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Sample records for bench scale reactor

  1. Thymol Hydrogenation in Bench Scale Trickle Bed Reactor

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dudas, J.; Hanika, Jiří; Lepuru, J.; Barkhuysen, M.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 19, č. 3 (2005), s. 255-262 ISSN 0352-9568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : thymol hydrogenation * trickle bed reactor * gas-liquid-solid reaction Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 0.632, year: 2005

  2. Treatment of Synthetic Wastewater Containing AB14 Pigment by Electrooxidation in both Pilot and Bench Scale Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalal Basiri parsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation process was used for the degradation of Acid Brown 14 in both bench and pilot scale reactors. The bench scale one with a working volume of 0.5 L was equipped with platinum plate used as the anode and stainless steel (SS-304 plates as the cathode. The pilot scale reactor had a volume of 9 L and was equipped with SS-304 plates used as both the anode and the cathode. Experiments were run using these reactors to investigate the two parameters of energy consumption and anode efficiency. The bench scale reactor was capable of removing 92% and 36% of the dye and COD, respectively, after 18 min of operation. The pilot scale reactor, however, was capable of removing 87% and 59% of the dye and the COD content, respectively, after 60 min of operation. The kinetic study of both the bench and pilot reactors for dye and COD removals showed that both processes followed a zero order kinetic.

  3. Destruction of chemical agent simulants in a supercritical water oxidation bench-scale reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veriansyah, Bambang [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: vaveri@kist.re.kr; Kim, Jae-Duck [Supercritical Fluid Research Laboratory, Clean Technology Research Center, Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST), 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of) and Department of Green Process and System Engineering, University of Science and Technology, 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jdkim@kist.re.kr; Lee, Jong-Chol [Agency for Defense Development (ADD), P.O. Box 35-1, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: jcleeadd@hanafos.com

    2007-08-17

    A new design of supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) bench-scale reactor has been developed to handle high-risk wastes resulting from munitions demilitarization. The reactor consists of a concentric vertical double wall in which SCWO reaction takes place inside an inner tube (titanium grade 2, non-porous) whereas pressure resistance is ensured by a Hastelloy C-276 external vessel. The performances of this reactor were investigated with two different kinds of chemical warfare agent simulants: OPA (a mixture of isopropyl amine and isopropyl alcohol) as the binary precursor for nerve agent of sarin and thiodiglycol [TDG (HOC{sub 2}H{sub 4}){sub 2}S] as the model organic sulfur heteroatom. High destruction rates based on total organic carbon (TOC) were achieved (>99.99%) without production of chars or undesired gases such as carbon monoxide and methane. The carbon-containing product was carbon dioxide whereas the nitrogen-containing products were nitrogen and nitrous oxide. Sulfur was totally recovered in the aqueous effluent as sulfuric acid. No corrosion was noticed in the reactor after a cumulative operation time of more than 250 h. The titanium tube shielded successfully the pressure vessel from corrosion.

  4. Rapid pyrolysis of wheat straw in a Bench-Scale circulating Fluidized-Bed downer reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, T. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China); Li, S.; Xie, J.; Song, W.; Yao, J.; Lin, W. [State Key Laboratory of Multiphase Complex Systems, Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China)

    2012-12-15

    The effects of acid washing treatment on the pyrolysis product distribution and product properties were investigated in a bench-scale circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) downer reactor with wheat straw as feedstock. The acid treatment not only removes most of the inorganic species present in the biomass but also alters the distribution of the remaining organic constituents. It was found that the removal of the inorganic species increases the yield of liquid product and reduces char formation and gas yield. CO and CO{sub 2} are the dominant components in the gaseous product, accounting for over 90 %. The concentration of CO in the gaseous product increases after acid treatment, while the CO{sub 2} concentration decreases. The oxygen and water contents in the liquid product are decreased on acid treatment, leading to a relatively high heating value and viscosity. More volatiles can be found in the char derived from the acid-treated wheat straw than from the raw wheat straw. This may suggest that a longer residence time is needed for pyrolysis of the acid-treated wheat straw in order to obtain the maximal yield of volatile matter. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Bench-scale studies of reactor-based treatment of fuel-contaminated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truax, D.D.; Britto, R.; Sherrard, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Biological treatment of hazardous wastes from accidental spills or underground storage tank leaks has generated interest in bioremediation as a natural, economical mechanism for site decontamination. Because of drawbacks of batch systems, and the successful use of continuous flow treatment of wastewater for several decades, it was felt that continuous treatment of such soils would be a feasible alternative treatment technique. Therefore, bench-scale bioreactor treatability studies were conducted and used contaminated soil made in the laboratory using No. 2 diesel fuel and sand. Contamination levels studied were from 1,335--6,675 mg (TPH) as derived from No. 2 fuel oil per kg sand. Variation in mean cell age was obtained between reactors, with sufficient nutrients and oxygen made available to ensure the fuel oil organics were the only limit to microbial growth. A theoretical biokinetic model was formulated based on Monod's theory of limiting substrate and continuous cultures. Biokinetic constants and removal efficiencies were evaluated. The off-gases, CO 2 , and volatile hydrocarbons were monitored for mass balance analysis of the process. The solids retention times for evaluating final TPH concentration of 100 mg/kg were also calculated. Removal efficiencies of up to 91% were attained at a loading of 1,335 mg TPH/kg wet sand, operated at a biological solid retention time (BSRT) of 60 days. Experiments also showed that TPH desorption and volatilization were not rate-limiting in the overall removal process. Sand-to-moisture ratios in excess of 3:1 were also shown to retard TPH removal rates very little. However, biokinetic constants were found to vary over a range of values. This was particularly true at varying diesel loading levels. Nevertheless, significant removal efficiency (up to 86%) was noted at the highest loading level tested, 6,675 mg TPH/kg wet sand

  6. Application of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine the influence of fluid dynamics on desulfurization in Bench scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, N.L.; Reimert, R. [Engler-Bunte-Institut, Bereich Gas, Erdoel und Kohle, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany); Hardy, E.H. [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.) (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    The influence of fluid dynamics on the hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions of a diesel oil in bench-scale reactors was evaluated. The porosities and liquid saturations of catalyst beds were quantified by using the MRI technique. The gas-liquid systems used in the experiments were nitrogen diesel and hydrogen diesel. An apparatus was especially constructed, allowing in situ measurements of gas and liquid distributions in packed beds at elevated pressure and temperature up to 20 bar and 200 C, respectively. The reactor itself had a length of 500 mm and an internal diameter of 19 mm. The packed beds used in this MRI study consisted of: (1) 2 mm diameter nonporous spherical glass beads and (2) 1.3 mm diameter porous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} trilobes having the same size as the original trilobe catalyst used in HDS bench-scale experiments. The superficial gas and liquid velocities were set within the range of trickle flow, e.g., u{sub 0G} = 20-500 mm/s and u{sub 0L} = 0.1-6 mm/s. In parallel with the MRI experiments, the hydrodesulfurization of a gas oil was investigated in a bench-scale plant. Its reactor had the same dimensions of the trickle-bed column used in the MRI experiments and was filled with original trilobe catalyst. These catalytic experiments were carried out at a wide range of operating conditions (p = 30-80 bar, T = 300-380 C, LHSV = 1-4 h{sup -1}). The results of both fluid dynamic and catalytic reaction experiments were then combined for developing a simulation model to predict the HDS performance by accounting for fluid dynamic nonidealities. (Abstract Copyright [2006], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  7. Experimental investigation of pyrolysis of rice straw using bench-scale auger, batch and fluidized bed reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.; Ashwath, Nanjappa; Kongkasawan, Jinjuta

    2015-01-01

    Energy conversion efficiencies of three pyrolysis reactors (bench-scale auger, batch, and fluidized bed) were investigated using rice straw as the feedstock at a temperature of 500 °C. The highest bio-oil yield of 43% was obtained from the fluidized bed reactor, while the maximum bio-char yield of 48% was obtained from the batch reactor. Similar bio-oil yields were obtained from the auger and batch type reactors. The GCMS and FTIR were used to evaluate the liquid products from all reactors. The best quality bio-oil and bio-char from the batch reactor was determined to have a heating value of 31 MJ/kg and 19 MJ/kg, respectively. The highest alkali mineral was found in the bio-char produced from the auger reactor. The energy conversion efficiencies of the three reactors indicated that the majority of the energy (50–64%) was in the bio-char products from the auger and batch reactors, while the bio-oil from the fluidized bed reactor contained the highest energy (47%). A Sankey diagram has been produced to show the flows of product energy from each pyrolysis process. The result will help determine which conversion process would be optimal for producing specific products of bio-char, bio-oil, and gas depending on the needs. - Highlights: • Pyrolysis products from auger, batch, and fluidized bed reactor were examined. • O/C ratios of bio-oils stayed in specific ranges depending on the process reactors. • The largest quantity of bio-oil from fluidized, while the best quality from batch. • The highest alkali concentration of 37 g/kg included in the auger based bio-char. • Sankey diagram was used to understand the energy distribution from reactors.

  8. Biofilm Community Dynamics in Bench-Scale Annular Reactors Simulating Arrestment of Chloraminated Drinking Water Nitrification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annular reactors (ARs) were used to study biofilm community succession and provide an ecological insight during nitrification arrestment through simultaneously increasing monochloramine (NH2Cl) and chlorine to nitrogen mass ratios, resulting in four operational periods (I to IV)....

  9. Appling hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process in the treatment of petrochemical wastewater: From bench scale reactor to full scale wastewater treatment plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Changyong; Zhou, Yuexi; Sun, Qingliang; Fu, Liya; Xi, Hongbo; Yu, Yin; Yu, Ruozhen

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrolysis acidification-anoxic–oxic process can be used to treat petrochemical wastewater. • The toxicity and treatability changed significantly after hydrolysis acidification. • The type and concentration of organics reduced greatly after treatment. • The effluent shows low acute toxicity by luminescent bacteria assay. • Advanced treatment is recommended for the effluent. - Abstract: A hydrolysis acidification (HA)-anoxic–oxic (A/O) process was adopted to treat a petrochemical wastewater. The operation optimization was carried out firstly by a bench scale experimental reactor. Then a full scale petrochemical wastewater treatment plant (PCWWTP, 6500 m 3 h −1 ) was operated with the same parameters. The results showed that the BOD 5 /COD of the wastewater increased from 0.30 to 0.43 by HA. The effluent COD was 54.4 mg L −1 for bench scale reactor and 60.9 mg L −1 for PCWWTP when the influent COD was about 480 mg L −1 on optimized conditions. The organics measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC–MS) reduced obviously and the total concentration of the 5 organics (1,3-dioxolane, 2-pentanone, ethylbenzene, 2-chloromethyl-1,3-dioxolane and indene) detected in the effluent was only 0.24 mg L −1 . There was no obvious toxicity of the effluent. However, low acute toxicity of the effluent could be detected by the luminescent bacteria assay, indicating the advanced treatment is needed. The clone library profiling analysis showed that the dominant bacteria in the system were Acidobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteriodetes. HA-A/O process is suitable for the petrochemical wastewater treatment.

  10. Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Chatzakis, I.N.; Lim, J.-Y.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1999-01-01

    A wire-mesh reactor has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed bed `hot-rod` reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be used for eventual process development. Experiments have been carried out at 600{degree}C at pressures up to 70 bar. Structural features of the bio-oils have been examined by size exclusion chromatography and FT-infrared spectroscopy. In both reactors the effect of increasing pressure was to reduce the bio-oil and total volatile yields: hydropyrolysis bio-oil yields were marginally higher than pyrolysis yields under equivalent operating conditions. The data indicate that about one-third of the original biomass may be converted to oil by direct pyrolysis. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Enriched-air fluidized bed gasification using bench and pilot scale reactors of dairy manure with sand bedding based on response surface methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Hyungseok; Maglinao, Amado L.; Capareda, Sergio C.; Rodriguez-Alejandro, David Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Enriched-air gasification was performed in fluidized bed reactors using the processed dairy manure which was mixed with sand bedding. The effects of temperature, modified equivalence ratio (ER_m), and oxygen concentration on the gas products were investigated based on the statistical models using a bench-scale reactor in order to obtain empirical correlations. Then, the empirical equations were applied to compare the produced gases from a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier. The empirical and actual H_2 and CH_4 compositions were within a 10% error, while the sum of produced CO and CO_2 gases showed similar composition within 3% error. The most influential factors for the syngas heating value were temperature followed by the oxygen concentration and ER (equivalence ratio). The composition of H_2 (2.1–11.5%) and CO (5.9–20.3%) rose with an increase in temperature and oxygen concentration. The variation of CO_2 (16.8–31.6%) was mainly affected by the degree of oxygen concentration in the gasifying agent. The ranges of the LHV (lower heating value), carbon conversion efficiency and cold gas efficiency were discussed. An economic review showed favorable indications for on-site dairy manure gasification process for electric power based on the depreciable payback period and the power production costs. - Highlights: • Sand mixed dairy manure obtained directly from a dairy farm was processed and used. • Response surface methodology was used to investigate the enriched-air gasification. • Syngas results from bench and pilot scale gasifiers were compared and reviewed. • A highest LVH of 8 MJ/Nm"3 was obtained from the enriched-air gasification. • The power production costs were determined to be $0.053/kWh

  12. CFD modeling of space-time evolution of fast pyrolysis products in a bench-scale fluidized-bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boateng, A.A.; Mtui, P.L.

    2012-01-01

    A model for the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed has been developed. In this study the unsteady constitutive transport equations for inert gas flow and decomposition kinetics were modeled using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT-12. The Eulerarian-Eulerian multiphase model system described herein is a fluidized bed of sand externally heated to a predetermined temperature prior to introduction of agricultural biomass. We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis vapors, char and non-condensable (permanent) gases and confirm the observation that the kinetics are fast and that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds, and occupying two-thirds of the spatial volume of the reactor as widely reported in the open literature. The model could be advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors and their optimization to meet economic scales required for distributed or satellite units. - Highlights: ► We model the evolution of pyrolysis products in a fluidized bed via CFD. ► We predict the spontaneous emergence of pyrolysis products. ► We confirm the experimental observation that the kinetics are fast. ► And that bio-oil vapor evolution is accomplished in a few seconds. ► The model is advantageous in the virtual design of fast pyrolysis reactors.

  13. BENCH SCALE SALTSTONE PROCESS DEVELOPMENT MIXING STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A.; Hansen, E.

    2011-08-03

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to develop a bench scale test facility, using a mixer, transfer pump, and transfer line to determine the impact of conveying the grout through the transfer lines to the vault on grout properties. Bench scale testing focused on the effect the transfer line has on the rheological property of the grout as it was processed through the transfer line. Rheological and other physical properties of grout samples were obtained prior to and after pumping through a transfer line. The Bench Scale Mixing Rig (BSMR) consisted of two mixing tanks, grout feed tank, transfer pump and transfer hose. The mixing tanks were used to batch the grout which was then transferred into the grout feed tank. The contents of the feed tank were then pumped through the transfer line (hose) using a progressive cavity pump. The grout flow rate and pump discharge pressure were monitored. Four sampling stations were located along the length of the transfer line at the 5, 105 and 205 feet past the transfer pump and at 305 feet, the discharge of the hose. Scaling between the full scale piping at Saltstone to bench scale testing at SRNL was performed by maintaining the same shear rate and total shear at the wall of the transfer line. The results of scaling down resulted in a shorter transfer line, a lower average velocity, the same transfer time and similar pressure drops. The condition of flow in the bench scale transfer line is laminar. The flow in the full scale pipe is in the transition region, but is more laminar than turbulent. The resulting plug in laminar flow in the bench scale results in a region of no-mixing. Hence mixing, or shearing, at the bench scale should be less than that observed in the full scale, where this plug is non existent due to the turbulent flow. The bench scale tests should be considered to be conservative due to the highly laminar condition of flow that exists. Two BSMR runs were performed. In both cases, wall

  14. Bench-Scale Demonstration of Hot-Gas Desulfurization Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Portzer, Jeffrey W.; Gangwal, Santosh K.

    1997-01-01

    Prior to the current project, development of the DSRP was done in a laboratory setting, using synthetic gas mixtures to simulate the regeneration off-gas and coal gas feeds. The objective of the current work is to further the development of zinc titanate fluidized-bed desulfurization (ZTFBD) and the DSRP for hot-gas cleanup by testing with actual coal gas. The objectives of this project are to: (1) Develop and test an integrated, skid-mounted, bench-scale ZTFBD/DSRP reactor system with a slipstream of actual coal gas; (2) Test the bench-scale DSRP over an extended period with a slipstream of actual coal gas to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by the trace contaminants present in coal gas (including heavy metals, chlorides, fluorides, and ammonia); (3) Expose the DSRP catalyst to actual coal gas for extended periods and then test its activity in a laboratory reactor to quantify the degradation in performance, if any, caused by static exposure to the trace contaminants in coal gas; (4) Design and fabricate a six-fold larger-scale DSRP reactor system for future slipstream testing; (5) Further develop the fluidized-bed DSRP to handle high concentrations (up to 14 percent) of SO 2 that are likely to be encountered when pure air is used for regeneration of desulfurization sorbents; and (6) Conduct extended field testing of the 6X DSRP reactor with actual coal gas and high concentrations of SO 2 . The accomplishment of the first three objectives--testing the DSRP with actual coal gas, integration with hot-gas desulfurization, and catalyst exposure testing--was described previously (Portzer and Gangwal, 1994, 1995; Portzer et al., 1996). This paper summarizes the results of previous work and describes the current activities and plans to accomplish the remaining objectives

  15. Application of bench-scale biocalorimetry to photoautotrophic cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.; Patino, R.; Stockar, von U.

    2005-01-01

    Bench-scale biocalorimetry (=1 L) allows for the determination of the metabolic heat flow during bioprocesses under complete control of all process conditions for extended periods of time. It can be combined with a number of on-line and off-line measurement techniques. This combination can

  16. Bench-scale Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary Blythe; John Currie; David DeBerry

    2008-03-31

    This document is the final report for Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42314, 'Kinetics Study of Mercury Reactions in FGD Liquors'. The project was co-funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory and EPRI. The objective of the project has been to determine the mechanisms and kinetics of the aqueous reactions of mercury absorbed by wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, and develop a kinetics model to predict mercury reactions in wet FGD systems. The model may be used to determine optimum wet FGD design and operating conditions to maximize mercury capture in wet FGD systems. Initially, a series of bench-top, liquid-phase reactor tests were conducted and mercury species concentrations were measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy to determine reactant and byproduct concentrations over time. Other measurement methods, such as atomic absorption, were used to measure concentrations of vapor-phase elemental mercury, that cannot be measured by UV/visible light spectroscopy. Next, a series of bench-scale wet FGD simulation tests were conducted. Because of the significant effects of sulfite concentration on mercury re-emission rates, new methods were developed for operating and controlling the bench-scale FGD experiments. Approximately 140 bench-scale wet FGD tests were conducted and several unusual and pertinent effects of process chemistry on mercury re-emissions were identified and characterized. These data have been used to develop an empirically adjusted, theoretically based kinetics model to predict mercury species reactions in wet FGD systems. The model has been verified in tests conducted with the bench-scale wet FGD system, where both gas-phase and liquid-phase mercury concentrations were measured to determine if the model accurately predicts the tendency for mercury re-emissions. This report presents and discusses results from the initial laboratory kinetics measurements, the bench-scale wet FGD tests, and the kinetics modeling

  17. Bench Scale Saltcake Dissolution Test Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BECHTOLD, D.B.; PACQUET, E.A.

    2000-01-01

    A potential scenario for retrieving saltcake from single shell tanks is the ''Rainbird(reg s ign) sprinkler'' method. Water is distributed evenly across the surface of the saltcake and allowed to percolate by gravity through the waste. The salt dissolves in the water, forming a saturated solution. The saturated liquid is removed by a saltwell pump situated near the bottom of the tank. By this method, there is never a large inventory of liquid in the tank that could pose a threat of leakage. There are many variables or factors that can influence the hydrodynamics of this retrieval process. They include saltcake porosity; saltwell pumping rate; salt dissolution chemistry; factors that could promote flow channeling (e.g. tank walls, dry wells, inclusions or discontinuities in the saltcake); method of water distribution; plug formation due to crystal formations or accumulation of insoluble solids. A brief literature search indicates that very little experimental data exist on these aspects of saltcake dissolution (Wiersma 1996, 1997). The tests reported here were planned (Herting, 2000) to provide preliminary data and information for planning future, scaled-up tests of the sprinkler method

  18. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Drira, Anis [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Reed, Frederick K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  19. Bench-scale magnetic separation of Department of Energy wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoegler, J.M.

    1987-07-01

    Criteria were developed for selection of candidate wastes for testing magnetic separation of uranium and/or other paramagnetic materials. A survey of Department of Energy (DOE) hazardous wastes was conducted to determine good candidates for bench-scale magnetic separation tests. Representatives of 21 DOE sites were contacted, and 11 materials were identified as potential candidates for magnetic separation. To date, seven samples have been obtained and tested for separability of uranium with a bench-scale magnetic assaying device. The samples tested have been obtained from the K-1401B and K-1401C ponds in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; from waste piles in Maywood, New Jersey; from North and South Ponds in Richland, Washington; and from magnesium fluoride drums in Fernald, Ohio. The magnetic device utilized in these tests can be used in an open-gradient mode with dry particulate or liquid-suspended materials. Uranium separation from magnesium fluoride has shown exceptionally good performance in both open- and high-gradient modes and could be an important application of the technology

  20. Simulation of large scale air detritiation operations by computer modeling and bench-scale experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clemmer, R.G.; Land, R.H.; Maroni, V.A.; Mintz, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    Although some experience has been gained in the design and construction of 0.5 to 5 m 3 /s air-detritiation systems, little information is available on the performance of these systems under realistic conditions. Recently completed studies at ANL have attempted to provide some perspective on this subject. A time-dependent computer model was developed to study the effects of various reaction and soaking mechanisms that could occur in a typically-sized fusion reactor building (approximately 10 5 m 3 ) following a range of tritium releases (2 to 200 g). In parallel with the computer study, a small (approximately 50 liter) test chamber was set up to investigate cleanup characteristics under conditions which could also be simulated with the computer code. Whereas results of computer analyses indicated that only approximately 10 -3 percent of the tritium released to an ambient enclosure should be converted to tritiated water, the bench-scale experiments gave evidence of conversions to water greater than 1%. Furthermore, although the amounts (both calculated and observed) of soaked-in tritium are usually only a very small fraction of the total tritium release, the soaked tritium is significant, in that its continuous return to the enclosure extends the cleanup time beyond the predicted value in the absence of any soaking mechanisms

  1. Bench-scale/field-scale interpretations: Session overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, A.B.; Peyton, B.M.

    1995-04-01

    In situ bioremediation involves complex interactions between biological, chemical, and physical processes and requires integration of phenomena operating at scales ranging from that of a microbial cell (10 -6 ) to that of a remediation site (10 to 1000 m). Laboratory investigations of biodegradation are usually performed at a relatively small scale, governed by convenience, cost, and expedience. However, extending the results from a laboratory-scale experimental system to the design and operation of a field-scale system introduces (1) additional mass transport mechanisms and limitations; (2) the presence of multiple phases, contants, and competing microorganisms (3) spatial geologic heterogeneities; and (4) subsurface environmental factors that may inhibit bacterial growth such as temperature, pH, nutrient, or redox conditions. Field bioremediation rates may be limited by the availability of one of the necessary constituents for biotransformation: substrate, contaminant, electron acceptor, nutrients, or microorganisms capable of degrading the target compound. The factor that limits the rate of bioremediation may not be the same in the laboratory as it is in the field, thereby leading, to development of unsuccessful remediation strategies

  2. Goethite Bench-scale and Large-scale Preparation Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josephson, Gary B.; Westsik, Joseph H.

    2011-10-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is the keystone for cleanup of high-level radioactive waste from our nation's nuclear defense program. The WTP will process high-level waste from the Hanford tanks and produce immobilized high-level waste glass for disposal at a national repository, low activity waste (LAW) glass, and liquid effluent from the vitrification off-gas scrubbers. The liquid effluent will be stabilized into a secondary waste form (e.g. grout-like material) and disposed on the Hanford site in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF) along with the low-activity waste glass. The major long-term environmental impact at Hanford results from technetium that volatilizes from the WTP melters and finally resides in the secondary waste. Laboratory studies have indicated that pertechnetate ({sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) can be reduced and captured into a solid solution of {alpha}-FeOOH, goethite (Um 2010). Goethite is a stable mineral and can significantly retard the release of technetium to the environment from the IDF. The laboratory studies were conducted using reaction times of many days, which is typical of environmental subsurface reactions that were the genesis of this new process. This study was the first step in considering adaptation of the slow laboratory steps to a larger-scale and faster process that could be conducted either within the WTP or within the effluent treatment facility (ETF). Two levels of scale-up tests were conducted (25x and 400x). The largest scale-up produced slurries of Fe-rich precipitates that contained rhenium as a nonradioactive surrogate for {sup 99}Tc. The slurries were used in melter tests at Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) to determine whether captured rhenium was less volatile in the vitrification process than rhenium in an unmodified feed. A critical step in the technetium immobilization process is to chemically reduce Tc(VII) in the pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}) to Tc(Iv)by reaction with the

  3. Oxygen-controlled Biosurfactant Production in a Bench Scale Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kronemberger, Frederico Araujo; Anna, Lidia Maria Melo Santa; Fernandes, Ana Carolina Loureiro Brito; de Menezes, Reginaldo Ramos; Borges, Cristiano Piacsek; Freire, Denise Maria Guimarães

    Rhamnolipids have been pointed out as promising biosurfactants. The most studied microorganisms for the aerobic production of these molecules are the bacteria of the genus Pseudomonas. The aim of this work was to produce a rhamnolipid-type biosurfactant in a bench-scale bioreactor by one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from oil environments. To study the microorganism growth and production dependency on oxygen, a nondispersive oxygenation device was developed, and a programmable logic controller (PLC) was used to set the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration. Using the data stored in a computer and the predetermined characteristics of the oxygenation device, it was possible to evaluate the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) and the specific OUR (SOUR) of this microorganism. These rates, obtained for some different DO concentrations, were then compared to the bacterial growth, to the carbon source consumption, and to the rhamnolipid and other virulence factors production. The SOUR presented an initial value of about 60.0 mg02/gdw h. Then, when the exponential growth phase begins, there is a rise in this rate. After that, the SOUR reduces to about 20.0 mg02/gdw h. The carbon source consumption is linear during the whole process.

  4. A bench-scale biotreatability methodology to evaluate field bioremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saberiyan, A.G.; MacPherson, J.R. Jr.; Moore, R.; Pruess, A.J.; Andrilenas, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    A bench-scale biotreatability methodology was designed to assess field bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil samples. This methodology was performed successfully on soil samples from more than 40 sites. The methodology is composed of two phases, characterization and experimentation. The first phase is physical, chemical, and biological characterization of the contaminated soil sample. This phase determines soil parameters, contaminant type, presence of indigenous contaminant-degrading bacteria, and bacterial population size. The second phase, experimentation, consists of a respirometry test to measure the growth of microbes indirectly (via generation of CO 2 ) and the consumption of their food source directly (via contaminant loss). Based on a Monod kinetic analysis, the half-life of a contaminant can be calculated. Abiotic losses are accounted for based on a control test. The contaminant molecular structure is used to generate a stoichiometric equation. The stoichiometric equation yields a theoretical ratio for mg of contaminant degraded per mg of CO 2 produced. Data collected from the respirometry test are compared to theoretical values to evaluate bioremediation feasibility

  5. Bench scale demonstration and conceptual engineering for DETOXSM catalyzed wet oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslander, J.; Bell, R.; Robertson, D.; Dhooge, P.; Goldblatt, S.

    1994-01-01

    Laboratory and bench scale studies of the DETOX SM catalyzed wet oxidation process have been performed with the object of developing the process for treatment of hazardous and mixed wastes. Reaction orders, apparent rates, and activation energies have been determined for a range of organic waste surrogates. Reaction intermediates and products have been analyzed. Metals' fates have been determined. Bench scale units have been designed, fabricated, and tested with solid and liquid organic waste surrogates. Results from the laboratory and bench scale studies have been used to develop conceptual designs for application of the process to hazardous and mixed wastes

  6. Bench scale studies: Ozonation as a potential treatment for waters contaminated with hydrocarbons or dioxins and furans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaal, W.

    1995-01-01

    The objective of the bench scale studies was to examine the destruction efficiency and efficacy of ozone on chemicals of concern (COC's) commonly found in contaminated ground water and rhenoformer wash water. The ground water used in these tests contained aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits. The rhenoformer wash water used in these tests contained a variety of dioxins (including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin) and furans. Summaries are presented of the bench scale studies by describing the COCs, methodologies, test reactors, observations, and results. The summaries also detail which applications hold promise with respect to ozonation and which ones do not. Bench test results for the experiments in which aromatic petroleum hydrocarbons, chlorinated hydrocarbons, and mineral spirits where the COCs were relatively successful. Concentrations for the COCs ranging from 300 to 3,400 micrograms per liter (microg/L) were brought below levels specified for storm sewer discharge per the National Priority Discharge Elimination Systems (NPDES) permit requirements. Bench test results for the experiments in which dioxins and furans were the COCs were less promising and revealed that additional processes would have to be used in conjunction with ozonation to bring the concentration of COCs within the targeted ranges. It was realized, however, that the effectiveness and efficacy of ozonation were diminished by the presence of particulates, to which some of the dioxin and furan compounds adhered

  7. Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated SRS soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cicero, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Bench-scale studies with mercury contaminated soil were performed at the SRTC to determine the optimum waste loading obtainable in the glass product without sacrificing durability, leach resistance, and processability. Vitrifying this waste stream also required offgas treatment for the capture of the vaporized mercury. Four soil glasses with slight variations in composition were produced, which were capable of passing the Product Consistency Test (PCT) and the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). The optimum glass feed composition contained 60 weight percent soil and produced a soda-lime-silica glass when melted at 1,350 C. The glass additives used to produce this glass were 24 weight percent Na 2 CO 3 and 16 weight percent CaCO 3 . Volatilized mercury released during the vitrification process was released to the proposed mercury collection system. The proposed mercury collection system consisted of quartz and silica tubing with a Na 2 S wash bottle followed by a NaOH wash bottle. Once in the system, the volatile mercury would pass through the wash bottle containing Na 2 S, where it would be converted to Hg 2 S, which is a stable form of mercury. However, attempts to capture the volatilized mercury in a Na 2 S solution wash bottle were not as successful as anticipated. Maximum mercury captured was only about 3.24% of the mercury contained in the feed. Mercury capture efforts then shifted to condensing and capturing the volatilized mercury. These attempts were much more successful at capturing the volatile mercury, with a capture efficiency of 34.24% when dry ice was used to pack the condenser. This captured mercury was treated on a mercury specific resin after digestion of the volatilized mercury

  8. Study of the boron homogenizing process employing an experimental low-pressure bench simulating the IRIS reactor pressurizer – Part I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jair de Lima; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Bezerra da Silva, Mário Augusto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Experimental bench with test section made of transparent acrylic, simulating the pressurizer reactor IRIS. ► Workbench used to study the process of homogenization of boron in the pressurizer IRIS nuclear reactor. ► Results were obtained through videos and digital photos of the test section. - Abstract: The reactivity control of a nuclear reactor to pressurized water is made by means of controlling bars or by boron dilution in the water from the coolant of a primary circuit. The control with boron dilution has great importance, despite inserting small variations in the reactivity in the reactor, as it does not significantly affect the distribution of the neutron flux. A simplified experimental bench with a test section manufactured in transparent acrylic, was built in reduced scale as to be used in a boron homogenizing process, simulating an IRIS reactor pressurizer (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). The bench was assembled in the Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), an entity linked to the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Recife – PE

  9. Study of the boron homogenizing process employing an experimental low-pressure bench simulating the IRIS reactor pressurizer – Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra, Jair de Lima; Lira, Carlos Alberto Brayner de Oliveira; Barroso, Antonio Carlos de Oliveira; Lima, Fernando Roberto de Andrade; Silva, Mário Augusto Bezerra da

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental bench with test section made of transparent acrylic, simulating the pressurizer reactor IRIS. • Workbench used to study the process of homogenization of boron in the pressurizer IRIS nuclear reactor. • Results were obtained through videos and digital photos of the test section. - Abstract: The reactivity control of a nuclear reactor to pressurized water is made by means of controlling bars or by boron dilution in the water from the coolant of a primary circuit. The control with boron dilution has great importance, despite inserting small variations in the reactivity in the reactor, as it does not significantly affect the distribution of the neutron flux. A simplified experimental bench with a test section manufactured in transparent acrylic, was built in reduced scale as to be used in a boron homogenizing process, simulating an IRIS reactor pressurizer (International Reactor Innovative and Secure). The bench was assembled in the Centro Regional de Ciências Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE), an entity linked to the Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Recife–PE

  10. Bench-mark experiments to study the neutron distribution in a heterogeneous reactor shielding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolyatko, V.V.; Vyrskij, M.Yu.; Mashkovich, V.P.; Nagaev, R.Kh.; Prit'mov, A.P.; Sakharov, V.K.; Troshin, V.S.; Tikhonov, E.G.

    1981-01-01

    The bench-mark experiments performed at the B-2 facility of the BR-10 reactor to investigate the spatial and energy neutron distributions are described. The experimental facility includes the neutron beam channel with a slide, a mo shielding composition investigated consisted of sequential layers of steel (1KH18N9T) and graphite slabs. The neutron spectra were measured by activation method, a set of treshold and resonance detectors having been used. The detectors made it possible to obtain the absolute neutron spectra in the 1.4 eV-10 MeV range. The comparison of calculations with the results of the bench-mark experiments made it possible to prove the neutron transport calculational model realized in the ROZ-9 and ARAMAKO-2F computer codes and evaluate the validity of the ARAMAKO constants for the class of shielding compositions in question [ru

  11. Evaluation of the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process Using a Bench-Scale, 20-L Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor System at Oak Ridge National Laboratory: Results of Test 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.D.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the Savannah River Salt Waste Processing Program (SPP) is to evaluate the presently available technologies and select the most effective approach for treatment of high-level waste salt solutions currently stored in underground tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy's Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. One of the three technologies currently being developed for this application is the Small-Tank Tetraphenylborate Process (STTP). This process uses sodium tetraphenylborate (TPB) to precipitate and remove radioactive cesium from the waste and monosodium titanate (MST) to sorb and remove radioactive strontium and actinides. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is demonstrating this process at the 1:4000 scale using a 20-L-capacity continuous-flow stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) system. Since March 1999, five operating campaigns of the 20-L CSTR have been conducted. The ultimate goal is to verify that this process, under certain extremes of operating conditions, can meet the minimum treatment criteria necessary for processing and disposing of the salt waste at the Savannah River Saltstone Facility. The waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for 137 Cs, 90 Sr, and total alpha nuclides are 137 Cs and 90 Sr are to obtain decontamination factors (DFs) of 40,000 (99.998% removal) and 26 (96.15% removal), respectively. (DF is mathematically defined as the concentration of contaminant in the waste feed divided by the concentration of contaminant in the effluent stream.)

  12. Enhanced durability and reactivity for zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Volume 1, Bench-scale testing and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jha, M.C.; Berggren, M.H.

    1989-05-02

    AMAX Research & Development Center (AMAX R&D) has been investigating methods for enhancing the reactivity and durability of the zinc ferrite desulfurization sorbent. Zinc ferrite sorbents are intended for use in desulfurization of hot coal gas in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) or molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) applications. For the present program, the reactivity of the sorbent may be defined as its sulfur sorption capacity at the breakthrough point and at saturation in a bench-scale, fixed-bed reactor. Durability may be defined as the ability of the sorbent to maintain important physical characteristics such As size, strength, and specific surface area during 10 cycles of sulfidation and oxidation.

  13. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-09-25

    radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} {center_dot} H{sub 2}O], sodium carbonate, [Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}], and trona, [Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe{sup +2}/Fe{sub total} REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected.

  14. BENCH-SCALE STEAM REFORMING OF ACTUAL TANK 48H WASTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burket, P; Gene Daniel, G; Charles Nash, C; Carol Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-01

    radioactive Tank 48H DMR product was primarily made up of soluble carbonates. The three most abundant species were thermonatrite, [Na 2 CO 3 · H 2 O], sodium carbonate, [Na 2 CO 3 ], and trona, [Na 3 H(CO 3 ) 2 · 2H 2 O] the same as the ESTD FBSR. (6) Insoluble solids analyzed by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) did not detect insoluble carbonate species. However, they still may be present at levels below 2 wt%, the sensitivity of the XRD methodology. Insoluble solids XRD characterization indicated that various Fe/Ni/Cr/Mn phases are present. These crystalline phases are associated with the insoluble sludge components of Tank 48H slurry and impurities in the Erwin coal ash. The percent insoluble solids, which mainly consist of un-burnt coal and coal ash, in the products were 4 to 11 wt% for the radioactive runs. (7) The Fe +2 /Fe total REDOX measurements ranged from 0.58 to 1 for the three radioactive Bench-scale tests. REDOX measurements > 0.5 showed a reducing atmosphere was maintained in the DMR indicating that pyrolysis was occurring. (8) Greater than 90% of the radioactivity was captured in the product for all three runs. (9) The collective results from the FBSR simulant tests and the BSR simulant tests indicate that the same chemistry occurs in the two reactors. (10) The collective results from the BSR simulant runs and the BSR radioactive waste runs indicates that the same chemistry occurs in the simulant as in the real waste. The FBSR technology has been proven to destroy the organics and nitrates in the Tank 48H waste and form the anticipated solid carbonate phases as expected

  15. Study on saccharification of cellulosic wastes with bench scale test plant, (5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao; Kumakura, Minoru

    1989-05-01

    This report completed the results that were obtained on the studies of continuous saccharification of radiation pretreated chaff with a saccharification equipment unit of bench scale test plant for cellulosic wastes. The problem on the continuous saccharification in bench scale and its countermeasure were clarified. The glucose concentration obtained in the continuous saccharification was examined from the point of a scale up effect. It was found that there are not a scale up effect between flask scale (100 ml) and bench scale (50 l) and then the same concentration of glucose was obtained in both scales. It was clarified that the contamination of the process let decrease markedly the concentration of produced glucose solution and brings on a large trouble for the saccharification. The addition of 1 % ethyl acetate made it possible to prevent the contamination of the saccharification process in flask scale. However, in the case of continuous saccharification in bench scale, the addition of ethyl acetate in nitrogen gas atmosphere was necessary to prevent the contamination. It was found that the solution of 1.7 % glucose concentration was continuously produced in the continuous saccharification with the most longest period for 26 days. It was, also, suggested that the selection of a suitable retention time is necessary to attain a high glucose productivity in the continuous saccharification. (author)

  16. Bench-scale treatability studies for simulated incinerator scrubber blowdown containing radioactive cesium and strontium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coroneos, A.C.; Taylor, P.A.; Arnold, W.D. Jr.; Bostick, D.A.; Perona, J.J.

