WorldWideScience

Sample records for bench-scale treatability testing

  1. 100 Area groundwater biodenitrification bench-scale treatability study procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, B.M.; Martin, K.R.

    1993-05-01

    This document describes the methodologies and procedures for conducting the bench-scale biodenitrification treatability tests at Pacific Northwest Laboratory{sup a} (PNL). Biodenitrification is the biological conversion of nitrate and nitrite to gaseous nitrogen. The tests will use statistically designed batch studies to determine if biodenitrification can reduce residual nitrate concentrations to 45 mg/L, the current maximum contaminant level (MCL). These tests will be carried out in anaerobic flasks with a carbon source added to demonstrate nitrate removal. At the pilot scale, an incremental amount of additional carbon will be required to remove the small amount of oxygen present in the incoming groundwater. These tests will be conducted under the guidance of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) and the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-92-73) and the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE/RL-92-48) using groundwater from 100-HR-3. In addition to the procedures, requirements for safety, quality assurance, reporting, and schedule are given. Appendices include analytical procedures, a Quality Assurance Project Plan, a Health and Safety Plan, and Applicable Material Data Safety Sheets. The procedures contained herein are designed specifically for the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan, and while the author believes that the methods described herein are scientifically valid, the procedures should not be construed or mistaken to be generally applicable to any other treatability study.

  2. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  3. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  4. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  5. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing.

  6. Treatability study for the bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable LDR low-level mixed waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.

    1993-01-01

    The focus of this report is the solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted (LDR) low-level mixed waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Benchscale solidification was performed on samples of this mixed waste, which was done under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act treatability study. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids, and treatment techniques included the use of conventional Portland cement and sulphur polymer cement (SPC). A total of 113 monoliths were made under the experimental design matrix for this study; 8 of these were ''blank'' monoliths (contained no waste). Thus, 105 monoliths were used to solidify 21.6 kg of mixed waste; 92 were made with Portland cement systems, and 13 were made with SPC. Recipes for all monoliths are given, and suggested recipes (as based on the minimized leaching of toxic components) are summarized. In most cases, the results presented herein indicate that solidification was successful in immobilizing toxic metals, thereby transforming low-level mixed waste into low-level nonhazardous waste. The ultimate goal of this project is to use appropriate solidification techniques, as described in the literature, to transform low-level mixed waste to low-level nonhazardous waste by satisfying pertinent disposal requirements for this waste. Disposal requirements consider the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure tests, a free liquids test, and radiological analyses. This work is meaningful in that it will provide a basis for the disposal of waste that is currently categorized as LDR low-level mixed waste

  7. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  8. Crucible melts and bench-scale ISV [in situ vitrification] tests on simulated wastes in INEL [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory] soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of eight crucible melt tests and three bench-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test that were performed on simulated metals/soils mixtures containing actual site soils from the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The crucible melt and bench-scale ISV tests are a part of efforts by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to assist the INEL in conducting a treatability study on ISV for application to the mixed waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area (SDA). The crucible melt tests were performed to evaluate the effect of various chemical additives and metal oxidation techniques on soil melting temperatures, melt viscosities, metals versus electrode oxidation potentials, and metals incorporation in the glass. The bench-scale ISV tests were performed to supplement the existing ISV data base with information on certain hazardous materials that have not been adequately evaluated in previous ISV tests. These materials included five EP toxicity metals, various volatile organic materials fixed in a cementitious matrix [including carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (PCE)], and asbestos. In addition, the bench-scale test were used to evaluated the effect of the proposed chemical additive on ISV processing performance and product quality. 8 refs., 24 figs., 19 tabs

  9. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  10. 100 Area soil washing treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-03-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general methodology for conducting a soil washing treatability study as applied to source unit contamination in the 100 Area. The objective ofthis treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The purpose of separating these fractions is to minimize the volume of soil requiring permanent disposal. It is anticipated that this treatability study will be performed in two phases of testing, a remedy screening phase and a remedy selection phase. The remedy screening phase consists of laboratory- and bench-scale studies performed by Battelle Pacific Northwest laboratories (PNL) under a work order issued by Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford). This phase will be used to provide qualitative evaluation of the potential effectiveness of the soil washing technology. The remedy selection phase, consists of pilot-scale testing performed under a separate service contract to be competitively bid under Westinghouse Hanford direction. The remedy selection phase will provide data to support evaluation of the soil washing technology in future feasibility studies for Interim Remedial Measures (IRMs) or final operable unit (OU) remedies. Performance data from these tests will indicate whether applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) or cleanup goals can be met at the site(s) by application of soil washing. The remedy selection tests wig also allow estimation of costs associated with implementation to the accuracy required for the Feasibility Study

  11. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  12. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  13. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  14. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  15. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  16. EVALUATION OF THE TREATABILITY OF MUNICIPAL WASTE LANDFILL LEACHATE IN A SBR AND BY COAGULATION-FLOCCULATION ON A BENCH SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Fleck

    Full Text Available Abstract This article describes bench scale sequential, biological and coagulation-flocculation treatment of mature leachate for the removal of nitrogen and biodegradable and recalcitrant carbonaceous material. The biological stage was conducted on two SBRs, one of which inoculated with nitrifying sludge, another without an inoculum, for 152 and 133 days, respectively. The coagulation-flocculation stage used four coagulants at different doses and pH adjustments. The treatment conducted on the inoculated SBR when a pH control was used produced mean removals of BOD5, COD and TKN of 69.6%, 38.5% and 51.6%, respectively, and practically complete denitrification. Coagulation-flocculation applied to the effluent of the inoculated biological reactor showed a superior effectiveness of the ferric coagulants, when the pH was adjusted to close to 6.0, producing removals of turbidity, COD and true color close to 95%, 78% and 92%, respectively.

  17. Bench scale testing of micronized magnetite beneficiation. Quarterly technical progress report 4, October--December, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, K.

    1994-01-25

    This project is aimed at development of a process that, by using ultra fine magnetite suspension, would expand the application of heavy media separation technology to processing fine, {minus}28 mesh coals. These coal fines, produced during coal mining and crushing, are separated in the conventional coal preparation plant and generally impounded in a tailings pond. Development of an economic process for processing these fines into marketable product will expand the utilization of coal for power production in an environmentally acceptable and economically viable way. This process has been successfully researched at PETC but has not been studied on a continuous bench-scale unit, which is a necessary step towards commercial development of this promising technology. The goal of the program is to investigate the technology in a continuous circuit at a reasonable scale to provide a design basis for larger plants and a commercial feasibility data.

  18. 183-H Basin sludge treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biyani, R.K.

    1995-01-01

    This document presents the results from the treatability testing of a 1-kg sample of 183-H Basin sludge. Compressive strength measurements, Toxic Characteristic Leach Procedure, and a modified ANSI 16.1 leach test were conducted

  19. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment.

  20. Evaporative oxidation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-04-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act that requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs). In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity where available off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed wastes with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of its mixed wastes. DOE-AL manages operations at nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment capacity to treat wastes at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed waste not only must address the hazardous component (i.e., meet LDRs) but also must contain the radioactive component in a form that allows final disposal while protecting workers, the public, and the environment. On the basis of recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (GJPO) are evaporative oxidation, thermal desorption, and treated wastewater evaporation. Rust Geotech, the DOE-GJPO prime contractor, was assigned to design and fabricate mobile treatment units (MTUs) for these three technologies and to deliver the MTUs to selected DOE-AL sites. To conduct treatability tests at the GJPO, Rust leased a pilot-scale evaporative oxidation unit from the Clemson Technical Center (CTC), Anderson, South Carolina. The purpose of this report is to document the findings and results of tests performed using this equipment

  1. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    The Hanford 118-B-1 Burial Ground Treatability Study has been required by milestone change request number-sign M-15-93-04, dated September 30, 1993. The change request requires that a treatability test be conducted at the 100-B Area to obtain additional engineering information for remedial design of burial grounds receiving waste from 100 Area removal actions. This treatability study has two purposes: (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan (PP) and Record of Decision (ROD), which will identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test also will provide critical performance and cost information necessary for remedy evaluation in the detailed analysis of alternatives during preparation of the focused feasibility study (FFS). This treatability testing supports the following 100 Area alternatives: (1) excavation and disposal, and (2) excavation, sorting, (treatment), and disposal

  2. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  3. Recommendations for Filler Material Composition and Delivery Method for Bench-Scale Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Ernest [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brady, Patrick Vane [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2018-03-01

    This report supplements Joint Workplan on Filler Investigations for DPCs (SNL 2017) providing new and some corrected information for use in planning Phase 1 laboratory testing of slurry cements as possible DPC fillers. The scope description is to "Describe a complete laboratory testing program for filler composition, delivery, emplacement in surrogate canisters, and post-test examination. To the extent possible specify filler material and equipment sources." This report includes results from an independent expert review (Dr. Arun Wagh, retired from Argonne National Laboratory and contracted by Sandia) that helped to narrow the range of cement types for consideration, and to provide further guidance on mix variations to optimize injectability, durability, and other aspects of filler performance.

  4. 100 area excavation treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan documents the requirements for a treatability study on field radionuclide analysis and dust control techniques. These systems will be used during remedial actions involving excavation. The data from this treatability study will be used to support the feasibility study (FS) process. Development and screening of remedial alternatives for the 100 Area, using existing data, have been completed and are documented in the 100 Area Feasibility Study, Phases 1 and 2 (DOE-RL 1992a). Based on the results of the FS, the Treatability Study Program Plan (DOE-RL 1992b) identifies and prioritizes treatability studies for the 100 Area. The data from the treatability study program support future focused FS, interim remedial measures (IRM) selection, operable unit final remedy selection, remedial design, and remedial actions. Excavation is one of the high-priority, near-term, treatability study needs identified in the program plan (DOE-RL 1992b). Excavation of contaminated soils and buried solid wastes is included in several of the alternatives identified in the 100 Area FS. Although a common activity, excavation has only been used occasionally at the Hanford Site for waste removal applications

  5. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  6. Permeable Reactive Biobarriers for In Situ Cr(VI) Reduction: Bench Scale Tests Using Cellulomonas sp. Strain ES6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sridhar Viamajala; Brent M. Peyton; Robin Gerlach; Vaideeswaran; William A. Apel; James N. Petersen

    2008-12-01

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  7. Permeable reactive biobarriers for in situ Cr(VI) reduction: bench scale tests using Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viamajala, Sridhar; Peyton, Brent M; Gerlach, Robin; Sivaswamy, Vaideeswaran; Apel, William A; Petersen, James N

    2008-12-15

    Chromate (Cr(VI)) reduction studies were performed in bench scale flow columns using the fermentative subsurface isolate Cellulomonas sp. strain ES6. In these tests, columns packed with either quartz sand or hydrous ferric oxide (HFO)-coated quartz sand, were inoculated with strain ES6 and fed nutrients to stimulate growth before nutrient-free Cr(VI) solutions were injected. Results show that in columns containing quartz sand, a continuous inflow of 2 mg/L Cr(VI) was reduced to below detection limits in the effluent for durations of up to 5.7 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued proving the ability of strain ES6 to reduce chromate in the absence of an external electron donor. In the HFO-containing columns, Cr(VI) reduction was significantly prolonged and effluent Cr(VI) concentrations remained below detectable levels for periods of up to 66 residence times after nutrient injection was discontinued. Fe was detected in the effluent of the HFO-containing columns throughout the period of Cr(VI) removal indicating that the insoluble Fe(III) bearing solids were being continuously reduced to form soluble Fe(II) resulting in prolonged abiotic Cr(VI) reduction. Thus, growth of Cellulomonas within the soil columns resulted in formation of permeable reactive barriers that could reduce Cr(VI) and Fe(III) for extended periods even in the absence of external electron donors. Other bioremediation systems employing Fe(II)-mediated reactions require a continuous presence of external nutrients to regenerate Fe(II). After depletion of nutrients, contaminant removal within these systems occurs by reaction with surface-associated Fe(II) that can rapidly become inaccessible due to formation of crystalline Fe-minerals or other precipitates. The ability of fermentative organisms like Cellulomonas to reduce metals without continuous nutrient supply in the subsurface offers a viable and economical alternative technology for in situ remediation of Cr

  8. Pilot-scale treatability test plan for the 100-HR-3 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This document presents the treatability test plan for pilot-scale pump-and-treat testing at the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. The test will be conducted in fulfillment of interim Milestone M-15-06E to begin pilot-scale pump-and-treat operations by August 1994. The scope of the test was determined based on the results of lab/bench-scale tests (WHC 1993a) conducted in fulfillment of Milestone M-15-06B. These milestones were established per agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Washington State Department of Ecology and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and documented on Hanford Federal of Ecology Facility Agreement and Consent Order Change Control Form M-15-93-02. This test plan discusses a pilot-scale pump-and-treat test for the chromium plume associated with the D Reactor portion of the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit. Data will be collected during the pilot test to assess the effectiveness, operating parameters, and resource needs of the ion exchange (IX) pump-and-treat system. The test will provide information to assess the ability to remove contaminants by extracting groundwater from wells and treating extracted groundwater using IX. Bench-scale tests were conducted previously in which chromium VI was identified as the primary contaminant of concern in the 100-D reactor plume. The DOWEX 21K trademark resin was recommended for pilot-scale testing of an IX pump-and-treat system. The bench-scale test demonstrated that the system could remove chromium VI from groundwater to concentrations less than 50 ppb. The test also identified process parameters to monitor during pilot-scale testing. Water will be re-injected into the plume using wells outside the zone of influence and upgradient of the extraction well

  9. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-01-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel

  10. 118-B-1 excavation treatability test procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frain, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    This treatability study has two purposes: to support development of the approach to be used for burial ground remediation, and to provide specific engineering information for the design of burial grounds receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. Data generated from this test will also provide performance and cost information necessary for detailed analysis of alternatives for burial ground remediation. Further details on the test requirements, milestones and data quality objectives are described in detail in the 118-B-1 Excavation Treatability Test Plan (DOE/RL-94-43). These working procedures are intended for use by field personnel to implement the requirements of the milestone. A copy of the detailed Test Plan will be kept on file at the on-site field support trailer, and will be available for review by field personnel.

  11. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  12. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  13. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-07-21

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the Hanford 100 Areas. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at Hanford.

  14. TDT-3R Clean Multi Fuels. ECN contribution to WP3. Lab-/bench-scale pyrolysis test of biomass and analysis of byproducts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bos, A.; Oudhuis, A.B.J.; Zwart, R.W.R.; Boersma, A.R.

    2005-11-01

    Under the present conditions it is expected that coal will still be used for a long period as a energy source. Furthermore, biomass is emerging as a new renewable CO2-neutral energy source in the future. Both fuels need significantly lower emissions to meet new (future) European Union environmental norms for sustainable clean energy production. Several technologies and 'end-of pipe' solutions have been developed in the past to reach these stricter emission limits. Examples are integrated combined cycle gasification systems (IGCC) for large scale use (>250 MW capacity). Also, a large number of gas cleaning technologies have been developed. These technologies are up-to-now rather complicated and/or costly and therefore also new solutions have to be developed. The 3R Multifuel process is aimed to offer a solution to these problems, especially for low-rank coals like brown coal, lignite, high sulfur coal, derived fuels and biomass. The objectives for ECN in the Work Package 3 of this project are: (a) to summarise and update data for the potential of biomass and waste streams in Europe for power production; and (b) to select biomass/waste streams to be tested in the lab/bench-scale facility and to generate design data for clean solid fuel production from biomass to be used for a pilot facility in Hungary. TDT-3R stands for Thermal Desorption Technology-Recycle-Reduce-Reuse

  15. Bench-scale testing of the micronized magnetite process. Eighth quarterly technical progress report, April--June, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-13

    The major focus of the project is to install and test a 500 lbs./hr. fine-coal cleaning circuit at DOE`s Process Research Facility (PRF), located at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). The circuit will utilize an extremely fine, micron-sized magnetite media and small diameter cyclones to make efficient density separations on minus-28-Mesh coal. The circuit consists of three subcircuits: Classification Circuit; Dense-Medium Cycloning Circuit; and Magnetite Recovery Circuit. The testing scope involves initial closed-loop testing of each subcircuit to optimize the performance of the equipment in each subcircuit (i.e., Component Testing), followed by open-circuit testing of the entire integrated circuit to optimize the process and quantify the process efficiency (i.e., Integrated Testing). This report contains a short discussion of the project description, objectives, budget, schedule, and teaming arrangement. It also includes a detailed discussion of the above mentioned project accomplishments and plans, organized by the various task series within the project work plan. The final section contains an outline of the specific project goals for the next quarterly reporting period.

  16. Production of Jet Fuels from Coal Derived Liquids. Volume 9. Results of Bench-Scale and Pilot Plant Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-01

    Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe...50 REFERENCES. ............................ 51 APPENDIX A: LCI Test Report on Expanded-Bed Al Hydroprocessing of 300*F+ Great Plains Tar ...recovered by gravity separation. The heaviest portion of the tar oil, which contains about 20 percent coal dust, is recycled to the gasifiers. The recycle

  17. Treatability Test Plan for an In Situ Biostimulation Reducing Barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Long, Philip E.; Brockman, Fred J.; Oostrom, Mart; Hubbard, Susan; Borden, Robert C.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2007-10-26

    This treatability test plan supports a new, integrated strategy to accelerate cleanup of chromium in the 100 Areas at the Hanford Site. This plan includes performing a field-scale treatability test for bioreduction of chromate, nitrate, and dissolved oxygen. In addition to remediating a portion of the plume and demonstrating reduction of electron acceptors in the plume, the data from this test will be valuable for designing a full-scale bioremediation system to apply at this and other chromium plumes at the Hanford Site.

  18. 118-B-1 burial ground excavation treatability test report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-08-01

    This treatability investigation focused on the feasibility of excavating, analytical screening, and handling waste materials from the 118-B-1 Burial Ground located in the 100 B/C Area of the Hanford Site. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground consists of approximately 24 trenches on a 7-acre parcel. Solid low-level radioactive wastes and other debris and trash associated with reactor operations were disposed in 28 burial grounds in the 100 Area between 1944 and 1973. The majority of waste generated from routine reactor operations was placed in seven primary burial grounds, including 118-B-1. The 118-B-1 Burial Ground was selected as the location to perform this treatability test based on the availability of historical data for this site, and because it was thought to be representative of other primary-use burial grounds in the 100 Area. Geophysical surveys were conducted over the burial ground to map the concentrations of waste and aid in the selection of test pit excavation locations. The test plan developed for this study integrated the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER), a US Department of Energy (DOE) initiative based on both the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process and the observational approach. This treatability test is the first one at the Hanford Site to use the SAFER approach. The purpose of this study was (1) to support development of the Proposed Plan and Record of Decision, which would identify the approach to be used for burial ground remediation and (2) to provide specific engineering information for receiving waste generated from the 100 Area removal actions. The results of the treatability test can be used to determine the feasibility of performing excavation, analytical screening, and handling of burial ground materials from similar burial grounds

  19. Hanford Apatite Treatability Test Report Errata: Apatite Mass Loading Calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Truex, Michael J.

    2014-05-19

    The objective of this errata report is to document an error in the apatite loading (i.e., treatment capacity) estimate reported in previous apatite treatability test reports and provide additional calculation details for estimating apatite loading and barrier longevity. The apatite treatability test final report (PNNL-19572; Vermeul et al. 2010) documents the results of the first field-scale evaluation of the injectable apatite PRB technology. The apatite loading value in units of milligram-apatite per gram-sediment is incorrect in this and some other previous reports. The apatite loading in units of milligram phosphate per gram-sediment, however, is correct, and this is the unit used for comparison to field core sample measurements.

  20. 300-FF-1 physical separations CERCLA treatability test plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-05-01

    This test plan describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separations soil treatability tests in the north process pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site. The overall objective of these tests is to evaluate the use of physical separations systems as a means of concentrating chemical and radioactive contaminants into fine soil fractions, and thereby minimizing waste volumes. If successful, the technology could be applied to clean up millions of cubic meters of contaminated soils at Hanford and other sites. In this document, physical separations refers to a simple and comparatively low cost technology to potentially achieve a significant reduction in the volume of contaminated soils without the use of chemical processes. Removal of metals and radioactive contaminants from the fine fraction of soils may require additional treatment such as chemical extraction, electromagnetic separation, or stabilization. Investigations/testing of these technologies are recommended to assess the economic and technical feasibility of additional treatment, but are not within the scope of this test. This plan provides guidance and specifications for two proposed treatability tests: one to be conducted by Westinghouse Hanford Company; and another proposed as competitive bid service contract. The main body of this test plan discusses the tests in general and items that are common to both tests. Attachment A discusses in detail the EPA system test and Attachment B discusses the vendor test

  1. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  2. Hanford 100-D Area Biostimulation Treatability Test Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Elmore, Rebecca P.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Sklarew, Deborah S.; Johnson, Christian D.; Oostrom, Martinus; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Brockman, Fred J.; Bilskis, Christina L.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Peterson, John E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Gasperikova, E.; Ajo-Franklin, J.

    2009-09-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted a treatability test designed to demonstrate that in situ biostimulation can be applied to help meet cleanup goals in the Hanford Site 100-D Area. In situ biostimulation has been extensively researched and applied for aquifer remediation over the last 20 years for various contaminants. In situ biostimulation, in the context of this project, is the process of amending an aquifer with a substrate that induces growth and/or activity of indigenous bacteria for the purpose of inducing a desired reaction. For application at the 100-D Area, the purpose of biostimulation is to induce reduction of chromate, nitrate, and oxygen to remove these compounds from the groundwater. The in situ biostimulation technology is intended to provide supplemental treatment upgradient of the In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) barrier previously installed in the Hanford 100-D Area and thereby increase the longevity of the ISRM barrier. Substrates for the treatability test were selected to provide information about two general approaches for establishing and maintaining an in situ permeable reactive barrier based on biological reactions, i.e., a biobarrier. These approaches included 1) use of a soluble (miscible) substrate that is relatively easy to distribute over a large areal extent, is inexpensive, and is expected to have moderate longevity; and 2) use of an immiscible substrate that can be distributed over a reasonable areal extent at a moderate cost and is expected to have increased longevity.

  3. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOXSM catalyzed wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX SM catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals' fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes

  4. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to (1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, (2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, (3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, (4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and (5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone

  5. 300 Area Treatability Test: Laboratory Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In Situ Treatment of Uranium Contamination in the Vadose Zone and Capillary Fringe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Bacon, Diana H.; Oostrom, Martinus; Gunderson, Katie M.; Webb, Samuel M.; Bovaird, Chase C.; Cordova, Elsa A.; Clayton, Eric T.; Parker, Kent E.; Ermi, Ruby M.; Baum, Steven R.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents results from bench-scale treatability studies conducted under site-specific conditions to optimize the polyphosphate amendment for implementation of a field-scale technology demonstration to stabilize uranium within the 300 Area vadose and smear zones of the Hanford Site. The general treatability testing approach consisted of conducting studies with site sediment and under site conditions, to develop an effective chemical formulation and infiltration approach for the polyphosphate amendment under site conditions. Laboratory-scale dynamic column tests were used to 1) quantify the retardation of polyphosphate and its degradation products as a function of water content, 2) determine the rate of polyphosphate degradation under unsaturated conditions, 3) develop an understanding of the mechanism of autunite formation via the reaction of solid phase calcite-bound uranium and aqueous polyphosphate remediation technology, 4) develop an understanding of the transformation mechanism, the identity of secondary phases, and the kinetics of the reaction between uranyl-carbonate and -silicate minerals with the polyphosphate remedy under solubility-limiting conditions, and 5) quantify the extent and rate of uranium released and immobilized based on the infiltration rate of the polyphosphate remedy and the effect of and periodic wet-dry cycling on the efficacy of polyphosphate remediation for uranium in the vadose zone and smear zone.

  6. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory‘s Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vince Maio

    2011-08-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine

  7. Results of thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from wood treatment sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shealy, S.E.; Lin, W.C. [IT Corp., Knoxville, TN (United States); Richards, M.K. [EPA, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Culp, J. [EA Engineering, San Pedro, CA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Thermal desorption is one of the most effective technologies for treatment of soils or wastes containing organic contaminants. This includes the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pentachlorophenol and dioxins/furans that are the typical contaminants of concern at wood treatment sites. This paper summarizes the results of bench-scale thermal desorption treatability studies on soils from two wood treatment sites. The testing identified the time-temperature combination needed for contaminant removal and provided data on the composition of the treatment residuals from the thermal treatment process. This study included testing in static trays and in a small bench-scale rotary kiln. The static tray tests are a bench-scale method of readily evaluating the effect of various target temperatures and residence times on contaminant removal. These tests use 40--50 grams, of soil, which is aliquoted into a tray and placed into a muffle furnace at a pre-determined time and temperature. These tests are used to identify effective treatment conditions. The Rotary Thermal Apparatus (RTA) is also a bench-scale device that is used to treat 1 to 1.5 kilograms of soil in an indirectly heated rotary tube. This device simulates the heat and mass transfer in rotary kiln. The RTA is a batch device and can be purged with nitrogen, oxygen or other gases to simulate the atmosphere of various thermal treatment processes.

  8. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  9. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test of Soil Desiccation for the Hanford Central Plateau: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Co., Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Freedman, Vicky L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rockhold, Mark L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Greenwood, William J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Peterson, John E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hubbard, Susan S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Ward, Anderson L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2018-02-20

    Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths where direct exposure pathways are not of concern, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Department of Energy developed a treatability test program for technologies to address Tc-99 and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment, have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. The treatability test of desiccation described herein was conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation was shown to be a potentially effective vadose zone remediation technology to protect groundwater when used in conjunction with a surface infiltration barrier.

  10. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  11. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  12. TREATABILITY TEST PLAN FOR DEEP VADOSE ZONE REMEDIATION AT THE HANFORD SITE CENTRAL PLATEAU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; MORSE JG; TRUEX MJ; LAST GV

    2007-11-29

    A treatability test plan has been prepared to address options for remediating portions of the deep vadose zone beneath a portion of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site. The vadose zone is the region of the subsurface that extends from the ground surface to the water table. The overriding objective of the treatability test plan is to recommend specific remediation technologies and laboratory and field tests to support the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 remedial decision-making process in the Central Plateau of the Hanford Site. Most of the technologies considered involve removing water from the vadose zone or immobilizing the contaminants to reduce the risk of contaminating groundwater. A multi-element approach to initial treatability testing is recommended, with the goal of providing the information needed to evaluate candidate technologies. The proposed tests focus on mitigating two contaminants--uranium and technetium. Specific technologies are recommended for testing at areas that may affect groundwater in the future, but a strategy to test other technologies is also presented.

  13. Treatability studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Studds, Phil

    The fundamental information that a well-designed treatability study can provide is essential to the success of all remediation systems. Over the past years several new techniques for in situ and on site remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater have been used with varying degrees of succes...... the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, and kinetics etc........ Based on the wide selection of different techniques several screening matrices have been developed in order to make it easier to choose the best suited technique for a given situation. However, these matrices only provide an indication of which technology that might be effective and often the assessor...... construction of the test unit makes it possible to combine different techniques in order to obtain more aggressive and effective remediation technologies, e.g. UV/ozone or electrochemical/H2O2. Actual case study data is presented to illustrate the benefits of in situ treatability tests prior to full scale...

  14. Lab and Bench-Scale Pelletization of Torrefied Wood Chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Stelte, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    content, additive addition, and the degree of torrefaction on the pelletizing properties and pellet quality, i.e., density, static friction, and pellet strength. Results were compared with pellet production using a bench-scale pelletizer. The results indicate that friction is the key factor when scaling...... up from single-pellet press to bench-scale pelletizer. Tuning moisture content or increasing the die temperature did not ease the pellet production of torrefied wood chips significantly. The addition of rapeseed oil as a lubricant reduced the static friction by half and stabilized pellet production...

  15. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  16. Treatability tests on water from a low-level waste burial ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.A.

    1990-01-01

    Lab-scale treatability tests on trench water from a low-level waste burial ground have shown that the water can be successfully treated by existing wastewater treatment plants at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Water from the four most highly contaminated trenches that had been identified to date was used in the treatability tests. The softening and ion exchange processes used in the Process Wastewater Treatment Plant removed Sr-90 from the trench water, which was the only radionuclide present at above the discharge limits. The air stripping and activated carbon adsorption processes used in the Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant removed volatile and semi-volatile organics, which were the main contaminants in the trench water, to below detection limits. 6 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Polymeric Traypack Integrity: Bench-Scale Unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canavan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Additional experimentation was conducted to determine the applicability of the unit for non-destructive residual gas testing since current destructive tests represent a substantial continuing expense...

  18. Bench scale flotation of spodume/quartz and lepidolite/quartz synthetic mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valadao, G.E.S.; Gontijo, C.F.; Peres, A.E.C.

    1985-01-01

    Based on results of zeta potential determinations and microflotation tests, bench scale flotation experiments were carried out using spodume/quartz and lepodolite/quartz synthetic mixtures. Pure natural samples, further purified in laboratory, and commercial reagents were employed. The minerals were characterized by X-ray diffraction technique. Selectivity between spodume and quartz was achieved through modification with corn starch and between lepidolite and quartz through pH control in the acidic range. (Author) [pt

  19. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  20. Electrodialytic remediation of air pollution control residues in bench scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ferreira, Celia; Hansen, Henrik K.

    2008-01-01

    Air pollution control (APC) residue from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is considered a hazardous waste due to its alkalinity and high content of salts and mobile heavy metals. Various solutions for the handling of APC-residue exist in different regions; however, most commercial...... solutions are concerned with deposition. A demand for more environmentally friendly alternatives exists. Electrodialysis could be such an alternative, and the potential is being explored. This work presents a bench scale study of the feasibility of treating APC-residue from a dry system by electrodialysis....... A system resembling conventional electrodialysis was designed and adjusted to fit the high solids content feed solution (10% APC residue, 90% water). Experiments were made in bench scale with raw residue (natural pH > 12), water pre-residue (natural pH > 12), acid pre-washed residue (pH 10), and acid...

  1. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating. Treatability study work plan, Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-07-07

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the `70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid `80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern.

  2. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullery, Mark L; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using plain water with surfactants as an enhancer was used to study the remediation of soil contaminated with (i an organic contaminant (engine lubricant oil and (ii an inorganic contaminant (heavy metal. The lubricant engine oil was used at different percentages (by dry weight of the soil to artificially contaminate the soil. It was found that geotechnical properties of the soil underwent large modifications on account of mixing with the lubricant oil. The sorption experiments were conducted with cadmium metal in aqueous medium at different initial concentration of the metal and at varying pH values of the sorbing medium. For the remediation of contaminated soil matrices, a nonionic surfactant was used for the restoration of geotechnical properties of lubricant oil contaminated soil samples, whereas an anionic surfactant was employed to desorb cadmium from the contaminated soil matrix. The surfactant in case of soil contaminated with the lubricant oil was able to restore properties to an extent of 98% vis-à-vis the virgin soil, while up to 54% cadmium was desorbed from the contaminated soil matrix in surfactant aided desorption experiments.

  5. Bench Scale Treatability Studies of Contaminated Soil Using Soil Washing Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, M. K.; Srivastava, R. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-01-01

    Soil contamination is one of the most widespread and serious environmental problems confronting both the industrialized as well as developing nations like India. Different contaminants have different physicochemical properties, which influence the geochemical reactions induced in the soils and may bring about changes in their engineering and environmental behaviour. Several technologies exist for the remediation of contaminated soil and water. In the present study soil washing technique using...

  6. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  7. Treatability Test Plan for 300 Area Uranium Stabilization through Polyphosphate Injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mackley, Rob D.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Williams, Bruce A.; Wellman, Dawn M.

    2007-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated a study into possible options for stabilizing uranium at the 300 Area using polyphosphate injection. As part of this effort, PNNL will perform bench- and field-scale treatability testing designed to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to reduced uranium concentrations in the groundwater to meet drinking water standards (30 ug/L) in situ. This technology works by forming phosphate minerals (autunite and apatite) in the aquifer that directly sequester the existing aqueous uranium in autunite minerals and precipitates apatite minerals for sorption and long term treatment of uranium migrating into the treatment zone, thus reducing current and future aqueous uranium concentrations. Polyphosphate injection was selected for testing based on technology screening as part of the 300-FF-5 Phase III Feasibility Study for treatment of uranium in the 300-Area.

  8. TREATABILITY TEST REPORT FOR THE REMOVAL OF CHROMIUM FROM GROUNDWATER AT 100-D AREA USING ELECTROCOAGULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-09-24

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has committed to accelerate cleanup of contaminated groundwater along the Columbia River. The current treatment approach was driven by a series of Interim Action Records of Decision (IAROD) issued in the mid-1990s. Part of the approach for acceleration involves increasing the rate of groundwater extraction for the chromium plume north of the 100-D Reactor and injecting the treated water in strategic locations to hydraulically direct contaminated groundwater toward the extraction wells. The current treatment system uses ion exchange for Cr(VI) removal, with off-site regeneration of the ion exchange resins. Higher flow rates will increase the cost and frequency of ion exchange resin regeneration; therefore, alternative technologies are being considered for treatment at high flow rates. One of these technologies, electrocoagulation (EC), was evaluated through a pilot-scale treatability test. The primary purpose of the treatability study was to determine the effectiveness of Cr(VI) removal and the robustness/implementability of an EC system. Secondary purposes of the study were to gather information about derivative wastes and to obtain data applicable to scaling the process from the treatability scale to full-scale. The treatability study work plan identified a performance objective and four operational objectives. The performance objective for the treatability study was to determine the efficiency (effectiveness) of hexavalent chromium removal from the groundwater, with a desired concentration of {le} 20 micrograms per liter ({micro}g/L) Cr(VI) in the effluent prior to re-injection. Influent and effluent total chromium and hexavalent chromium data were collected using a field test kit for multiple samples per week, and from off-site laboratory analysis of samples collected approximately monthly. These data met all data quality requirements. Two of three effluent chromium samples analyzed in the off-site (that is, fixed) laboratory

  9. Treatability Test Report: Characterization of Vadose Zone Carbon Tetrachloride Source Strength Using Tomographic Methods at the 216-Z-9 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Rohay, Virginia J.; Mackley, Rob D.; Parker, Kyle R.

    2012-09-28

    A treatability test was conducted in 2011 at the 216-Z-9 Trench to evaluate methods for collecting characterization information that supports refined assessment of SVE performance goals based on impact to groundwater. The characterization information can also provide input to operational strategies for continued SVE operation and decisions regarding closure of the SVE system or transition to other remedies, if necessary.

  10. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Oostrom, Martinus [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tartakovsky, Guzel D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  11. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  12. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  13. TREATABILITY TEST FOR REMOVING TECHNETIUM-99 FROM 200-ZP-1 GROUNDWATER HANFORD SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN SW; TORTOSO AC; ELLIOTT WS; BYRNES ME

    2007-11-29

    The 200-ZP-1 Groundwater Operable Unit (OU) is one of two groundwater OUs located within the 200 West groundwater aggregate area of the Hanford Site. The primary risk-driving contaminants within the 200-ZP-1 OU include carbon tetrachloride and technetium-99 (Tc-99). A pump-and-treat system for this OU was initially installed in 1995 to control the 0.002 kg/m{sup 3} (2000 {micro}g/L) contour of the carbon tetrachloride plume. Carbon tetrachloride is removed from groundwater with the assistance of an air-stripping tower. Ten extraction wells and three injection wells operate at a combined rate of approximately 0.017m{sup 3}/s (17.03 L/s). In 2005, groundwater from two of the extraction wells (299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44) began to show concentrations greater than twice the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of Tc-99 (33,309 beq/m{sup 3} or 900 pCi/L). The Tc-99 groundwater concentrations from all ten of the extraction wells when mixed were more than one-half of the MCL and were slowly increasing. If concentrations continued to rise and the water remained untreated for Tc-99, there was concern that the water re-injected into the aquifer could exceed the MCL standard. Multiple treatment technologies were reviewed for selectively removing Tc-99 from the groundwater. Of the treatment technologies, only ion exchange was determined to be highly selective, commercially available, and relatively low in cost. Through research funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, the ion-exchange resin Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E was found to successfully remove Tc-99 from groundwater, even in the presence of competing anions. For this and other reasons, Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E ion exchange resin was selected for treatability testing. The treatability test required installing resin columns on the discharge lines from extraction wells 299-W15-765 and 299-W15-44. Preliminary test results have concluded that the Purolite{reg_sign} A-530E resin is effective at removing Tc-99 from groundwater to

  14. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  15. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  16. Hydraulic testing plan for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatability technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project directly supports the BCV Feasibility Study. Part of the Treatability Study, Phase II Hydraulic Performance Testing, will produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design a long-term treatment system. This effort consists of the installation and testing of two groundwater collection systems: a trench in the vicinity of GW-835 and an angled pumping well adjacent to NT-1. Pumping tests and evaluations of gradients under ambient conditions will provide data for full-scale design of treatment systems. In addition to hydraulic performance, in situ treatment chemistry data will be obtained from monitoring wells installed in the reactive media section of the trench. The in situ treatment work is not part of this test plan. This Hydraulic Testing Plan describes the location and installation of the trench and NT-1 wells, the locations and purpose of the monitoring wells, and the procedures for the pumping tests of the trench and NT-1 wells

  17. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  18. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: CERCLA BDAT SARM PREPARATION AND RESULTS OF PHYSICAL SOILS WASHING EXPERIMENTS (FINAL REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study reports on the results of work preparing 30,000 Ibs of SARM or synthetic analytical reference matrix, a surrogate Superfund soil containing a vide range of contaminants. It also reports the results ©f bench scale treatability experiments designed to simulate the EP...

  19. An integrated testing facility for bench scale catalyst research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, H.D.; Hogan, R.J.; McMurtrie, D.E.

    1983-08-01

    Discovering new catalysts and designing new catalytic processes has long been hindered by equipment that is either designed for hand operation with the data acquisition functions in some stage of automation or is patterned after refinery installations to smaller, pilot plant like facilities. The latter approach has required large vessels (and hence large amounts of experimental catalyst and feedstocks) to be used or the use of improperly fitted control equipment with constant attention to the operation of a small reactor system. Constant attention partially negates the intent of the automation effort. Results from some of these systems are often unsatisfactory because of poor material balances and control. The data from some schemes must then be manually transferred into other databases for use in reports, correlations, etc. An earlier paper from this laboratory (1) described an initial attempt to provide a reliable, reproducible method for more productive catalyst screening, but that system still lacked an automatic data management system and was not flexible with regards to wide range changes of pressure and flow. Also, several different types of experiments could not be run concurrently. Recently, several schemes have appeared (2-6) which deal with distributed systems as they apply to various laboratory and pilot plant operations. This paper describes an automated system that allows for up to 21 reactors to be in operation concurrently with a staff of five people. All units are independently run without normal operator intervention and the system is designed fail safe for unattended operation. It has been used extensively for screening exploratory catalysts, catalytic process optimization, kinetic modeling and increasingly in refinery process optimization.

  20. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) has been demonstrated to be a viable technology to remove >99% of the organics from Tank 48H simulant, to remove >99% of the nitrate/nitrite from Tank 48H simulant, and to form a solid product that is primarily carbonate based. The technology was demonstrated in October of 2006 in the Engineering Scale Test Demonstration Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer1 (ESTD FBSR) at the Hazen Research Inc. (HRI) facility in Golden, CO. The purpose of the Bench-scale Steam Reformer (BSR) testing was to demonstrate that the same reactions occur and the same product is formed when steam reforming actual radioactive Tank 48H waste. The approach used in the current study was to test the BSR with the same Tank 48H simulant and same Erwin coal as was used at the ESTD FBSR under the same operating conditions. This comparison would allow verification that the same chemical reactions occur in both the BSR and ESTD FBSR. Then, actual radioactive Tank 48H material would be steam reformed in the BSR to verify that the actual tank 48H sample reacts the same way chemically as the simulant Tank 48H material. The conclusions from the BSR study and comparison to the ESTD FBSR are the following: (1) A Bench-scale Steam Reforming (BSR) unit was successfully designed and built that: (a) Emulated the chemistry of the ESTD FBSR Denitration Mineralization Reformer (DMR) and Carbon Reduction Reformer (CRR) known collectively as the dual reformer flowsheet. (b) Measured and controlled the off-gas stream. (c) Processed real (radioactive) Tank 48H waste. (d) Met the standards and specifications for radiological testing in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF). (2) Three runs with radioactive Tank 48H material were performed. (3) The Tetraphenylborate (TPB) was destroyed to > 99% for all radioactive Bench-scale tests. (4) The feed nitrate/nitrite was destroyed to >99% for all radioactive BSR tests the same as the ESTD FBSR. (5) The

  1. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  2. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  3. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  4. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Prasad

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A compact and versatile laboratory tubular reactor has been designed and fabricated keeping in view of reducing capital cost and minimising energy consumption for gas/vapor-phase heterogeneous catalytic reactions. The reactor is consisted of two coaxial corning glass tubes with a helical coil of glass tube in between the coaxial tubes serving as vaporiser and pre-heater, the catalyst bed is in the inner tube. A schematic diagram of the reactor with detailed dimensions and working principles are described. The attractive feature of the reactor is that the vaporiser, pre-heater and fixed bed reactor are merged in a single compact unit. Thus, the unit minimises separate vaporiser and pre-heater, also avoids separate furnaces used for them and eliminate auxiliary instrumentation such as temperature controller etc. To demonstrate the system operation and illustrate the key features, catalyst screening data and the efficient collection of complete, and accurate intrinsic kinetic data are provided for oxidation of CO over copper chromite catalyst. CO oxidation is an important reaction for auto-exhaust pollution control. The suitability of the versatile nature of the reactor has been ascertained for catalytic reactions where either volatile or vaporizable feeds can be introduced to the reaction zone, e.g. oxidation of iso-octane, reduction of nitric oxide, dehydrogenation of methanol, ethanol and iso-propanol, hydrogenation of nitrobenzene to aniline, etc. Copyright (c 2009 by BCREC. All Rights reserved.[Received: 10 February 2009, Accepted: 9 May 2009][How to Cite: R. Prasad, G. Rattan. (2009. Design of a Compact and Versatile Bench Scale Tubular Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering and Catalysis, 4(1: 5-9.  doi:10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9][How to Link/ DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.4.1.1250.5-9

  5. Soil washing treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krstich, M.

    1995-12-01

    Soil washing was identified as a viable treatment process option for remediating soil at the FEMP Environmental Management Project (FEMP). Little information relative to the specific application and potential effectiveness of the soil washing process exists that applies to the types of soil at the FEMP. To properly evaluate this process option in conjunction with the ongoing FEMP Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS), a treatability testing program was necessary to provide a foundation for a detailed technical evaluation of the viability of the process. In August 1991, efforts were initiated to develop a work plan and experimental design for investigating the effectiveness of soil washing on FEMP soil. In August 1992, the final Treatability Study Work Plan for Operable Unit 5: Soil Washing (DOE 1992) was issued. This document shall be referenced throughout the remainder of this report as the Treatability Study Work Plan (TSWP). The purpose of this treatability study was to generate data to support initial screening and the detailed analysis of alternatives for the Operable Unit 5 FS

  6. Evaluation of fall chinook salmon spawning adjacent to the In-Situ Redox Manipulation treatability test site, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, R.P.; Geist, D.R.

