the U-shaped guides a distance equal to the distance between the center lines of the corresponding pair of rollers riding within the U-shaped guides, each of the openings being sufficiently large to receive a corresponding roller of the pairs of rollers in the U-shaped guides. The openings is shaped on the flanges of the U-shaped guides so that when the pairs of rollers are disposed therein, the face of the closure plate will be in sealing engagement with the circumferential flange of the transfer tube

  17. Synthesis of Carbon Nano tubes: A Revolution in Material Science for the Twenty-First Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allaf, Abd. W.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explain the preparation procedures of single walled carbon nano tubes using arc discharge technique. The optimum conditions of carbon nano tubes synthesis are given. It should be pointed out that this sort of materials would be the twenty-first century materials

  18. Metal diffusion from furnace tubes depends on location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of metal samples from an ethylene furnace on the Texas Gulf Coast, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), reveal preferential diffusion of chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the coil wall to the surfaces of the tube where they form metal oxides. These elements are gradually depleted from the tube wall. Complicated surface reactions that include the formation of several metal oxides, metal sulfides, and metal-catalyzed coke also occur. Several mechanisms can be postulated as to how metal fines or compounds are formed and transferred in the coil and transfer lines exchanger (TLX) of ethylene units. These surface reactions directly or indirectly affect coke formation in the tube. Finally, creep in the coils is likely a factor in promoting corrosion. Such creep is promoted by variable temperature-time patterns to which a coil is exposed during pyrolysis, and then decoking. Periods of stress and compression occur in the coil walls. Knowledge of the diffusion and reactions that take place can result in better furnace operations and decoking procedures to extend the life of the furnace tubes. In this second installment of a four-part series, photomicrographs of four pyrolysis tube samples from the ethylene furnace indicate that significant differences existed between the outer surfaces, inner surfaces, and cross-sectional areas of the samples. The first installment of the series dealt with coke

  19. Numerical simulation of triple concentric-tube heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia (CIE), Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Privada Xochicalco S/N, Temixco, 62580, Morelos (Mexico)

    2004-10-01

    A detailed one-dimensional steady and transient numerical simulation of the thermal and fluid-dynamic behaviour of triple concentric-tube heat exchangers has been developed. The governing equations (continuity, momentum and energy) inside the inner tube and the annulus (inner and outer), together with the energy equations in the inner, intermediate and outermost tube wall and insulation, are solved iteratively in a segregated manner. The discretized governing equations in the zones with fluid flow are coupled using an implicit step by step method. This formulation requires the use of empirical information for the evaluation of convective heat transfer, shear stress and void fraction. An implicit central difference numerical scheme and a line-by-line solver was used in the inner and intermediate tube walls and the outermost tube wall with insulation. All the flow variables (enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, mass fractions, velocities, heat fluxes, etc.) together with the thermophysical properties are evaluated at each point of the grid in which the domain is discretized. Different numerical aspects and comparisons with results obtained from the technical literature are presented in order to verify and validate the model. (authors)

  20. Process for producing molybdenum foil and collapsible tubing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretts, G. R.; Gavert, R. B.; Groschke, G. F.

    1971-01-01

    Manufacturing process produces molybdenum foil 0.002 cm thick and 305 m long, and forms foil into high-strength, thin-walled tubing which can be flattened for storage on a spool. Desirable metal properties include high thermal conductivity stiffness, yield and tensile stress, and low thermal expansion coeffecient.