    1994-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the results of bench-scale testing completed to remove 137 Cs and 90 Sr from the Oak Ridge K-25 Site Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA) Incinerator blowdown at the K-25 Site Central Neutralization Facility, a wastewater treatment facility designed to remove heavy metals and uranium from various wastewaters. The report presents results of bench-scale testing using chabazite and clinoptilolite zeolites to remove cesium and strontium; using potassium cobalt ferrocyanide (KCCF) to remove cesium; and using strontium chloride coprecipitation, sodium phosphate coprecipitation, and calcium sulfate coprecipitation to remove strontium. Low-range, average-range, and high-range concentration blowdown surrogates were used to complete the bench-scale testing

  17. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater: Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, T.L.; Jennings, H.L.; Lucero, A.J.; Strandberg, G.W.; Morris, M.I.; Palumbo, A.V.; Boerman, P.A.; Tyndall, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system

  18. Cometabolic biotreatment of TCE-contaminated groundwater - Laboratory and bench-scale development studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donaldson, T L; Palumbo, A V; Boerman, P A; Jennings, H L; Lucero, A J; Tyndall, R L; Strandberg, G W; Morris, M I [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    1992-07-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory is conducting a demonstration of two cometabolic technologies for biotreatment of groundwater contaminated with trichloroethylene (TCE) and other organics. Technologies based on methanotrophic (methane-utilizing) and toluene-degrading microorganisms will be compared side-by-side on the same groundwater stream. Laboratory and bench-scale bioreactor studies have been conducted to guide selection of microbial cultures and operating conditions for the field demonstration. This report presents the results of the laboratory and bench-scale studies for the methanotrophic system. (author)

  19. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Alsaadi, Ahmad Salem; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Amy, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  20. Performance evaluation of the DCMD desalination process under bench scale and large scale module operating conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-04-01

    The flux performance of different hydrophobic microporous flat sheet commercial membranes made of poly tetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and poly propylene (PP) was tested for Red Sea water desalination using the direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process, under bench scale (high δT) and large scale module (low δT) operating conditions. Membranes were characterized for their surface morphology, water contact angle, thickness, porosity, pore size and pore size distribution. The DCMD process performance was optimized using a locally designed and fabricated module aiming to maximize the flux at different levels of operating parameters, mainly feed water and coolant inlet temperatures at different temperature differences across the membrane (δT). Water vapor flux of 88.8kg/m2h was obtained using a PTFE membrane at high δT (60°C). In addition, the flux performance was compared to the first generation of a new locally synthesized and fabricated membrane made of a different class of polymer under the same conditions. A total salt rejection of 99.99% and boron rejection of 99.41% were achieved under extreme operating conditions. On the other hand, a detailed water characterization revealed that low molecular weight non-ionic molecules (ppb level) were transported with the water vapor molecules through the membrane structure. The membrane which provided the highest flux was then tested under large scale module operating conditions. The average flux of the latter study (low δT) was found to be eight times lower than that of the bench scale (high δT) operating conditions.

  1. Safety analysis of the CSTR-1 bench-scale coal liquefaction unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulburt, D.A.

    1981-05-01

    The objective of the program reported herein was to provide a Safety Analysis of the CSTR-1 bench scale unit located in Building 167 at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. It was apparent that considerable effort was expended in the design and construction of the unit, and in the development of operating procedures, with regard to safety. Exhaust ventilation, H/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S monitoring, overpressure protection, overtemperature protection, and interlock systems have been provided. Present settings on the pressure and temperature safety systems are too high, however, to insure prevention of vessel deformation or damage in all cases. While the occurrence of catastrophic rupture of a system pressure vessel (e.g., reactor, high pressure separators) is unlikely, the potential consequences to personnel are severe. Feasibility of providing shielding for these components should be considered. A more probable mode of vessel failure in the event of overpressure or overtemperature and failure of the safety system is yielding of the closure bolts followed by high pressure flow across the mating surfaces. As a minimum, shielding should be designed to restrict travel of resultant spray. The requirements for personal protective equipment are presently stated in rather broad and general terms in the operating procedures. Safe practices and procedures would be more assured if specific requirements were stated and included for each operational step. Recommendations were developed for all hazards triggered by the guidelines.

  2. Continuous thermal degradation of pyrolytic oil in a bench scale CSTR reaction system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyong Hwan; Nam, Ki Yun [Climate Change Technology Research Division, Korea Institute of Energy Research, 102 Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-343 (Korea)

    2010-05-15

    Continuous thermal degradation of two pyrolytic oils with low (LPO) and high boiling point distribution (HPO) was conducted in a constant stirrer tank reactor (CSTR) with bench scale. Raw pyrolytic oil as a reactant was obtained from the commercial rotary kiln pyrolysis plant for municipal plastic waste. The degradation experiment was conducted by temperature programming with 10 C/min of heating rate up to 450 C and then maintained with long lapse time at 450 C. Liquid product was sampled at initial reaction time with different degradation temperatures up to 450 C and then constant interval lapse time at 450 C. The product characteristics over two pyrolytic oils were compared by using a continuous reaction system. As a reactant, heavy pyrolytic oil (HPO) showed higher boiling point distribution than that of diesel and also light pyrolytic oil (LPO) was mainly consisting of a mixture of gasoline and kerosene range components. In the continuous reaction, LPO showed higher yield of liquid product and lower residue than those of HPO. The characteristics of liquid products were influenced by the type of raw pyrolytic oil. Also, the result obtained under degradation temperature programming was described. (author)

  3. Domestic Wastewater Reuse in Concrete Using Bench-Scale Testing and Full-Scale Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoup M. Ghrair

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Demand for fresh water by the construction sector is expected to increase due to the high increase in the growth of construction activities in Jordan. This study aims to evaluate the potential of scale-up of the application of treated domestic wastewater in concrete from bench-scale to a full-scale. On the lab scale, concrete and mortar mixes using Primary and Secondary Treated Wastewater (PTW, STW and Distilled Water (DW were cast and tested after various curing ages (7, 28, 120, and 200 days. Based on wastewater quality, according to IS 456-2000, the STW is suitable for mortar and concrete production. Mortar made with STW at curing time up to 200 days has no significant negative effect on the mortar’s compressive strength. Conversely, the PTW exceeded the maximum permissible limits of total organic content and E coli. for concrete mixing-water. Using PTW results, a significant increase in the initial setting time of up to 16.7% and a decrease in the concrete workability are observed. In addition, using PTW as mixing water led to a significant reduction in the compressive strength up to 19.6%. The results that came out from scaling up to real production operation of ready-mix concrete were in harmony with the lab-scale results.

  4. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Peracetic Acid and Twin Oxide ™ as Disinfectants in Drinking Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorine is widely used as an inexpensive and potent disinfectant in the United States for drinking water. However, chlorine has the potential for forming carcinogenic and mutagenic disinfection by-products (DBPs). In this study, bench scale experiments were conducted at the U.S...

  5. Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Bench Scale Technology Evaluation Project (WE&RF Report LIFT6T14)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350◦C ...

  6. DEGRADATION OF POLYNUCLEAR AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS UNDER BENCH-SCALE COMPOST CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between biomass growth and degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil, and subsequent toxicity reduction, was evaluated in 10 in-vessel, bench-scale compost units. Field soil was aquired from the Reilly Tar and Chemical Company Superfund site...

  7. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  8. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2)TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown. The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  9. BENCH-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unknown

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), is sponsoring research in advanced methods for controlling contaminants in hot coal gasifier gas (coal-derived fuel-gas) streams of integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) power systems. The hot gas cleanup work seeks to eliminate the need for expensive heat recovery equipment, reduce efficiency losses due to quenching, and minimize wastewater treatment costs. Hot-gas desulfurization research has focused on regenerable mixed-metal oxide sorbents that can reduce the sulfur in coal-derived fuel-gas to less than 20 ppmv and can be regenerated in a cyclic manner with air for multicycle operation. Zinc titanate (Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) or ZnTiO(sub 3)), formed by a solid-state reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and titanium dioxide (TiO(sub 2)), is currently one of the leading sorbents. Overall chemical reactions with Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4) during the desulfurization (sulfidation)-regeneration cycle are shown below: Sulfidation: Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2H(sub 2)S(yields) 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 2H(sub 2)O; Regeneration: 2ZnS+ TiO(sub 2)+ 3O(sub 2)(yields) Zn(sub 2) TiO(sub 4)+ 2SO(sub 2) The sulfidation/regeneration cycle can be carried out in a fixed-bed, moving-bed, or fluidized-bed reactor configuration. The fluidized-bed reactor configuration is most attractive because of several potential advantages including faster kinetics and the ability to handle the highly exothermic regeneration to produce a regeneration offgas containing a constant concentration of SO(sub 2)

  10. 100 Area soil washing bench-scale test procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, H.D.; Gerber, M.A.; Mattigod, S.V.; Serne, R.J.

    1993-03-01

    This document describes methodologies and procedures for conducting soil washing treatability tests in accordance with the 100 Area Soil Washing Treatability Test Plan (DOE-RL 1992, Draft A). The objective of this treatability study is to evaluate the use of physical separation systems and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating chemically and radioactively contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. These data will be primarily used for determining feasibility of the individual unit operations and defining the requirements for a system, or systems, for pilot-scale testing

  11. Bench-scale and full-scale studies of nitric oxides reduction by gaseous fuel reburning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su, S.; Xiang, J.; Sun, L.S.; Hu, S.; Zhu, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers are significant contributors to atmospheric pollution. China has specified more rigorous legal limits for NOx emissions from power plants. As a result of the need to reduce NOx emissions, cost-effective NOx reduction strategies must be explored. This paper presented detailed experimental studies on a gaseous fuel reburning process that was performed in a 36 kilowatt bench-scale down-fired furnace to define the optimal reburning operating conditions when different Chinese coals were fired in the furnace. In addition, the combustion system of a 350 megawatt full-scale boiler was retrofitted according to the experimental results. Finally, the gaseous fuel reburning was applied to the retrofitted full-scale boiler. The purpose of the study was to obtain a better understanding of the influence of the key parameters on nitric oxide (NO) reduction efficiency of the reburning process and demonstrate the gaseous fuel reburning on a 350 MWe coal-fired boiler in China. The paper described the experimental procedure with particular reference to the experimental facility and measurement; a schematic diagram of the experimental system; experimental fuels; and characteristics of coals for the reburning experiments. Results that were presented included influence of reburn zone residence time; influence of gaseous reburn fuel per cent; influence of excess air coefficient; and unburned carbon in fly ash. It was concluded that both an above 50 per cent NO reduction efficiency and low carbon loss can be obtained by the gaseous fuel reburning process under the optimal operating conditions. 20 refs., 5 tabs., 10 figs

  12. Bench-Scale and Pilot-Scale Treatment Technologies for the ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coal mine water (CMW) is typically treated to remove suspended solids, acidity, and soluble metals, but high concentrations of total dissolved solids (TDS) have been reported to impact the environment at several CMW discharge points. Consequently, various states have established TDS wastewater regulations and the US EPA has proposed a benchmark conductivity limit to reduce TDS impacts in streams near mining sites. Traditional CMW treatment effectively removes some TDS components, but is not effective in removing major salt ions due to their higher solubility. This paper describes the basic principles, effectiveness, advantages and disadvantages of various TDS removal technologies (adsorption, bioremediation, capacitive deionization, desalination, electro-chemical ion exchange, electrocoagulation, electrodialysis, ion exchange, membrane filtration, precipitation, and reverse osmosis) that have at least been tested in bench- and pilot-scale experiments. Recent discussions about new regulations to include total dissolved solids TDS) limits would propel interest in the TDS removal technologies focused on coal mine water. TDS removal is not a new concept and has been developed using different technologies for a number of applications, but coal mine water has unique characteristics (depending on the site, mining process, and solid-water-oxygen interactions), which make it unlikely to have a single technology predominating over others. What are some novel technolog

  13. A long-term bench-scale investigation of permanganate consumption by aquifer materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiuyuan; Thomson, Neil R

    2009-11-20

    In situ chemical oxidation (ISCO) applications using permanganate involve the injection or release of permanganate into the subsurface to destroy various target contaminants. Naturally occurring reduced components associated with aquifer materials can exert a significant oxidant demand thereby reducing the amount of permanganate available for the destruction of contaminants as well as reducing the overall rate of oxidation. Quantification of this natural oxidant demand (NOD) is a requirement for site-specific assessment and the design of cost-effective oxidant delivery systems. To further our understanding of the interaction between permanganate and aquifer materials, aerobic and anaerobic aquifer materials from eight representative sites throughout North America were tested in a series of systematic bench-scale experiments. Various permanganate to aquifer solids mass loading ratios at different initial permanganate concentrations in well-mixed batch reactors were monitored for >300 days. All NOD temporal profiles demonstrated an initial fast consumption rate followed by a persistent slower consumption rate. The data generated show that the mass loading ratio, the initial permanganate concentration, and the nature and quantity of reduced aquifer material species are the main factors controlling permanganate consumption rates. A higher initial permanganate concentration or a larger mass loading ratio produced a larger fast NOD consumption rate and generated a corresponding higher maximum NOD value. Hence, both the NOD temporal profile and the maximum NOD are not single-valued but are heavily dependent on the experimental conditions. Predictive relationships were developed to estimate the maximum NOD and the NOD at 7 days based on aquifer material properties. The concentration of manganese oxides deposited on the aquifer solids was highly correlated with the mass of permanganate consumed suggesting that passivation of NOD reaction sites occurred due to the formation

  14. Soluble Microbial Product Characterization of Biofilm Formation in Bench-Scale

    KAUST Repository

    Mines, Paul

    2012-12-01

    The biological process known as activated sludge (AS) in conjunction with membrane separation technology for the treatment of wastewater has been employed for over four decades. While, membrane biological reactors (MBR) are now widely employed, the phenomenon of membrane fouling is still the most significant factor leading to performance decline of MBRs. Although much research has been done on the subject of MBR fouling over the past two decades, many questions remain unanswered, and consensus within the scientific community is rare. However, research has led to one system parameter generally being regarded as a contributor to membrane fouling, extracellular polymeric compounds (EPS). EPS, and more specifically, the soluble fraction of EPS known as soluble microbial products (SMP), must be further investigated in order to better understand membrane fouling. The biological activity and performance of the MBR is affected by myriad operational parameters, which in turn affects the SMP generated. A commonly varied operational parameter is, depending on the specific treatment needs of a MBR, the sludge retention time (SRT). This study aims to characterize the SMP in three bench-scale MBRs as the SRT is gradually lowered. By studying how the SMP change as the operation of the system is altered, greater understanding of how SMP are related to fouling can be achieved. At the onset of the study, a steady state was established in the system with a SRT of 20 days. Upon stabilization of a 20 day SRT, the system was gradually transitioned to a five and a half day SRT, in stepwise adjustments. Initially, both the trans-membrane pressure (TMP) and the SMP concentrations were at relatively low values, indicating the presence of minimal amounts of biofilm on the membrane surfaces. As the system was altered and more activated sludge was wasted from the reactors, the SRT inherently decreased. As the lower SRT was transitioned and established, the data from TMP measurements, as well

  15. Data Quality Objectives For Selecting Waste Samples For Bench-Scale Reformer Treatability Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banning, D.L.

    2011-01-01

    This document describes the data quality objectives to select archived samples located at the 222-S Laboratory for Bench-Scale Reforming testing. The type, quantity, and quality of the data required to select the samples for Fluid Bed Steam Reformer testing are discussed. In order to maximize the efficiency and minimize the time to treat Hanford tank waste in the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant, additional treatment processes may be required. One of the potential treatment processes is the fluidized bed steam reformer. A determination of the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process to treat Hanford tank waste is required. The initial step in determining the adequacy of the fluidized bed steam reformer process is to select archived waste samples from the 222-S Laboratory that will be used in a bench scale tests. Analyses of the selected samples will be required to confirm the samples meet the shipping requirements and for comparison to the bench scale reformer (BSR) test sample selection requirements.

  16. Design and fabrication of a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process radioactive bench-scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahlquist, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents some of the design considerations and fabrication techniques for building a glovebox for the Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) radioactive bench-scale system. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system uses a plasma torch to process a variety of radioactive materials into a final vitrified waste form. The processed waste will contain plutonium and trace amounts of other radioactive materials. The glovebox used in this system is located directly below the plasma chamber and is called the Hearth Handling Enclosure (HHE). The HHE is designed to maintain a confinement boundary between the processed waste and the operator. Operations that take place inside the HHE include raising and lowering the hearth using a hydraulic lift table, transporting the hearth within the HHE using an overhead monorail and hoist system, sampling and disassembly of the processed waste and hearth, weighing the hearth, rebuilding a hearth, and sampling HEPA filters. The PHP radioactive bench-scale system is located at the TREAT facility at Argonne National Laboratory-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho

  17. Particle Bed Reactor scaling relationships

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F.L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    1987-01-01

    Scaling relationships for Particle Bed Reactors (PBRs) are discussed. The particular applications are short duration systems, i.e., for propulsion or burst power. Particle Bed Reactors can use a wide selection of different moderators and reflectors and be designed for such a wide range of power and bed power densities. Additional design considerations include the effect of varying the number of fuel elements, outlet Mach number in hot gas channel, etc. All of these variables and options result in a wide range of reactor weights and performance. Extremely light weight reactors (approximately 1 kg/MW) are possible with the appropriate choice of moderator/reflector and power density. Such systems are very attractive for propulsion systems where parasitic weight has to be minimized

  18. Interferometric 30 m bench for calibrations of 1D scales and optical distance measuring instruments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unkuri, J; Rantanen, A; Manninen, J; Esala, V-P; Lassila, A

    2012-01-01

    During construction of a new metrology building for MIKES, a 30 m interferometric bench was designed. The objective was to implement a straight, stable, adjustable and multifunctional 30 m measuring bench for calibrations. Special attention was paid to eliminating the effects of thermal expansion and inevitable concrete shrinkage. The linear guide, situated on top of a monolithic concrete beam, comprises two parallel round shafts with adjustable fixtures every 1 m. A carriage is moved along the rail and its position is followed by a reference interferometer. Depending on the measurement task, one or two retro-reflectors are fixed on the carriage. A microscope with a CCD camera and a monitor can be used to detect line mark positions on different line standards. When calibrating optical distance measuring instruments, various targets can be fixed to the carriage. For the most accurate measurements an online Abbe-error correction based on simultaneous carriage pitch measurement by a separate laser interferometer is applied. The bench is used for calibrations of machinist scales, tapes, circometers, electronic distance meters, total stations and laser trackers. The estimated expanded uncertainty for 30 m displacement for highest accuracy calibrations is 2.6 µm. (paper)

  19. Bench-scale production of liquid fuel from woody biomass via gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanaoka, Toshiaki; Liu, Yanyong; Matsunaga, Kotetsu; Miyazawa, Tomohisa; Hirata, Satoshi; Sakanishi, Kinya [Biomass Technology Research Center, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Suehiro 2-2-2, Hiro, Kure, Hiroshima 737-0197 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The bench-scale production of hydrocarbon liquid fuel was achieved from woody biomass via gasification. The daily production capacity of the biomass-to-liquid (BTL) plant used in this study was 7.8 L of hydrocarbon liquid from 48 kg of woody biomass (on a dry basis), corresponding to 0.05 barrels. The BTL process involved the following steps: oxygen-enriched air gasification of the woody biomass, wet and dry gas cleaning, gas compression, carbon dioxide removal, and the Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis reaction. In the gasification step, oxygen-enriched air gasification was carried out using a downdraft fixed-bed gasifier. The content of oxygen, which acts as the gasifying agent, was increased from 21.0 to 56.7 vol%; maximum values of the conversion to gas on a carbon basis and cold gas efficiency-approximately 96 C-mol% and 87.8%, respectively-were obtained at an oxygen content of around 30 vol%. With the increased oxygen content, the concentrations of CO, H{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} increased from 22.8 to 36.5 vol%, from 16.8 to 28.1 vol%, and from 9.8 to 14.8 vol%, respectively, while that of N{sub 2} decreased from 48.8 to 16.0 vol%. The feed gas for the FT synthesis reaction was obtained by passing the product gas from the gasification step through a scrubber, carbon dioxide removal tower, and desulfurization tower; its composition was 30.8 vol% CO, 25.2 vol% H{sub 2}, 0.9 vol% CO{sub 2}, 2.5 vol% CH{sub 4}, 40.6 vol% N{sub 2}, < 5 ppb H{sub 2}S, and < 5 ppb COS. The hydrocarbon fuel was synthesized in a slurry bed reactor using hexadecane as the solvent and a Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst. For hydrocarbons with carbon chain lengths of more than 5 carbon atoms (collectively referred to as C{sub 5+}) in the liquid fuel, a selectivity of 87.5% was obtained along with a chain growth probability of 0.84 under the following conditions: 4 MPa, 280 to 340 C, and a ratio of catalyst weight to feed gas rate (W/F) of 9.3 g.h/mol. (author)

  20. Accumulation of uranium, cesium, and radium by microbial cells: bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strandberg, G.W.; Shumate, S.E. II.

    1982-07-01

    This report describes bench-scale studies on the utilization of microbial cells for the concentration and removal of uranium, radium, and cesium from nuclear processing waste streams. Included are studies aimed at elucidating the basic mechanism of uranium uptake, process development efforts for the use of a combined denitrification-uranium removal process to treat a specific nuclear processing waste stream, and a preliminary investigation of the applicability of microorganisms for the removal of 137 Cs and 226 Ra from existing waste solutions

  1. Coal flotation - bench-scale study. Flotacao de carvao estudo em escala de bancada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, A.R. de; Almeida, S L.M. de; Santos, A.T. dos

    1979-01-01

    Run-of-mine coal and pre-washed coal from Santa Catarina, Brazil, were characterized using washability curves and by particle size analysis after crushing. Bench-scale froth flotation tests were then conducted with the pre-washed coal. Kerosene and diesel oil were used as the collectors, and pine oil as the frother. The influence of starch (as depressor) on flotation was also studied. The effects of feed particle size, pH, collector addition, frother addition, depressor addition and flotation time were investigated. A 9.5% ash content coal could be obtained with a mass recovery of about 29%. (17 refs.)

  2. Electrokinetic soil decontamination - summary of results of various studies in laboratory, bench-scale and field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutschan, B.; Wutzler, R.; Goldmann, T. [INTUS Inst. fuer Technologie und Umweltschutz e.V., Berlin (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    In electroremediation, contaminants are removed form soil and groundwater by the action of an electric potential applied across electrodes embedded in the contaminated medium. Driving the remediation are the electrokinetic phenomena of electro-osmosis, ion migration and electrophoresis. Other common physicochemical phenomena that are also present are diffusion, chemical reactions, hydrolysis (change of pH-value), ion exchange, complexation and others. The complex interactions between all these phenomena determine the processes. Important process parameters are transition rates, bulk liquid velocity, {zeta}-potential (Helmholtz-Smoluchowski-equation) and others. Some parameters are determined at laboratory-, bench- and field scale. (orig.)

  3. In Developping a Bench-Scale Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor to Burn High Ash Brazilian Coal-Dolomites Mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Behainne, Jhon Jairo; Hory, Rogério Ishikawa; Goldstein, Leonardo; Bernárdez Pécora, Araí Augusta

    This work considers some of the questions in burning high ash Brazilian coal-dolomite mixtures in a bench-scale circulating fluidized bed combustor (CFBC). Experimental tests were performed with the CE4500 coal from Santa Catarina State, in southern Brazil, with a Sauter mean diameter d p =43 μm. The coal particles were mixed with dolomite particles of d p = 111 μm and this fuel mixture was fed into the circulating fluidized reactor, previously loaded with quartz sand particles of d p =353 μm. This inert material was previously heated by the combustion of liquefied petroleum gas up to the ignition temperature of the fuel mixture. The CFBC unit has a 100mm internal diameter riser, 4.0m high, as well as a 62.8mm internal diameter downcomer. The loop has a cyclone, a sampling valve to collect particles and a 62.8mm internal diameter L-valve to recirculate the particles in the loop. A screw feeder with a rotation control system was used to feed the fuel mixture to the reactor. The operational conditions were monitored by pressure taps and thermocouples installed along the loop. A data acquisition system showed the main operational conditions to control. Experimental tests performed put in evidence the problems found during bed operation, with special attention to the solids feed device, to the L-valve operation, to particle size, solids inventory, fluidized gas velocity, fuel mixture and recirculated solids feeding positions.

  4. Hydrogen generation from bioethanol reforming: bench-scale unit performance with Cu/Nb2O5 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes Machado, N.R.C.; Schmal, M.; Cantao, M.P.

    2003-01-01

    As an alternative route for hydrogen production, ethanol reforming was studied in a bench-scale unit using a 5%Cu/Nb 2 O 5 catalyst previously selected in a micro reactor. X-Ray Diffraction analysis has shown that this catalyst contains copper oxide in an amorphous form, or in particles smaller than 20 nm, while the Nb 2 O 5 is highly crystalline. Analysis of the calcinated catalyst by X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy revealed that 35% of total copper was on the surface as Cu I (55%) or Cu II (45%). The catalyst presented a low surface area (35 m 2 /g), mainly from meso and macropores, as textural analysis revealed. Temperature Programmed Reduction showed a two-step reduction of Cu II to Cu, at 245 o C and 306 o C. It was also observed the reduction of 6% of Nb 2 O 5 . The reaction unit consisted of an integral reactor with 16 g of catalyst pellets, approximately 3 mm x 5 mm in size. Reaction temperature and feed rate were varied to optimize hydrogen production, with CO 2 as the main byproduct. Reagents (water and ethanol) in stoichiometric proportion were fed into an electric pre-heater and vaporized. An increase on reaction temperature from 300 o C to 400 o C has led to an increase in mean conversion from 17% to 35%. Ethene and ethyl ether were also detected as minor byproducts. (author)

  5. Bench- and field-scale evaluation of chromium and cadmium extraction by electrokinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gent, David B.; Bricka, R. Mark; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.; Larson, Steven L.; Fabian, Gene; Granade, Steve

    2004-01-01

    The results of bench-scale laboratory tests and in situ, pilot-scale demonstration of electrokinetic extraction of chromium and cadmium from contaminated soil are presented. The laboratory tests were conducted using 10 cm long samples under current density of 5 A/m 2 for 1200 h. Tests were conducted with and without citric acid amendment at the cathode. The results showed that citric acid improved extraction, especially in the sections near the cathode. However, processing was not enough to result in complete cleanup. The field demo was conducted at the Naval Air Weapon Station (NAWS), Point Mugu, California. Three cathodes were centered between six anodes. The anode-cathode spacing was 4.45 m (15 ft). Constant voltage of 60 V (∼13 V/m) was applied for 20 days and then was reduced to 45 V (10 V/m) for 6 months. Citric acid was used to maintain the cathode pH at 4. After 6 months of treatment, 78% of the soil volume has been cleared of chromium or treated to below natural background levels. The results also indicated that 70% of the soil between the electrodes had been cleared of cadmium contamination. A comparison between the bench-scale and field demo showed that the field process was more effective than the lab tests. This indicated that small sample size will induce a negative effect on the efficiency of the process due to an increased impact of the boundaries on the overall process

  6. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Benjamin; Genovese, Sarah; Perry, Robert; Spiry, Irina; Farnum, Rachael; Sing, Surinder; Wilson, Paul; Buckley, Paul; Acharya, Harish; Chen, Wei; McDermott, John; Vipperia, Ravikumar; Yee, Michael; Steele, Ray; Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    A bench-scale system was designed and built to test an aminosilicone-based solvent. A model was built of the bench-scale system and this model was scaled up to model the performance of a carbon capture unit, using aminosilicones, for CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration (CCS) for a pulverized coal (PC) boiler at 550 MW. System and economic analysis for the carbon capture unit demonstrates that the aminosilicone solvent has significant advantages relative to a monoethanol amine (MEA)-based system. The CCS energy penalty for MEA is 35.9% and the energy penalty for aminosilicone solvent is 30.4% using a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the energy penalty for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to 29%. The increase in cost of electricity (COE) over the non-capture case for MEA is ~109% and increase in COE for aminosilicone solvent is ~98 to 103% depending on the solvent cost at a steam temperature of 395 °C (743 °F). If the steam temperature is lowered to 204 °C (400 °F), the increase in COE for the aminosilicone solvent is reduced to ~95-100%.

  7. In situ remediation of hexavalent chromium with pyrite fines : bench scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathum, S.; Wong, W.P.; Brown, C.E.

    2002-01-01

    An in situ remediation technique for chromium contaminated soil with pyrite fines was presented. Past industrial activities and lack of disposal facilities have contributed to a serious problem dealing with chromium, which cannot be eliminated from the environment because it is an element. Both bench-scale and laboratory testing was conducted to confirm the efficiency of the proposed process which successfully converted Cr(VI) into Cr(III) in soil and water. Cr(III) is less toxic and immobile in the environment compared to Cr(VI) which moves freely in the soil matrix, posing a risk to the groundwater quality. pH in the range of 2.0 to 7.6 has no effect on the reactivity of pyrite towards Cr(VI). The optimization of the bench-scale treatment resulted in a large volume of chromium waste, mostly from the control experiments and column hydrology testing. These waste streams were treated according to municipal guidelines before disposal to the environment. Samples of chromium waste before and after treatment were analyzed. Cr (VI) was completely mineralized to below guideline levels. It was determined that several conditions, including contact time between pyrite and Cr(VI), are crucial for complete mineralization of Cr(VI). 13 refs., 8 tabs., 9 figs

  8. Evaluation of malodor for automobile air conditioner evaporator by using laboratory-scale test cooling bench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung Hwan; Kim, Sun Hwa; Jung, Young Rim; Kim, Man Goo

    2008-09-12

    As one of the measures to improve the environment in an automobile, malodor caused by the automobile air-conditioning system evaporator was evaluated and analyzed using laboratory-scale test cooling bench. The odor was simulated with an evaporator test cooling bench equipped with an airflow controller, air temperature and relative humidity controller. To simulate the same odor characteristics that occur from automobiles, one previously used automobile air conditioner evaporator associated with unpleasant odors was selected. The odor was evaluated by trained panels and collected with aluminum polyester bags. Collected samples were analyzed by thermal desorption into a cryotrap and subsequent gas chromatographic separation, followed by simultaneous olfactometry, flame ionization detector and identified by atomic emission detection and mass spectrometry. Compounds such as alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids were identified as responsible odor-active compounds. Gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/olfactometry combined sensory method with instrumental analysis was very effective as an odor evaluation method in an automobile air-conditioning system evaporator.

  9. A novel bench-scale column assay to investigate site-specific nitrification biokinetics in biological rapid sand filters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tatari, Karolina; Smets, Barth F.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    A bench-scale assay was developed to obtain site-specific nitrification biokinetic information from biological rapid sand filters employed in groundwater treatment. The experimental set-up uses granular material subsampled from a full-scale filter, packed in a column, and operated with controlled...

  10. Bench Scale Development and Testing of Aerogel Sorbents for CO2 Capture Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Begag, Redouane [Aspen Aerogels, Northborough, MA (United States)

    2017-03-30

    The primary objective of this project was scaling up and evaluating a novel Amine Functionalized Aerogel (AFA) sorbent in a bench scale fluidized bed reactor. The project team (Aspen Aerogels, University of Akron, ADA-ES, and Longtail Consulting) has carried out numerous tests and optimization studies to demonstrate the CO2 capture performance of the AFA sorbent in all its forms: powder, pellet, and bead. The CO2 capture target performance of the AFA sorbent (all forms) were set at > 12 wt.% and > 6 wt.% for total and working CO2 capacity, respectively (@ 40 °C adsorption / 100 – 120 °C desorption). The optimized AFA powders outperformed the performance targets by more than 30%, for the total CO2 capacity (14 - 20 wt.%), and an average of 10 % more for working CO2 capacity (6.6 – 7.0 wt.%, and could be as high as 9.6 wt. % when desorbed at 120 °C). The University of Akron developed binder formulations, pellet production methods, and post treatment technology for increased resistance to attrition and flue gas contaminants. In pellet form the AFA total CO2 capacity was ~ 12 wt.% (over 85% capacity retention of that of the powder), and there was less than 13% degradation in CO2 capture capacity after 20 cycles in the presence of 40 ppm SO2. ADA-ES assessed the performance of the AFA powder, pellet, and bead by analyzing sorption isotherms, water uptake analysis, cycling stability, jet cup attrition and crush tests. At bench scale, the hydrodynamic and heat transfer properties of the AFA sorbent pellet in fluidized bed conditions were evaluated at Particulate Solid Research, Inc. (PSRI). After the process design requirements were completed, by Longtail Consulting LLC, a techno-economic analysis was achieved using guidance from The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) report. This report provides the necessary framework to estimate costs for a temperature swing post

  11. Final PHP bench-scale report for the DOE-ID/SAIC sole source contract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-04-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) Technology Development Project was established to develop, test, and evaluate a new concept for treating mixed waste. The new concept uses direct current (dc) transferred-arc plasma torch technology to process mixed waste into a glass-like end-product. Under the cognizance of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (OTD) Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), the technology is being explored for its potential to treat mixed waste. Because it is a mature technology, well-understood and commercially available, it is expected to develop rapidly in this new application. This report summarizes the radioactive bench-scale system activities funded under PHP Sole Source Contract DE-AC07-94ID13266 through the end of the contract

  12. Bench-scale testing of a micronized magnetite, fine-coal cleaning process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suardini, P.J. [Custom Coals, International, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Custom Coals, International has installed and is presently testing a 500 lb/hr. micronized-magnetite, fine-coal cleaning circuit at PETC`s Process Research Facility (PRF). The cost-shared project was awarded as part of the Coal Preparation Program`s, High Efficiency Preparation Subprogram. The project includes design, construction, testing, and decommissioning of a fully-integrated, bench-scale circuit, complete with feed coal classification to remove the minus 30 micron slimes, dense medium cycloning of the 300 by 30 micron feed coal using a nominal minus 10 micron size magnetite medium, and medium recovery using drain and rinse screens and various stages and types of magnetic separators. This paper describes the project circuit and goals, including a description of the current project status and the sources of coal and magnetite which are being tested.

  13. The hot bench scale plant Ester for the vitrification of high level wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nannicini, R.; Strazzer, A.; Cantale, C; Donato, A.; Grossi, G.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper the hot bench-scale plant ESTER for the vitrification of the high-level radioactive wastes is described, and the main results of the first radioactive campaign are reported. The ESTER plant, which is placed in the ADECO-ESSOR hot cells of the C.C.R.-EURATOM-ISPRA, has been built and is operated by the ENEA, Departement of Fuel Cycle. It began operating with real radioactive wastes about 1 year ago, solidifying a total of 12 Ci of fission products into 2,02 Kg of borosilicate glass, corresponding to 757 ml of glass. During the vitrification many samples of liquid and gaseous streams have been taken and analyzed. A radioactivity balance in the plant has been calculated, as well as a mass balance of nitrates and of the 137 Cs and 106 Ru volatized in the process

  14. Production of uranium hexafluoride by the catalysed fluorox process: pilot plant and supporting bench-scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janov, J.; Charlton, B.G.; LePage, A.H.; Vilkaitis, V.K.

    1982-04-01

    The feasibility of producing UF 6 by the catalysed reaction of UF 4 with oxygen (the Fluorox process) was investigated in a 150 mm diameter fluidised bed reactor and in supporting bench-scale experiments. The rate of the Fluorox reaction in batch experiments was increased by an order of magnitude with 1 to 5 per cent catalyst (containing 3 to 4 per cent platinum on alumina). The maximum UF 6 production rate at 650 deg. C was 0.9 kg h -1 . However, the platinum catalyst was completely poisoned after production of only 1 and 20 kg UF 6 per kg of catalyst when using respectively French and British UF 4 . Regeneration of the catalyst was demonstrated to be technically feasible by washing with water or ammonium oxalate solution or treating with hydrogen and hydrogen fluoride at 350-650 deg. C. However, since the very fast rate of poisoning would necessitate higher catalyst concentrations and/or frequent regeneration, the catalysed Fluorox process in unlikely to be economically competitive with the direct fluorination of UF 4

  15. Bench-scale study of the effect of phosphate on an aerobic iron oxidation plant for mine water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tischler, Judith S; Wiacek, Claudia; Janneck, Eberhard; Schlömann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    At the opencast pit Nochten acidic iron- and sulfate-rich mine waters are treated biotechnologically in a mine-water treatment plant by microbial iron oxidation. Due to the low phosphate concentration in such waters the treatment plant was simulated in bench-scale to investigate the influence of addition of potassium dihydrogen phosphate on chemical and biological parameters of the mine-water treatment. As a result of the phosphate addition the number of cells increased, which resulted in an increase of the iron oxidation rate in the reactor with phosphate addition by a factor of 1.7 compared to a reference approach without phosphate addition. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis during the cultivation revealed a shift of the microbial community depending on the phosphate addition. While almost exclusively iron-oxidizing bacteria related to "Ferrovum" sp. were detected with phosphate addition, the microbial community was more diverse without phosphate addition. In the latter case, iron-oxidizing bacteria ("Ferrovum" sp., Acidithiobacillus spp.) as well as non-iron-oxidizing bacteria (Acidiphilium sp.) were identified. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otaño, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-11-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater.

  17. A comparison of large-scale electron beam and bench-scale 60Co irradiations of simulated aqueous waste streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurucz, Charles N.; Waite, Thomas D.; Otano, Suzana E.; Cooper, William J.; Nickelsen, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of using high energy electron beam irradiation for the removal of toxic organic chemicals from water and wastewater has been demonstrated by commercial-scale experiments conducted at the Electron Beam Research Facility (EBRF) located in Miami, Florida and elsewhere. The EBRF treats various waste and water streams up to 450 l min -1 (120 gal min -1 ) with doses up to 8 kilogray (kGy). Many experiments have been conducted by injecting toxic organic compounds into various plant feed streams and measuring the concentrations of compound(s) before and after exposure to the electron beam at various doses. Extensive experimentation has also been performed by dissolving selected chemicals in 22,700 l (6000 gal) tank trucks of potable water to simulate contaminated groundwater, and pumping the resulting solutions through the electron beam. These large-scale experiments, although necessary to demonstrate the commercial viability of the process, require a great deal of time and effort. This paper compares the results of large-scale electron beam irradiations to those obtained from bench-scale irradiations using gamma rays generated by a 60 Co source. Dose constants from exponential contaminant removal models are found to depend on the source of radiation and initial contaminant concentration. Possible reasons for observed differences such as a dose rate effect are discussed. Models for estimating electron beam dose constants from bench-scale gamma experiments are presented. Data used to compare the removal of organic compounds using gamma irradiation and electron beam irradiation are taken from the literature and a series of experiments designed to examine the effects of pH, the presence of turbidity, and initial concentration on the removal of various organic compounds (benzene, toluene, phenol, PCE, TCE and chloroform) from simulated groundwater

  18. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.