    1998-10-01

    The In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) experiment is being evaluated as a potential method to remove contaminants from groundwater adjacent to the Columbia River near the 100-D Area. The ISRM experiment involves using sodium dithionate (Na 2 O 6 S 2 ) to precipitate chromate from the groundwater. The treatment will likely create anoxic conditions in the groundwater down-gradient of the ISRM treatability test site; however, the spatial extent of this anoxic plume is not exactly known. Surveys were conducted in November 1997, following the peak spawning of fall chinook salmon. Aerial surveys documented 210 redds (spawning nests) near the downstream island in locations consistent with previous surveys. Neither aerial nor underwater surveys documented fall chinook spawning in the vicinity of the ISRM treatability test site. Based on measurements of depth, velocity, and substrate, less than 1% of the study area contained suitable fall chinook salmon spawning habitat, indicating low potential for fall chinook salmon to spawn in the vicinity of the ISRM experiment

  7. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  8. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  9. Pyrolysis of automotive shredder residue in a bench scale rotary kiln.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, Michele; Cornacchia, Giacinto; De Gisi, Sabino; Di Canio, Francesco; Freda, Cesare; Garzone, Pietro; Martino, Maria; Valerio, Vito; Villone, Antonio

    2017-07-01

    Automotive shredder residue (ASR) can create difficulties when managing, with its production increasing. It is made of different type of plastics, foams, elastomers, wood, glasses and textiles. For this reason, it is complicated to dispose of in a cost effective way, while also respecting the stringent environmental restrictions. Among thermal treatments, pyrolysis seems to offer an environmentally attractive method for the treatment of ASR; it also allows for the recovery of valuable secondary materials/fuels such as pyrolysis oils, chars, and gas. While, there is a great deal of significant research on ASR pyrolysis, the literature on higher scale pyrolysis experiments is limited. To improve current literature, the aim of the study was to investigate the pyrolysis of ASR in a bench scale rotary kiln. The Italian ASR was separated by dry-sieving into two particle size fractions: d30mm. Both the streams were grounded, pelletized and then pyrolyzed in a continuous bench scale rotary kiln at 450, 550 and 650°C. The mass flow rate of the ASR pellets was 200-350g/h and each test ran for about 4-5h. The produced char, pyrolysis oil and syngas were quantified to determine product distribution. They were thoroughly analyzed with regard to their chemical and physical properties. The results show how higher temperatures increase the pyrolysis gas yield (44wt% at 650°C) as well as its heating value. The low heating value (LHV) of syngas ranges between 18 and 26MJ/Nm 3 dry. The highest pyrolysis oil yield (33wt.%) was observed at 550°C and its LHV ranges between 12.5 and 14.5MJ/kg. Furthermore, only two out of the six produced chars respect the LHV limit set by the Italian environmental regulations for landfilling. The obtained results in terms of product distribution and their chemical-physical analyses provide useful information for plant scale-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  11. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  12. Bench scale demonstration of the Supermethanol concept : The synthesis of methanol from glycerol derived syngas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, J. G.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Assink, D.; Lemmens, K. P. J.; Heeres, H. J.

    2012-01-01

    An integrated process for the synthesis of methanol from aqueous glycerol involving reforming of the feed to syngas followed by methanol synthesis is successfully demonstrated in a continuous bench scale unit. Glycerol reforming was carried out at pressures of 24-27 MPa and temperatures of 948-998 K

  13. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  14. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer (μm) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg -1 , respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg -1 ). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 μm (sand) or less than 53 μm (silt and clay) soil fraction

  15. Extended Dry Storage Signature Bench Scale Detector Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This report is the conceptual design of a detector based on research within the Extended Dry Storage Signature Development project under the DOE-­NE MPACT campaign. This is the second year of the project; from this year’s positive results, the next step is building a prototype and testing with real materials .

  16. Development of continuous bench scale unit for direct liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Wang Lai [Korea Inst. of Energy and Resources, Daeduk (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-31

    Batch coal liquefaction experiments using tubing bombs and continuous experiments by cell liquefaction test facility were carried out. The main purpose was to maximize the coal liquefaction yields by improving the activity of coal dissolution catalysts which are oil soluble transition metal naphthenate and to supplement the incomplete research results. In the meantime, the study on the reaction characteristics of coal liquefaction and coal liquid upgrading catalyst upon sulfiding conditions and phosphorous addition have been conducted (author). 102 refs., 35 figs.

  17. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  18. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  19. Bench-scale arc melter for R ampersand D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800 degrees C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter's ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions

  20. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Strickland, Christopher E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Timothy C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Clayton, Ray E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Chronister, Glen B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  1. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  2. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  3. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Changyong [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Yuexi, E-mail: zhouyuexi@263.net [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Sun, Qingliang [School of Chemical Engineering, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Fu, Liya [Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); School of Environment, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Research Center of Water Pollution Control Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environment Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Yu, Ruozhen [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD{sub 5}/COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L{sup −1} for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L{sup −1} for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L{sup −1} on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L{sup −1}. There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  4. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  5. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  6. Treatability Study Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    To support future decision making of the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU) remedy selection, the Department of Energy (DOE) is performing a Treatability Study (TS), consistent with the EPA guidance for Comprehensive Environmental Response, compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability studies. The study will inform stakeholders about various waste removal technologies and the cost of potential remediation approaches, particularly the cost associated with sluicing and the reduction in risk to human health and the environment from tank content removal. As part of the GAAT OU remedy, a series of studies and technology tests will be preformed. These may address one or more of the following areas, characterization, removal, treatment, and transfer of wastes stored in the GAAT OU

  7. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: BDAT INCINERATION OF CERCLA SARMS AT THE JOHN ZINK COMPANY TEST FACILITY (FINAL PROJECT REPORT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of a treatability study of rotary kiln incineration of a synthetic "Superfund soil" bearing a wide range of chemical contaminants typically occurring at Superfund sites. This surrogate soil is referred to as a synthetic analytical reference ...

  8. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  9. Novel test procedure to evaluate the treatability of wastewater with ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler Wildhaber, Yael; Mestankova, Hana; Schärer, Michael; Schirmer, Kristin; Salhi, Elisabeth; von Gunten, Urs

    2015-05-15

    Organic micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals, estrogens or pesticides enter the environment continuously through the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Enhanced treatment of wastewater (WW) by ozone (O3) is probably one of the simplest measures for abatement of organic micropollutants to avoid their discharge to the aquatic environment. During ozonation most organic micropollutants present in treated WW are oxidized either by a direct reaction with O3 or by secondarily formed hydroxyl radicals (OH). However, undesired oxidation by-products from the oxidative transformation of matrix components can also be formed. A modular laboratory decision tool based on the findings of previous investigations is presented to test the feasibility of ozonation as an option to upgrade specific WWTPs. These modules consist of investigations to assess (i) the matrix effects on ozone stability, (ii) the efficiency of micropollutant removal, (iii) the oxidation by-product formation, as well as (iv) bioassays to measure specific and unspecific toxicity of the treated WWs. Matrix effects on ozone stability (quantified as O3 and OH exposures) can give first indications on the suitability of an ozonation step. Ozonation of WWs yielding O3 and OH exposures and micropollutant abatement similar to reference values evoked a significant improvement of the water quality as indicated by a broad range of bioassays. Irregular behavior of the ozonation points towards unknown compounds, possibly leading to the formation of undesired degradation products. It has been observed that in such WWs ozonation partly enhanced toxicity. In summary, the presented tiered laboratory test procedure represents a relatively cheap and straight-forward methodology to evaluate the feasibility of ozonation to upgrade specific WWTPs for micropollutant removal based on chemical and biological measurements. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Flue gas conditioning for improved particle collection in electrostatic precipitators. Second topical report, Results of bench-scale screening of additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, M.D.

    1993-08-13

    ADA Technologies, Inc. (ADA) has completed the bench-scale testing phase of a program to evaluate additives that will improve the collection of fine particles in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). A bench-scale ESP was installed at the Consolidation Coal Company (CONSOL) combustion research and development facility in Library, PA in order to conduct the evaluation. During a two-week test, four candidate additives were injected into the flue gas ahead of a 100 acfm ESP to determine the effect on fly ash collectability. Two additives were found to reduce the emissions from the ESP. Additives ``C`` and ``D`` performed better than initially anticipated -- reducing emissions initially by 17%. Emissions were reduced by 27% after the ESP was modified by the installation of baffles to minimize sneakage. In addition to the measured improvements in performance, no detrimental effects (i.e., electrode fouling) were observed in the operation of the ESP during the testing. The measures of success identified for the bench-scale phase of the program have been surpassed. Since the additives will affect only non-rapping reentrainment particle losses, it is expected that an even greater improvement in particle collection will be observed in larger-scale ESPs. Therefore, positive results are anticipated during the pilot-scale phase of the program and during a future full-scale demonstration test. A preliminary economic analysis was performed to evaluate the cost of the additive process and to compare its costs against alternative means for reducing emissions from ESPs. The results show that conditioning with additive C at a rate of 0.05% (wt. additive to wt. fly ash) is much less expensive than adding new ESP capacity, and more cost competitive than existing chemical conditioning processes. Preliminary chemical analysis of conditioned fly ash shows that it passes the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure criteria.

  11. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 Cs and 226 Ra from existing waste solutions

  12. From a single pellet press to a bench scale pellet mill - Pelletizing six different biomass feedstocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Puig Arnavat, Maria; Shang, Lei; Sárossy, Zsuzsa

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for biomass pellets requires the investigation of alternative raw materials for pelletizetion. In the present paper, the pelletization process of fescue, alfalfa, sorghum, triticale, miscanthus and willow is studied to determine if results obtained in a single pellet press...... (SPP) can be extrapolated to larger scale pellet mills. The single pellet press was used to find the optimum moisture content and die operating temperature for pellet production. Then, these results were compared with those obtained from a bench-scale pellet mill. A moisture content of around 10 wt...

  13. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  14. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  15. Inactivation of Escherichia coli by ozone under bench-scale plug flow and full-scale hydraulic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, P W M H; van der Helm, A W C; Dullemont, Y J; Rietveld, L C; van Dijk, J C; Medema, G J

    2006-10-01

    To determine the disinfection efficacy of ozonation, water companies can apply several disinfection calculation methods. The goal of this study was to evaluate the use of the T10 and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) method to extrapolate inactivation rates of ozone sensitive microorganisms observed in laboratory tests to full-scale ozonation in drinking water treatment. The inactivation efficacy of the ozonation at the Amsterdam water treatment works was assessed by determining Escherichia coli concentrations in large volume samples before and after ozonation over a period of 1 year. The inactivation of dosed E. coli WR1 was tested in a bench-scale dissolved ozone plug flow reactor (DOPFR) on the same feed water as the full-scale ozonation in which a concentrated ozone solution in Milli-Q water was dosed. Applying the T10 method on the inactivation rates observed in the DOPFR strongly overestimated the inactivation capacity of the full-scale ozonation. The expected inactivation based on the CSTR method (LT2ESWTR) approached the observed inactivation at full-scale. Therefore, the CSTR method should be preferred to calculate inactivation of ozone sensitive organisms such as E. coli, viruses, Giardia and Campylobacter by full-scale ozonation.

  16. The hot bench scale plant Ester for the vitrification of high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannicini, R.; Strazzer, A.; Cantale, C; Donato, A.; Grossi, G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the hot bench-scale plant ESTER for the vitrification of the high-level radioactive wastes is described, and the main results of the first radioactive campaign are reported. The ESTER plant, which is placed in the ADECO-ESSOR hot cells of the C.C.R.-EURATOM-ISPRA, has been built and is operated by the ENEA, Departement of Fuel Cycle. It began operating with real radioactive wastes about 1 year ago, solidifying a total of 12 Ci of fission products into 2,02 Kg of borosilicate glass, corresponding to 757 ml of glass. During the vitrification many samples of liquid and gaseous streams have been taken and analyzed. A radioactivity balance in the plant has been calculated, as well as a mass balance of nitrates and of the 137 Cs and 106 Ru volatized in the process

  17. Data management implementation plan for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    The overall objective of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study is to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. The ultimate goal of this effort is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium, technetium, nitrate, and several metals from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. This project, the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Phase 2 hydraulic performance testing, directly supports the Bear Creek Valley Feasibility Study. Specific project objectives include (1) installing monitoring and extraction wells, (2) installing a groundwater extraction trench, (3) performing pumping tests of the extraction wells and trench, (4) determining hydraulic gradients, and (5) collecting water quality parameters. The primary purpose of environmental data management is to provide a system for generating and maintaining technically defensible data. To meet current regulatory requirements for the Environmental Restoration Program, complete documentation of the information flow must be established. To do so, each step in the data management process (collection, management, storage, and analysis) must be adequately planned and documented. This document will serve to identify data management procedures, expected data types and flow, and roles and responsibilities for all data management activities associated with this project

  18. Treatability studies of alternative wastewaters for Metal Finishing Effluent Treatment Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittry, D.M.; Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    The 300-M Area Liquid Effluent Treatment Facility (LETF) of the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an end-of-pipe industrial wastewater treatment facility that uses precipitation and filtration, which is the EPA Best Available Technology economically achievable for a Metal Finishing and Aluminum Form Industries. Upon the completion of stored waste treatment, the LETF will be shut down, because production of nuclear materials for reactors stopped at the end of the Cold War. The economic use of the LETF for the treatment of alternative wastewater streams is being evaluated through laboratory bench-scale treatability studies

  19. Recycling of polyethene and polypropene in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor by high temperature pyrolysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhout, R.W.J.; Westerhout, R.W.J.; Waanders, J.; Kuipers, J.A.M.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    1998-01-01

    The high-temperature pyrolysis of polyethene (PE), polypropene (PP), and mixtures of these polymers was studied in a novel bench-scale rotating cone reactor (RCR). Experiments showed that the effect of the sand or reactor temperature on the product spectrum obtained is large compared to the effect

  20. Safety assessment for the proposed pilot-scale treatability tests for the 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 groundwater operable units. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This safety assessment provides an analysis of the proposed pilot-scale treatability test activities to be and conducted within the 200 Area groundwater operable units on the Hanford Site. The 200-UP-1 and 200-ZP-1 operable units are located in the 200 West Area of the Hanford Site. These tests will evaluate an ion exchange (IX) water purification treatment system and granular activated carbon (GAC). A detailed engineering analysis of (GAC) adsorption for remediation of groundwater contamination. A detailed engineering analysis of the IX treatment system. The principal source of information for this assessment, states that the performance objective of the treatment systems is to remove 90% of the uranium and technetium-99 ( 99 Tc) from the extracted groundwater at the 200-UP-1 site. The performance objective for 200-ZP-1 is to remove 90% of the carbon tetrachloride (CCl 4 ), chloroform, and trichloroethylene (TCE) from the extracted groundwater

  1. Performance of Dolomite Calcination in a Bench-Scale Rotary Kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulandari Winny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Dolomite calcination is one of process steps to prepare calcined dolomite for raw materials in magnesium production. Calcination of dolomite involves heating the raw material at sufficient temperature in order to release the carbon dioxide from its carbonate minerals. This process is commonly conducted in a rotary kiln. There have been a number of calcination studies in a laboratory scale, but the study of dolomite calcination in a larger scale is very scarce. This research is aimed to study the performance of dolomite calcination in a bench-scale rotary kiln with 500 gram of feed. The effect of various parameters, including temperatures, feed rate, rotating frequency, and particle size were examined. The temperature of rotary kiln was varied between 700 and 1000 °C, while the particle size of dolomite was varied between 0.149 – 0.297 mm and up to 10 – 15 mm. The temperature distribution inside the rotary kiln was also measured. It is obtained that a conversion of 92% was attained at operation temperature of 1000 °C, which is at a higher temperature compared to the laboratory scale, where a conversion of 100% was obtained at 900 °C. This imply that the effect of heat transfer also plays important role in the calcination of dolomite especially at a larger scale.

  2. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veriansyah, Bambang; Kim, Jae-Duck; Lee, Jong-Chol

    2007-01-01

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC 2 H 4 ) 2 S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion

  3. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  4. Hydrated lime for metals immobilization and explosives transformation: Treatability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, W Andy; Larson, S L; Nestler, C C; Fabian, G; O'Connor, G; Felt, D R

    2012-05-15

    Fragmentation grenades contain Composition B (RDX and TNT) within a steel shell casing. There is the potential for off-site migration of high explosives and metals from hand grenade training ranges by transport in surface water and subsurface transport in leachate. This treatability study used bench-scale columns and mesocosm-scale laboratory lysimeters to investigate the potential of hydrated lime as a soil amendment for in situ remediation of explosives and metals stabilization in hand grenade range soils. Compared to the unamended soil there was a 26-92% reduction of RDX in the leachate and runoff water from the lime treated soils and a 66-83% reduction of zinc in the leachate and runoff water samples; where the hand grenade range metals of concern were zinc, iron, and manganese. The amended soil was maintained at the target pH of greater than 10.5 for optimum explosives decomposition. The treatability study indicated a high potential of success for scale-up to an in situ field study. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...... and continuous hydraulic and ammonium loading. Flowrates and flow recirculation around the column are chosen to mimic full-scale hydrodynamic conditions, and minimize axial gradients. A reference ammonium loading rate is calculated based on the average loading experienced in the active zone of the full......-scale filter. Effluent concentrations of ammonium are analyzed when the bench-scale column is subject to reference loading, from which removal rates are calculated. Subsequently, removal rates above the reference loading are measured by imposing short-term loading variations. A critical loading rate...

  6. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  7. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  8. Heavy metal contaminant remediation study of western Xiamen Bay sediment, China: laboratory bench scale testing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Luoping; Feng, Huan; Li, Xiaoxia; Ye, Xin; Jing, Youhai; Ouyang, Tong; Yu, Xingtian; Liang, Rongyuan; Chen, Weiqi

    2009-12-15

    A surface sediment sample (metal removal, whereas agitation, aeration and rotation of the samples in chemical complexation solutions yield much better metal removal efficiency (up to 90%). A low pH condition (e.g., pHliquid ratio (e.g., S:L=1:50) could increase metal removal efficiency. The experimental results suggest that 0.20 M (NH4)2C2O4+0.025 M EDTA combination with solid:liquid ratio=1:50 and 0.50 M ammonium acetate (NH4Ac)+0.025 M EDTA combination with solid:liquid ratio=1:50 are the most effective methods for metal removal from the contaminated sediments. This research provides additional useful information for sediment metal remediation technology development.

  9. Treatability study operational testing program and implementation plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This Treatability Study (TS) Operational Testing Program and Implementation Plan identifies operational testing to be performed to: (1) Demonstrate the technical feasibility of methods proposed for the removal of radiochemical sludge heels from the underground storage tanks located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), known as the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Operable Unit (OU). (The bulk of the radiochemical waste, which was previously stored in the tanks, was removed during the 1980s, and only a sludge heel remains.) (2) Reduce the uncertainty in meeting the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements for the GAAT OU. (3) Minimize the overall costs to accomplish the first two objectives. An initial Feasibility Study (FS) effort identified uncertainties in the evaluation of various alternatives for addressing the remediation of the GAAT OU. To support future decision making, the US. Department of Energy is performing a TS to identify cost-effective remediation approaches for the GAAT OU by providing information to reduce cost and technical uncertainty and better define acceptable remediation strategies. The testing activities will be initially conducted in a nonradioactive environment at the Tanks Technology Cold Test Facility (TTCTF) at ORNL. This will permit the design and initial performance testing and training activities to be completed while minimizing the risk, employee exposure, and costs associated with the testing effort. The component design and functional testing and initial system performance testing will be completed in the TTCTF. After the component and initial system performance testing have been completed, the operations testing will continue in the North Tank Farm (NTF). This testing has an associated higher cost and risk, but is necessary to provide results for actual waste heel removal

  10. Bench-Scale Experiments to Evaluate ERT as a Monitoring Tool for Geologic CO2 Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, S. J.; Detwiler, R. L.; Carrigan, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    Field-scale studies have shown Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) to be an effective tool for imaging resistivity anomalies and monitoring changing saturations in the near subsurface. Despite the challenges of implementing ERT in the deep subsurface, it has potential as a surveying technology for visualizing sequestered CO2, in part because it can be localized within the target reservoir. Currently, the technology is being evaluated as part of a geologic sequestration project in Cranfield, MS, where supercritical CO2 is injected to ten thousand feet below the surface. In support of this field-scale activity, we have designed an analog bench-scale experimental system to further evaluate the ability of ERT to quantify both the volume and spatial distribution of gas injected into a saline aquifer. Our translucent sand chambers measure 58cm x 30cm x 1cm and are lined with twenty-one stainless steel electrodes on each long side, inserted into a nonconductive plastic gasket. We fill the chamber with quartz sand with different grain sizes with a filling procedure that generates small-scale layering within the injection zone, which is overlain by a fine-grained layer that serves as a capillary barrier. Prior to gas injection, the porous medium is saturated with a low resistivity salt solution. We then inject gas into the bottom of the injection zone. Buoyant forces drive gas migration into the chamber, resulting in a combination of small-scale trapping in horizontal layers, fingering between the horizontal layers, and large-scale trapping of the gas plume along the upper capillary barrier. During pauses in gas injection, a CCD camera captures high-resolution images, and an ERT data acquisition system scans the chamber. Quantitative visualization techniques are used to process the CCD images resulting in high-resolution measurements of the spatial distribution of the injected gas. These results are directly compared to resistivity fields that result from the inversion

  11. Size distribution of chromate paint aerosol generated in a bench-scale spray booth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabty-Daily, Rania A; Hinds, William C; Froines, John R

    2005-01-01

    Spray painters are potentially exposed to aerosols containing hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] via inhalation of chromate-based paint sprays. Evaluating the particle size distribution of a paint spray aerosol, and the variables that may affect this distribution, is necessary to determine the site and degree of respiratory deposition and the damage that may result from inhaled Cr(VI)-containing paint particles. This study examined the effect of spray gun atomization pressure, aerosol generation source and aerosol aging on the size distribution of chromate-based paint overspray aerosols generated in a bench-scale paint spray booth. The study also determined the effect of particle bounce inside a Marple personal cascade impactor on measured size distributions of paint spray aerosols. Marple personal cascade impactors with a modified inlet were used for sample collection. The data indicated that paint particle bounce did not occur inside the cascade impactors sufficiently to affect size distribution when using uncoated stainless steel or PVC substrate sampling media. A decrease in paint aerosol mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) from 8.2 to 7.0 mum was observed as gun atomization pressure increased from 6 to 10 psi. Overspray aerosols were sampled at two locations in the spray booth. A downstream sampling position simulated the exposure of a worker standing between the painted surface and exhaust, a situation encountered in booths with multiple workers. The measured mean MMAD was 7.2 mum. The distance between the painted surface and sampler was varied to sample oversprays of varying ages between 2.8 and 7.7 s. Age was not a significant factor for determining MMAD. Overspray was sampled at a 90 degrees position to simulate a worker standing in front of the surface being painted with air flowing to the worker's side, a common situation in field applications. The resulting overspray MMAD averaged 5.9 mum. Direct-spray aerosols were sampled at ages from 5.3 to 11.7 s

  12. Bench-scale evaluation of drinking water treatment parameters on iron particles and water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, M Safiur; Gagnon, Graham A

    2014-01-01

    Discoloration of water resulting from suspended iron particles is one of the main customer complaints received by water suppliers. However, understanding of the mechanisms of discoloration as well as role of materials involved in the process is limited. In this study, an array of bench scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the impact of the most common variables (pH, PO4, Cl2 and DOM) on the properties of iron particles and suspensions derived from the oxygenation of Fe(II) ions in NaHCO3 buffered synthetic water systems. The most important factors as well as their rank influencing iron suspension color and turbidity formation were identified for a range of water quality parameters. This was accomplished using a 2(4) full factorial design approach at a 95% confidence level. The statistical analysis revealed that phosphate was found to be the most significant factor to alter color (contribution: 37.9%) and turbidity (contribution: 45.5%) in an iron-water system. A comprehensive study revealed that phosphate and chlorine produced iron suspension with reduced color and turbidity, made ζ-potential more negative, reduced the average particle size, and increased iron suspension stability. In the presence of DOM, color was observed to increase but a reverse trend was observed to decrease the turbidity and to alter particle size distribution. HPSEC results suggest that higher molecular weight fractions of DOM tend to adsorb onto the surfaces of iron particles at early stages, resulting in alteration of the surface charge of iron particles. This in turn limits particles aggregation and makes iron colloids highly stable. In the presence of a phosphate based corrosion inhibitor, this study demonstrated that color and turbidity resulting from suspended iron were lower at a pH value of 6.5 (compared to pH of 8.5). The same trend was observed in presence of DOM. This study also suggested that iron colloid suspension color and turbidity in chlorinated drinking water

  13. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  14. Treatability study sample exemption: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published

  15. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  16. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT: ON-SITE INCINERATION OF SHIRCO INFRARED SYSTEMS PORTABLE PILOT TEST UNIT, TIMES BEACH, MISSOURI

    Science.gov (United States)

    During the period of July 8 - July 12, 1985, the Shirco Infrared Systems Portable Pilot Test Unit was in operation at the Times Beach Dioxin Research Facility to demonstrate the capability of Shirco's infrared technology to decontaminate silty soil laden with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorod...

  18. Bench-Scale Process for Low-Cost Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Caraher, Joel; Chen, Wei; Farnum, Rachael; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2015-03-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. In the first budget period of this project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance.

  19. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  20. Treatability testing of intrinsic bioremediation, biostimulation, and bioaugmentation of diesel-oil contaminated soil at 5 degrees C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J. J.

    1997-01-01

    The likely success of in-situ bioremediation on diesel-contaminated soil was studied at 5 degrees C under four conditions of soil amendments. The four conditions were: (1) intrinsic bioremediation where the soil received only water, (2) biostimulation with one application of slow-release fertilizer, (3) bioaugmentation with one application of fertilizer and a cold-adapted hydrocarbon-degrading bacterial culture, and (4) surfactant enhanced bioavailability, where the soil received one application of fertilizer and treatment with a biodegradable surfactant solution. All tests showed significant reduction in diesel range under aerobic conditions after a 40-day incubation. The intrinsic control (No.1) was least effective, with 66 per cent of extractable hydrocarbons (TEH) at 5 degrees C. The biostimulated soil (No.2) was most effective, allowing a reduction in TEH of 86 per cent. The bioaugmented soil and surfactant treated soil allowed TEH reduction of about 75 per cent. Based on these results, biostimulation with slow-release fertilizer will be implemented as the most cost-effective means of bioremediation, combined with appropriate monitoring of results. 2 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities,...

  2. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  3. Characterization of L-asparaginase from marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU, its antiproliferative activity and bench scale production using industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K; Sachaniya, Bhumi; Dudhagara, Dushyant; Panseriya, Haresh Z; Gosai, Haren; Rawal, Rakesh; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-03-01

    L-asparaginase (LA), an enzyme with anticancer activities, produced by marine-derived Aspergillus niger was subjected to purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was observed to have molecular weight ∼90KDa. The enzyme retained activity over a wide range of pH, i.e. pH 4-10. The enzyme was quite stable in temperature range 20-40°C. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were observed to enhance LA activity while inhibition of LA activity was observed in presence of heavy metals. The values for K m was found to be 0.8141 mM and V max was 6.228μM/mg/min. The enzyme exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines tested. Successful bench scale production (in 5L bioreacator) of LA using groundnut oil cake as low cost substrate has also been carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  5. WASTE SOLIDIFICATION BUILDING BENCH SCALE HIGH ACTIVITY WASTE SIMULANT VARIABILITY STUDY FY2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, E; Timothy Jones, T; Tommy Edwards, T; Alex Cozzi, A

    2009-03-20

    The primary objective of this task was to perform a variability study of the high activity waste (HAW) acidic feed to determine the impact of feed variability on the quality of the final grout and on the mixability of the salt solution into the dry powders. The HAW acidic feeds were processed through the neutralization/pH process, targeting a final pH of 12. These fluids were then blended with the dry materials to make the final waste forms. A secondary objective was to determine if elemental substitution for cost prohibitive or toxic elements in the simulant affects the mixing response, thus providing a more economical simulant for use in full scale tests. Though not an objective, the HAW simulant used in the full scale tests was also tested and compared to the results from this task. A statistically designed test matrix was developed based on the maximum molarity inputs used to make the acidic solutions. The maximum molarity inputs were: 7.39 HNO{sub 3}, 0.11618 gallium, 0.5423 silver, and 1.1032 'other' metals based on their NO{sub 3}{sup -} contribution. Substitution of the elements aluminum for gallium and copper for silver was also considered in this test matrix, resulting in a total of 40 tests. During the NaOH addition, the neutralization/pH adjustment process was controlled to a maximum temperature of 60 C. The neutralized/pH adjusted simulants were blended with Portland cement and zircon flour at a water to cement mass ratio of 0.30. The mass ratio of zircon flour to Portland cement was 1/12. The grout was made using a Hobart N-50 mixer running at low speed for two minutes to incorporate and properly wet the dry solids with liquid and at medium speed for five minutes for mixing. The resulting fresh grout was measured for three consecutive yield stress measurements. The cured grout was measured for set, bleed, and density. Given the conditions of preparing the grout in this task, all of the grouts were visually well mixed prior to preparing the

  6. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  7. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Gattiker, J. R.; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on the computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.

  8. Bench scale synthesis of p-hydroxybenzoic acid using whole-cell nitrilase of Gordonia terrae mutant E9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Kumar, Virender; Thakur, Neerja; Bhalla, Tek Chand

    2015-07-01

    Mutants of Gordonia terrae were generated using chemical mutagens for better activity, stability and higher substrate/product tolerance of its nitrilase enzyme. Mutant E9 showed two-time increase in activity and tolerated p-hydroxybenzonitrile (p-HBN) up to 50 mM. Response surface methodology and inducer mediation approach further enhanced the production of enzyme to 2.5-fold. The bench scale production of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (p-HBA) was carried out in a fed-batch reaction (500-mL scale) using whole-cell nitrilase of mutant E9 in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 8.0) at 40 °C. Total six feedings each at an interval of 45 min resulted in accumulation of 360 mM (21.6 g) of p-HBA with a purity of 99%. The catalytic and volumetric productivity of bioprocess using mutant G. terrae was improved to 1.8 g h(-1) g DCW (-1) and 43.2 g L(-1), respectively, from 0.78 g h(-1) g DCW (-1) and 28.8 g L(-1) using resting cells of wild strain. K m and V max of purified nitrilase from mutant E9 were 55 U mg(-1) and 1.8 mM for p-HBN with a higher turnover number of 36 s(-1) × 10(-3).

  9. Modeling a bench-scale alternating aerobic/anoxic activated sludge system for nitrogen removal using a modified ASM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunook; Noh, Soohong; Colosimo, Mark

    2009-07-01

    The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM1), developed by The International Association of Water Pollution Research and Control, was applied to model dynamics of NH4+, and NO3- in a bench scale alternating aerobic-anoxic (AAA) activated sludge system for nitrogen removal. The model was modified by eliminating inert soluble COD (S(I)) and inert particulate COD (X(I)) from the model's state variables as these two variables are not involved in any biological reaction and are not readily measurable with conventional routine COD analysis. It was assumed that the soluble COD and particulate COD of wastewater represent readily biodegradable COD (S(S)) and slowly biodegradable (X(S)) in the model, respectively. In addition, alkalinity was also removed from the model, since alkalinity of an AAA system remains stable due to the cyclic modes of the system. Even with the elimination of the three state variables and the assumption made, the model could reasonably predict the NH4+ and NO3- dynamics of the AAA system, and effluent NH4+ and NO3- concentrations with adjustment of only a few kinetic parameters. Compared to the original ASM1, it is expected that the modified ASM1 presented in this study can be more easily utilized by engineers in designing or operating an AAA system in practice, since it requires simple characterization of wastewater COD.

  10. 15N NMR investigation of the reduction and binding of TNT in an aerobic bench scale reactor simulating windrow composting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, K.A.; Pennington, J.C.; Hayes, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    T15NT was added to a soil of low organic carbon content and composted for 20 days in an aerobic bench scale reactor. The finished whole compost and fulvic acid, humic acid, humin, and lignocellulose fractions extracted from the compost were analyzed by solid-state CP/MAS and DP/MAS 15N NMR. 15N NMR spectra provided direct spectroscopic evidence for reduction of TNT followed by covalent binding of the reduced metabolites to organic matter of the composted soil, with the majority of metabolite found in the lignocellulose fraction, by mass also the major fraction of the compost. In general, the types of bonds formed between soil organic matter and reduced TNT amines in controlled laboratory reactions were observed in the spectra of the whole compost and fractions, confirming that during composting TNT is reduced to amines that form covalent bonds with organic matter through aminohydroquinone, aminoquinone, heterocyclic, and imine linkages, among others. Concentrations of imine nitrogens in the compost spectra suggestthat covalent binding bythe diamines 2,4DANT and 2,6DANT is a significant process in the transformation of TNT into bound residues. Liquid-phase 15N NMR spectra of the fulvic acid and humin fractions provided possible evidence for involvement of phenoloxidase enzymes in covalent bond formation.

  11. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  12. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations, and process engineering. Final report, February 1977-December 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norman, J.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Brown, L.C.; O' Keefe, D.R.; Allen, C.L.

    1982-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine water-splitting cycle is characterized by the following three reactions: 2H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ + 2HI; H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ ..-->.. H/sub 2/O + SO/sub 2/ + 1/2 O/sub 2/; and 2HI ..-->.. H/sub 2/ + I/sub 2/. This cycle was developed at General Atomic after several critical features in the above reactions were discovered. These involved phase separations, catalytic reactions, etc. Estimates of the energy efficiency of this economically reasonable advanced state-of-the-art processing unit produced sufficiently high values (to approx.47%) to warrant cycle development effort. The DOE contract was largely directed toward the engineering development of this cycle, including a small demonstration unit (CLCD), a bench-scale unit, engineering design, and costing. The work has resulted in a design that is projected to produce H/sub 2/ at prices not yet generally competitive with fossil-fuel-produced H/sub 2/ but are projected to be favorably competitive with respect to H/sub 2/ from fossil fuels in the future.

  15. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  16. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  17. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  18. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1991-02-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the in situ vitrification process. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  20. Uncertainty Quantification Analysis of Both Experimental and CFD Simulation Data of a Bench-scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnam, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Gel, Aytekin [ALPEMI Consulting, LLC, Phoeniz, AZ (United States); Subramaniyan, Arun K. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Musser, Jordan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Dietiker, Jean-Francois [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Adequate assessment of the uncertainties in modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the simulation based engineering design. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the application of non-intrusive Bayesian uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology in multiphase (gas-solid) flows with experimental and simulation data, as part of our research efforts to determine the most suited approach for UQ of a bench scale fluidized bed gasifier. UQ analysis was first performed on the available experimental data. Global sensitivity analysis performed as part of the UQ analysis shows that among the three operating factors, steam to oxygen ratio has the most influence on syngas composition in the bench-scale gasifier experiments. An analysis for forward propagation of uncertainties was performed and results show that an increase in steam to oxygen ratio leads to an increase in H2 mole fraction and a decrease in CO mole fraction. These findings are in agreement with the ANOVA analysis performed in the reference experimental study. Another contribution in addition to the UQ analysis is the optimization-based approach to guide to identify next best set of additional experimental samples, should the possibility arise for additional experiments. Hence, the surrogate models constructed as part of the UQ analysis is employed to improve the information gain and make incremental recommendation, should the possibility to add more experiments arise. In the second step, series of simulations were carried out with the open-source computational fluid dynamics software MFiX to reproduce the experimental conditions, where three operating factors, i.e., coal flow rate, coal particle diameter, and steam-to-oxygen ratio, were systematically varied to understand their effect on the syngas composition. Bayesian UQ analysis was performed on the numerical results. As part of Bayesian UQ analysis, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on the simulation results, which shows

  1. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation.The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70 degrees C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques.Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results

  3. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming : bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machado, N.R.C.F.; Rizzo, R.C.P.; Calsavara, V.; Takahashi, F.; Almeida, A.A.; Melo, F.R. de; Zschornack, M.A.; Bessani, A.N.; Rodrigues, R.M.O. [State University of Maringa, Maringa (Brazil). Dept. of Chemical Engineering Lab. of Catalysis; Schmal, M. [Cidade Universitaria, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute; Cantao, M.P. [Institute of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil). Dept. of Materials

    2003-07-01

    A series of experiments have been conducted to produce hydrogen from ethanol reforming. This paper presents the bench-scale study unit that uses a 5 per cent copper-niobium2oxygen5 (Cu/Nb2O5) catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the catalyst contained copper oxide in an amorphous form and that the Nb2O5 was highly crystalline. The calcinated catalyst was analysed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and showed that 35 per cent of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55 per cent) and Cu{sup II} (45 per cent). The surface area was mainly comprised of meso and macro pores. There was a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu at 245 and 306 degrees C, as shown by temperature programmed reduction, as well as a 6 per cent reduction of Nb2O5. An internal reactor with 16 grams (g) of catalyst pellets was contained in the reaction unit. To optimize hydrogen production, reaction temperature and feed rate were varied, and the major by-product was carbon dioxide. Reagents (water and ethanol) were fed into and vaporized in, an electric pre-heater in stoichiometric proportion. Mean conversion increased from 17 per cent to 35 per cent through an increase of reaction temperature from 300 to 400 degrees C. Minor by-products were detected in the form of ethene and ethyl ether. 9 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Archaeal and bacterial community dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Martinez, Alejandro; Garcia-Ruiz, Maria Jesus; Rodriguez-Sanchez, Alejandro; Osorio, Francisco; Gonzalez-Lopez, Jesus

    2016-07-01

    Two-stage technologies have been developed for anaerobic digestion of waste-activated sludge. In this study, the archaeal and bacterial community structure dynamics and bioprocess performance of a bench-scale two-stage anaerobic digester treating urban sewage sludge have been studied by the means of high-throughput sequencing techniques and physicochemical parameters such as pH, dried sludge, volatile dried sludge, acid concentration, alkalinity, and biogas generation. The coupled analyses of archaeal and bacterial communities and physicochemical parameters showed a direct relationship between archaeal and bacterial populations and bioprocess performance during start-up and working operation of a two-stage anaerobic digester. Moreover, results demonstrated that archaeal and bacterial community structure was affected by changes in the acid/alkalinity ratio in the bioprocess. Thus, a predominance of the acetoclastic methanogen Methanosaeta was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at high-value acid/alkaline ratio, while a predominance of Methanomassilicoccaeceae archaea and Methanoculleus genus was observed in the methanogenic bioreactor at low-value acid/alkaline ratio. Biodiversity tag-iTag sequencing studies showed that methanogenic archaea can be also detected in the acidogenic bioreactor, although its biological activity was decreased after 4 months of operation as supported by physicochemical analyses. Also, studies of the VFA producers and VFA consumers microbial populations showed as these microbiota were directly affected by the physicochemical parameters generated in the bioreactors. We suggest that the results obtained in our study could be useful for future implementations of two-stage anaerobic digestion processes at both bench- and full-scale.

  5. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  6. Removal of uranium from uranium-contaminated soils -- Phase 1: Bench-scale testing. Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, C. W.

    1993-09-01

    To address the management of uranium-contaminated soils at Fernald and other DOE sites, the DOE Office of Technology Development formed the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration (USID) program. The USID has five major tasks. These include the development and demonstration of technologies that are able to (1) characterize the uranium in soil, (2) decontaminate or remove uranium from the soil, (3) treat the soil and dispose of any waste, (4) establish performance assessments, and (5) meet necessary state and federal regulations. This report deals with soil decontamination or removal of uranium from contaminated soils. The report was compiled by the USID task group that addresses soil decontamination; includes data from projects under the management of four DOE facilities [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the Savannah River Plant (SRP)]; and consists of four separate reports written by staff at these facilities. The fundamental goal of the soil decontamination task group has been the selective extraction/leaching or removal of uranium from soil faster, cheaper, and safer than current conventional technologies. The objective is to selectively remove uranium from soil without seriously degrading the soil`s physicochemical characteristics or generating waste forms that are difficult to manage and/or dispose of. Emphasis in research was placed more strongly on chemical extraction techniques than physical extraction techniques.

  7. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation: Summary of bench-scale tests for FY 1986 and FY 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, T.L.

    1987-09-01

    Processes to reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acid are being demonstrated at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Two precipitation processes and a distillation process are being developed to minimize waste from fuel fabrication operations, which comprise a series of metal-finishing operations. Waste process acids such as HF-HNO/sub 3/, etch solutions containing Zr as a major metal impurity, and HNO/sub 3/ strip solution containing Cu as a major metal impurity are detoxified and reclaimed by concurrently precipitating heavy metals and regenerating acid for recycle. Acid from a third waste acid stream generated from chemical milling operations will be reclaimed using distillation. This stream comprises HNO/sub 3/ and H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ containing U as the major metal impurity. Distillation allows NO/sub 3//sup -/ to be displaced by SO/sub 4//sup -2/ in metal salts; free HNO/sub 3/ is then vaporized from the U-bearing sulfate stream. Uranium can be recovered from the sulfate stream in a downstream precipitation step. 10 refs., 15 figs., 13 tabs.

  8. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level

  9. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  10. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  11. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  12. In situ vitrification program treatability investigation progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrenholz, D.A.

    1990-12-01

    This document presents a summary of the efforts conducted under the in situ vitrification treatability study during the period from its initiation in FY-88 until FY-90. In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that uses electrical power to convert contaminated soils into a chemically inert and stable glass and crystalline product. Contaminants present in the soil are either incorporated into the product or are pyrolyzed during treatment. The treatability study being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory by EG ampersand G Idaho is directed at examining the specific applicability of the in situ vitrification process to buried wastes contaminated with transuranic radionuclides and other contaminants found at the Subsurface Disposal Area of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex. This treatability study consists of a variety of tasks, including engineering tests, field tests, vitrified product evaluation, and analytical models of the ISV process. The data collected in the course of these efforts will address the nine criteria set forth in the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, which will be used to identify and select specific technologies to be used in the remediation of the buried wastes at the Subsurface Disposal Area. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Interim Report: 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: Low Concentration Calcium Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Mark D.; Fritz, Brad G.; Mendoza, Donaldo P.; Rockhold, Mark L.; Thorne, Paul D.; Xie, YuLong; Bjornstad, Bruce N.; Mackley, Rob D.; Newcomer, Darrell R.; Szecsody, James E.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-07-11

    Following an evaluation of potential Sr-90 treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, U.S. Department of Energy, Fluor Hanford, Inc., Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at 100-N Area will include apatite sequestration as the primary treatment, followed by a secondary treatment if necessary (most likely phytoremediation). Since then, the agencies have worked together to agree on which apatite sequestration technology has the greatest chance of reducing Sr-90 flux to the river at a reasonable cost. In July 2005, aqueous injection, (i.e., the introduction of apatite-forming chemicals into the subsurface) was endorsed as the interim remedy and selected for field testing. Studies are in progress to assess the efficacy of in situ apatite formation by aqueous solution injection to address both the vadose zone and the shallow aquifer along the 300 ft of shoreline where Sr-90 concentrations are highest. This report describes the field testing of the shallow aquifer treatment.

  14. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: High-Concentration Calcium-Citrate-Phosphate Solution Injection for In Situ Strontium-90 Immobilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fritz, Brad G.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2010-09-01

    Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.

  15. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-01-01

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF

  16. Treatability Study Pilot Test Operation Field Photos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Photos in each group are in chronological order as captured: Group I Tank Platform Setup, November 14, 2017; Group II Tank Setup, November 15, 2017; Group III Aboveground Injestion System (AIS) Setup, November 20, 2017; Group IV Chemical Mixing, November 21, 2017; Group V KB-1 Bacteria Injection, November 27, 2017; Group VI Miscellaneous.

  17. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: A digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Methods & results Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a ‘disease page’ serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. Conclusions For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital

  18. The treatable intellectual disability APP www.treatable-id.org: a digital tool to enhance diagnosis & care for rare diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Karnebeek, Clara D M; Houben, Roderick F A; Lafek, Mirafe; Giannasi, Wynona; Stockler, Sylvia

    2012-07-23

    Intellectual disability (ID) is a devastating and frequent condition, affecting 2-3% of the population worldwide. Early recognition of treatable underlying conditions drastically improves health outcomes and decreases burdens to patients, families and society. Our systematic literature review identified 81 such inborn errors of metabolism, which present with ID as a prominent feature and are amenable to causal therapy. The WebAPP translates this knowledge of rare diseases into a diagnostic tool and information portal. Freely available as a WebAPP via http://www.treatable-id.org and end 2012 via the APP store, this diagnostic tool is designed for all specialists evaluating children with global delay / ID and laboratory scientists. Information on the 81 diseases is presented in different ways with search functions: 15 biochemical categories, neurologic and non-neurologic signs & symptoms, diagnostic investigations (metabolic screening tests in blood and urine identify 65% of all IEM), therapies & effects on primary (IQ/developmental quotient) and secondary outcomes, and available evidence For each rare condition a 'disease page' serves as an information portal with online access to specific genetics, biochemistry, phenotype, diagnostic tests and therapeutic options. As new knowledge and evidence is gained from expert input and PubMed searches this tool will be continually updated. The WebAPP is an integral part of a protocol prioritizing treatability in the work-up of every child with global delay / ID. A 3-year funded study will enable an evaluation of its effectiveness. For rare diseases, a field for which financial and scientific resources are particularly scarce, knowledge translation challenges are abundant. With this WebAPP technology is capitalized to raise awareness for rare treatable diseases and their common presenting clinical feature of ID, with the potential to improve health outcomes. This innovative digital tool is designed to motivate health care

  19. Hierarchical calibration and validation for modeling bench-scale solvent-based carbon capture. Part 1: Non-reactive physical mass transfer across the wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation for modeling bench-scale solvent-based carbon capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Lai, Canhai [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Energy and Environment Directorate, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter [Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA

    2017-04-27

    A hierarchical model calibration and validation is proposed for quantifying the confidence level of mass transfer prediction using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, where the solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture is simulated and simulation results are compared to the parallel bench-scale experimental data. Two unit problems with increasing level of complexity are proposed to breakdown the complex physical/chemical processes of solvent-based CO2 capture into relatively simpler problems to separate the effects of physical transport and chemical reaction. This paper focuses on the calibration and validation of the first unit problem, i.e. the CO2 mass transfer across a falling ethanolamine (MEA) film in absence of chemical reaction. This problem is investigated both experimentally and numerically using nitrous oxide (N2O) as a surrogate for CO2. To capture the motion of gas-liquid interface, a volume of fluid method is employed together with a one-fluid formulation to compute the mass transfer between the two phases. Bench-scale parallel experiments are designed and conducted to validate and calibrate the CFD models using a general Bayesian calibration. Two important transport parameters, e.g. Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity, are calibrated to produce the posterior distributions, which will be used as the input for the second unit problem to address the chemical adsorption of CO2 across the MEA falling film, where both mass transfer and chemical reaction are involved.