    2014-10-01

    A range of wastewaters and substrates were examined using mini microbial electrolysis cells (mini MECs) to see if they could be used to predict the performance of larger-scale cube MECs. COD removals and coulombic efficiencies corresponded well between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW) and domestic wastewaters (DW). Hydrogen was recovered from all samples in cube MECs, but gas composition and volume varied significantly between samples. Evidence for direct conversion of substrate to methane was observed with two of the industrial wastewater samples (IW-1 and IW-3). Overall, mini MECs provided organic treatment data that corresponded well with larger scale reactor results, and therefore it was concluded that they can be a useful platform for screening wastewater sources. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Runoff and sediment generation on bench -terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, A.I.J.M.; Bruijnzeel, L.A.; Vertessy, R.A.; Ruijter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha

  20. Bench-scale demonstration of treatment technologies for contaminated sediments in Sydney Tar Ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volchek, K.; Velicogna, D.; Punt, M.; Wong, B.; Weimer, L.; Tsangaris, A.; Brown, C.E.

    2003-01-01

    A series of bench-scale tests were conducted to determine the capabilities of selected commercially available technologies for treating contaminated sediments from the South Pond of Sydney Tar Ponds. This study was conducted under the umbrella of a technology demonstration program aimed at evaluating technologies to be used in the remediation of such sediments. The following approach was proposed by SAIC Canada for the treatment of the sediments: (1) solvent extraction for the removal of organic contaminants, (2) acid/chelant leaching for the removal of inorganic contaminants such as heavy metals, and (3) plasma hearth process for the destruction of toxic streams resulting from the first two processes. Solvent extraction followed by plasma treatment proved effective for removing and destroying organic contaminants. The removal of metals did not achieve the expected results through leaching. An approach was proposed for treating those sediments based on the results of the study. The approach differed depending on the level of organic content. An assessment of associated process costs for both a pilot-scale field demonstration and a full-scale treatment was provided. 11 tabs., 4 figs

  1. Opportunities for reactor scale experimental physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A reactor scale tokamak plasma will exhibit three areas of physics phenomenology not accessible by contemporary experimental facilities. These are: (1) instabilities generated by energetic alpha particles; (2) self-heating phenomena; and (3) reactor scale physics, which includes integration of diverse physics phenomena, each with its own scaling properties. In each area, selected examples are presented that demonstrate the importance and uniqueness of physics results from reactor scale facilities for both inductive and steady state reactor options. It is concluded that the physics learned in such investigations will be original physics not attainable with contemporary facilities. In principle, a reactor scale facility could have a good measure of flexibility to optimize the tokamak approach to magnetic fusion energy. (author)

  2. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  3. Environmental data from laboratory- and bench-scale Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting of Eastern oil shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mensinger, M.C.; Rue, D.M.; Roberts, M.J.

    1991-12-31

    As part of a 3-year program to develop the Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Hydroretorting (PFH) Process for Eastern oil shales, IGT conducted tests in laboratory-scale batch and continuous units as well as a 45-kg/h bench-scale unit to generate a data base for 6 Eastern shales. Data were collected during PFH processing of raw Alabama and Indiana shales and a beneficiated Indiana shale for environmental mitigation analyses. The data generated include trace element analyses of the raw feeds and spent shales, product oils, and sour waters. The sulfur compounds present in the product gas and trace components in the sour water were also determined. In addition, the leaching characteristics of the feed and residue solids were determined. The data obtained were used to evaluate the environmental impact of a shale processing plant based on the PFH process. This paper presents the environmental data obtained from bench-scale tests conducted during the program.

  4. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated

  5. Bench-Scale Evaluation of Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Conversion of Wastewater Solids to Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of hydrothermal treatment for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids. Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. Biocrude yields ranged from 25-37%. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating of biocrude resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to crude oil. CHG product gas methane yields on a carbon basis ranged from 47-64%. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below engine limits. The HTL-CHG process resulted in a chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction of > 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%.

  6. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-06-10

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that {sup 137}Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of {sup 137}Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions.

  7. 100 Area soil washing: Bench scale tests on 116-F-4 pluto crib soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a bench-scale treatability study on a pluto crib soil sample from 100 Area of the Hanford Site. The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of physical separation (wet sieving), treatment processes (attrition scrubbing, and autogenous surface grinding), and chemical extraction methods as a means of separating radioactively-contaminated soil fractions from uncontaminated soil fractions. The soil washing treatability study was conducted on a soil sample from the 116-F-4 Pluto Crib that had been dug up as part of an excavation treatability study. Trace element analyses of this soil showed no elevated concentrations above typically uncontaminated soil background levels. Data on the distribution of radionuclide in various size fractions indicated that the soil-washing tests should be focused on the gravel and sand fractions of the 116-F-4 soil. The radionuclide data also showed that 137 Cs was the only contaminant in this soil that exceeded the test performance goal (TPG). Therefore, the effectiveness of subsequent soil-washing tests for 116-F-4 soil was evaluated on the basis of activity attenuation of 137 Cs in the gravel- and sand-size fractions

  8. Continuous bench-scale slurry catalyst testing direct coal liquefaction rawhide sub-bituminous coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauman, R.F.; Coless, L.A.; Davis, S.M. [and others

    1995-12-31

    In 1992, the Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research to demonstrate a dispersed catalyst system using a combination of molybdenum and iron precursors for direct coal liquefaction. This dispersed catalyst system was successfully demonstrated using Black Thunder sub-bituminous coal at Wilsonville, Alabama by Southern Electric International, Inc. The DOE sponsored research continues at Exxon Research and Development Laboratories (ERDL). A six month continuous bench-scale program using ERDL`s Recycle Coal Liquefaction Unit (RCLU) is planned, three months in 1994 and three months in 1995. The initial conditions in RCLU reflect experience gained from the Wilsonville facility in their Test Run 263. Rawhide sub-bituminous coal which is similar to the Black Thunder coal tested at Wilsonville was used as the feed coal. A slate of five dispersed catalysts for direct coal liquefaction of Rawhide sub-bituminous coal has been tested. Throughout the experiments, the molybdenum addition rate was held constant at 100 wppm while the iron oxide addition rate was varied from 0.25 to 1.0 weight percent (dry coal basis). This report covers the 1994 operations and accomplishments.

  9. Treatment studies of plutonium-bearing INEEL waste surrogates in a bench-scale arc furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, C.J.

    1997-05-01

    Since 1989, the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory (INEEL) has been included on the National Priority List for remediation. Arc- and plasma-heated furnaces are being considered for converting the radioactive mixed waste buried in the SDA to a stabilized-vitreous form. Nonradioactive, surrogate SDA wastes have been melted during tests in these types of furnaces, but data are needed on the behavior of transuranic (TRU) constituents, primarily plutonium, during thermal treatment. To begin collecting this data, plutonium-spiked SDA surrogates were processed in a bench-scale arc furnace to quantify the fate of the plutonium and other hazardous and nonhazardous metals. Test conditions included elevating the organic, lead, chloride, and sodium contents of the surrogates. Blends having higher organic contents caused furnace power levels to fluctuate. An organic content corresponding to 50% INEEL soil in a soil-waste blend was the highest achievable before power fluctuations made operating conditions unacceptable. The glass, metal, and off-gas solids produced from each surrogate blend tested were analyzed for elemental (including plutonium) content and the partitioning of each element to the corresponding phase was calculated.

  10. Photocatalytic Treatment of Shower Water Using a Pilot Scale Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yash Boyjoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of shower water deserves special consideration for reuse not only because of its low pollutant loading but also because it is produced in large quantities. In this study, a pilot scale study of photocatalytic degradation of impurities in real shower water was performed in a 31 L volume reactor using titanium dioxide as the photocatalyst. The reactor was operated in a continuous slurry recirculation mode. Several operational parameters were studied including the slurry initial pH, catalyst concentration, air flow rate, and slurry recirculation rate. Up to 57% of total organic carbon (TOC elimination was obtained after 6 hours of treatment (for 3.0 slurry initial pH, 0.07 gL−1 catalyst concentration, 1.8 Lmin−1 air flow rate, and 4.4 Lmin−1 slurry recirculation rate. This study showed that photocatalysis could be successfully transposed from bench scale to pilot scale. Furthermore, the ease of operation and the potential to use solar energy make photocatalysis an attractive prospect with respect to treatment of grey water.

  11. Experience gained in bench scale and pilot scale fluidised bed processing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hadley, TD

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available of titanium dioxide. Expertise in the design and commissioning of industrial-scale plants has led to the supply (through licensees) of a biomass sludge incinerator/boiler generating 26t/h steam, a 20 MW high-sulphur pitch incinerator and a 12 MW fluidised bed...

  12. Cyanobacteria, Toxins and Indicators: Full-Scale Monitoring & Bench-Scale Treatment Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of: 1) Lake Erie 2014 bloom season full-scale treatment plant monitoring data for cyanobacteria and cyanobacteria toxins; 2) Follow-up work to examine the impact of pre-oxidation on suspensions of intact toxin-producing cyanobacterial cells.

  13. Results of bench-scale plasma system testing in support of the Plasma Hearth Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leatherman, G.L.; Cornelison, C.; Frank, S.

    1996-01-01

    The Plasma Hearth Process (PHP) is a high-temperature process that destroys hazardous organic components and stabilizes the radioactive components and hazardous metals in a leach-resistant vitreous slag waste form. The PHP technology development program is targeted at mixed waste that cannot be easily treated by conventional means. For example, heterogeneous debris, which may contain hazardous organics, toxic metals, and radionuclides, is difficult to characterize and cannot be treated with conventional thermal, chemical, or physical treatment methods. A major advantage of the PHP over other plasma processes is its ability to separate nonradioactive, non-hazardous metals from the non-metallic and radioactive components which are contained in the vitreous slag. The overall PHP program involves the design, fabrication, and operation of test hardware to demonstrate and certify that the PHP concept is viable for DOE waste treatment. The program involves bench-scale testing of PHP equipment in radioactive service, as well as pilot-scale demonstration of the PHP concept using nonradioactive, surrogate test materials. The fate of secondary waste streams is an important consideration for any technology considered for processing mixed waste. The main secondary waste stream generated by the PHP is flyash captured by the fabric- filter baghouse. The PHP concept is that flyash generated by the process can, to a large extent, be treated by processing this secondary waste stream in the PHP. Prior to the work presented in the paper, however, the PHP project has not quantitatively demonstrated the ability to treat PHP generated flyash. A major consideration is the quantity of radionuclides and RCRA-regulated metals in the flyash that can be retained the resultant waste form

  14. Bench-scale enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling of Hanford Tank C-106 Sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, K.P.; Myers, R.L.; Rappe, K.G.

    1997-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a bench-scale sludge pretreatment demonstration of the Hanford baseline flowsheet using liter-quantities of sludge from Hanford Site single-shell tank 241-C-106 (tank C-106). The leached and washed sludge from these tests provided Envelope D material for the contractors supporting Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Privatization. Pretreatment of the sludge included enhanced sludge washing and gravity settling tests and providing scale-up data for both these unit operations. Initial and final solids as well as decanted supernatants from each step of the process were analyzed chemically and radiochemically. The results of this work were compared to those of Lumetta et al. (1996a) who performed a similar experiment with 15 grams of C-106, sludge. A summary of the results are shown in Table S.1. Of the major nonradioactive components, those that were significantly removed with enhanced sludge washing included aluminum (31%), chromium (49%), sodium (57%), and phosphorus (35%). Of the radioactive components, a significant amount of 137 Cs (49%) were removed during the enhanced sludge wash. Only a very small fraction of the remaining radionuclides were removed, including 90 Sr (0.4%) and TRU elements (1.5%). These results are consistent with those of the screening test. All of the supernatants (both individually and as a blend) removed from these washing steps, once vitrified as LLW glasses (at 20 wt% Na 2 O), would be less than NRC Class C in TRU elements and less than NRC Class B in 90 Sr

  15. Catalytic multi-stage liquefaction of coal at HTI: Bench-scale studies in coal/waste plastics coprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, V.R.; Lee, L.K.; Stalzer, R.H. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The development of Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction (CMSL) at HTI has focused on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals using laboratory, bench and PDU scale operations. The crude oil equivalent cost of liquid fuels from coal has been curtailed to about $30 per barrel, thus achieving over 30% reduction in the price that was evaluated for the liquefaction technologies demonstrated in the late seventies and early eighties. Contrary to the common belief, the new generation of catalytic multistage coal liquefaction process is environmentally very benign and can produce clean, premium distillates with a very low (<10ppm) heteroatoms content. The HTI Staff has been involved over the years in process development and has made significant improvements in the CMSL processing of coals. A 24 month program (extended to September 30, 1995) to study novel concepts, using a continuous bench scale Catalytic Multi-Stage unit (30kg coal/day), has been initiated since December, 1992. This program consists of ten bench-scale operations supported by Laboratory Studies, Modelling, Process Simulation and Economic Assessments. The Catalytic Multi-Stage Liquefaction is a continuation of the second generation yields using a low/high temperature approach. This paper covers work performed between October 1994- August 1995, especially results obtained from the microautoclave support activities and the bench-scale operations for runs CMSL-08 and CMSL-09, during which, coal and the plastic components for municipal solid wastes (MSW) such as high density polyethylene (HDPE)m, polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), and polythylene terphthlate (PET) were coprocessed.

  16. Performance study of protective clothing against hot water splashes: from bench scale test to instrumented manikin test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yehu; Song, Guowen; Wang, Faming

    2015-03-01

    Hot liquid hazards existing in work environments are shown to be a considerable risk for industrial workers. In this study, the predicted protection from fabric was assessed by a modified hot liquid splash tester. In these tests, conditions with and without an air spacer were applied. The protective performance of a garment exposed to hot water spray was investigated by a spray manikin evaluation system. Three-dimensional body scanning technique was used to characterize the air gap size between the protective clothing and the manikin skin. The relationship between bench scale test and manikin test was discussed and the regression model was established to predict the overall percentage of skin burn while wearing protective clothing. The results demonstrated strong correlations between bench scale test and manikin test. Based on these studies, the overall performance of protective clothing against hot water spray can be estimated on the basis of the results of the bench scale hot water splashes test and the information of air gap size entrapped in clothing. The findings provide effective guides for the design and material selection while developing high performance protective clothing. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society 2014.

  17. Bench-scale arc melter for R ampersand D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800 degrees C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter's ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions

  18. Bioleaching of heavy metals from soil using fungal-organic acids : bench scale testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathum, S.J.; Ousmanova, D.; Somers, A.; Punt, M. [SAIC Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada); Brown, C.E. [Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Emergencies Engineering Division]|[Environment Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Environmental Technology Centre

    2006-07-01

    The ability of fungi to solubilize metals from solid materials may present new opportunities in environmental remediation. This paper presented details of a bench scale experiment that evaluated the leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soil using in situ fungal-generated organic acids. Rice was used as the growing media for organic acid production by A. foetidus. The cultivated fungus was placed on large pieces of potato-dextrose agar (PDA) plates and suspended in 5 L of sterilized water. The cooked rice was inoculated by pouring the 5 L spore suspension over the rice layer. Soil was obtained from a soil pile impacted with heavy metals at a private industrial site and augmented with Pb-contaminated soil. A polyethylene tub was used with a drain pipe leading to a leachate vessel. Crushed stone was spread over the bottom of the tub to assist leachate drainage. Approximately 45 kg of the contaminated soil was spread evenly over the stone layer to a depth of 10 cm. The concentrated spore suspension was sprinkled over the rice. Each week the leachate collection vessel was removed from the bioleaching system and the fine soil particles were allowed to settle. A control was run using the contaminated soil and solid substrate without fungus. Growth of A. foetidus was observed in both control experiment and test experiment after a period of 35 days. The pH of the leachate was measured as the fungal growth progressed. The process was assessed using ICP Mass Spectroscopy and electron spectroscopy, which showed that approximately 65 g of heavy metals were mobilized from 45 kg of soil, and that the biological leaching process resulted in greater mobilization of heavy metals relative to the control experiment. It was concluded that organic acids generated by A. foetidus were capable of leaching heavy metals from the soil. 30 refs., 4 tabs., 15 figs.

  19. Bench-scale experimental determination of the thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryder, E.E.; Finley, R.E.; George, J.T.; Ho, C.K.; Longenbaugh, R.S.; Connolly, J.R.

    1996-06-01

    A bench-scale experiment was designed and constructed to determine the effective thermal diffusivity of crushed tuff. Crushed tuff particles ranging from 12.5 mm to 37.5 mm (0.5 in. to 1.5 in.) were used to fill a cylindrical volume of 1.58 m 3 at an effective porosity of 0.48. Two iterations of the experiment were completed; the first spanning approximately 502 hours and the second 237 hours. Temperatures near the axial heater reached 700 degrees C, with a significant volume of the test bed exceeding 100 degrees C. Three post-test analysis techniques were used to estimate the thermal diffusivity of the crushed tuff. The first approach used nonlinear parameter estimation linked to a one dimensional radial conduction model to estimate thermal diffusivity from the first 6 hours of test data. The second method used the multiphase TOUGH2 code in conjunction with the first 20 hours of test data not only to estimate the crushed tuffs thermal diffusivity, but also to explore convective behavior within the test bed. Finally, the nonlinear conduction code COYOTE-II was used to determine thermal properties based on 111 hours of cool-down data. The post-test thermal diffusivity estimates of 5.0 x 10-7 m 2 /s to 6.6 x 10-7 m 2 /s were converted to effective thermal conductivities and compared to estimates obtained from published porosity-based relationships. No obvious match between the experimental data and published relationships was found to exist; however, additional data for other particle sizes and porosities are needed

  20. Bench-Scale Silicone Process for Low-Cost CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fresia, Megan; Vogt, Kirk

    2013-12-31

    GE Global Research is developing technology to remove carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. A mixture of 3-aminopropyl end-capped polydimethylsiloxane (GAP-1m) and triethylene glycol (TEG) is the preferred CO{sub 2} capture solvent. GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to test a bench-scale continuous CO{sub 2} absorption/desorption system using a GAP-1m/TEG mixture as the solvent. SiVance LLC was sub-contracted to provide the GAP-1m material and conduct an Environmental, Health, and Safety (EH&S) assessment for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. Five components of the solvent, CAS#2469-55-8 (GAP-0), CAS#106214-84-0 (GAP-1-4), TEG, and methanol and xylene (minor contaminants from the aminosilicone) are included in this assessment. One by-product, GAP-1m/SOX salt, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA) were also identified for analysis. All of the solvent components and DDBSA are listed on the EPA’s TSCA Inventory allowing companies to manufacture and use the chemicals commercially. The toxicological effects of each component were defined, and control mechanisms necessary to comply with U.S. EH&S regulations are summarized. An engineering and control system, including environmental abatement, was described for minimizing exposure and release of the chemical components. Proper handling and storage recommendations are made for each chemical to minimize risk to workers and the surrounding community.

  1. Bench-scale arc melter for R&D in thermal treatment of mixed wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kong, P.C.; Grandy, J.D.; Watkins, A.D.; Eddy, T.L.; Anderson, G.L.

    1993-05-01

    A small dc arc melter was designed and constructed to run bench-scale investigations on various aspects of development for high-temperature (1,500-1,800{degrees}C) processing of simulated transuranic-contaminated waste and soil located at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC). Several recent system design and treatment studies have shown that high-temperature melting is the preferred treatment. The small arc melter is needed to establish techniques and procedures (with surrogates) prior to using a similar melter with the transuranic-contaminated wastes in appropriate facilities at the site. This report documents the design and construction, starting and heating procedures, and tests evaluating the melter`s ability to process several waste types stored at the RWMC. It is found that a thin graphite strip provides reliable starting with initial high current capability for partially melting the soil/waste mixture. The heating procedure includes (1) the initial high current-low voltage mode, (2) a low current-high voltage mode that commences after some slag has formed and arcing dominates over the receding graphite conduction path, and (3) a predominantly Joule heating mode during which the current can be increased within the limits to maintain relatively quiescent operation. Several experiments involving the melting of simulated wastes are discussed. Energy balance, slag temperature, and electrode wear measurements are presented. Recommendations for further refinements to enhance its processing capabilities are identified. Future studies anticipated with the arc melter include waste form processing development; dissolution, retention, volatilization, and collection for transuranic and low-level radionuclides, as well as high vapor pressure metals; electrode material development to minimize corrosion and erosion; refractory corrosion and/or skull formation effects; crucible or melter geometry; metal oxidation; and melt reduction/oxidation (redox) conditions.

  2. Bench-Scale Evaluation of the Genifuel Hydrothermal Processing Technology for Wastewater Solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marrone, Philip A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; Billing, Justin M.; Hallen, Richard T.; Hart, Todd R.; Kadota, Paul; Moeller, Jeff C.; Randel, Margaaret A.; Schmidt, Andrew J.

    2017-10-03

    Hydrothermal Liquefaction (HTL) and Catalytic Hydrothermal Gasification (CHG) proof-of-concept bench-scale tests were performed to assess the potential of the Genifuel hydrothermal process technology for handling municipal wastewater sludge. HTL tests were conducted at 300-350°C and 20 MPa on three different feeds: primary sludge (11.9 wt% solids), secondary sludge (9.7 wt% solids), and post-digester sludge (also referred to as digested solids) (16.0 wt% solids). Corresponding CHG tests were conducted at 350°C and 20 MPa on the HTL aqueous phase output using a ruthenium based catalyst. A comprehensive analysis of all feed and effluent phases was also performed. Total mass and carbon balances closed to within ± 15% in all but one case. Biocrude yields from HTL tests were 37%, 25%, and 34% for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. The biocrude yields accounted for 59%, 39%, and 49% of the carbon in the feed for primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids feeds, respectively. Biocrude composition and quality were comparable to that seen with biocrudes generated from algae feeds. Subsequent hydrotreating (i.e., upgrading) of the biocrude produced from primary sludge and digested solids resulted in a product with comparable physical and chemical properties to petroleum crude oil. CHG product gas consisted primarily of methane, with methane yields (relative to CHG input) on a carbon basis of 47%, 61%, and 64% for aqueous feeds that were the output of HTL tests with primary sludge, secondary sludge, and digested solids, respectively. Siloxane concentrations in the CHG product gas were below the detection limit and well below fuel input composition limits set by several engine manufacturers. Relative to that of the sludge feeds, the HTL-CHG process resulted in a reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) of greater than 99.9% and a reduction in residual solids for disposal of 94-99%. The test results, as a whole, support

  3. Bench Scale Thin Film Composite Hollow Fiber Membranes for Post-Combustion Carbon Dioxide Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glaser, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Bhandari, Dhaval [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Narang, Kristi [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); McCloskey, Pat [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Singh, Surinder [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Ananthasayanam, Balajee [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Howson, Paul [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Lee, Julia [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Wroczynski, Ron [General Electric Global Research, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Stewart, Frederick [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Orme, Christopher [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Klaehn, John [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McNally, Joshua [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Rownaghi, Ali [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lu, Liu [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Koros, William [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Goizueta, Roberto [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Sethi, Vijay [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States)

    2015-04-01

    GE Global Research, Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech), and Western Research Institute (WRI) proposed to develop high performance thin film polymer composite hollow fiber membranes and advanced processes for economical post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2) capture from pulverized coal flue gas at temperatures typical of existing flue gas cleanup processes. The project sought to develop and then optimize new gas separations membrane systems at the bench scale, including tuning the properties of a novel polyphosphazene polymer in a coating solution and fabricating highly engineered porous hollow fiber supports. The project also sought to define the processes needed to coat the fiber support to manufacture composite hollow fiber membranes with high performance, ultra-thin separation layers. Physical, chemical, and mechanical stability of the materials (individual and composite) towards coal flue gas components was considered via exposure and performance tests. Preliminary design, technoeconomic, and economic feasibility analyses were conducted to evaluate the overall performance and impact of the process on the cost of electricity (COE) for a coal-fired plant including capture technologies. At the onset of the project, Membranes based on coupling a novel selective material polyphosphazene with an engineered hollow fiber support was found to have the potential to capture greater than 90% of the CO2 in flue gas with less than 35% increase in COE, which would achieve the DOE-targeted performance criteria. While lab-scale results for the polyphosphazene materials were very promising, and the material was incorporated into hollow-fiber modules, difficulties were encountered relating to the performance of these membrane systems over time. Performance, as measured by both flux of and selectivity for CO2 over other flue gas constituents was found to deteriorate over time, suggesting a system that was

  4. Particle bed reactor scaling relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slovik, G.; Araj, K.; Horn, F. L.; Ludewig, H.; Benenati, R.

    The Particle Bed Reactor (PBR) concept can be used in several applications both as part of a power generating system or as a direct propulsion unit. In order to carry out optimization studies of systems involving a PBR, it is necessary to know the variation of the critical mass with pertinent system parameters such as weight, size, power level and thrust level. A parametric study is presented for all the practical combinations of fuel and moderating material. The PBR is described, the practical combinations of materials and dimensions are discussed, and an example is presented.

  5. Scaling laws for modeling nuclear reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nahavandi, A.N.; Castellana, F.S.; Moradkhanian, E.N.

    1979-01-01

    Scale models are used to predict the behavior of nuclear reactor systems during normal and abnormal operation as well as under accident conditions. Three types of scaling procedures are considered: time-reducing, time-preserving volumetric, and time-preserving idealized model/prototype. The necessary relations between the model and the full-scale unit are developed for each scaling type. Based on these relationships, it is shown that scaling procedures can lead to distortion in certain areas that are discussed. It is advised that, depending on the specific unit to be scaled, a suitable procedure be chosen to minimize model-prototype distortion

  6. Loading Intensity Prediction by Velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 Scale in Bench Press.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-02-01

    Naclerio, F and Larumbe-Zabala, E. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale in bench press. J Strength Cond Res 32(1): 323-329, 2017-This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press (BP) exercise. A total of 308 young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 men and 66 women) performed a progressive strength test up to the one repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity (AV) and the OMNI-Resistance Exercise Scales (OMNI-RES 0-10 scale), considering sets as the time-related variable. Load associated with the AV and the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value expressed after performing a set of 1-3 repetitions were used to construct 2 adjusted predictive equations: Relative load = 107.75 - 62.97 × average velocity; and Relative load = 29.03 + 7.26 × OMNI-RES 0-10 scale value. The 2 models were capable of estimating the relative load with an accuracy of 84 and 93%, respectively. These findings confirm the ability of the 2 calculated regression models, using load-velocity and load-exertion from the OMNI-RES 0-10 scale, to accurately predict strength performance in BP.

  7. Numerical analysis and scale experiment design of the hot water layer system of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Fernando Lage Araújo

    2014-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) consists in a 30 MW open pool research reactor and its design is currently in development. The RMB is intended to produce a neutron flux applied at material irradiation for radioisotope production and materials and nuclear fuel tests. The reactor is immersed in a deep water pool needed for radiation shielding and thermal protection. A heating and purifying system is applied in research reactors with high thermal power in order to create a Hot Water Layer (HWL) on the pool top preventing that contaminated water from the reactor core neighboring reaches its surface reducing the room radiation dose rate. This dissertation presents a study of the HWL behavior during the reactor operation first hours where perturbations due to the cooling system and pool heating induce a mixing flow in the HWL reducing its protection. Numerical simulations using the CFD code CFX 14.0 have been performed for theoretical dose rate estimation during reactor operation, for a 1/10 scaled down model using dimensional analysis and mesh testing as an initial verification of the commercial code application. Equipment and sensor needed for an experimental bench project were defined by the CFD numerical simulation. (author)

  8. EFRT M12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2009-08-14

    20 wt% solids using cross-flow ultrafiltration before the addition of caustic. For wastes that have significantly high chromium content, the caustic leaching and slurry dewatering is followed by adding sodium permanganate to UFP-VSL-T02A, and the slurry is subjected to oxidative leaching at nominally ambient temperature. The purpose of the oxidative leaching is to selectively oxidize the poorly alkaline-soluble Cr(III) believed to be the insoluble form in Hanford tank sludge to the much more alkaline-soluble Cr(VI), e.g., chromate. The work described in this report provides the test results that are related to the efficiency of the oxidative leaching process to support process modeling based on tests performed with a Hanford waste simulant. The tests were completed both at the lab-bench scale and in the PEP. The purpose of this report is to summarize the results from both scales that are related to oxidative leaching chemistry to support a scale factor for the submodels to be used in the G2 model, which predicts WTP operating performance. Owing to schedule constraints, the PEP test data to be included in this report are limited to those from Integrated Tests A (T01 A/B caustic leaching) and B (T02A caustic leaching).

  9. Kinetics experiments and bench-scale system: Background, design, and preliminary experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rofer, C.K.

    1987-10-01

    The project, Supercritical Water Oxidation of Hazardous Chemical Waste, is a Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP) Research and Development task being carried out by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Its objective is to obtain information for use in understanding the basic technology and for scaling up and applying oxidation in supercritical water as a viable process for treating a variety of DOE-DP waste streams. This report gives the background and rationale for kinetics experiments on oxidation in supercritical water being carried out as a part of this HAZWRAP Research and Development task. It discusses supercritical fluid properties and their relevance to applying this process to the destruction of hazardous wastes. An overview is given of the small emerging industry based on applications of supercritical water oxidation. Factors that could lead to additional applications are listed. Modeling studies are described as a basis for the experimental design. The report describes plug flow reactor and batch reactor systems, and presents preliminary results. 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs

  10. Comparison of complex effluent treatability in different bench scale microbial electrolysis cells

    KAUST Repository

    Ullery, Mark L.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    between the two reactor designs for individual samples, with 66-92% of COD removed for all samples. Current generation was consistent between the reactor types for acetate (AC) and fermentation effluent (FE) samples, but less consistent with industrial (IW

  11. Treatment of waste gas containing low concentration of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) in a bench-scale biofilter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, B S; Mudliar, S N; Deshmukh, S C; Banerjee, S; Pandey, R A

    2010-04-01

    Biological treatment of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) was investigated in a bench-scale biofilter, packed with compost along with wood chips, and enriched with DMS degrading microorganism Bacillus sphaericus. The biofilter could remove 62-74% of the inlet DMS, at an optimum loading of 0.484 g/m(3)/h with optimum empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 384 s and an average moisture range of 65-70%. The biodegradative products of DMS were sulphide, thiosulphate and sulphate. Evaluation of microbiological status of the biofilter indicated the presence of other bacterial cultures viz. Paenibacillus polymyxa, and Bacillus megaterium, besides B. sphaericus. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermochemical water-splitting cycle, bench-scale investigations and process engineering. Annual report, October 1, 1978-September 30, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caprioglio, G.; McCorkle, K.H.; Besenbruch, G.E.; Rode, J.S.

    1980-03-01

    A program to investigate thermochemical water splitting has been under way at General Atomic Company (GA) since October 1972. This document is an annual progress report of Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored process development work on the GA sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting cycle. The work consisted of laboratory bench-scale investigations, demonstration of the process in a closed-loop cycle demonstrator, and process engineering design studies. A bench-scale system, consisting of three subunits, has been designed to study the cycle under continuous flow conditions. The designs of subunit I, which models the main solution reaction and product separation, and subunit II, which models the concentration and decomposition of sulfuric acid, were presented in an earlier annual report. The design of subunit III, which models the purification and decomposition of hydrogen iodide, is given in this report. Progress on the installation and operation of subunits I and II is described. A closed-loop cycle demonstrator was installed and operated based on a DOE request. Operation of the GA sulfur-iodine cycle was demonstrated in this system under recycle conditions. The process engineering addresses the flowsheet design of a large-scale production process consisting of four chemical sections (I through IV) and one helium heat supply section (V). The completed designs for sections I through V are presented. The thermal efficiency of the process calculated from the present flowsheet is 47%.

  13. Correlation between mass transfer coefficient kLa and relevant operating parameters in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors on a bench-to-pilot scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klöckner, Wolf; Gacem, Riad; Anderlei, Tibor; Raven, Nicole; Schillberg, Stefan; Lattermann, Clemens; Büchs, Jochen

    2013-12-02

    Among disposable bioreactor systems, cylindrical orbitally shaken bioreactors show important advantages. They provide a well-defined hydrodynamic flow combined with excellent mixing and oxygen transfer for mammalian and plant cell cultivations. Since there is no known universal correlation between the volumetric mass transfer coefficient for oxygen kLa and relevant operating parameters in such bioreactor systems, the aim of this current study is to experimentally determine a universal kLa correlation. A Respiration Activity Monitoring System (RAMOS) was used to measure kLa values in cylindrical disposable shaken bioreactors and Buckingham's π-Theorem was applied to define a dimensionless equation for kLa. In this way, a scale- and volume-independent kLa correlation was developed and validated in bioreactors with volumes from 2 L to 200 L. The final correlation was used to calculate cultivation parameters at different scales to allow a sufficient oxygen supply of tobacco BY-2 cell suspension cultures. The resulting equation can be universally applied to calculate the mass transfer coefficient for any of seven relevant cultivation parameters such as the reactor diameter, the shaking frequency, the filling volume, the viscosity, the oxygen diffusion coefficient, the gravitational acceleration or the shaking diameter within an accuracy range of +/- 30%. To our knowledge, this is the first kLa correlation that has been defined and validated for the cited bioreactor system on a bench-to-pilot scale.

  14. Removal of 226Ra from tailings pond effluents and stabilization of uranium mine tailings. Bench and pilot scale studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidtke, N.W.; Averill, D.; Bryant, D.N.; Wilkinson, P.; Schmidt, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    Increased world demand for uranium has resulted in recent expansion of Canadian uranium mining operations. Problems have been identified with the discharge of radionuclides such as 226 Ra from tailings pond effluents and with the stabilization of mine tailings. At Environment Canada's Wastewater Technology Centre (WTC) two projects were undertaken in cooperation with the Canadian Uranium Mining Industry and other federal government agencies to address these problems. The first project reports on the progress of bench and pilot scale process simulations for the development of a data base for the design of a full scale mechanical physical/chemical 226 Ra removal waste treatment system with an effluent target level of 10 pCi 226 Ra total per litre. The second project addresses problems of the leachability of radionuclides and the stabilization of both uranium mine tailings and BaRaSO 4 sediments from the treatment of acid seepages

  15. The use of bench- and field-scale data for design of an in situ carbon tetrachloride bioremediation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyton, B.M.; Truex, M.J.; Skeen, R.S.

    1995-04-01

    A suite of simulation models were developed as a design tool in support of an in situ bioremediation demonstration at the Hanford site in Washington state. The design tool, calibrated with field - and bench-scale data, was used to answer four field-scale system design questions: (1) What are the important reaction processes and kinetics? (2) How will biomass distribute in the aquifer in response to injected substrate? (3) What well configuration best ensures proper nutrient transport and process control? (4) What operating and monitoring strategy should be used to confirm effective remediation? This paper does not describe the design tool itself, but describes how the design tool was used to optimize field site design parameters such as well spacing, hydraulic control, contaminant destruction, and nutrient injection strategies

  16. Runoff and sediment generation on bench-terraced hillsides: measurements and up-scaling of a field-based model

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dijk, A. I. J. M.; Bruijnzeel, L. A.; Vertessy, R. A.; Ruijter, J.

    2005-05-01

    Despite widespread bench-terracing, stream sediment yields from agricultural hillsides in upland West Java remain high. We studied the causes of this lack of effect by combining measurements at different spatial scales using an erosion process model. Event runoff and sediment yield from two 4-ha terraced hillside subcatchments were measured and field surveys of land use, bench-terrace geometry and storage of sediment in the drainage network were conducted for two consecutive years. Runoff was 3.0-3.9% of rainfall and sediment yield was 11-30 t ha-1 yr-1 for different years, subcatchments and calculation techniques. Sediment storage changes in the subcatchment drainage network were less than 2 t ha-1, whereas an additional 0.3-1.5 t ha-1 was stored in the gully between the subcatchment flumes and the main stream. This suggests mean annual sediment delivery ratios of 86-125%, or 80-104% if this additional storage is included. The Terrace Erosion and Sediment Transport (TEST) model developed and validated for the studied environment was parameterized using erosion plot studies, land use surveys and digital terrain analysis to simulate runoff and sediment generation on the terraced hillsides. This resulted in over-estimates of runoff and under-estimates of runoff sediment concentration. Relatively poor model performance was attributed to sample bias in the six erosion plots used for model calibration and unaccounted covariance between important terrain attributes such as slope, infiltration capacity, soil conservation works and vegetation cover.

  17. Experimental and modelling studies on continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel in a dedicated bench scale unit using centrifugal contactor separator technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; Martinez, Alberto Fernandez; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    Continuous synthesis and refining of biodiesel (FAME) using a laboratory scale bench scale unit was explored. The unit consists of three major parts: (i) a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) to perform the reaction between sunflower oil and methanol; (ii) a washing unit for the crude

  18. Bench-Scale Development of a Non-Aqueous Solvent (NAS) CO2 Capture Process for Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lail, Marty

    2017-09-12

    The project aimed to advance RTI’s non-aqueous amine solvent technology by improving the solvent to reduce volatility, demonstrating long-term continuous operation at lab- (0.5 liters solvent) and bench-scale (~120 liters solvent), showing low reboiler heat duty measured during bench-scale testing, evaluating degradation products, building a rate-based process model, and evaluating the techno-economic performance of the process. The project team (RTI, SINTEF, Linde Engineering) and the technology performed well in each area of advancement. The modifications incorporated throughout the project enabled the attainment of target absorber and regenerator conditions for the process. Reboiler duties below 2,000 kJt/kg CO2 were observed in a bench-scale test unit operated at RTI.

  19. Scaling: From quanta to nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Novak, E-mail: rohatgi@bnl.go [703 New Mark Esplanade, Rockville, MD 20850 (United States)

    2010-08-15

    This paper has three objectives. The first objective is to show how the Einstein-de Broglie equation (EdB) can be extended to model and scale, via fractional scaling, both conservative and dissipative processes ranging in scale from quanta to nuclear reactors. The paper also discusses how and why a single equation and associated fractional scaling method generate for each process of change the corresponding scaling criterion. The versatility and capability of fractional scaling are demonstrated by applying it to: (a) particle dynamics, (b) conservative (Bernoulli) and dissipative (hydraulic jump) flows, (c) viscous and turbulent flows through rough and smooth pipes, and (d) momentum diffusion in a semi-infinite medium. The capability of fractional scaling to scale a process over a vast range of temporal and spatial scales is demonstrated by applying it to fluctuating processes. The application shows that the modeling of fluctuations in fluid mechanics is analogous to that in relativistic quantum field theory. Thus, Kolmogorov dissipation frequency and length are the analogs of the characteristic time and length of quantum fluctuations. The paper briefly discusses the applicability of the fractional scaling approach (FSA) to nanotechnology and biology. It also notes the analogy between FSA and the approach used to scale polymers. These applications demonstrate the power of scaling as well as the validity of Pierre-Gilles de Gennes' ideas concerning scaling, analogies and simplicity. They also demonstrate the usefulness and efficiency of his approach to solving scientific problems. The second objective is to note and discuss the benefits of applying FSA to NPP technology. The third objective is to present a state of the art assessment of thermal-hydraulics (T/H) capabilities and needs relevant to NPP.

  20. Scaling: From quanta to nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Novak

    2010-01-01

    This paper has three objectives. The first objective is to show how the Einstein-de Broglie equation (EdB) can be extended to model and scale, via fractional scaling, both conservative and dissipative processes ranging in scale from quanta to nuclear reactors. The paper also discusses how and why a single equation and associated fractional scaling method generate for each process of change the corresponding scaling criterion. The versatility and capability of fractional scaling are demonstrated by applying it to: (a) particle dynamics, (b) conservative (Bernoulli) and dissipative (hydraulic jump) flows, (c) viscous and turbulent flows through rough and smooth pipes, and (d) momentum diffusion in a semi-infinite medium. The capability of fractional scaling to scale a process over a vast range of temporal and spatial scales is demonstrated by applying it to fluctuating processes. The application shows that the modeling of fluctuations in fluid mechanics is analogous to that in relativistic quantum field theory. Thus, Kolmogorov dissipation frequency and length are the analogs of the characteristic time and length of quantum fluctuations. The paper briefly discusses the applicability of the fractional scaling approach (FSA) to nanotechnology and biology. It also notes the analogy between FSA and the approach used to scale polymers. These applications demonstrate the power of scaling as well as the validity of Pierre-Gilles de Gennes' ideas concerning scaling, analogies and simplicity. They also demonstrate the usefulness and efficiency of his approach to solving scientific problems. The second objective is to note and discuss the benefits of applying FSA to NPP technology. The third objective is to present a state of the art assessment of thermal-hydraulics (T/H) capabilities and needs relevant to NPP.

  1. Degradation of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons under bench-scale compost conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potter, C.L.; Glaser, J.A.; Chang, L.W.; Meier, J.R.; Dosani, M.A.; Herrmann, R.F. [US Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

    1999-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are a concern at many sites, including wood-treating facilities and manufactured gas plants. This research sought to evaluate the relationship between aerobic biomass development and removal of 19 individual PAHs and toxicity from field soil during the composting process in in-vessel reactors located at the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Test & Evaluation (T & E) Facility in Cincinnati, OH. Five compost amendment conditions were formulated from different nutrients or amendments to the reactor mixtures. Operating parameters of interest included aeration, moisture dynamics, and heat production. Toxicity tests were conducted to evaluate the effect of composting on soil toxicity. Seed germination and root elongation tests were evaluated in lettuce and oats, and genotoxicity (mitotic abberations) testing was performed on Allium cepa (onion). Composting of PAH contaminated soil decreased toxicity to earthworms and oat roots but had no significant effect on lettuce root toxicity. Untreated soil evoked genotoxicity in the Allium assay. After composting, no significant genotoxicity was observed in Reilly soil. 35 refs., 5 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Copper recovery in a bench-scale carrier facilitated tubular supported liquid membrane system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makaka S.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of copper ions in a tubular supported liquid membrane using LIX 984NC as a mobile carrier was studied, evaluating the effect of the feed characteristics (flowrate, density, viscosity on the feedside laminar layer of the membrane. A vertical countercurrent, double pipe perspex benchscale reactor consisting of a single hydrophobic PVDF tubular membrane mounted inside was used in all test work. The membrane was impregnated with LIX 984NC and became the support for this organic transport medium. Dilute Copper solution passed through the centre pipe and sulphuric acid as strippant passed through the shell side. Copper was successfully transported from the feedside to the stripside and from the data obtained, a relationship between Schmidt, Reynolds and Sherwood number was achieved of.

  3. Scaling of reactor cavity wall loads and stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohachevsky, I.O.

    1977-11-01

    Scalings of reactor cavity wall loads and stresses are determined by deriving an analytic expression in terms of relevant parameters for each loading induced in the reactor cavity walls by fuel pellet microexplosion and by deriving associated expressions relating resulting stresses to shell thicknesses. Also identified are problems that require additional investigations to obtain satisfactory explicit stress estimates for the reactor cavity walls

  4. Evaluation of effluents from bench-scale treatment combinations for landfill leachate in Ibadan, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, Olufemi Oludare; Sridhar, Mkc

    2014-01-01

    The removal of pollutants in landfill leachate was investigated using constructed wetlands, a trickling filter, alum flocculation and coagulation, and a sequencing batch reactor in various combinations. Thirteen combined operations were investigated involving three out of the four unit treatment methods in series. The study was conducted because unit operations, though achieved reductions in pollutants concentrations had effluent values above the national regulatory guideline values. The suspended solids of effluents were permissible in most treatment processes, while reductions in 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia (NH3) of leachates ranged from 80% to 97%; 86% to 97% and 92% to 98% respectively. However, there were significant increases in nitrate (85%) and dissolved oxygen of treatment (218%). In addition, the characteristics of the recommended treatment sequence, involving constructed wetlands, alum and trickling filter produced effluents with reductions in colour (97%), alkalinity (97%), BOD (97%), COD (97%) and NH3 (98%), and in metals, except nickel (29% reduction from the influent values). The recommended treatment combination is suitable for effective leachate management at the landfill. The cost of constructing and operating the recommended treatment combination at the facility, for 5 years, would be NGN6,009,750.00 ($38,036.39). The performance should be monitored on site prior to full adoption if effluent characteristics remain consistently low over dry and wet seasons.

  5. Comparison of glassy slag waste forms produced in laboratory crucibles and in a bench-scale plasma furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, X.; Wronkiewicz, D.J.; Brown, N.R.; Gong, M.; Whitworth, C.; Filius, K.; Battleson, D.

    1994-01-01

    Vitrification is currently the best demonstrated available technology for the disposal of high-level radioactive wastes. An innovative vitrification approach known as minimum additive waste stabilization (MAWS) is being developed. Both homogeneous glass and glassy slags have been used in implementing MAWS. Glassy slags (vitro-ceramics) are glass-crystal composites, and they are composed of various metal oxide crystalline phases embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix. Glassy slags with compositions developed in crucible melts at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) were successfully produced in a bench-scale Retech plasma centrifugal furnace (PCF) by MSE, Inc. Detailed examinations of these materials showed that the crucible melts and the PCF produced similar glass and crystalline phases. The two sets of glassy slags exhibited similar chemical durability in terms of normalized releases of their major components. The slags produced in the PCF furnace using metals were usually less oxidized, although this had no effect on the corrosion behavior of the major components of the slags. However, the normalized release rate of cerium was initially lower for the PCF slags. This difference diminished with time as the redox sates of the metal oxides in slags began to be controlled by exposure to air in the tests. Thus, the deference in cerium release due to the differences in slag redox state may be transitory. The cerium solubility is a complex function of redox state and solution pH and Eh

  6. Passive flux meter measurement of water and nutrient flux in saturated porous media: bench-scale laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jaehyun; Annable, Michael D; Jawitz, James W; Hatfield, Kirk

    2007-01-01

    The passive nutrient flux meter (PNFM) is introduced for simultaneous measurement of both water and nutrient flux through saturated porous media. The PNFM comprises a porous sorbent pre-equilibrated with a suite of alcohol tracers, which have different partitioning coefficients. Water flux was estimated based on the loss of loaded resident tracers during deployment, while nutrient flux was quantified based on the nutrient solute mass captured on the sorbent. An anionic resin, Lewatit 6328 A, was used as a permeable sorbent and phosphate (PO4(3-)) was the nutrient studied. The phosphate sorption capacity of the resin was measured in batch equilibration tests as 56 mg PO4(3-) g(-1), which was determined to be adequate capacity to retain PO4(3-) loads intercepted over typical PNFM deployment periods in most natural systems. The PNFM design was validated with bench-scale laboratory tests for a range of 9.8 to 28.3 cm d(-1) Darcy velocities and 6 to 43 h deployment durations. Nutrient and water fluxes measured by the PNFM averaged within 6 and 12% of the applied values, respectively, indicating that the PNFM shows promise as a tool for simultaneous measurement of water and nutrient fluxes.

  7. In-situ biogas upgrading during anaerobic digestion of food waste amended with walnut shell biochar at bench scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linville, Jessica L; Shen, Yanwen; Ignacio-de Leon, Patricia A; Schoene, Robin P; Urgun-Demirtas, Meltem

    2017-06-01

    A modified version of an in-situ CO 2 removal process was applied during anaerobic digestion of food waste with two types of walnut shell biochar at bench scale under batch operating mode. Compared with the coarse walnut shell biochar, the fine walnut shell biochar has a higher ash content (43 vs. 36 wt%) and higher concentrations of calcium (31 vs. 19 wt% of ash), magnesium (8.4 vs. 5.6 wt% of ash) and sodium (23.4 vs. 0.3 wt% of ash), but a lower potassium concentration (0.2 vs. 40% wt% of ash). The 0.96-3.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters produced biogas with 77.5%-98.1% CH 4 content by removing 40%-96% of the CO 2 compared with the control digesters at mesophilic and thermophilic temperature conditions. In a direct comparison at 1.83 g biochar (g VS added ) -1 , the fine walnut shell biochar amended digesters (85.7% CH 4 content and 61% CO 2 removal) outperformed the coarse walnut shell biochar amended digesters (78.9% CH 4 content and 51% CO 2 removal). Biochar addition also increased alkalinity as CaCO 3 from 2800 mg L -1 in the control digesters to 4800-6800 mg L -1 , providing process stability for food waste anaerobic digestion.

  8. PNNL Report on the Development of Bench-scale CFD Simulations for Gas Absorption across a Wetted Wall Column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao; Xu, Zhijie; Lai, Canhai; Whyatt, Greg A.; Marcy, Peter; Gattiker, J. R.; Sun, Xin

    2016-05-01

    This report is prepared for the demonstration of hierarchical prediction of carbon capture efficiency of a solvent-based absorption column. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is first developed to simulate the core phenomena of solvent-based carbon capture, i.e., the CO2 physical absorption and chemical reaction, on a simplified geometry of wetted wall column (WWC) at bench scale. Aqueous solutions of ethanolamine (MEA) are commonly selected as a CO2 stream scrubbing liquid. CO2 is captured by both physical and chemical absorption using highly CO2 soluble and reactive solvent, MEA, during the scrubbing process. In order to provide confidence bound on the computational predictions of this complex engineering system, a hierarchical calibration and validation framework is proposed. The overall goal of this effort is to provide a mechanism-based predictive framework with confidence bound for overall mass transfer coefficient of the wetted wall column (WWC) with statistical analyses of the corresponding WWC experiments with increasing physical complexity.

  9. Dynamics of bacterial populations during bench-scale bioremediation of oily seawater and desert soil bioaugmented with coastal microbial mats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Nidaa; Dashti, Narjes; Salamah, Samar; Sorkhoh, Naser; Al-Awadhi, Husain; Radwan, Samir

    2016-03-01

    This study describes a bench-scale attempt to bioremediate Kuwaiti, oily water and soil samples through bioaugmentation with coastal microbial mats rich in hydrocarbonoclastic bacterioflora. Seawater and desert soil samples were artificially polluted with 1% weathered oil, and bioaugmented with microbial mat suspensions. Oil removal and microbial community dynamics were monitored. In batch cultures, oil removal was more effective in soil than in seawater. Hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria associated with mat samples colonized soil more readily than seawater. The predominant oil degrading bacterium in seawater batches was the autochthonous seawater species Marinobacter hydrocarbonoclasticus. The main oil degraders in the inoculated soil samples, on the other hand, were a mixture of the autochthonous mat and desert soil bacteria; Xanthobacter tagetidis, Pseudomonas geniculata, Olivibacter ginsengisoli and others. More bacterial diversity prevailed in seawater during continuous than batch bioremediation. Out of seven hydrocarbonoclastic bacterial species isolated from those cultures, only one, Mycobacterium chlorophenolicum, was of mat origin. This result too confirms that most of the autochthonous mat bacteria failed to colonize seawater. Also culture-independent analysis of seawater from continuous cultures revealed high-bacterial diversity. Many of the bacteria belonged to the Alphaproteobacteria, Flavobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, and were hydrocarbonoclastic. Optimal biostimulation practices for continuous culture bioremediation of seawater via mat bioaugmentation were adding the highest possible oil concentration as one lot in the beginning of bioremediation, addition of vitamins, and slowing down the seawater flow rate. © 2016 The Author. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Bench-scale crossflow filtration of Hanford tank C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110 sludge slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1997-09-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has a bench-scale crossflow filter installed in a shielded hot cell for testing radioactive feeds. During FY97 experiments were conducted on slurries from radioactive Hanford waste from tanks C-106, C-107, B-110, and U-110. Each tank was tested at three slurry concentrations (8, 1.5, and 0.05 wt% solids). A two-parameter central composite design which tested transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. Crossflow filtration was found to remove solids effectively, as judged by filtrate clarity and radiochemical analysis. If the filtrates from these tests were immobilized in a glass matrix, the resulting transuranic and ( 90 Sr) activity would not breach low activity waste glass limits of 100nCi/g (TRU) and 20 μCi/ml ( 90 Sr). Two exceptions were the transuranic activity in filtrates from processing 1.5 and 8 wt% C-106 tank waste. Subsequent analyses indicated that the source of the TRU activity in the filtrate was most likely due to soluble activity, but obviously proved ineffective at removing the soluble plutonium species. Re-testing of the C-106 supported this hypothesis. These data suggest the need to control carbonate and pH when processing tank wastes for immobilization

  11. Bench-scale cross flow filtration of Tank S-107 sludge slurries and Tank C-107 supernatant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geeting, J.G.H.; Reynolds, B.A.

    1996-10-01

    Hanford tank waste filtration experiments were conducted using a bench-scale cross flow filter on 8 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 0.05 wt% Tank S- 107 sludge slurries and on Tank C-107 supernatant. For comparison, two simulants each with solids loadings of 8 wt% and 0.05 wt% were also tested. The purpose of the tests was to determine the efficacy of cross flow filtration on slurries of various solids loadings. -In addition, filtrate flux dependency on axial velocity and transmembrane pressure was sought so that conditions for future experiments might be better selected. The data gathered are compared to the simulants and three cross flow filtration models. A two- parameter central composite design which tested. transmembrane pressure from 5 to 40 psig and axial Velocity from 3 to 9 ft/s was used for all feeds. The cross flow filter effectively removed solids from the liquid, as 19 of 20 filtrate samples had particle concentrations below the resolution limit of the photon correlation spectrometer used in the Hanford Radiocolloid Laboratory. Radiochemical analysis indicate that all filtrate samples were below Class A waste classification standards for 9OSr and transuranics

  12. Bench-scale study of active mine water treatment using cement kiln dust (CKD) as a neutralization agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, Allison L; Walsh, Margaret E

    2012-02-01

    The overall objective of this study was to investigate the potential impact on settled water quality of using cement kiln dust (CKD), a waste by-product, to replace quicklime in the active treatment of acidic mine water. Bench-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the treatment performance of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) slurries generated using four different CKD samples compared to a control treatment with quicklime (CaO) in terms of reducing acidity and metals concentrations in acid mine drainage (AMD) samples taken from the effluent of a lead/zinc mine in Atlantic Canada. Results of the study showed that all of the CKD samples evaluated were capable of achieving greater than 97% removal of total zinc and iron. The amount of solid alkaline material required to achieve pH targets required for neutralization of the AMD was found to be higher for treatment with the CKD slurries compared to the quicklime slurry control experiments, and varied linearly with the free lime content of the CKD. The results of this study also showed that a potential benefit of treating mine water with CKD could be reduced settled sludge volumes generated in the active treatment process, and further research into the characteristics of the sludge generated from the use of CKD-generated calcium hydroxide slurries is recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, 'Undemonstrated Leaching Processes' of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan. The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  14. EFRT M-12 Issue Resolution: Comparison of PEP and Bench-Scale Oxidative Leaching Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapko, Brian M.; Schonewill, Philip P.; Brown, Christopher F.; Eslinger, Paul W.; Fountain, Matthew S.; Hausmann, Tom S.; Huckaby, James L.; Hanson, Brady D.; Kurath, Dean E.; Minette, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has been tasked by Bechtel National Inc. (BNI) on the River Protection Project-Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (RPP-WTP) project to perform research and development activities to resolve technical issues identified for the Pretreatment Facility (PTF). The Pretreatment Engineering Platform (PEP) was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a plan to respond to issue M12, “Undemonstrated Leaching Processes” of the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) issue response plan.( ) The PEP is a 1/4.5-scale test platform designed to simulate the WTP pretreatment caustic leaching, oxidative leaching, ultrafiltration solids concentration, and slurry washing processes. The PEP replicates the WTP leaching processes using prototypic equipment and control strategies. The PEP also includes non-prototypic ancillary equipment to support the core processing.

  15. Mixing and scale affect moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Andries; Blom, Ewout; Terjesen, Bendik Fyhn

    2017-01-01

    Moving Bed Biofilm Reactors (MBBR) are used increasingly in closed systems for farming of fish. Scaling, i.e. design of units of increasing size, is an important issue in general bio-reactor design since mixing behaviour will differ between small and large scale. Research is mostly performed on

  16. Destruction of hazardous and mixed wastes using mediated electrochemical oxidation in a Ag(II)HNO3 bench scale system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balazs, B.; Chiba, Z.; Hsu, P.; Lewis, P.; Murguia, L.; Adamson, M.

    1997-01-01

    Mediated Electrochemical Oxidation (MEO) is a promising technology for the destruction of organic containing wastes and the remediation of mixed wastes containing transuranic components. The combination of a powerful oxidant and an acid solution allows the conversion of nearly all organics, whether present in hazardous or in mixed waste, to carbon dioxide. Insoluble transuranics are dissolved in this process and may be recovered by separation and precipitation.The MEO technique offers several advantages which are inherent in the system. First, the oxidation/dissolution processes are accomplished at near ambient pressures and temperatures (30-70 degrees C). Second, all waste stream components and oxidation products (with the exception of evolved gases) are contained in an aqueous environment. This electrolyte acts as an accumulator for inorganics which were present in the original waste stream, and the large volume of electrolyte provides a thermal buffer for the energy released during oxidation of the organics. Third, the generation of secondary waste is minimal, as the process needs no additional reagents. Finally, the entire process can be shut down by simply turning off the power, affording a level of control unavailable in some other techniques.Numerous groups, both in the United States and Europe, have made substantial progress in the last decade towards understanding the mechanistic pathways, kinetics, and engineering aspects of the process. At Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, substantial contributions have been made to this knowledge base in these areas and others. Conceptual design and engineering development have been completed for a pilot plant-scale MEO system, and numerous data have been gathered on the efficacy of the process for a wide variety of anticipated waste components. This presentation will review the data collected at LLNL for a bench scale system based primarily on the use of a Ag(II) mediator in a nitric acid electrolyte; results

  17. Investigations into NOx emissions and burnout for coals with high ash content in a bench scale test facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greul, U.; Kluger, F.; Peter, G.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G. [University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Verfahrenstechnik und Dampfkesselwesen

    2000-07-01

    At the Stuttgart University's Institute of Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) investigations of in-furnace DeNOx technologies with regard to their NOx reduction efficiency are carried out using an electrically heated bench-scale test facility to evaluate the effect of different process parameters independently. The DeNOx technologies of air and fuel staging have been demonstrated to be effective control techniques to reduce NOx from stationary sources. For a wide range of brown and hard coals from Europe, South Africa and Australia test runs with air-staged combustion have been carried out. The ash content of the hard coals used was in the range between 8 and 28%. The investigated parameters were temperature (1000-1300{degree}C), stoichiometry (1.25-0.55), and residence time (1-6 s) in the fuel rich primary zone. With increasing temperatures and residence times in fuel-rich conditions in air-staged combustion NOx emissions below 300 mg/m{sup 3} can be achieved even with hard coals. For a few brown coals NOx values lower than 100 mg/m{sup 3} are possible. Dependent on the coal rank individual parameters are more important than others. For low and medium volatile hard coals the increasing of the residence time is more effective than higher temperature or lower air ratios in the primary zone. However, with high volatile hard coal or brown coal as primary fuel the influence of temperature and stoichiometry in the primary zone plays a key role for NOx reduction effectiveness. The burnout led to restrictions in large scale applications for air-staged combustion especially with hard coals as primary fuel. Investigations at different primary air ratios and temperatures show the effect of these parameters on the burnout values along the course of combustion. 7 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. Bench-scale studies on capture of mercury on mineral non-carbon based sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wendt, Jost O.L. [Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Zhang, Junying; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    A new high-temperature, mineral non-carbon based dispersed sorbent derived from paper recycling products has been shown to capture mercury at high temperatures in excess of 600 C. The sorbent is consisted of kaolinite/calcite/lime mixtures. Experiments have been conducted on chemi-sorption of elemental mercury in air on a packed bed. The sorption occurs at temperatures between 600 and 1,100 C and requires activation of the minerals contained within the sorbents. Mercury capture is dominated by temperature and capture on sorbents over long time scales. The capture shows a maximum effectiveness at 1,000 C and increases monotonically with temperature. The presence of oxygen is also the required. Freshly activated sorbent is the most effective, and deactivation of sorbents occurs at high temperatures with long pre-exposure times. This activation is suspected to involve a solid-solid reaction between intimately mixed calcium oxide and silica that are both contained within the sorbent. Deactivation occurs at temperatures higher than 1,000 C, and this is due to melting of the substrate and pore closure. The situation in packed beds is complicated because the bed also shrinks, thus allowing channeling and by-passing, and consequent ambiguities in determining sorbent saturation. Sorbent A had significantly greater capacity for mercury sorption than did Sorbent B, for all temperatures and exposure time examined. The effect of SiO{sub 2} on poor Sorbent B is much larger than sorbent A.

  19. Results with a bench scale downdraft biomass gasifier for agricultural and forestry residues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olgun, Hayati [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Energy Institute, P.O. Box 21, 41470 Gebze, Kocaeli (Turkey); Ozdogan, Sibel; Yinesor, Guzide [Marmara University-Goztepe Campus, Faculty of Engineering - Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34722 Kuyubasi Kadikoy Istanbul (Turkey)

    2011-01-15

    A small scale fixed bed downdraft gasifier system to be fed with agricultural and forestry residues has been designed and constructed. The downdraft gasifier has four consecutive reaction zones from the top to the bottom, namely drying, pyrolysis, oxidation and reduction zones. Both the biomass fuel and the gases move in the same direction. A throat has been incorporated into the design to achieve gasification with lower tar production. The experimental system consists of the downdraft gasifier and the gas cleaning unit made up by a cyclone, a scrubber and a filter box. A pilot burner is utilized for initial ignition of the biomass fuel. The product gases are combusted in the flare built up as part of the gasification system. The gasification medium is air. The air to fuel ratio is adjusted to produce a gas with acceptably high heating value and low pollutants. Within this frame, different types of biomass, namely wood chips, barks, olive pomace and hazelnut shells are to be processed. The developed downdraft gasifier appears to handle the investigated biomass sources in a technically and environmentally feasible manner. This paper summarizes selected design related issues along with the results obtained with wood chips and hazelnut shells. (author)

  20. Bench Scale Development and Testing of a Novel Adsorption Process for Post-Combustion CO₂ Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Ravi [Innosepra Limited Liability Company, Middlesex, NJ (United States)

    2015-09-01

    A physical sorption process to produce dry CO₂ at high purity (>98%) and high recovery (>90%) from the flue gas taken before or after the FGD was demonstrated both in the lab and in the field (one ton per day scale). A CO₂ recovery of over 94% and a CO₂ purity of over 99% were obtained in the field tests. The process has a moisture, SOX, and Hg removal stage followed by a CO₂ adsorption stage. Evaluations based on field testing, process simulation and detailed engineering studies indicate that the process has the potential for more than 40% reduction in the capital and more than 40% reduction in parasitic power for CO₂ capture compared to MEA. The process has the potential to provide CO₂ at a cost (<$40/tonne) and quality (<1 ppm H₂O, <1 ppm SOX, <10 ppm O₂) suitable for EOR applications which can make CO₂ capture profitable even in the absence of climate legislation. The process is applicable to power plants without SOX, Hg and NOX removal equipment.

  1. Uncertainty Quantification Analysis of Both Experimental and CFD Simulation Data of a Bench-scale Fluidized Bed Gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahnam, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Gel, Aytekin [ALPEMI Consulting, LLC, Phoeniz, AZ (United States); Subramaniyan, Arun K. [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States); Musser, Jordan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States). Research and Innovation Center, Energy Conversion Engineering Directorate; Dietiker, Jean-Francois [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2017-10-02

    Adequate assessment of the uncertainties in modeling and simulation is becoming an integral part of the simulation based engineering design. The goal of this study is to demonstrate the application of non-intrusive Bayesian uncertainty quantification (UQ) methodology in multiphase (gas-solid) flows with experimental and simulation data, as part of our research efforts to determine the most suited approach for UQ of a bench scale fluidized bed gasifier. UQ analysis was first performed on the available experimental data. Global sensitivity analysis performed as part of the UQ analysis shows that among the three operating factors, steam to oxygen ratio has the most influence on syngas composition in the bench-scale gasifier experiments. An analysis for forward propagation of uncertainties was performed and results show that an increase in steam to oxygen ratio leads to an increase in H2 mole fraction and a decrease in CO mole fraction. These findings are in agreement with the ANOVA analysis performed in the reference experimental study. Another contribution in addition to the UQ analysis is the optimization-based approach to guide to identify next best set of additional experimental samples, should the possibility arise for additional experiments. Hence, the surrogate models constructed as part of the UQ analysis is employed to improve the information gain and make incremental recommendation, should the possibility to add more experiments arise. In the second step, series of simulations were carried out with the open-source computational fluid dynamics software MFiX to reproduce the experimental conditions, where three operating factors, i.e., coal flow rate, coal particle diameter, and steam-to-oxygen ratio, were systematically varied to understand their effect on the syngas composition. Bayesian UQ analysis was performed on the numerical results. As part of Bayesian UQ analysis, a global sensitivity analysis was performed based on the simulation results, which shows

  2. Effect of temperature downshifts on a bench-scale hybrid A/O system: Process performance and microbial community dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Hexi; Li, Xiangkun; Chu, Zhaorui; Zhang, Jie

    2016-06-01

    Effect of temperature downshifts on process performance and bacterial community dynamics was investigated in a bench-scale hybrid A/O system treating real domestic wastewater. Results showed that the average COD removal in this system reached 90.5%, 89.1% and 90.3% for Run 1 (25 °C), Run 2 (15 °C) and Run 3 (10 °C), respectively, and variations in temperature barely affected the effluent COD concentration. The average removal efficiencies of NH4(+)-N were 98.4%, 97.8%, 95.7%, and that of TN were 77.1%, 61.8%, 72% at 25 °C, 15 °C and 10 °C, respectively. Although the hybrid system was subjected to low temperature, this process effectively removed NH4(+)-N and TN even at 10 °C with the average effluent concentrations of 2.4 mg/L and 14.3 mg/L, respectively. Results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that when the operation temperature decreased from 25 °C to 10 °C, the richness and diversity indexes of the system decreased in the sludge samples, while underwent an increase in the biofilm samples. Furthermore, the major heterotrophic bacteria consisted of Lewinella, Lutimonas, Chitinophaga and Fluviicola at 10 °C, which could be central to effective COD removal at low temperature. Additionally, Azospira, one denitrifying-related genus increased from 0.4% to 4.45% in the biofilm samples, with a stable TN removal in response to temperature downshifts. Nitrosomonas and Nitrospira increased significantly in the biofilm samples, implying that the attached biofilm contributed to more nitrification at low temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of simulated high-level radioactive waste with formic acid: Bench-scale study on hydrogen evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, C.L.W.; Ritter, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was constructed to vitrify high-level radioactive liquid waste in borosilicate glass for permanent storage. Formic acid, which serves as both an acid and a reducing agent, is used to treat the washed alkaline sludge during melter feed preparation primarily to improve the processability of the feed and to reduce mercury to its zero state for steam stripping. The high-level sludge is composed of many transition metal hydroxides. Among them, there are small quantities of platinum group metals. During the treatment of simulated sludge with formic acid, significant amounts of hydrogen were generated when the platinum group metals were included in the sludge. Apparently the noble metals in the sludge were reduced to their zero states and caused formic acid to decompose catalytically into hydrogen and carbon dioxide, usually with an induction period. The production of hydrogen gas presented the DWPF with a safety issue. Therefore, the objective of this research was to gain a fundamental understanding of what controlled the hydrogen evolution so that a practical solution to the safety issue could be obtained. A bench-scale parametric study revealed the following: increasing the amount of formic acid added to the sludge increased the hydrogen generation rate dramatically; once the catalysts were activated, the hydrogen generation rate decreased significantly with a lowering of the temperature of the sludge; the relative catalytic activities of the noble metals in the sludge decreased in the following order: rhodium > ruthenium much-gt palladium; ammonium ions were generated catalytically from the reaction between formic acid and nitrate; and when present, the noble metals caused higher upward drifts of the sludge pH

  4. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Final Scientific/Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Buddle, Stanlee [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Caraher, Joel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Chen, Wei [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Doherty, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Farnum, Rachel [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Giammattei, Mark [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Hancu, Dan [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Perry, Robert [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Rubinsztajn, Gosia; Spiry, Irina; Wilson, Paul; Wood, Benjamin

    2017-05-31

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2-capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2-capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants. The U.S. Department of Energy’s goal for Transformational Carbon Capture Technologies is the development of technologies available for demonstration by 2025 that can capture 90% of emitted CO2 with at least 95% CO2 purity for less than $40/tonne of CO2 captured. In the first budget period of the project, the bench-scale phase-changing CO2 capture process was designed using data and operating experience generated under a previous project (ARPA-e project DE-AR0000084). Sizing and specification of all major unit operations was completed, including detailed process and instrumentation diagrams. The system was designed to operate over a wide range of operating conditions to allow for exploration of the effect of process variables on CO2 capture performance. In the second budget period of the project, individual bench-scale unit operations were tested to determine the performance of each of each unit. Solids production was demonstrated in dry simulated flue gas across a wide range of absorber operating conditions, with single stage CO2 conversion rates up to 75mol%. Desorber operation was demonstrated in batch mode, resulting in desorption performance consistent with the equilibrium isotherms for GAP-0/CO2 reaction. Important risks associated with gas humidity impact on solids consistency and desorber temperature impact on thermal degradation were explored, and adjustments to the bench-scale process were made to address those effects. Corrosion experiments were conducted to support selection of suitable materials of construction for the major

  5. Bioremediation of endosulfan contaminated soil and water-Optimization of operating conditions in laboratory scale reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Mathava; Philip, Ligy

    2006-01-01

    A mixed bacterial culture consisted of Staphylococcus sp., Bacillus circulans-I and -II has been enriched from contaminated soil collected from the vicinity of an endosulfan processing industry. The degradation of endosulfan by mixed bacterial culture was studied in aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions via batch experiments with an initial endosulfan concentration of 50 mg/L. After 3 weeks of incubation, mixed bacterial culture was able to degrade 71.58 ± 0.2% and 75.88 ± 0.2% of endosulfan in aerobic and facultative anaerobic conditions, respectively. The addition of external carbon (dextrose) increased the endosulfan degradation in both the conditions. The optimal dextrose concentration and inoculum size was estimated as 1 g/L and 75 mg/L, respectively. The pH of the system has significant effect on endosulfan degradation. The degradation of alpha endosulfan was more compared to beta endosulfan in all the experiments. Endosulfan biodegradation in soil was evaluated by miniature and bench scale soil reactors. The soils used for the biodegradation experiments were identified as clayey soil (CL, lean clay with sand), red soil (GM, silty gravel with sand), sandy soil (SM, silty sand with gravel) and composted soil (PT, peat) as per ASTM (American society for testing and materials) standards. Endosulfan degradation efficiency in miniature soil reactors were in the order of sandy soil followed by red soil, composted soil and clayey soil in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In bench scale soil reactors, endosulfan degradation was observed more in the bottom layers. After 4 weeks, maximum endosulfan degradation efficiency of 95.48 ± 0.17% was observed in red soil reactor where as in composted soil-I (moisture 38 ± 1%) and composted soil-II (moisture 45 ± 1%) it was 96.03 ± 0.23% and 94.84 ± 0.19%, respectively. The high moisture content in compost soil reactor-II increased the endosulfan concentration in the leachate. Known intermediate metabolites of

  6. Influence of toluene and salinity on biosurfactant production by Bacillus sp.: scale up from flasks to a bench-scale bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Cristina Souza

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT To select the best biosurfactant producer, Pseudomonas putida, Bacillus megatherium, Bacillus licheniformis and Bacillus subtilis were cultured in flasks on media with different salinity [low salinity (LS, Bushnell-Haas (BH and artificial sea water (SW media] supplemented or not with toluene as a model pollutant. Toluene inhibited the growth of all microorganisms and stimulated the biosurfactant production. B. subtilis exhibited the best performance, being able to lower the surface tension (ST in the LS medium to 65.5 mN/min in the absence of toluene, and to 46.5 mN/min in the BH medium in the presence of toluene, corresponding to ST reductions of 13.0 and 27.5 mN/m, respectively. Scaling up the process to a bench-scale fermentor, the best results were obtained in the LS medium, where B. subtilis was able to reduce the toluene concentration from 26.0 to 4.3 g/L within 12 h and ST by 17.2 mN/m within 18 h. The results of this study point out that B. subtilis is an interesting biosurfactant producer, which could be used in the bioremediation of toluene-contaminated water.

  7. Bench-Scale Synthetic Optimization of 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane (APO-Link) Used in the Production of APO-BMI Resin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilary Wheeler; Crystal Densmore

    2007-07-31

    The diamine reagent 1,2-bis(2-aminophenylthio)ethane is no longer commercially available but still required for the synthesis of the bismaleimide resin, APO-BMI, used in syntactic foams. In this work, we examined the hydrolysis of benzothiazole followed the by reaction with dichloroethane or dibromoethane. We also studied the deprotonation of 2-aminothiophenol followed by the reaction with dibromoethane. We optimized the latter for scale-up by scrutinizing all aspects of the reaction conditions, work-up and recrystallization. On bench-scale, our optimized procedure consistently produced a 75-80% overall yield of finely divided, high purity product (>95%).

  8. Density dependence of reactor performance with thermal confinement scalings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.

    1992-03-01

    Energy confinement scalings for the thermal component of the plasma published thus far have a different dependence on plasma density and input power than do scalings for the total plasma energy. With such thermal scalings, reactor performance (measured by Q, the ratio of the fusion power to the sum of the ohmic and auxiliary input powers) worsens with increasing density. This dependence is the opposite of that found using scalings based on the total plasma energy, indicating that reactor operation concepts may need to be altered if this density dependence is confirmed in future research

  9. Loading intensity prediction by velocity and the OMNI-RES 0–10 scale in bench press

    OpenAIRE

    Naclerio, Fernando; Larumbe-Zabala, Eneko

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the possibility of using movement velocity and the perceived exertion as indicators of relative load in the bench press exercise. Three hundred eight young, healthy, resistance trained athletes (242 male and 66 female) performed a progressive strength test up to the one-repetition maximum for the individual determination of the full load-velocity and load-exertion relationships. Longitudinal regression models were used to predict the relative load from the average velocity...

  10. Hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments plus anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge for dewatering and biogas production: Bench-scale research and pilot-scale verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunxing; Wang, Xingdong; Zhang, Guangyi; Yu, Guangwei; Lin, Jingjiang; Wang, Yin

    2017-06-15

    To test the feasibility and practicability of the process combing hydrothermal pretreatment for dewatering with biogas production for full utilization of sewage sludge, hydrothermal/alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments and in turn anaerobic digestion of the filtrates obtained after dewatering the pretreated sludge were performed at bench- and pilot-scales. The hydrothermal temperature fell within the range of 140 °C-220 °C and the pretreatment time varied from 30 min to 120 min. For the alkaline hydrothermal pretreatment the pH value of the sludge was adjusted to 9.0-11.0 by adding Ca(OH) 2 . The results showed that the dewaterability of the sewage sludge was improved with increasing pretreatment temperature but the impact of the pretreatment time was not significant. The addition of Ca(OH) 2 gave better performance on the subsequent mechanical dewatering of the pretreated sludge compared to pure hydrothermal pretreatment, and the higher the pH value was, the better the dewaterability of the pretreated sludge was. The conditions of 180 °C/30 min and 160 °C/60 min/pH = 10.0 (for hydrothermal and alkaline hydrothermal pretreatments, respectively) resulted in relatively good results in the theoretical energy balance, which were verified in the pilot-scale tests. Based on the data from the pilot tests, the alkaline hydrothermal process realized self-sufficiency in energy at the cost of a proper amount of CaO. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental study of hot water layer in a model in scale of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomaz, Gabriel Caio Queiroz

    2017-01-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is a 30 MW open pool research reactor planned to be constructed in Brazil. Such type of reactor is built inside a deep pool of purified and demineralized water, providing radiological protection still keeping the core accessible for maintenance and refueling. However, dissolved ions become activated in the pool water due to the core neutron flux, releasing radiation in the reactor room when the activated elements reach the top. Thus high power open pool reactors, as RMB, have an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit that creates a Hot Water Layer (HWL) on the pool’s top, keeping the activated water under the HWL and mitigating the dose rate to which the operators are exposed to. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) built a 1/10 scale experimental bench of the RMB’s pool for the HWL investigation. This work presents the results of the pool’s heating due to the reactor startup in the HWL stability. (author)

  12. Determination and modeling of the influence of the fluid-dynamics in hydro-treating bench scale plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burkhardt, T.