  20. Characterization of mercury, arsenic, and selenium in the product streams of a bench-scale, inert-gas, oil shale retort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, K.B.; Evans, J.C.; Fruchter, J.S.; Girvin, D.C.; Nelson, C.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of heating rates and maximum temperatures on the redistribution of mercury, arsenic, and selenium into the shale oil, retort water, and offgas of a 6-kg bench-scale retort. A Green River shale (western) from Colorado and a New Albany shale (eastern) from Kentucky were heated at 1-2{degree}C/min to a maximum temperature of 500{degree}C. The eastern and western shales were also heated at 2{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C and at 10{degree}C/min to 750{degree}C. Real-time monitoring of the offgas stream for mercury was accomplished with Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy or a microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy. Microwave-induced helium plasma spectroscopy was also used to monitor for arsenic in the offgas during retorting; little or no arsenic was observed in the offgas. Mass balance calculations for arsenic and selenium accounted for essentially 100% of those elements in the spent shale, shale oil, and retort water. The mass balance calculations suggest little offgas component for arsenic and selenium. This agrees with the results of the MPD monitoring of the offgas. These results indicate the potential pathway for mercury to enter the environment is from the offgas. Arsenic and selenium preferential redistribution into the shale oil may present problems during the upgrading process.

  1. Influence of toluene and salinity on biosurfactant production by Bacillus sp.: scale up from flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To select the best biosurfactant producer, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis were cultured in flasks on media with different salinity [low salinity (LS, Bushnell-Haas (BH and artificial sea water (SW media] supplemented or not with toluene as a model pollutant. Toluene inhibited the growth of all microorganisms and stimulated the biosurfactant production. B. subtilis exhibited the best performance, being able to lower the surface tension (ST in the LS medium to 65.5 mN/min in the absence of toluene, and to 46.5 mN/min in the BH medium in the presence of toluene, corresponding to ST reductions of 13.0 and 27.5 mN/m, respectively. Scaling up the process to a bench-scale fermentor, the best results were obtained in the LS medium, where B. subtilis was able to reduce the toluene concentration from 26.0 to 4.3 g/L within 12 h and ST by 17.2 mN/m within 18 h. The results of this study point out that B. subtilis is an interesting biosurfactant producer, which could be used in the bioremediation of toluene-contaminated water.

  2. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  3. Integrating a 250 mL-spinner flask with other stirred bench-scale cell culture devices: a mass transfer perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallejos, Jose R; Brorson, Kurt A; Moreira, Antonio R; Rao, Govind

    2011-01-01

    The bioprocess development cycle is a complex task that requires a complete understanding of the engineering of the process (e.g., mass transfer, mixing, CO(2) removal, process monitoring, and control) and its affect on cell biology and product quality. Despite their widespread use in bioprocess development, spinner flasks generally lack engineering characterization of critical physical parameters such as k(L)a, P/V, or mixing time. In this study, mass transfer characterization of a 250-mL spinner flask using optical patch-based sensors is presented. The results quantitatively show the effect of the impeller type, liquid filling volume, and agitation speed on the volumetric mass transfer coefficient (k(L)a) in a 250-mL spinner flask, and how they can be manipulated to match mass transfer capability at large culture devices. Thus, process understanding in spinner flasks can be improved, and these devices can be seamlessly integrated in a rational scale-up strategy from cell thawing to bench-scale bioreactors (and beyond) in biomanufacturing. Copyright © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers (AIChE).

  4. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester

    OpenAIRE

    Coughtrie, AR; Borman, DJ; Sleigh, PA

    2013-01-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) ar...

  5. Removal of strontium from drinking water by conventional treatment and lime softening in bench-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Alissa J; Lytle, Darren A; Harmon, Stephen; Vu, Kevin; Chait, Hannah; Dionysiou, Dionysios D

    2016-10-15

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. Very limited data is available on strontium removal from drinking water and as a result, there is an immediate need for treatment information. The objective of this work is to evaluate the effectiveness of coagulation/filtration and lime-soda ash softening treatment methods to remove strontium from surface and ground waters. Coagulation/filtration jar test results on natural waters showed that conventional treatment with aluminum and iron coagulants were able to achieve only 12% and 5.9% strontium removal, while lime softening removed as high as 78% from natural strontium-containing ground water. Controlled batch experiments on synthetic water showed that strontium removal during the lime-soda ash softening was affected by pH, calcium concentration and dissolved inorganic carbon concentration. In all softening jar tests, the final strontium concentration was directly related to the initial strontium concentration and the removal of strontium was directly associated with calcium removal. Precipitated solids showed well-formed crystals or agglomerates of mixed solids, two polymorphs of calcium carbonate (vaterite and calcite), and strontianite, depending on initial water quality conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis suggested that strontium was likely incorporated in the calcium carbonate crystal lattice and was likely responsible for removal during lime softening. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Evaluation of adipic acid addition to a bench-scale Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behrens, G.P.

    1981-12-01

    An experimental laboratory study testing the effectiveness of adipic acid in the Chiyoda Thoroughbred 121 FGD system has been sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute. Additionally, economic calculations for the cost effectiveness of usng adipic acid in a commercial scale CT-121 FGD system have been performed. The results of this study indicate that although adipic acid can increase the SO/sub 2/ removal capability of the CT-121 system, it is not an economically attractive process improvement. This result is due to the CT-121 process chemistry which minimizes limestone consumption and sludge volume without the need of adipic acid. These two areas realize major cost savings when adipic is used in a conventional limestone FGD system. The economic evaluation indicates even though a lower gas-side pressue drop is achieved when adipic acid is used, the savings in electrical costs are insufficient to offset the cost of adipic acid.

  7. Indoor Secondary Pollutants from Household Product Emissions inthe Presence of Ozone: A Bench-Scale Chamber Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Destaillats, Hugo; Lunden, Melissa M.; Singer, Brett C.; Coleman,Beverly K.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Weschler, Charles J.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2005-10-01

    Ozone-driven chemistry is a major source of indoor secondary pollutants of health concern. This study investigates secondary air pollutants formed from reactions between constituents of household products and ozone. Gas-phase product emissions were introduced along with ozone at constant rates into a 198-L Teflon-lined reaction chamber. Gas-phase concentrations of reactive terpenoids and oxidation products were measured. Formaldehyde was a predominant oxidation byproduct for the three studied products, with yields under most conditions of 20-30% with respect to ozone consumed. Acetaldehyde, acetone, glycolaldehyde, formic acid and acetic acid were each also detected for two or three of the products. Immediately upon mixing of reactants, a scanning mobility particle sizer detected particle nucleation events that were followed by a significant degree of ultrafine particle growth. The production of secondary gaseous pollutants and particles depended primarily on the ozone level and was influenced by other parameters such as the air-exchange rate. Hydroxyl radical concentrations in the range 0.04-200 x 10{sup 5} molecules cm{sup -3} were measured. OH concentrations were observed to vary strongly with residual ozone level in the chamber, which was in the range 1-25 ppb, as is consistent with expectations from a simplified kinetic model. In a separate test, we exposed the dry residue of two products to ozone in the chamber and observed the formation of gas-phase and particle-phase secondary oxidation products.

  8. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

    2013-06-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-∊ models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, T.

    1999-09-16

    At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow. Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of 100 000 smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities. In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'. (author)

  10. Bench scale experiments for the remediation of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, Michael [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-08-11

    The Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility at the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The plan for disposition of this stream during baseline operations is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. The primary reason to recycle this stream is so that the semi-volatile 99Tc isotope eventually becomes incorporated into the glass. This stream also contains non-radioactive salt components that are problematic in the melter, so diversion of this stream to another process would eliminate recycling of these salts and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. This diversion from recycling this stream within WTP would have the effect of decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The concept being tested here involves removing the 99Tc so that the decontaminated aqueous stream, with the problematic salts, can be disposed elsewhere.

  11. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C. [State Univ. of Maringa (UEM), Chemical Engineering Dept., Lab. of Catalysis, Maringa (Brazil); Schmal, M. [PEQ/COPPE/UFRJ Cidade Univ., Centro de Tecnologia, Graduate School and Research in Engineering Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute, Rio De Janeiro (Brazil); Cantao, M.P. [LACTEC, Dept. of Materials, Inst. of Technology for Development, Curitiba (Brazil)] [and others

    2003-07-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu{sup I} (55%) or Cu{sup II} (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m{sup 2}/g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu{sup II} to Cu, at 245{sup o}C and 306{sup o}C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO{sub 2} as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300{sup o}C to 400{sup o}C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  12. Process and equipment development for hot isostatic pressing treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateman, Ken; Wahlquist, Dennis; Malewitz, Tim

    2015-03-01

    Battelle Energy Alliance (BEA), LLC, has developed processes and equipment for a pilot-scale hot isostatic pressing (HIP) treatability study to stabilize and volume reduce radioactive calcine stored at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). In 2009, the U. S. Department of Energy signed a Record of Decision with the state of Idaho selecting HIP technology as the method to treat 5,800 yd^3 (4,400 m^3) of granular zirconia and alumina calcine produced between 1953 and 1992 as a waste byproduct of spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Since the 1990s, a variety of radioactive and hazardous waste forms have been remotely treated using HIP within INL hot cells. To execute the remote process at INL, waste is loaded into a stainless-steel or aluminum can, which is evacuated, sealed, and placed into a HIP furnace. The HIP simultaneously heats and pressurizes the waste, reducing its volume and increasing its durability. Two 1 gal cans of calcine waste currently stored in a shielded cask were identified as candidate materials for a treatability study involving the HIP process. Equipment and materials for cask-handling and calcine transfer into INL hot cells, as well as remotely operated equipment for waste can opening, particle sizing, material blending, and HIP can loading have been designed and successfully tested. These results demonstrate BEA’s readiness for treatment of INL calcine.

  13. Fatigue in a heat treatable high silicon containing aluminium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J. A.; Talamantes-Silva, J.; Valtierra, S.; Colás, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    The use of cast aluminium alloys in automobiles contributes to reductions in weight and fuel consumption without impairing the safety for the occupants or the performance of the car. Most of the alloys used are heat treatable hypoeutectic Al-Si alloys, which have the drawback of exhibiting low wear resistance. So industry relies in wear resistant alloys, such as grey iron, for the liners of the combustion chambers in engine blocks, which increase the weight of the engine. Therefore, it is of interest to cast high silicon containing alloys into engine components that are able to resist wear while maintaining the mechanical properties required by the components. This work presents the result of the work carried out in a high silicon containing heat treatable aluminium alloy as it is subjected to high cycle fatigue. The alloy was prepared and cast in ingots designed to promote one dimensional solidification gradient to obtain samples to study the high cycle fatigue. The material was machined into hour-glass specimens that were tested at room temperature in a servohydraulic machine under load control following the stair case method. The results show that the resistance to fatigue depends on the microstructure of the sample, as the fatigue cracks originate in pores close to the surface of the sample and propagate through the eutectic aggregate. The results from this work are compared with those from previously obtained with hypoeutectic alloys.

  14. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  15. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  16. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  17. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment

  18. 300-FF-1 operable unit remedial investigation phase II report: Physical separation of soils treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report describes the approach and results of physical separations treatability tests conducted at the Hanford Site in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. Physical separation of soils was identified as a remediation alternative due to the potential to significantly reduce the amount of contaminated soils prior to disposal. Tests were conducted using a system developed at Hanford consisting of modified EPA equipment integrated with screens, hoppers, conveyors, tanks, and pumps from the Hanford Site. The treatability tests discussed in this report consisted of four parts, in which an estimated 84 tons of soil was processed: (1) a pre-test run to set up the system and adjust system parameters for soils to be processed; (2) a baseline run to establish the performance of the system - Test No. 1; (3) a final run in which the system was modified as a result of findings from the baseline run - Test No. 2; and (4) water treatment.

  19. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge TN

    2017-10-24

    The first part of this paper (Part 1) presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. To generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work has the ability to account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. The calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  20. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1995-09-01

    Functions and requirements for the Waste Dislodging and Conveyance System to be deployed in Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) and tested and evaluated as a candidate tank waste retrieval technology by the GAAT Treatability Study (GAAT TS)

  1. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K

    2006-03-31

    Tank 48H return to service is critical to the processing of high level waste (HLW) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Liquid Waste Disposition (LWD) management has the goal of returning Tank 48H to routine service by January 2010 or as soon as practical. Tank 48H currently holds legacy material containing organic tetraphenylborate (TPB) compounds from the operation of the In-Tank Precipitation process. This material is not compatible with the waste treatment facilities at SRS and must be removed or undergo treatment to destroy the organic compounds before the tank can be returned to Tank Farm service. Tank 48H currently contains {approx}240,000 gallons of alkaline slurry with about 2 wt % potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (KTPB and CsTPB). The main radioactive component in Tank 48H is {sup 137}Cs. The waste also contains {approx}0.15 wt % Monosodium Titanate (MST) which has adsorbed {sup 90}Sr, U, and Pu isotopes. A System Engineering Evaluation of technologies/ideas for the treatment of TPB identified Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) as a leading alternative technology to the baseline aggregation approach. Over 75 technologies/ideas were evaluated overall. Forty-one technologies/ideas passed the initial screening evaluation. The 41 technologies/ideas were then combined to 16 complete solutions for the disposition of TPB and evaluated in detail. Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is an aqueous phase process in which soluble or suspended waste components are oxidized using molecular oxygen contained in air. The process operates at elevated temperatures and pressures ranging from 150 to 320 C and 7 to 210 atmospheres, respectively. The products of the reaction are CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and low molecular weight oxygenated organics (e.g. acetate, oxalate). The basic flow scheme for a typical WAO system is as follows. The waste solution or slurry is pumped through a high-pressure feed pump. An air stream containing sufficient oxygen to meet the oxygen requirements of the waste stream is injected into the pressurized waste stream, and the air/liquid mixture is preheated to the required reactor inlet temperature. The reactor provides sufficient retention time to allow the oxidation to approach the desired level of organic decomposition. Typical reaction time is about 30-120 minutes. Heat exchangers are routinely employed to recover energy contained in the reactor effluent to preheat the waste feed/air entering the reactor. Auxiliary energy, usually steam, is necessary for startup and can provide trim heat if required. Since the oxidation reactions are exothermic, sufficient energy may be released in the reactor to allow the WAO system to operate without any additional heat input. After cooling, the oxidized reactor effluent passes through a pressure control valve where the pressure is reduced. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. Typical industrial WAO applications have a feed flow rate of 1 to 220 gallons per minute (gpm) per train, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 10,000 to 150,000 mg/L (higher CODs with dilution). Note that catalysts, such as homogeneous copper and iron, their heterogeneous counterparts, or precious metals can be used to enhance the effectiveness (i.e., to lower temperature, pressure, and residence time as well as increase oxidation efficiencies) of the WAO reaction if deemed necessary.

  2. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-01-01

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  3. Experimental Plan: Uranium Stabilization Through Polyphosphate Injection 300 Area Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2006-09-20

    This Test Plan describes a laboratory-testing program to be performed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in support of the 300-FF-5 Feasibility Study (FS). The objective of the proposed treatability test is to evaluate the efficacy of using polyphosphate injections to treat uranium contaminated groundwater in situ. This study will be used to: (1) Develop implementation cost estimates; (2) Identify implementation challenges; and (3) Investigate the technology's ability to meet remedial objectives These activities will be conducted in parallel with a limited field investigation, which is currently underway to more accurately define the vertical extent of uranium in the vadose zone, and in the capillary fringe zone laterally throughout the plume. The treatability test will establish the viability of the method and, along with characterization data from the limited field investigation, will provide the means for determining how best to implement the technology in the field. By conducting the treatability work in parallel with the ongoing Limited Field Investigation, the resulting Feasibility Study (FS) will provide proven, site-specific information for evaluating polyphosphate addition and selecting a suitable remediation strategy for the uranium plume within the FS time frame at an overall cost savings.

  4. Neonatal screening for treatable congenital disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charoensiriwatana, W.; Janejai, N.; Boonwanich, W.; Krasao, P.; Waiyasilp, S.

    2001-01-01

    Congenital hypothyroidism is a treatable disease if detected at the early stage of life. It is one of the most frequent cause of mental retardation in children. In 85 % of cases, congenital hypothyroidism is a consequence of thyroid disgenesis, in which the gland is either absent, located ectopically and/or severely reduced in size. Early detection and treatment with thyroid hormone supplement can significantly reduce mental damage. In 1996, Thailand initiated a neonatal screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism (CHT) and phenylketonuria (PKU), with the objective of bringing a better quality of life to people throughout the country, but especially in the remote areas. The programme involves implementing routine screening nationwide. The plan of action was designed with the goal of having public health service units throughout the country provide neonatal screening by year 2002 for the 1.2 million babies born per annum in Thailand. The government supported the programme by allocating a five-year budget of approximately US$15 million. The programme received additional assistance through technical support and human resource development from the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the US Centers for Disease Control. This assistance promoted self-sustainability and strengthened the programme's technical base. The programme is on track. It is expected that by year 2002 all new born babies in Thailand will be screened for CHT and PKU

  5. Polyethylene encapsulation of simulated blowdown waste for SEG treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Environmental and Waste Technology Center is a participating subcontractor in the Scientific Ecology Group (SEG) Treatability Study for Westinghouse Savannah River Co.'s Blowdown Waste. This waste will be generated at the Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) and will consist of the neutralized aqueous scrubber solution from the incinerator. Since the facility is designed to burn low-level radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes, the blowdown waste will likely be a mixed waste. Polyethylene encapsulation is an improved treatment method that has been developed at BNL over the last 10 years. Polyethylene is an inert, thermoplastic polymer with a melt temperature of 120 C. The BNL process is a modification of standard plastics extrusion technology that has been utilized successfully by the plastics industry for over 50 years. Polyethylene binder and dry waste material are fed through separate calibrated feeders to the extruder, where the materials are thoroughly mixed, heated to a molten condition, and then extruded into a suitable mold. A monolithic solid waste form results on cooling. The objective of the Phase 1 screening effort was to prepare test specimens of CIF surrogate waste encapsulated in polyethylene for leach testing using EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). BNL received aqueous CIF surrogate from SEG, pretreated the stimulant for processing, and fabricated TCLP test specimens for analysis at an independent laboratory. Laboratory and processing procedures are described in this letter report

  6. Treatable bacterial infections are underrecognized causes of fever in Ethiopian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsland, Sara J; Castellanos-Gonzalez, Alejandro; Lockamy, Kameron P; Mulu-Droppers, Ruth; Mulu, Moges; White, A Clinton; Cabada, Miguel M

    2012-07-01

    Febrile illnesses remain a major cause of morbidity and mortality in resource-poor countries, but too often, tests are not available to determine the causes, leading to misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment. To determine the cause of febrile illnesses, we recovered the malaria smears from 102 children presenting with fever to Soddo Christian Hospital in Wolaitta Soddo, Ethiopia. DNA was isolated from the smears and evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We identified pathogen DNA with probes for Plasmodium spp., Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rickettsia spp., Salmonella spp., and Borrelia spp. Overall, we showed that it is possible to isolate high-quality DNA and identify treatable pathogens from malaria blood smears. Furthermore, our data showed that bacterial pathogens (especially Pneumococcus, Rickettsia spp., and Borrelia spp.) are common and frequently unrecognized but treatable causes of febrile illnesses in Ethiopian children.

  7. Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of INEL low-level mixed wastes. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lageraaen, P.R.; Patel, B.R.; Kalb, P.D.; Adams, J.W.

    1995-10-01

    Treatability studies for polyethylene encapsulation of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) low-level mixed wastes were conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The treatability work, which included thermal screening and/or processibility testing, was performed on priority candidate wastes identified by INEL to determine the applicability of polyethylene encapsulation for the solidification and stabilization of these mixed wastes. The candidate wastes selected for this preliminary study were Eutectic Salts, Ion Exchange Resins, Activated Carbons, Freon Contaminated Rags, TAN TURCO Decon 4502, ICPP Sodium Bearing Liquid Waste, and HTRE-3 Acid Spill Clean-up. Thermal screening was conducted for some of these wastes to determine the thermal stability of the wastes under expected pretreatment and processing conditions. Processibility testing to determine whether the wastes were amenable to extrusion processing included monitoring feed consistency, extruder output consistency, waste production homogeneity, and waste form performance. Processing parameters were not optimized within the scope of this study. However, based on the treatability results, polyethylene encapsulation does appear applicable as a primary or secondary treatment for most of these wastes

  8. Solidifications/stabilization treatability study of a mixed waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spence, R.D.; Stine, E.F.

    1996-01-01

    The Department of Energy Oak Ridge Operations Office signed a Federal Facility Compliance Agreement with the US Environmental Protection Agency Region IV regarding mixed wastes from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) subject to the land disposal restriction provisions of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). This agreement required treatability studies of solidification/stabilization (S/S) on mixed wastes from the ORR. This paper reports the results of the cementitious S/S studies conducted on a waste water treatment sludge generated from biodenitrification and heavy metals precipitation. For the cementitious waste forms, the additives tested were Portland cement, ground granulated blast furnace slag, Class F fly ash, and perlite. The properties measured on the treated waste were density, free-standing liquid, unconfined compressive strength, and TCLP performance. Spiking up to 10,000, 10,000, and 4,400 mg/kg of nickel, lead, and cadmium, respectively, was conducted to test waste composition variability and the stabilization limitations of the binding agents. The results indicated that nickel, lead and cadmium were stabilized fairly well in the high pH hydroxide-carbonate- ''bug bones'' sludge, but also clearly confirmed the established stabilization potential of cementitious S/S for these RCRA metals

  9. Tratabilidade da água do reservatório do Guarapiranga: efeitos da ozonização sobre algumas variáveis de qualidade das águas Treatability of Guarapiranga reservoir water: effects of ozonation on some water quality variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico de Almeida Lage Filho

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Ensaios de tratabilidade em bancada tendo cloreto férrico como coagulante foram conduzidos para avaliar efeitos da pré-ozonização e da inter-ozonização sobre variáveis de qualidade de águas em diversas etapas de tratamento: demanda de cloro livre (DCL, absorbância de luz ultravioleta em 254 nm (abs UV254 e concentração de matéria orgânica (MO. Para águas decantadas, a ozonização favoreceu a remoção de MO, mas não pareceu influenciar a redução da DCL, em relação aos ensaios sem ozonização. Para as águas filtradas, os ensaios com ozônio proporcionaram maiores remoções de MO e valores da relação DCL/MO do que os ensaios sem ozônio, porém estes últimos foram mais eficientes na redução da DCL. A ozonização da água bruta reduziu a concentração de MO e a abs UV254 mas não a DCL. A DCL imediata da água bruta foi estimada e pareceu não depender do tempo de contato.Bench scale treatability tests with ferric chloride coagulation were conducted to assess effects of pre-ozonation, inter-ozonation on water quality variables of water samples in several stages of treatment: free chlorine demand (FCD, absorbance of Ultra Violet light in the 254 nm wavelength (UV254 abs and organic matter (OM concentration. Regarding settling, ozonation favored OM removal but did not seem to influence FCD reduction, as compared with tests without ozonation. Regarding filtration, tests with ozonation led to higher OM removals and FCD/OM ratios than tests without ozonation. However, tests without ozonation were more efficient in reducing the FCD. Raw water ozonation decreased OM and UV254 abs values but not FCD values. The immediate FCD was obtained for raw water and it did not seem to depend on contact time.

  10. Treatability of stabilize landfill leachate by using pressmud ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azme, N. N. Mohd; Murshed, M. F.

    2018-04-01

    Leachate is a liquid produced from the landfill that contains high concentration of heavy metals, chemicals and nutrient loading. The treatability of these contaminants are complicated since the current treatment technology are costly and site specific. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of stabilized landfill leachate by using waste (pressmud ash) as an absorbent. Pressmud ash was prepared by burning at different temperature from 100 to 700 degree Celsius and test at 24 hours shaking time, pH 8, and 4000 rpm. Leachate samples were collected from municipal solid waste (MSW) Pulau Burung Sanitary Landfill (PBSL) and were analyzed for heavy metal, COD, ammonia and colour. This study was performed in two phases i) leachate characteristic, ii) treatability assessment by using pressmud ash. Pressmud was sampled from the sugar mill, Malaysian Sugar Manufacturing (MSM) Sdn Bhd, Seberang Perai, Pulau Pinang. The pressmud with 400°C are highly potential material with a low cost which can be a good adsorbent was capable reducing efficiencies of COD (60.76%), ammonia (64.37%) and colour (35.78%) from real wastewater leachate. Pressmud showed good sorption capability. Surface modification with burning greatly enhanced the reducing efficiency of sugar waste based adsorbent with adsorption efficiency.

  11. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-01-01

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document

  12. Results from five years of treatability studies using hydraulic binders to stabilize low-level mixed waste at the INEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gering, K.L.; Schwendiman, G.L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper summarizes work involving bench-scale solidification of nonincinerable, land disposal restricted low-level mixed waste. Waste forms included liquids, sludges, and solids; treatment techniques included hydraulic systems (Portland cement with and without additives), proprietary commercial formulations, and sulphur polymer cement. Solidification was performed to immobilize hazardous heavy metals (including mercury, lead, chromium, and cadmium), and volatile and semivolatile organic compounds. Pretreatment options for mixed wastes are discussed, using a decision tree based on the form of mixed waste and the type of hazardous constituents. Hundreds of small concrete monoliths were formed for a variety of waste types. The experimental parameters used for the hydraulic concrete systems include the ratio of waste to dry binder (Portland cement, proprietary materials, etc.), the total percentage of water in concrete, and the amount of concrete additives. The only parameter that was used for the sulfur polymer-based monoliths is ratio of waste to binder. Optimum concrete formulations or open-quotes recipesclose quotes for a given type of waste were derived through this study, as based on results from the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure analyses and a free liquids test. Overall results indicate that high waste loadings in the concrete can be achieved while the monolithic mass maintains excellent resistance to leaching of heavy metals. In our study the waste loadings in the concrete generally fell within the range of 0.5 to 2.0 kg mixed waste per kg dry binder. Likewise, the most favorable amount of water in concrete, which is highly dependent upon the concrete constituents, was determined to be generally within the range of 300 to 330 g/kg (30-33% by weight). The results of this bench-scale study will find applicability at facilities where mixed or hazardous waste solidification is a planned or ongoing activity. 19 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs

  13. Waste treatability guidance program. User`s guide. Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, C.

    1995-12-21

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User`s Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan.

  14. Waste treatability guidance program. User's guide. Revision 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toth, C.

    1995-01-01

    DOE sites across the country generate and manage radioactive, hazardous, mixed, and sanitary wastes. It is necessary for each site to find the technologies and associated capacities required to manage its waste. One role of DOE HQ Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management is to facilitate the integration of the site- specific plans into coherent national plans. DOE has developed a standard methodology for defining and categorizing waste streams into treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. This Waste Treatability Guidance Program automates the Guidance Document for the categorization of waste information into treatability groups; this application provides a consistent implementation of the methodology across the National TRU Program. This User's Guide provides instructions on how to use the program, including installations instructions and program operation. This document satisfies the requirements of the Software Quality Assurance Plan

  15. Hanford Site Annual Treatability Studies Report Calendar Year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohs, Eugene L.

    2002-02-20

    This report provides information required to be reported annually by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-071 (3)(r)(ii)(F) and (3)(s)(ix) on the treatability studies conducted on the Hanford Site in 2000. These studies were conducted as required by WAC 173-303-071, "Excluded Categories of Waste," sections (3)(r) and (s). Unless otherwise noted, the waste samples were provided by and the treatability studies were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identification number for these studies is WA7890008967.

  16. Characterisation and biological treatability of "Izmit industrial and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We investigated the conventional characterisation and biological treatability of wastewaters of the "Izmit Industrial and Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant". Respirometric procedures were carried out for the experimental assessment of organic contents of wastewater. The mean value of total COD was 1201 mg.l-1 and ...

  17. A potentially treatable cause of dementia | Katsidzira | Central ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A potentially treatable cause of dementia. L Katsidzira, T Machiridza, A Ndlovu. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  18. Treatability of chromite ore processing waste by leaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unlü, K; Haskök, S

    2001-06-01

    Developing treatment and disposal strategies and health-based clean-up standards for chromium containing wastes continues to be an important environmental regulatory issue because of the opposing solubility and toxicity characteristics of chromium species under diverse environmental conditions. In this study, leaching characteristics of total Cr and Cr(VI) were investigated using laboratory column studies. The data obtained from the experimental studies were analysed to assess the treatability of chromite ore processing waste (COPW) by leaching and to identify the leaching strategies that enhance mass removal rates of chromium species. COPW used for laboratory soil column studies was obtained from an industrial plant producing sodium chromate in Mersin, Turkey. Laboratory investigations involved chemical characterisation of waste material and column studies. For waste characterisation, U.S. EPA toxicity characterisation leaching procedure (TCLP) was performed on COPW to determine the concentrations of metal species in the TCLP extract. For column studies, various laboratory columns containing plain COPW material, 1:1 COPW/reducing agent (elemental iron or manure) mixture and different type soils (sand, loam and clay) overlain by COPW were subjected to leaching tests using acidic, neutral and alkaline influent water to determine Cr mass leaching efficiencies. Based on the TCLP analyses, COPW is classified as hazardous waste. As a result of comparing the leaching efficiency data from twelve leaching columns, the maximum removal of total Cr was achieved by leaching COPW/manure mixture using acidic (pH 4.78) influent water. The highest Cr(VI) leaching efficiency was achieved in the columns of plain COPW and COPW/manure mixture using highly alkaline (pH 12.0) influent water. The least effective leaching efficiency for both total Cr and Cr (VI) was obtained by leaching plain COPW with neutral (pH 7.0) influent water. Land-disposal of the treated COPW material by mixing

  19. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  20. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  1. Test plan: Potash Core Test. WIPP experimental program borehole plugging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, C.L.

    1979-09-01

    The Potash Core Test will utilize a WIPP emplaced plug to obtain samples of an in-situ cured plug of known mix constituents for bench scale testing. An earlier effort involved recovery at the salt horizon of Plug 217, a 17 year old plug in a potash exploration hole for bond testing, but the lack of particulars in the emplacement precluded significant determination of plug performance

  2. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Hanford Site Annual Treatability Studies Report, Calendar Year 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grohs, Eugene L.

    2003-02-28

    This report provides information required to be reported annually by the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 173-303-071 (3)(r)(ii)(F) and (3)(s)(ix) on the treatability studies conducted on the Hanford Site in 2002. These studies were conducted as required by WAC 173-303-071, “Excluded Categories of Waste,” sections (3)(r) and (s). Unless otherwise noted, the waste samples were provided by and the treatability studies were performed for the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, P.O. Box 550, Richland, Washington 99352. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency identification number for these studies is WA7890008967.

  4. Pad A treatability study long-range project plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousseau, J.D.

    1991-06-01

    This plan addresses the work to be accomplished by the Pad A Treatability Study Project. The purpose of this project is to investigate potential treatment and separation technologies, identify the best technologies, and to demonstrate by both lab- and pilot-scale demonstration, the most applicable remedial technologies for treating plutonium-contaminated salts at the Pad A site located at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) a the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The conduct of this project will be supported by other DOE laboratories, universities, and private industries, who will provide support for near-term demonstrations of treatment and separation technologies. The purpose of this long-range planning document is to present the detailed plan for the implementation of the Pad A Treatability Study Project

  5. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.

    2013-09-03

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  6. 200-BP-5 operable unit treatability test report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    The 200-BP-5 Operable Unit was established in response to recommendations presented in the 200 East Groundwater Aggregate Area Management Study Report (AAMSR) (DOE-RL 1993a). Recognizing different approaches to remediation, the groundwater AAMSR recommended separating groundwater from source and vadose zone operable units and subdividing 200 East Area groundwater into two operable units. The division between the 200-BP-5 and 200-PO-1 Operable Units was based principally on source operable unit boundaries and distribution of groundwater plumes derived from either B Plant or Plutonium/Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant liquid waste disposal sites.

  7. Thermal desorption treatability test conducted with VAC*TRAX Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    In 1992, Congress passed the Federal Facilities Compliance Act, requiring the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to treat and dispose of its mixed waste in accordance with Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) treatment standards. In response to the need for mixed-waste treatment capacity, where off-site commercial treatment facilities do not exist or cannot be used, the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office (DOE-AL) organized a Treatment Selection Team to match mixed waste with treatment options and develop a strategy for treatment of mixed waste. DOE-AL manages nine sites with mixed-waste inventories. The Treatment Selection Team determined a need to develop mobile treatment units (MTUs) to treat waste at the sites where the wastes are generated. Treatment processes used for mixed wastes must remove the hazardous component (i.e., meet RCRA treatment standards) and contain the radioactive component in a form that will protect the worker, public, and environment. On the basis of the recommendations of the Treatment Selection Team, DOE-AL assigned projects to the sites to bring mixed-waste treatment capacity on-line. The three technologies assigned to the DOE Grand Junction Projects Office (DOE-GJPO) include thermal desorption (TD), evaporative oxidation, and waste water evaporation

  8. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  9. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  10. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  11. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  12. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  13. Surfactant studies for bench-scale operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, Gregory S.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1993-01-01

    A phase 2 study has been initiated to investigate surfactant-assisted coal liquefaction, with the objective of quantifying the enhancement in liquid yields and product quality. This report covers the second quarter of work. The major accomplishments were: completion of coal liquefaction autoclave reactor runs with Illinois number 6 coal at processing temperatures of 300, 325, and 350 C, and pressures of 1800 psig; analysis of the filter cake and the filtrate obtained from the treated slurry in each run; and correlation of the coal conversions and the liquid yield quality to the surfactant concentration. An increase in coal conversions and upgrading of the liquid product quality due to surfactant addition was observed for all runs.

  14. Eficiencia del proceso de lavado en la obtención del citrato de calcio y magnesio a escala de banco Effectiveness of washout process to obtain calcium and magnesium citrate at bench scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E Rodríguez Chanfrau

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Como parte de la optimización del proceso tecnológico para obtener citrato de calcio y magnesio a partir de dolomitas, se estudió a escala de banco la etapa de lavado para disminuir el contenido de ácido cítrico libre. Las variantes de lavado estudiadas permitieron disminuir el contenido de ácido cítrico libre por debajo del 3 %, mientras que los valores de calcio y magnesio son similares a los del lote antes de realizar el proceso de lavado. Por otro lado, el estudio toxicológico en ratas, comprobó que los lotes a los cuales se les aplicó las diferentes variantes de lavado no provocaron irritabilidad gástrica a las dosis de 2 000 mg/kg de peso corporal, por lo que se puede afirmar que el proceso de lavado establecido es adecuado para garantizar la calidad de la materia prima.As part of the technological process optomization to obtain calcium citrate and magnesium from dolomites, we studied at bench scale, the washout stage to decrease the free citric acid content. Washout variants allowed to decrease the free citric acid content under 3 %, whereas the calcium and magnesium values are similar to those of batch before to carry out the wahout process. On the other hand, toxicity study in rats, proved that the batches where different washout variables were applied not provoke gastric irritability at doses of 2 000 mg/kg of body weight confirming that above mentioned established process is approproate to guarantee the raw material quality.

  15. Development and pilot testing of full-scale membrane distillation modules for deployment of waste heat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.E.; Assink, J.W.; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Medevoort, J. van; Sonsbeek, E. van

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an attractive technology for extracting fresh water from seawater. Newly developed modules have been used in pilot tests and bench scale tests to demonstrate the potential of producing excellent product water quality in a single step, little need for water pretreatment and a

  16. Test Plan for Cask Identification Detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-29

    This document serves to outline the testing of a Used Fuel Cask Identification Detector (CID) currently being designed under the DOE-NE MPACT Campaign. A bench-scale prototype detector will be constructed and tested using surrogate neutron sources. The testing will serve to inform the design of the full detector that is to be used as a way of fingerprinting used fuel storage casks based on the neutron signature produced by the used fuel inside the cask.

  17. 1994 Solid waste forecast summary: Waste characteristics and treatability groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valero, O.J.; Williams, N.C.; Armacost, L.L.

    1994-10-01

    This document, prepared by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under the direction of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), describes the characteristics of the low-level mixed solid waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed solid waste (TRU/TRUM) that will be received at Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC). This waste will be generated over the next 30 years from operations, maintenance activities, deactivation activities, decontamination and decommissioning (D ampersand D) of facilities, and environmental restoration (ER) activities. For the past 4 years, each onsite and offsite waste generator has provided an annual forecast of the waste volume that is scheduled to be shipped to Hanford's Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) over the next 30 years. The generator's forecast includes the waste volumes, waste classes, physical waste forms, hazardous constituents, and container types. Certain waste generators had a difficult time predicting their future waste volumes. Therefore, special studies and interviews were conducted to obtain these volumes. This document, based primarily on the 1993 forecasts, describes the physical waste forms and hazardous constituents for the low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and the transuranic/transuranic mixed waste (TRU/TRUM) that will be shipped to Hanford's SWOC. In addition, it illustrates how mixed waste is categorized into nationally established treatability groups. Defining the waste characteristics and categorizing the waste into treatability groups allows management and treatment planners to plan for future waste management activities and evaluate alternative treatment strategies

  18. Effects of high treatability information on preventative intention of bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie; Dalley, Simon

    2017-01-01

    Background: The information that indicates a disease is highly treatable is called ‘high treatability information’ (HTI). This HTI may decrease people’s preventative intention of the disease. The current study examined the effects of HTI on preventative intention of bowel cancer. Procedure of

  19. Effects of high treatability information on preventative intention of bowel cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Yingqiu; Dijkstra, Arie; Dalley, Simon E.

    2017-01-01

    The information that indicates a disease is highly treatable is called ‘high treatability information’ (HTI). This study examined the effects of HTI on preventative intention of bowel cancer. Self-affirmation was used to reduce the defensive responses to HTI. We employed a 3(control versus low

  20. Simulating wall and corner fire tests on wood products with the OSU room fire model

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. C. Tran

    1994-01-01

    This work demonstrates the complexity of modeling wall and corner fires in a compartment. The model chosen for this purpose is the Ohio State University (OSU) room fire model. This model was designed to simulate fire growth on walls in a compartment and therefore lends itself to direct comparison with standard room test results. The model input were bench-scale data...

  1. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-01-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10 -14 to 10 -4 curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095)

  2. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T.

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent

  3. Stabilization of liquid low-level and mixed wastes: a treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, S.; Cheng, Yu-Cheng; Yellowhorse, L.; Peterson, P.

    1996-02-01

    A treatability study has been conducted on liquid low-level and mixed wastes using the stabilization agents Aquaset, Aquaset II, Aquaset II-H, Petroset, Petroset-H, and Petroset and Petroset II. A total of 40 different waste types with activities ranging from 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}4} curies/ml have been stabilized. Reported data for each waste include its chemical and radiological composition and the optimum composition or range of compositions (weight of agent/volume of waste) for each stabilization agent used. All wastes were successfully stabilized with one or more of the stabilization agents and all final waste forms passed the Paint Filter Liquids Test (EPA Method 9095).

  4. Treatability study for removal of leachable mercury in crushed fluorescent lamps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bostick, W.D.; Beck, D.E.; Bowser, K.T. [and others

    1996-02-01

    Nonserviceable fluorescent lamps removed from radiological control areas at the Oak Ridge Department of Energy facilities have been crushed and are currently managed as mixed waste (hazardous and radiologically contaminated). We present proposed treatment flowsheets and supporting treatability study data for conditioning this solid waste residue so that it can qualify for disposal in a sanitary landfill. Mercury in spent fluorescent lamps occurs primarily as condensate on high-surface-area phosphor material. It can be solubilized with excess oxidants (e.g., hypochlorite solution) and stabilized by complexation with halide ions. Soluble mercury in dechlorinated saline solution is effectively removed by cementation with zero-valent iron in the form of steel wool. In packed column dynamic flow testing, soluble mercury was reduced to mercury metal and insoluble calomel, loading > 1.2 g of mercury per grain of steel wool before an appreciable breakthrough of soluble mercury in the effluent.

  5. Treatability study of pesticide-based industrial wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Kinnari; Chauhan, L I; Galgale, A D

    2012-10-01

    This paper finds out appropriate treatment methods for wastewater of an Organophosphorus viz, chloropyrifos pesticide manufacturing industry. The characterization of wastewater generated during trial production of chloropyrifos was carried out. Based on the characterization of wastewater, various treatability studies were conducted. The most desirable results were obtained with treatment scheme employing acidification, chlorination with NaOCl, suspended growth biological treatment, chemical precipitation for phosphorous removal and activated carbon treatment. Acidification of wastewater helps in by-product recovery as well as reduction in COD upto 36.26%. Chlorination followed by biological treatment was found to be effective to reduce the COD level by 62.06%. To comply with permissible limits prescribed by Effluent Channel Project Ltd.(ECPL)* and Gujarat Pollution Control Board (GPCB) for discharge of industrial effluent into channel, further treatment in the form of chemical precipitation (for phosphorous removal) and granular activated carbon is suggested.

  6. Treatability study Number PDC-1-O-T. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory provided treatability study samples from four waste streams, designated Stream number-sign 1, Stream number-sign 3, Stream number-sign 6, and Stream number-sign 7. Stream number-sign 1 consisted of one 55-gallon drum of personal protective equipment (PPE), rags, and neutralizing agent (bicarbonate) generated during the cleanup of a sodium dichromate solution spill. Stream number-sign 3 was one 55-gallon drum of paper, rags, lab utensils, tools, and tape from the decontamination of a glovebox. The sample of Stream number-sign 6 was packaged in three 30-gallon drums and a 100 ft 3 wooden box. It consisted of plastic sheeting, PPE, and paper generated from the cleanup of mock explosive (barium nitrate) from depleted uranium parts. Stream number-sign 7 was scrap metal (copper, stainless and carbon steel joined with silver solder) from the disassembly of gas manifolds. The objective of the treatability study is to determine: (1) whether the Perma-Fix stabilization/solidification process can treat the waste sample to meet Land Disposal Restrictions and the Waste Acceptance Criteria for LANL Technical Area 54, Area G, and (2) optimum loading and resulting weight and volume of finished waste form. The stabilized waste was mixed into grout that had been poured into a lined drum. After each original container of waste was processed, the liner was closed and a new liner was placed in the same drum on top of the previous closed liner. This allowed an overall reduction in waste volume but kept waste segregated to minimize the amount of rework in case analytical results indicated any batch did not meet treatment standards. Samples of treated waste from each waste stream were analyzed by Perma-Fix Analytical Services to get a preliminary approximation of TCLP metals. Splits of these samples were sent to American Environmental Network's mixed waste analytical lab in Cary, NC for confirmation analysis. Results were all below applicable limits

  7. MINIPILOT SOLAR SYSTEM: DESIGN/OPERATION OF SYSTEM AND RESULTS OF NON-SOLAR TESTING AT MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prior to this project, MRI had carried out work for the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on the conceptual design of a solar system for solid waste disposal and a follow-on project to study the feasibility of bench-scale testing of desorption of organics from soil with destr...

  8. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford complexant concentrate supernatant cesium removal using CST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W.

    1997-01-08

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Complexant Concentrate supernatant liquor from tank 241-AN-107, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-023, Hanford Complexant Concentrate Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  9. Test procedures and instructions for Hanford tank waste supernatant cesium removal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrickson, D.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-31

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test using Hanford Double-Shell Slurry Feed supernatant liquor from tank 251-AW-101 in a bench-scale column.Cesium sorbents to be tested include resorcinol-formaldehyde resin and crystalline silicotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-022, Hanford Tank Waste Supernatant Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  10. Tests of US rock salt for long-term stability of CAES reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gehle, R.M.; Thoms, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is a report on laboratory tests to assess the effects of compressed air energy storage (CAES) on rock salt within the US. The project included a conventional laboratory test phase, with triaxial test machines, and a bench-scale test phase performed in salt mines in southern Louisiana. Limited numerical modeling also was performed to serve as a guide in selecting test layouts and for interpreting test data.

  11. Treatability Study Report for In SITU Lead Immobilization Using Phosphate-Based Binders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bricka, R. M; Marwaha, Anirudha; Fabian, Gene L

    2008-01-01

    .... The treatability study described in this report was designed to develop the information necessary to support the immobilization of lead contaminants in soil by in situ treatment with phosphate-based binders...