    1999-09-16

    At an industrial scale, the hydro-treating of oil fractions is carried out in multiphase fixed bed reactors. The oil and hydrogen cross the catalyst bed, usually in co-current downflow. Since the product specifications are steadily becoming more severe, the testing of new catalysts and of modified operating conditions in pilot plants becomes increasingly important. Although these pilot plants are frequently by a factor of 100 000 smaller than the industrial units, they still have to allow the up-scaling to industrial units. In the literature relatively low conversion degrees in pilot plants are frequently reported, especially in downflow. The significantly lower fluid velocities in pilot plants seem to be responsible for such differences, as the influence of fluid-dynamic non-idealities and of the extra-particle mass transfer phenomena increases with a decrease of the fluid velocities. In the present work, the influence of important fluid-dynamic non-idealities on the hydro-treating of gas oil fractions in pilot plants was examined. This was done on the one hand in experiments with different pilot plants and on the other hand by simulations with an especially developed multiphase model. The phenomena were considered as well in an isolated manner. In order to examine any interactions with the chemical reactions, they were also studied in a reactive system. This methodology was applied to the phenomena, 'axial dispersion'and 'gas-liquid mass transfer'. (author)

  13. Scaling in nuclear reactor system thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Auria, F.; Galassi, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Scaling is a reference 'key-word' in engineering and in physics. The relevance of scaling in the water cooled nuclear reactor technology constitutes the motivation for the present paper. The origin of the scaling-issue, i.e. the impossibility to get access to measured data in case of accident in nuclear reactors, is discussed at first. The so-called 'scaling-controversy' constitutes an outcome. Then, a critical survey (or 'scaling state-of-art';) is given of the attempts and of the approaches to provide a solution to the scaling-issue in the area of Nuclear Reactor System Thermal-Hydraulics (NRSTH): dimensionless design factors for Integral Test Facilities (ITF) are distinguished from scaling factors. The last part of the paper has a two-fold nature: (a) classifying the information about achievements in the area of thermal-hydraulics which are relevant to scaling: the concepts of 'scaling-pyramid' and the related 'scaling bridges' are introduced; (b) establishing a logical path across the scaling achievements (represented as a 'scaling puzzle'). In this context, the 'roadmap for scaling' is proposed: the objective is addressing the scaling issue when demonstrating the applicability of system codes in the licensing process of nuclear power plants. The code itself is referred hereafter as the 'key-to-scaling'. The database from the operation of properly scaled ITF and the availability of qualified system codes are identified as main achievements in NRSTH connected with scaling. The 'roadmap to scaling' constitutes a unified approach to scaling which aims at solving the 'scaling puzzle' created by researches performed during a half-a-century period.

  14. Scaling in nuclear reactor system thermal-hydraulics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D' Auria, F., E-mail: dauria@ing.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy); Galassi, G.M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica, Nucleare e della Produzione, University of Pisa, Via Diotisalvi 2, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2010-10-15

    Scaling is a reference 'key-word' in engineering and in physics. The relevance of scaling in the water cooled nuclear reactor technology constitutes the motivation for the present paper. The origin of the scaling-issue, i.e. the impossibility to get access to measured data in case of accident in nuclear reactors, is discussed at first. The so-called 'scaling-controversy' constitutes an outcome. Then, a critical survey (or 'scaling state-of-art';) is given of the attempts and of the approaches to provide a solution to the scaling-issue in the area of Nuclear Reactor System Thermal-Hydraulics (NRSTH): dimensionless design factors for Integral Test Facilities (ITF) are distinguished from scaling factors. The last part of the paper has a two-fold nature: (a) classifying the information about achievements in the area of thermal-hydraulics which are relevant to scaling: the concepts of 'scaling-pyramid' and the related 'scaling bridges' are introduced; (b) establishing a logical path across the scaling achievements (represented as a 'scaling puzzle'). In this context, the 'roadmap for scaling' is proposed: the objective is addressing the scaling issue when demonstrating the applicability of system codes in the licensing process of nuclear power plants. The code itself is referred hereafter as the 'key-to-scaling'. The database from the operation of properly scaled ITF and the availability of qualified system codes are identified as main achievements in NRSTH connected with scaling. The 'roadmap to scaling' constitutes a unified approach to scaling which aims at solving the 'scaling puzzle' created by researches performed during a half-a-century period.

  15. Design study on sodium-cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled large-scale reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. In the JFY2001 design study, a plant concept has been constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor, and fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set. Furthermore, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  16. Argentinean integrated small reactor design and scale economy analysis of integrated reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florido, P. C.; Bergallo, J. E.; Ishida, M. V.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the design of CAREM, which is Argentinean integrated small reactor project and the scale economy analysis results of integrated reactor. CAREM project consists on the development, design and construction of a small nuclear power plant. CAREM is an advanced reactor conceived with new generation design solutions and standing on the large experience accumulated in the safe operation of Light Water Reactors. The CAREM is an indirect cycle reactor with some distinctive and characteristic features that greatly simplify the reactor and also contribute to a highly level of safety: integrated primary cooling system, self pressurized, primary cooling by natural circulation and safety system relying on passive features. For a fully doupled economic evaluation of integrated reactors done by IREP (Integrated Reactor Evaluation Program) code transferred to IAEA, CAREM have been used as a reference point. The results shows that integrated reactors become competitive with power larger than 200MWe with Argentinean cheapest electricity option. Due to reactor pressure vessel construction limit, low pressure drop steam generator are used to reach power output of 200MWe for natural circulation. For forced circulation, 300MWe can be achieved. (author)

  17. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite

  18. Automating large-scale reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisner, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper conveys a philosophy for developing automated large-scale control systems that behave in an integrated, intelligent, flexible manner. Methods for operating large-scale systems under varying degrees of equipment degradation are discussed, and a design approach that separates the effort into phases is suggested. 5 refs., 1 fig

  19. Estudio de criticidad del reactor MSBR con SCALE

    OpenAIRE

    Criado Martín, Alejandro Fernando

    2011-01-01

    El presente proyecto final de carrera se enmarca en el convenio de colaboración entre el Consejo de Seguridad Nuclear (CSN) y la Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) para la realización de proyectos en el ámbito de la seguridad nuclear y la protección radiológica. El proyecto estudia la criticidad del reactor Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) mediante el código de simulación SCALE. El MSBR es un reactor de sales fundidas concebido y diseñado por ORNL, con una composic...

  20. Full-scale leaching study of commercial reactor waste forms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalb, P.D.; Colombo, P.

    1984-01-01

    This paper describes a full-scale leaching experiment which has been conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to study the release of radionuclides from actual commercial reactor waste forms. While many studies characterizing the leaching behavior of simulated laboratory-scale waste forms have been performed, this program represents one of the first attempts in the United States to quantify activity releases for real, full-scale waste forms. 5 references, 5 figures, 1 table

  1. Fast wave current drive in reactor scale tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreau, D.

    1992-01-01

    The IAEA Technical Committee Meeting on Fast Wave Current Drive in Reactor Scale Tokamaks, hosted by the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA), Departement de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee (Centres d'Etudes de Cadarache, under the Euratom-CEA Association for fusion) aimed at discussing the physics and the efficiency of non-inductive current drive by fast waves. Relevance to reactor size tokamaks and comparison between theory and experiment were emphasized. The following topics are described in the summary report: (i) theory and modelling of radiofrequency current drive (theory, full wave modelling, ray tracing and Fokker-Planck calculations, helicity injection and ponderomotive effects, and alternative radio-frequency current drive effects), (ii) present experiments, (iii) reactor applications (reactor scenarios including fast wave current drive; and fast wave current drive antennas); (iv) discussion and summary. 32 refs

  2. Design study on sodium cooled large-scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tsutomu; Hishida, Masahiko; Kisohara, Naoyuki

    2004-07-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Studies on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2, design improvement for further cost reduction of establishment of the plant concept has been performed. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor performed in JFY2003, which is the third year of Phase 2. In the JFY2003 design study, critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity and thermal hydraulics which found in the last fiscal year has been examined and the plant concept has been modified. Furthermore, fundamental specifications of main systems and components have been set and economy has been evaluated. In addition, as the interim evaluation of the candidate concept of the FBR fuel cycle is to be conducted, cost effectiveness and achievability for the development goal were evaluated and the data of the three large-scale reactor candidate concepts were prepared. As a results of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  3. Bench-Scale Development of a Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping for Post-Combustion CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Yongqi; DeVries, Nicholas; Ruhter, David; Manoranjan, Sahu; Ye, Qing; Ye, Xinhuai; Zhang, Shihan; Chen, Scott; Li, Zhiwei; O' Brien, Kevin

    2014-03-31

    A novel Hot Carbonate Absorption Process with Crystallization-Enabled High-Pressure Stripping (Hot-CAP) has been developed by the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and Carbon Capture Scientific, LLC in this three-year, bench-scale project. The Hot-CAP features a concentrated carbonate solution (e.g., K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) for CO{sub 2} absorption and a bicarbonate slurry (e.g., KHCO{sub 3}) for high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping to overcome the energy use and other disadvantages associated with the benchmark monoethanolamine (MEA) process. The project was aimed at performing laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to prove its technical feasibility and generate process engineering and scale-up data, and conducting a techno-economic analysis (TEA) to demonstrate its energy use and cost competitiveness over MEA. To meet project goals and objectives, a combination of experimental, modeling, process simulation, and economic analysis studies were applied. Carefully designed and intensive experiments were conducted to measure thermodynamic and reaction engineering data relevant to four major unit operations in the Hot-CAP (i.e., CO{sub 2} absorption, CO{sub 2} stripping, bicarbonate crystallization, and sulfate reclamation). The rate promoters that could accelerate the CO{sub 2} absorption rate into the potassium carbonate/bicarbonate (PCB) solution to a level greater than that into the 5 M MEA solution were identified, and the superior performance of CO{sub 2} absorption into PCB was demonstrated in a bench-scale packed-bed column. Kinetic data on bicarbonate crystallization were developed and applied for crystallizer design and sizing. Parametric testing of high-pressure CO{sub 2} stripping with concentrated bicarbonate-dominant slurries at high temperatures ({>=}140{degrees}C) in a bench-scale stripping column demonstrated lower heat use than with MEA. The feasibility of a modified process for combining SO{sub 2} removal with CO{sub 2} capture was preliminarily

  4. Bench-scale testing of on-line control of column flotation using a novel analyzer. Third quarterly technical progress report, April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-24

    This document contains the third quarterly technical progress report for PTI`s Bench-Scale Testing Project of a circuit integrating PTI`s KEN-FLOTETM Column Flotation Technology and PTI`s On-Line Quality Monitor and Control System. The twelve-month project involves installation and testing of a 200--300 lb/hr. bench-scale flotation circuit at PETC`s Coal Preparation Process Research Facility (CPPRF) for two bituminous coals (Upper Freeport and Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Raw Coals). Figure 1 contains the project plan, as well as the approach to completing the major tasks within the twelve-month project schedule. The project is broken down into three phases, which include: Phase I -- Preparation: The preparation phase was performed principally at PTI`s Calumet offices from October through December, 1992. It involved building of the equipment and circuitry, as well as some preliminary design and equipment testing; Phase II -- ET Circuit Installation and Testing: This installation and testing phase of the project was performed at PETC`s CPPRF from January through June, 1993, and was the major focus of the project. It involved testing of the continuous 200--300 lb/hr. circuit; and Phase III -- Project Finalization: The project finalization phase is occurring from July through September, 1993, at PTI`s Calumet offices and involves finalizing analytical work and data evaluation, as well as final project reporting. This Third Quarterly Technical Progress Report principally summarizes the results from the benchscale testing with the second coal (Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam Coal), which occurred in April through June, 1993. It also contains preliminary economic evaluations that will go into the Final Report, as well as the plan for the final reporting task.

  5. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: bench mark experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer simulations representative of the wetwell of Mark I BWR's have predicted pressures and related phenomena. However, calculational predictions for purposes of engineering decision will be possible only if the code can be verified, i.e., shown to compute in accord with measured values. Described in the report is a set of single downcomer spherical flask bench mark experiments designed to produce quantitative data to validate various air-water dynamic computations; the experiments were performed since relevant bench mark data were not available from outside sources. Secondary purposes of the study were to provide a test bed for the instrumentation and post-experiment data processing techniques to be used in the Laboratory's reactor safety research program and to provide additional masurements for the air-water scaling study

  6. Full-Scale Continuous Mini-Reactor Setup for Heterogeneous Grignard Alkylation of a Pharmaceutical Intermediate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Michael Jønch; Holm, Thomas; Rahbek, Jesper P.

    2013-01-01

    A reactor setup consisting of two reactors in series has been implemented for a full-scale, heterogeneous Grignard alkylation. Solutions pass from a small filter reactor into a static mixer reactor with multiple side entries, thus combining continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and plug flow...

  7. Scaling of silent electrical discharge reactors for hazardous organics destruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coogan, J.J.; Rosocha, L.A.; Brower, M.J.; Kang, M.; Schmidt, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    Silent electrical discharges are used to produce highly reactive free radicals that destroy hazardous compounds entrained in gaseous effluents at ambient gas temperatures and pressures. We have carried out destruction experiments at Los Alamos on a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including trichloroethylene (TCE), carbon tetrachloride, perchloroethylene (PCE), and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). We have measured a ''nine-factor'', the amount of energy required to reduce the VOC concentration by a factor of ten. For practical reactor power densities, the ''nine-factor'' can be used to predict the destruction an removal efficiency (DRE) in terms of gas flow rate and the number of reactor modules. This report proposes a modular, stackable architecture for scaling up the reactor throughput

  8. Effects of turbulence modelling on prediction of flow characteristics in a bench-scale anaerobic gas-lift digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughtrie, A R; Borman, D J; Sleigh, P A

    2013-06-01

    Flow in a gas-lift digester with a central draft-tube was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and different turbulence closure models. The k-ω Shear-Stress-Transport (SST), Renormalization-Group (RNG) k-∊, Linear Reynolds-Stress-Model (RSM) and Transition-SST models were tested for a gas-lift loop reactor under Newtonian flow conditions validated against published experimental work. The results identify that flow predictions within the reactor (where flow is transitional) are particularly sensitive to the turbulence model implemented; the Transition-SST model was found to be the most robust for capturing mixing behaviour and predicting separation reliably. Therefore, Transition-SST is recommended over k-∊ models for use in comparable mixing problems. A comparison of results obtained using multiphase Euler-Lagrange and singlephase approaches are presented. The results support the validity of the singlephase modelling assumptions in obtaining reliable predictions of the reactor flow. Solver independence of results was verified by comparing two independent finite-volume solvers (Fluent-13.0sp2 and OpenFOAM-2.0.1). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Trends in large-scale testing of reactor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blejwas, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    Large-scale tests of reactor structures have been conducted at Sandia National Laboratories since the late 1970s. This paper describes a number of different large-scale impact tests, pressurization tests of models of containment structures, and thermal-pressure tests of models of reactor pressure vessels. The advantages of large-scale testing are evident, but cost, in particular limits its use. As computer models have grown in size, such as number of degrees of freedom, the advent of computer graphics has made possible very realistic representation of results - results that may not accurately represent reality. A necessary condition to avoiding this pitfall is the validation of the analytical methods and underlying physical representations. Ironically, the immensely larger computer models sometimes increase the need for large-scale testing, because the modeling is applied to increasing more complex structural systems and/or more complex physical phenomena. Unfortunately, the cost of large-scale tests is a disadvantage that will likely severely limit similar testing in the future. International collaborations may provide the best mechanism for funding future programs with large-scale tests. (author)

  10. Final air test results for the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.K.; Lai, W.

    1977-01-01

    A loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a boiling-water reactor (BWR) power plant has never occurred. However, because this type of accident is particularly severe, it is used as a principal basis for design. During a hypothetical LOCA in a Mark I BWR, air followed by steam is injected from a drywell into a toroidal wetwell about half-filled with water. A series of consistent, versatile, and accurate air-water tests simulating LOCA conditions was completed in the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory 1/5-Scale Mark I BWR Pressure Suppression Experimental Facility. Results from this test series were used to quantify the vertical loading function and to study the associated fluid dynamic phenomena. Detailed histories of vertical loads on the wetwell are shown. In particular, variations of hydrodynamic-generated vertical loads with changes in drywell pressurization rate, downcomer submergence, and the vent-line loss coefficient are established. Initial drywell overpressure, which partially preclears the downcomers of water, substantially reduces the peak vertical loads. Scaling relationships, developed from dimensional analysis and verified by bench-top experiments, allow the 1/5-scale results to be applied to a full-scale BWR power plant. This analysis leads to dimensionless groupings which are invariant. These groupongs show that if water is used as the working fluid, the magnitude of the forces in a scaled facility is reduced by the cube of the scale factor; the time when these forces occur is reduced by the square root of the scale factor

  11. Bench- and pilot-scale demonstration of thermal desorption for removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, M.I.; Sams, R.J.; Gillis, G.; Helsel, R.W.; Alperin, E.S.; Geisler, T.J.; Groen, A.; Root, D.

    1995-01-01

    Thermal desorption is an innovative technology that has seen significant growth in applications to organically contaminated soils and sludges for the remediation of hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste sites. This paper will present the results of a bench and pilot-scale demonstration of this technology for the removal of mercury from the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek floodplain soil. Results demonstrate that the mercury in this soil can be successfully removed to the target treatment levels of 10 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and that all process residuals could be rendered RCRA-nonhazardous as defined by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. Sampling and analyses of the desorber off-gas before and after the air pollution control system demonstrated effective collection of mercury and organic constituents. Pilot-scale testing was also conducted to verify requirements for material handling of soil into and out of the process. This paper will also present a conceptual design and preliminary costs of a full-scale system, including feed preparation, thermal treatment, and residuals handling for the soil

  12. DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE IN TANK 48H USING WET AIR OXIDATION BATCH BENCH SCALE AUTOCLAVE TESTING WITH ACTUAL RADIOACTIVE TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adu-Wusu, K; Paul Burket, P

    2009-03-31

    Wet Air Oxidation (WAO) is one of the two technologies being considered for the destruction of Tetraphenylborate (TPB) in Tank 48H. Batch bench-scale autoclave testing with radioactive (actual) Tank 48H waste is among the tests required in the WAO Technology Maturation Plan. The goal of the autoclave testing is to validate that the simulant being used for extensive WAO vendor testing adequately represents the Tank 48H waste. The test objective was to demonstrate comparable test results when running simulated waste and real waste under similar test conditions. Specifically: (1) Confirm the TPB destruction efficiency and rate (same reaction times) obtained from comparable simulant tests, (2) Determine the destruction efficiency of other organics including biphenyl, (3) Identify and quantify the reaction byproducts, and (4) Determine off-gas composition. Batch bench-scale stirred autoclave tests were conducted with simulated and actual Tank 48H wastes at SRNL. Experimental conditions were chosen based on continuous-flow pilot-scale simulant testing performed at Siemens Water Technologies Corporation (SWT) in Rothschild, Wisconsin. The following items were demonstrated as a result of this testing. (1) Tetraphenylborate was destroyed to below detection limits during the 1-hour reaction time at 280 C. Destruction efficiency of TPB was > 99.997%. (2) Other organics (TPB associated compounds), except biphenyl, were destroyed to below their respective detection limits. Biphenyl was partially destroyed in the process, mainly due to its propensity to reside in the vapor phase during the WAO reaction. Biphenyl is expected to be removed in the gas phase during the actual process, which is a continuous-flow system. (3) Reaction byproducts, remnants of MST, and the PUREX sludge, were characterized in this work. Radioactive species, such as Pu, Sr-90 and Cs-137 were quantified in the filtrate and slurry samples. Notably, Cs-137, boron and potassium were shown as soluble as a

  13. Performance of a pilot-scale packed bed reactor for perchlorate reduction using a sulfur oxidizing bacterial consortium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boles, Amber R; Conneely, Teresa; McKeever, Robert; Nixon, Paul; Nüsslein, Klaus R; Ergas, Sarina J

    2012-03-01

    A novel sulfur-utilizing perchlorate reducing bacterial consortium successfully treated perchlorate (ClO₄⁻) in prior batch and bench-scale packed bed reactor (PBR) studies. This study examined the scale up of this process for treatment of water from a ClO ₄⁻ and RDX contaminated aquifer in Cape Cod Massachusetts. A pilot-scale upflow PBR (∼250-L) was constructed with elemental sulfur and crushed oyster shell packing media. The reactor was inoculated with sulfur oxidizing ClO₄⁻ reducing cultures enriched from a wastewater seed. Sodium sulfite provided a good method of dissolved oxygen removal in batch cultures, but was found to promote the growth of bacteria that carry out sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction, which inhibited ClO₄⁻ reduction in the pilot system. After terminating sulfite addition, the PBR successfully removed 96% of the influent ClO₄⁻ in the groundwater at an empty bed contact time (EBCT) of 12 h (effluent ClO₄⁻ of 4.2 µg L(-1)). Simultaneous ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ reduction was observed in the lower half of the reactor before reactions shifted to sulfur disproportionation and sulfate reduction. Analyses of water quality profiles were supported by molecular analysis, which showed distinct groupings of ClO₄⁻ and NO₃⁻ degrading organisms at the inlet of the PBR, while sulfur disproportionation was the primary biological process occurring in the top potion of the reactor. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Gravity Scaling of a Power Reactor Water Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, Robert S.; Pearson, J. Boise

    2008-01-01

    Water based reactor shielding is being considered as an affordable option for potential use on initial lunar surface reactor power systems. Heat dissipation in the shield from nuclear sources must be rejected by an auxillary thermal hydraulic cooling system. The mechanism for transferring heat through the shield is natural convection between the core surface and an array of thermosyphon radiator elements. Natural convection in a 100 kWt lunar surface reactor shield design has been previously evaluated at lower power levels (Pearson, 2006). The current baseline assumes that 5.5 kW are dissipated in the water shield, the preponderance on the core surface, but with some volumetric heating in the naturally circulating water as well. This power is rejected by a radiator located above the shield with a surface temperature of 370 K. A similarity analysis on a water-based reactor shield is presented examining the effect of gravity on free convection between a radiation shield inner vessel and a radiation shield outer vessel boundaries. Two approaches established similarity: 1) direct scaling of Rayleigh number equates gravity-surface heat flux products, 2) temperature difference between the wall and thermal boundary layer held constant on Earth and the Moon. Nussult number for natural convection (laminar and turbulent) is assumed of form Nu = CRa n . These combined results estimate similarity conditions under Earth and Lunar gravities. The influence of reduced gravity on the performance of thermosyphon heat pipes is also examined

  15. Reactor scale modeling of multi-walled carbon nanotube growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombardo, Jeffrey J.; Chiu, Wilson K.S.

    2011-01-01

    As the mechanisms of carbon nanotube (CNT) growth becomes known, it becomes important to understand how to implement this knowledge into reactor scale models to optimize CNT growth. In past work, we have reported fundamental mechanisms and competing deposition regimes that dictate single wall carbon nanotube growth. In this study, we will further explore the growth of carbon nanotubes with multiple walls. A tube flow chemical vapor deposition reactor is simulated using the commercial software package COMSOL, and considered the growth of single- and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. It was found that the limiting reaction processes for multi-walled carbon nanotubes change at different temperatures than the single walled carbon nanotubes and it was shown that the reactions directly governing CNT growth are a limiting process over certain parameters. This work shows that the optimum conditions for CNT growth are dependent on temperature, chemical concentration, and the number of nanotube walls. Optimal reactor conditions have been identified as defined by (1) a critical inlet methane concentration that results in hydrogen abstraction limited versus hydrocarbon adsorption limited reaction kinetic regime, and (2) activation energy of reaction for a given reactor temperature and inlet methane concentration. Successful optimization of a CNT growth processes requires taking all of those variables into account.

  16. Toxic Combustion Product Yields as a Function of Equivalence Ratio and Flame Retardants in Under-Ventilated Fires: Bench-Large-Scale Comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Purser

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In large-scale compartment fires; combustion product yields vary with combustion conditions mainly in relation to the fuel:air equivalence ratio (Φ and the effects of gas-phase flame retardants. Yields of products of inefficient combustion; including the major toxic products CO; HCN and organic irritants; increase considerably as combustion changes from well-ventilated (Φ < 1 to under-ventilated (Φ = 1–3. It is therefore essential that bench-scale toxicity tests reproduce this behaviour across the Φ range. Yield data from repeat compartment fire tests for any specific fuel show some variation on either side of a best-fit curve for CO yield as a function of Φ. In order to quantify the extent to which data from the steady state tube furnace (SSTF [1]; ISO TS19700 [2] represents compartment fire yields; the range and average deviations of SSTF data for CO yields from the compartment fire best-fit curve were compared to those for direct compartment fire measurements for six different polymeric fuels with textile and non-textile applications and for generic post-flashover fire CO yield data. The average yields; range and standard deviations of the SSTF data around the best-fit compartment fire curves were found to be close to those for the compartment fire data. It is concluded that SSTF data are as good a predictor of compartment fire yields as are repeat compartment fire test data.

  17. Large-scale hydrogen production using nuclear reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryland, D.; Stolberg, L.; Kettner, A.; Gnanapragasam, N.; Suppiah, S. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    For many years, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has been studying the feasibility of using nuclear reactors, such as the Supercritical Water-cooled Reactor, as an energy source for large scale hydrogen production processes such as High Temperature Steam Electrolysis and the Copper-Chlorine thermochemical cycle. Recent progress includes the augmentation of AECL's experimental capabilities by the construction of experimental systems to test high temperature steam electrolysis button cells at ambient pressure and temperatures up to 850{sup o}C and CuCl/HCl electrolysis cells at pressures up to 7 bar and temperatures up to 100{sup o}C. In parallel, detailed models of solid oxide electrolysis cells and the CuCl/HCl electrolysis cell are being refined and validated using experimental data. Process models are also under development to assess options for economic integration of these hydrogen production processes with nuclear reactors. Options for large-scale energy storage, including hydrogen storage, are also under study. (author)

  18. Scale modeling flow-induced vibrations of reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulcahy, T.M.

    1982-06-01

    Similitude relationships currently employed in the design of flow-induced vibration scale-model tests of nuclear reactor components are reviewed. Emphasis is given to understanding the origins of the similitude parameters as a basis for discussion of the inevitable distortions which occur in design verification testing of entire reactor systems and in feature testing of individual component designs for the existence of detrimental flow-induced vibration mechanisms. Distortions of similitude parameters made in current test practice are enumerated and selected example tests are described. Also, limitations in the use of specific distortions in model designs are evaluated based on the current understanding of flow-induced vibration mechanisms and structural response

  19. Cesium Removal From Tanks 241-AN-103 and 241-SX-105 and 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 Composite For Testing In Bench Scale Steam Reformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, J.B.; Huber, H.J.

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  20. CESIUM REMOVAL FROM TANKS 241-AN-103 & 241-SX-105 & 241-AZ-101 & 241AZ-102 COMPOSITE FOR TESTING IN BENCH SCALE STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; HUBER HJ

    2011-04-21

    This report documents the preparation of three actual Hanford tank waste samples for shipment to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). Two of the samples were dissolved saltcakes from tank 241-AN-103 (hereafter AN-103) and tank 241-SX-105 (hereafter SX-105); one sample was a supernate composite from tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 (hereafter AZ-101/102). The preparation of the samples was executed following the test plans LAB-PLAN-10-00006, Test Plan for the Preparation of Samples from Hanford Tanks 241-SX-105, 241-AN-103, 241-AN-107, and LAB-PLN-l0-00014, Test Plan for the Preparation of a Composite Sample from Hanford Tanks 241-AZ-101 and 241-AZ-102 for Steam Reformer Testing at the Savannah River National Laboratory. All procedural steps were recorded in laboratory notebook HNF-N-274 3. Sample breakdown diagrams for AN-103 and SX-105 are presented in Appendix A. The tank samples were prepared in support of a series of treatability studies of the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process using a Bench-Scale Reformer (BSR) at SRNL. Tests with simulants have shown that the FBSR mineralized waste form is comparable to low-activity waste glass with respect to environmental durability (WSRC-STI-2008-00268, Mineralization of Radioactive Wastes by Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR): Comparisons to Vitreous Waste Forms and Pertinent Durability Testing). However, a rigorous assessment requires long-term performance data from FBSR product formed from actual Hanford tank waste. Washington River Protection Solutions, LLC (WRPS) has initiated a Waste Form Qualification Program (WP-5.2.1-2010-001, Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer Low-level Waste Form Qualification) to gather the data required to demonstrate that an adequate FBSR mineralized waste form can be produced. The documentation of the selection process of the three tank samples has been separately reported in RPP-48824, Sample Selection Process for Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Treatability Studies Using

  1. Chemical reactor development : from laboratory synthesis to industrial production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoenes, D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemical Reactor Development is written primarily for chemists and chemical engineers who are concerned with the development of a chemical synthesis from the laboratory bench scale, where the first successful experiments are performed, to the design desk, where the first commercial reactor is

  2. Partial gasification of coal in a fluidized bed reactor: Comparison of a laboratory and pilot scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, R.; Shen, L.H.; Zhang, M.Y.; Jin, B.S.; Xiong, Y.Q.; Duan, Y.F.; Zhong, Z.P.; Zhou, H.C.; Chen, X.P.; Huang, Y.J. [Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2007-01-15

    A 0.1 MWth lab-scale and 2 MWth pilot-scale experimental rigs were constructed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of a new process. The aim of the lab-scale study is to optimize coal partial gasification reactions operating conditions, which were applied in the pilot-scale tests. A comparison between the laboratory and pilot scale experimental results is presented in this paper in order to provide valuable information for scaling-up of the PFB coal partial reactor to industrial applications. The results show that trends and phenomena obtained in the laboratory reactor are confirmed in a pilot plant operating at similar conditions. However, many differences are observed in the two reactors. The higher heat loss in the lab-scale reactor is responsible for higher equivalence ratio (ER) and lower gas heating value at the similar reactor temperature. With respect to the pilot-scale reactor, mass transfer limitation between bubbles and emulsion phase may become important. Hence, longer contact time is required to achieve the same conversions as in the lab-scale reactor. This difference is explained by a significant change of the hydrodynamic conditions due to the formation of larger bubbles.

  3. Scaling analysis for a Savannah River reactor scaled model integral system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boucher, T.J.; Larson, T.K.; McCreery, G.E.; Anderson, J.L.

    1990-11-01

    801The Savannah River Laboratory has requested that the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory perform an analysis to help define, examine, and assess potential concepts for the design of a scaled integral hydraulics test facility representative of the current Savannah River Plant reactor design. In this report the thermal-hydraulic phenomena of importance (based on the knowledge and experience of the authors and the results of the joint INEL/TPG/SRL phenomena identification and ranking effort) to reactor safety during the design basis loss-of-coolant accident were examined and identified. Established scaling methodologies were used to develop potential concepts for integral hydraulic testing facilities. Analysis is conducted to examine the scaling of various phenomena in each of the selected concepts. Results generally support that a one-fourth (1/4) linear scale visual facility capable of operating at pressures up to 350 kPa (51 psia) and temperatures up to 330 K (134 degree F) will scale most hydraulic phenomena reasonably well. However, additional research will be necessary to determine the most appropriate method of simulating several of the reactor components, since the scaling methodology allows for several approaches which may only be assessed via appropriate research. 34 refs., 20 figs., 14 tabs

  4. Scaling laws for particle growth in plasma reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemons, D.S.; Keinigs, R.K.; Winske, D.; Jones, M.E.

    1996-01-01

    We quantify a model which incorporates observed features of contaminant particle growth in plasma processing reactors. According to the model, large open-quote open-quote predator close-quote close-quote particles grow by adsorbing smaller, typically neutral, open-quote open-quote prey close-quote close-quote protoparticles. The latter are supplied by an assumed constant mass injection of contaminant material. Scaling laws and quantitative predictions compare favorably with published experimental results. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  5. Characterization of L-asparaginase from marine-derived Aspergillus niger AKV-MKBU, its antiproliferative activity and bench scale production using industrial waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vala, Anjana K; Sachaniya, Bhumi; Dudhagara, Dushyant; Panseriya, Haresh Z; Gosai, Haren; Rawal, Rakesh; Dave, Bharti P

    2018-03-01

    L-asparaginase (LA), an enzyme with anticancer activities, produced by marine-derived Aspergillus niger was subjected to purification and characterization. The purified enzyme was observed to have molecular weight ∼90KDa. The enzyme retained activity over a wide range of pH, i.e. pH 4-10. The enzyme was quite stable in temperature range 20-40°C. Tween 80 and Triton X-100 were observed to enhance LA activity while inhibition of LA activity was observed in presence of heavy metals. The values for K m was found to be 0.8141 mM and V max was 6.228μM/mg/min. The enzyme exhibited noteworthy antiproliferative activity against various cancer cell lines tested. Successful bench scale production (in 5L bioreacator) of LA using groundnut oil cake as low cost substrate has also been carried out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Flexible Bench-Scale Recirculating Flow CPC Photoreactor for Solar Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue Using Removable TiO2 Immobilized on PET Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doaa M. EL-Mekkawi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available TiO2 immobilized on polyethylene (PET nonwoven sheet was used in the solar photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB. TiO2 Evonik Aeroxide P25 was used in this study. The amount of loaded TiO2 on PET was approximately 24%. Immobilization of TiO2 on PET was conducted by dip coating process followed by exposing to mild heat and pressure. TiO2/PET sheets were wrapped on removable Teflon rods inside home-made bench-scale recirculating flow Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC photoreactor prototype (platform 0.7 × 0.2 × 0.4 m3. CPC photoreactor is made up of seven low iron borosilicate glass tubes connected in series. CPC reflectors are made of stainless steel 304. The prototype was mounted on a platform tilted at 30°N local latitude in Cairo. A centrifugal pump was used to circulate water containing methylene blue (MB dye inside the glass tubes. Efficient photocatalytic degradation of MB using TiO2/PET was achieved upon the exposure to direct sunlight. Chemical oxygen demand (COD analyses reveal the complete mineralization of MB. Durability of TiO2/PET composite was also tested under sunlight irradiation. Results indicate only 6% reduction in the amount of TiO2 after seven cycles. No significant change was observed for the physicochemical characteristics of TiO2/PET after the successive irradiation processes.

  7. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a Phase-Changing Absorbent: Topical Report EH&S Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westendorf, Tiffany; Farnum, Rachel; Perry, Robert; Herwig, Mark; Giolando, Salvatore; Green, Dianne; Morall, Donna

    2016-05-11

    GE Global Research was contracted by the Department of Energy to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing aminosilicone-based CO2 capture solvent (award number DEFE0013687). As part of this program, a technology EH&S assessment (Subtask 5.1) has been completed for a CO2 capture system for a 550 MW coal-fired power plant. The assessment focuses on two chemicals used in the process, the aminosilicone solvent, GAP-0, and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DDBSA), the GAP-0 carbamate formed upon reaction of the GAP-0 with CO2, and two potential byproducts formed in the process, GAP-0/SOx salts and amine-terminated, urea-containing silicone (also referred to as “ureas” in this report). The EH&S assessment identifies and estimates the magnitude of the potential air and water emissions and solid waste generated by the process and reviews the toxicological profiles of the chemicals associated with the process. Details regarding regulatory requirements, engineering controls, and storage and handling procedures are also provided in the following sections.

  8. Bench scale model studies on sanitary landfill leachate treatment with M. oleifera seed extract and hollow fibre micro-filtration membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Muyibi

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-based study using a Bench Scale model of four unit operations made up of coagulation (using Moringa oleifera seed extract as a coagulant, flocculation, sedimentation and micro-filtration, have been adopted to treat the leachate from Air Hitman Sanitary Landfill at Puchong in Malaysia. M. oleifera dosages of 150 and 175 mg/L had achieved 43.8% Cadmium removal, 21.2% Total Chromium removal, 66.8% Lead removal and 16% Iron removal. It also removed 55.4% of Total Suspended Solids, 10% of Total Dissolved Solids and 24.2% of Volatile Suspended Solids. Micro-filtration hollow fibre membrane decreased the turbidity, total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, volatile suspended solids, and organic matter in the leachate by 98.3%, 96.7%, 20.8%, 36.6% and 21.9% respectively. Overall heavy metals removal after micro-filtration using hollow fibre membrane was 94% for Cadmium, 29.8% for Total Chromium, 73.2% for Lead, and 18.3% for Iron. The results have shown that M. oleifera is a promising natural polymer for removing heavy metals from leachates and may be used as a pre-treatment to eliminate a portion of the toxic heavy metals, which limits the activity of micro organisms in the leachates.

  9. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2010-12-30

    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  10. A bench-scale study on the removal and recovery of phosphate by hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhe; Fang, Wenkan; Xing, Mingchao; Wu, Deyi, E-mail: dywu@sjtu.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Owing to the easy magnetic separation from water for reuse, magnetic nanoparticles have drawn great interest as adsorbents. Herein hydrous zirconia-coated magnetite nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2}) were created by a facile method and a bench–scale study was undertaken to evaluate its effectiveness and mechanism to remove phosphate at low concentrations. Results indicated that phosphate removal by Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} was fast (95% of phosphate removal within 10 min) and nearly complete removal could be achieved at the adsorbent dosage >0.6 g/L. In tap water or wastewater where competitive anions coexist, regulation of pH was found to be quite effective to augment the performance of phosphate removal. In pH–lowered adsorption systems, phosphate removal followed a good pattern similarly to pure water, i.e., a continuous high efficiency removal followed by a rapid saturation. Adsorption–desorption–regeneration studies showed that Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} could be repeatedly used for phosphate removal and adsorbed phosphate could be stripped for recovery. The fractionation of adsorbed phosphorus suggested that NaOH-P fraction was dominant. We also found that the adsorption reaction of phosphate with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} shifted the isoelectric point of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}@ZrO{sub 2} from ~9.0 to ~3.0. FTIR measurements further showed the direct coordination of phosphate onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. The formation of the monodentate (ZrO)PO{sub 2}(OH) complex was proposed. - Highlights: • Hydrous zirconia–coated magnetite was used for phosphate capture. • Regulation of pH was able to enhance P removal in the presence of coexisting ions. • Phosphate was coordinated onto zirconium by replacement of hydroxyl groups. • The material could be easily separated from water for reuse by a magnet. • Desorption of phosphate from the material could be achieved with NaOH treatment.

  11. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorla, A.; Vaitová, M.; Le Pape, Y.; Štemberk, P.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  12. Meso-scale modeling of irradiated concrete in test reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giorla, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Vaitová, M. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic); Le Pape, Y., E-mail: lepapeym@ornl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, One Bethel Valley Road, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Štemberk, P. [Czech Technical University, Thakurova 7, 166 29 Praha 6 (Czech Republic)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • A meso-scale finite element model for irradiated concrete is developed. • Neutron radiation-induced volumetric expansion is a predominant degradation mode. • Confrontation with expansion and damage obtained from experiments is successful. • Effects of paste shrinkage, creep and ductility are discussed. - Abstract: A numerical model accounting for the effects of neutron irradiation on concrete at the mesoscale is detailed in this paper. Irradiation experiments in test reactor (Elleuch et al., 1972), i.e., in accelerated conditions, are simulated. Concrete is considered as a two-phase material made of elastic inclusions (aggregate) subjected to thermal and irradiation-induced swelling and embedded in a cementitious matrix subjected to shrinkage and thermal expansion. The role of the hardened cement paste in the post-peak regime (brittle-ductile transition with decreasing loading rate), and creep effects are investigated. Radiation-induced volumetric expansion (RIVE) of the aggregate cause the development and propagation of damage around the aggregate which further develops in bridging cracks across the hardened cement paste between the individual aggregate particles. The development of damage is aggravated when shrinkage occurs simultaneously with RIVE during the irradiation experiment. The post-irradiation expansion derived from the simulation is well correlated with the experimental data and, the obtained damage levels are fully consistent with previous estimations based on a micromechanical interpretation of the experimental post-irradiation elastic properties (Le Pape et al., 2015). The proposed modeling opens new perspectives for the interpretation of test reactor experiments in regards to the actual operation of light water reactors.