  12. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil: Activated sludge treatability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rue-Van Es, J.E. La.

    1993-05-01

    Batch activated sludge treatability studies utilizing petroleum hydrocarbon contaminated soils (diesel oil and leaded gasoline) were conducted to determine: initial indigenous biological activity in hydrocarbon-contaminated soils; limiting factors of microbiological growth by investigating nutrient addition, chemical emulsifiers, and co-substrate; acclimation of indigenous population of microorganisms to utilize hydrocarbons as sole carbon source; and temperature effects. Soil samples were taken from three different contaminated sites and sequencing batch reactors were run. Substrate (diesel fuel) and nutrient were added as determined by laboratory analysis of orthophosphate, ammonia nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand, and total organic carbon. Substrate was made available to the bacterial mass by experimenting with four different chemical emulsifiers. Indigenous microorganisms capable of biotransforming hydrocarbons seem to be present in all the contaminated soil samples received from all sites. Microscopic analysis revealed no visible activity at the beginning of the study and presence of flagellated protozoa, paramecium, rotifers, and nematodes at the end of the year. Nutrient requirements and the limiting factors in microorganism growth were determined for each site. An emulsifier was initially necessary to make the substrate available to the microbial population. Decreases in removal were found with lowered temperature. Removal efficiencies ranged from 50-90%. 95 refs., 11 figs., 13 tabs

  14. Treatability of a Highly-Impaired, Saline Surface Water for Potential Urban Water Use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Pontius

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As freshwater sources of drinking water become limited, cities and urban areas must consider higher-salinity waters as potential sources of drinking water. The Salton Sea in the Imperial Valley of California has a very high salinity (43 ppt, total dissolved solids (70,000 mg/L, and color (1440 CU. Future wetlands and habitat restoration will have significant ecological benefits, but salinity levels will remain elevated. High salinity eutrophic waters, such as the Salton Sea, are difficult to treat, yet more desirable sources of drinking water are limited. The treatability of Salton Sea water for potential urban water use was evaluated here. Coagulation-sedimentation using aluminum chlorohydrate, ferric chloride, and alum proved to be relatively ineffective for lowering turbidity, with no clear optimum dose for any of the coagulants tested. Alum was most effective for color removal (28 percent at a dose of 40 mg/L. Turbidity was removed effectively with 0.45 μm and 0.1 μm microfiltration. Bench tests of Salton Sea water using sea water reverse osmosis (SWRO achieved initial contaminant rejections of 99 percent salinity, 97.7 percent conductivity, 98.6 percent total dissolved solids, 98.7 percent chloride, 65 percent sulfate, and 99.3 percent turbidity.

  15. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled ``In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.`` The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  16. In-plant testing of microbubble column flotation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.; Adel, G.T.; Mankosa, M.J.

    1991-07-31

    Microbubble column flotation (MCF) was developed at the Virginia Center for Coal and Minerals Processing (VCCMP) for the selective recovery of fine particles. Bench-scale test work conducted at VCCMP, largely under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), showed that the technology worked well for both coal and mineral applications. For the technology to be commercially successful, however, a full-scale demonstration of the MCF technology was deemed necessary. This report summarizes the results of work performed under the DOE project entitled In-plant Testing of Microbubble Column Flotation.'' The objectives of this research and development effort were to duplicate the bench-scale performance of the MCF process in a full-scale unit, to verify the scale-up procedure developed in an earlier project, and to demonstrate the applicability of the MCF technology to the coal industry.

  17. Waste management plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    This Waste Management Plan (WMP) for the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study addresses waste management requirements for the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The study is intended to produce treatment performance data required to design a treatment system for contaminated groundwater. The treatability study will consist of an evaluation of various treatment media including continuous column tests, with up to six columns being employed to evaluate the performance of different media in the treatment of groundwater; an evaluation of the dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of a wetland system; and the long-term dentrifying capacity and metal uptake capacity of algal mats. Additionally, the treatability study involves installation of a trench and incline well to evaluate and assess hydraulic impacts of pumping groundwater. The Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) covers the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. The Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety concerns and requirements for the proposed sampling activities. This WMP identifies the types and estimates the volumes of various wastes that may be generated during the proposed treatability studies. The approach to managing waste outlined in this WMP emphasizes the following points: (1) management of the waste generated in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment; (2) minimization of waste generation, thereby reducing unnecessary costs and usage of limited permitted storage and disposal capacities; and (3) compliance with federal, state, and site requirements. Prior sampling at the site has detected organic, radioactive, and metals contamination in groundwater and surface water. Proposed field operations are not expected to result in worker exposures greater than applicable exposure or action limits

  18. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator's approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  19. Field Implementation Plan for the In-Situ Bioremediation Treatability Study at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This Field Implementation Plan (FIP) was prepared by Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) and provides instruction on conducting a series of in-situ bioremediation (ISB) tests as described in the Revised Treatability Study Work Plan for In-Situ Bioremediation at the Technical Area-V Groundwater Area of Concern, referred to as the Revised Work Plan in this FIP. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater via three injection wells to perform bioremediation of the constituents of concern (COCs), nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE), in the regions with the highest concentrations at the Technical Area-V Groundwater (TAVG) Area of Concern (AOC). The Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation solution delivery and COC treatment over time. This FIP is designed for SNL/NM work planning and management. It is not intended to be submitted for regulator’s approval. The technical details presented in this FIP are subject to change based on field conditions, availability of equipment and materials, feasibility, and inputs from Sandia personnel and Aboveground Injection System contractor.

  20. Treatability study of absorbent polymer waste form for mixed waste treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrmann, S. D.; Lehto, M. A.; Stewart, N. A.; Croft, A. D.; Kern, P. W.

    2000-01-01

    A treatability study was performed to develop and characterize an absorbent polymer waste form for application to low level (LLW) and mixed low level (MLLW) aqueous wastes at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W). In this study absorbent polymers proved effective at immobilizing aqueous liquid wastes in order to meet Land Disposal Restrictions for subsurface waste disposal. Treatment of aqueous waste with absorbent polymers provides an alternative to liquid waste solidification via high-shear mixing with clays and cements. Significant advantages of absorbent polymer use over clays and cements include ease of operations and waste volume minimization. Absorbent polymers do not require high-shear mixing as do clays and cements. Granulated absorbent polymer is poured into aqueous solutions and forms a gel which passes the paint filter test as a non-liquid. Pouring versus mixing of a solidification agent not only eliminates the need for a mixing station, but also lessens exposure to personnel and the potential for spread of contamination from treatment of radioactive wastes. Waste minimization is achieved as significantly less mass addition and volume increase is required of and results from absorbent polymer use than that of clays and cements. Operational ease and waste minimization translate into overall cost savings for LLW and MLLW treatment

  1. Treatability studies of actual listed waste sludges from the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jantzen, C.M.; Peeler, D.K.; Gilliam, T.M.; Bleier, A.; Spence, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) are investigating vitrification for various low-level and mixed wastes on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Treatability studies have included surrogate waste formulations at the laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scales and actual waste testing at the laboratory- and pilot-scales. The initial waste to be processing through SRTC's Transportable Vitrification System (TVS) is the K-1407-B and K-1407-C (B/C) Pond sludge waste which is a RCRA F-listed waste. The B/C ponds at the ORR K-25 site were used as holding and settling ponds for various waste water treatment streams. Laboratory-, pilot-, and field- scale ''proof-of-principle'' demonstrations are providing needed operating parameters for the planned field-scale demonstration with actual B/C Pond sludge waste at ORR. This report discusses the applied systems approach to optimize glass compositions for this particular waste stream through laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale studies with surrogate and actual B/C waste. These glass compositions will maximize glass durability and waste loading while optimizing melt properties which affect melter operation, such as melt viscosity and melter refractory corrosion. Maximum waste loadings minimize storage volume of the final waste form translating into considerable cost savings

  2. Pap Smear: MedlinePlus Lab Test Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... most treatable. Other names for a Pap smear: Pap test, cervical cytology, Papanicolaou test, Pap smear test, vaginal ... org/cancer/cervical-cancer/prevention-and-early-detection/pap-test.html Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [Internet]. ...

  3. Reaction-to-Fire of Wood Products and Other Building Materials: Part 1, Room/Corner Test Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrej Grexa; Mark A. Dietenberger; Robert H. White

    2012-01-01

    This project researched the assessment of reaction-to-fire of common materials using the full-scale room/corner test (ISO 9705) protocol and the predictions of time to flashover using results from the bench-scale cone calorimeter test (ISO 5660-1). Using a burner protocol of 100 kW for 10 min, followed by 300 kW for 10 min and the test materials on the walls only, we...

  4. Sampling and analysis plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley Treatability Study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study is intended to provide site-specific data defining potential treatment technologies applicable to contaminated groundwater and surface water. This project directly supports Alternative 5 of the base action in the BCV Feasibility Study and indirectly supports other alternatives through proof of concept. In that role, the ultimate goal is to install a treatment system that will remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater before it reaches Bear Creek. A secondary goal is the concurrent removal of technetium and several metals that affect ecological risk. This project is intended to produce hydraulic and treatment performance data required to design the treatment system to reach those goals. This project will also generate information that can be applied at other facilities within the Oak Ridge Reservation. This report is the sampling and analysis plan (SAP) for the field work component of Phase II of the BCV Treatability Study. Field work for this phase of the BCV Treatability Study consists of environmental and media testing. The SAP addresses environmental sampling at the S-3 Site at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be taken from groundwater, surface water, seeps, effluent from test columns, effluent from an algal mat reactor, and effluent from a pilot-scale wetland. Groundwater, surface water, and seeps will be monitored continuously for field parameters and sampled for analytical parameters during pump tests conducted periodically during the investigation. In-field continuous flow tests will be conducted over an extended time period (5 weeks) to generate data on long-term treatment effects on potential treatment effects on potential treatment media including sorbents and zero valent iron, over 28 weeks for constructed wetlands treatment, and over 24 weeks for algal mats treatment

  5. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: SOIL STABILIZATION PILOT STUDY, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY AND HEALTH AND SAFETY PROGRAM, UNITED CHROME NPL SITE PILOT STUDY

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is a project plan for a pilot study at the United Chrome NPL site, Corvallis, Oregon and includes the health and safety and quality assurance/quality control plans. The plan reports results of a bench-scale study of the treatment process as iieasured by the ...

  6. Treatability studies on different refinery wastewater samples using high-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs)

    KAUST Repository

    Ren, Lijiao

    2013-05-01

    High-throughput microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) were used to perform treatability studies on many different refinery wastewater samples all having appreciably different characteristics, which resulted in large differences in current generation. A de-oiled refinery wastewater sample from one site (DOW1) produced the best results, with 2.1±0.2A/m2 (maximum current density), 79% chemical oxygen demand removal, and 82% headspace biological oxygen demand removal. These results were similar to those obtained using domestic wastewater. Two other de-oiled refinery wastewater samples also showed good performance, with a de-oiled oily sewer sample producing less current. A stabilization lagoon sample and a stripped sour wastewater sample failed to produce appreciable current. Electricity production, organics removal, and startup time were improved when the anode was first acclimated to domestic wastewater. These results show mini-MECs are an effective method for evaluating treatability of different wastewaters. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Treatability of five Appalachian wood species with creosote and timbor®

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey J. Slahor; Curt C. Hassler; Rodney C. DeGroot; Douglas J. Gardner

    2000-01-01

    The work described in this paper culminates an investigation into the treatability of five Appalachian hardwood species. Previous papers have described work using the waterborne preservatives CCA-C and ACQ-B. This paper details the results of pressure treatment with creosote and Timbor®. Six-inch long nominal two-by-four samples of red maple, yellow-poplar, red oak,...

  8. Excessive parasympathetic responses to sympathetic challenges: a treatable, hidden, dynamic autonomic imbalance

    OpenAIRE

    Bellin, David L.; DePace, Nicholas L.; Bulgarelli, Robert J.; Li, Peng; Colombo, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Background: A common assumption with autonomic assessment is that one branch opposes the other. With independent measures of parasympathetic (P) and sympathetic (S) activity, based on concurrent time-frequency analysis of respiratory activity and heart rate variability, this assumption has been challenged. Clinical observations of unprovoked P-excess during S-stimulation have been associated with treatable, abnormal responses. Method: Serial autonomic profiling of 12,967 patients was perfo...

  9. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-01-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA

  10. Operable Unit 7-13/14 in situ thermal desorption treatability study work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaw, P.; Nickelson, D.; Hyde, R.

    1999-05-01

    This Work Plan provides technical details for conducting a treatability study that will evaluate the application of in situ thermal desorption (ISTD) to landfill waste at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). ISTD is a form of thermally enhanced vapor vacuum extraction that heats contaminated soil and waste underground to raise its temperature and thereby vaporize and destroy most organics. An aboveground vapor vacuum collection and treatment system then destroys or absorbs the remaining organics and vents carbon dioxide and water to the atmosphere. The technology is a byproduct of an advanced oil-well thermal extraction program. The purpose of the ISTD treatability study is to fill performance-based data gaps relative to off-gas system performance, administrative feasibility, effects of the treatment on radioactive contaminants, worker safety during mobilization and demobilization, and effects of landfill type waste on the process (time to remediate, subsidence potential, underground fires, etc.). By performing this treatability study, uncertainties associated with ISTD as a selected remedy will be reduced, providing a better foundation of remedial recommendations and ultimate selection of remedial actions for the SDA.

  11. Treatability of inorganic arsenic and organoarsenicals in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhlmeier, P.D.; Sherwood, S.P.

    1996-01-01

    A 2-year three-phase study into methods for treatment of mixed inorganic and organic arsenic species to drinking water levels was conducted at a former pesticide facility in Houston, Tex. The species present include monomethylarsinic acid, dimethylarsinic acid, arsenate, and arsenite. Phase One studies reported here included the evaluation of four adsorbents using bottle roll and column flow through techniques, oxidation through the application of Fenton's reagent followed by coprecipitation, coprecipitation without oxidation, and ultraviolet (UV)/ozone tests. The four adsorbents tested were activated carbon, activated alumina, ferrous sulfide, and a strongly basic ion exchange resin. All adsorbents removed some arsenic, but none except ferrous sulfide was sufficiently effective to warrant follow-up studies. Two small ferrous sulfide column tests, run under different conditions, removed arsenic but not to the levels and loading capacities needed to make this method practical. Organic compound destruction was tested using Fenton's reagent (a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and ferrous iron) before coprecipitation. Arsenic was reduced to 170 ppb in the treated liquor. Coprecipitation without oxidative pretreatment produced a liquor containing 260 ppb arsenic. A two-stage Fenton-type coprecipitation procedure produced a supernatant containing 110 ppb total arsenic. Preliminary tests with a second-stage oxidative process, using ozone and UV radiation, showed approximately 80% destruction of an organic-arsenic surrogate (cacodylic acid) in 1 hour

  12. Aboveground Injection Sytem Construction and Mecahnical Integrity Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jun [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-10-01

    An In-Situ Bioremediation (ISB) Pilot Test Treatability Study is planned at Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico (SNL/NM) Technical Area-V (TA-V) Groundwater Area of Concern. The Treatability Study is designed to gravity inject an electron-donor substrate and bioaugmentation bacteria into groundwater using an injection well. The constituents of concern (COCs) are nitrate and trichloroethene (TCE). The Pilot Test Treatability Study will evaluate the effectiveness of bioremediation and COC treatment over a prescribed period of time. Results of the pilot test will provide data that will be used to evaluate the cost and effectiveness of a fullscale system.

  13. Feasibility/treatability studies for removal of heavy metals from training range soils at the Grafenwoehr Training Area, Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, R.W.

    1995-05-01

    A feasibility/treatability study was performed to investigate the leaching potential of heavy metals (particularly lead) from soils at the Grafenw6hr Training Area (GTA) in Germany. The study included an evaluation of the effectiveness of chelant extraction to remediate the heavy-metal-contarninated soils. Batch shaker tests indicated that ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (0.01M) was more effective than citric acid (0.01M) at removing cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. EDTA and citric acid were equally effective in mobilizing chromium and barium from the soil. The batch shaker technique with chelant extraction offers promise as a remediation technique for heavy-metal-contaninated soil at the GTA. Columnar flooding tests conducted as part of the study revealed that deionized water was the least effective leaching solution for mobilization of the heavy metals; the maximum solubilization obtained was 3.72% for cadmium. EDTA (0.05M) achieved the greatest removal of lead (average removal of 17.6%). The difficulty of extraction using deionized water indicates that all of the heavy metals are very tightly bound to the soil; therefore, they are very stable in the GTA soils and do not pose a serious threat to the groundwater system. Columnar flooding probably does not represent a viable remediation technique for in-situ cleanup of heavy-metal-contaminated soils at the GTA.

  14. Performance of a bench-scale fast fluidized bed carbonator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pathi, Sharat Kumar; Lin, Weigang; Illerup, Jytte Boll

    2014-01-01

    by applying a new experimental method with accurate control of the particle recirculation rate. The experimental results show that the inlet calcium to carbon molar ratio is the main factor on the CO2 capture efficiency in the carbonator, that is, increasing the inlet Ca/C from 4 to 13 results in increasing...... is estimated from experiments under stable operating conditions with constant bed inventory, reactor temperature and exit CO2 concentration. The validated CFB carbonator model was used to simulate different operating conditions relevant for CO2 capture from a power plant and from a cement plant. The results...... the CO2 capture efficiency from 40 to 85% with limestone having a maximum CO2 capture capacity of only 11.5%. Furthermore, a reactor model for a carbonator is developed based on the Kunii-Levenspiels model. A key parameter in the model is the particle distribution along the height of the reactor, which...

  15. Modified IRC bench-scale arc melter for waste processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eddy, T.L.; Sears, J.W.; Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1994-03-01

    This report describes the INEL Research Center (IRC) arc melter facility and its recent modifications. The arc melter can now be used to study volatilization of toxic and high vapor pressure metals and the effects of reducing and oxidizing (redox) states in the melt. The modifications include adding an auger feeder, a gas flow control and monitoring system, an offgas sampling and exhaust system, and a baghouse filter system, as well as improving the electrode drive, slag sampling system, temperature measurement and video monitoring and recording methods, and oxidation lance. In addition to the volatilization and redox studies, the arc melter facility has been used to produce a variety of glass/ceramic waste forms for property evaluation. Waste forms can be produced on a daily basis. Some of the melts performed are described to illustrate the melter's operating characteristics

  16. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  17. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  18. Catatonia in Down syndrome; a treatable cause of regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaziuddin, Neera; Nassiri, Armin; Miles, Judith H

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main aim of this case series report is to alert physicians to the occurrence of catatonia in Down syndrome (DS). A second aim is to stimulate the study of regression in DS and of catatonia. A subset of individuals with DS is noted to experience unexplained regression in behavior, mood, activities of daily living, motor activities, and intellectual functioning during adolescence or young adulthood. Depression, early onset Alzheimer’s, or just “the Down syndrome” are often blamed after general medical causes have been ruled out. Clinicians are generally unaware that catatonia, which can cause these symptoms, may occur in DS. Study design: Four DS adolescents who experienced regression are reported. Laboratory tests intended to rule out causes of motor and cognitive regression were within normal limits. Based on the presence of multiple motor disturbances (slowing and/or increased motor activity, grimacing, posturing), the individuals were diagnosed with unspecified catatonia and treated with anti-catatonic treatments (benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy [ECT]). Results: All four cases were treated with a benzodiazepine combined with ECT and recovered their baseline functioning. Conclusion: We suspect catatonia is a common cause of unexplained deterioration in adolescents and young adults with DS. Moreover, pediatricians and others who care for individuals with DS are generally unfamiliar with the catatonia diagnosis outside schizophrenia, resulting in misdiagnosis and years of morbidity. Alerting physicians to catatonia in DS is essential to prompt diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and identification of the frequency and course of this disorder. PMID:25897230

  19. Anaerobic treatability of high oil and grease rendering wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakhla, George; Al-Sabawi, Mustafa; Bassi, Amerjeet; Liu, Victor

    2003-08-29

    This study evaluated the use of a new biosurfactant, BOD-Balance, derived from cactus for the treatment of oil-and-grease-laden rendering wastewater anaerobically. Batch laboratory experimental results and preliminary full-scale data are presented. The biosurfactant affected a significant increase in the COD degradation rate for the raw wastewater. However, after reduction of the oil and grease (O&G) by dissolved air flotation, the biosurfactant did not exhibit any advantages. Modeling of the data indicated that various COD fractions, i.e. both soluble and particulate as well as total COD at various testing conditions conformed well to both zero-order and first-order models. The biosurfactant affected a 164-238 and 164-247% increase in COD and particulate COD biodegradation rate for the raw wastewater. The reduction of O&G concentration to <800 mg/l increased total and soluble COD degradation rates by 106%. Results from the full-scale mesophilic anaerobic digestion system indicated that the addition of the biosurfactant at doses of 130-200 mg/l decreased O&G concentrations from 66,300 to 10,200 mg/l over a 2-month-period.

  20. Test procedures and instructions for single shell tank saltcake cesium removal with crystalline silicotitanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, J.B.

    1997-01-07

    This document provides specific test procedures and instructions to implement the test plan for the preparation and conduct of a cesium removal test, using Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake from tanks 24 t -BY- I 10, 24 1 -U- 108, 24 1 -U- 109, 24 1 -A- I 0 1, and 24 t - S-102, in a bench-scale column. The cesium sorbent to be tested is crystalline siticotitanate. The test plan for which this provides instructions is WHC-SD-RE-TP-024, Hanford Single Shell Tank Saltcake Cesium Removal Test Plan.

  1. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilliam, T.M.; Hutchins, D.A.; Chodak, P. III

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide open-quotes proof-of-principleclose quotes data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.)

  2. Final waste forms project: Performance criteria for phase I treatability studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilliam, T.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hutchins, D.A. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Chodak, P. III [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (United States)

    1994-06-01

    This document defines the product performance criteria to be used in Phase I of the Final Waste Forms Project. In Phase I, treatability studies will be performed to provide {open_quotes}proof-of-principle{close_quotes} data to establish the viability of stabilization/solidification (S/S) technologies. This information is required by March 1995. In Phase II, further treatability studies, some at the pilot scale, will be performed to provide sufficient data to allow treatment alternatives identified in Phase I to be more fully developed and evaluated, as well as to reduce performance uncertainties for those methods chosen to treat a specific waste. Three main factors influence the development and selection of an optimum waste form formulation and hence affect selection of performance criteria. These factors are regulatory, process-specific, and site-specific waste form standards or requirements. Clearly, the optimum waste form formulation will require consideration of performance criteria constraints from each of the three categories. Phase I will focus only on the regulatory criteria. These criteria may be considered the minimum criteria for an acceptable waste form. In other words, a S/S technology is considered viable only if it meet applicable regulatory criteria. The criteria to be utilized in the Phase I treatability studies were primarily taken from Environmental Protection Agency regulations addressed in 40 CFR 260 through 265 and 268; and Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations addressed in 10 CFR 61. Thus the majority of the identified criteria are independent of waste form matrix composition (i.e., applicable to cement, glass, organic binders etc.).

  3. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G

  4. Phase 1 report on the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    Bear Creek Valley (BCV) is located within the US Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation and encompasses multiple waste units containing hazardous and radioactive wastes associated with past operations at the adjacent Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. The BCV Remedial Investigation determined that disposal of wastes at the S-3 Site, Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY), and Bear Creek Burial Grounds (BCBG) has caused contamination of both deep and shallow groundwater. The primary contaminants include uranium, nitrate, and VOCs, although other metals such as aluminum, magnesium, and cadmium persist. The BCV feasibility study will describe several remedial options for this area, including both in situ and ex situ treatment of groundwater. This Treatability Study Phase 1 Report describes the results of preliminary screening of treatment technologies that may be applied within BCV. Four activities were undertaken in Phase 1: field characterization, laboratory screening of potential sorbents, laboratory testing of zero valent iron products, and field screening of three biological treatment systems. Each of these activities is described fully in technical memos attached in Appendices A through G.

  5. Etiological explanation, treatability and preventability of childhood autism: a survey of Nigerian healthcare workers' opinion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okonkwo Kevin O

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of their peculiar sociocultural background, healthcare workers in sub-Saharan African subcultures may have various conceptions on different aspects of autism spectrum disorders (ASD, such as etiology, treatment and issues of prognosis. These various conceptions, if different from current knowledge in literature about ASD, may negatively influence help-seeking behavior of parents of children with ASD who seek advice and information from the healthcare workers. This study assessed the opinions of healthcare workers in Nigeria on aspects of etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism, and relates their opinions to the sociodemographic variables. Methods Healthcare workers working in four tertiary healthcare facilities located in the south-east and south-south regions of Nigeria were interviewed with a sociodemographic questionnaire, personal opinion on etiology, treatability and preventability of childhood autism (POETPCA questionnaire and knowledge about childhood autism among health workers (KCAHW questionnaire to assess their knowledge and opinions on various aspects of childhood autism. Results A total of 134 healthcare workers participated in the study. In all, 78 (58.2%, 19 (14.2% and 36 (26.9% of the healthcare workers were of the opinion that the etiology of childhood autism can be explained by natural, preternatural and supernatural causes, respectively. One (0.7% of the healthcare workers was unsure of the explanation of the etiology. Knowledge about childhood autism as measured by scores on the KCAHW questionnaire was the only factor significantly associated with the opinions of the healthcare workers on etiology of childhood autism. In all, 73 (54.5% and 43 (32.1%, of the healthcare workers subscribed to the opinion that childhood autism is treatable and preventable respectively. Previous involvement with managing children with ASD significantly influenced the opinion of the healthcare

  6. Effect of landfill characteristics on leachate organic matter properties and coagulation treatability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comstock, Sarah E H; Boyer, Treavor H; Graf, Katherine C; Townsend, Timothy G

    2010-11-01

    This work spans landfill characteristics, leachate organic matter properties, and coagulation chemistry to provide new insights into the physical-chemical treatability of stabilized landfill leachate. Furthermore, leachate organic matter is viewed in terms of dissolved organic matter (DOM) present in the natural environment, and coagulation chemistry is evaluated based on previous leachate and water treatment coagulation studies. Stabilized leachate was collected from four landfills for a total of seven leachate samples, and samples were coagulated using ferric chloride, ferric sulfate, and aluminum sulfate. Landfill characteristics, such as age, leachate recirculation, and cover material, influenced properties of DOM present in the leachate, as measured by specific ultraviolet (UV) absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA254) and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices. The coagulation performance of the metal salts was ferric sulfate>aluminum sulfate>ferric chloride, and DOM removal followed the trend of color>UV254>dissolved organic carbon>chemical oxygen demand (COD). Finally, a strong association was found between increasing SUVA254 and increasing DOM removal for coagulation of both leachate and natural surface water. Thus, SUVA254 is expected to be a better predictor of leachate treatability, in particular DOM removal, than the traditionally used ratio of biochemical oxygen demand to COD. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. THE "CHEMICAL OXYGEN DEMAND / TOTAL VOLATILE ACIDS" RATIO AS AN ANAEROBIC TREATABILITY INDICATOR FOR LANDFILL LEACHATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Contrera

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In some operational circumstances a fast evaluation of landfill leachate anaerobic treatability is necessary, and neither Biochemical Methane Potential nor BOD/COD ratio are fast enough. Looking for a fast indicator, this work evaluated the anaerobic treatability of landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil in a pilot scale Anaerobic Sequence Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR. The experiment was conducted at ambient temperature in the landfill area. After the acclimation, at a second stage of operation, the AnSBBR presented efficiency above 70%, in terms of COD removal, utilizing landfill leachate without water dilution, with an inlet COD of about 11,000 mg.L-1, a TVA/COD ratio of approximately 0.6 and reaction time equal to 7 days. To evaluate the landfill leachate biodegradability variation over time, temporal profiles of concentration were performed in the AnSBBR. The landfill leachate anaerobic biodegradability was verified to have a direct and strong relationship to the TVA/COD ratio. For a TVA/CODTotal ratio lower than 0.20, the biodegradability was considered low, for ratios between 0.20 and 0.40 it was considered medium, and above 0.40 it was considered high.

  8. Identifying Medical Diagnoses and Treatable Diseases by Image-Based Deep Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermany, Daniel S; Goldbaum, Michael; Cai, Wenjia; Valentim, Carolina C S; Liang, Huiying; Baxter, Sally L; McKeown, Alex; Yang, Ge; Wu, Xiaokang; Yan, Fangbing; Dong, Justin; Prasadha, Made K; Pei, Jacqueline; Ting, Magdalena; Zhu, Jie; Li, Christina; Hewett, Sierra; Dong, Jason; Ziyar, Ian; Shi, Alexander; Zhang, Runze; Zheng, Lianghong; Hou, Rui; Shi, William; Fu, Xin; Duan, Yaou; Huu, Viet A N; Wen, Cindy; Zhang, Edward D; Zhang, Charlotte L; Li, Oulan; Wang, Xiaobo; Singer, Michael A; Sun, Xiaodong; Xu, Jie; Tafreshi, Ali; Lewis, M Anthony; Xia, Huimin; Zhang, Kang

    2018-02-22

    The implementation of clinical-decision support algorithms for medical imaging faces challenges with reliability and interpretability. Here, we establish a diagnostic tool based on a deep-learning framework for the screening of patients with common treatable blinding retinal diseases. Our framework utilizes transfer learning, which trains a neural network with a fraction of the data of conventional approaches. Applying this approach to a dataset of optical coherence tomography images, we demonstrate performance comparable to that of human experts in classifying age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. We also provide a more transparent and interpretable diagnosis by highlighting the regions recognized by the neural network. We further demonstrate the general applicability of our AI system for diagnosis of pediatric pneumonia using chest X-ray images. This tool may ultimately aid in expediting the diagnosis and referral of these treatable conditions, thereby facilitating earlier treatment, resulting in improved clinical outcomes. VIDEO ABSTRACT. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. 100-NR-2 Apatite Treatability Test: An update on Barrier Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G.; Vermeul, Vincent R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Szecsody, James E.; Williams, Mark D.

    2011-05-01

    This report updates a previous report covering the performance of a permeable reactive barrier installed at 100N. In this report we re-evaluate the results after having an additional year of performance monitoring data to incorporate.

  10. Thermal depolymerization of plastics - PDU testing. Task 15. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-01-01

    The process development unit (PDU) test program is part of an ongoing effort at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to expand the base of knowledge for the thermal depolymerization of plastics process. This phase of the development effort, initiated after successful completion of a bench-scale program, has concentrated on maximizing liquid yield. The purposes of the PDU program were (1) to demonstrate the process on a commercially scalable unit, (2) to produce quantities of product that could be used to initiate discussions with potential end users, and (3) to gather engineering and yield data. Experimentation consisted of eleven test points on the PDU and seven on the continuous fluid-bed reactor (CFBR) bench-scale unit. Initial PDU tests (PO35-PO39) were carried out using a base blend, which consists of 60% high-density polyethylene (HDPE), 20% polypropylene (PP), and 20% polystyrene (PS) virgin resin pellets. Test PO39 used base blend with 5% polyvinyl chloride (PVC). The base blend decomposed to produce a flowable liquid, with liquid yields ranging from 33% to 45%. The next series of tests, PO40-PO44, used a postconsumer plastics feed. This material did not decompose as readily as the base blend and formed a very waxy, heavy liquid, with {open_quotes}liquid{close_quotes} yields ranging from 18% to 63% (low liquid yields are the result of using excess air in the natural gas burner in some tests in an attempt to increase gas residence time).

  11. Endurance testing with Li/Na electrolyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, E.T.; Remick, R.J.; Sishtla, C.I. [Institute of Gas Technology, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology (IGT), under subcontract to M-C Power Corporation under DOE funding, has been operating bench-scale fuel cells to investigate the performance and endurance issues of the Li/Na electrolyte because it offers higher ionic conductivity, higher exchange current densities, lower vapor pressures, and lower cathode dissolution rates than the Li/K electrolyte. These cells have continued to show higher performance and lower decay rates than the Li/K cells since the publication of our two previous papers in 1994. In this paper, test results of two long-term 100-cm{sup 2} bench scale cells are discussed. One cell operated continuously at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 17,000 hours with reference gases (60H{sub 2}/20CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O fuel at 75% utilization and 30CO{sub 2}/70 air oxidant humidified at room temperature at 50% utilization). The other cell operated at 160 mA/cm{sup 2} for 6900 hours at 3 atm with system gases (64H{sub 2}/16CO{sub 2}/20H{sub 2}O at 75% utilization and an M-C Power system-defined oxidant at 40% utilization). Both cells have shown the highest performance and longest endurance among IGT cells operated to date.

  12. In situ vitrification demonstration at Pit 1, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Volume 1: Results of treatability study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spalding, B.P.; Naney, M.T.; Cline, S.R.; Bogle, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Environmental Sciences Div.; Tixier, J.S. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1997-12-01

    A treatability study was initiated in October 1993 to apply in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage Pit 1 by the end of fiscal year (FY) 1995. This treatability study was later extended to include all of Pit 1 and was performed to support a possible Interim Record of Decision or removal action for closure of one or more of the seepage pits and trenches beginning as early as FY 1997. This treatability study was carried out to establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlap of melt settings which will be necessary to achieve fused, melted segments of the source contamination; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of {sup 137}Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. In April 1996 an expulsion of an estimated 10% of the 196 Mg (216 tons) melt body occurred resulting in significant damage to ISV equipment and, ultimately, led to an indefinite suspension of further ISV operations at Pit 1. This report summarizes the technical accomplishments and status of the project in fulfilling these objectives through September 1997.

  13. Simulant Development for LAWPS Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, Renee L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Schonewill, Philip P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Burns, Carolyn A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-05-23

    This report describes simulant development work that was conducted to support the technology maturation of the LAWPS facility. Desired simulant physical properties (density, viscosity, solids concentration, solid particle size), sodium concentrations, and general anion identifications were provided by WRPS. The simulant recipes, particularly a “nominal” 5.6M Na simulant, are intended to be tested at several scales, ranging from bench-scale (500 mL) to full-scale. Each simulant formulation was selected to be chemically representative of the waste streams anticipated to be fed to the LAWPS system, and used the current version of the LAWPS waste specification as a formulation basis. After simulant development iterations, four simulants of varying sodium concentration (5.6M, 6.0M, 4.0M, and 8.0M) were prepared and characterized. The formulation basis, development testing, and final simulant recipes and characterization data for these four simulants are presented in this report.

  14. Effect of ozonation on the biological treatability of a textile mill effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, O; Dulkadiroglu, H; Kabdasli, I; Sozen, S; Babuna, F Germirli; Orhon, D

    2002-12-01

    Ozonation applied prior to biological processes, has proved to be a very effective chemical treatment step mostly for colour removal when soluble dyes are used in textile finishing operations. Its impact on biological treatability however has not been fully evaluated yet. This study evaluates the effect of ozonation on the quality of wastewater from a textile mill involving bleaching and reactive dyeing of cotton and synthetic knit fabric. The effect of ozonation on COD fractionation and kinetic coefficients defining major biological processes is emphasised. The results indicate that the extent of ozone applied greatly affects the remaining organic carbon composition in the wastewater. The relative magnitude of different COD fractions varies as a function of the ozone dose. Ozonation does not however exert a measurable impact on the rate of major biological processes.

  15. Biodegradability oriented treatability studies on high strength segregated wastewater of a woolen textile dyeing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baban, Ahmet; Yediler, Ayfer; Ciliz, NilgunKiran; Kettrup, Antonius

    2004-11-01

    Textile dyeing and finishing industry involves considerable amount of water usage as well as polluted and highly colored wastewater discharges. Biological treatability by means of mineralization, nitrification and denitrification of high strength woolen textile dye bathes, first- and second-rinses is presented. COD fractionation study was carried out and kinetic parameters were determined. Biodegradability of organic compounds in highly loaded composite wastewater after segregation and the effluent of applied biological treatment of high strength composite wastewater were measured by determining oxygen consumption rates. The results were used in terms of assessing an alternative method for inert COD fractionation. The study implied that about 80% soluble COD, 50% color and 75% toxicity reduction were possible by single sludge biological processes. Sixteen per cent of total COD was found to be initially inert. Inert fraction was increased to 22% by production of soluble and particulate microbial products through biological treatment. copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Characterization and photocatalytic treatability of red water from Brazilian TNT industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwichk, Raquel [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Helferich, Oliver Karil; Kist, Cristiane Patrícia [Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Lopes, Aline Chitto; Cavasotto, Thiago [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Silva, Davi Costa [Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Barreto-Rodrigues, Marcio, E-mail: marciorodrigues@utfpr.edu.br [Department of Chemistry, Postgraduate Programme in Technology of Chemical and Biochemical Processes, Federal Technological University of Paraná, Pato Branco, PR (Brazil); Academic Department of Chemistry and Biology, Post graduation in Environmental Science and Technology Federal Technological University of Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The red water effluent has high levels of COD, color and acute toxicity. • The compounds 2-methyl-1, 3-dinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2, 4-dinitrobenzene and 1-methyl-3, 5-dinitrobenzene were identified. • A nanostructured TiO{sub 2}-borosilicate glass was obtained and characterized. • The photocatalytic treatment removes all color 32% of the organic matter content of the effluent. • The borosilicate-glass-TiO{sub 2} system degrades all content of identified nitroaromatic compounds. - Abstract: The current study aims to characterize and evaluate the photocatalytic treatability of the “red water” effluent from a Brazilian TNT production industry. Analyses were performed using physical, chemical, spectroscopic and chromatographic assays, which demonstrated that the effluent presented a significant pollution potential, mainly due to COD, BOD, solids and to the high concentration of nitroaromatic compounds such as 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene, 1-methyl-2,4-dinitrobenzene, 2-methyl-1,3-dinitrobenzene, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene-3,5-dinitro-p-toluidine and 2-methyl-3,5-dinitro-benzoamine. By a modified sol-gel and a dip-coating technique, it was possible to obtain a TiO{sub 2} film on borosilicate glass substrate which functional composition and microstructure were characterized by infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The evaluation of the photocatalytic treatability using borosilicate-glass-TiO{sub 2} demonstrated high degradation efficiency. In this context, a reduction of 32 and 100% for COD and nitroaromatic compounds, respectively, was observed. Although the proposed photocatalytic process has found difficulties in reducing the content of organic matter and effluent color in the red water, its potential for degrading refractory chemical compounds such as the nitroaromatic ones enables it to be used as tertiary treatment.

  17. Characteristics and treatability of oil-bearing wastes from aluminum alloy machining operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luke; Hsieh, Chueh-Chen; Wetherbee, John; Yang, Chen-Lu

    2008-04-15

    Enomoto Industry Co., exclusively uses water-based cutting fluids in its aluminum alloy machining operations. Since the cost of disposal can be much greater than the cost of purchase, the treatability of spent cutting fluids is becoming a major criterion for cutting fluid selection. Samples were collected from the machining lines at Enomoto's facility to determine their characteristics and evaluate their treatability with centrifugation, chemical coagulation and electrochemical coagulation. As expected, oil and grease (O&G) and total suspended solids (TSS) are the main reasons that spent cutting fluids are prohibited from being discharged into local swage systems. The average O&G found in the spent cutting fluids is 87,354 mg/L with TSS of more than 70,000 mg/L. Both O&G and TSS are the major contributors to the high turbidity of these waste effluents. A centrifuge with a relative centrifugal force of 1318 x g, was able to reduce 60% of the turbidity. By adding the coagulant aluminum chloride, the oil-water emulsion was destabilized, and the turbidity was reduced from 3249 Formazin Attenuation Units (FAU) to around 314 FAU. With freshly generated aluminum ions in the spent cutting fluid, the electrochemical process destabilized the oil-water emulsion system. The coalesced oil droplets were adsorbed onto the highly dispersed aluminum coagulant. The oil-rich sludge that was generated in the operation was then floated to the surface, forming a blanket that was removed by skimming. The electrochemical treatment was able to reduce the turbidity to less than 14 FAU, which is the detection limit of the Hach DR/4000 UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  18. In-Situ Grouting Treatability Study for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Subsurface Disposal Area-Transuranic Pits and Trenches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loomis, G. G.; Jessmore, J. J.; Sehn, A. L.; Miller, C. M.

    2002-02-27

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) treatability study is being performed to examine the technology of in situ grouting for final in situ disposal of buried mixed transuranic (TRU) waste. At the INEEL, there is over 56,000 cubic meters of waste commingled with a similar amount of soil in a shallow (3-5 m) land burial referred to as Waste Area Group 7-13/14. Since this buried waste has been declared on the National Priorities List under CERCLA, it is being managed as a superfund site. Under CERCLA, options for this waste include capping and continued monitoring, retrieval and ex situ management of the retrieved waste, in situ stabilization by vitrification or grouting, in situ thermal dissorption, or some combination of these options. In situ grouting involves injecting grout at high pressures (400 bars) directly into the waste to create a solid monolith. The in situ grouting process is expected to both stabilize the waste against subsidence and provide containment against migration of waste to the Snake River Plain Aquifer lying 150-200 m below the waste. The treatability study involves bench testing, implementability testing, and field testing. The bench testing was designed to pick three grouts from six candidate grouts for the implementability field testing in full scale which were designed to down-select from those three grouts to one grout for use in a full-scale field demonstration of the technology in a simulated test pit. During the bench testing, grouts were evaluated for durability using American Nuclear Society 16.1 Leach Protocol as well as evaluating the effect on physical parameters such as hydraulic conductivity and compressive strength due to the presence of interferences such as soil, organic sludge, and nitrate salts. During full-scale implementability testing, three grouts were evaluated for groutability and monolith formation

  19. Effect of nutrient sources on bench scale vinegar production using response surface methodology Efeito das fontes de nutrientes sobre a produção de vinagre em escala de bancada, usando-se a metodologia de superfície de resposta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joelma M. Ferreira

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to evaluate on a bench scale, the effects of nitrogen and phosphorous nutrient source concentrations in vinegar production, a process that is used by small scale industries in the State of Paraiba. The response surface methodology has been utilized for modeling and optimization of the fermentation process. Initially a 2³ complete factorial design was used, where the effects of initial concentrations of ethyl alcohol, phosphorous and nitrogen sources were observed. After this analysis the concentration range of the nutrient variables were extended and a two level plus a star configuration factorial experimental design was performed. The experimental values are well represented by the linear and quadratic model equations obtained. The optimum concentration of ethanol was 4% in which the yield and the productivity of the acetic acid were maximized to the values of 70% and 0.87 g L-1 h-1 respectively, for a 24 hours fermentation period. The evaluation of the quadratic models showed that the yield of vinegar is maximized from 28.1 to 51.04% and the productivity from 0.69 to 1.29 g L-1 h-1 when the concentration of the nitrogen nutrient in the medium is increased from 0.2 to 2.3 g mL-1. Thus, at the optimized nitrogen nutrient concentration both the yield and the productivity of the vinegar are increased by 1.85 times.Objetivou-se com o presente trabalho, estudar em escala de bancada, os efeitos de concentrações de fontes dos nutrientes nitrogênio e fósforo sobre a produção de vinagre de álcool, um processo muito utilizado nas indústrias de pequeno porte do Estado da Paraíba. A metodologia de superfície de resposta foi usada na modelagem e otimização de processo de fermentação acética. Inicialmente, a metodologia de planejamento fatorial completo 2³ foi utilizada, onde os efeitos das concentrações iniciais de etanol, de fontes de fósforo e de nitrogênio foram observados. Após esta análise as faixas das

  20. Project management plan for the gunite and associated tanks treatability studies project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    This plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Studies Project satisfies the requirements of the program management plan for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Restoration (ER) Program as established in the Program Management Plan for the Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge National Laboratory Site Environmental Restoration Program. This plan is a subtier of several other ER documents designed to satisfy the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 4700.1 requirement for major systems acquisitions. This project management plan identifies the major activities of the GAAT Treatability Studies Project; establishes performance criteria; discusses the roles and responsibilities of the organizations that will perform the work; and summarizes the work breakdown structure, schedule, milestones, and cost estimate for the project

  1. Flexible Reactive Berm (FRBerm) for Removal of Heavy Metals from Runoff Water: ESTCP ER 1213 Treatability Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    similar to erosion control socks. Socks were constructed using a non - woven geotextile filled with well-graded sand, amended with five percent (weight...evaluation of the data, the socks for the field demonstration will be constructed using a non - woven geotextile filled with well-graded sand amended...Metals from Runoff Water ESTCP ER-1213 Treatability Study En vi ro nm en ta l L ab or at or y Steve L. Larson, W. Andy Martin, Mark S . Dortch

  2. Determination of Biological Treatability Processes of Textile Wastewater and Implementation of a Fuzzy Logic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harun Akif Kabuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the biological treatability of textile wastewater. For this purpose, a membrane bioreactor (MBR was utilized for biological treatment after the ozonation process. Due to the refractory organic contents of textile wastewater that has a low biodegradability capacity, ozonation was implemented as an advanced oxidation process prior to the MBR system to increase the biodegradability of the wastewater. Textile wastewater, oxidized by ozonation, was fed to the MBR at different hydraulic retention times (HRT. During the process, color, chemical oxygen demand (COD, and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD removal efficiencies were monitored for 24-hour, 12-hour, 6-hour, and 3-hour retention times. Under these conditions, 94% color, 65% COD, and 55% BOD removal efficiencies were obtained in the MBR system. The experimental outputs were modeled with multiple linear regressions (MLR and fuzzy logic. MLR results suggested that color removal is more related to COD removal relative to BOD removal. A surface map of this issue was prepared with a fuzzy logic model. Furthermore, fuzzy logic was employed to the whole modeling of the biological system treatment. Determination coefficients for COD, BOD, and color removal efficiencies were 0.96, 0.97, and 0.92, respectively.