  13. Radioactive Bench-scale Steam Reformer Demonstration of a Monolithic Steam Reformed Mineralized Waste Form for Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste - 12306

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Brent; Olson, Arlin; Mason, J. Bradley; Ryan, Kevin [THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC - 106 Newberry St. SW, Aiken, SC 29801 (United States); Jantzen, Carol; Crawford, Charles [Savannah River Nuclear Solutions (SRNL), LLC, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Hanford currently has 212,000 m{sup 3} (56 million gallons) of highly radioactive mixed waste stored in the Hanford tank farm. This waste will be processed to produce both high-level and low-level activity fractions, both of which are to be vitrified. Supplemental treatment options have been under evaluation for treating portions of the low-activity waste, as well as the liquid secondary waste from the low-activity waste vitrification process. One technology under consideration has been the THOR{sup R} fluidized bed steam reforming process offered by THOR Treatment Technologies, LLC (TTT). As a follow-on effort to TTT's 2008 pilot plant FBSR non-radioactive demonstration for treating low-activity waste and waste treatment plant secondary waste, TTT, in conjunction with Savannah River National Laboratory, has completed a bench scale evaluation of this same technology on a chemically adjusted radioactive surrogate of Hanford's waste treatment plant secondary waste stream. This test generated a granular product that was subsequently formed into monoliths, using a geo-polymer as the binding agent, that were subjected to compressibility testing, the Product Consistency Test and other leachability tests, and chemical composition analyses. This testing has demonstrated that the mineralized waste form, produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay using the TTT process, is as durable as low-activity waste glass. Testing has shown the resulting monolith waste form is durable, leach resistant, and chemically stable, and has the added benefit of capturing and retaining the majority of Tc-99, I-129, and other target species at high levels. (authors)

  14. Pilot-scale reactor activation facility at SRL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, W.W.

    1976-01-01

    The Hydrogeocemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance portion of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program requires an analytical technique for uranium and other elements. Based on an automated absolute activation analysis technique using 252 Cf, a pilt-scale facility installed in a production reactor has provided analyses for 2800 samples. Key features include: an automated sample transport system, a delayed neutron detector, two GeLi detectors, a loader, and an unloader, with all components controlled by a microprocessor; a dedicated PDP-9 computer and pulse height analyzer; and correlation and reduction of acquired data by a series of programs using an IBM 360/195 computer. The facility was calibrated with elemental and isotopic standards. Results of analyses of standard reference materials and operational detection limits for typical sediment samples are presented. Plans to increase sample throughput are discussed briefly

  15. SAFIRA project B.3.3: in-situ-treatment of contaminated ground water by catalytic oxidation. Final report; Sanierungsforschung in regional kontaminierten Aquiferen (SAFIRA). Projekt B.3.3: In situ-Behandlung von kontaminierten Grundwaessern durch katalytische Oxidation. Teilvorhaben 1: Untersuchungen im Labormassstab. Teilvorhaben 2: Tests in der bench-scale-Anlage und Teilvorhaben 3: Die Erprobung in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, J.; Haentzschel, D.; Freier, U.; Wecks, M.

    2003-06-27

    A new technology for treatment of contaminated ground water was developed. In this process heterogeneous catalysts (full metal catalyst, mixed oxide catalyst or iron-containing zeolites) in combination with hydrogen peroxide are used. In the reactor catalytic oxidation and aerob biological degradation occur simultaneously. A complete degradation of chlorobenzene was observed in a bench-scale-equipment (2 liter) and also in the pilot plant at the model site located in Bitterfeld (30 liter reactor). The technology can be applied to the ground and waste water treatment. (orig.) [German] Fuer die Behandlung von Grundwaessern, die mit organischen Schadstoffen belastet sind, wurde ein neuartiges Verfahren entwickelt. Bei der katalytischen Oxidation werden heterogene Katalysatoren in Form von Vollmetall-, Mischoxid- und Traegerkatalysatoren in Verbindung mit Wasserstoffperoxid als Oxidationsmittel eingesetzt. In den Katalysereaktoren laufen die heterogen-katalytische Oxidation und der aerob-biologische Abbau nebeneinander ab. Es werden synergistische Effekte erzielt. Mit dem Verfahren wurde in einer bench-scale-Angle (2 Liter) und in der Pilotanlage am Modellstandort in Bitterfeld (30 l Reaktor) der Schadstoff Chlorbenzol vollstaendig umgesetzt. Das Verfahren kann zur Grund- und Abwasserbehandlung eingesetzt werden. (orig.)

  16. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randall, Paul M.; Fimmen, Ryan; Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona

    2013-01-01

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  17. In-situ subaqueous capping of mercury-contaminated sediments in a fresh-water aquatic system, Part I—Bench-scale microcosm study to assess methylmercury production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randall, Paul M., E-mail: randall.paul@epa.gov [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Risk Management Research Laboratory, 26 W. Martin Luther King Drive, Cincinnati, OH 45268 (United States); Fimmen, Ryan [Geosyntec Consultants, 150 E. Wilson Bridge Road, Suite 232, Worthington, OH 43085 (United States); Lal, Vivek; Darlington, Ramona [Battelle, 505 King Ave., Columbus, OH 43201 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Bench-scale microcosm experiments were designed to provide a better understanding of the potential for Hg methylation in sediments from an aquatic environment. Experiments were conducted to examine the function of sulfate concentration, lactate concentration, the presence/absence of an aqueous inorganic Hg spike, and the presence/absence of inoculums of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, a strain of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) commonly found in the natural sediments of aquatic environments. Incubations were analyzed for both the rate and extent of (methylmercury) MeHg production. Methylation rates were estimated by analyzing MeHg and Hg after 2, 7, 14, 28, and 42 days. The production of metabolic byproducts, including dissolved gases as a proxy for metabolic utilization of carbon substrate, was also monitored. In all treatments amended with lactate, sulfate, Hg, and SRB, MeHg was produced (37 ng/g-sediment dry weight) after only 48 h of incubation and reached a maximum sediment concentration of 127 ng/g-sediment dry weight after the 42 day incubation period. Aqueous phase production of MeHg was observed to be 10 ng/L after 2 day, reaching a maximum observed concentration of 32.8 ng/L after 14 days, and declining to 10.8 ng/L at the end of the incubation period (42 day). The results of this study further demonstrates that, in the presence of an organic carbon substrate, sulfate, and the appropriate consortia of microorganisms, sedimentary Hg will be transformed into MeHg through bacterial metabolism. Further, this study provided the basis for evaluation of an in-situ subaqueous capping strategy that may limit (or potentially enhance) MeHg production. -- Highlights: • Hg methylation by SRB is limited by the depletion of sulfate and carbon. • Hg methylation is sensitive to competition by methanogens for carbon substrate. • In high lactate environment, all lactate was utilized in the microcosms within seven days. • In the absence of adequate metabolic fuel, Me

  18. Bench-scale Development of an Advanced Solid Sorbent-based CO2 Capture Process for Coal-fired Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Thomas [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Kataria, Atish [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Soukri, Mustapha [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Farmer, Justin [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Mobley, Paul [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Tanthana, Jak [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Dongxiang [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Wang, Xiaoxing [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Song, Chunshan [Research Triangle Institute (RTI), Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

    2015-12-31

    It is increasingly clear that CO2 capture and sequestration (CCS) must play a critical role in curbing worldwide CO2 emissions to the atmosphere. Development of these technologies to cost-effectively remove CO2 from coal-fired power plants is very important to mitigating the impact these power plants have within the world’s power generation portfolio. Currently, conventional CO2 capture technologies, such as aqueous-monoethanolamine based solvent systems, are prohibitively expensive and if implemented could result in a 75 to 100% increase in the cost of electricity for consumers worldwide. Solid sorbent CO2 capture processes – such as RTI’s Advanced Solid Sorbent CO2, Capture Process – are promising alternatives to conventional, liquid solvents. Supported amine sorbents – of the nature RTI has developed – are particularly attractive due to their high CO2 loadings, low heat capacities, reduced corrosivity/volatility and the potential to reduce the regeneration energy needed to carry out CO2 capture. Previous work in this area has failed to adequately address various technology challenges such as sorbent stability and regenerability, sorbent scale-up, improved physical strength and attrition-resistance, proper heat management and temperature control, proper solids handling and circulation control, as well as the proper coupling of process engineering advancements that are tailored for a promising sorbent technology. The remaining challenges for these sorbent processes have provided the framework for the project team’s research and development and target for advancing the technology beyond lab- and bench-scale testing. Under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy, and part of NETL’s CO2 Capture Program, RTI has led an effort to address and mitigate the challenges associated with solid sorbent CO2 capture. The overall objective

  19. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, R; Menanteau, S

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10(5) K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  20. Development and numerical/experimental characterization of a lab-scale flat flame reactor allowing the analysis of pulverized solid fuel devolatilization and oxidation at high heating rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemaire, R., E-mail: romain.lemaire@mines-douai.fr; Menanteau, S. [Mines Douai, EI, F-59508 Douai (France)

    2016-01-15

    This paper deals with the thorough characterization of a new experimental test bench designed to study the devolatilization and oxidation of pulverized fuel particles in a wide range of operating conditions. This lab-scale facility is composed of a fuel feeding system, the functioning of which has been optimized by computational fluid dynamics. It allows delivering a constant and time-independent mass flow rate of fuel particles which are pneumatically transported to the central injector of a hybrid McKenna burner using a carrier gas stream that can be inert or oxidant depending on the targeted application. A premixed propane/air laminar flat flame stabilized on the porous part of the burner is used to generate the hot gases insuring the heating of the central coal/carrier-gas jet with a thermal gradient similar to those found in industrial combustors (>10{sup 5} K/s). In the present work, results issued from numerical simulations performed a priori to characterize the velocity and temperature fields in the reaction chamber have been analyzed and confronted with experimental measurements carried out by coupling particle image velocimetry, thermocouple and two-color pyrometry measurements so as to validate the order of magnitude of the heating rate delivered by such a new test bench. Finally, the main features of the flat flame reactor we developed have been discussed with respect to those of another laboratory-scale system designed to study coal devolatilization at a high heating rate.

  1. Fusion reactor design studies: standard unit costs and cost scaling rules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, S.C.; Bickford, W.E.; Willingham, C.E.; Ghose, S.K.; Walker, M.G.

    1979-09-01

    This report establishes standard unit costs and scaling rules for estimating costs of material, equipment, land, and labor components used in magnetic confinement fusion reactor plant construction and operation. Use of the standard unit costs and scaling rules will add uniformity to cost estimates, and thus allow valid comparison of the economic characteristics of various reactor concepts

  2. Cost analysis of enzymatic biodiesel production in small-scaled packed-bed reactors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Budzaki, S.; Miljic, G.; Sundaram, S.; Tisma, M.; Hessel, V.

    2017-01-01

    A cost analysis of enzymatic biodiesel production in small-scaled packed-bed reactors using refined sunflower oil is performed in this work. A few enzymatic micro-flow reactors have so far reached a performance close to gram-scale, which might be sufficient for the pharmaceutical industry. This

  3. Bench Scale Process for Low Cost CO2 Capture Using a PhaseChanging Absorbent: Techno-Economic Analysis Topical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miebach, Barbara [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); McDuffie, Dwayne [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Spiry, Irina [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States); Westendorf, Tiffany [GE Global Research, Niskayuna, New York (United States)

    2017-01-27

    The objective of this project is to design and build a bench-scale process for a novel phase-changing CO2 capture solvent. The project will establish scalability and technical and economic feasibility of using a phase-changing CO2 capture absorbent for post-combustion capture of CO2 from coal-fired power plants with 90% capture efficiency and 95% CO2 purity at a cost of $40/tonne of CO2 captured by 2025 and a cost of <$10/tonne of CO2 captured by 2035. This report presents system and economic analysis for a process that uses a phase changing aminosilicone solvent to remove CO2 from pulverized coal (PC) power plant flue gas. The aminosilicone solvent is a pure 1,3-bis(3-aminopropyl)-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (GAP-0). Performance of the phase-changing aminosilicone technology is compared to that of a conventional carbon capture system using aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA). This analysis demonstrates that the aminosilicone process has significant advantages relative to an MEA-based system. The first-year CO2 removal cost for the phase-changing CO2 capture process is $52.1/tonne, compared to $66.4/tonne for the aqueous amine process. The phase-changing CO2 capture process is less costly than MEA because of advantageous solvent properties that include higher working capacity, lower corrosivity, lower vapor pressure, and lower heat capacity. The phase-changing aminosilicone process has approximately 32% lower equipment capital cost compared to that of the aqueous amine process. However, this solvent is susceptible to thermal degradation at CSTR desorber operating temperatures, which could add as much as $88/tonne to the CO2 capture cost associated with solvent makeup. Future work is focused on mitigating this critical risk by developing an advanced low-temperature desorber that can deliver comparable desorption performance and significantly reduced

  4. The effects of physical separtation treatment on the removal of uranium from contaminated soils at Fernald: A bench-scale study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadler, K.G.; Krstich, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    A bench-scale treatability study incorporating the use of physical separation techniques and chemical dispersants/extractants was conducted on uranium contaminated soils at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site. The soils contained approximately 497 and 450 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) of total uranium, respectively. Geotechnical characterization indicated that 77.4 and 74.6 percent of the soil was in the less that 50 micrometer (μm) size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils, respectively. An initial characterization effort indicated that uranium was distributed among all particle size fractions. After each soil was dispersed in water, it was noted that the uranium concentrated in the sand and clay fractions for the ID-A soil (1028 and 1475 mg kg -1 , respectively) and the clay fraction for ID-B soil (2710 mg kg -1 ). Four 1 millimolar (mM) sodium reagent solutions (sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, and a sodium citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite mixture) and potable water were evaluated for effectiveness in dispersing each soil into single grain separates and extracting total uranium from each of the resulting particle size fractions. Dilute sodium solutions were more effective than water in dispersing the soil. The use of dispersants, as compared to water, on the less than 2 mm size fraction causes a shift in the distribution of uranium out of the sand fraction and into the silt and clay fractions for ID-A soil and into the clay fraction for the ID-B soil. Attrition scrubbing tests were conducted on the less than 2 mm size fraction for the ID-A and ID-B soils using water and three alkaline extraction solutions, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium carbonate/bicarbonate, and ammonium carbonate/bicarbonate. There was little difference among the chemical extractants on their effectiveness in removing uranium from the greater than 53 μm (sand) or less than 53 μm (silt and clay) soil fraction

  5. Effect of Tidal Cycling Rate on the Distribution and Abundance of Nitrogen-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Bench-Scale Fill-and-Drain Bioreactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Battistelli

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Most domestic wastewater can be effectively treated for secondary uses by engineered biological systems. These systems rely on microbial activity to reduce nitrogen (N content of the reclaimed water. Such systems often employ a tidal-flow process to minimize space requirements for the coupling of aerobic and anaerobic metabolic processes. In this study, laboratory-scale tidal-flow treatment systems were studied to determine how the frequency and duration of tidal cycling may impact reactor performance. Fluorescent in situ hybridization and epifluorescence microscopy were used to enumerate the key functional groups of bacteria responsible for nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox, and N-removal efficiency was calculated via a mass-balance approach. When water was cycled (i.e., reactors were filled and drained at high frequencies (16–24 cycles day−1, nitrate accumulated in the columns—presumably due to inadequate periods of anoxia that limited denitrification. At lower frequencies, such as 4 cycles day−1, nearly complete N removal was achieved (80–90%. These fill-and-drain systems enriched heavily for nitrifiers, with relatively few anammox-capable organisms. The microbial community produced was robust, surviving well through short (up to 3 h anaerobic periods and frequent system-wide perturbation.

  6. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate, Richland WA; Whyatt, Greg [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Statistical Sciences Group, Los Alamos NM; Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge TN

    2017-10-24

    The first part of this paper (Part 1) presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. To generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work has the ability to account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry’s constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. The calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  7. Small size modular fast reactors in large scale nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zrodnikov, A.V.; Toshinsky, G.I.; Komlev, O.G.; Dragunov, U.G.; Stepanov, V.S.; Klimov, N.N.; Kopytov, I.I.; Krushelnitsky, V.N.

    2005-01-01

    The report presents an innovative nuclear power technology (NPT) based on usage of modular type fast reactors (FR) (SVBR-75/100) with heavy liquid metal coolant (HLMC) i. e. eutectic lead-bismuth alloy mastered for Russian nuclear submarines' (NS) reactors. Use of this NPT makes it possible to eliminate a conflict between safety and economic requirements peculiar to the traditional reactors. Physical features of FRs, an integral design of the reactor and its small power (100 MWe), as well as natural properties of lead-bismuth coolant assured realization of the inherent safety properties. This made it possible to eliminate a lot of safety systems necessary for the reactor installations (RI) of operating NPPs and to design the modular NPP which technical and economical parameters are competitive not only with those of the NPP based on light water reactors (LWR) but with those of the steam-gas electric power plant. Multipurpose usage of transportable reactor modules SVBR-75/100 of entirely factory manufacture assures their production in large quantities that reduces their fabrication costs. The proposed NPT provides economically expedient change over to the closed nuclear fuel cycle (NFC). When the uranium-plutonium fuel is used, the breeding ratio is over one. Use of proposed NPT makes it possible to considerably increase the investment attractiveness of nuclear power (NP) with fast neutron reactors even today at low costs of natural uranium. (authors)

  8. Performance evaluation of full scale UASB reactor in treating stillage wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.Mirsepasi , H. R. Honary , A. R. Mesdaghinia, A. H. Mahvi , H. Vahid , H. Karyab

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactors have been widely used for treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study two full-scale UASB reactors were investigated. Volume of each reactor was 420 m3. Conventional parameters such as pH, temperature and efficiency of COD, BOD, TOC removal in each reactor were investigated. Also several initial parameters in designing and operating of UASB reactors, such as upflow velocity, organic loading rate (OLR and hydraulic retention time were investigated. After modifying in operation conditions in UASB-2 reactor, average COD removal efficiency at OLR of 10–11 kg COD / m3 day was 55 percent. In order to prevent solids from settling, upflow velocity was increased to 0.35 m/h. Also to prevent solids from settling, the hydraulic retention time of wastewater in UASB-2 reactor was increased from 200 to 20 hours. This was expected that with good operation of UASB-2 reactor and with expanding of granules in the bed of the reactor, COD removal efficiency will be increased to more than 80 percent. But, because of deficiency on granulation and operation in UASB-2 reactor, this was not achieved. COD removal efficiency in the UASB-1 reactor was little. To enhance COD efficiency of UASB-1 reactor, several parameters were needed to be changed. These changes included enhancing of OLRs and upflow velocity, decreasing hydraulic retention time and operating with new sludge.

  9. A study on ex-vessel steam explosion for a flooded reactor cavity of reactor scale - 15216

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, S.; Yoon, E.; Kim, Y.; Cho, Y.

    2015-01-01

    A steam explosion can occur when a molten corium is mixed with a coolant, more volatile liquid. In severe accidents, corium can come into contact with coolant either when it flows to the bottom of the reactor vessel and encounters the reactor coolant, or when it breaches the reactor vessel and flows into the reactor containment. A steam explosion could then threaten the containment structures, such as the reactor vessel or the concrete walls/penetrations of the containment building. This study is to understand the shortcomings of the existing analysis code (TEXAS-V) and to estimate the steam explosion loads on reactor scale and assess the effect of variables, then we compared results and physical phenomena. Sensitivity study of major parameters for initial condition is performed. Variables related to melt corium such as corium temperature, falling velocity and diameter of melt are more important to the ex-vessel steam explosion load and the steam explosion loads are proportional to these variables related to melt corium. Coolant temperature on reactor cavity has a specific area to increase the steam explosion loads. These results will be used to evaluate the steam explosion loads using ROAAM (Risk Oriented Accident Analysis Methodology) and to develop the evaluation methodology of ex-vessel steam explosion. (authors)

  10. Calibration bench of flowmeters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C.

    1966-01-01

    This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)

  11. Scale-up and optimization of biohydrogen production reactor from laboratory-scale to industrial-scale on the basis of computational fluid dynamics simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Ding, Jie; Guo, Wan-Qian; Ren, Nan-Qi [State Key Laboratory of Urban Water Resource and Environment, Harbin Institute of Technology, 202 Haihe Road, Nangang District, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150090 (China)

    2010-10-15

    The objective of conducting experiments in a laboratory is to gain data that helps in designing and operating large-scale biological processes. However, the scale-up and design of industrial-scale biohydrogen production reactors is still uncertain. In this paper, an established and proven Eulerian-Eulerian computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was employed to perform hydrodynamics assessments of an industrial-scale continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) for biohydrogen production. The merits of the laboratory-scale CSTR and industrial-scale CSTR were compared and analyzed on the basis of CFD simulation. The outcomes demonstrated that there are many parameters that need to be optimized in the industrial-scale reactor, such as the velocity field and stagnation zone. According to the results of hydrodynamics evaluation, the structure of industrial-scale CSTR was optimized and the results are positive in terms of advancing the industrialization of biohydrogen production. (author)

  12. Kinetic model for torrefaction of wood chips in a pilot-scale continuous reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shang, Lei; Ahrenfeldt, Jesper; Holm, Jens Kai

    2014-01-01

    accordance with the model data. In an additional step a continuous, pilot scale reactor was built to produce torrefied wood chips in large quantities. The "two-step reaction in series" model was applied to predict the mass yield of the torrefaction reaction. Parameters used for the calculation were...... at different torrefaction temperatures, it was possible to predict the HHV of torrefied wood chips from the pilot reactor. The results from this study and the presented modeling approach can be used to predict the product quality from pilot scale torrefaction reactors based on small scale experiments and could...

  13. Simulation test of PIUS-type reactor with large scale experimental apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, M.; Tsuji, Y.; Ito, T.; Tasaka, K.; Kukita, Yutaka

    1995-01-01

    A large scale experimental apparatus for simulating the PIUS-type reactor has been constructed keeping the volumetric scaling ratio to the realistic reactor model. Fundamental experiments such as a steady state operation and a pump trip simulation were performed. Experimental results were compared with those obtained by the small scale apparatus in JAERI. We have already reported the effectiveness of the feedback control for the primary loop pump speed (PI control) for the stable operation. In this paper this feedback system is modified and the PID control is introduced. This new system worked well for the operation of the PIUS-type reactor even in a rapid transient condition. (author)

  14. A small-scale experimental reactor combined with a simulator for training purposes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Destot, M.; Hagendorf, M.; Vanhumbeeck, D.; Lecocq-Bernard, J.

    1981-01-01

    The authors discuss how a small-scale reactor combined to a training simulator can be a valuable aid in all forms of training. They describe the CEN-based SILOETTE reactor in Grenoble and its combined simulator. They also take a look at prospects for the future of the system in the light of experience acquired with the ARIANE reactor and the trends for the development of simulators for training purposes [fr

  15. Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations for solvent-based carbon capture. Part 2: Chemical absorption across a wetted wall column: Original Research Article: Hierarchical calibration and validation framework of bench-scale computational fluid dynamics simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Chao [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Xu, Zhijie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Lai, Kevin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Physical and Computational Sciences Directorate; Whyatt, Greg [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States). Energy and Environment Directorate; Marcy, Peter W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sun, Xin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Energy and Transportation Science Division

    2017-10-24

    Part 1 of this paper presents a numerical model for non-reactive physical mass transfer across a wetted wall column (WWC). In Part 2, we improved the existing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model to simulate chemical absorption occurring in a WWC as a bench-scale study of solvent-based carbon dioxide (CO2) capture. In this study, to generate data for WWC model validation, CO2 mass transfer across a monoethanolamine (MEA) solvent was first measured on a WWC experimental apparatus. The numerical model developed in this work can account for both chemical absorption and desorption of CO2 in MEA. In addition, the overall mass transfer coefficient predicted using traditional/empirical correlations is conducted and compared with CFD prediction results for both steady and wavy falling films. A Bayesian statistical calibration algorithm is adopted to calibrate the reaction rate constants in chemical absorption/desorption of CO2 across a falling film of MEA. The posterior distributions of the two transport properties, i.e., Henry's constant and gas diffusivity in the non-reacting nitrous oxide (N2O)/MEA system obtained from Part 1 of this study, serves as priors for the calibration of CO2 reaction rate constants after using the N2O/CO2 analogy method. Finally, the calibrated model can be used to predict the CO2 mass transfer in a WWC for a wider range of operating conditions.

  16. Design study on sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimakawa, Yoshio; Nibe, Nobuaki; Hori, Toru

    2002-05-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. In Phase 2 of the F/S, it is planed to precede a preliminary conceptual design of a sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. Through the design study, it is intended to construct such a plant concept that can show its attraction and competitiveness as a commercialized reactor. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor performed in JFY2001, which is the first year of Phase 2. As the construction cost of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has been constructed in Phase 1, was about 10% higher than that of the sodium-cooled large-scale reactor, a new concept of the middle-scale modular reactor, which is expected to be equal to the large-scale reactor from a viewpoint of economic competitiveness, has been re-constructed based on the design of the advanced loop type reactor. After that, fundamental specifications of main systems and components for the new concept have been set, and critical subjects related to safety, structural integrity, thermal hydraulics, operability, maintainability and economy have been examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  17. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36 percent to 111 percent of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable

  18. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J A; Julyk, L J [Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, Richland, WA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  19. FFTF scale-model characterization of flow induced vibrational response of reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Julyk, L.J.

    1977-01-01

    As an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program for Reactor Internals, the flow-induced vibrational characteristics of scaled Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup. The Hydraulic Core Mockup, a 0.285 geometric scale model, was designed to model the vibrational and hydraulic characteristics of the Fast Test Reactor. Model component vibrational characteristics were measured and determined over a range of 36% to 111% of the scaled prototype design flow. Selected model and prototype components were shaker tested to establish modal characteristics. The dynamic response of the Hydraulic Core Mockup components exhibited no anomalous flow-rate dependent or modal characteristics, and prototype response predictions were adjudged acceptable. (author)

  20. Bench mark spectra for high-energy neutron dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dierckx, R.

    1986-01-01

    To monitor radiation damage experiments, activation detectors are commonly used. The precision of the results obtained by the multiple foil analysis is largely increased by the intercalibration in bench-mark spectra. This technique is already used in dosimetry measurements for fission reactors. To produce neutron spectra similar to fusion reactor and high-energy high-intensity neutron sources (d-Li or spallation), accelerators can be used. Some possible solutions as p-Be and d-D 2 O neutron sources, useful as bench-mark spectra are described. (author)

  1. New pocket tools for Physics: create a star on one's laboratory bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larousserie, D.

    2001-01-01

    Big science means huge investment in giant physics instruments like particle accelerators or fusion reactors. Today this way of making physics enters in competition with more bench-scale research, this research requires less financial means and then can be developed in university laboratories. This trend has been made possible by the recent technological progress in the field of power lasers. A source of X-radiation, similar to that obtained from a big synchrotron can be designed by using adequate lasers. Thermonuclear reactions have been recently produced in laser targets. (A.C.)

  2. Effect of scaling on the thermal hydraulics of the moderator of a CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarchami, Araz; Ashgriz, Nasser; Kwee, Marc

    2011-01-01

    Three dimensional numerical simulations are conducted on the CANDU Moderator Test Facility (MTF) and the actual size CANDU reactor. Moderator test facility is ¼ scale of the actual reactor. The heat input and other operating conditions are scaled down from the real reactor to the MTF using constant Archimedes number (as considered in MTF experiments performed by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd.). The heat generations inside both tanks are applied through volumetric heating. In this method, heat is added to the fluid throughout the volume as it occurs in real reactor through fission heat generation and gamma rays from radioactive materials. The temperatures in actual reactor simulation are about 10 deg C greater than in MTF simulations. The separation between high and low temperature zones are more visible in real reactor simulation comparing to MTF simulation. The result indicates that the MTF has better mixing and weaker buoyancy forces comparing to real reactor. The velocity distribution in both cases seems similar with impingement point for inlet jets in both cases at the right hand side of the tank. Although the velocities are considerably higher (about 40%) in the case of real reactor, but as we go toward inner core of the tanks, the velocities are similar and very low. Several points inside the tank are monitored for their temperature and velocity with time. The results for these points show fluctuations in both temperature and velocity inside the tank. The fluctuations frequency seems higher in the case of real reactor while the amplitude of fluctuations is smaller in real reactor in most of the points. Here, in this research we have shown that Archimedes number alone cannot be a good scaling parameter (as used in MTF experiments) and it should be used along with Rayleigh number for scaling purposes. (author)

  3. Global scaling analysis for the pebble bed advanced high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blandford, E.D.; Peterson, P.F.

    2009-01-01

    Scaled Integral Effects Test (IET) facilities play a critical role in the design certification process of innovative reactor designs. Best-estimate system analysis codes, which minimize deliberate conservatism, require confirmatory data during the validation process to ensure an acceptable level of accuracy as defined by the regulator. The modular Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR), with a nominal power output of 900 MWth, is the most recent UC Berkeley design for a liquid fluoride salt cooled, solid fuel reactor. The PB-AHTR takes advantage of technologies developed for gas-cooled high temperature thermal and fast reactors, sodium fast reactors, and molten salt reactors. In this paper, non-dimensional scaling groups and similarity criteria are presented at the global system level for a loss of forced circulation transient, where single-phase natural circulation is the primary mechanism for decay heat removal following a primary pump trip. Due to very large margin to fuel damage temperatures, the peak metal temperature of primary-loop components was identified as the key safety parameter of interest. Fractional Scaling Analysis (FSA) methods were used to quantify the intensity of each transfer process during the transient and subsequently rank them by their relative importance while identifying key sources of distortion between the prototype and model. The results show that the development of a scaling hierarchy at the global system level informs the bottom-up scaling analysis. (author)

  4. Experimental study of hot water layer in a model in scale of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB); Estudo experimental da camada de Água quente em um modelo em escala do Reator Multipropósito Brasileiro (RMB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomaz, Gabriel Caio Queiroz

    2017-07-01

    The Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) is a 30 MW open pool research reactor planned to be constructed in Brazil. Such type of reactor is built inside a deep pool of purified and demineralized water, providing radiological protection still keeping the core accessible for maintenance and refueling. However, dissolved ions become activated in the pool water due to the core neutron flux, releasing radiation in the reactor room when the activated elements reach the top. Thus high power open pool reactors, as RMB, have an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit that creates a Hot Water Layer (HWL) on the pool’s top, keeping the activated water under the HWL and mitigating the dose rate to which the operators are exposed to. The Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN) built a 1/10 scale experimental bench of the RMB’s pool for the HWL investigation. This work presents the results of the pool’s heating due to the reactor startup in the HWL stability. (author)

  5. A Methodology for Reducing Bench Strength in Information Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the major risks in information technology (IT project execution is the non-availability of resources with required skill sets to meet the project demands. To mitigate this risk, almost every IT organization maintains a portion of their resources on bench. The bench strength reduces the delay in starting the project due to the non-availability of skilled resources. But bench strength or buffer is cost to the company. A medium scale Indian IT company incurs around USD 142,347 monthly on maintaining the bench strength. Hence this study is undertaken to develop a methodology to reduce the bench strength in IT companies. The proposed methodology is to obtain an optimum mix of resources from bench and through recruitment to meet the demands at a minimum cost. This is done by formulating the problem as an integer programming problem. The problem aims to minimize the total cost of obtaining the skilled resources without violating the constraints on demand, bench strength availability and recruitment lead time. The problem can be solved using Microsoft excel solver function or any other optimization packages like CPLEX, Gurobi, etc. A case study on the application of proposed methodology is also discussed in the paper. The case study showed that the proposed methodology is superior to the existing practice of maintaining large bench strengths to meet the demands for resources with various skills.

  6. Evaluation of enzymatic reactors for large-scale panose production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Fabiano A N; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2007-07-01

    Panose is a trisaccharide constituted by a maltose molecule bonded to a glucose molecule by an alpha-1,6-glycosidic bond. This trisaccharide has potential to be used in the food industry as a noncariogenic sweetener, as the oral flora does not ferment it. Panose can also be considered prebiotic for stimulating the growth of benefic microorganisms, such as lactobacillus and bifidobacteria, and for inhibiting the growth of undesired microorganisms such as E. coli and Salmonella. In this paper, the production of panose by enzymatic synthesis in a batch and a fed-batch reactor was optimized using a mathematical model developed to simulate the process. Results show that optimum production is obtained in a fed-batch process with an optimum production of 11.23 g/l h of panose, which is 51.5% higher than production with batch reactor.

  7. UASB reactor start up in real scale for malting effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, I.; Passeggi, M.; Boix, C.; Barcia, R.; Borzacconi, L.; Liebermann, L.

    2005-01-01

    An Imhoff tank was reconstructed into a 250 m3 UASB reactor in order to treat a malting plant wastewater.The UASB was inoculated with sludge from an anaerobic lagoon used for slaughterhouse wastewater treatment.The fat present in the inoculated sludge did not affect the start up performance. After two month of operation the reactor achieved full load with COD removal higher than 80% and a biogas production of 300 m3/day. The mean diameter of granules was 0a.milimeters and the Specific Methanogenic Activity was 0.25 g COD/gVSS.d The banquet development throughout time (solids concentrations at different heights, granule size, methanogenic activity) was monitored. A yield coefficient of 0.09 gVSS/g COD rem was found

  8. Integral Design Methodology of Photocatalytic Reactors for Air Pollution Remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Passalía

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available An integral reactor design methodology was developed to address the optimal design of photocatalytic wall reactors to be used in air pollution control. For a target pollutant to be eliminated from an air stream, the proposed methodology is initiated with a mechanistic derived reaction rate. The determination of intrinsic kinetic parameters is associated with the use of a simple geometry laboratory scale reactor, operation under kinetic control and a uniform incident radiation flux, which allows computing the local superficial rate of photon absorption. Thus, a simple model can describe the mass balance and a solution may be obtained. The kinetic parameters may be estimated by the combination of the mathematical model and the experimental results. The validated intrinsic kinetics obtained may be directly used in the scaling-up of any reactor configuration and size. The bench scale reactor may require the use of complex computational software to obtain the fields of velocity, radiation absorption and species concentration. The complete methodology was successfully applied to the elimination of airborne formaldehyde. The kinetic parameters were determined in a flat plate reactor, whilst a bench scale corrugated wall reactor was used to illustrate the scaling-up methodology. In addition, an optimal folding angle of the corrugated reactor was found using computational fluid dynamics tools.

  9. Flash hydropyrolysis of coal using a small scale of free fall reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, K.; Morozumi, F. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Department of Chemical Engineering

    1998-07-01

    A small scale of high-pressure free fall reactor was developed for the flash hydropyrolysis of coal. Taiheiyo coal (a Japanese subbituminous coal) was pyrolysed under a high hydrogen pressure without difficulty by use of this reactor. The effect of gas atmosphere, residence time, pressure, and temperature on the product yield was examined in detail. A flash hydropyrolysis reaction model was developed based on the experimental data, and its validity was examined. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Plant-scale anodic dissolution of unirradiated N-Reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Anodic dissolution tests were made with unirradiated N-Reactor fuel to determine the fuel segment length, diameter, and shape required for high throughput electrorefiner treatment for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Based on these tests, a conceptual design was produced of an electrorefiner for a full-scale plant to process N-Reactor spent fuel. In this design, the diameter of an electrode assembly is about 0.6 m (25 in.). Eight of these assemblies in an electrorefiner would accommodate a 1.333-metric-ton batch of N-Reactor fuel. Electrorefining would proceed at a rate of 40 kg uranium per hour

  11. Automatic integrated testing bench for tubes in translation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufayet, J.P.; Perdijon, J.

    1976-01-01

    All the nondestructive tests required for receiving the cladding tubes intended for fast nuclear reactor are integrated on this bench: quality control by eddy currents and ultra-sounds, thickness and (inner and outer) diameter measurement. The linear displacement of the tube allows very high rates to be attained [fr

  12. Elements of a method to scale ignition reactor Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotsaftis, M.

    1984-08-01

    Due to unavoidable uncertainties from present scaling laws when projected to thermonuclear regime, a method is proposed to minimize these uncertainties in order to figure out the main parameters of ignited tokamak. The method mainly consists in searching, if any, a domain in adapted parameters space which allows Ignition, but is the least sensitive to possible change in scaling laws. In other words, Ignition domain is researched which is the intersection of all possible Ignition domains corresponding to all possible scaling laws produced by all possible transports

  13. Scale-model characterization of flow-induced vibrational response of FFTF reactor internals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, J.A.; Mahoney, J.J.

    1980-10-01

    Fast Test Reactor core internal and peripheral components were assessed for flow-induced vibrational characteristics under scaled and simulated prototype flow conditions in the Hydraulic Core Mockup as an integral part of the Fast Test Reactor Vibration Program. The Hydraulic Core Mockup was an 0.285 geometric scale model of the Fast Test Reactor internals designed to simulate prototype vibrational and hydraulic characteristics. Using water to simulate sodium coolant, vibrational characteristics were measured and determined for selected model components over the scaled flow range of 36 to 110%. Additionally, in-situ shaker tests were conducted on selected Hydraulic Core Mockup outlet plenum components to establish modal characteristics. Most components exhibited resonant response at all test flow rates; however, the measured dynamic response was neither abnormal nor anomalously flow-rate dependent, and the predicted prototype components' response were deemed acceptable

  14. Burnup dependent core neutronic calculations for research and training reactors via SCALE4.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tombakoglu, M.; Cecen, Y.

    2001-01-01

    In this work, the full core modelling is performed to improve neutronic analyses capability for nuclear research reactors using SCALE4.4 code system. KENOV.a module of SCALE4.4 code system is utilized for full core neutronic analysis. The ORIGEN-S module is coupled with the KENOV.a module to perform burnup dependent neutronic analyses. Results of neutronic calculations for 1 st cycle of Cekmece TR-2 research reactor are presented. In particular, coupling of KENOV.a and ORIGEN-S modules of SCALE4.4 is discussed. The preliminary results of 2-D burnup dependent neutronic calculations are also given. These results are extended to burnup dependent core calculations of TRIGA Mark-II research reactors. The code system developed here is similar to the code system that couples MCNP and ORIGEN2.(author)

  15. Validation of SCALE for High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilas, Germina [ORNL; Ilas, Dan [ORNL; Kelly, Ryan P [ORNL; Sunny, Eva E [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    This report documents verification and validation studies carried out to assess the performance of the SCALE code system methods and nuclear data for modeling and analysis of High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) configurations. Validation data were available from the International Handbook of Evaluated Reactor Physics Benchmark Experiments (IRPhE Handbook), prepared by the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project, for two different HTGR designs: prismatic and pebble bed. SCALE models have been developed for HTTR, a prismatic fuel design reactor operated in Japan and HTR-10, a pebble bed reactor operated in China. The models were based on benchmark specifications included in the 2009, 2010, and 2011 releases of the IRPhE Handbook. SCALE models for the HTR-PROTEUS pebble bed configuration at the PROTEUS critical facility in Switzerland have also been developed, based on benchmark specifications included in a 2009 IRPhE draft benchmark. The development of the SCALE models has involved a series of investigations to identify particular issues associated with modeling the physics of HTGRs and to understand and quantify the effect of particular modeling assumptions on calculation-to-experiment comparisons.