  3. Intra-abdominal hypertension in fulminant Clostridium difficile infection--an under-recognized treatable complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oud, Lavi

    2010-09-01

    Clostridium difficile is the most common cause of nosocomial infectious diarrhea in adults, with recent reports of increased severity and case fatality. Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) are increasingly recognized and treatable complications of severe illness in medical patients, and are independent predictors of mortality. Patients with severe Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) are at increased risk for IAH and ACS. However, ACS has been only rarely described in this population. We report a case of a 61 year-old morbidly obese, chronically ill, ventilator dependent patient, who developed fulminant CDI, including progressive colonic distension, acute renal failure and intra-abdominal fluid sequestration. Her clinical course worsened abruptly, with new shock, worsening hypoxic respiratory failure, increased peak airway pressures and reduced tidal volumes. Intra-abdominal pressure was 30 mm Hg. The patient was not considered a surgical candidate, was refractory to escalating non-surgical support, and died following withdrawal of life support. Although patients with fulminant CDI share many risk factors for IAH and ACS, these conditions were rarely reported in this population and are likely under recognized, as was the case with the present patient. Increased vigilance for IAH is needed in this at-risk population.

  4. Impact of paint shop decanter effluents on biological treatability of automotive industry wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güven, Didem; Hanhan, Oytun; Aksoy, Elif Ceren; Insel, Güçlü; Çokgör, Emine

    2017-05-15

    A lab-scale Sequencing Batch Reactor (SBR) was implemented to investigate biological treatability and kinetic characteristics of paint shop wastewater (PSW) together with main stream wastewater (MSW) of a bus production factory. Readily biodegradable and slowly biodegradable COD fractions of MWS were determined by respirometric analysis: 4.2% (S S ), 10.4% (S H ) and 59.3% (X S ). Carbon and nitrogen removal performance of the SBR feeding with MSW alone were obtained as 89% and 58%, respectively. When PSW was introduced to MSW, both carbon and nitrogen removal were deteriorated. Model simulation indicated that maximum heterotrophic growth rate decreased from 7.2 to 5.7day -1 , maximum hydrolysis rates were reduced from 6 to 4day -1 (k hS ) and 4 to 1day -1 (k hX ). Based on the dynamic model simulation for the evaluation of nitrogen removal, a maximum specific nitrifier growth rate was obtained as 0.45day -1 for MSW feeding alone. When PSW was introduced, nitrification was completely inhibited and following the termination of PSW addition, nitrogen removal performance was recovered in about 100 days, however with a much lower nitrifier growth rate (0.1day -1 ), possibly due to accumulation of toxic compounds in the sludge. Obviously, a longer recovery period is required to ensure an active nitrifier community. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-08-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193) and a retrospective validation (n = 567) cohort. Clinically related baseline characteristics were grouped into three composite variables, each independently associated with a set of predefined urgent treatable causes. We subsequently derived a risk score classifying patients into low (0 composite variables present) or high (≥ 1 composite variables present) risk for an urgent treatable cause. The sensitivity of the risk score was determined in the validation cohort and in a prospective case series of 214 adults with CSF-culture proven bacterial meningitis, CSF pleocytosis and a negative Gram stain. A total of 41 of 193 patients (21%) in the derivation cohort and 71 of 567 (13%) in the validation cohort had an urgent treatable cause. Sensitivity of the dichotomized risk score to detect an urgent treatable cause was 100.0% (95% CI 93.9-100.0%) in the validation cohort and 100.0% (95% CI 97.8-100.0%) in bacterial meningitis patients. The risk score can be used to identify adults with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Copyright © 2013 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 100-N Area Strontium-90 Treatability Demonstration Project: Phytoextraction Along the 100-N Columbia River Riparian Zone – Field Treatability Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fellows, Robert J.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Driver, Crystal J.; Ainsworth, Calvin C.

    2010-01-11

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is present both in the aquifer near the river and in the vadose and riparian zones of the river’s shore at 100-NR-2. Phytoextraction of 90Sr is being considered as a potential remediation system along the riparian zone of the Columbia River. Phytoextraction would employ coyote willow (Salix exigua). Past studies have shown that willow roots share uptake mechanisms for Sr with Ca, a plant macronutrient as well as no discrimination between Sr and 90Sr. Willow 90Sr concentration ratios [CR’s; (pCi 90Sr/g dry wt. of new growth tissue)/(pCi 90Sr/g soil porewater)] were consistently greater than 65 with three-quarters of the assimilated label partitioned into the above ground shoot. Insect herbivore experiments also demonstrated no significant potential for bioaccumulation or food chain transfer from their natural activities. The objectives of this field study were three-fold: (1) to demonstrate that a viable, “managed” plot of coyote willows can be established on the shoreline of the Columbia River that would survive the same microenvironment to be encountered at the 100-NR-2 shoreline; (2) to show through engineered barriers that large and small animal herbivores can be prevented from feeding on these plants; and (3) to show that once established, the plants will provide sufficient biomass annually to support the phytoextraction technology. A field treatability demonstration plot was established on the Columbia River shoreline alongside the 100-K West water intake at the end of January 2007. The plot was delimited by a 3.05 m high chain-link fence and was approximately 10 x 25 m in size. A layer of fine mesh metal small animal screening was placed around the plot at the base of the fencing to a depth of 45 cm. A total of sixty plants were placed in six slightly staggered rows with 1-m spacing between plants. The actual plot size was 0.00461 hectare (ha). At the time of planting (March 12, 2007), the plot was located about 10 m from the

  7. Treatability and scale-up protocols for polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon bioremediation of manufactured-gas-plant soils. Final report, September 1987-July 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, J.W.; DiGrazia, P.M.; Sanseverino, J.

    1991-07-01

    The report describes activities to develop a framework to reliably scale-up and apply challenging bioremediation processes to polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) soils. It includes: a discussion of the accuracy needed for competitive application of bioremediation; a framework and examples for treatability and scale-up protocols for selection, design and application of these processes; both batch and continuous testing protocols for developing predictive rate data; and special predictive relationships that may be used in process selection/scale-up. The work, coupled with subsequent work (as recommended) to develop an MGP soil desorption/diffusion protocol and new scale-up methods, and with subsequent scale-up testing should lead to the capability for improved selection of MGP sites for bioremediation and improved performance, success, and reliability of field applications. With this greater predictive reliability, bioremediation will be used more often in the field on the most favorable applications and its cost advantages over other remediation options will be realized

  8. Does patient-delivered partner treatment improve disclosure for treatable sexually transmitted diseases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Hamish; Leichliter, Jami S; Schmidt, Norine; Farley, Thomas A; Kissinger, Patricia

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the factors associated with disclosure of three treatable sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Data were obtained from two intervention trials to determine the ideal means of partner referral. Men diagnosed with urethritis and women diagnosed with trichomoniasis at public clinics in New Orleans, Louisiana were randomly assigned to partner referral (PR), booklet-enhanced partner referral (BEPR), or patient-delivered partner treatment (PDPT). Participants were asked about sex partners at baseline, then whether they disclosed to them at follow-up. The male trial was conducted from December 2001 to March 2004 and the female trial from December 2001 to August 2004. Data on men and women were analyzed separately. Nine hundred seventy-seven men and 463 women-reporting information on 1991 and 521 sex partners-were respectively enrolled in each trial. Disclosure occurred to 57.8% and 87.3% of their partners, respectively. Most men (68.3%) reported having two or more partners and disclosure was more likely to occur in: those who reported only one sex partner (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.54 [1.10, 2.16]); those in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 1.37 [1.08,1.74]); and those assigned PDPT [OR [95% CI]: 2.71 [1.93,3.82]). Most women reported having only one partner (86.8%) and disclosure was more likely to occur in steady relationships (OR [95% CI]: 2.65 [1.24,5.66]), and when sex was reinitiated with partners during the follow-up period (OR [95% CI]: 3.30 [1.54,7.09]). The provision of PDPT was associated with increased STD disclosure among men but not among women. Both men and women were less likely to disclose to casual partners. Women had high rates of disclosure irrespective of intervention arm.

  9. Laboratory simulated slipstream testing of novel sulfur removal processes for gasification application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Roland; Tsang, Albert; Cross, Joe; Summers, Clinton; Kornosky, Bob

    2008-01-01

    The Wabash River Integrated Methanol and Power Production from Clean Coal Technologies (IMPPCCT) project is investigating an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) concept to evaluate integrated electrical power generation and methanol production from coal and other carbonaceous feedstocks. Research, development and testing (RD and T) that is currently being conducted under the project is evaluating cost effective process systems for removing contaminants, particularly sulfur species, from the generated gas which contains mainly synthesis gas (syngas), CO 2 and steam at concentrations acceptable for the methanol synthesis catalyst. The RD and T includes laboratory testing followed by bench-scale and field testing at the SG Solutions Gasification Plant located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. Actual synthesis gas produced by the plant was utilized at system pressure and temperature for bench-scale field testing. ConocoPhillips Company (COP) developed a sulfur removal technology based on a novel, regenerable sorbent - S Zorb trademark - to remove sulfur contaminants from gasoline at high temperatures. The sorbent was evaluated for its sulfur removal performance from the generated syngas especially in the presence of other components such as water and CO 2 which often cause sorbent performance to decline over time. This publication also evaluates the performance of a regenerable activated carbon system developed by Nucon International, Inc. in polishing industrial gas stream by removing sulfur species to parts-per-billion (ppb) levels. (author)

  10. Supercritical water oxidation benchscale testing metallurgical analysis report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norby, B.C.

    1993-02-01

    This report describes metallurgical evaluation of witness wires from a series of tests using supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) to process cutting oil containing a simulated radionuclide. The goal of the tests was to evaluate the technology's ability to process a highly chlorinated waste representative of many mixed waste streams generated in the DOE complex. The testing was conducted with a bench-scale SCWO system developed by the Modell Development Corporation. Significant test objectives included process optimization for adequate destruction efficiency, tracking the radionuclide simulant and certain metals in the effluent streams, and assessment of reactor material degradation resulting from processing a highly chlorinated waste. The metallurgical evaluation described herein includes results of metallographic analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis of witness wires exposed to the SCWO environment for one test series

  11. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H&S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H&S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H&S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated.

  12. Health and safety plan for phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    This Health and Safety Plan (HASP) addresses the health and safety (H ampersand S) concerns and requirements for the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant. Samples will be collected from effluent following treatment tests of extraction columns, algal mats, and mature wetlands supplied by surface water locations and existing groundwater monitoring well locations. The project Sampling and Analysis Plan addresses the project description, technical objectives, procedures, and planned work activities in greater detail. It is the responsibility of the project managers, field manager, and site health and safety officer (SHSO) to determine that the requirements of this HASP are sufficiently protective. If it is determined that the requirements of this HASP are not sufficiently protective, a field change order(s) (FCO) will be prepared. FCOs will include a completed job hazard analysis or similar worksheet to ensure complete hazard assessment. FCOs must be approved by the Environmental Management and Enrichment Facilities (EMEF) project manager, EMEF H ampersand S manager, subcontractor project or field manager, and subcontractor H ampersand S representative. As a minimum, FCOs will be prepared if additional tasks will be performed or if contaminant exposure is anticipated

  13. Quality Assurance Project Plan for the treatability study of in situ vitrification of Seepage Pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPjP) establishes the quality assurance procedures and requirements to be implemented for the control of quality-related activities for Phase 3 of the Treatability Study (TS) of In Situ Vitrification (ISV) of Seepage Pit 1, ORNL Waste Area Grouping 7. This QAPjP supplements the Quality Assurance Plan for Oak Ridge National Laboratory Environmental Restoration Program by providing information specific to the ISV-TS. Phase 3 of the TS involves the actual ISV melt operations and posttest monitoring of Pit 1 and vicinity. Previously, Phase 1 activities were completed, which involved determining the boundaries of Pit 1, using driven rods and pipes and mapping the distribution of radioactivity using logging tools within the pipes. Phase 2 involved sampling the contents, both liquid and solids, in and around seepage Pit 1 to determine their chemical and radionuclide composition and the spatial distribution of these attributes. A separate QAPjP was developed for each phase of the project. A readiness review of the Phase 3 activities presented QAPjP will be conducted prior to initiating field activities, and an Operational Acceptance, Test (OAT) will also be conducted with no contamination involved. After, the OAT is complete, the ISV process will be restarted, and the melt will be allowed to increase with depth and incorporate the radionuclide contamination at the bottom of Pit 1. Upon completion of melt 1, the equipment will be shut down and mobilized to an adjacent location at which melt 2 will commence

  14. Work plan for the treatability study for PCB dehalogenation by Agent 313 in Waste Area Grouping 11 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This work Plan describes the treatability study for Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) debalogenation by Agent 313 (a registered trademark of the A.L. Sandpiper Corporation of Columbus, ohio) to be conducted at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 11 on the Oak Ridge Reservation. The study will be conducted at WAG 11 as a result of the contamination of several small areas of soil by leaking capacitors. The primary purpose of this treatability study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Agent 313 in remediating PCB-contaminated soil. However, the WAG 11 soils to be treated may also contain radionuclides and metals. In addition to providing the procedures to be followed during the treatability study, the work plan briefly describes the project background and technology, lists applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements for the project, and delineates project goals and objectives. This document also follows the general suggested outline for treatability study work plans shown in the 1992 report Guide for conducting Treatability Studies Under CERCLA: Final, EPA;540/R-92-071a, published by the US Environmental Protection Agency

  15. Bile Acid Malabsorption After Pelvic and Prostate Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy: An Uncommon but Treatable Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Victoria [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Benton, Barbara [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Sohaib, Aslam [Department of Radiology, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Dearnaley, David [Academic Urology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom); Andreyev, H. Jervoise N., E-mail: j@andreyev.demon.co.uk [Gastroenterology Unit, Institute of Cancer Research and The Royal Marsden Hospital, London and Sutton (United Kingdom)

    2012-12-01

    Purpose: Intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is a significant therapeutic advance in prostate cancer, allowing increased tumor dose delivery and increased sparing of normal tissues. IMRT planning uses strict dose constraints to nearby organs to limit toxicity. Bile acid malabsorption (BAM) is a treatable disorder of the terminal ileum (TI) that presents with symptoms similar to radiation therapy toxicity. It has not been described in patients receiving RT for prostate cancer in the contemporary era. We describe new-onset BAM in men after IMRT for prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Diagnosis of new-onset BAM was established after typical symptoms developed, selenium-75 homocholic acid taurine (SeHCAT) scanning showed 7-day retention of <15%, and patients' symptoms unequivocally responded to a bile acid sequestrant. The TI was identified on the original radiation therapy plan, and the radiation dose delivered was calculated and compared with accepted dose-volume constraints. Results: Five of 423 men treated in a prospective series of high-dose prostate and pelvic IMRT were identified with new onset BAM (median age, 65 years old). All reported having normal bowel habits before RT. The volume of TI ranged from 26-141 cc. The radiation dose received by the TI varied between 11.4 Gy and 62.1 Gy (uncorrected). Three of 5 patients had TI treated in excess of 45 Gy (equivalent dose calculated in 2-Gy fractions, using an {alpha}/{beta} ratio of 3) with volumes ranging from 1.6 cc-49.0 cc. One patient had mild BAM (SeHCAT retention, 10%-15%), 2 had moderate BAM (SeHCAT retention, 5%-10%), and 2 had severe BAM (SeHCAT retention, <5%). The 3 patients whose TI received {>=}45 Gy developed moderate to severe BAM, whereas those whose TI received <45 Gy had only mild to moderate BAM. Conclusions: Radiation delivered to the TI during IMRT may cause BAM. Identification of the TI from unenhanced RT planning computed tomography scans is difficult and may impede

  16. The development and testing of technologies for the remediation of mercury-contaminated soils, Task 7.52. Topical report, December 1992--December 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepan, D.J.; Fraley, R.H.; Charlton, D.S.

    1994-02-01

    The release of elemental mercury into the environment from manometers that are used in the measurement of natural gas flow through pipelines has created a potentially serious problem for the gas industry. Regulations, particularly the Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR), have had a major impact on gas companies dealing with mercury-contaminated soils. After the May 8, 1993, LDR deadline extension, gas companies were required to treat mercury-contaminated soils by designated methods to specified levels prior to disposal in landfills. In addition, gas companies must comply with various state regulations that are often more stringent than the LDR. The gas industry is concerned that the LDRs do not allow enough viable options for dealing with their mercury-related problems. The US Environmental Protection Agency has specified the Best Demonstrated Available Technology (BDAT) as thermal roasting or retorting. However, the Agency recognizes that treatment of certain wastes to the LDR standards may not always be achievable and that the BDAT used to set the standard may be inappropriate. Therefore, a Treatability Variance Process for remedial actions was established (40 Code of Federal Regulations 268.44) for the evaluation of alternative remedial technologies. This report presents evaluations of demonstrations for three different remedial technologies: a pilot-scale portable thermal treatment process, a pilot-scale physical separation process in conjunction with chemical leaching, and a bench-scale chemical leaching process

  17. Evidence of rock matrix back-diffusion and abiotic dechlorination using a field testing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Charles E.; Lippincott, David R.; Klammler, Harald; Hatfield, Kirk

    2018-02-01

    An in situ field demonstration was performed in fractured rock impacted with trichloroethene (TCE) and cis-1,2-dichloroethene (DCE) to assess the impacts of contaminant rebound after removing dissolved contaminants within hydraulically conductive fractures. Using a bedrock well pair spaced 2.4 m apart, TCE and DCE were first flushed with water to create a decrease in dissolved contaminant concentrations. While hydraulically isolating the well pair from upgradient contaminant impacts, contaminant rebound then was observed between the well pair over 151 days. The magnitude, but not trend, of TCE rebound was reasonably described by a matrix back-diffusion screening model that employed an effective diffusion coefficient and first-order abiotic TCE dechlorination rate constant that was based on bench-scale testing. Furthermore, a shift in the TCE:DCE ratio and carbon isotopic enrichment was observed during the rebound, suggesting that both biotic and abiotic dechlorination were occurring within the rock matrix. The isotopic data and back-diffusion model together served as a convincing argument that matrix back-diffusion was the mechanism responsible for the observed contaminant rebound. Results of this field demonstration highlight the importance and applicability of rock matrix parameters determined at the bench-scale, and suggest that carbon isotopic enrichment can be used as a line of evidence for abiotic dechlorination within rock matrices.

  18. Plasma-based water treatment: development of a general mechanistic model to estimate the treatability of different types of contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mededovic Thagard, Selma; Stratton, Gunnar R.; Dai, Fei; Bellona, Christopher L.; Holsen, Thomas M.; Bohl, Douglas G.; Paek, Eunsu; Dickenson, Eric R. V.

    2017-01-01

    To determine the types of applications for which plasma-based water treatment (PWT) is best suited, the treatability of 23 environmental contaminants was assessed through treatment in a gas discharge reactor with argon bubbling, termed the enhanced-contact reactor. The contaminants were treated in a mixture to normalize reaction conditions and convective transport limitations. Treatability was compared in terms of the observed removal rate constant (k obs). To characterize the influence of interfacial processes on k obs, a model was developed that accurately predicts k obs for each compound, as well as the contributions to k obs from each of the three general degradation mechanisms thought to occur at or near the gas-liquid interface: ‘sub-surface’, ‘surface’ and ‘above-surface’. Sub-surface reactions occur just underneath the gas-liquid interface between the contaminants and dissolved plasma-generated radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of compounds that lack surfactant-like properties and so are not highly concentrated at the interface. Surface reactions occur at the interface between the contaminants and dissolved radicals, contributing significantly to the removal of surfactant-like compounds that have high interfacial concentrations. The contaminants’ interfacial concentrations were calculated using surface-activity parameters determined through surface tension measurements. Above-surface reactions are proposed to take place in the plasma interior between highly energetic plasma species and exposed portions of compounds that extend out of the interface. This mechanism largely accounts for the degradation of surfactant-like contaminants that contain highly hydrophobic perfluorocarbon groups, which are most likely to protrude from the interface. For a few compounds, the degree of exposure to the plasma interior was supported by new and previously reported molecular dynamics simulations results. By reviewing the predicted

  19. Risk score for identifying adults with CSF pleocytosis and negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hasbun, Rodrigo; Bijlsma, Merijn; Brouwer, Matthijs C.; Khoury, Nabil; Hadi, Christiane M.; van der Ende, Arie; Wootton, Susan H.; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hossain, Md Monir; Beilke, Mark; van de Beek, Diederik

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to derive and validate a risk score that identifies adults with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain at low risk for an urgent treatable cause. Patients with CSF pleocytosis and a negative CSF Gram stain were stratified into a prospective derivation (n = 193)

  20. Treatability study work plan for in situ vitrification of seepage pit 1 in Waste Area Grouping 7 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spalding, B.P.

    1994-07-01

    A treatability study is described that encompasses the application of in situ vitrification (ISV) to at least two segments of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) seepage pit 1 by the end of fiscal year 1995. This treatability study will establish the field-scale technical performance of ISV for (1) attaining the required depth, nominally 15 ft, to incorporate source contamination within and beneath the pits; (2) demonstrating field capability for the overlapping melt settings that are necessary to achieve fused melt segments; (3) demonstrating off-gas handling technology for accommodating and minimizing the volatilization of 137 Cs; (4) demonstrating adequate site characterization techniques to predict ISV melting kinetics, processing temperatures, and product durability; and (5) promoting public acceptance of ISV technology by demonstrating its safety, implementability, site impacts, and air emissions and by coordinating the treatability study within the regulatory closure process. The initial step of this treatability study will be to gather the required site characterization data about pit 1 so that the in situ vitrification can be effectively and safely planned. The second phase will be the field ISV operations at pit 1 employing at least two settings to achieve overlapping and fused melts. Such field operations are likely to require 6 to 8 weeks. Following termination of ISV melting operations at pit 1 and demobilization of portable ISV equipment and the off-gas hood, posttest characterization activities will begin

  1. Glycine receptor antibody mediated Progressive Encephalomyelitis with Rigidity and Myoclonus (PERM): a rare but treatable neurological syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, W M; Howard, R; Chalmers, R M; Woodhall, M R; Waters, P; Vincent, A; Wickremaratchi, M M

    2014-04-01

    A 40-year-old man presented with respiratory compromise and was intubated. After tracheostomy, he was found to have ophthalmoplegia, severe limb rigidity, stimulus-sensitive myoclonus and autonomic dysfunction. For 1 week before admission, there had been a prodromal illness with low mood, hallucinations and limb myoclonus. Serum glycine receptor antibodies were strongly positive: we diagnosed progressive encephalomyelitis with rigidity and myoclonus. Despite a relapse, he has done well following immunotherapies. The clinical syndrome of encephalomyelitis with rigidity, described in 1976, often has a severe progressive course. A minority of patients have glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies. The association with glycine receptor antibody was first reported in 2008, and we briefly review subsequent case reports to illustrate the range of clinical features. The antibody is likely to be disease mediating, although this remains unproven. The spectrum of diagnosable and treatable antibody mediated neurological syndromes is expanding. It is vital to recognise these conditions early to reduce morbidity and mortality.

  2. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halgren, D.L.

    2010-01-01

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft 2 ) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  3. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  4. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-05-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant site is currently under a Federal Facilities Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is underway to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, a treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top level command medium for Phase II and as such will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred within this document can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (Energy Systems) documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP). Section 1 describes the results of Phase I efforts. Section 2 describes the objectives of Phase II. Section 3 provides details of field testing. Section 4 addresses the HASP. Section 5 describes the SAP. Section 6 introduces the WMP. Environmental compliance issues are discussed in Section 7, and sediment and erosion control is addressed in Section 8. Information about the project team is provided in Section 9

  5. A hardenability test proposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, N.V.S.N. [Ingersoll-Rand (I) Ltd., Bangalore (India)

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for hardenability evaluation and its application to heat treatable steels will be discussed. This will include an overview and deficiencies of the current methods and discussion on the necessity for a new approach. Hardenability terminology will be expanded to avoid ambiguity and over-simplification as encountered with the current system. A new hardenability definition is proposed. Hardenability specification methods are simplified and rationalized. The new hardenability evaluation system proposed here utilizes a test specimen with varying diameter as an alternative to the cylindrical Jominy hardenability test specimen and is readily applicable to the evaluation of a wide variety of steels with different cross-section sizes.

  6. Test Concept for Advanced Oxidation Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennedsen, Lars Rønn; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Mortensen, Lars

    of conducting screening laboratory and pilot tests prior to onset of full scale treatment of a contaminated site with a given technology. For this purpose, Ramboll has developed a mobile test unit in co-operation with universities and technology suppliers. The unit includes equipment for both standard and more...... the assessor ends up with 3 or 4 applicable techniques. In stead of selecting a full scale technique solely based on information collected during a literature research, it is best practice to supplement the remediation screening phase with laboratory and in situ pilot treatability tests. As well...... as establishing the applicability of the proposed technique, the treatability tests also provide essential site-specific design parameters required for the full scale system, namely; oxidant demand, delivery method, kinetics etc. Drawing up field studies and laboratory data, this poster will discus the importance...

  7. Experimental plans for LMFBR cavity liner sodium spill test LT-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilliard, R.K.; Newell, G.A.

    1976-01-01

    Reinforced concrete is an important material of construction in LMFBR cavities and cells. Steel liners are often installed on the concrete surfaces to provide a gastight seal for minimizing air inleakage to inerted cell atmospheres and to protect the concrete from direct contact with sodium in the event of a sodium spill. In making safety assessment analyses, it is of interest to determine the adequacy of the liners to maintain their leaktightness during postulated accidents involving large sodium spills. However, data for basing analytical assessments of cell liners are very meager and an experimental program is underway at HEDL to provide some of the needed information. The HEDL cell liner evaluation program consists of both bench-scale feature tests and large-scale sodium spill demonstration tests. The plans for the first large-scale sodium spill test (LT-1) are the subject of this paper

  8. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 2, Appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Data from sidestream testing are presented. 18 refs.

  9. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel.

  10. Safety analysis report for the North Tank Farm, Tank W-11, and the Gunite and Associated Tanks -- Treatability Study, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platfoot, J.H.

    1997-02-01

    The North Tank Farm (NTF) tanks consist of eight underground storage tanks which have been removed from service because of age and changes in liquid waste system needs and requirements. Tank W-11, which was constructed in 1943, has been removed from service, and contains several hundred gallons of liquid low-level waste (LLLW). The Gunite and Associated Tanks (GAAT) Treatability Study involves the demonstration of sludge removal techniques and equipment for use in other waste storage tanks throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. The hazards associated with the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study are identified in hazard identification table in Appendixes A, B, and C. The hazards identified for the NTF, Tank W-11, and the Treatability Study were analyzed in the preliminary hazards analyses (PHA) included as Appendices D and E. The PHA identifies potential accident scenarios and qualitatively estimates the consequences. Because of the limited quantities of materials present in the tanks and the types of energy sources that may result in release of the materials, none of the accidents identified are anticipated to result in significant adverse health effects to on-site or off-site personnel

  11. Metallurgical Laboratory (MetLab) Treatability Study: An Analysis of Passive Soil Vapor Extraction Wells (PSVE) FY1999 Update; ANNUAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riha, B.D.

    1999-01-01

    The results to date on the treatability study of the PSVE system at the MetLab of the Savannah River Site (SRS) indicate the technology is performing well. Well concentrations are decreasing and contour maps of the vadose zone soil gas plume show a decrease in the extent of the plume. In the 18 months of operation approximately 200 pounds of chlorinated organic contaminants have been removed by natural barometric pumping of wells fitted with BaroBall valves (low pressure check valves). The mass removal estimates are approximate since the flow rates are estimated, the concentration data is based on exponential fits of a limited data set, and the concentration data is normalized to the average CO2.The concentration values presented in this report should be taken as the general trend or order of magnitude of concentration until longer-term data is collected. These trends are of exponentially decreasing concentration showing the same characteristics as the concentration trends at the SRS Miscellaneous Chemical Basin after three years of PSVE (Riha et. al., 1999)

  12. Seasonal variation of organic matter concentration and characteristics in the Maji ya Chai River (Tanzania): Impact on treatability by ultrafiltration

    KAUST Repository

    Aschermann, Geert

    2016-05-07

    Many waters in Tanzania exhibit high concentrations of organic matter and dissolved contaminants such as fluoride. Due to bacteria and virus removal, ultrafiltration (UF) is an attractive option for drinking water treatment, and when coupled with adsorbents, may compete with other established processes like nanofiltration (NF) for lower contaminant concentrations. The results presented here examine the characteristics and treatability of tropical natural organic matter (NOM) by UF as a function of seasonal variation. The Tanzanian river Maji ya Chai was sampled monthly during one year. The composition of NOM in Maji ya Chai River is influenced strongly by precipitation. Total organic carbon (TOC), specific ultraviolet absorbance (SUVA) and concentration of allochthonous organics substances (such as humic substances (HS)) are elevated in periods following high precipitation, while TOC is lower and contains more biopolymers in the dry seasons. UF experiments with two regenerated cellulose membranes of different molecular weight cut-off (MWCO, 5 and 10 kDa) were conducted. UF is able to remove 50–95% of TOC with a seasonal variability of 10–20%. Due to the remaining NOM in the water that would contribute to disinfection by-product formation and bacterial regrowth, the physically disinfected water is more applicable for point of use systems than distribution or storage.

  13. Treatable renal disease in children with silent lupus nephritis detected by baseline biopsy: association with serum C3 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakiguchi, Hiroyuki; Takei, Syuji; Kubota, Tomohiro; Miyazono, Akinori; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-02-01

    Lupus nephritis is identified in up to 75% of patients with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus and may present with abnormal urinary findings (overt lupus nephritis) or be apparent only upon renal biopsy (silent lupus nephritis). We investigated whether serum complement levels correlate with renal pathology in pediatric patients with silent lupus nephritis. We performed baseline renal biopsy in 45 children diagnosed with juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus who were admitted to Kagoshima University Hospital between January 2000 and June 2015. Patients were classified as having overt or silent lupus nephritis based on urinary findings at renal biopsy. Silent lupus nephritis was identified in 55.5% (25/45) of cases. Of these, 6 (13.3%) were classified as class III nephritis, according to the International Society of Nephrology/Renal Pathology Society criteria. Decreased serum C3 levels were associated with the renal pathology classification for patients with silent but not with overt lupus nephritis. No differences in serum C4 levels were identified between cases of silent and overt lupus nephritis. Baseline renal biopsy is a critical component of the work-up of juvenile systemic lupus erythematosus as treatable renal pathology may be present in the absence of urinary signs. Serum C3 may be an important marker of the progression of silent lupus nephritis.

  14. Test plan for ISV laboratory-pyrolysis testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McAtee, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    The objective of the laboratory-pyrolysis studies is to obtain information on the high temperature (< 1200{degree}C) degradation and alteration of organic chemicals and materials similar to those found in the Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Pit 9. This test plan describes experimental procedures, sampling and analysis strategy, sampling procedures, sample control, and document management. It addresses safety issues in the experimental apparatus and procedures, personal training, and hazardous waste disposal. Finally, it describes the data quality objectives using the EPA tiered approach to treatability studies to define where research/scoping tests fit into these studies and the EPA analytical levels required for the tests.

  15. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs.

  16. In situ vitrification laboratory-scale test work plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagata, P.K.; Smith, N.L.

    1991-05-01

    The Buried Waste Program was established in October 1987 to accelerate the studies needed to develop a long-term management plan for the buried mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at Idaho Engineering Laboratory. The In Situ Vitrification Project is being conducted in a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act feasibility study format to identify methods for the long-term management of mixed buried waste. To support the overall feasibility study, the situ vitrification treatability investigations are proceeding along the three parallel paths: laboratory-scale tests, intermediate field tests, and field tests. Laboratory-scale tests are being performed to provide data to mathematical modeling efforts, which, in turn, will support design of the field tests and to the health and safety risk assessment. This laboratory-scale test work plan provides overall testing program direction to meet the current goals and objectives of the in situ vitrification treatability investigation. 12 refs., 1 fig., 7 tabs

  17. Waste form development/test: polyethylene and modified sulfur cement solidification of LLW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    Low-density polyethylene and a modified sulfur cement have been selected for further study as new potential solidification agents for LLW streams including dry evaporator concentrates, incinerator ash and ion exchange resins. These binder materials are thermoplastic and are processed by use of a screw-type extruder or an air-powered dual action mixer. The studies have utilized ''bench scale'' systems with sufficient capacity to enable reliable determination of the effects of processing parameters such as temperature requirements, feed rates, mixing methods, waste pretreatment and solidification kinetics. Maximum waste loadings have been obtained for polyethylene by use of the screw extruder under controlled conditions. The modified sulfur cement system is processed more effectively by the dual action mixer due to its very low melt viscosity. Simulated waste forms produced using acceptable formulations, are being tested to develop a data base of relevant waste form properties. Several tests underway include immersion, leaching, compressive strength and thermal stability

  18. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P. [and others

    1995-11-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb).

  19. Development, testing, and demonstration of an optimal fine coal cleaning circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, M.; Placha, M.; Bethell, P.

    1995-01-01

    The overall objective of this project is to improve the efficiency of fine coal cleaning. The project will be completed in two phases: bench-scale testing and demonstration of four advanced flotation cells and; in-plant proof-of-concept (POC) pilot plant testing of two flotation cells individually and in two-stage combinations. The goal is to ascertain if a two-stage circuit can result in reduced capital and operating costs while achieving improved separation efficiency. The plant selected for this project, Cyprus Emerald Coal Preparation plant, cleans 1200 tph of raw coal. The plant produces approximately 4 million tonnes of clean coal per year at an average as received energy content of 30.2 MJ/Kg (13,000 Btu/lb)

  20. Multiple cerebral infarcts and intravascular central nervous system lymphoma: a rare but potentially treatable association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruto, Catarina; Taipa, Ricardo; Monteiro, Cecília; Moreira, Isabel; Melo-Pires, Manuel; Correia, Manuel

    2013-02-15

    Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma (IVLBCL) is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterized by massive intravascular growth of lymphoma cells with a predilection for the central nervous system (CNS). Diagnosis is generally delayed by variable clinical presentation and nonspecific laboratory findings. Brain biopsy is the gold standard diagnostic test. Prognosis is poor with a high mortality rate. We report a case of "in vivo" diagnosis of IVLBCL presenting with rapidly progressive encephalopathy secondary to multiple cerebral infarcts. This case highlights IVLBCL as a possible cause of unexplained multifocal and recurrent strokes. Earlier diagnosis and consequent earlier treatment may be associated with better prognosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Iliopsoas myofascial dysfunction: a treatable cause of "failed" low back syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingber, R S

    1989-05-01

    Most patients with low back pain experience loss of spinal and hip extension range of motion. The limitation appears to involve significant iliopsoas myofascial dysfunction manifested in tenderness, as shown by deep abdominal palpation of the psoas muscle, hip flexor contracture, pain elicited by the stretch maneuver of the spine and hip, and relative weakness of the psoas muscle when tested manually. These signs assisted in identifying the source of low back pain in six patients who had failed to respond to prior treatment. Therapy consisted of iliopsoas trigger point treatment using a dry needling technique, followed by self-administered postisometric relaxation exercise of the iliopsoas. In all cases, marked improvement of hip and spine extension, dramatic reduction of pain, and return to normal activity resulted. Given the low risk-to-benefit ratio, trigger point treatment is indicated in "failed back syndrome" and chronic low back pain after conservative therapy or surgery have been tried without success.

  2. Portraying mental illness and drug addiction as treatable health conditions: effects of a randomized experiment on stigma and discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinty, Emma E; Goldman, Howard H; Pescosolido, Bernice; Barry, Colleen L

    2015-02-01

    Despite significant advances in treatment, stigma and discrimination toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction have remained constant in past decades. Prior work suggests that portraying other stigmatized health conditions (i.e., HIV/AIDS) as treatable can improve public attitudes toward those affected. Our study compared the effects of vignettes portraying persons with untreated and symptomatic versus successfully treated and asymptomatic mental illness and drug addiction on several dimensions of public attitudes about these conditions. We conducted a survey-embedded randomized experiment using a national sample (N = 3940) from an online panel. Respondents were randomly assigned to read one of ten vignettes. Vignette one was a control vignette, vignettes 2-5 portrayed individuals with untreated schizophrenia, depression, prescription pain medication addiction and heroin addiction, and vignettes 6-10 portrayed successfully treated individuals with the same conditions. After reading the randomly assigned vignette, respondents answered questions about their attitudes related to mental illness or drug addiction. Portrayals of untreated and symptomatic schizophrenia, depression, and heroin addiction heightened negative public attitudes toward persons with mental illness and drug addiction. In contrast, portrayals of successfully treated schizophrenia, prescription painkiller addiction, and heroin addiction led to less desire for social distance, greater belief in the effectiveness of treatment, and less willingness to discriminate against persons with these conditions. Portrayal of persons with successfully treated mental illness and drug addiction is a promising strategy for reducing stigma and discrimination toward persons with these conditions and improving public perceptions of treatment effectiveness. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendixen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers.......Bidrag med en kortfattet, introducerende, perspektiverende og begrebsafklarende fremstilling af begrebet test i det pædagogiske univers....

  4. Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification Treatability Study of Mercury Contaminated Soil from the Y-12 Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalb P.; Milian, L.; Yim, S. P.

    2012-11-30

    As a result of past operations, the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Oak Ridge Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12 Plant) has extensive mercury-contamination in building structures, soils, storm sewer sediments, and stream sediments, which are a source of pollution to the local ecosystem. Because of mercury’s toxicity and potential impacts on human health and the environment, DOE continues to investigate and implement projects to support the remediation of the Y-12 site.URS and #9122;CH2M Oak Ridge LLC (UCOR) under its prime contract with DOE has cleanup responsibilities on the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation and is investigating potential mercury-contaminated soil treatment technologies through an agreement with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) Y-12, the Y-12 operating contractor to DOE. As part of its investigations, UCOR has subcontracted with Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to conduct laboratory-scale studies evaluating the applicability of the Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process using surrogate and actual mixed waste Y-12 soils containing mercury (Hg) at 135, 2,000, and 10,000 ppm.SPSS uses a thermoplastic sulfur binder to convert Hg to stable mercury sulfide (HgS) and solidifies the chemically stable product in a monolithic solid final waste form to reduce dispersion and permeability. Formulations containing 40 – 60 dry wt% Y-12 soil were fabricated and samples were prepared in triplicate for Environmental Protection Agency Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) testing by an independent laboratory. Those containing 50 and 60 wt% soil easily met the study criteria for maximum allowable Hg concentrations (47 and 1 ppb, respectively compared with the TCLP limit of 200 ppb Hg). The lowest waste loading of 40 wt% yielded TCLP Hg concentrations slightly higher (240 ppb) than the allowable limit. Since the Y-12 soil tended to form clumps, the improved leaching at higher waste loadings was probably due to reduction in particle size

  5. Carrier screening for Gaucher disease: lessons for low-penetrance, treatable diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, Shachar; Lahad, Amnon; Shmueli, Amir; Zimran, Ari; Peleg, Leah; Orr-Urtreger, Avi; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Sagi, Michal

    2007-09-19

    The aim of carrier screening is to prevent severe, untreatable genetic disease by identifying couples at risk before the birth of an affected child, and providing such couples with options for reproductive outcomes for affected pregnancies. Gaucher disease (GD) is an autosomal recessive storage disorder, relatively frequent in Ashkenazi Jews. Carrier screening for GD is controversial because common type 1 GD is often asymptomatic and effective treatment exists. However, screening is offered to Ashkenazi Jews worldwide and has been offered in Israel since 1995. To examine the scope and outcomes of nationwide GD screening. All Israeli genetic centers provided data on the number of individuals screened for GD, the number of carriers identified, the number of carrier couples identified, and the mutations identified in these couples between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2003. Carrier couples were interviewed via telephone between January 21, 2003, and August 31, 2004, using a structured questionnaire for relevant outcome measures. Screening scope (number of testing centers, tested individuals, and carrier couples), screening process (type of pretest and posttest consultations), and screening outcomes (utilization of prenatal diagnosis and pregnancy terminations). Between January 1, 1995, and March 31, 2003, 10 of 12 Israeli genetic centers (83.3%) offered carrier screening. Carrier frequency was 5.7%, and 83 carrier couples were identified among an estimated 28,893 individuals screened. There were 82 couples at risk for offspring with type 1 GD. Seventy of 82 couples (85%) were at risk for asymptomatic or mildly affected offspring and 12 of 82 couples (15%) were at risk for moderately affected offspring. At postscreening, 65 interviewed couples had 90 pregnancies, and prenatal diagnosis was performed in 68 pregnancies (76%), detecting 16 fetuses with GD (24%). Pregnancies were terminated in 2 of 13 fetuses (15%) predicted to be asymptomatic or mildly affected and 2 of

  6. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ADAMS, J.W.; KALB, P.D.

    2001-01-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft(sup 3) pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containingandgt; 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containingandlt; 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product

  7. SULFUR POLYMER STABILIZATION/SOLIDIFICATION (SPSS) TREATABILITY OF LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY MERCURY WASTE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ADAMS,J.W.; KALB,P.D.

    2001-11-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory's Sulfur Polymer Stabilization/Solidification (SPSS) process was used to treat approximately 90kg of elemental mercury mixed waste from Los Alamos National Laboratory. Treatment was carried out in a series of eight batches using a 1 ft{sup 3} pilot-scale mixer, where mercury loading in each batch was 33.3 weight percent. Although leach performance is currently not regulated for amalgamated elemental mercury (Hg) mixed waste, Toxicity Characteristic Leach Procedure (TCLP) testing of SPSS treated elemental mercury waste indicates that leachability is readily reduced to below the TCLP limit of 200 ppb (regulatory requirement following treatment by retort for wastes containing > 260 ppb Hg), and with process optimization, to levels less than the stringent Universal Treatment Standard (UTS) limit of 25 ppb that is applied to waste containing < 260 ppm Hg. In addition, mercury-contaminated debris, consisting of primary glass and plastic containers, as well as assorted mercury thermometers, switches, and labware, was first reacted with SPSS components to stabilize the mercury contamination, then macroencapsulated in the molten SPSS product. This treatment was done by vigorous agitation of the sulfur polymer powder and the comminuted debris. Larger plastic and metal containers were reacted to stabilize internal mercury contamination, and then filled with molten sulfur polymer to encapsulate the treated product.

  8. Anaerobic treatability of a phenolic coal conversion wastewater after diisopropyl ether extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindzierski, W.B.; Fedorak, P.M.; Hrudey, S.E. (University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-04-01

    The combined treatment requirements for a high strength phenolic wastewater were examined in semicontinuous methogenic cultures. Selective pH adjustment of H-coal wastewater followed by diisopropyl ether extraction was used to control the phenolic concentration fed to the serum bottle cultures. This pretreatment did not completely remove the unidentified inhibitory compounds(s) from the wastewater. Thus the addition of activated carbon to the cultures and a reduced feed rate were required to stabilize their activity. However, by the end of the 250-day test period, the cultures were maintained with a 12.5-day hydraulic retention time and were fed approx. 9 parts pH 9-extracted H-coal wastewater and 1 part inorganic nutrient solution. The influent phenol concentration was near 900 mg/l, whereas the effluent concentration was {lt} mg/l. Residual dissolved diisopropyl ether did not inhibit the anaerobic process nor was it biodegraded to methane. 26 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Development of a bench-scale fluidized bed combustor (FBC) for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The high technological level of equipment for combustion of fuels, as well as the necessity for rational and efficient use of non-renewable energy resources, has resulted demanding requirements that must be fulfilled by equipment for energy production, via combustion. These requirements form the characteristics of ...

  10. Bacterial communities associated with biofouling materials used in bench-scale hydrocarbon bioremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mailem, Dina; Kansour, Mayada; Radwan, Samir

    2015-03-01

    Biofouling material samples from the Arabian (Persian) Gulf, used as inocula in batch cultures, brought about crude oil and pure-hydrocarbon removal in a mineral medium. Without any added nitrogen fertilizers, the hydrocarbon-removal values were between about 10 and 50 %. Fertilization with NaNO3 alone or together with a mixture of the vitamins thiamine, pyridoxine, vitamin B12, biotin, riboflavin, and folic acid increased the hydrocarbon-removal values, to reach 90 %. Biofouling material samples harbored total bacteria in the magnitude of 10(7) cells g(-1), about 25 % of which were hydrocarbonoclastic. These numbers were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin amendment. The culture-independent analysis of the total bacterioflora revealed the predominance of the gammaproteobacterial genera Marinobacter, Acinetobacter, and Alcanivorax, the Flavobacteriia, Flavobacterium, Gaetbulibacter, and Owenweeksia, and the Alphaproteobacteria Tistrella, Zavarzinia, and others. Most of those bacteria are hydrocarbonoclastic. Culture-dependent analysis of hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria revealed that Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus, Dietzia maris, and Gordonia bronchialis predominated in the fouling materials. In addition, each material had several more-specific hydrocarbonoclastic species, whose frequencies were enhanced by NaNO3 and vitamin fertilization. The same samples of fouling materials were used in four successive crude-oil-removal cycles without any dramatic loss of their hydrocarbon-removal potential nor of their associated hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria. In the fifth cycle, the oil-removal value was reduced by about 50 % in only one of the studied samples. This highlights how firmly biofouling materials were immobilizing the hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria.

  11. Molten salt oxidation of mixed waste: Preliminary bench-scale experiments without radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.A.; Rudolph, J.C.; Bell, J.T.

    1994-06-01

    Molten salt oxidation (MSO) is a process in which organic wastes are oxidized by sparging them with air through a bed of molten sodium carbonate (bp 851 degrees C) at ≥ 900 degrees C. This process is readily applicable to the mixed waste because acidic products from Cl, S, P, etc., in the waste, along with most metals and most radionuclides, are retained within the melt as oxides or salts. Rockwell International has studied the application of MSO to various wastes, including some mixed waste. A unit used by Rockwell to study the mixed waste treatment is presently in use at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL's studies to date have concentrated on chemical flowsheet questions. Concerns that were studied included carbon monoxide (CO) emissions, NO x , emissions, and metal retention under a variety of conditions. Initial experiments show that CO emissions increase with increasing NaCl content in the melt, increasing temperature, and increasing airflow. Carbon monoxide content is especially high (> 2000 ppm) with high chlorine content (> 10%). Thermal NO x , emissions are relatively low ( x , The metal contents of the melt and of knockout pot samples of condensed salt show high volatilities of Cs as CsCl. Average condensed salt concentrations were 60% for barium and 100% for strontium and cobalt. The cerium disappeared -- perhaps from deposition on the alumina reactor walls

  12. Full-Scale and Bench-Scale Studies on the Removal of Strontium from Water (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strontium (Sr) is a natural and commonly occurring alkaline earth metal which has an oxidation state of +2 under normal environmental conditions. Stable strontium is suspended in water and is dissolved after water runs through rocks and soil. It behaves very similar to calcium. G...

  13. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF BENCH-SCALE COMPOST TREATMENT SYSTEM FOR HAZARDOUS WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil bound contamination presents a significant set of problems to those attempting to remediate the soil. Bioremediation has received considerable attention, as a potential answer to the obvious remediation needs. Composting technology represents a promising means to use indigen...

  14. Evaluation of effluents from bench-scale treatment combinations for landfill leachate in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, Mkc

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pollutants in landfill leachate was investigated using constructed wetlands, a trickling filter, alum flocculation and coagulation, and a sequencing batch reactor in various combinations. Thirteen combined operations were investigated involving three out of the four unit treatment methods in series. The study was conducted because unit operations, though achieved reductions in pollutants concentrations had effluent values above the national regulatory guideline values. The suspended solids of effluents were permissible in most treatment processes, while reductions in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH3) of leachates ranged from 80% to 97%; 86% to 97% and 92% to 98% respectively. However, there were significant increases in nitrate (85%) and dissolved oxygen of treatment (218%). In addition, the characteristics of the recommended treatment sequence, involving constructed wetlands, alum and trickling filter produced effluents with reductions in colour (97%), alkalinity (97%), BOD (97%), COD (97%) and NH3 (98%), and in metals, except nickel (29% reduction from the influent values). The recommended treatment combination is suitable for effective leachate management at the landfill. The cost of constructing and operating the recommended treatment combination at the facility, for 5 years, would be NGN6,009,750.00 ($38,036.39). The performance should be monitored on site prior to full adoption if effluent characteristics remain consistently low over dry and wet seasons.

  15. Technical Approach for In Situ Biological Treatment Research: Bench- Scale Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-08-01

    cultures derived from ferulic acid-degrading sewage sludge enrichments (Grbic-Galic and Vogel 1987). These cultures utilize exogenously supplied CO2 for...GAC reactor. They observed bioregeneration of the carbon media through desorption of adsorbed phenol and subsequent biogas production . They found that...the contribution of biogas production , adsorption, and biomass production were all important In the removal of phenol. 88 238. Speitel et al. (1989

  16. BENCH-SCALE STUDIES TO IDENTIFY PROCESS PARAMETERS CONTROLLING REBURNING WITH PULVERIZED COAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report addresses the evaluation of a technology which is a combination of two technologies used to control the atmospheric emission of NOx by stationary sources: (1) combustion modification (controls flame temperature and maximizes fuel-rich residence time to minimize NOx for...

  17. Bench-scale composting of source-separated human faeces for sanitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwagaba, C; Nalubega, M; Vinnerås, B; Sundberg, C; Jönsson, H

    2009-02-01

    In urine-diverting toilets, urine and faeces are collected separately so that nutrient content can be recycled unmixed. Faeces should be sanitized before use in agriculture fields due to the presence of possible enteric pathogens. Composting of human faeces with food waste was evaluated as a possible method for this treatment. Temperatures were monitored in three 78-L wooden compost reactors fed with faeces-to-food waste substrates (F:FW) in wet weight ratios of 1:0, 3:1 and 1:1, which were observed for approximately 20 days. To achieve temperatures higher than 15 degrees C above ambient, insulation was required for the reactors. Use of 25-mm thick styrofoam insulation around the entire exterior of the compost reactors and turning of the compost twice a week resulted in sanitizing temperatures (>or=50 degrees C) to be maintained for 8 days in the F:FW=1:1 compost and for 4 days in the F:FW=3:1 compost. In these composts, a reduction of >3 log(10) for E. coli and >4 log(10) for Enterococcus spp. was achieved. The F:FW=1:0 compost, which did not maintain >or=50 degrees C for a sufficiently long period, was not sanitized, as the counts of E. coli and Enterococcus spp. increased between days 11 and 15. This research provides useful information on the design and operation of family-size compost units for the treatment of source-separated faeces and starchy food residues, most likely available amongst the less affluent rural/urban society in Uganda.

  18. Removal of enteroviruses from sewage by bench-scale rotary-tube trickling filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, N A; Chang, S L

    1975-08-01

    The efficacy of a rotary-tube type of trickling filter for removing coxsackievirus A9, poliovirus 1, and echovirus 12 suspended in raw settled sewage was investigated. At filtration rates equivalent to about 10 MGD (million gallons per day)/acre (ca. 3,785 m3/day per acre), the filters removed 95% of the poliovirus, 83% of echovirus 12, and 94% of coxsackievirus A9. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals were remarkably similar, averaging 94, 92, 93, and 95%, respectively. At filtration rates equivalent to about 23 MGD/acre, 59% of the poliovirus, 63% of the echovirus 23, and 81% of the coxsackievirus A9 were removed. Coliform, fecal streptococci, biochemical oxygen demand, and chemical oxygen demand removals at this filtration rate were 68, 75, 72, and 56%, respectively. Viruses were assumed to be adsorbed to the biological slime growing in the filters, but attempts to disassociate the viruses from the slime were unsuccessful, indicating that the slime-virus complex is very stable or that the viruses were somehow inactivated. The data indicate that coliform and fecal streptococci reductions in this type sewage treatment process can be used as an index of virus reduction. Disinfection, however, must be used to ensure a virus-free final effluent.

  19. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available , considerable progress has been made. The earliest developments were in coal combustion. This was formalised in the formation of the NFBC boiler in the early 1980’s for the investigation of utilising discard and duff coals. Work has been done on in-bed sulphur...

  20. Experience gained in pilot-scale and bench-scale fluidised beds processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available , considerable progress has been made. The earliest developments were in coal combustion. Work has been done on in-bed sulphur capture to reduce the sulphur dioxide off-gas content. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led...

  1. Decomposition of PCBs in Oils Using Gamma Radiolysis A Treatability Study - Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mincher, B. J.; Arbon, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Several legacy hydraulic oil waste streams contaminated with Aroclor 1260 and small amounts of Cesium-137 have been in storage at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) due to the lack of appropriate treatment facilities. The goal of this study was to demonstrate that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) could be selectively decomposed in the oils. Removal of the PCB component to less than the 2 mg/L treatment standard should result in a waste oil that is not regulated by the Toxic Substances Control Act. Irradiation of the oils with high gamma-ray doses produces free electrons in the solution that react with PCBs. The reaction results in dechlorination of the PCBs to produce biphenyl. The gamma-ray source was spent reactor fuel stored in the Advanced Test Reactor canal at the INEL. A dry tube extends into the canal which allowed for positioning of samples in the proximity of the fuel. The gamma-ray dose rates at the samples varied from 10 to 30 kGy/h. This was measured using commercially available FWT-60 dosimeters. Irradiation of samples in a series of progressively increasing absorbed doses allowed the generation of rate constants used to predict absorbed doses necessary to meet the 2 mg/kg treatment standard. Three separate irradiation experiments were performed. The first irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 183 kGy. This experiment demonstrated that the PCB concentration decreased and allowed calculation of preliminary rate constants. The second irradiation used a maximum absorbed dose of 760 kGy. From this experiment, accurate rate constants were calculated, and the necessary absorbed dose to achieve the treatment standard was calculated. In the third irradiation of 2,242 kGy, all three waste streams were adequately decontaminated

  2. Catatonia in Down syndrome; a treatable cause of regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghaziuddin N

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Neera Ghaziuddin,1 Armin Nassiri,2 Judith H Miles3 1Department of Psychiatry, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 2Community Psychiatry, San Jose, California, 3Thompson Center for Autism and Neurodevelopmental Disorders and Department of Child Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA Objective: The main aim of this case series report is to alert physicians to the occurrence of catatonia in Down syndrome (DS. A second aim is to stimulate the study of regression in DS and of catatonia. A subset of individuals with DS is noted to experience unexplained regression in behavior, mood, activities of daily living, motor activities, and intellectual functioning during adolescence or young adulthood. Depression, early onset Alzheimer’s, or just “the Down syndrome” are often blamed after general medical causes have been ruled out. Clinicians are generally unaware that catatonia, which can cause these symptoms, may occur in DS.Study design: Four DS adolescents who experienced regression are reported. Laboratory tests intended to rule out causes of motor and cognitive regression were within normal limits. Based on the presence of multiple motor disturbances (slowing and/or increased motor activity, grimacing, posturing, the individuals were diagnosed with unspecified catatonia and treated with anti-catatonic treatments (benzodiazepines and electroconvulsive therapy [ECT].Results: All four cases were treated with a benzodiazepine combined with ECT and recovered their baseline functioning.Conclusion: We suspect catatonia is a common cause of unexplained deterioration in adolescents and young adults with DS. Moreover, pediatricians and others who care for individuals with DS are generally unfamiliar with the catatonia diagnosis outside schizophrenia, resulting in misdiagnosis and years of morbidity. Alerting physicians to catatonia in DS is essential to prompt diagnosis, appropriate treatment, and identification of the frequency

  3. Physical and chemical parameters acquisition in situ, in deep clay. Development of sampling and testing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lajudie, A.; Coulon, H.; Geneste, P.

    1991-01-01

    Knowledge of deep formation for radioactive waste disposal requires field-tests or bench-scale experiments on samples of the site material. In the case of clay massifs the taking of cores and the sampling of these are particularly difficult. The most suitable materials and techniques were selected from a study of clay colling and conservation methods. These were used for a series of core samples taken at Mol in Belgium. Subsequently permeability measurements were carried out in laboratory on samples from vertical drilling and compared with in situ measurements. The latter were made by horizontal drillings from the shaft excavation of the underground facility HADES at Mol. There is a good overall agreement between the results of the two types of measurements. 25 figs.; 4 tabs.; 12 refs.; 16 photos

  4. Corrosion and solubility in a TSP-buffered chemical environment following a loss of coolant accident: Part 4 – Integrated chemical effects testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, Amir; LaBrier, Daniel; Blandford, Edward; Howe, Kerry

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Integrated test explored the material release of a postulated large break LOCA. • Aluminum concentration was very low (<0.1 mg/L) throughout the test duration. • Zinc concentration was low (<1 mg/L) in TSP-buffered system. • Calcium release showed two distinguished release zones: prompt and meta-stable. • Copper and iron has no distinguishable concentration up to first 24 h of testing. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of an integrated chemical effects experiment executed under conditions representative of the containment pool following a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) at the Vogtle nuclear power plant, operated by the Southern Nuclear Operating Company (SNOC). This test was conducted for closure of a series of bench scale experiments conducted to investigate the effect of the presence of trisodium phosphate (TSP) on the corrosion and release of aluminum (Howe et al., 2015) and zinc (Pease et al., 2015) from metallic surfaces, and calcium from NUKON fiberglass insulation (Olson et al., 2015) . The integrated test was performed in the Corrosion/Chemical Head Loss Experimental (CHLE) facility with representative amounts of zinc, aluminum, carbon steel, copper, NUKON fiberglass, and latent debris. The test was conducted using borated TSP-buffered solution under a post-LOCA prototypical temperature profile lasting for 30 days. The results presented in this article demonstrate trends for zinc, aluminum, and calcium release that are consistent with separate bench scale testing and previous integrated tests under TSP conditions. The release rate and maximum concentrations of the released materials were slightly different than the separate effect testing as a result of different experimental conditions (temperature, surface area-to-water volume ratio) and/or the presence of other metals and chemicals in the integrated test. Samples of metal coupons and fiberglass were selected for analysis using Scanning Electron Microscopy

  5. Evaluation of the treatability of a winery distillery (vinasse) wastewater by UASB, anoxic-aerobic UF-MBR and chemical precipitation/adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Luigi; De Gisi, Sabino; Casella, Patrizia; Farina, Roberto; Notarnicola, Michele

    2017-10-01

    A multi-stage pilot-scale treatment cycle consisting of an Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket reactor (UASB) followed by an anoxic-aerobic Ultra Filtration Membrane Bio Reactor (UF-MBR) and a post treatment based on chemical precipitation with lime or adsorption on Granular Activated Carbons (GAC), was applied in order to evaluate the treatment feasibility of a real winery distillery wastewater at laboratory and bench scale. The wastewater was classified as high strength with acidic pH (3.8), and concentrations of 44,600, 254, 604 and 660 mg/l for COD tot , total nitrogen, total phosphorous and phenols, respectively. The UASB reactor was operated at Organic Loading Rates (OLR) in the range 3.0-11.5 kgCOD tot /m 3 /d achieving treatment efficiency up to 97%, with an observed methane production of 340 L of CH 4 /kgCOD. The MBR system was operated with an organic load in the range 0.070-0.185 kgCOD/kgVSS/d, achieving a removal up to 48%, 67% and 65% of the influent COD, total nitrogen and phenols, respectively. The combination of UASB and UF-MBR treatment units was not effective in phosphate and colour removal assigning to further chemical precipitation and adsorption processes, respectively, their complete removal in order to comply with legal standards for wastewater discharge. Subsequently, the optimization of the investigated treatment chain was assessed by applying a chemical precipitation step upstream and downstream the UASB reactor, and a related treatment unit cost assessment is presented in view of a further technological scale-up. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Full-Scale Incineration System Demonstration Verification Test Burns at the Naval Battalion Construction Center, Gulfport, Mississippi. Volume 3. Treatability Tests. Part 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    Resolution Mass Spectometry (HGGC/HRMS) ............................................ 714 Exhibit b SOP IP.5 Total PCDD and PCDF Congener (Cl4 - ClR...1.0 Revision No.: 0 Date : 11/7186 Page: I of S 1.0 PROJECT OESCRIPTION This Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPP) presents, In specific terms, the...this QAPP. 523 Section No.: 1.0 Revision Mo.: 0 Date : 11/7/86 Page: 2 of S The technology to be sampled is ENSCO’s MWP-Z000 (Mobile Waste Processor

  7. Best management practices plan for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant is currently under a Federal Agreement to define soil and groundwater contamination and develop remedies to protect human health and the environment. The western end of the site is known to have a former nitric acid disposal pit that has been remediated and capped. Remedial investigation data indicate this pit was a source of nitrate, uranium, technetium, and other metals contamination in groundwater. The downgradient receptor of this contamination includes Bear Creek and its tributaries. A feasibility study is under way to develop a remedy to prevent further contaminant migration to this receptor. To support the feasibility study, the treatability study is being completed to examine groundwater treatment at the S-3 site. This document serves as the top-level command medium for Phase II of the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Treatability Study and, as such, will be the primary resource for management and implementation of field activities. Many of the details and standard operating procedures referred to herein can be found in other Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), documents. Several supporting documents specific to this project are also cited. These include the Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP), the Health and Safety Plan (HASP), and the Waste Management Plan (WMP)

  8. Effect of chemical and biological surfactants on activated sludge of MBR system: microscopic analysis and foam test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodici, Marco; Di Bella, Gaetano; Nicosia, Salvatore; Torregrossa, Michele

    2015-02-01

    A bench-scale MBR unit was operated, under stressing condition, with the aim of stimulating the onset of foaming in the activated sludge. Possible synergies between synthetic surfactants in the wastewater and biological surfactants (Extra-Cellular Polymeric Substances, EPSs) were investigated by changing C/N ratio. The growth of filamentous bacteria was also discussed. The MBR unit provided satisfactory overall carbon removal overall efficiencies: in particular, synthetic surfactants were removed with efficiency higher than 90% and 95% for non-ionic and ionic surfactants, respectively. Lab investigation suggested also the importance to reduce synthetic surfactants presence entering into mixed liquor: otherwise, their presence can significantly worsen the natural foaming caused by biological surfactants (EPSs) produced by bacteria. Finally, a new analytic method based on "ink test" has been proposed as a useful tool to achieve a valuation of EPSs bound fraction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Data summary report for M.W. Kellogg Z-sorb sorbent tests. CRADA 92-008 Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Everett, C E; Monaco, S J

    1994-05-01

    A series of tests were undertaken from August 6, 1992 through July 6, 1993 at METC`s High Pressure Bench-Scale Hot Gas Desulfurization Unit to support a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between METC`s Sorbent Development Cluster and M.W. Kellogg. The M.W. Kellogg Company is currently developing a commercial offering of a hot gas clean-up system to be used in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The intent of the CRADA agreement was to identify a suitable zinc-based desulfurization sorbent for the Sierra Pacific Power Company Clean Coal Technology Project, to identify optimum operating conditions for the sorbent, and to estimate potential sorbent loss per year. This report presents results pertaining to Phillips Petroleum`s Z-Sorb III sorbent.

  10. TREATABILITY STUDY FOR EDIBLE OIL DEPLOYMENT FOR ENHANCED CVOC ATTENUATION FOR T-AREA, SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riha, B.; Looney, B.; Noonkester, J.; Hyde, W.; Walker, R.

    2012-05-15

    Groundwater beneath T-Area, a former laboratory and semiworks operation at the Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS), is contaminated by chlorinated solvents (cVOCs). Since the contamination was detected in the 1980s, the cVOCs at T-Area have been treated by a combination of soil vapor extraction and groundwater pump and treat. The site received approval to temporarily discontinue the active groundwater treatment and implement a treatability study of enhanced attenuation - an engineering and regulatory strategy that has recently been developed by DOE and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council (ITRC 2007). Enhanced attenuation uses active engineering solutions to alter the target site in such a way that the contaminant plume will passively stabilize and shrink and to document that the action will be effective, timely, and sustainable. The paradigm recognizes that attenuation remedies are fundamentally based on a mass balance. Thus, long-term plume dynamics can be altered either by reducing the contaminant loading from the source or by increasing the rate of natural attenuation processes within all, or part of, the plume volume. The combination of technologies that emerged for T-Area included: (1) neat (pure) vegetable oil deployment in the deep vadose zone in the former source area, (2) emulsified vegetable oil deployment within the footprint of the groundwater plume, and (3) identification of attenuation mechanisms and rates for the distal portion of the plume. In the first part, neat oil spreads laterally forming a thin layer on the water table to intercept and reduce future cVOC loading (via partitioning) and reduce oxygen inputs (via biostimulation). In the second and third parts, emulsified oil forms active bioremediation reactor zones within the plume footprint to degrade existing groundwater contamination (via reductive dechlorination and/or cometabolism) and stimulates long-term attenuation capacity in the distal plume (via

  11. Treatability Study of In Situ Technologies for Remediation of Hexavalent Chromium in Groundwater at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site, New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermeul, Vince R.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Truex, Michael J.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Girvin, Donald C.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Devary, Brooks J.; Fischer, Ashley E.; Li, Shu-Mei W.

    2006-11-13

    This treatability study was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), at the request of the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 2, to evaluate the feasibility of using in situ treatment technologies for chromate reduction and immobilization at the Puchack Well Field Superfund Site in Pennsauken Township, New Jersey. In addition to in situ reductive treatments, which included the evaluation of both abiotic and biotic reduction of Puchack aquifer sediments, natural attenuation mechanisms were evaluated (i.e., chromate adsorption and reduction). Chromate exhibited typical anionic adsorption behavior, with greater adsorption at lower pH, at lower chromate concentration, and at lower concentrations of other competing anions. In particular, sulfate (at 50 mg/L) suppressed chromate adsorption by up to 50%. Chromate adsorption was not influenced by inorganic colloids.

  12. Implications of land disturbance on drinking water treatability in a changing climate: demonstrating the need for "source water supply and protection" strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emelko, Monica B; Silins, Uldis; Bladon, Kevin D; Stone, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    Forests form the critical source water areas for downstream drinking water supplies in many parts of the world, including the Rocky Mountain regions of North America. Large scale natural disturbances from wildfire and severe insect infestation are more likely because of warming climate and can significantly impact water quality downstream of forested headwaters regions. To investigate potential implications of changing climate and wildfire on drinking water treatment, the 2003 Lost Creek Wildfire in Alberta, Canada was studied. Four years of comprehensive hydrology and water quality data from seven watersheds were evaluated and synthesized to assess the implications of wildfire and post-fire intervention (salvage-logging) on downstream drinking water treatment. The 95th percentile turbidity and DOC remained low in streams draining unburned watersheds (5.1 NTU, 3.8 mg/L), even during periods of potential treatment challenge (e.g., stormflows, spring freshet); in contrast, they were elevated in streams draining burned (15.3 NTU, 4.6 mg/L) and salvage-logged (18.8 NTU, 9.9 mg/L) watersheds. Persistent increases in these parameters and observed increases in other contaminants such as nutrients, heavy metals, and chlorophyll-a in discharge from burned and salvage-logged watersheds present important economic and operational challenges for water treatment; most notably, a potential increased dependence on solids and DOC removal processes. Many traditional source water protection strategies would fail to adequately identify and evaluate many of the significant wildfire- and post-fire management-associated implications to drinking water "treatability"; accordingly, it is proposed that "source water supply and protection strategies" should be developed to consider a suppliers' ability to provide adequate quantities of potable water to meet demand by addressing all aspects of drinking water "supply" (i.e., quantity, timing of availability, and quality) and their relationship

  13. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-09-19

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate

  14. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVEWASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAMREFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANICDESTRUCTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C

    2008-07-31

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate

  15. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48 RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FBSR TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, C; William Pepper, W

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  16. Soil washing physical separations test procedure - 300-FF-1 operable unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belden, R.D.

    1993-01-01

    This procedure provides the operations approach, a field sampling plan, and laboratory procedures for a soil washing test to be conducted by Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc. (ART) in the 300-FF-1 area at the Hanford site. The open-quotes Quality Assurance Project Plan for the Soil Washing Physical Separations Test, 300-FF-1 Operable Unit,close quotes Hanford, Washington, Alternative Remedial Technologies, Inc., February 1994 (QAPP) is provided in a separate document that presents the procedural and organizational guidelines for this test. This document describes specifications, responsibilities, and general procedures to be followed to conduct physical separation soil treatability tests in the North Process Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit (OU) at the Hanford Site. These procedures are based on the open-quotes 300-FF-1 Physical Separations CERCLA Treatability Test Plan, DOE/RL 92-2l,close quotes (DOE-RL 1993)

  17. Standard test method for conducting friction tests of piston ring and cylinder liner materials under lubricated conditions

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2011-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers procedures for conducting laboratory bench-scale friction tests of materials, coatings, and surface treatments intended for use in piston rings and cylinder liners in diesel or spark-ignition engines. The goal of this procedure is to provide a means for preliminary, cost-effective screening or evaluation of candidate ring and liner materials. A reciprocating sliding arrangement is used to simulate the contact that occurs between a piston ring and its mating liner near the top-dead-center position in the cylinder where liquid lubrication is least effective, and most wear is known to occur. Special attention is paid to specimen alignment, running-in, and lubricant condition. 1.2 This test method does not purport to simulate all aspects of a fired engine’s operating environment, but is intended to serve as a means for preliminary screening for assessing the frictional characteristics of candidate piston ring and liner material combinations in the presence of fluids that behave as u...

  18. Spectrum and prevalence of mutations from the first 2,500 consecutive unrelated patients referred for the FAMILION long QT syndrome genetic test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kapplinger, Jamie D.; Tester, David J.; Salisbury, Benjamin A.; Carr, Janet L.; Harris-Kerr, Carole; Pollevick, Guido D.; Wilde, Arthur A. M.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a potentially lethal, highly treatable cardiac channelopathy for which genetic testing has matured from discovery to translation and now clinical implementation. OBJECTIVES: Here we examine the spectrum and prevalence of mutations found in the first 2,500

  19. Multi-Column Experimental Test Bed Using CaSDB MOF for Xe/Kr Separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welty, Amy Keil [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Greenhalgh, Mitchell Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Garn, Troy Gerry [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Processing of spent nuclear fuel produces off-gas from which several volatile radioactive components must be separated for further treatment or storage. As part of the Off-gas Sigma Team, parallel research at INL and PNNL has produced several promising sorbents for the selective capture of xenon and krypton from these off-gas streams. In order to design full-scale treatment systems, sorbents that are promising on a laboratory scale must be proven under process conditions to be considered for pilot and then full-scale use. To that end, a bench-scale multi-column system with capability to test multiple sorbents was designed and constructed at INL. This report details bench-scale testing of CaSDB MOF, produced at PNNL, and compares the results to those reported last year using INL engineered sorbents. Two multi-column tests were performed with the CaSDB MOF installed in the first column, followed with HZ-PAN installed in the second column. The CaSDB MOF column was placed in a Stirling cryocooler while the cryostat was employed for the HZ-PAN column. Test temperatures of 253 K and 191 K were selected for the first column while the second column was held at 191 K for both tests. Calibrated volume sample bombs were utilized for gas stream analyses. At the conclusion of each test, samples were collected from each column and analyzed for gas composition. While CaSDB MOF does appear to have good capacity for Xe, the short time to initial breakthrough would make design of a continuous adsorption/desorption cycle difficult, requiring either very large columns or a large number of smaller columns. Because of the tenacity with which Xe and Kr adhere to the material once adsorbed, this CaSDB MOF may be more suitable for use as a long-term storage solution. Further testing is recommended to determine if CaSDB MOF is suitable for this purpose.

  20. Correlation between Histological Status of the Pulp and Its Response to Sensibility Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseri, Mandana; Khayat, Akbar; Zamaheni, Sara; Shojaeian, Shiva

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the accuracy of sensibility tests by correlating it with histologic pulp condition. Assessment of clinical signs and symptoms were performed on 65 permanent teeth that were scheduled to be extracted for periodontal, prosthodontic or orthodontic reasons. The normal pulp and reversible pulpitis were considered as treatable tooth conditions while irreversible pulpitis and necrosis were considered as untreatable conditions. The teeth were then extracted and sectioned for histological analysis of dental pulp. Histologic status and classification corresponded to the treatable or untreatable pulp condition. Comparisons between histological treatable and untreatable pulp condition were performed with chi-square analysis for sensibility test responses. The positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy to detect untreatable from treatable pulp condition were calculated for each test. A significant difference was detected in the normal and a sharp lingered response to heat and cold tests. There was significant difference in the negative response to EPT between histological groups. The kappa agreement coefficient between clinical and histological diagnosis of pulp condition was about 0.843 ( P sensibility tests diagnosed untreatable pulpitis with a higher probability (NPV=63%-67% -54%, PPV=83%-91% -95% for heat, cold and EPT, respectively). Sensibility test results were more likely to diagnose pulpal disease or untreatable pulp conditions. However, to increase the diagnostic accuracy patient history, clinical signs and symptoms and also radiographic findings in conjunction with sensibility tests must be used. The result of this small study demonstrated a good agreement between clinical and histological pulp diagnosis.

  1. CRUCIBLE TESTING OF TANK 48H RADIOACTIVE WASTE SAMPLE USING FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING TECHNOLOGY FOR ORGANIC DESTRUCTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of crucible scale testing with actual radioactive Tank 48H material was to duplicate the test results that had been previously performed on simulant Tank 48H material. The earlier crucible scale testing using simulants was successful in demonstrating that bench scale crucible tests produce results that are indicative of actual Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) pilot scale tests. Thus, comparison of the results using radioactive Tank 48H feed to those reported earlier with simulants would then provide proof that the radioactive tank waste behaves in a similar manner to the simulant. Demonstration of similar behavior for the actual radioactive Tank 48H slurry to the simulant is important as a preliminary or preparation step for the more complex bench-scale steam reformer unit that is planned for radioactive application in the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Shielded Cells Facility (SCF) later in 2008. The goals of this crucible-scale testing were to show 99% destruction of tetraphenylborate and to demonstrate that the final solid product produced is sodium carbonate. Testing protocol was repeated using the specifications of earlier simulant crucible scale testing, that is sealed high purity alumina crucibles containing a pre-carbonated and evaporated Tank 48H material. Sealing of the crucibles was accomplished by using an inorganic 'nepheline' sealant. The sealed crucibles were heat-treated at 650 C under constant argon flow to inert the system. Final product REDOX measurements were performed to establish the REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) state of known amounts of added iron species in the final product. These REDOX measurements confirm the processing conditions (pyrolysis occurring at low oxygen fugacity) of the sealed crucible environment which is the environment actually achieved in the fluidized bed steam reformer process. Solid product dissolution in water was used to measure soluble cations and anions, and to investigate insoluble

  2. SUPERFUND TREATABILITY CLEARINGHOUSE: FINAL REPORT DEMONSTRATION TEST ON-SITE PCB DESTRUCTION, SHIRCO INFRARED PORTABLE UNIT AT FLORIDA STEEL INDIANTOWN MILL SITE, INDIANTOWN, FLORIDA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document reports on the results of a Florida Steel Corporation study to develop and evaluate cleanup alternatives for onsite treatment of PCB contaminated soils. The results of this study aided in the selection of an approach to remediate the site. Demonstration tes...

  3. Role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer: Quantitative analysis of imaging contour compared to whole-mount histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, Mekhail; Westphalen, Antonio C.; Jung, Adam J.; Noworolski, Susan M.; Simko, Jeffry P.; Kurhanewicz, John; Roach, Mack; Carroll, Peter R.; Coakley, Fergus V.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the role of endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging in defining the contour of treatable intraprostatic tumor foci in prostate cancer, since targeted therapy requires accurate target volume definition. Materials and methods: We retrospectively identified 20 patients with prostate cancer who underwent endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging prior to radical prostatectomy and subsequent creation of detailed histopathological tumor maps from whole-mount step sections. Two experienced radiologists independently reviewed all MR images and electronically contoured all suspected treatable (⩾0.5 cm 3 ) tumor foci. Deformable co-registration in MATLAB was used to calculate the margin of error between imaging and histopathological contours at both capsular and non-capsular surfaces and the treatment margin required to ensure at least 95% tumor coverage. Results: Histopathology showed 17 treatable tumor foci in 16 patients, of which 8 were correctly identified by both readers and an additional 2 were correctly identified by reader 2. For all correctly identified lesions, both readers accurately identified that tumor contacted the prostatic capsule, with no error in contour identification. On the non-capsular border, the median distance between the imaging and histopathological contour was 1.4 mm (range, 0–12). Expanding the contour by 5 mm at the non-capsular margin included 95% of tumor volume not initially covered within the MR contour. Conclusions: Endorectal MR imaging and MR spectroscopic imaging can be used to accurately contour treatable intraprostatic tumor foci; adequate tumor coverage is achieved by expanding the treatment contour at the non-capsular margin by 5 mm

  4. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  5. Functions and requirements for a waste dislodging and conveyance system for the gunite and associated tanks treatability study at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, J.D.; Mullen, O.D.

    1997-02-01

    Since the mid 1940s, the Department of Defense (DOD) and the Department of Energy (DOE) have conducted research and development activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in support of urgent national interests in the fields of nuclear weaponry and nuclear energy. Some of these activities resulted in radiologically hazardous waste being temporarily deposited at ORNL, Waste Area Grouping 1. At this location, waste is stored in several underground storage tanks, awaiting ultimate final disposal. There are tanks of two basic categories. One category is referred to as the gunite tanks, the other category is associated tanks. The ORNL Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study (GAAT TS) project was initiated in FY 1994 to support a record of decision in selecting from seven different options of technologies for retrieval and remediation of these tanks. As part of this decision process, new waste retrieval technologies will be evaluated at the 25-foot diameter gunite tanks in the North tank farm. Work is currently being conducted at Hanford and the University of Missouri-Rolla to evaluate and develop some technologies having high probability of being most practical and effective for the dislodging and conveying of waste from underground storage tanks. The findings of these efforts indicate that a system comprised of a dislodging end effector employing jets of high-pressure fluids, coupled to a water-jet conveyance system, all carried above the waste by a mechanical arm or other mechanism, is a viable retrieval technology for the GAAT TS tasks

  6. High-dose therapy and autologous bone marrow transplantation for Hodgkin's disease patients with relapses potentially treatable by radical radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pezner, Richard D.; Nademanee, Auayporn; Forman, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: A retrospective review evaluated the results of autologous bone marrow transplantation (A-BMT) for patients with relapsed Hodgkin's disease (HD) who were potentially treatable by radical radiation therapy (RRT). Methods and Materials: Evaluated patient cases met the following criteria: initial treatment with chemotherapy (with or without involved field radiation therapy 20 Gy to spinal cord); HD at time of salvage therapy limited to lymph nodes, Waldeyer's ring, liver, spleen, direct extension sites, and/or one lung. Results: There were 23 A-BMT patients treated between 1986 and 1991 who fulfilled the criteria. Three (13%) patients died from treatment-related complications and eight (35%) developed nonfatal Grade 3-4 complications. The 3-year actuarial disease-free survival rate was 61%. The 3-year disease-free survival rate was 55% for the nine patients with at least one prior disease-free interval (DFI) > 12 months, 67% for nine patients with DFI 0.10). These results are comparable to retrospective studies of RRT results in selected relapsed HD patients. Conclusions: Long-term disease-free survival is frequently possible with either A-BMT or RRT appropriately selected relapsed HD patients. In considering treatment options, important prognostic factors include initial stage of disease, number of prior relapses, DFI, and extent of relapsed disease

  7. Pyridox(am)ine-5-Phosphate Oxidase Deficiency Treatable Cause of Neonatal Epileptic Encephalopathy With Burst Suppression: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Andrea; Aziz, Aly S; Mutch, Carly; Lewis, Jillian; Go, Cristina Y; Mercimek-Mahmutoglu, Saadet

    2015-08-01

    Pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder of pyridoxine metabolism. Intractable neonatal epileptic encephalopathy is the classical presentation. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate or pyridoxine supplementation improves symptoms. We report a patient with myoclonic and tonic seizures at the age of 1 hour. Pyridoxal-5-phosphate was started on the first day of life and seizures stopped at the age of 3 days, but encephalopathy persisted for 4 weeks. She had normal neurodevelopmental outcome at the age of 12 months on pyridoxal-5-phosphate monotherapy. She had novel homozygous pathogenic frameshift mutation (c.448_451del;p.Pro150Argfs*27) in the PNPO gene. Long-lasting encephalopathy despite well-controlled clinical seizures does neither confirm nor exclude pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency. Normal neurodevelopmental outcome of our patient emphasizes the importance of pyridoxal-5-phosphate treatment. Pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency should be included in the differential diagnosis of Ohtahara syndrome and neonatal myoclonic encephalopathy as a treatable underlying cause. In addition, we reviewed the literature for pyridox(am)ine-5-phosphate oxidase deficiency and summarized herein all confirmed cases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Avaliação do desempenho do sistema UV/H2O2 no tratamento de efluentes provenientes do processo de tratamento térmico de emulsões de água e óleo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanildo Hespanhol

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work it is presented the results of bench scale tests using Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP in a UV/H2O2 system, for the treatment of an industrial effluent with a high concentration of dissolved organic matter, resulted from thermal treatment of oil-water emulsions. Treatability tests were carried out in a batch photochemical system with recycle, and the raw effluent was characterized by the analysis of pH, turbidity, color, COD and TOC. Results from these assays shown that UV/H2O2 process is technically feasible resulting in TOC removal above 90%. However, for one log TOC removal from this effluent the energy required was about 455.5 kw.h.m-3, for an alpha relation of 10 mg H2O2/mg COT, resulting in a higher operational cost, considering the evaluated conditions.

  9. Laboratory testing of ozone oxidation of Hanford site waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Stubbs, A.M.; Bolling, S.D.; Colby, S.A.

    1994-01-01

    Organic constituents in radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site provoke safety concerns arising from their low-temperature reactions with nitrate and nitrite oxidants. Destruction of the organics would eliminate both safety problems. Oxone oxidation was investigated to destroy organic species present in simulated and genuine waste from Hanford Site Tank 241-SY-101. Bench-scale tests showed high-shear mixing apparatus achieved efficient gas-to-solution mass transfer and utilization of the ozone reagent. Oxidations of nitrite (to form nitrate) and organic species were observed. The organics formed carbonate and oxalate as well as nitrate and nitrogen gas from organic nitrogen. Formate, acetate and oxalate were present both in source waste and as reaction intermediates. Metal species oxidations also were observed directly or inferred by solubilities. Chemical precipitations of metal ions such as strontium and americium occurred as the organic species were destroyed by ozone. Reaction stoichiometries were consistent with the reduction of one oxygen atom per ozone molecule

  10. Support for the in situ vitrification treatability study at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory: FY 1988 summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oma, K.H.; Reimus, M.A.H.; Timmerman, C.L.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of this project is to determine if in situ vitrification (ISV) is a viable, long-term confinement technology for previously buried solid transuranic and mixed waste at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). The RWMC is located at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). In situ vitrification is a thermal treatment process that converts contaminated soils and wastes into a durable glass and crystalline form. During processing, heavy metals or other inorganic constituents are retained and immobilized in the glass structure, and organic constituents are typically destroyed or removed for capture by an off-gas treatment system. The primary FY 1988 activities included engineering-scale feasibility tests on INEL soils containing a high metals loading. Results of engineering-scale testing indicate that wastes with a high metals content can be successfully processed by ISV. The process successfully vitrified soils containing localized metal concentrations as high as 42 wt % without requiring special methods to prevent electrical shorting within the melt zone. Vitrification of this localized concentration resulted in a 15.9 wt % metals content in the entire ISV test block. This ISV metals limit is related to the quantity of metal that accumulates at the bottom of the molten glass zone. Intermediate pilot-scale testing is recommended to determine metals content scale-up parameters in order to project metals content limits for large-scale ISV operation at INEL

  11. Evaluation of precipitates used in strainer head loss testing: Part III. Long-term aluminum hydroxide precipitation tests in borated water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahn, Chi Bum; Kasza, Ken E.; Shack, William J.; Natesan, Ken; Klein, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Aluminum hydroxide precipitation boundary is similar to that for amorphous phase. → Various precipitation tests are combined into one map in temperature-'pH + p[Al] T '. → Flocculation tendency of precipitates depend on pH and total Al concentration. → DLVO theory explains qualitatively the dependency of flocculation tendency on pH. - Abstract: Long-term aluminum (Al) hydroxide precipitation tests were conducted in slightly alkaline solutions containing 2500 ppm boron. The solution temperature was cycled to obtain a temperature history more representative of emergency core cooling system temperatures after a loss-of-coolant accident. The observed Al precipitation boundary was close to predicted results for amorphous precipitates, which are higher than the solubility expected for crystalline forms. Bench-scale and loop head loss test results under various conditions were successfully combined into single map in a temperature - 'pH + p[Al] T ' domain, which yielded two bounding lines for Al hydroxide solubility in borated alkaline water that depend on whether or not loop head loss tests with Al alloy coupons are included. Precipitates were observed to form either as fine, cloudy suspensions, which showed very little tendency to settle, or as flocculated precipitates. The flocculation tendency of the precipitates can be qualitatively explained by a colloid stability theory or a phase diagram for protein solutions.

  12. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-01-01

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO 3 ) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the dissolver

  13. Validation Testing of the Nitric Acid Dissolution Step Within the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AJ Schmidt; CH Delegard; KL Silvers; PR Bredt; CD Carlson; EW Hoppe; JC Hayes; DE Rinehart; SR Gano; BM Thornton

    1999-03-24

    The work described in this report involved comprehensive bench-scale testing of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) dissolution of actual sludge materials from the Hanford K East (KE) Basin to confirm the baseline chemical pretreatment process. In addition, process monitoring and material balance information was collected to support the development and refinement of process flow diagrams. The testing was performed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)for the US Department of Energy's Office of Spent Fuel Stabilization (EM-67) and Numatec Hanford Corporation (NHC) to assist in the development of the K Basin Sludge Pretreatment Process. The baseline chemical pretreatment process for K Basin sludge is nitric acid dissolution of all particulate material passing a 1/4-in. screen. The acid-insoluble fraction (residual solids) will be stabilized (possibly by chemical leaching/rinsing and grouting), packaged, and transferred to the Hanford Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The liquid fraction is to be diluted with depleted uranium for uranium criticality safety and iron nitrate for plutonium criticality safety, and neutralized with sodium hydroxide. The liquid fraction and associated precipitates are to be stored in the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation Systems (TWRS) pending vitrification. It is expected that most of the polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), associated with some K Basin sludges, will remain with the residual solids for ultimate disposal to ERDF. Filtration and precipitation during the neutralization step will further remove trace quantities of PCBs within the liquid fraction. The purpose of the work discussed in this report was to examine the dissolution behavior of actual KE Basin sludge materials at baseline flowsheet conditions and validate the.dissolution process step through bench-scale testing. The progress of the dissolution was evaluated by measuring the solution electrical conductivity and concentrations of key species in the

  14. Engineering Development of Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning for Premium Fuel Applications: Task 9 - Selective agglomeration Module Testing and Evaluation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moro, N.` Jha, M.C.

    1997-09-29

    The primary goal of this project was the engineering development of two advanced physical fine coal cleaning processes, column flotation and selective agglomeration, for premium fuel applications. The project scope included laboratory research and bench-scale testing of both processes on six coals to optimize the processes, followed by the design, construction, and operation of a 2 t/hr process development unit (PDU). The project began in October, 1992, and is scheduled for completion by September 1997. This report summarizes the findings of all the selective agglomeration (SA) test work performed with emphasis on the results of the PDU SA Module testing. Two light hydrocarbons, heptane and pentane, were tested as agglomerants in the laboratory research program which investigated two reactor design concepts: a conventional two-stage agglomeration circuit and a unitized reactor that combined the high- and low-shear operations in one vessel. The results were used to design and build a 25 lb/hr bench-scale unit with two-stage agglomeration. The unit also included a steam stripping and condensation circuit for recovery and recycle of heptane. It was tested on six coals to determine the optimum grind and other process conditions that resulted in the recovery of about 99% of the energy while producing low ash (1-2 lb/MBtu) products. The fineness of the grind was the most important variable with the D80 (80% passing size) varying in the 12 to 68 micron range. All the clean coals could be formulated into coal-water-slurry-fuels with acceptable properties. The bench-scale results were used for the conceptual and detailed design of the PDU SA Module which was integrated with the existing grinding and dewatering circuits. The PDU was operated for about 9 months. During the first three months, the shakedown testing was performed to fine tune the operation and control of various equipment. This was followed by parametric testing, optimization/confirmatory testing, and finally a

  15. Investigating uptake in faecal immunochemical test (FIT) based colorectal cancer screening

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, Nicholas

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major public health issue, being one of the most diagnosed cancers and one of the leading causes of cancer related mortality. Almost 2500 people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer each year in Ireland and over 1000 die from the disease with males at greater risk. Colorectal cancer is a highly treatable disease if detected at earlier stages. Ireland introduced a National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in 2013, using the new faecal immunochemical test (FIT) techn...