  16. Scaling up adsorption media reactors for copper removal with the aid of dimensionless numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ni-Bin; Houmann, Cameron; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Adsorption media may be used to sorb copper in an aquatic environment for pollution control. Effective design of adsorption media reactors is highly dependent on selection of the hydraulic residence time when scaling up a pilot-scale reactor to a field-scale reactor. This paper seeks to improve scaling-up technique of the reactor design process through the use of the Damköhler and Péclet numbers via a dimensional analysis. A new scaling-up theory is developed in this study through a joint consideration of the Damköhler and Péclet numbers for a constant media particle size such that a balance between transport control and reaction control can be harmonized. A series of column breakthrough tests at varying hydraulic residence times revealed a clear peak adsorption capacity at a Damköhler number of 2.74. The Péclet numbers for the column breakthrough tests indicated that mechanical dispersion is an important effect that requires further consideration in the scaling-up process. However, perfect similitude of the Damköhler number cannot be maintained for a constant media particle size, and relaxation of hydrodynamic similitude through variation of the Péclet number must occur. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Physics design of experimental metal fuelled fast reactor cores for full scale demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devan, K.; Bachchan, Abhitab; Riyas, A.; Sathiyasheela, T.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Chetal, S.C.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → In this study we made physics designs of experimental metal fast reactor cores. → Aim is for full-scale demonstration of fuel assemblies in a commercial power reactor. → Minimum power with adequate safety is considered. → In addition, fuel sustainability is also considered in the design. → Sodium bonded U-Pu-6%Zr and mechanically bonded U-Pu alloys are used. - Abstract: Fast breeder reactors based on metal fuel are planned to be in operation for the year beyond 2025 to meet the growing energy demand in India. A road map is laid towards the development of technologies required for launching 1000 MWe commercial metal breeder reactors with closed fuel cycle. Construction of a test reactor with metallic fuel is also envisaged to provide full-scale testing of fuel sub-assemblies planned for a commercial power reactor. Physics design studies have been carried out to arrive at a core configuration for this experimental facility. The aim of this study is to find out minimum power of the core to meet the requirements of safety as well as full-scale demonstration. In addition, fuel sustainability is also a consideration in the design. Two types of metallic fuel pins, viz. a sodium bonded ternary (U-Pu-6% Zr) alloy and a mechanically bonded binary (U-Pu) alloy with 125 μm thickness zirconium liner, are considered for this study. Using the European fast reactor neutronics code system, ERANOS 2.1, four metallic fast reactor cores are optimized and estimated their important steady state parameters. The ABBN-93 system is also used for estimating the important safety parameters. Minimum achievable power from the converter metallic core is 220 MWt. A 320 MWt self-sustaining breeder metal core is recommended for the test facility.

  18. Astrophysics on the Lab Bench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…

  19. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-04

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90/sup 0/ torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this.

  20. Air scaling and modeling studies for the 1/5-scale mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; McCauley, E.W.

    1978-01-01

    Results of table-top model experiments performed to investigate pool dynamics effects due to a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) for the Peach Bottom Mark I boiling water reactor containment system guided subsequent conduct of the 1/5-scale torus experiment and provided new insight into the vertical load function (VLF). Pool dynamics results were qualitatively correct. Experiments with a 1/64-scale fully modeled drywell and torus showed that a 90 0 torus sector was adequate to reveal three-dimensional effects; the 1/5-scale torus experiment confirmed this

  1. Modeling and Control of a Large Nuclear Reactor A Three-Time-Scale Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Shimjith, S R; Bandyopadhyay, B

    2013-01-01

    Control analysis and design of large nuclear reactors requires a suitable mathematical model representing the steady state and dynamic behavior of the reactor with reasonable accuracy. This task is, however, quite challenging because of several complex dynamic phenomena existing in a reactor. Quite often, the models developed would be of prohibitively large order, non-linear and of complex structure not readily amenable for control studies. Moreover, the existence of simultaneously occurring dynamic variations at different speeds makes the mathematical model susceptible to numerical ill-conditioning, inhibiting direct application of standard control techniques. This monograph introduces a technique for mathematical modeling of large nuclear reactors in the framework of multi-point kinetics, to obtain a comparatively smaller order model in standard state space form thus overcoming these difficulties. It further brings in innovative methods for controller design for systems exhibiting multi-time-scale property,...

  2. Modeling and control of a large nuclear reactor. A three-time-scale approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimjith, S.R. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India); Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Tiwari, A.P. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India); Bandyopadhyay, B. [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai (India). IDP in Systems and Control Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Recent research on Modeling and Control of a Large Nuclear Reactor. Presents a three-time-scale approach. Written by leading experts in the field. Control analysis and design of large nuclear reactors requires a suitable mathematical model representing the steady state and dynamic behavior of the reactor with reasonable accuracy. This task is, however, quite challenging because of several complex dynamic phenomena existing in a reactor. Quite often, the models developed would be of prohibitively large order, non-linear and of complex structure not readily amenable for control studies. Moreover, the existence of simultaneously occurring dynamic variations at different speeds makes the mathematical model susceptible to numerical ill-conditioning, inhibiting direct application of standard control techniques. This monograph introduces a technique for mathematical modeling of large nuclear reactors in the framework of multi-point kinetics, to obtain a comparatively smaller order model in standard state space form thus overcoming these difficulties. It further brings in innovative methods for controller design for systems exhibiting multi-time-scale property, with emphasis on three-time-scale systems.

  3. SCALE-4 Analysis of LaSalle Unit 1 BWR Commercial Reactor Critical Configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauld, I.C.

    2000-01-01

    Five commercial reactor criticals (CRCs) for the LaSalle Unit 1 boiling-water reactor have been analyzed using KENO V.a, the Monte Carlo criticality code of the SCALE 4 code system. The irradiated fuel assembly isotopics for the criticality analyses were provided by the Waste Package Design team at the Yucca Mountain Project in the US, who performed the depletion calculations using the SAS2H sequence of SCALE 4. The reactor critical measurements involved two beginning-of-cycle and three middle-of-cycle configurations. The CRCs involved relatively low-cycle burnups, and therefore contained a relatively high gadolinium poison content in the reactor assemblies. This report summarizes the data and methods used in analyzing the critical configurations and assesses the sensitivity of the results to some of the modeling approximations used to represent the gadolinium poison distribution within the assemblies. The KENO V.a calculations, performed using the SCALE 44GROUPNDF5 ENDF/B-V cross-section library, yield predicted k eff values within about 1% Δk/k relative to reactor measurements for the five CRCs using general 8-pin and 9-pin heterogeneous gadolinium poison pin assembly models

  4. TASK TECHNICAL AND QUALITY ASSURANCE PLAN FOR OUT-OF-TANK DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE VIA WET AIR OXIDATION TECHNOLOGY: PHASE I - BENCH SCALE TESTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adu-Wusu, K

    2006-01-01

    waste stream, and the air/liquid mixture is preheated to the required reactor inlet temperature. The reactor provides sufficient retention time to allow the oxidation to approach the desired level of organic decomposition. Typical reaction time is about 30-120 minutes. Heat exchangers are routinely employed to recover energy contained in the reactor effluent to preheat the waste feed/air entering the reactor. Auxiliary energy, usually steam, is necessary for startup and can provide trim heat if required. Since the oxidation reactions are exothermic, sufficient energy may be released in the reactor to allow the WAO system to operate without any additional heat input. After cooling, the oxidized reactor effluent passes through a pressure control valve where the pressure is reduced. A separator downstream of the pressure control valve allows the depressurized and cooled vapor to separate from the liquid. Typical industrial WAO applications have a feed flow rate of 1 to 220 gallons per minute (gpm) per train, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 10,000 to 150,000 mg/L (higher CODs with dilution). Note that catalysts, such as homogeneous copper and iron, their heterogeneous counterparts, or precious metals can be used to enhance the effectiveness (i.e., to lower temperature, pressure, and residence time as well as increase oxidation efficiencies) of the WAO reaction if deemed necessary

  5. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  6. Conceptual design based on scale laws and algorithms for sub-critical transmutation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    In order to conduct the effective integration of computer-aided conceptual design for integrated nuclear power reactor, not only is a smooth information flow required, but also decision making for both conceptual design and construction process design must be synthesized. In addition to the aboves, the relations between the one step and another step and the methodologies to optimize the decision variables are verified, in this paper especially, that is, scaling laws and scaling criteria. In the respect with the running of the system, the integrated optimization process is proposed in which decisions concerning both conceptual design are simultaneously made. According to the proposed reactor types and power levels, an integrated optimization problems are formulated. This optimization is expressed as a multi-objective optimization problem. The algorithm for solving the problem is also presented. The proposed method is applied to designing a integrated sub-critical reactors. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  7. Analysis of a computational benchmark for a high-temperature reactor using SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goluoglu, S.

    2006-01-01

    Several proposed advanced reactor concepts require methods to address effects of double heterogeneity. In doubly heterogeneous systems, heterogeneous fuel particles in a moderator matrix form the fuel region of the fuel element and thus constitute the first level of heterogeneity. Fuel elements themselves are also heterogeneous with fuel and moderator or reflector regions, forming the second level of heterogeneity. The fuel elements may also form regular or irregular lattices. A five-phase computational benchmark for a high-temperature reactor (HTR) fuelled with uranium or reactor-grade plutonium has been defined by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD NEA), Nuclear Science Committee, Working Party on the Physics of Plutonium Fuels and Innovative Fuel Cycles. This paper summarizes the analysis results using the latest SCALE code system (to be released in CY 2006 as SCALE 5.1). (authors)

  8. Design study on sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Hishida, Masahiko; Nibe, Nobuaki

    2003-09-01

    In Phase 1 of the 'Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems (F/S)', an advanced loop type reactor has been selected as a promising concept of sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has a possibility to fulfill the design requirements of the F/S. This report summarizes the results of the design study on the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor performed in JFY2002, which is the second year of Phase 2. The construction cost of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor, which has been constructed in JFY2002, was almost achieved the economical goal. But its achievability was not sufficient to accept the concept. In order to reduce the construction cost, the plant concept has been re-constructed based on the 50 MWe plant studied in JFY2002. After that, fundamental specifications of main systems and components for the new concept have been set, and critical subjects have been examined and evaluated. In addition, in order to achieve the further cost reduction, the plant with simplified secondary system, the plant with electric magnetic pump in secondary system, and the fuel handling system are examined and evaluated. As a result of this study, the plant concept of the sodium-cooled middle-scale modular reactor has been constructed, which has a prospect to satisfy the economic goal (construction cost: less than 200,000 yens/kWe, etc.) and has a prospect to solve the critical subjects. From now on, reflecting the results of elemental experiments, the preliminary conceptual design of this plant will be preceded toward the selection for narrowing down candidate concepts at the end of Phase 2. (author)

  9. Microbial diversity in a full-scale anaerobic reactor treating high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbial characteristics in the up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor (UASB) of a full-scale high concentration cassava alcohol wastewater plant capable of anaerobic hydrocarbon removal were analyzed using cultivation-independent molecular methods. Forty-five bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 24 ...

  10. Scale model study of the seismic response of a nuclear reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dove, R.C.; Dunwoody, W.E.; Rhorer, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    The use of scale models to study the dynamics of a system of graphite core blocks used in certain nuclear reactor designs is described. Scaling laws, material selecton, model instrumentation to measure collision forces, and the response of several models to simulated seismic excitation are covered. The effects of Coulomb friction between the blocks and the clearance gaps between the blocks on the system response to seismic excitation are emphasized

  11. Application of IAEA's International Nuclear Event Scale to events at testing/research reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozawa, Masao; Watanabe, Norio

    1999-01-01

    The International Nuclear Event Scale (INES) is a means for providing prompt, clear and consistent information related to nuclear events and facilitating communication between the nuclear community, the media and the public on such events. This paper describes the INES rating process for events at testing/research reactors and nuclear fuel processing facilities and experience on the application of the INES scale in Japan. (author)

  12. Sludge combustion in fluidized bed reactors at laboratory scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirone, R.; Cammarota, A.

    2001-01-01

    The combustion of a dried sewage sludge in laboratory scale fluidized bed has been studied in Naples by the Istituto di ricerche sulla combustione (Irc) in the framework of a National project named Thermal Process with Energy Recovery to be used in laboratory and pre-pilot scale apparatus. The attention has been focused on emissions of unreacted carbon as elutriated fines, on the emissions of pollutant gases and on the assessment of the inventory of fly- and bottom ashes. The combustion behaviour of sewage sludge has been compared with those of a market available Tyre Derived Fuel (TDF) and a biomass from Mediterranean area (Robinia Pseudoacacia) and with that of a South African bituminous coal. Stationary combustion tests were carried out at 850 0 C by feeding particles in the size range 0-1 mm into a bed of silica sand without any sorbent addition. The fluidized bed combustor has been operated, at a superficial gas velocity of 0.4 m/s and different excesses of air ranging between 14 and 98%. Relatively high combustion efficiency, larger than 98.9% has been obtained in experiments carried out with sewage sludge and excess of air larger than 20%. These values, are comparable with those obtained in previously experimental activity carried out under similar operative conditions with a South Africa Bituminous coal (97-98%). It is larger than those obtained by using a Tyre Derived Fuel (89-90%) and the Robinia Pseudoacacia Biomass (93-93%). The relative importance of carbon fines elutriation, CO emissions and volatile bypassing the bed in determining the loss of combustion efficiency has been evaluated for the different fuels tested [it

  13. SCALE-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations. Volume 1: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeHart, M.D.

    1995-03-01

    The requirements of ANSI/ANS 8.1 specify that calculational methods for away-from-reactor criticality safety analyses be validated against experimental measurements. If credit is to be taken for the reduced reactivity of burned or spent fuel relative to its original fresh composition, it is necessary to benchmark computational methods used in determining such reactivity worth against spent fuel reactivity measurements. This report summarizes a portion of the ongoing effort to benchmark away-from-reactor criticality analysis methods using critical configurations from commercial pressurized water reactors (PWR). The analysis methodology utilized for all calculations in this report is based on the modules and data associated with the SCALE-4 code system. Each of the five volumes comprising this report provides an overview of the methodology applied. Subsequent volumes also describe in detail the approach taken in performing criticality calculations for these PWR configurations: Volume 2 describes criticality calculations for the Tennessee Valley Authority's Sequoyah Unit 2 reactor for Cycle 3; Volume 3 documents the analysis of Virginia Power's Surry Unit 1 reactor for the Cycle 2 core; Volume 4 documents the calculations performed based on GPU Nuclear Corporation's Three Mile Island Unit 1 Cycle 5 core; and, lastly, Volume 5 describes the analysis of Virginia Power's North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5 core. Each of the reactor-specific volumes provides the details of calculations performed to determine the effective multiplication factor for each reactor core for one or more critical configurations using the SCALE-4 system; these results are summarized in this volume. Differences between the core designs and their possible impact on the criticality calculations are also discussed. Finally, results are presented for additional analyses performed to verify that solutions were sufficiently converged

  14. CFD model development and data comparison for thermal-hydraulic analysis of HTO pilot scale reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kochan, R.J.; Oh, C.H.

    1995-09-01

    The DOE Hydrothermal Oxidation (HTO) program is validating computational methods for use in scaling up small HTO systems to production scale. As part of that effort, the computational fluid dynamics code FLUENT is being used to calculate the integrated fluid dynamics and chemical reactions in an HTO vessel reactor designed by MODAR, Inc. Previous validation of the code used data from a benchscale reactor. This reports presents the validation of the code using pilotscale (10 times greater throughput than benchscale) data. The model for the pilotscale reactor has been improved based upon the benchscale data by including better fluid thermal properties, a better solution algorithm, addition of external heat transfer, investigation of the effects of turbulent flow, and, although not built into the computer model, a technique for using the calculated adiabatic oxidation temperatures for selecting initial conditions. Thermal results from this model show very good agreement with the limited test data from MODAR Run 920. In addition to the reactor temperatures, flowfield details, including chemical reaction distribution, and simulated salt particle transport were obtained. This model will be very beneficial in designing and evaluating larger commercial scale units. The results of these calculations indicate that for model validation, more accurate boundary conditions need to be measured in future test runs

  15. Lower Length Scale Model Development for Embrittlement of Reactor Presure Vessel Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Schwen, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Chakraborty, Pritam [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bai, Xianming [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This report summarizes the lower-length-scale effort during FY 2016 in developing mesoscale capabilities for microstructure evolution, plasticity and fracture in reactor pressure vessel steels. During operation, reactor pressure vessels are subject to hardening and embrittlement caused by irradiation induced defect accumulation and irradiation enhanced solute precipitation. Both defect production and solute precipitation start from the atomic scale, and manifest their eventual effects as degradation in engineering scale properties. To predict the property degradation, multiscale modeling and simulation are needed to deal with the microstructure evolution, and to link the microstructure feature to material properties. In this report, the development of mesoscale capabilities for defect accumulation and solute precipitation are summarized. A crystal plasticity model to capture defect-dislocation interaction and a damage model for cleavage micro-crack propagation is also provided.

  16. A flexible well-mixed milliliter-scale reactor with high oxygen transfer rate for microbial cultivations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bolic, Andrijana; Larsson, Hilde Kristina; Hugelier, Siewert

    2016-01-01

    solution and replacement for existing microtiter plates, shaken flasks and bench scale bioreactors. In this work, a new design of a milliliter-scale bioreactor system is presented and characterized. The entire system consists of a platform with gas connections, heater, temperature sensor and optical fibers...... on the one side and a bioreactor with special designed magnetic stirrer and non-invasive optical sensors for measurement of pH, dissolved oxygen and optical density on the other side. The system has a high level of flexibility in terms of volume (0.5–2 mL), aeration (sparging and surface aeration) and mixing...

  17. Multi scale analysis of thermal-hydraulics of nuclear reactors - the neptune project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bestion, D.

    2004-01-01

    Full text of publication follows:The NEPTUNE project aims at building a new two-phase thermalhydraulic platform for nuclear reactor simulation. It is jointly developed by CEA-DEN and EDF-DRD and also supported by IRSN and FRAMATOME-ANP. NEPTUNE is a new generation multi-scale platform. The system scale models the whole reactor circuit with 0D, 1D and 3D modules and is generally applied with a coarse meshing including about a thousand meshes. The component scale models components like the reactor Core or Steam Generators with a finer nodalization and is generally applied with 10 4 to 10 5 meshes. Since these components contain rod bundles or tube bundles the physical modelling uses a homogenization technique with a porosity. For some specific applications it was found necessary to add a two-phase CFD tool able to zoom on a portion of the circuit where small scale phenomena are of importance for design purpose or safety issues. Here the basic equations are still averaged like in RANS approach for single phase, but the space resolution is finer than in component codes and typical application may require 10 5 to 10 7 meshes. These three scales have to be coupled in order to simulate many reactor transients where both local effects and system effects play a role. In addition, two-phase Direct Numerical Simulation Tools with Interface Tracking Techniques can be used for even smaller scale investigations for a better understanding of basic physical processes and for developing closure relations for averaged models. The main challenges of this project are here presented and some first results are presented. (authors)

  18. TiO2 Solar Photocatalytic Reactor Systems: Selection of Reactor Design for Scale-up and Commercialization—Analytical Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmine Abdel-Maksoud

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available For the last four decades, viability of photocatalytic degradation of organic compounds in water streams has been demonstrated. Different configurations for solar TiO2 photocatalytic reactors have been used, however pilot and demonstration plants are still countable. Degradation efficiency reported as a function of treatment time does not answer the question: which of these reactor configurations is the most suitable for photocatalytic process and optimum for scale-up and commercialization? Degradation efficiency expressed as a function of the reactor throughput and ease of catalyst removal from treated effluent are used for comparing performance of different reactor configurations to select the optimum for scale-up. Comparison included parabolic trough, flat plate, double skin sheet, shallow ponds, shallow tanks, thin-film fixed-bed, thin film cascade, step, compound parabolic concentrators, fountain, slurry bubble column, pebble bed and packed bed reactors. Degradation efficiency as a function of system throughput is a powerful indicator for comparing the performance of photocatalytic reactors of different types and geometries, at different development scales. Shallow ponds, shallow tanks and fountain reactors have the potential of meeting all the process requirements and a relatively high throughput are suitable for developing into continuous industrial-scale treatment units given that an efficient immobilized or supported photocatalyst is used.

  19. Evaluation of operational incidents in the research reactor RP-10 according to scale INES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrieta, Rolando W.B.; Vela Mora, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the events in 2011 in the RP-10 Nuclear Reactor Nuclear Center Huarangal from the point of view of safety. To classify these events produced is used Scale International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) to facilitate a common understanding between the technical community, the media and the general public. From the results we can say that in 2011 all related to security events that occurred in the RP -10 are classified as 'below scale' or no safety significance. (author)

  20. Plant-scale anodic dissolution of unirradiated N-Reactor fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, E.C.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Anodic dissolution tests were made with unirradiated N-Reactor fuel to determine the fuel segment length, diameter, and shape required for high throughput electro-refiner treatment for ultimate disposal in a geologic repository. Based on these tests, a conceptual design was produced of an electro-refiner for a full-scale plant to process N-Reactor spent fuel. In this design, the diameter of an electrode assembly is about 0.6 m (25 in.). Eight of these assemblies in an electro-refiner would accommodate a 1.333-metric-ton batch of N-Reactor fuel. Electrorefining would proceed at a rate of 40 kg uranium per hour. (author)

  1. Effect of Molasses on Phenol Removal Rate Using Pilot-Scale Anaerobic Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdollah Dargahi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the growing industrial and social development through time, toxic substances such as phenol and its derivatives are increasingly released into the environment from a variety of sources. The present study aims to investigate the effects of molasses on phenol removal. For this purpose, five pilot scale batch reactors (5 Erlenmeyer flasks equipped with the air and gas diffusion control system were used in the laboratory scale. The volumes of the reactors were kept constant with a final volume content of 550 ml in each reactor. Phenol with a fixed concentration of 100 mg/l was tested under anaerobic conditions in each reactor in contact with beet molasses (organic matter used as the auxiliary substrate with COD concentrations of 10000, 5000, 2000, 1000, and 500 mg/l over 5 retention times (10, 20, 30, 40, and 50 days. All the sampling and testing procedures wer e performed according to the standard methods. The results showed that in all the five experimental reactors, increasing retention time was accompanied by a continuous decline in initial phenol and COD concentrations. However, for each retention time, increasing COD concentration led to a decrease in COD removal efficiency such that increasing the initial COD concentration up to a certain level was associated with an increase in chemical oxygen demanding materials, but beyond this range, COD removal decreased slowly. It was also found that phenol removal increased with increasing retention time but it was not proportional to the concentration of the biodegradable COD. After 50 days of contact with 1000 mg/l of the supporting substrate, phenol removal in the reactors reached 98.62%. Another finding of the study was the fact that the highest phenol removal was achieved when 1000-2000 mg/l of biodegradable COD was used over 50 days of retention time

  2. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati, E-mail: suparnirahayu@yahoo.co.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Mechanical Engineering, State Polytechnic of Semarang, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia); Purwanto,, E-mail: p.purwanto@che.undip.ac.id; Budiyono, E-mail: budiyono@live.undip.ac.id [Doctoral Program in Environmental Science, University of Diponegoro, Semarang (Indonesia); Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Diponegoro University, Semarang Indonesia (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH{sub 4}/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH{sub 4}: 81.23% and CO{sub 2}: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  3. Experimental results from a reactor monitoring experiment with a cubic meter scale antineutrino detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, A.

    2007-01-01

    Cubic meter scale antineutrino detectors can stably and no intrusively monitor both plutonium content and reactor power at the few percent level, at a standoff of a few tens of meters. Our Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/Sandia National Laboratories collaboration has deployed a detector to demonstrate this capability at a 3 GWt pressurized water reactor in Southern California, operating 25 meters from the core center, and acquiring data over an approximate one year period. Such monitoring may be useful for tracking power output and plutonium buildup in nuclear reactors, constraining the fissile content and providing the earliest possible measurement of the amount of plutonium in the reactor core. We present our antineutrino event sample, and show that the observed change in antineutrino rate recorded in our detector over the reactor cycle correlates with plutonium ingrowth according to predictions. We present our current precision and estimate the attainable precision of the method, and discuss the benefits this technology may have for the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) or other safeguards regimes

  4. Anaerobic sequencing batch reactor in pilot scale for treatment of tofu industry wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahayu, Suparni Setyowati; Purwanto, Budiyono

    2015-12-01

    The small industry of tofu production process releases the waste water without being processed first, and the wastewater is directly discharged into water. In this study, Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor in Pilot Scale for Treatment of Tofu Industry was developed through an anaerobic process to produce biogas as one kind of environmentally friendly renewable energy which can be developed into the countryside. The purpose of this study was to examine the fundamental characteristics of organic matter elimination of industrial wastewater with small tofu effective method and utilize anaerobic active sludge with Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR) to get rural biogas as an energy source. The first factor is the amount of the active sludge concentration which functions as the decomposers of organic matter and controlling selectivity allowance to degrade organic matter. The second factor is that HRT is the average period required substrate to react with the bacteria in the Anaerobic Sequencing Bath Reactor (ASBR).The results of processing the waste of tofu production industry using ASBR reactor with active sludge additions as starter generates cumulative volume of 5814.4 mL at HRT 5 days so that in this study it is obtained the conversion 0.16 L of CH4/g COD and produce biogas containing of CH4: 81.23% and CO2: 16.12%. The wastewater treatment of tofu production using ASBR reactor is able to produce renewable energy that has economic value as well as environmentally friendly by nature.

  5. Geodetic Control Points, Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level elevations have been determined., Published in 1995, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Geodetic Control Points dataset current as of 1995. Benchmarks; Vertical elevation bench marks for monumented geodetic survey control points for which mean sea level...

  6. Bench-Scale Study of Hydrogen Separation Using Pre-Commercial Membranes; Estudio, a Escala de Planta Piloto, del Proceso de Separacion de Hidrogeno mediante Membranas Pre-Comerciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Hervas, J. M.; Marano, M.

    2011-11-10

    This report compiles the research undertaken by CIEMAT over 2009-2011 in the sub-project 8 Purification and Separation of Hydrogen of the PSE H2ENOV Project funded by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation, MICINN. Permeability and hydrogen selectivity of a pre-commercial palladium membrane was studied at bench scale level. The effect of main operating parameters - pressure, temperature and feed-flow-rate- on permeate flow-rate was determined. The influence of other gas components on hydrogen permeation was evaluated. Mixtures of H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-CO{sub 2} were studied. Although nitrogen and carbon dioxide did not permeate, both components decreased hydrogen permeation rate. Operating the membrane for around 1000 h under various conditions showed a small decrease in hydrogen permeation, but not in selectivity. A literature review was done in order to identify causes for permeation inhibition and reduction and for the definition of procedures for membrane regeneration. (Author) 29 refs.

  7. Performance analysis of K-based KEP-CO2P1 solid sorbents in a bench-scale continuous dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Lee, Seung-Yong; Moon, Jong-Ho; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, 152, Gajeong-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Chong Kul; Lee, Joong Beom [Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    Korea Institute of Energy Research (KIER) and Korea Electric Power Corporation Research Institute (KEPCORI) have been developing a CO{sub 2} capture technology using dry sorbents. In this study, KEP-CO2P1, a potassium-based dry sorbent manufactured by a spray-drying method, was used. We employed a bench-scale dry-sorbent CO{sub 2} capture fluidized-bed process capable of capturing 0.5 ton CO{sub 2}/day at most. We investigated the sorbent performance in continuous operation mode with solid circulation between a fast fluidized-bed-type carbonator and a bubbling fluidizedbed- type regenerator. We used a slip stream of a real flue gas from 2MWe coal-fired circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) power facilities installed at KIER. Throughout more than 50 hours of continuous operation, the temperature of the carbonator was maintained around 70-80 .deg. C using a jacket-type heat exchanger, while that of the regenerator was kept above 180 .deg. C using an electric furnace. The differential pressure of both the carbonator and regenerator was maintained at a stable level. The maximum CO{sub 2} removal was greater than 90%, and the average CO{sub 2} removal was about 83% during 50 hours of continuous operation.

  8. Microbial Community Composition and Ultrastructure of Granules from a Full-Scale Anammox Reactor

    KAUST Repository

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela

    2014-12-11

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32 %), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18 %) and Anaerolinea (7 %) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9 %), Comamonadacea (3 %), and Shewanellacea (3 %) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  9. CFD aided analysis of a scaled down model of the Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor (RMB) pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schweizer, Fernando L.A.; Lima, Claubia P.B.; Costa, Antonella L.; Veloso, Maria A.F.

    2013-01-01

    Research reactors are commonly built inside deep pools that provide radiological and thermal protection and easy access to its core. Reactors with thermal power in the order of MW usually use an auxiliary thermal-hydraulic circuit at the top of its pool to create a purified hot water layer (HWL). Thermal-hydraulic analysis of the flow configuration in the pool and HWL is paramount to insure radiological protection. A useful tool for these analyses is the application of CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). To obtain satisfactory results using CFD it is necessary the verification and validation of the CFD numerical model. Verification is divided in code and solution verifications. In the first one establishes the correctness of the CFD code implementation and in the former estimates the numerical accuracy of a particular calculation. Validation is performed through comparison of numerical and experimental results. This paper presents a dimensional analysis of the RMB (Brazilian Multipurpose Reactor) pool to determine a scaled down experimental installation able to aid in the HWL numerical investigation. Two CFD models were created one with the same dimensions and boundary conditions of the reactor prototype and the other with 1/10 proportion size and boundary conditions set to achieve the same inertial and buoyant forces proportions represented by Froude Number between the two models. Results comparing the HWL thickness show consistence between the prototype and the scaled down model behavior. (author)

  10. Microbial community composition and ultrastructure of granules from a full-scale anammox reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Gil, Graciela; Sougrat, Rachid; Behzad, Ali R; Lens, Piet N L; Saikaly, Pascal E

    2015-07-01

    Granules in anammox reactors contain besides anammox bacteria other microbial communities whose identity and relationship with the anammox bacteria are not well understood. High calcium concentrations are often supplied to anammox reactors to obtain sufficient bacterial aggregation and biomass retention. The aim of this study was to provide the first characterization of bacterial and archaeal communities in anammox granules from a full-scale anammox reactor and to explore on the possible role of calcium in such aggregates. High magnification imaging using backscattered electrons revealed that anammox bacteria may be embedded in calcium phosphate precipitates. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragments showed, besides anammox bacteria (Brocadiacea, 32%), substantial numbers of heterotrophic bacteria Ignavibacteriacea (18%) and Anaerolinea (7%) along with heterotrophic denitrifiers Rhodocyclacea (9%), Comamonadacea (3%), and Shewanellacea (3%) in the granules. It is hypothesized that these bacteria may form a network in which heterotrophic denitrifiers cooperate to achieve a well-functioning denitrification system as they can utilize the nitrate intrinsically produced by the anammox reaction. This network may provide a niche for the proliferation of archaea. Hydrogenotrophic methananogens, which scavenge the key fermentation product H2, were the most abundant archaea detected. Cells resembling the polygon-shaped denitrifying methanotroph Candidatus Methylomirabilis oxyfera were observed by electron microscopy. It is hypothesized that the anammox process in a full-scale reactor triggers various reactions overall leading to efficient denitrification and a sink of carbon as biomass in anammox granules.

  11. STUDY OF MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST IN AN ENTRAINED-FLOW REACTOR UNDER SIMULATED PRB CONDITIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A bench-scale entrained-flow reactor system was constructed for studying elemental mercury oxidation under selective catalytic reduction (SCR) reaction conditions. Simulated flue gas was doped with fly ash collected from a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired boiler ...

  12. The impact of confinement scaling on ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor] parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid, R.L.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, Y.K.M.

    1988-09-01

    Energy confinement scaling is a major concern in the design of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The existing database for tokamaks can be fitted with a number of different confinement scaling expressions that have similar degrees of approximation. These scaling laws predict confinement times for ITER that vary by over an order of magnitude. The uncertainties in the form and magnitude of these scaling laws must be substantially reduced before the plasma performance of ITER can be predicted with adequate reliability. The TETRA systems code is used to calculate the dependence of major ITER parameters on the scaling laws currently in use. Design constraints of interest in the present phase of ITER consideration are used, and the minimum-cost devices arising from these constraints are reviewed. 9 refs., 13 figs., 4 tabs

  13. Small-scale semi-continuous reactor for the conversion of wood to fuel oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eager, R L; Pepper, J M; Mathews, J F

    1983-04-01

    The design and operation of a small-scale semi-continuous reactor to convert aspen wood meal into an oil product is described. Modifications that reduce erosion/corrosion are also presented. Short residence times and relatively low operating pressures have been achieved for the reaction of aspen with CO and H2O in the presence of Na2CO3. Conversions, char formation, and the effect of sodium carbonate concentration on oil product are reported.

  14. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppresion experiment quick-look report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, W.; Collins, E.K.

    1977-01-01

    This report is intended as a ''quick-look'' report summarizing the experimental results obtained from pressure suppression experiment numbers 2.1, 2.2, and 2.3 that were performed on the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's 1/5-scale boiling water reactor (BWR) Mark I pressure suppression experimental facility on April 26, 1977. A brief description of the general nature of the tests and a summary of the actual tests that were performed are given

  15. Scaling of heavy ion beam probes for reactor-size devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hickok, R.L.; Jennings, W.C.; Connor, K.A.; Schoch, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    Heavy ion beam probes for reactor-size plasma devices will require beam energies of approximately 10 MeV. Although accelerator technology appears to be available, beam deflection systems and parallel plate energy analyzers present severe difficulties if existing technology is scaled in a straightforward manner. We propose a different operating mode which will use a fixed beam trajectory and multiple cylindrical energy analyzers. Development effort will still be necessary, but we believe the basic technology is available

  16. Flow analysis in a supercritical water oxidation reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, C.H.; Kochan, R.J.; Beller, J.M.

    1996-01-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), also known as hydrothermal oxidation (HTO), involves the oxidation of hazardous waste at conditions of elevated temperature and pressure (e.g., 500 C--600 C and 234.4 bar) in the presence of approximately 90% of water and a 10% to 20% excess amount of oxidant over the stoichiometric requirement. Under these conditions, organic compounds are completely miscible with supercritical water, oxygen and nitrogen, and are rapidly oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. The essential part of the process is the reactor. Many reactor designs such as tubular, vertical vessel, and transpiring wall type have been proposed, patented, and tested at both bench and pilot scales. These designs and performances need to be scaled up to a waste throughput 10--100 times that currently being tested. Scaling of this magnitude will be done by creating a numerical thermal-hydraulic model of the smaller reactor for which test data is available, validating the model against the available data, and then using the validated model to investigate the larger reactor performance. This paper presents a flow analysis of the MODAR bench scale reactor (vertical vessel type). These results will help in the design of the reactor in an efficient manner because the flow mixing coupled with chemical kinetics eventually affects the process destruction efficiency

  17. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Masahiro; Kasai, Shigeo.

    1978-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a lmfbr type reactor wherein effusion of coolants through a loop contact portion is reduced even when fuel assemblies float up, and misloading of reactor core constituting elements is prevented thereby improving the reactor safety. Constitution: The reactor core constituents are secured in the reactor by utilizing the differential pressure between the high-pressure cooling chamber and low-pressure cooling chamber. A resistance port is formed at the upper part of a connecting pipe, and which is connect the low-pressure cooling chamber and the lower surface of the reactor core constituent. This resistance part is formed such that the internal sectional area of the connecting pipe is made larger stepwise toward the upper part, and the cylinder is formed larger so that it profiles the inner surface of the connecting pipe. (Aizawa, K.)

  18. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Masaomi; Kashimura, Kazuo; Inoue, Kazuyuki; Nishioka, Kazuya.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To facilitate the construction of a reactor containment building, whereby the inspections of the outer wall of a reactor container after the completion of the construction of the reactor building can be easily carried out. Constitution: In a reactor accommodated in a container encircled by a building wall, a space is provided between the container and the building wall encircling the container, and a metal wall is provided in the space so that it is fitted in the building wall in an attachable or detatchable manner. (Aizawa, K.)

  19. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.; Kim, Younggy; Logan, Bruce E.

    2013-01-01

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  20. A hybrid froth flotation-filtration system as a pretreatment for oil sands tailings pond recycle water management: Bench- and pilot-scale studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loganathan, Kavithaa; Bromley, David; Chelme-Ayala, Pamela; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-15

    Through sustainable water management, oil sands companies are working to reduce their reliance on fresh water by minimizing the amount of water required for their operations and by recycling water from tailings ponds. This study was the first pilot-scale testing of a hybrid technology consisting of froth flotation combined with filtration through precoated submerged stainless steel membranes used to treat recycle water from an oil sands facility. The results indicated that the most important factor affecting the performance of the hybrid system was the influent water quality. Any rise in the levels of suspended solids or total organic carbon of the feed water resulted in changes of chemical consumption rates, flux rates, and operating cycle durations. The selections of chemical type and dosing rates were critical in achieving optimal performance. In particular, the froth application rate heavily affected the overall recovery of the hybrid system as well as the performance of the flotation process. Optimum surfactant usage to generate froth (per liter of treated water) was 0.25 mL/L at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and 0.015 mL/L at approximately 200 NTU of influent turbidity. At the tested conditions, the optimal coagulant dose was 80 mg/L (as Al) at approximately 2000 NTU of influent turbidity and recycle water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Increasing Desalination by Mitigating Anolyte pH Imbalance Using Catholyte Effluent Addition in a Multi-Anode Bench Scale Microbial Desalination Cell

    KAUST Repository

    Davis, Robert J.