  16. WATER AS A REAGENT FOR SOIL REMEDIATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira S. Jayaweera; Montserrat Marti-Perez; Jordi Diaz-Ferrero; Angel Sanjurjo

    2001-11-12

    SRI International conducted experiments in a two-year, two-phase process to develop and evaluate hydrothermal extraction technology, also known as hot water extraction (HWE) technology, to separate petroleum-related contaminants and other hazardous pollutants from soil and sediments. In this process, water with added electrolytes (inexpensive and environmentally friendly) is used as the extracting solvent under subcritical conditions (150-300 C). The use of electrolytes allows us to operate reactors under mild conditions and to obtain high separation efficiencies that were hitherto impossible. Unlike common organic solvents, water under subcritical conditions dissolves both organics and inorganics, thus allowing opportunities for separation of both organic and inorganic material from soil. In developing this technology, our systematic approach was to (1) establish fundamental solubility data, (2) conduct treatability studies with industrial soils, and (3) perform a bench-scale demonstration using a highly contaminated soil. The bench-scale demonstration of the process has shown great promise. The next step of the development process is the successful pilot demonstration of this technology. Once pilot tested, this technology can be implemented quite easily, since most of the basic components are readily available from mature technologies (e.g., steam stripping, soil washing, thermal desorption). The implementation of this technology will revolutionize the conventional use of water in soil remediation technologies and will provide a stand-alone technology for removal of both volatile and heavy components from contaminated soil.

  17. Disinfection byproduct precursor dynamics and water treatability during an extreme flooding event in a coastal blackwater river in southeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruecker, A; Uzun, H; Karanfil, T; Tsui, M T K; Chow, A T

    2017-12-01

    Coastal blackwater rivers, characterized by high concentrations of natural organic matter, are source water for millions of people in the southeastern US. In October 2015, large areas of coastal South Carolina were flooded by Hurricane Joaquin. This so-called "thousand-year" rainfall mobilized and flushed large amounts of terrestrial organic matter and associated pollutants (e.g. mercury) into source water, affecting water quality and safety of municipal water supply. To understand the dynamics of water quality and water treatability during this extreme flood, water samples were collected from Waccamaw River (a typical blackwater river in the southeastern US) during rising limb, peak discharge, falling limb, and base flow. Despite decreasing water flow after peak discharge, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) levels (increased by up to 125%), and formation potentials of trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids (increased by up to 150%) remained high for an extended period of time (>eight weeks after peak discharge), while variation in the N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) FP was negligible. Coagulation with alum and ferric at optimal dosage significantly reduced concentrations of DOC by 51-76%, but up to 10 mg/L of DOC still remained in treated waters. For an extended period of time, elevated levels of THMs (71-448 μg/L) and HAAs (88-406 μg/L) were quantified in laboratory chlorination experiments under uniform formation conditions (UFC), exceeding the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) maximum contaminant level of 80 and 60 μg/L, respectively. Results demonstrated that populations in coastal cities are at high risk with disinfection by-products (DBPs) under the changing climate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Bench-Scale Investigation of Composting for Remediation of Explosives-Contaminated Soils from Naval Surface Warfare Center, Crane, Indiana

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Preston, Kurt

    1998-01-01

    ...), and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7- tetrazocine (HMX). The Naval Surface Warfare Center (NSWC), Crane, Indiana, provides material and logistic support to the Navy's weapon systems, including expendable and nonexpendable ordnance items...

  19. An optimisation approach for culturing shear-sensitive dinoflagellate microalgae in bench-scale bubble column photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rosales, L; García-Camacho, F; Sánchez-Mirón, A; Contreras-Gómez, A; Molina-Grima, E

    2015-12-01

    The dinoflagellate Karlodinium veneficum was grown in bubble column photobioreactors and a genetic algorithm-based stochastic search strategy used to find optimal values for the culture parameters gas flow rate, culture height, and nozzle sparger diameter. Cell production, concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS), membrane fluidity and photosynthetic efficiency were studied throughout the culture period. Gas-flow rates below 0.26Lmin(-1), culture heights over 1.25m and a nozzle diameter of 1.5mm were found to provide the optimal conditions for cell growth, with an increase of 60% in cell production with respect to the control culture. Non-optimal conditions produced a sufficiently high shear stress to negatively affect cell growth and even produce cell death. Cell physiology was also severely affected in stressed cultures. The production of ROS increased by up to 200%, whereas cell membrane fluidity decreased by 60% relative to control cultures. Photosynthetic efficiency decreased concomitantly with membrane fluidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of Strontium from Drinking Water by Conventional Treatment and Lime Softening in Bench-Scale Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency Contaminant Candidate List 3 lists strontium as a contaminant for potential regulatory consideration in drinking water. There is very little data available on strontium removal from drinking water. As a result, there is an immedia...

  1. Two-stage alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of wood to biocrude in a continuous bench-scale system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Iulia-Maria; Grigoras, Ionela; Jensen, Claus Uhrenholt

    2017-01-01

    Feedstock pumpability is one of the main obstacles for continuous processing of biomass through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), due to their tendency to form heterogeneous slurries. In this work, a novel strategy is proposed to ensure lignocellulosic feed pumpability in HTL processing, even while...

  2. Intermediate pyrolysis of agro-industrial biomasses in bench-scale pyrolyser: Product yields and its characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinwala, Farha; Mohanty, Pravakar; Parmar, Snehal; Patel, Anant; Pant, Kamal K

    2015-01-01

    Pyrolysis of woody biomass, agro-residues and seed was carried out at 500 ± 10 °C in a fixed bed pyrolyser. Bio-oil yield was found varying from 20.5% to 47.5%, whereas the biochar and pyrolysis gas ranged from 27.5% to 40% and 24.5% to 40.5%, respectively. Pyrolysis gas was measured for flame temperature along with CO, CO2, H2, CH4 and other gases composition. HHV of biochar (29.4 MJ/kg) and pyrolitic gas (8.6 MJ/kg) of woody biomass was higher analogous to sub-bituminous coal and steam gasification based producer gas respectively, whereas HHV of bio-oil obtained from seed (25.6 MJ/kg) was significantly more than husks, shells and straws. TGA-DTG studies showed the husks as potential source for the pyrolysis. Bio-oils as a major by-product of intermediate pyrolysis have several applications like substitute of furnace oil, extraction of fine chemicals, whereas biochar as a soil amendment for enhancing soil fertility and gases for thermal application. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Bench-Scale Development of a Hybrid Membrane-Absorption CO{sub 2} Capture Process: Preliminary Cost Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Brice; Kniep, Jay; Pingjiao, Hao; Baker, Richard; Rochelle, Gary; Chen, Eric; Frailie, Peter; Ding, Junyuan; Zhang, Yue

    2014-03-31

    This report describes a study of capture costs for a hybrid membrane-absorption capture system based on Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR)’s low-pressure membrane contactors and the University of Texas at Austin’s 5 m piperazine (PZ) Advanced Flash Stripper (AFS; 5 m PZ AFS) based CO2 capture system. The report is submitted for NETL review, and may be superseded by a final topical report on this topic that will be submitted to satisfy the Task 2 report requirement of the current project (DE-FE0013118).

  4. The stability of aerobic granular sludge treating municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in a bench scale sequencing batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Bei; Yang, Chang-Zhu; Pu, Wen-Hong; Yang, Jia-Kuan; Shi, Ya-Fei; Wang, Jing; Bai, Jun; Zhou, Xuan-Yue; Jiang, Guo-Sheng; Li, Chun-Yang; Liu, Fu-Biao

    2014-10-01

    Inoculated with mature aerobic granular sludge in a sequencing batch reactor, gradually increasing the proportion of municipal sludge deep dewatering filtrate in influent, aerobic granular sludge was domesticated after 84 days and maintained its structure during the operation. The domesticated AGS was yellowish-brown, dense and irregular spherical shape, average size was 1.49 mm, water content and specific density were 98.13% and 1.0114, the SVI and settling velocity were 40 ml/g and 46.5m/h. After 38 days, NO3(-)-N accumulated obviously in the reactor as lack of carbon sources. When adding 1-3g solid CH3COONa at 4.5 and 5.5h of each cycle from the 57th day, the removal rate of TN rose to above 90% after 20 days, where effective COD removal and denitrification were realized in a single bioreactor. Finally, the removal rates of COD, TP, TN and NH4(+)-N were higher than 95%, 88%, 96% and 99%. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NO{sub x} emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed.

  6. Scaling up for the industrial production of rifamycin B; optimization of the process conditions in bench-scale fermentor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hewaida F. El-Sedawy

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of fermentation process conditions using a gene amplified variant of Amycolatopsis mediterranei (NCH was carried out. The use of aeration level 1.5 vvm increased the yield by 16.6% (from 13.81 to 16.1 g/l upon controlling the temperature at 28 °C. Adjustment of the aeration level at 1.5 vvm for 3 days then controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO at 30% saturation further increased the yield to 17.8 g/l. The optimum pH was 6.5 for 3 days then 7 thereafter when a production yield of 16.1 g/l was recorded using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Controlling the pH at constant value (6.5 or 7 all through the fermentation process decreased the yield by 5–21%. Controlling the temperature at 30 °C for 3 days then 28 °C thereafter slightly increased the yield by 5% upon using an aeration rate of 1 vvm while it decreased upon using an aeration rate of 1.5 vvm. Integration of the most optimum conditions increased the production yield by 22% from 13.81 to 17.8 g/l.

  7. BENCH-SCALE VISUALIZATION OF DNAPL REMEDIATION PROCESSES IN ANALOG HETEROGENEOUS AQUIFERS: SURFACTANT FLOODS, AND IN SITU OXIDATION USING PERMANGANATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have conducted well-controlled DNAPL remediation experiments using surfactants (Aerosol MA and Tween 80) to increase solubility and an oxidant (permanganate) to chemically degrade the DNAPL. Photographs and digital image analysis illustrate previously unobserved interactions b...

  8. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  9. CFD modeling of space-time evolution of fast pyrolysis products in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.A.; Mtui, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed has been developed. In this study the unsteady constitutive transport equations for inert gas flow and decomposition kinetics were modeled using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT-12. The Eulerarian-Eulerian multiphase model system described herein is a fluidized bed of sand externally heated to a predetermined temperature prior to introduction of agricultural biomass. We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis vapors, char and non-condensable (permanent) gases and confirm the observation that the kinetics are fast and that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds, and occupying two-thirds of the spatial volume of the reactor as widely reported in the open literature. The model could be advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors and their optimization to meet economic scales required for distributed or satellite units. - Highlights: ► We model the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed via CFD. ► We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis products. ► We confirm the experimental observation that the kinetics are fast. ► And that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds. ► The model is advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors.

  10. Investigation of mixing enhancement in porous media under helical flow conditions: 3-D bench-scale experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chiogna, Gabriele; Ye, Yu; Cirpka, Olaf A.

    2017-01-01

    Lateral mass exchange at the fringe of solute plumes is a fundamental process leading to plume dilution and reactive mixing. Mass transfer between the plume and ambient water can be considerably enhanced by helical flow occurring in three-dimensional heterogeneous anisotropic porous media [1-3]. We...... performed steady-state conservative tracer experiments in a fully three-dimensional flow-through chamber to investigate the effects of helical flow on plume spiraling and deformation, as well as on its dilution [4]. Helical flow was created by packing the porous medium in angled stripes of materials...... with different grain sizes to create blocks with macroscopically anisotropic hydraulic conductivity. The hydraulic conductivity of the blocks was varied in different experiments. Solute concentrations and flow rates were measured at high spatial resolution for samples collected at 49 outlet ports. This allowed...

  11. Autochthonous bioaugmentation with environmental samples rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria for bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nedaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Sorkhoh, Naser; Radwan, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Oil-contaminated seawater and desert soil batches were bioaugmented with suspensions of pea (Pisum sativum) rhizosphere and soil with long history of oil pollution. Oil consumption was measured by gas-liquid chromatography. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria in the bioremediation batches were counted using a mineral medium with oil vapor as a sole carbon source and characterized by their 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)-gene sequences. Most of the oil was consumed during the first 2-4 months, and the oil-removal rate decreased or ceased thereafter due to nutrient and oxygen depletion. Supplying the batches with NaNO3 (nitrogen fertilization) at a late phase of bioremediation resulted in reenhanced oil consumption and bacterial growth. In the seawater batches bioaugmented with rhizospheric suspension, the autochthonous rhizospheric bacterial species Microbacterium oxidans and Rhodococcus spp. were established and contributed to oil-removal. The rhizosphere-bioaugmented soil batches selectively favored Arthrobacter nitroguajacolicus, Caulobacter segnis, and Ensifer adherens. In seawater batches bioaugmented with long-contaminated soil, the predominant oil-removing bacterium was the marine species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. In soil batches on the other hand, the autochthonous inhabitants of the long-contaminated soil, Pseudomonas and Massilia species were established and contributed to oil removal. It was concluded that the use of rhizospheric bacteria for inoculating seawater and desert soil and of bacteria in long-contaminated soil for inoculating desert soil follows the concept of "autochthonous bioaugmentation." Inoculating seawater with bacteria in long-contaminated soil, on the other hand, merits the designation "allochthonous bioaugmentation."

  12. Removal of strontium and transuranics from Hanford waste via hydrothermal processing -- FY 1994/95 test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orth, R.J.; Schmidt, A.J.; Elmore, M.R.; Hart, T.R.; Neuenschwander, G.G.; Gano, S.R.; Lehmann, R.W.; Momont, J.A.

    1995-09-01

    Under the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Pretreatment Technology Development Project, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is evaluating and developing organic destruction technologies that may be incorporated into the Initial Pretreatment Module (IPM) to treat Hanford tank waste. Organic (and ferrocyanide) destruction removes the compounds responsible for waste safety issues, and conditions the supernatant for low-level waste disposal by removing compounds that may be responsible for promoting strontium and transuranic (TRU) components solubility. Destruction or defunctionalization of complexing organics in tank wastes eliminates organic species that can reduce the efficiency of radionuclide (E.g., 90 Sr) separation processes, such as ion exchange, solvent extraction, and precipitation. The technologies being evaluated and tested for organic destruction are low-temperature hydrothermal processing (HTP) and wet air oxidation (WAO). Four activities are described: Batch HTP/WAO testing with Actual Tank Waste (Section 3.0), Batch HTP Testing with Simulant (Section 4.0), Batch WAO testing with Simulant (Section 5.0), and Continuous Bench-scale WAO Testing with Simulant (Section 6.0). For each of these activities, the objectives, test approach, results, status, and direction of future investigations are discussed. The background and history of the HTP/WAO technology is summarized below. Conclusions and Recommendations are provided in Section 2.0. A continuous HTP off-gas safety evaluation conducted in FY 1994 is included as Appendix A

  13. Technetium removal column flow testing with alkaline, high salt, radioactive tank waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, D.L. Jr.; Kurath, D.E.; Golcar, G.R.; Conradson, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes two bench-scale column tests conducted to demonstrate the removal of Tc-99 from actual alkaline high salt radioactive waste. The waste used as feed for these tests was obtained from the Hanford double shell tank AW-101, which contains double shell slurry feed (DSSF). The tank sample was diluted to approximately 5 M Na with water, and most of the Cs-137 was removed using crystalline silicotitanates. The tests were conducted with two small columns connected in series, containing, 10 mL of either a sorbent, ABEC 5000 (Eichrom Industries, Inc.), or an anion exchanger Reillex trademark-HPQ (Reilly Industries, Inc.). Both materials are selective for pertechnetate anion (TcO 4 - ). The process steps generally followed those expected in a full-scale process and included (1) resin conditioning, (2) loading, (3) caustic wash to remove residual feed and prevent the precipitation of Al(OH) 3 , and (4) elution. A small amount of Tc-99m tracer was added as ammonium pertechnetate to the feed and a portable GEA counter was used to closely monitor the process. Analyses of the Tc-99 in the waste was performed using ICP-MS with spot checks using radiochemical analysis. Technetium x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) spectra of 6 samples were also collected to determine the prevalence of non-pertechnetate species [e.g. Tc(IV)

  14. Summary and assessment of METC zinc ferrite hot coal gas desulfurization test program, final report: Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underkoffler, V.S.

    1986-12-01

    The Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) has conducted a test program to develop a zinc ferrite-based high temperature desulfurization process which could be applied to fuel gas entering downstream components such as molten carbonate fuel cells or gas turbines. As a result of prior METC work with iron oxide and zinc oxide sorbents, zinc ferrite evolved as a candidate with the potential for high capacity, low equilibrium levels of H/sub 2/S, and structural stability after multiple regenerations. The program consisted of laboratory-scale testing with a two-inch diameter reactor and simulated fixed-bed gasifier gas; bench-scale testing with a six-inch diameter reactor and actual gas from the METC 42-inch fixed bed gasifier; as well as laboratory-scale testing of zinc ferrite with simulated fluidized bed gasifier gas. Optimum operating parameters for zinc ferrite such as temperatures, gas compositions, and space velocities are discussed. From the test results, salient features of zinc ferrite were derived and discussed in regard to system implications, issues raised, and technical requirements. 47 refs., 53 figs., 41 tabs.

  15. TREATMENT TESTS FOR EX SITU REMOVAL OF CHROMATE & NITRATE & URANIUM (VI) FROM HANFORD (100-HR-3) GROUNDWATER FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BECK MA; DUNCAN JB

    1994-01-03

    This report describes batch and ion exchange column laboratory scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}{sup -}) and uranium (present as uranium [VI]) from contaminated Hanford site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include: chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium; and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan. The method suggested for future study is anion exchange.

  16. Treatable inherited rare movement disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jinnah, H A; Albanese, Alberto; Bhatia, Kailash P; Cardoso, Francisco; Da Prat, Gustavo; de Koning, Tom J; Espay, Alberto J; Fung, Victor; Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J; Gershanik, Oscar; Jankovic, Joseph; Kaji, Ryuji; Kotschet, Katya; Marras, Connie; Miyasaki, Janis M; Morgante, Francesca; Munchau, Alexander; Pal, Pramod Kumar; Rodriguez Oroz, Maria C; Rodríguez-Violante, Mayela; Schöls, Ludger; Stamelou, Maria; Tijssen, Marina; Uribe Roca, Claudia; de la Cerda, Andres; Gatto, Emilia M

    There are many rare movement disorders, and new ones are described every year. Because they are not well recognized, they often go undiagnosed for long periods of time. However, early diagnosis is becoming increasingly important. Rapid advances in our understanding of the biological mechanisms

  17. Demonstration testing and evaluation of in situ soil heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sresty, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    A Treatability Study planned for the demonstration of the in situ electromagnetic (EM) heating process to remove organic solvents is described in this Work Plan. The treatability study will be conducted by heating subsurface vadose-zone soils in an organic plume adjacent to the Classified Burial Ground K-1070-D located at K-25 Site, Oak Ridge. The test is scheduled to start during the fourth quarter of FY94 and will be completed during the first quarter of FY95. The EM heating process for soil decontamination is based on volumetric heating technologies developed during the '70s for the recovery of fuels from shale and tar sands by IIT Research Institute (IITRI) under a co-operative program with the US Department of Energy (DOE). Additional modifications of the technology developed during the mid '80s are currently used for the production of heavy oil and waste treatment. Over the last nine years, a number of Government agencies (EPA, Army, AF, and DOE) and industries sponsored further development and testing of the in situ heating and soil decontamination process for the remediation of soils containing hazardous organic contaminants. In this process the soil is heated in situ using electrical energy. The contaminants are removed from the soil due to enhanced vaporization, steam distillation and stripping. IITRI will demonstrate the EM Process for in situ soil decontamination at K-25 Site under the proposed treatability study. Most of the contaminants of concern are volatile organics which can be removed by heating the soil to a temperature range of 85 to 95 C. The efficiency of the treatment will be determined by comparing the concentration of contaminants in soil samples. Samples will be obtained before and after the demonstration for a measurement of the concentration of contaminants of concern

  18. Thermo-hydrological and chemical (THC) modeling to support Field Test Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Jordan, Amy B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Harp, Dylan Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Zyvoloski, George Anthony [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Boukhalfa, Hakim [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Caporuscio, Florie Andre [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Miller, Terry Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Robinson, Bruce Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This report summarizes ongoing efforts to simulate coupled thermal-hydrological-chemical (THC) processes occurring within a hypothetical high-level waste (HLW) repository in bedded salt. The report includes work completed since the last project deliverable, “Coupled model for heat and water transport in a high level waste repository in salt”, a Level 2 milestone submitted to DOE in September 2013 (Stauffer et al., 2013). Since the last deliverable, there have been code updates to improve the integration of the salt module with the pre-existing code and development of quality assurance (QA) tests of constitutive functions and precipitation/dissolution reactions. Simulations of bench-scale experiments, both historical and currently in the planning stages have been performed. Additional simulations have also been performed on the drift-scale model that incorporate new processes, such as an evaporation function to estimate water vapor removal from the crushed salt backfill and isotopic fractionation of water isotopes. Finally, a draft of a journal paper on the importance of clay dehydration on water availability is included as Appendix I.

  19. Measurement of volatiles, semi-volatiles and heavy metals in an oil burn test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, K.; Caron, T.; Landriault, M.; Pare, J.R.J.; Fingas, M.

    1992-01-01

    Tests involving meso-scale burning of Louisiana crude oil were conducted, and during each burn, extensive samples were taken from the oil, residue, and the smoke plume. The detailed analytical work employed to obtain and analyze the burn samples is outlined and discussed. The analytical parameters included volatiles and semi-volatiles of environmental interests as well as heavy metals typically contained in the starting crude oil. Because the smoke plume did not always impinge on the samplers, the ground samplers did not collect sufficient samples for a definitive analysis. Crude/residue analyses showed the burn resulted in a significant reduction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the original oil. Most of the reduction was thought to be simply evaporation or destruction from combustion. The residue did not have the degree of enrichment of the higher molecular weight PAHs as was the case in bench-scale burn experiments. Volatile organic compound and dioxin/furan measurements likewise did not show high levels of contamination from the burn itself. Most of the elevated levels of contaminants could probably be due to evaporation of the oil itself. Insufficient sampling was conducted to investigate the background levels from the weathering process. A novel means of sampling using a small remote controlled helicopter was attempted and sufficiently interesting results were obtained to indicate the potential of this passive sampling device for future work. 5 refs., 4 figs

  20. Summary of Group Development and Testing for Single Shell Tank Closure at Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harbour, John, R.

    2005-04-28

    This report is a summary of the bench-scale and large scale experimental studies performed by Savannah River National Laboratory for CH2M HILL to develop grout design mixes for possible use in producing fill materials as a part of Tank Closure of the Single-Shell Tanks at Hanford. The grout development data provided in this report demonstrates that these design mixes will produce fill materials that are ready for use in Hanford single shell tank closure. The purpose of this report is to assess the ability of the proposed grout specifications to meet the current requirements for successful single shell tank closure which will include the contracting of services for construction and operation of a grout batch plant. The research and field experience gained by SRNL in the closure of Tanks 17F and 20F at the Savannah River Site was leveraged into the grout development efforts for Hanford. It is concluded that the three Hanford grout design mixes provide fill materials that meet the current requirements for successful placement. This conclusion is based on the completion of recommended testing using Hanford area materials by the operators of the grout batch plant. This report summarizes the regulatory drivers and the requirements for grout mixes as tank fill material. It is these requirements for both fresh and cured grout properties that drove the development of the grout formulations for the stabilization, structural and capping layers.

  1. Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2011-02-23

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  2. JV Task 46 - Development and Testing of a Thermally Integrated SOFC-Gasification System for Biomass Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillip Hutton; Nikhil Patel; Kyle Martin; Devinder Singh

    2008-02-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has designed a biomass power system using a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) thermally integrated with a downdraft gasifier. In this system, the high-temperature effluent from the SOFC enables the operation of a substoichiometric air downdraft gasifier at an elevated temperature (1000 C). At this temperature, moisture in the biomass acts as an essential carbon-gasifying medium, reducing the equivalence ratio at which the gasifier can operate with complete carbon conversion. Calculations show gross conversion efficiencies up to 45% (higher heating value) for biomass moisture levels up to 40% (wt basis). Experimental work on a bench-scale gasifier demonstrated increased tar cracking within the gasifier and increased energy density of the resultant syngas. A series of experiments on wood chips demonstrated tar output in the range of 9.9 and 234 mg/m{sup 3}. Both button cells and a 100-watt stack was tested on syngas from the gasifier. Both achieved steady-state operation with a 22% and 15% drop in performance, respectively, relative to pure hydrogen. In addition, tar tolerance testing on button cells demonstrated an upper limit of tar tolerance of approximately 1%, well above the tar output of the gasifier. The predicted system efficiency was revised down to 33% gross and 27% net system efficiency because of the results of the gasifier and fuel cell experiments. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of thermally integrating a gasifier and a high-temperature fuel cell in small distributed power systems.

  3. Treatability study on the Bear Creek Valley characterization area at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. Phase II work plan for S-3 site contaminated groundwater interception--in-field media evaluation and groundwater capture methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    A treatability study is being conducted to support implementation:of early actions at the S-3 Site in the Bear Creek Valley (BCV) Characterization Area (CA). The objectives of the early actions Will be (1) to reduce concentrations of uranium and nitrate in Bear Creek and (2) to reduce contaminants of concern in North Tributary (NT)-1 and NT-2. The BCV CA is located within the US DOE's Oak Ridge Reservation in Tennessee. Hazardous and radioactive materials from the Y-12 Plant operations were, disposed of at various sites within BCV. Groundwater and surface water in the BCV CA have been contaminated. The remedial investigation (RI) for the BCV CA identified that the greatest mass flux of contaminants from the various sources migrates via groundwater at the source and discharges to surface water in Bear Creek and its tributaries. In the RI, the combined discharge from the S-3 Site and the Boneyard/Burnyard (BYBY) was identified as accounting for 75% of the cancer risk and more than 80% of the chemical toxicity to Potential downgradient human receptors. In addition, the S-3 Site has caused degradation of surface water quality in upper Bear Creek and two of its tributaries. The BCV CA treatability study focuses on capture and treatment of shallow groundwater before it discharges to tributary waters. The objectives Of treatment of this groundwater are (1) to reduce the concentrations of uranium and nitrate in NT-1 and Bear Creek such that the concentrations of these chemicals in surface water and groundwater are reduced to acceptable levels, (2) to reduce the concentrations of nitrate and metals, and reduce the overall concentration of total dissolved solids; and (3) to hydraulically contain the plume of contaminated, groundwater that is moving in bedrock in the Nolichucky Shale such that the rate of contaminant discharge will be reduced in the long term. The objective of Phase II is to produce conceptual designs for treatment system configurations

  4. COAL SLAGGING AND REACTIVITY TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donald P. McCollor; Kurt E. Eylands; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-10-01

    conditions, resulting in unburned carbon as well as slagging. A second phase of the project involved advanced analysis of the baseline coal along with an Australian coal fired at the plant. These analysis results were used in equilibrium thermodynamic modeling along with a coal quality model developed by the EERC to assess slagging, fouling, and opacity for the coals. Bench-scale carbon conversion testing was performed in a drop-tube furnace to assess the reactivity of the coals. The Australian coal had a higher mineral content with significantly more clay minerals present than the baseline coal. The presence of these clay minerals, which tend to melt at relatively low temperatures, indicated a higher potential for problematic slagging than the baseline coal. However, the pyritic minerals, comprising over 25% of the baseline mineral content, may form sticky iron sulfides, leading to severe slagging in the burner region if local areas with reducing conditions exist. Modeling results indicated that neither would present significant fouling problems. The Australian coal was expected to show slagging behavior much more severe than the baseline coal except at very high furnace temperatures. However, the baseline coal was predicted to exhibit opacity problems, as well as have a higher potential for problematic calcium sulfate-based low-temperature fouling. The baseline coal had a somewhat higher reactivity than the Australian coal, which was consistent with both the lower average activation energy for the baseline coal and the greater carbon conversion at a given temperature and residence time. The activation energy of the baseline coal showed some effect of oxygen on the activation energy, with E{sub a} increasing at the lower oxygen concentration, but may be due to the scatter in the baseline coal kinetic values at the higher oxygen level tested.

  5. Initial tests on in situ vitrification using electrode feeding techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farnsworth, R.K.; Oma, K.H.; Bigelow, C.E.

    1990-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of an engineering-scale in situ vitrification (ISV) test conducted to demonstrate the potential for electrode feeding in soils with a high concentration of metals. The engineering-scale test was part of a Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) program to assist Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) in conducting treatability studies of the potential for applying ISV to the mixed transuranic waste buried at the INEL subsurface disposal area. The purpose of this test was to evaluate the effectiveness of both gravity fed and operator-controlled electrode feeding in reducing or eliminating many of the potential problems associated with fixed-electrode processing of soils with high concentrations of metal. Actual site soils from INEL were mixed with representative concentrations of carbon steel and stainless steel for this engineering-scale test. 18 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Hydrothermal Testing of K Basin Sludge and N Reactor Fuel at Sludge Treatment Project Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Thornton, Brenda M.

    2007-03-30

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP), managed for the U. S. DOE by Fluor Hanford (FH), was created to design and operate a process to eliminate uranium metal from K Basin sludge prior to packaging for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). The STP process uses high temperature liquid water to accelerate the reaction, produce uranium dioxide from the uranium metal, and safely discharge the hydrogen. Under nominal process conditions, the sludge will be heated in pressurized water at 185°C for as long as 72 hours to assure the complete reaction (corrosion) of up to 0.25-inch diameter uranium metal pieces. Under contract to FH, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted bench-scale testing of the STP hydrothermal process in November and December 2006. Five tests (~50 ml each) were conducted in sealed, un-agitated reaction vessels under the hydrothermal conditions (e.g., 7 to 72 h at 185°C) of the STP corrosion process using radioactive sludge samples collected from the K East Basin and particles/coupons of N Reactor fuel also taken from the K Basins. The tests were designed to evaluate and understand the chemical changes that may be occurring and the effects that any changes would have on sludge rheological properties. The tests were not designed to evaluate engineering aspects of the process. The hydrothermal treatment affected the chemical and physical properties of the sludge. In each test, significant uranium compound phase changes were identified, resulting from dehydration and chemical reduction reactions. Physical properties of the sludge were significantly altered from their initial, as-settled sludge values, including, shear strength, settled density, weight percent water, and gas retention.

  7. Removal of creosote from soil by thermal desorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hessing, J.L.; Alpenn, E.S.; Green, A.; Lauch, R.P.; Herrmann, J.G.

    1992-01-01

    Contaminated soil and debris (CS ampersand D) pose a special problem because of their complexity and high degree of variability. Therefore, the EPA has determined that a detailed evaluation of treatment technologies of CS ampersand D is needed to develop separate Land Disposal Restriction (LDR) standards applicable to their disposal. These standards are being developed through the evaluation of best demonstrated available technologies (BDATs). Once these LDRs are promulgated, only CS ampersand D wastes that meet the LDR standards will be permitted to be disposed of in land disposal units. As part of the effort to establish the standards, a thermal desorption treatability study was performed for the US EPA to supply information as part of the data base on BDATs for CS ampersand D remediation. Thermal desorption has been successfully tested at both the bench and pilot scale on a wide range of organic contaminants. During this study, thermal desorption was investigated for removal of creosote from soil at a process temperature of 550 degrees C. The contaminants of concern in the soil were polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), semivolatile contaminants that boil at temperatures ranging from approximately 215 degrees C to greater than 525 degrees C. Vapor pressures of these compounds vary depending on whether the contamination consists of one compound or a mixture of compounds. Because the boiling points of various mixes of contaminants are not known, bench-scale thermal desorption tests were performed to determine the optimum temperature and residence time required for removal of these compounds from the soil. The thermal desorption study was performed in two phases--bench-scale and pilot-scale. Based on the results of the bench test, a pilot-scale test for the thermal desorption technology was performed at an operating temperature of 550 degrees C and a residence time of 10 minutes to reduce that PAHs present in the soil. 1 ref., 1 tab

  8. Laboratory-Scale Column Testing Using IONSIV IE-911 for Removing Cesium from Acidic Tank Waste Simulant. 1: Cesium Exchange Capacity of a 15-cm3 Column and Dynamic Stability of the Exchange Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.J. Tranter; R.D. Tillotson; T.A. Todd

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale column tests were performed using a commercial form of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) for removing radio-cesium from a surrogate acidic tank solution representative of liquid waste stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). An engineered form of CST ion exchanger, known as IONSIVtm IE-911 (UOP, Mt Laurel, NJ, USA), was tested in 15 cm3 columns at a flow rate of 5 bed volumes per hour. These experiments showed the ion exchange material to have reasonable selectivity and capacity for removing cesium from the complex chemical matrix of the solution. However, previous testing indicated that partial neutralization of the feed stream was necessary to increase the stability of the ion exchange media. Thus, in these studies, CST degradation was determined as a function of throughput in order to better assess the stability characteristics of the exchanger for potential future waste treatment applications. Results of these tests indicate that the degradation of the CST reaches a maximum very soon after the acidic feed is introduced to the column and then rapidly declines. Total dissolution of bed material did not exceed 3% under the experimental regime used

  9. Installation Restoration Program. Phase 1. Records Search, Wright- Patterson AFB, Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-02-01

    32403 IS,. DECLASSIFICATION/DOWNGRADING I . * SCHEDULE 16. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT (of this Report) uSJ Approved for Public Release , Distribution...as mGmEIa- SCENC Mark 1. Spiegel (Continued) Participated in bench-scale industrial treatability studies conducted for the American Textile Manufac... bioreactors , including gas-liquid chromatographic analyses for pentachlorophenol and P dimethylphthalate. 1981 -Date Engineerinq-Science, Inc., Atlanta

  10. Hydrogen in aluminium die castings - formation of hydrides and their effects on base material, heat treatability and weldability; Wasserstoff in Aluminium-Druckgussteilen. Hydridbildung und deren Auswirkungen auf Werkstoffkennwerte, Waermebehandel- und Schweissbarkeit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, S.; Rethmeier, M.; Ruge, J. [TU Braunschweig (Germany). Inst. fuer Schweisstechnik

    2001-03-01

    The alloys AB-Al Si9Mg (Silafont 36), AB-Al Mg5Si2Mn (Magsimal 59), AB-Al Mg2.5Mn (Magsimal 22), AB-Al Si11Mg (Calypso 61D), AB-Al Si9 (Calypso 49R) and AB-AlSi8Cu3 (226) were investigated to examine the influence of hydride forming elements on base material, heat treatability and weldability. Experiments with the alloys AB-Al Si11Mg and AB-Al Si8Cu3 with a higher titanium content completed the investigations. The determination of concentration-pressure isotherms on die castings of the alloy AB-Al Si8Cu3 shows a capacity for absorption of hydrogen up to one weight percent. This high factor proves again the chemical binding of hydrogen in aluminium die casting alloys. The tensile strength and elongation of not heat treated die castings were independent of the hydrogen contents. The results show an improvement of the heat treatability and a deterioration of the weldability when the contents of hydride forming elements in the aluminium alloy become higher. (orig.) [German] Die Legierungen AB-Al Si9Mg (Silafont 36), AB-Al Mg5Si2Mn (Magsimal 59), AB-Al Mg2,5Mn (Magsimal 22), AB-Al Si11Mg (Calypso 61D), AB-Al Si9 (Calypso 49R) und AB-AlSi8Cu3 (226) wurden untersucht, um den Einfluss von hydridbildenden Begleitelementen auf Werkstoffkennwerte, Waermebehandel- und Schweissbarkeit zu ermitteln. Versuche an den Legierungen AB-Al Si11Mg und AB-Al Si8Cu3 mit erhoehtem Titangehalt ergaenzten die Untersuchungen. Die Bestimmung der Konzentrations-Druck-Isothermen an Druckgussteilen der Legierung AB-Al Si8Cu3 zeigte eine Wasserstoffaufnahmekapazitaet von bis zu einem Gewichtsprozent. Dieser hohe Wert beweist erneut die chemische Bindung von Wasserstoff in Aluminium-Druckgusslegierungen. Die Werkstoffkennwerte von Zugproben in nicht waermebehandelten Druckgussteilen zeigten keine Abhaengigkeit vom Wasserstoffgehalt. Die Versuchsergebnisse weisen auf eine Verbesserung der Waermebehandelbarkeit und eine Verschlechterung der Schweissbarkeit mit zunehmendem Anteil von hydridbildenden

  11. Relative risks and population attributable fraction of incident HIV associated with symptoms of sexually transmitted diseases and treatable symptomatic sexually transmitted diseases in Rakai District, Uganda. Rakai Project Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, R H; Wawer, M J; Sewankambo, N K; Serwadda, D; Li, C; Moulton, L H; Lutalo, T; Wabwire-Mangen, F; Meehan, M P; Ahmed, S; Paxton, L A; Kiwanuka, N; Nalugoda, F; Korenromp, E L; Quinn, T C

    1999-10-22

    To assess the linkage of sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms and treatable STD to HIV incidence. Analysis of a randomized trial of STD control for HIV prevention, Rakai, Uganda. Consenting adults 15-59 years of age were seen at 10-monthly home visits, interviewed regarding STD symptoms, and asked to provide samples for HIV and STD diagnoses. HIV incidence was determined in 8089 HIV-negative subjects over 10 457 person years. Adjusted rate ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of HIV acquisition associated with genital ulcer disease (GUD) and discharge/dysuria were used to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) of HIV acquisition. HIV transmission risks associated with STD symptoms in HIV-positive partners of 167 HIV discordant couples and the numbers of sexual partners reported by HIV-positive subjects were used to estimate the PAF of HIV transmission attributable to STD. HIV prevalence was 16%. The risk of HIV acquisition was increased with GUD (RR 3.14; CI 1.98-4.98) and in males with discharge/dysuria (RR 2.44; CI 1.17-5.12), but not in females with discharge/dysuria. The PAF of HIV acquisition was 9.5% (CI 2.8-15.8%) with any of the three STD symptoms. The PAF for GUD was 8.8% (CI 3.7-13.8), but only 8.2% of reported GUD was caused by treatable syphilis or chancroid . The PAF for discharge/dysuria in males was 6.7% (CI 1.1-13.8), but only 25% of symptomatic males had concurrent gonorrhea or chlamydial infection. No significant differences were seen in PAF between study treatment arms. The PAF of HIV transmission associated with STD symptoms in HIV-positive persons was indirectly estimated to be 10.4%. In this mature, generalized HIV epidemic setting, most HIV seroconversion occurs without recognized STD symptoms or curable STD detected by screening. Therefore, syndromic management or other strategies of STD treatment are unlikely to substantially reduce HIV incidence in this population. However, STD is associated with significant

  12. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the Gunite and Associated Tanks Treatability Study, wall coring and scraping in Tanks W-3 and W-4 (North Tank Farm), Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-08-01

    This plan documents the procedures for collecting and analyzing wall core and wall scraping samples from Tanks W-3 and W-4 in the North Tank Farm. This is in support of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act Treatability Study of the Gunite and Associated Tanks at ORNL. The sampling and analysis will be in concert with sludge retrieval and sluicing of the tanks. Wall scraping and wall core samples will be collected from each quadrant in each tank by using a scraping sampler and a coring drill deployed by the Houdini robot vehicle. Each sample will be labeled, transported to the Radioactive Materials Analytical Laboratory and analyzed for physical/radiological characteristics, including total activity, gross alpha, gross beta, radioactive Sr + Cs, and other alpha and gamma emitting radionuclides. The Data Quality Objectives process, based on US EPA guidance (EPA QA/G-4, Sept. 1994), was applied to identify the objectives of this sampling and analysis. Results of the analysis will be used to validate predictions of a Sr concrete diffusion model, estimate the amount of radioactivity remaining in the tank shells, provide information to correlate with measurements taken by the Gunite Tank Isotope Mapping Probe and the Characterization End Effector, and estimate the performance of the wall cleaning system

  13. Remediation of RDX- and HMX-contaminated groundwater using organic mulch permeable reactive barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Farrukh; Schnitker, Stephen P; Newell, Charles J

    2007-02-20

    Organic mulch is a complex organic material that is typically populated with its own consortium of microorganisms. The organisms in mulch breakdown complex organics to soluble carbon, which can then be used by these and other microorganisms as an electron donor for treating RDX and HMX via reductive pathways. A bench-scale treatability study with organic mulch was conducted for the treatment of RDX- and HMX-contaminated groundwater obtained from a plume at the Pueblo Chemical Depot (PCD) in Pueblo, Colorado. The site-specific cleanup criteria of 0.55 ppb RDX and 602 ppb HMX were used as the logical goals of the study. Column flow-through tests were run to steady-state at the average site seepage velocity, using a 70%:30% (vol.:vol.) mulch:pea gravel packing to approach the formation's permeability. Significant results included: (1) Complete removal of 90 ppb influent RDX and 8 ppb influent HMX in steady-state mulch column effluent; (2) pseudo-first-order steady-state kinetic rate constant, k, of 0.20 to 0.27 h(-1) based on RDX data, using triplicate parallel column runs; (3) accumulation of reduced RDX intermediates in the steady-state column effluent at less than 2% of the influent RDX mass; (4) no binding of RDX to the column fill material; and (5) no leaching of RDX, HMX or reduction intermediates from the column fill material. The results of the bench-scale study will be used to design and implement a pilot-scale organic mulch/pea gravel permeable reactive barrier (PRB) at the site.

  14. Existing systems review of treatment media for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In situ treatment has been proposed as a remediation alternative for surface water and groundwater contaminated with uranium and nitrate as a result of former waste disposal practices in the S-3 Ponds. Interceptor trenches containing reactive media have been proposed to treat groundwater, and constructed wetlands and/or algal mats are potential alternatives for treating surface water. This report presents the results from testing of ten different reactive media, and combinations of media, that are candidates for use in the proposed interceptor trenches to remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater. It also presents the results of testing and evaluation of algal mats and wetlands for removing uranium and nitrate from surface water

  15. Existing systems review of treatment media for the Bear Creek Valley treatability study, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-01-01

    In situ treatment has been proposed as a remediation alternative for surface water and groundwater contaminated with uranium and nitrate as a result of former waste disposal practices in the S-3 Ponds. Interceptor trenches containing reactive media have been proposed to treat groundwater, and constructed wetlands and/or algal mats are potential alternatives for treating surface water. This report presents the results from testing of ten different reactive media, and combinations of media, that are candidates for use in the proposed interceptor trenches to remove uranium and nitrate from groundwater. It also presents the results of testing and evaluation of algal mats and wetlands for removing uranium and nitrate from surface water.

  16. Siting and constructing very deep monitoring wells on the US Department of Energy's Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullen, J.J.; Jacobson, R.L.; Russell, C.E.

    1991-01-01

    Many aspects of the Nevada Test Site's (NTS) hydrogeologic setting restrict the use of traditional methods for the siting and construction of ground-water characterization and monitoring wells. The size of the NTS precludes establishing high-density networks of characterization wells, as are typically used at smaller sites. The geologic complexity and variability of the NTS requires that the wells be criticality situated. The hydrogeologic complexity requires that each well provide access to many aquifers. Depths to ground water on the NTS require the construction of wells averaging approximately 1000 meters in depth. Wells meeting these criteria are uncommon in the ground-water industry, therefore techniques used by petroleum engineers are being employed to solve certain siting-, design- and installation-related problems. To date, one focus has been on developing completion strings that facilitate routine and efficient ground-water sampling from multiple intervals in a single well. The method currently advocated employs a new design of sliding side door sleeve that is actuated by an electrically operated hydraulic shifting tool. Stemming of the wells is being accomplished with standard materials (cement based grouts and sands); however, new stemming methods are being developed, to accommodate the greater depths, to minimize pH-related problems caused by the use of cements, to enhance the integrity of the inter-zone seals, and to improve the representativeness of radionuclide analyses performed on ground-water samples. Bench-scale experiments have been used to investigate the properties of more than a dozen epoxy-aggregate grout mixtures -- materials that are commonly used in underwater sealing applications

  17. Geothermal reservoir engineering research at Stanford University. Third annual report for the period October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Kruger, P.; Horne, R.N.; Brigham, W.E.; Miller, F.G.

    1983-09-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: heat extraction from hydrothermal reservoirs; radon reservoir engineering; well test analysis and bench scale experiments; field applications; workshop, seminars, and technical information; reinjection technology; and seismic monitoring of vapor/liquid interfaces. (MHR)

  18. Safety aspects of solvent nitration in HTGR fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilbourn, R.G.

    1977-06-01

    Reprocessing of HTGR fuels requires evaporative concentration of uranium and thorium nitrate solutions. The results of a bench-scale test program conducted to assess the safety aspects of planned concentrator operations are reported

  19. Uranium Plume Treatability Demonstration at the Hanford Site 300 Area: Development of Polyphosphate Remediation Technology for In-Situ Stabilization of Uranium - 8070

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wellman, Dawn M.; Pierce, Eric M.; Richards, Emily L.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Vermeul, Vincent R.

    2008-01-01

    A groundwater plume containing uranium, originating from a combination of purposeful discharges of wastewater to cribs, trenches and ponds, along with some accidental leaks and spills during nuclear fuel fabrication activities, has persisted beneath the Hanford Site 300 Area for many years. Despite the cessation of uranium releases and the removal of shallow vadose zone source materials, the goal of less than 30 (micro)g/L has not been achieved within the anticipated 10-year time period. Polyphosphate technology has been demonstrated to delay the precipitation of phosphate phases for controlled in situ precipitation of stable phosphate phases to control the long-term fate of uranium. Precipitation occurs when polyphosphate compounds hydrolyze to yield the orthophosphate molecule. Based on the hydrolysis kinetics of the polyphosphate polymer, the amendment can be tailored to act as a time-released source of phosphate for lateral plume treatment, immediate and sustained remediation of dissolved uranium, and to preclude rapid precipitation which could result in a drastic change in hydraulic conductivity of the target aquifer. Critical to successful implementation of polyphosphate remediation technology is a site specific evaluation and optimization of multi-length polyphosphate amendment formulations. A multi-faceted approach has been taken to provide key fundamental science knowledge regarding optimization of the polyphosphate remedy through: (1) phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance to quantify the effects of Hanford groundwater and sediment on the degradation of inorganic phosphates, (2) static tests to quantify the kinetics, loading, and stability of apatite as a long-term sorbent for uranium, and (3) single-pass flow through testing to quantify the stability of autunite and apatite under relevant site conditions. Dynamic column tests were utilized to (1) optimize the composition of the polyphosphate formulation for the formation and emplacement of apatite and

  20. Treatability Test Report for Application of In Situ Vitrification Technology to Pesticide-, Arsenic-, and Mercury-Contaminated Soils from the M-1 Ponds Site of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-08-31

    involve the melting of natural soils; however process residuals [e.g., sludges, tailings, sediments] may also be treated. The unique feature of the... sanitary or chemical sewer, and placement of the activated carbon and filters in a subsequent * 10 ISV s tting for disposal. In this way the destruction...to prevent cross-ccntamination according to th. following steps: 1. Wipe excessive contaminant (dirt, grease, etc.) off wit- a towel or cloth soaked

  1. Remediation of Uranium in the Hanford Vadose Zone Using Gas-Transported Reactants: Laboratory Scale Experiments in Support of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Zhong, Lirong; Williams, Mark D.; Resch, Charles T.; McKinley, James P.

    2010-01-04

    This laboratory-scale investigation is focused on decreasing mobility of uranium in subsurface contaminated sediments in the vadose zone by in situ geochemical manipulation at low water content. This geochemical manipulation of the sediment surface phases included reduction, pH change (acidic and alkaline), and additions of chemicals (phosphate, ferric iron) to form specific precipitates. Reactants were advected into 1-D columns packed with Hanford 200 area U-contaminated sediment as a reactive gas (for CO2, NH3, H2S, SO2), with a 0.1% water content mist (for NaOH, Fe(III), HCl, PO4) and with a 1% water content foam (for PO4). Uranium is present in the sediment in multiple phases that include (in decreasing mobility): aqueous U(VI) complexes, adsorbed U, reduced U(IV) precipitates, rind-carbonates, total carbonates, oxides, silicates, phosphates, and in vanadate minerals. Geochemical changes were evaluated in the ability to change the mixture of surface U phases to less mobile forms, as defined by a series of liquid extractions that dissolve progressively less soluble phases. Although liquid extractions provide some useful information as to the generalized uranium surface phases (and are considered operational definitions of extracted phases), positive identification (by x-ray diffraction, electron microprobe, other techniques) was also used to positively identify U phases and effects of treatment. Some of the changes in U mobility directly involve U phases, whereas other changes result in precipitate coatings on U surface phases. The long-term implication of the U surface phase changes to alter U mass mobility in the vadose zone was then investigated using simulations of 1-D infiltration and downward migration of six U phases to the water table. In terms of the short-term decrease in U mobility (in decreasing order), NH3, NaOH mist, CO2, HCl mist, and Fe(III) mist showed 20% to 35% change in U surface phases. Phosphate addition (mist or foam advected) showed inconsistent change in aqueous and adsorbed U, but significant coating (likely phosphates) on U-carbonates. The two reductive gas treatments (H2S and SO2) showed little change. For long-term decrease in U reduction, mineral phases created that had low solubility (phosphates, silicates) were desired, so NH3, phosphates (mist and foam delivered), and NaOH mist showed the greatest formation of these minerals. In addition, simulations showed the greatest decrease in U mass transport time to reach groundwater (and concentration) for these silicate/phosphate minerals. Advection of reactive gasses was the easiest to implement at the laboratory scale (and presumably field scale). Both mist and foam advection show promise and need further development, but current implementation move reactants shorter distances relative to reactive gasses. Overall, the ammonia and carbon dioxide gas had the greatest overall geochemical performance and ability to implement at field scale. Corresponding mist-delivered technologies (NaOH mist for ammonia and HCl mist for carbon dioxide) performed as well or better geochemically, but are not as easily upscaled. Phosphate delivery by mist was rated slightly higher than by foam delivery simply due to the complexity of foam injection and unknown effect of U mobility by the presence of the surfactant.

  2. Laboratory procedures for waste form testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast, E.S.

    1994-01-01

    The 100 and 300 areas of the Hanford Site are included on the US Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Soil washing is a treatment process that is being considered for the remediation of the soil in these areas. Contaminated soil washing fines can be mixed or blended with cementations materials to produce stable waste forms that can be used for beneficial purposes in mixed or low-level waste landfills, burial trenches, environmental restoration sites, and other applications. This process has been termed co-disposal. The Co-Disposal Treatability Study Test Plan is designed to identify a range of cement-based formulations that could be used in disposal efforts in Hanford in co-disposal applications. The purpose of this document is to provide explicit procedural information for the testing of co-disposal formulations. This plan also provides a discussion of laboratory safety and quality assurance necessary to ensure safe, reproducible testing in the laboratory

  3. Laboratory procedures for waste form testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, E.S.

    1994-09-19

    The 100 and 300 areas of the Hanford Site are included on the US Environmental Protection Agencies (EPA) National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). Soil washing is a treatment process that is being considered for the remediation of the soil in these areas. Contaminated soil washing fines can be mixed or blended with cementations materials to produce stable waste forms that can be used for beneficial purposes in mixed or low-level waste landfills, burial trenches, environmental restoration sites, and other applications. This process has been termed co-disposal. The Co-Disposal Treatability Study Test Plan is designed to identify a range of cement-based formulations that could be used in disposal efforts in Hanford in co-disposal applications. The purpose of this document is to provide explicit procedural information for the testing of co-disposal formulations. This plan also provides a discussion of laboratory safety and quality assurance necessary to ensure safe, reproducible testing in the laboratory.

  4. Autopsy Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Other Potentially Treatable Infections among Adults with Advanced HIV Enrolled in Out-Patient Care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karat, Aaron S; Omar, Tanvier; von Gottberg, Anne; Tlali, Mpho; Chihota, Violet N; Churchyard, Gavin J; Fielding, Katherine L; Johnson, Suzanne; Martinson, Neil A; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Wolter, Nicole; Wong, Emily B; Charalambous, Salome; Grant, Alison D

    2016-01-01

    Early mortality among HIV-positive adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains high in resource-limited settings, with tuberculosis (TB) the leading cause of death. However, current methods to estimate TB-related deaths are inadequate and most autopsy studies do not adequately represent those attending primary health clinics (PHCs). This study aimed to determine the autopsy prevalence of TB and other infections in adults enrolled at South African PHCs in the context of a pragmatic trial of empiric TB treatment ("TB Fast Track"). Adults with CD4 ≤150 cells/μL, not on ART or TB treatment, were enrolled to TB Fast Track and followed up for at least six months. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) was conducted as soon as possible after death. Lungs, liver, and spleen were biopsied; blood, CSF, and urine aspirated; and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained. Samples underwent mycobacterial, bacterial, and fungal culture; molecular testing (including Xpert® MTB/RIF); and histological examination. 34 MIAs were conducted: 18 (53%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range 33-44) years; 25 (74%) deaths occurred in hospitals; median time from death to MIA was five (IQR 3-6) days. 16/34 (47%) had evidence of TB (14/16 [88%] with extrapulmonary disease; 6/16 [38%] not started on treatment antemortem); 23 (68%) had clinically important bacterial infections; four (12%) cryptococcal disease; three (9%) non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease; and two (6%) Pneumocystis pneumonia. Twenty decedents (59%) had evidence of two or more concurrent infections; 9/16 (56%) individuals with TB had evidence of bacterial disease and two (13%) cryptococcal disease. TB, followed by bacterial infections, were the leading findings at autopsy among adults with advanced HIV enrolled from primary care clinics. To reduce mortality, strategies are needed to identify and direct those at highest risk into a structured pathway that includes expedited investigation and

  5. Visible-Light-Responsive Photocatalysis: Ag-Doped TiO2 Catalyst Development and Reactor Design Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Janelle L.; Hintze, Paul E.; Meier, Anne; Shah, Malay G.; Devor, Robert W.; Surma, Jan M.; Maloney, Phillip R.; Bauer, Brint M.; Mazyck, David W.

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the alteration of titanium dioxide to become visible-light-responsive (VLR) has been a major focus in the field of photocatalysis. Currently, bare titanium dioxide requires ultraviolet light for activation due to its band gap energy of 3.2 eV. Hg-vapor fluorescent light sources are used in photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) reactors to provide adequate levels of ultraviolet light for catalyst activation; these mercury-containing lamps, however, hinder the use of this PCO technology in a spaceflight environment due to concerns over crew Hg exposure. VLR-TiO2 would allow for use of ambient visible solar radiation or highly efficient visible wavelength LEDs, both of which would make PCO approaches more efficient, flexible, economical, and safe. Over the past three years, Kennedy Space Center has developed a VLR Ag-doped TiO2 catalyst with a band gap of 2.72 eV and promising photocatalytic activity. Catalyst immobilization techniques, including incorporation of the catalyst into a sorbent material, were examined. Extensive modeling of a reactor test bed mimicking air duct work with throughput similar to that seen on the International Space Station was completed to determine optimal reactor design. A bench-scale reactor with the novel catalyst and high-efficiency blue LEDs was challenged with several common volatile organic compounds (VOCs) found in ISS cabin air to evaluate the system's ability to perform high-throughput trace contaminant removal. The ultimate goal for this testing was to determine if the unit would be useful in pre-heat exchanger operations to lessen condensed VOCs in recovered water thus lowering the burden of VOC removal for water purification systems.

  6. Autopsy Prevalence of Tuberculosis and Other Potentially Treatable Infections among Adults with Advanced HIV Enrolled in Out-Patient Care in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Tanvier; von Gottberg, Anne; Tlali, Mpho; Chihota, Violet N.; Churchyard, Gavin J.; Fielding, Katherine L.; Johnson, Suzanne; Martinson, Neil A.; McCarthy, Kerrigan; Wolter, Nicole; Wong, Emily B.; Charalambous, Salome; Grant, Alison D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Early mortality among HIV-positive adults starting antiretroviral therapy (ART) remains high in resource-limited settings, with tuberculosis (TB) the leading cause of death. However, current methods to estimate TB-related deaths are inadequate and most autopsy studies do not adequately represent those attending primary health clinics (PHCs). This study aimed to determine the autopsy prevalence of TB and other infections in adults enrolled at South African PHCs in the context of a pragmatic trial of empiric TB treatment (“TB Fast Track”). Methods and Findings Adults with CD4 ≤150 cells/μL, not on ART or TB treatment, were enrolled to TB Fast Track and followed up for at least six months. Minimally invasive autopsy (MIA) was conducted as soon as possible after death. Lungs, liver, and spleen were biopsied; blood, CSF, and urine aspirated; and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained. Samples underwent mycobacterial, bacterial, and fungal culture; molecular testing (including Xpert® MTB/RIF); and histological examination. 34 MIAs were conducted: 18 (53%) decedents were female; median age was 39 (interquartile range 33–44) years; 25 (74%) deaths occurred in hospitals; median time from death to MIA was five (IQR 3–6) days. 16/34 (47%) had evidence of TB (14/16 [88%] with extrapulmonary disease; 6/16 [38%] not started on treatment antemortem); 23 (68%) had clinically important bacterial infections; four (12%) cryptococcal disease; three (9%) non-tuberculous mycobacterial disease; and two (6%) Pneumocystis pneumonia. Twenty decedents (59%) had evidence of two or more concurrent infections; 9/16 (56%) individuals with TB had evidence of bacterial disease and two (13%) cryptococcal disease. Conclusions TB, followed by bacterial infections, were the leading findings at autopsy among adults with advanced HIV enrolled from primary care clinics. To reduce mortality, strategies are needed to identify and direct those at highest risk into a structured pathway

  7. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture. Manufacturing Plan for Aminosilicone-based CO{sub 2} Absorption Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogt, Kirkland

    2013-02-01

    A commercially cost effective manufacturing plan was developed for GAP-1m, the aminosilicone-based part of the CO{sub 2} capture solvent described in DE-FE0007502, and the small-scale synthesis of GAP-1m was confirmed. The plan utilizes a current intermediate at SiVance LLC to supply the 2013-2015 needs for GE Global Research. Material from this process was supplied to GE Global Research for evaluation and creation of specifications. GE Global Research has since ordered larger quantities (60 liters) for the larger scale evaluations that start in first quarter, 2013. For GE’s much larger future commercial needs, an improved, more economical pathway to make the product was developed after significant laboratory and literature research. Suppliers were identified for all raw materials.

  8. EVALUATION OF SOIL WASHING TECHNOLOGY: RESULTS OF BENCH SCALE EXPERIMENTS ON PETROLEUM FUELS CONTAMINATED SOILS - EPA/600/S2-91/023

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through its Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory's Release Control Branch has undertaken research and development efforts to address the problem of leaking underground storage tanks (USTs). Under this effort, EPA is currently eva...

  9. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the methodology and preliminary results of a techno-economic analysis on a hot carbonate absorption process (Hot-CAP) with crystallization-enabled high pressure stripping for post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture (PCC). This analysis was based on the Hot-CAP that is fully integrated with a sub-critical steam cycle, pulverized coal-fired power plant adopted in Case 10 of the DOE/NETL’s Cost and Performance Baseline for Fossil Energy Plants. The techno-economic analysis addressed several important aspects of the Hot-CAP for PCC application, including process design and simulation, equipment sizing, technical risk and mitigation strategy, performance evaluation, and cost analysis. Results show that the net power produced in the subcritical power plant equipped with Hot-CAP is 611 MWe, greater than that with Econoamine (550 MWe). The total capital cost for the Hot-CAP, including CO{sub 2} compression, is $399 million, less than that for the Econoamine PCC ($493 million). O&M costs for the power plant with Hot-CAP is $175 million annually, less than that with Econoamine ($178 million). The 20-year levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) for the power plant with Hot-CAP, including CO2 transportation and storage, is 119.4 mills/kWh, a 59% increase over that for the plant without CO2 capture. The LCOE increase caused by CO{sub 2} capture for the Hot-CAP is 31% lower than that for its Econoamine counterpart.

  10. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of amorphous solid dispersions generated by different bench-scale processes, using griseofulvin as a model compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Cui, Yong; Ran, Yingqing; Lubach, Joe; Chou, Kang-Jye; Bao, Linda; Jia, Wei; La, Hank; Hau, Jonathan; Sambrone, Amy; Qin, Ann; Deng, Yuzhong; Wong, Harvey

    2013-04-01

    Drug polymer-based amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) are widely used in the pharmaceutical industry to improve bioavailability for poorly water-soluble compounds. Spray-drying is the most common process involved in the manufacturing of ASD material. However, spray-drying involves a high investment of material quantity and time. Lower investment manufacturing processes such as fast evaporation and freeze-drying (lyophilization) have been developed to manufacture ASD at the bench level. The general belief is that the overall performance of ASD material is thermodynamically driven and should be independent of the manufacturing process. However, no formal comparison has been made to assess the in vivo performance of material generated by different processes. This study compares the in vitro and in vivo properties of ASD material generated by fast evaporation, lyophilization, and spray-drying methods using griseofulvin as a model compound and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate as the polymer matrix. Our data suggest that despite minor differences in the formulation release properties and stability of the ASD materials, the overall exposure is comparable between the three manufacturing processes under the conditions examined. These results suggest that fast evaporation and lyophilization may be suitable to generate ASD material for oral evaluation. However, caution should be exercised since the general applicability of the present findings will need to be further evaluated.

  11. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — There is no database. This dataset is not publicly accessible because: This is a review manuscript, there was not data generated under this effort. All data used was...

  12. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the Removal of Total Dissolved Solids from Coal Mine Water: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have establishe...

  13. Characterization of secondary solid waste anticipated from the treatment of trench water from Waste Area Grouping 6 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, T.E.; Taylor, P.A.

    1992-09-01

    This project was undertaken to demonstrate that new liquid waste streams, generated as a consequence of closure activities at Waste Area Grouping (WAG) 6, can be treated adequately by existing wastewater treatment facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) without producing hazardous secondary solid wastes. Previous bench-scale treatable studies indicated that ORNL treatment operations will adequately remove the contaminants although additional study was required in order to characterize the secondary waste materials produced as a result of the treatment A 0.5-L/min pilot plant was designed and constructed to accurately simulate the treatment capabilities of ORNL fill-scale (490 L/min) treatment facilities-the Process Waste Treatment Plant (PWTP) and Nonradiological Wastewater Treatment Plant (NRWTP). This new test system was able to produce secondary wastes in the quantities necessary for US Environmental Protection Agency toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) testing. The test system was operated for a 45-d test period with a minimum of problems and downtime. The pilot plant operating data verified that the WAG 6 trench waters can be treated at the PWTP and NRWTP to meet the discharge limits. The results of TCLP testing indicate that none of the secondary solid wastes will be considered hazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act

  14. Physical separations soil washing system cold test results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, J.P.

    1993-07-28

    This test summary describes the objectives, methodology, and results of a physical separations soil-washing system setup and shakedown test using uncontaminated soil. The test is being conducted in preparation for a treatability test to be conducted in the North Pond of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. It will be used to assess the feasibility of using a physical separations process to reduce the volume of contaminated soils in the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The test is described in DOE-RL (1993). The setup test was conducted at an uncontrolled area located approximately 3.2 km northwest of the 300-FF-1 Operable Unit. The material processed was free of contamination. The physical separation equipment to be used in the test was transferred to the US Department of Energy (DOE) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Risk Reduction Engineering Laboratory. On May 13, 1993, soil-washing equipment was moved to the cold test location. Design assistance and recommendation for operation was provided by the EPA.

  15. Synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami, Davood

    kept constant. The extent to which the nanosized zeolite Y was formed depended on the types and amount of the organic templates as well as the ageing duration. The activity testing of four FCC catalysts prepared by using CREY (Calcined Rare Earth ion-exchanged) zeolites with different particle sizes was carried out in a fluidized bench-scale batch riser simulator reactor. The starting zeolites NaY of different particle sizes were subjected to two cycles of ion exchange treatment. The particle size of the supported zeolites was varied between 150 and 1800 nm. The preparation of FCC catalysts was conducted by mixing the CREY zeolite with silica-alumina matrix and silica sol binder. Each catalyst contained 25% zeolite. The results of catalytic cracking demonstrated the significant effect of size reduction of the starting zeolite Y on catalytic performance of FCC catalyst. Keywords. Zeolite NaY, Faujasite, Nanosized particles, Nanozeolite, Nanotechnology, Synthesis, Crystallization, Seeding, Ageing, Precipitated silica, Sylopol silica, Fumed silica, Silica sol, Soluble silicates, Alumina, SAR or SiO2/Al2O3 Ratios, Sodium hydroxide, Sodium aluminate, Organic templates, TMAOH, Surfactant (CTAB), Ammonium Sulfate, BET surface area, BJH Pore Size Distribution, Zetasizer Particle Size Distribution, Powder XRD, 27Al Solid-State NMR, Catalytic Impregnation, CREY Zeolite, Silica-Alumina Matrix, Ion Exchange, FCC Catalyst, Catalytic cracking, Riser SimulatorRTM, Steaming, Zeolite HY, Utrastable Zeolite Y (USY)

  16. Demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. Progress report SF2-3-MW-35, October--December 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.; Shell, T.; Farmer, J.C.; Adamson, M.

    1996-01-27

    Direct Chemical Oxidation is an emerging ``omnivorous`` waste destruction technique which uses one of the strongest known oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate) to convert organic solids or liquids to carbon dioxide and their mineral constituents. The process operates at ambient pressure and at moderate temperatures (80--100 C) where organic destruction is rapid without catalysts. The byproduct (ammonium sulfate) is benign and may be recycled using commercial electrolysis equipment. The authors have constructed and initially tested a bench-scale facility (batch prereactor and plug-flow reactor) which allows treatability tests on any solid or liquid organic waste surrogate, with off-gas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Shake-down tests of the plug flow reactor on model chemical ethylene glycol confirmed earlier predictive models. Pre-reactor tests on water-immiscible substances confirmed destruction of cotton rags (cellulose), kerosene, tributyl phosphate and triethylamine. The process is intended to provide an all-aqueous, ambient pressure destruction technique for difficult materials not suitable or fully accepted for conventional incineration. Such wastes include solid and liquid mixed wastes containing incinerator chars, halogenated and nitrogenated wastes, oils and greases, and chemical or biological warfare agents.

  17. Demonstration of omnivorous non-thermal mixed waste treatment: Direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. Progress report SF2-3-MW-35, October--December 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, J.F.; Wang, F.; Krueger, R.; King, K.; Shell, T.; Farmer, J.C.; Adamson, M.

    1996-01-01

    Direct Chemical Oxidation is an emerging ''omnivorous'' waste destruction technique which uses one of the strongest known oxidants (ammonium peroxydisulfate) to convert organic solids or liquids to carbon dioxide and their mineral constituents. The process operates at ambient pressure and at moderate temperatures (80--100 C) where organic destruction is rapid without catalysts. The byproduct (ammonium sulfate) is benign and may be recycled using commercial electrolysis equipment. The authors have constructed and initially tested a bench-scale facility (batch prereactor and plug-flow reactor) which allows treatability tests on any solid or liquid organic waste surrogate, with off-gas analysis by mass spectroscopy. Shake-down tests of the plug flow reactor on model chemical ethylene glycol confirmed earlier predictive models. Pre-reactor tests on water-immiscible substances confirmed destruction of cotton rags (cellulose), kerosene, tributyl phosphate and triethylamine. The process is intended to provide an all-aqueous, ambient pressure destruction technique for difficult materials not suitable or fully accepted for conventional incineration. Such wastes include solid and liquid mixed wastes containing incinerator chars, halogenated and nitrogenated wastes, oils and greases, and chemical or biological warfare agents

  18. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-02-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in June and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in- place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information on the field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste

  19. In situ vitrification application to buried waste: Interim report of intermediate field tests at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callow, R.A.; Weidner, J.R.; Thompson, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the two in situ vitrification field tests conducted in July and July 1990 at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In situ vitrification, an emerging technology for in-place conversion of contaminated soils into a durable glass and crystalline waste form, is being investigated as a potential remediation technology for buried waste. The overall objective of the two tests was to assess the general suitability of the process to remediate waste structures representative of buried waste found at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. In particular, these tests, as part of a treatability study, were designed to provide essential information field performance of the process under conditions of significant combustible and metal wastes and to test a newly developed electrode feed technology. The tests were successfully completed, and the electrode feed technology successfully processed the high metal content waste, indicating the process is a feasible technology for application to buried waste. 8 refs., 91 figs., 13 tabs

  20. Microscopic colitis : an unfamiliar but treatable disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wouden, E. J.; Karrenbeld, A.; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Dijkstra, G.

    Chronic diarrhoea is a frequent complaint in clinical practice. Microscopic colitis is the cause of this symptom in 10% of these cases and the prevalence is rising. To exclude microscopic colitis a colonoscopy with multiple biopsies of different regions of the colon is mandatory. A sigmoidoscopy

  1. Annual report of tank waste treatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, A.G. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (United States); Kirkbride, R.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-09-01

    This report has been prepared as part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order* (Tri-Party Agreement) and constitutes completion of Tri-Party Agreement milestone M-04-00D for fiscal year 1993. This report provides a summary of treatment activities for newly generated waste, existing double-shell tank waste, and existing single-shell tank waste, as well as a summary of grout disposal feasibility, glass disposal feasibility, alternate methods for disposal, and safety issues which may impact the treatment and disposal of existing defense nuclear wastes. This report is an update of the 1992 report and is intended to provide traceability for the documentation by statusing the studies, activities, and issues which occurred in these areas listed above over the period of March 1, 1992, through February 28, 1993. Therefore, ongoing studies, activities, and issues which were documented in the previous (1992) report are addressed in this (1993) report.

  2. Non-Heat Treatable Alloy Sheet Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayden, H.W.; Barthold, G.W.; Das, S.K.

    1999-08-01

    ALCAR is an innovative approach for conducting multi-company, pre-competitive research and development programs. ALCAR has been formed to crate a partnership of aluminum producers, the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Center for Research and Technology Development (ASME/CRTD), the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), three USDOE National Laboratories, and a Technical Advisory Committee for conducting cooperative, pre-competitive research on the development of flower-cost, non-heat treated (NHT) aluminum alloys for automotive sheet applications with strength, formability and surface appearance similar to current heat treated (HT) aluminum alloys under consideration. The effort has been supported by the USDOE, Office of Transportation Technology (OTT) through a three-year program with 50/50 cost share at a total program cost of $3 million. The program has led to the development of new and modified 5000 series aluminum ally compositions. Pilot production-size ingots have bee n melted, cast, hot rolled and cold rolled. Stamping trials on samples of rolled product for demonstrating production of typical automotive components have been successful.

  3. A Treatable Refractory Epilepsy: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Akhondian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Biotinidase deficiency is a life threatening inborn error of metabolism specially when delayed in diagnosis. We report a 2-month-old male infant that presented with refractory infantile spasm, alopecia and seborrheic dermatitis. With a high suspicion of the biotinidase deficiency we started biotin 10 mg daily orally before definite diagnosis was made. Rapid treatment was life-saving and all complications disappeared rapidly. With this report we tried to explain the clinical manifestations of biotinidase deficiency and show the importance of early diagnosis and treatment in resolving the complications.  

  4. Biodegradability and treatability of caprolactam waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, M.D.; Patel, D.R.

    1977-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the biodegradability and treatment of wastewaters from a plant manufacturing caprolactam. Two-stage biological treatment, with preliminary aeration followed by an oxidation channel, gave an effluent of the desired quality.

  5. Annual report of tank waste treatability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, K.A.

    1991-09-01

    This report has been prepared as part of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement) and constitutes completion of Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-04-00 for fiscal year 1991. This report provides a summary of treatment activities for newly generated waste, existing double-shell tank waste, and existing single-shell tank waste, as well as a summary of grout disposal feasibility, glass disposal feasibility, alternate methods of disposal, and safety issues which may impact the treatment and disposal of existing defense nuclear wastes. This report is an update of the 1990 report and is intended to provide traceability for the documentation of the areas listed above by statusing the studies, activities, and issues which occurred in these areas over the period of March 1, 1990, through February 28, 1991. Therefore, ongoing studies, activities, and issues which were documented in the previous (1990) report are addressed in this subsequent (1991) report. 40 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Zimpro's biophysical treatment and wet-air-regeneration-system engineering study for H-COAL wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Churton, B.M.

    1982-12-01

    As part of an overall environmental evaluation of the H-COAL liquefaction process, sour water treatability studies have been performed. These studies consisted of the following major components: H-COAL sour and stripped water characterization study; Zimpro's biophysical treatability and characterization study on H-COAL Wastwater; Zimpro's biophysical treatment system stress testing; Zimpro's biophysical treatment and wet air regeneration system engineering study; engineering analysis of reuse concepts for treated H-COAL wastewater; and evaluation of reverse osmosis treatment of treated H-COAL wastewater. These studies indicate that H-COAL Sour Water can be successfully treated for reuse or for discharge to public waters. Zimpro performed the first three studies on the biophysical treatment utilizing Powdered Activated Carbon Treatment (PACT). The PACT studies achieved the following results: Five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD/sub 5/) removal was > 98.8%; chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was 85 to 87%; esentailly complete nitrification was achieved; phenolics removal was > 99%; priority pollutants were removed to levels below Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined detection limits; PACT operated well using wet air regenerated carbon; and carbon recovery was approx. 90% in the wet air regeneration step. The third step in the Zimpro studies was a larger scale pilot investigation to: Confirm information developed in bench-scale experiments on a larger scale; provide performance data necessary to evaluate the PACTs Wet Air Regeneration System; optimize PACT operating conditions; produce treatment wastewater for additional testing; and perform a stress test at elevated concentrations of cyanide and thiocyanate. The results of the third Zimpro study are presented here.

  7. Fast Pyrolysis Conversion Tests of Forest Concepts' Crumbles™. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santosa, Daniel M.; Zacher, Alan H.; Eakin, David E.

    2012-04-02

    The report describes the work done by PNNL on assessing Forest Concept's engineered feedstock using the bench-scale continuous fast pyrolysis system to produce liquid bio-oil, char and gas. Specifically, bio-oil from the following process were evaluated for its yield and quality to determine impact of varying feed size parameters. Furthermore, the report also describes the handling process of the biomass and the challenges of operating the system with above average particle size.

  8. Acid Pit Stabilization Project (Volume 1 - Cold Testing) and (Volume 2 - Hot Testing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. G. Loomis (INEEL); A. P. Zdinak (MSE); M. A. Ewanic (MSE); J. J. Jessmore (INEEL)

    1998-01-01

    During the summer and fall of Fiscal Year 1997, a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Treatability Study was performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The study involved subsurface stabilization of a mixed waste contaminated soil site called the Acid Pit. This study represents the culmination of a successful technology development effort that spanned Fiscal Years 1994-1996. Research and development of the in situ grout stabilization technique was conducted. Hardware and implementation techniques are currently documented in a patent pending with the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The stabilization technique involved using jet grouting of an innovative grouting material to form a monolith out of the contamination zone. The monolith simultaneously provides a barrier to further contaminant migration and closes voids in the soil structure against further subsidence. This is accomplished by chemical incorporation of contaminants into less soluble species and achieving a general reduction in hydraulic conductivity within the monolith. The grout used for this study was TECT-HG, a relatively dense iron oxide-based cementitious grout. The treatability study involved cold testing followed by in situ stabilization of the Acid Pit. Volume 1 of this report discusses cold testing, performed as part of a ''Management Readiness Assessment'' in preparation for going hot. Volume 2 discusses the results of the hot Acid Pit Stabilization phase of this project. Drilling equipment was specifically rigged to reduce the spread of contamination, and all grouting was performed under a concrete block containing void space to absorb any grout returns. Data evaluation included examination of implementability of the grouting process and an evaluation of the contaminant spread during grouting. Following curing of the stabilized pit, cores were obtained and evaluated for toxicity

  9. In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidner, J.R.; Stoots, P.R.

    1990-06-01

    In 1987, the Buried Waste Program (BWP) was established within EG ampersand G Idaho, Inc., the prime contractor at INEL. Following the Environmental Restoration guidelines of the Buried Waste Program, the In Situ Vitrification Program is participating in a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for permanent disposal of INEL waste, in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). This study was requested and is being funded by the Office of Technology Development of the Idaho Operations Office of DOE (DOE-ID). As part of the RI/FS, an in situ vitrification (ISV) scoping study on the treatability of mixed low-level and mixed transuranic-contaminated waste is being performed to determine the applicability of ISV to remediation of waste at SDA. In examination of the ISV process for applicability to SDA waste, this In Situ Vitrification Engineering-Scale Test ES-INEL-4 Product Characterization Test Plan identifies the following: sampling and analysis strategy; sampling procedures; methods to conduct analyses; equipment; and procedures to ensure data quality. 8 refs., 2 tabs

  10. Prenatal genetic carrier testing using triple disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eng, C M; Schechter, C; Robinowitz, J; Fulop, G; Burgert, T; Levy, B; Zinberg, R; Desnick, R J

    1997-10-15

    severity and treatability. These findings emphasize the importance of genetic counseling for prenatal carrier testing and may improve understanding, acceptance, and informed decision making for prenatal carrier screening for multiple genetic diseases.

  11. Treatment tests for ex situ removal of chromate, nitrate, and uranium (VI) from Hanford (100-HR-3) groundwater. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beck, M.A.; Duncan, J.B.

    1993-11-15

    This report describes batch and anion exchange column laboratory-scale studies investigating ex situ methods to remove chromate (chromium [VI]), nitrate (NO{sub 3}), and uranium (present as uranyl (uranium [VI]) carbonato anionic species) from contaminated Hanford Site groundwaters. The technologies investigated include chemical precipitation or coprecipitation to remove chromate and uranium, and anion exchange to remove chromate, uranium, and nitrate. The technologies investigated were specified in the 100-HR-3 Groundwater Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1993). The goal of these tests was to determine the best method to remove selected contaminants to below the concentration of the project performance goals. The raw data and observations made during these tests can be found in the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) laboratory notebooks (Beck 1992, Herting 1993). The method recommended for future study is anion exchange with Dowex 21K resin.

  12. Upfront Delisting of F006 Mixed Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poulos, D.G.; Pickett, J.B.; Jantzen, C.M.

    1995-01-01

    The US DOE at the Savannah River Site will petition the US EPA to upfront delist treatment residues generated from the vitrification of approximately 650,000 gallons of a regulated mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. The upfront petition, based on bench-scale treatability studies and pilot-scale system data, will exclude the vitrified wasteform from hazardous waste management regulations. The EPA encourages the use of the upfront delisting method as it allows applicants prior knowledge of waste specific treatment standards, which when met will render the waste non-hazardous, before generating the final wasteform. To meet the EPA performance based treatment standards, the waste must be stabilized to control the leaching of hazardous and radioactive constituents from the final wasteform. SRS has contracted a vendor to stabilize the mixed waste in a temporary Vitrification Treatment Facility (VTF). The EPA has declared vitrification as the Best Demonstrated Available Technology for high level radioactive wastes and the DOE Office of Technology Development has taken the position that mixed waste needs to be stabilized to the highest degree possible to ensure that the resulting wasteform meets both current and future regulatory specifications. Treatability studies conducted on a VTF pilot-scale system unit indicates that the mixed waste can be converted into a highly durable glass form, which exceeds the projected EPA performance based criteria. Upfront petitions can be processed by the EPA concurrently during facility construction or permitting activities; therefore, the SRS VTF will be capable of producing wastes which are considered non-hazardous sooner than otherwise expected. At the same time, EPA imposed conditional testing requirements to verify that the delisting levels are achieved by the fully operational VTF, ensures that only non-hazardous wastes are removed from hazardous waste management regulations. Vitrification of the (Abstract Truncated)

  13. Biokinetic study for SRC-I wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Biooxidation is an important part of the overall wastewater treatment system for the proposed SRC-I Demonstration Plant in Newman, Kentucky. After the completion of a Baseline Design for the plant in April 1982, various refinements were evaluated. One of these was the inclusion of a process for phenol recovery from four sour-water streams. As part of this evaluation, an extensive laboratory treatability study was conducted on wastewaters both with and without this phenol recovery step. The purpose of the study was to compare the results of different treatment schemes on different wastewaters and did not include the development of the kinetic coefficients that govern the biooxidation process. Additional treatability testing documented herein, has been performed to establish the kinetic coefficients for biooxidation of the SRC-I wastewaters. This will provide a rational basis for any subsequent changes in design. The wastewater feed used in this study was process recycle water from the Fort Lewis, Washington, pilot plant. Prior to biooxidation, it was pretreated by solvent extraction for removal of phenolics and by steam stripping for removal of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide. Two, 2-stage bench scale bioreactors were operated for approximately eight months, during which time they were stabilized at various steady-state conditions. Kinetic coefficients were evaluated according to the Lawrence and McCarty model, based on BOD, COD, and TOC. Nitrification, oxygen utilization, and solids settling velocities were also studied. The results showed that BOD is a poor basis for the model mainly because almost all BOD/sub 5/ was removed at all steady-state conditions. Also, the model was more accurate for steady-state conditions of lower solids retention times. The bulk of both organic and ammonia reductions occurred in the first stage reactors.

  14. Field Testing of Bimetallic Nanoscale Particle Technology for In-Situ Groundwater Treatment of a Fractured Rock DNAPL Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Walata, L.; Nash, R.; Gheorghiu, F.; Glazier, R.; Venkatakrishnan, R.

    2003-04-01

    of aerobic bacteria and likely stimulation of anaerobic bacteria known to degrade chlorinated solvents. Redox-induced mobilization of naturally occurring inorganics from the aquifer solids was not detected. Treatment efficiencies closely correlate with predictions from bench scale tests, suggesting that very little reagent interacted with non target constituents within the aquifer matrix. BNP in-situ treatment technology has the potential to reduce significantly the remedial costs in comparison to the conventional treatment systems.

  15. Test plan :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.

    2013-05-01

    This test plan is a document that provides a systematic approach to the planned testing of rooftop structures to determine their actual load carrying capacity. This document identifies typical tests to be performed, the responsible parties for testing, the general feature of the tests, the testing approach, test deliverables, testing schedule, monitoring requirements, and environmental and safety compliance.

  16. Predictive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Predictive testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... you make the decision. What Is Predictive Genetic Testing Predictive genetic testing searches for genetic changes, or ...

  17. Pharmacogenomic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Pharmacogenomic testing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing for ... to fit your genetic makeup What Is Pharmacogenomic Testing? Pharmacogenomic testing is done before your healthcare provider ...

  18. Trichomonas Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... C Cystic Fibrosis (CF) Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma- ... Index of Screening Recommendations Not Listed? Not Listed? Newborn Screening Screening Tests for Infants Screening Tests for ...

  19. A pilot study for the extraction and treatment of groundwater from a manufactured gas plant site. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-12-01

    This report describes a pilot study involving treatment of contaminated groundwater at a former manufactured gas plant site on the eastern seaboard of the US. The work was performed in order to provide the design basis for a full-scale groundwater extraction and treatment system at the site, as well as to develop a generic approach to selection of groundwater treatment sequences at other MGP sites. It included three main components: hydrogeologic investigations, bench-scale treatability studies, and pilot-scale treatability studies. Technologies evaluated in bench-scale work included gravity settling, filtration, and dissolved air flotation (DAF) for primary treatment of nonaqueous phase materials; biological degradation, air stripping, and carbon adsorption for secondary treatment of dissolved organics; and carbon adsorption as tertiary treatment of remaining dissolved contaminants. Pilot-scale studies focused on collecting system performance data fore three distinct levels of contamination. Two treatment trains were evaluated. One consisted of DAF, fluidized-bed biotreatment, and filtration plus carbon adsorption; the other used the same steps except to substitute air stripping for fluidized bed treatment. The final effluents produced by both treatment sequences were similar and demonstrated complete treatment of the groundwater. Besides detailing system design and performance for the treatability studies, the report includes an analysis of groundwater treatment applications to MGP sites in general, including a discussion of capital and operating costs

  20. Strategies for Treating and Dewatering Contaminated Soils and Sediments Simultaneously - 13389

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, Jody; Foote, Martin [MSE Technology Applications, Inc., 200 Technology Way, Butte, MT 59701 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    MSE Technology Applications, Inc. (MSE) was asked to perform a series of treatability studies by Global Technologies, Inc. (Global) and M{sup 2} Polymer Technologies, Inc. (M{sup 2} Polymer) using Global's metal treatment agent, Molecular Bonding System (MBS) and M{sup 2} Polymer's super-absorbent polymer, Waste Lock 770 (WL-770). The primary objective of the study was to determine if the two products could be used as a one-step treatment process to reduce the leachability of metals and de-water soils and/or sediments simultaneously. Three phases of work were performed during the treatability study. The first phase consisted of generating four bench-scale samples: two treated using only MBS and two treated using only WL- 770, each at variable concentrations. The second phase consisted of generating nine bench-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 in combination with three different addition techniques. The third phase consisted of generating four intermediate-scale samples that were treated using MBS and WL-770 simultaneously. The soils used in the treatability study were collected at the Mike Mansfield Advanced Technology Center in Butte, Montana. The collected soils were screened at 4 mesh (4.75 millimeters (mm)) to remove the coarse fraction of the soil and spiked with metallic contaminants of lead, cadmium, nickel, mercury, uranium, chromium, and zinc. (authors)

  1. Testing 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, William J.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Presents articles on test anxiety, personality tests, history of tests and benefits to be derived from their use, tests as tools in career decision-making, temperament needs for certain jobs (as determined by personality tests), interest inventories, testing exceptional students, and testing to evaluate vocational needs of special needs groups.…

  2. Human Papillomavirus Testing in the Prevention of Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentzensen, Nicolas; Wacholder, Sholom; Kinney, Walter; Gage, Julia C.; Castle, Philip E.

    2011-01-01

    Strong evidence now supports the adoption of cervical cancer prevention strategies that explicitly focus on persistent infection with the causal agent, human papillomavirus (HPV). To inform an evidence-based transition to a new public health approach for cervical cancer screening, we summarize the natural history and cervical carcinogenicity of HPV and discuss the promise and uncertainties of currently available screening methods. New HPV infections acquired at any age are virtually always benign, but persistent infections with one of approximately 12 carcinogenic HPV types explain virtually all cases of cervical cancer. In the absence of an overtly persistent HPV infection, the risk of cervical cancer is extremely low. Thus, HPV test results predict the risk of cervical cancer and its precursors (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 3) better and longer than cytological or colposcopic abnormalities, which are signs of HPV infection. The logical and inevitable move to HPV-based cervical cancer prevention strategies will require longer screening intervals that will disrupt current gynecologic and cytology laboratory practices built on frequent screening. A major challenge will be implementing programs that do not overtreat HPV-positive women who do not have obvious long-term persistence of HPV or treatable lesions at the time of initial evaluation. The greatest potential for reduction in cervical cancer rates from HPV screening is in low-resource regions that can implement infrequent rounds of low-cost HPV testing and treatment. PMID:21282563

  3. Coombs test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Direct antiglobulin test; Indirect antiglobulin test; Anemia - hemolytic ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. ... There are 2 types of the Coombs test: Direct Indirect The direct ... that are stuck to the surface of red blood cells. Many diseases ...

  4. Ham test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  5. Test Anxiety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Test Anxiety KidsHealth / For Teens / Test Anxiety What's in this ... with their concentration or performance. What Is Test Anxiety? Test anxiety is actually a type of performance ...

  6. Urodynamic Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Urodynamic Testing What is the urinary tract? The urinary tract ... view of the urinary tract What is urodynamic testing? Urodynamic testing is any procedure that looks at ...

  7. Susceptibility Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gene Mutations Testing Cytomegalovirus (CMV) Tests D-dimer Dengue Fever Testing Des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP) DHEAS ... can develop resistance to the drugs used to treat them, but that type of testing is performed ...

  8. Identification of small-scale low and high permeability layers using single well forced-gradient tracer tests: fluorescent dye imaging and modelling at the laboratory-scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barns, Gareth L; Thornton, Steven F; Wilson, Ryan D

    2015-01-01

    Heterogeneity in aquifer permeability, which creates paths of varying mass flux and spatially complex contaminant plumes, can complicate the interpretation of contaminant fate and transport in groundwater. Identifying the location of high mass flux paths is critical for the reliable estimation of solute transport parameters and design of groundwater remediation schemes. Dipole flow tracer tests (DFTTs) and push-pull tests (PPTs) are single well forced-gradient tests which have been used at field-scale to estimate aquifer hydraulic and transport properties. In this study, the potential for PPTs and DFTTs to resolve the location of layered high- and low-permeability layers in granular porous media was investigated with a pseudo 2-D bench-scale aquifer model. Finite element fate and transport modelling was also undertaken to identify appropriate set-ups for in situ tests to determine the type, magnitude, location and extent of such layered permeability contrasts at the field-scale. The characteristics of flow patterns created during experiments were evaluated using fluorescent dye imaging and compared with the breakthrough behaviour of an inorganic conservative tracer. The experimental results show that tracer breakthrough during PPTs is not sensitive to minor