    2013-09-03

    A microbial desalination cell (MDC) uses exoelectrogenic bacteria to oxidize organic matter while desalinating water. Protons produced from the oxidation of organics at the anode result in anolyte acidification and reduce performance. A new method was used here to mitigate anolyte acidification based on adding non-buffered saline catholyte effluent from a previous cycle to the anolyte at the beginning of the next cycle. This method was tested using a larger-scale MDC (267 mL) containing four anode brushes and a three cell pair membrane stack. With an anolyte salt concentration increased by an equivalent of 75 mM NaCl using the catholyte effluent, salinity was reduced by 26.0 ± 0.5% (35 g/L NaCl initial solution) in a 10 h cycle, compared to 18.1 ± 2.0% without catholyte addition. This improvement was primarily due to the increase in buffering capacity of the anolyte, although increased conductivity slightly improved performance as well. There was some substrate loss from the anolyte by diffusion into the membrane stack, but this was decreased from 11% to 2.6% by increasing the anolyte conductivity (7.6 to 14 mS/cm). These results demonstrated that catholyte effluent can be utilized as a useful product for mitigating anolyte acidification and improving MDC performance. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  2. RADIOACTIVE DEMONSTRATION OF FINAL MINERALIZED WASTE FORMS FOR HANFORD WASTE TREATMENT PLANT SECONDARY WASTE BY FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING USING THE BENCH SCALE REFORMER PLATFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-02-02

    ceramic (mineral) waste form. The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of {sup 125/129}I and {sup 99}Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  3. Radioactive Demonstration Of Final Mineralized Waste Forms For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Secondary Waste By Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Using The Bench Scale Reformer Platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, C.; Burket, P.; Cozzi, A.; Daniel, W.; Jantzen, C.; Missimer, D.

    2012-01-01

    . The mineral waste form that is produced by co-processing waste with kaolin clay in an FBSR process has been shown to be as durable as LAW glass. Monolithing of the granular FBSR product is being investigated to prevent dispersion during transport or burial/storage, but is not necessary for performance. A Benchscale Steam Reformer (BSR) was designed and constructed at the SRNL to treat actual radioactive wastes to confirm the findings of the non-radioactive FBSR pilot scale tests and to qualify the waste form for applications at Hanford. BSR testing with WTP SW waste surrogates and associated analytical analyses and tests of granular products (GP) and monoliths began in the Fall of 2009, and then was continued from the Fall of 2010 through the Spring of 2011. Radioactive testing commenced in 2010 with a demonstration of Hanford's WTP-SW where Savannah River Site (SRS) High Level Waste (HLW) secondary waste from the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) was shimmed with a mixture of 125/129 I and 99 Tc to chemically resemble WTP-SW. Prior to these radioactive feed tests, non-radioactive simulants were also processed. Ninety six grams of radioactive granular product were made for testing and comparison to the non-radioactive pilot scale tests. The same mineral phases were found in the radioactive and non-radioactive testing.

  4. Bench-scale feasibility testing of pulsed-air technology for in-tank mixing of dry cementitious solids with tank liquids and settled solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, G.A.; Hymas, C.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the results of testing performed to determine the feasibility of using a pulsed-air mixing technology (equipment developed by Pulsair Systems, Inc., Bellevue, WA) to mix cementitious dry solids with supernatant and settled solids within a horizontal tank. The mixing technology is being considered to provide in situ stabilization of the open-quotes Vclose quotes tanks at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The testing was performed in a vessel roughly 1/6 the scale of the INEEL tanks. The tests used a fine soil to simulate settled solids and water to simulate tank supernatants. The cementitious dry materials consisted of Portland cement and Aquaset-2H (a product of Fluid Tech Inc. consisting of clay and Portland cement). Two scoping tests were conducted to allow suitable mixing parameters to be selected. The scoping tests used only visual observations during grout disassembly to assess mixing performance. After the scoping tests indicated the approach may be feasible, an additional two mixing tests were conducted. In addition to visual observations during disassembly of the solidified grout, these tests included addition of chemical tracers and chemical analysis of samples to determine the degree of mixing uniformity achieved. The final two mixing tests demonstrated that the pulsed-air mixing technique is capable of producing slurries containing substantially more cementitious dry solids than indicated by the formulations suggested by INEEL staff. Including additional cement in the formulation may have benefits in terms of increasing mobilization of solids, reducing water separation during curing, and increasing the strength of the solidified product. During addition to the tank, the cementitious solids had a tendency to form clumps which broke down with continued mixing

  5. Design and Fabrication of the First Commercial-Scale Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOH) Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1998-12-21

    The Liquid Phase Methanol (LPMEOHT) process uses a slurry bubble column reactor to convert synthesis gas (syngas), primarily a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, to methanol. Because of its superior heat management the process can utilize directly the carbon monoxide (CO)-rich syngas characteristic of the gasification of coal, petroleum coke, residual oil, wastes, or other hydrocarbon feedstocks. The LPMEOHM Demonstration Project at Kingsport, Tennessee, is a $213.7 million cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Air Products Liquid Phase Conversion Company, L.P., a partnership between Air Products and Chemicals, Inc. and Eastman Chemical Company, to produce methanol from coal-derived syngas. Construction of the LPMEOH~ Process Demonstration Plant at Eastman's chemicals-from-coal complex in Kingsport was completed in January 1997. Following commissioning and shakedown activities, the fwst production of methanol from the facility occurred on April 2, 1997. Nameplate capacity of 260 short tons per day (TPD) was achieved on April 6, 1997, and production rates have exceeded 300 TPD of methanol at times. This report describes the design, fabrication, and installation of the Kingsport LPMEOEFM reactor, which is the first commercial-scale LPMEOEPM reaetor ever built. The vessel is 7.5 feet in diameter and 70 feet tall with design conditions of 1000 psig at 600 `F. These dimensions represent a significant scale-up from prior experience at the DOE-owned Alternative Fuels Development Unit in LaPorte, Texas, where 18-inch and 22-inch diameter reactors have been tested successfidly over thousands of hours. The biggest obstacles discovered during the scale- up, however, were encountered during fabrication of the vessel. The lessons learned during this process must be considered in tailoring the design for future sites, where the reactor dimensions may grow by yet another factor of two.

  6. Generalized Test Plan for the Vitrification of Simulated High-Level -Waste Calcine in the Idaho National Laboratory's Bench -Scale Cold Crucible Induction Melter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, Vince

    2011-01-01

    This Preliminary Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Test Plan outlines the chronological steps required to initially evaluate the validity of vitrifying INL surrogate (cold) High-Level-Waste (HLW) solid particulate calcine in INL's Cold Crucible Induction Melter (CCIM). Its documentation and publication satisfies interim milestone WP-413-INL-01 of the DOE-EM (via the Office of River Protection) sponsored work package, WP 4.1.3, entitled 'Improved Vitrification' The primary goal of the proposed CCIM testing is to initiate efforts to identify an efficient and effective back-up and risk adverse technology for treating the actual HLW calcine stored at the INL. The calcine's treatment must be completed by 2035 as dictated by a State of Idaho Consent Order. A final report on this surrogate/calcine test in the CCIM will be issued in May 2012-pending next fiscal year funding In particular the plan provides; (1) distinct test objectives, (2) a description of the purpose and scope of planned university contracted pre-screening tests required to optimize the CCIM glass/surrogate calcine formulation, (3) a listing of necessary CCIM equipment modifications and corresponding work control document changes necessary to feed a solid particulate to the CCIM, (4) a description of the class of calcine that will be represented by the surrogate, and (5) a tentative tabulation of the anticipated CCIM testing conditions, testing parameters, sampling requirements and analytical tests. Key FY -11 milestones associated with this CCIM testing effort are also provided. The CCIM test run is scheduled to be conducted in February of 2012 and will involve testing with a surrogate HLW calcine representative of only 13% of the 4,000 m3 of 'hot' calcine residing in 6 INL Bin Sets. The remaining classes of calcine will have to be eventually tested in the CCIM if an operational scale CCIM is to be a feasible option for the actual INL HLW calcine. This remaining calcine's make-up is HLW containing

  7. Modernization of the NESTLE-CANDU reactor simulator and coupling to scale-processed cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, S.; Maldonado, G.I.

    2012-01-01

    The original version of the NESTLE computer code for CANDU applications, herein referred as the NESTLE-CANDU or NESTLE-C program, was developed under sponsorship by the CNSC as a “stand-alone” program. In fact, NESTLE-C emerged from the original version of NESTLE, applicable to light water reactors, which was written in FORTRAN 77 to solve the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). Accordingly, NESTLE-C can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems for CANDU reactor fuel arrangements and geometries. This article reports a recent conversion of the NESTLE-C code to the Fortran 90 standard, in addition, we highlight other code updates carried out to modularize and modernize NESTLE-C in a manner consistent with the latest updates performed with the parent NESTLE code for light water reactor (LWR) applications. Also reported herein, is a simulation of a CANDU reactor employing 37-element fuel bundles, which was carried out to highlight the SCALE to NESTLE-C coupling developed for two-group collapsed and bundle homogenized cross-section generation. The results presented are consistent with corresponding simulations that employed HELIOS generated cross-sections. (author)

  8. Modernization of the NESTLE-CANDU reactor simulator and coupling to scale-processed cross sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, S.; Maldonado, G.I. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The original version of the NESTLE computer code for CANDU applications, herein referred as the NESTLE-CANDU or NESTLE-C program, was developed under sponsorship by the CNSC as a “stand-alone” program. In fact, NESTLE-C emerged from the original version of NESTLE, applicable to light water reactors, which was written in FORTRAN 77 to solve the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). Accordingly, NESTLE-C can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source or eigenvalue initiated transient problems for CANDU reactor fuel arrangements and geometries. This article reports a recent conversion of the NESTLE-C code to the Fortran 90 standard, in addition, we highlight other code updates carried out to modularize and modernize NESTLE-C in a manner consistent with the latest updates performed with the parent NESTLE code for light water reactor (LWR) applications. Also reported herein, is a simulation of a CANDU reactor employing 37-element fuel bundles, which was carried out to highlight the SCALE to NESTLE-C coupling developed for two-group collapsed and bundle homogenized cross-section generation. The results presented are consistent with corresponding simulations that employed HELIOS generated cross-sections. (author)

  9. Competitiveness of small-medium reactors. A probabilistic study on the economy of scale factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trianni, A.; Locatelli, G.; Trucco, P.

    2009-01-01

    Smaller size reactors are able to play an important role in the worldwide nuclear renaissance. The major disadvantage of those new reactors - the unit size - would label the small-medium size reactors as not economically competitive with larger plants. But, the economy of scale law applies only if the designs are similar, which is not the case here, since the SMRs are designed with original and innovative solutions not accessible to large size reactors: the IRIS reactor is used as an example of small medium reactors (SMR), but the analyses and conclusions are applicable to the whole spectrum of SMRs. The aim of this paper is to present latest advances in the differential economical assessment of Generation Cost of SMRs compared to LRs. The international literature has started to present studies focused on the two major differential accounts of Levelized Unit Electricity Cost - Captial Costs ($/kWe) and Operation and Maintenance Costs ($/kWh) - providing deterministic values for the main cost drivers (i.e. economy of scale, multiple units, learning during construction, design characteristics and modular build, shorter construction time for CC, economy of scale location of the plant, number of units, capacity factor, learning by doing, plant obsolescence for O and M costs). Since the modern SMR market is in the early stages of development, it is necessary to consider also the uncertainties associated to current estimates of those cost drivers. When available, the uncertainty has been integrated in the Open Model assigning a probabilistic distribution to the input value of each cost driver. As Far as other cost drivers are concerned, parametric analyses are still under development and uncertainty analyses are not available: thus, conservative but realistic values for both of them have been assumed. Some reasonable future scenarios have been assumed, considering the private operator perspective for a single plant investment and postulating, among the others

  10. Population changes in a biofilm reactor for phosphorus removal as evidenced by the use of FISH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falkentoft, C.M.; Müller, E.; Arnz, P.

    2002-01-01

    as in the first run was seen after one month, although the phase lengths had not been varied. Hence, the decrease after 1 month in the first and second run should be seen as a start-up phenomenon. FISH could detect a noticeable shift in the microbial population mainly within the first 2 weeks ofoperation. Almost...... hybridised to the dominant bacterial groups in the reactors investigated. No noticeable changes were detected in the aerobic bench-scale reactor during this period, indicating that the observed changes in the lab-scale reactor were caused by the changed environment. r 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights...

  11. Biodegradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in a vapor phase reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensley, B.D.

    1992-01-01

    A bench scale gas lift loop reactor was constructed to evaluate the feasibility of trichloroethylene (TCE) degradative microorganisms being used to treat TCE contaminated air. Two different microorganisms were used as biocatalysts in this reactor. After proper operating conditions were established for use of this reactor/biocatalyst combination, both microorganisms could degrade 95% of inlet TCE at air flow rates of up to 3% of the total reactor volume per minute. TCE concentrations of between 300 μg/L (60ppmv) and 3000 μg/L (600 ppmv) were degraded with 95% or better efficiency. Preliminary economic evaluations suggest that bioremediation may be the low cost alternative for treating certain TCE contaminated air streams and field trials of a scaled-up reactor system based on this technology are currently underway

  12. Experimental investigation of a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zheng, Yuanjing; Kiil, Søren; Johnsson, Jan Erik

    2003-01-01

    In the present work, an experimental parameter study was conducted in a pilot-scale jet bubbling reactor for wet flue gas desulphurisation (FGD). The pilot plant is downscaled from a limestone-based, gypsum producing full-scale wet FGD plant. Important process parameters, such as slurry pH, inlet...... flue gas concentration of SO2, reactor temperature, and slurry concentration of Cl- have been varied. The degree of desulphurisation, residual limestone content of the gypsum, liquid phase concentrations, and solids content of the slurry were measured during the experimental series. The SO2 removal...... efficiency increased from 66.1% to 71.5% when the reactor slurry pH was changed from 3.5 to 5.5. Addition of Cl(in the form of CaCl2 . 2H(2)O) to the slurry (25 g Cl-/l) increased the degree of desulphurisation to above 99%, due to the onset of extensive foaming, which substantially increased the gas...

  13. Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, V.; Galon, P.; Beccantini, A.; Crouzet, F.; Debaud, F.; Gautier, T.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Reference accidental situations for current and future reactors are considered. • They require the modeling of complex fluid–structure systems at full reactor scale. • EPX software computes the non-linear transient solution with explicit time stepping. • Focus on the parallel hybrid solver specific to the proposed coupled equations. - Abstract: This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid–structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid–structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside subdomains

  14. Dense Z-pinch (DZP) as a fusion power reactor: preliminary scaling calculations and sysems energy balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Tai, A.S.; Krakowski, R.A.; Moses, R.W.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual DT fusion reactor concept is described that is based upon the dense Z-pinch (DZP). This study emphasizes plasma modeling and the parametric assessment of the reactor energy balance. To this end simple analytic and numerical models have been developed and evaluated. The resulting optimal reactor operating point promises a high-Q, low-yield system of a scale that may allow the use of conventional high-voltage Marx/water-line technology to drive a potentially very small reactor system

  15. Atmospheric-pressure small-scale thermal-hydraulic experiment of a PIUS-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Kanji; Tamaki, Masayoshi; Imai, Satoshi; Kohketsu, Hideto; Anoda, Yoshinari; Murata, Hideo; Kukita, Yutaka.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental small-scale low-pressure setup of a PIUS (Process Inherent Ultimate Safety)-type reactor was used for the examination of the stability during normal operation such as startup and load following operation and of the safety during accidents such as loss-of-feedwater and pump runaway. Automatic feedback pump control system based on differential pressure at lower honeycomb density lock was quite effective to maintain the stratified interface between primary and pool water in the honeycomb density lock during normal operation. The process inherent ultimate safety characteristics of the PIUS-type reactor was confirmed with pump-trip scram at the pump speed limit for the various simulated accidents such as a loss-of-feedwater and pump runaway. (author)

  16. Small scale thermal-hydraulic experiment for stable operation of a pius-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, K.; Tamaki, M.; Imai, S.; Irianto, I.D.; Tsuji, Y.; Kukita, Y.

    1994-01-01

    Thermal-hydraulic experiments using a small-scale atmospheric pressure test loop have been performed for the Process Inherent Ultimate Safety (PIUS)-type reactor to develop the new pump speed feedback control system. Three feedback control systems based on the measurement of flow rate, differential pressure, and fluid temperature distribution in the lower density lock have been proposed and confirmed by a series of experiments. Each of the feedback control systems had been verified in the simulation experiment such as a start-up simulation test. The automatic pump speed control based on the fluid temperature at the lower density lock was quite effective to maintain the stratified interface between primary water and borated pool water for stable operation of the reactor. (author)

  17. Modelling an industrial anaerobic granular reactor using a multi-scale approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldman, Hannah; Flores Alsina, Xavier; Ramin, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within...... the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark...... simulations show the effects on the overall process performance when operational (pH) and loading (S:COD) conditions are modified. Lastly, the effect of intra-granular precipitation on the overall organic/inorganic distribution is assessed at: 1) different times; and, 2) reactor heights. Finally...

  18. Radioisotope tracer study in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, H.J.; Pendharkar, A.S. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Isotope Applications Div, Bombay (India); Prasad, J.S.; Maiti, R.N.; Chawla, R.; Lahri, R.N.; Ram Babu, D. [Engineers India Limited, Gurgaon, Haryana (India); Berne, Ph. [CEA Grenoble, DTEN/SAT, 38 (France)

    2001-07-01

    Trickle bed reactor (TBR) is a reactor in which a liquid and a gas phase flow concurrently downwards through a fixed bed of catalyst particles while the reaction takes place. The trickle bed reactors find a number of applications in petroleum refining, chemical. petro-chemical and bio-chemical processes due to their suitability for hydro-processing operations.The knowledge of radial distribution, mean residence time (MRT). liquid holdup and degree of axial mixing is a basic requirement to evaluate the reactor performance of a TBR, its optimal size, the physical and chemical interactions and the pumping requirements. Measurement and analysis of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase facilitate the determination of these parameters. This paper describes the measurement of RTD of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor operating at high pressure. Kerosene and nitrogen were used as liquid and gas phase, respectively. Porous alumina catalyst particles were used as packing. Bromine-82 as para-di-bromo benzene was used as a tracer to measure RTD of organic liquid phase. The RTD of kerosene was measured as a function of liquid and gas flow rates and pressure. The axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones was proposed and used to simulate the measured RTD data and model parameters i.e mean residence time ({tau}), Peclet Number (Pe), dynamic fraction of the liquid ({phi}) and the number of transfer units (N) were obtained. The results of the simulations indicated intermediate degree of axial mixing of liquid phase. The RTD predicted by the axial dispersion model with exchange between active and dead zones fits well to the experimentally measured RTD data and thus is a suitable model to describe the dynamics of the liquid phase in TBRs filled with porous catalyst particles. (authors)

  19. The scaling of economic and performance parameters of DT and advanced fuel fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    In this study, the plasma stability index beta and the fusion power density in the plasma were treated as independent variables to determine how they influenced three economic performance parameters of fusion reactors burning the DT and four advanced fusion fuel cycles. The economic/performance parameters included the total power produced per unit length of reactor; the mass per unit length, and the specific mass in kilograms/kilowatt. The scaling of these parameters with beta and fusion power density was examined for a common set of engineering assumptions on the allowable wall loading limits, the maximum magnetic field existing in the plasma, average blanket mass density, etc. It was found that the power per unit length decreased as the plasma power density and beta increased. This is a consequence of the fact that the first wall is a bottleneck in the energy flow from the plasma to the generating equipment, and the wall power flux will exceed wall loading limits if the plasma radius exceeds a critical value. If one wished to build an engineering test reactor which produced a burning plasma at the lowest possible initial cost, and without regard to whether such a reactor would ultimately produce the cheapest power, then one would minimize the mass per unit length. The mass per unit length decreases with increasing plasma power density and beta, with the DT reaction being the most expensive at a fixed plasma power density (because of its thicker blanket), and the least expensive at a fixed value of beta, at least up to values of beta of 50%. The specific mass, in kg/kw, which is a rough measure of the cost of the power generated by the reactor, shows an opposite trend. It increases with increasing plasma power density and beta. At a given plasma power density and low beta, the DT reaction gives the lowest specific mass, but at a fixed beta above 10%, the advanced fuel cycles have the lowest specific mass

  20. Radionuclide analysis and scaling factors verification for LLRW of Taipower Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, J.-Y.; Liu, K.-T.; Chen, S.-C.; Chang, T.-M.; Pung, T.-C.; Men, L.-C.; Wang, S.-J.

    2004-01-01

    The Atomic Energy Council of the Republic of China (CAEC) final disposal policy for Low Level Radwaste (LLRW) will be carried on in 1996. Institute of Nuclear Energy Research has the contract to develop the Radionuclide analysis method and to establish the scaling factors for LLRW of Taipower reactors. The radionuclides analyzed including: Co-60, Cs-137, Ce-144, γ-nuclides; H-3, C-14, Fe-55, Ni-59, Ni-63, Sr-90, Nb-94, Tc-99, I-129, Pu-238, Pu-239/240, Pu-241, Am-241, Cm-242, Cm-244 α, β and low energy γ nuclides. 120 samples taken from 21 waste streams were analyzed and the database was collected within 2 years. The scaling factors for different kind of waste streams were computed with weighted log-mean average method. In 1993, the scaling factors for each waste stream has been verified through actual station samples. (author)

  1. Dose rates modeling of pressurized water reactor primary loop components with SCALE6.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matijević, Mario; Pevec, Dubravko; Trontl, Krešimir

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Shielding analysis of the typical PWR primary loop components was performed. • FW-CADIS methodology was thoroughly investigated using SCALE6.0 code package. • Versatile ability of SCALE6.0/FW-CADIS for deep penetration models was proved. • The adjoint source with focus on specific material can improve MC modeling. - Abstract: The SCALE6.0 simulation model of a typical PWR primary loop components for effective dose rates calculation based on hybrid deterministic–stochastic methodology was created. The criticality sequence CSAS6/KENO-VI of the SCALE6.0 code package, which includes KENO-VI Monte Carlo code, was used for criticality calculations, while neutron and gamma dose rates distributions were determined by MAVRIC/Monaco shielding sequence. A detailed model of a combinatorial geometry, materials and characteristics of a generic two loop PWR facility is based on best available input data. The sources of ionizing radiation in PWR primary loop components included neutrons and photons originating from critical core and photons from activated coolant in two primary loops. Detailed calculations of the reactor pressure vessel and the upper reactor head have been performed. The efficiency of particle transport for obtaining global Monte Carlo dose rates was further examined and quantified with a flexible adjoint source positioning in phase-space. It was demonstrated that generation of an accurate importance map (VR parameters) is a paramount step which enabled obtaining Monaco dose rates with fairly uniform uncertainties. Computer memory consumption by the S N part of hybrid methodology represents main obstacle when using meshes with large number of cells together with high S N /P N parameters. Detailed voxelization (homogenization) process in Denovo together with high S N /P N parameters is essential for precise VR parameters generation which will result in optimized MC distributions. Shielding calculations were also performed for the reduced PWR

  2. Polymeric Traypack Integrity: Bench-Scale Unit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Canavan, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    .... Additional experimentation was conducted to determine the applicability of the unit for non-destructive residual gas testing since current destructive tests represent a substantial continuing expense...

  3. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg; K. M. Shaber

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  4. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  5. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-05-21

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful.

  6. TWR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Marshall; N. R. Soelberg

    2003-05-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by ThermoChem Waste Remediation, LLC, (TWR) for treatment of SBW into a "road ready" waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). TWR is the licensee of Manufacturing Technology Conservation International (MTCI) steam-reforming technology in the field of radioactive waste treatment. A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrate residues were about 400 ppm in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 86%. The demonstration was successful.

  7. THOR Bench-Scale Steam Reforming Demonstration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, D.W.; Soelberg, N.R.; Shaber, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) was home to nuclear fuel reprocessing activities for decades at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. As a result of the reprocessing activities, INTEC has accumulated approximately one million gallons of acidic, radioactive, sodium-bearing waste (SBW). The purpose of this demonstration was to investigate a reforming technology, offered by THORsm Treatment Technologies, LLC, for treatment of SBW into a ''road ready'' waste form that would meet the waste acceptance criteria for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). A non-radioactive simulated SBW was used based on the known composition of waste tank WM-180 at INTEC. Rhenium was included as a non-radioactive surrogate for technetium. Data was collected to determine the nature and characteristics of the product, the operability of the technology, the composition of the off-gases, and the fate of key radionuclides (cesium and technetium) and volatile mercury compounds. The product contained a low fraction of elemental carbon residues in the cyclone and filter vessel catches. Mercury was quantitatively stripped from the product but cesium, rhenium (Tc surrogate), and the heavy metals were retained. Nitrates were not detected in the product and NOx destruction exceeded 98%. The demonstration was successful

  8. Report on results of R and D of coal liquefaction technology under Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. Development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant (research on liquefaction by bench scale equipment, and research on solid-liquid separation method); 1981 nendo sekitan ekika gijutsu no kenkyu kaihatsu, chokusetsu suiten ekika plant no kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Bench scale sochi ni yoru ekika kenkyu, koeki bunriho ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1982-03-01

    This paper explains the results of development of direct hydro-liquefaction plant under the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1981. As element studies for supplementing and supporting a 2.4 t/day PDU (process development unit), in the research using a 0.1 t/day bench scale continuous type equipment of fiscal 1981, a hydrogenation experiment was conducted for anthracene oil and also, an examination was made on the reaction conditions of Taiheiyo coal and Horonai coal, as well as on the catalyst and reaction ratio and on the product material distribution. A medium oil equalizing test was performed using Taiheiyo coal in order to obtain knowledge about equalized medium oil. Liquefaction characteristics in the preheating process and reaction process were elucidated by means of a semi-batch device. Comparative studies were made between domestic and overseas coals, in coal properties and liquefaction characteristics using a shaking type autoclave. The performance of iron-sulfur based catalysts was also examined. In the research on a solid-liquid separation method, the basic properties of coal liquefied crude oil were measured such as general properties, solid grading distribution and distillation characteristics, with the basic tests carried out for standing separation, filtrating separation and centrifuging separation, providing selected materials of the solid-liquid separation method suitable for the crude oil produced by the direct hydro-liquefaction method. In addition, studies were conducted on the use of residual oil generated by solid-liquid separation, providing knowledge of the viscosity and thermal cracking. (NEDO)

  9. Aerobic Sludge Granulation in a Full-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic granulation of activated sludge was successfully achieved in a full-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR with 50,000 m3 d−1 for treating a town’s wastewater. After operation for 337 days, in this full-scale SBR, aerobic granules with an average SVI30 of 47.1 mL g−1, diameter of 0.5 mm, and settling velocity of 42 m h−1 were obtained. Compared to an anaerobic/oxic plug flow (A/O reactor and an oxidation ditch (OD being operated in this wastewater treatment plant, the sludge from full-scale SBR has more compact structure and excellent settling ability. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE analysis indicated that Flavobacterium sp., uncultured beta proteobacterium, uncultured Aquabacterium sp., and uncultured Leptothrix sp. were just dominant in SBR, whereas uncultured bacteroidetes were only found in A/O and OD. Three kinds of sludge had a high content of protein in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS. X-ray fluorescence (XRF analysis revealed that metal ions and some inorganics from raw wastewater precipitated in sludge acted as core to enhance granulation. Raw wastewater characteristics had a positive effect on the granule formation, but the SBR mode operating with periodic feast-famine, shorter settling time, and no return sludge pump played a crucial role in aerobic sludge granulation.

  10. Automatic control of scale range applied for analog study of reactor kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sergent, O.; Tellier, N.

    1967-01-01

    We study the response of a reactor, initially in a sub-critical state, for linear release of reactivity obeying to the following criteria, a rod drop comes in 10 seconds after the moment when the neutron power becomess equal to 10 -3 times the nominal power. We are interested in the maximum reactivity reached and in the energy released during the power excursion. For the power varying in a range from 1 to 10 10 we have used the method of automatic change scale which was installed and described in a previous report [fr

  11. A small-scale modular reactor for electric source for remote places

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    Use of a small-scale modular reactor (SMR) as an electric source for remote places is one of scenarios for actual use of SMR parallel to alternative source of present nuclear power stations and co-generation source at urban suburbs, there is not only an actual experience to construct and operate for power source for military use in U.S.A. on 1950s to 1960s, but also four nuclear reactors (LWGR, 12 MW) in Vilyvino Nuclear Power Station in far northern district in Russia are under operation. Recently, Department of Energy in U.S.A. prepared the 'Report to Congress on Small Modular Nuclear Reactors' evaluating on feasibility of SMR as a power source for remote places according to requirement of the Congress. This report evaluated a feasibility study on nine SMRs in the world with 10 to 50 MW of output as electric source for remote places on economical efficiency and so on, together with analysis of their design concepts, to conclude that 'they could perform beginning of operations on 2000s because of no large technical problems and keeping a level capable of competing with power generation cost at remote place on its present economical efficiency'. Here was introduced on outlines of this report. (G.K.)

  12. Meso-scale magnetic signatures for nuclear reactor steel irradiation embrittlement monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suter, J. D., E-mail: pradeep.ramuhalli@pnnl.gov; Ramuhalli, P., E-mail: pradeep.ramuhalli@pnnl.gov; Hu, S.; Li, Y.; Jiang, W.; Edwards, D. J.; Schemer-Kohrn, A. L.; Johnson, B. R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, 902 Battelle Blvd, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); McCloy, J. S., E-mail: john.mccloy@wsu.edu; Xu, K., E-mail: john.mccloy@wsu.edu [Washington State University, PO Box 642920, Pullman, WA 99164 (United States)

    2015-03-31

    Verifying the structural integrity of passive components in light water and advanced reactors will be necessary to ensure safe, long-term operations of the existing U.S. nuclear fleet. This objective can be achieved through nondestructive condition monitoring techniques, which can be integrated with plant operations to quantify the “state of health” of structural materials in real-time. While nondestructive methods for monitoring many classes of degradation (such as fatigue or stress corrosion cracking) are relatively advanced, this is not the case for degradation caused by irradiation. The development of nondestructive evaluation technologies for these types of degradation will require advanced materials characterization techniques and tools that enable comprehensive understanding of nuclear reactor material microstructural and behavioral changes under extreme operating environments. Irradiation-induced degradation of reactor steels causes changes in their microstructure that impacts their micro-magnetic properties. In this paper, we describe preliminary results of integrating advanced material characterization techniques with meso-scale computational models. In the future, this will help to provide an interpretive understanding of the state of degradation in structural materials. Microstructural data are presented from monocrystalline Fe and are correlated with variable-field magnetic force microscopy and micro-magnetic measurements. Ongoing research is focused on extending the measurements and models on thin films to gain insights into the structural state of irradiated materials and the resulting impact on magnetic properties. Preliminary conclusions from these correlations are presented, and next steps described.

  13. Kinetic study on the effect of temperature on biogas production using a lab scale batch reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepanraj, B; Sivasubramanian, V; Jayaraj, S

    2015-11-01

    In the present study, biogas production from food waste through anaerobic digestion was carried out in a 2l laboratory-scale batch reactor operating at different temperatures with a hydraulic retention time of 30 days. The reactors were operated with a solid concentration of 7.5% of total solids and pH 7. The food wastes used in this experiment were subjected to characterization studies before and after digestion. Modified Gompertz model and Logistic model were used for kinetic study of biogas production. The kinetic parameters, biogas yield potential of the substrate (B), the maximum biogas production rate (Rb) and the duration of lag phase (λ), coefficient of determination (R(2)) and root mean square error (RMSE) were estimated in each case. The effect of temperature on biogas production was evaluated experimentally and compared with the results of kinetic study. The results demonstrated that the reactor with operating temperature of 50°C achieved maximum cumulative biogas production of 7556ml with better biodegradation efficiency. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Design of a full scale model fuel assembly for full power production reactor flow excursion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.A.; Blake, J.E.; Rush, G.C.

    1990-01-01

    A novel full scale production reactor fuel assembly model was designed and built to study thermal-hydraulic effects of postulated Savannah River Site (SRS) nuclear reactor accidents. The electrically heated model was constructed to simulate the unique annular concentric tube geometry of fuel assemblies in SRS nuclear production reactors. Several major design challenges were overcome in order to produce the prototypic geometry and thermal-hydraulic conditions. The two concentric heater tubes (total power over 6 MW and maximum heat flux of 3.5 MW/m 2 ) (1.1E+6 BTU/(ft 2 hr)) were designed to closely simulate the thermal characteristics of SRS uranium-aluminum nuclear fuel. The paper discusses the design of the model fuel assembly, which met requirements of maintaining prototypic geometric and hydraulic characteristics, and approximate thermal similarity. The model had a cosine axial power profile and the electrical resistance was compatible with the existing power supply. The model fuel assembly was equipped with a set of instruments useful for code analysis, and durable enough to survive a number of LOCA transients. These instruments were sufficiently responsive to record the response of the fuel assembly to the imposed transient

  15. Metal Hall sensors for the new generation fusion reactors of DEMO scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolshakova, I.; Bulavin, M.; Kargin, N.; Kost, Ya.; Kuech, T.; Kulikov, S.; Radishevskiy, M.; Shurygin, F.; Strikhanov, M.; Vasil'evskii, I.; Vasyliev, A.

    2017-11-01

    For the first time, the results of on-line testing of metal Hall sensors based on nano-thickness (50-70) nm gold films, which was conducted under irradiation by high-energy neutrons up to the high fluences of 1 · 1024 n · m-2, are presented. The testing has been carried out in the IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in the neutron flux with the intensity of 1.5 · 1017 n · m-2 · s-1 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research. The energy spectrum of neutron flux was very close to that expected for the ex-vessel sensors locations in the ITER experimental reactor. The magnetic field sensitivity of the gold sensors was stable within the whole fluence range under research. Also, sensitivity values at the start and at the end of irradiation session were equal within the measurement error (<1%). The results obtained make it possible to recommend gold sensors for magnetic diagnostics in the new generation fusion reactors of DEMO scale.

  16. Scaled Facility Design Approach for Pool-Type Lead-Bismuth Eutectic Cooled Small Modular Reactor Utilizing Natural Circulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sangrok; Shin, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Jueun; Hwang, Il Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In low carbon era, nuclear energy is the most prominent energy source of electricity. For steady ecofriendly nuclear energy supply, Generation IV reactors which are future nuclear reactor require safety, sustainability, economics and non-proliferation as four criteria. Lead cooled fast reactor (LFR) is one of these reactor type and Generation IV international forum (GIF) adapted three reference LFR systems which are a small and movable systems with long life without refueling, intermediate size and huge electricity generation system for power grid. NUTRECK (Nuclear Transmutation Energy Center of Korea) has been designed reactor called URANUS (Ubiquitous, Rugged, Accident-forgiving, Non-proliferating, and Ultra-lasting Sustainer) which is small modular reactor and using lead-bismuth eutectic coolant. To prove natural circulation capability of URANUS and analyze design based accidents, scaling mock-up experiment facility will be constructed. In this paper, simple specifications of URANUS will be presented. Then based on this feature, scaling law and scaled facility design results are presented. To validate safety feature and thermodynamics characteristic of URANUS, scaled mockup facility of URANUS is designed based on the scaling law. This mockup adapts two area scale factors, core and lower parts of mock-up are scaled for 3D flow experiment. Upper parts are scaled different size to reduce electricity power and LBE tonnage. This hybrid scaling method could distort some thermal-hydraulic parameters, however, key parameters for experiment will be matched for up-scaling. Detailed design of mock-up will be determined through iteration for design optimization.

  17. A paradigm shift needed for nuclear reactors. From economies of unit scale to economies of production scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Ning

    2009-01-01

    The success and sustainability of the nascent 'Nuclear Renaissance' will depend heavily on the timely development and deployment SMRs (small and modular reactors) as a new paradigm to increase economic competitiveness and broaden markets and applications for nuclear energy. A critical assessment of the historical and current reactor construction cost data reveals a troubling trend of rapid escalation in practically all countries, while showing little or negative economies of (unit) scale. The escalation cannot be fully accounted for by cost inflation in materials and labors, or by ratcheting regulations and other external factors. Rather, it appears that the intrinsic complexity and the associated risks and costs of extremely large systems have offset all returns of (unit) scale in power engineering and learning effects in practice. The construction heavy nature of the nuclear power plants exacerbates the cost problem as compared to that of the manufactured goods. The power markets have evolved away from the very large monolithic generation units toward modular units more amenable for manufacturing and transportation. This is clearly illustrated through the increasingly bi-modal distribution of generation units around a few MWe (wind, micro-turbines etc) and 100-200 MWe (gas turbine and combined cycle). The rapid market adoption and penetration of these units dwarf the addition rates of the very large units. This is not merely an outcome based on economic and financial risk reduction (important in their own right) or better match of applications - the technological and operational performances are equal or even superior in these smaller modular units. This presentation will use the industry, market and application data analyses, and successful examples from other sectors and industries with different organizing principles to demonstrate the benefits and potentials of SMRs. The resultant paradigm shift, from the singular pursuit of economies of unit scale to

  18. Application of SCALE 6.1 MAVRIC Sequence for Activation Calculation in Reactor Primary Shield Concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong IL

    2014-01-01

    Activation calculation requires flux information at desired location and reaction cross sections for the constituent elements to obtain production rate of activation products. Generally it is not an easy task to obtain fluxes or reaction rates with low uncertainties in a reasonable time for deep penetration problems by using standard Monte Carlo methods. The MAVRIC (Monaco with Automated Variance Reduction using Importance Calculations) sequence in SCALE 6.1 code package is intended to perform radiation transport on problems that are too challenging for standard, unbiased Monte Carlo methods. And the SCALE code system provides plenty of ENDF reaction types enough to consider almost all activation reactions in the nuclear reactor materials. To evaluate the activation of the important isotopes in primary shield, SCALE 6.1 MAVRIC sequence has been utilized for the KSNP reactor model and the calculated results are compared to the isotopic activity concentration of related standard. Related to the planning for decommission, the activation products in concrete primary shield such as Fe-55, Co-60, Ba-133, Eu-152, and Eu-154 are identified as important elements according to the comparisons with related standard for exemption. In this study, reference data are used for the concrete compositions in the activation calculation to see the applicability of MAVRIC code to the evaluation of activation inventory in the concrete primary shield. The composition data of trace elements as shown in Table 1 are obtained from various US power plant sites and accordingly they have large variations in quantity due to the characteristics of concrete composition. In practical estimation of activation radioactivity for a specific plant related to decommissioning, rigorous chemical analysis of concrete samples of the plant would first have to be performed to get exact information for compositions of concrete. Considering the capability of solving deep penetration transport problems and richness

  19. A new approach for modeling and analysis of molten salt reactors using SCALE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, J. J.; Harrison, T. J.; Gehin, J. C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6172 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is performing an evaluation and screening of potential fuel cycle options to provide information that can support future research and development decisions based on the more promising fuel cycle options. [1] A comprehensive set of fuel cycle options are put into evaluation groups based on physics and fuel cycle characteristics. Representative options for each group are then evaluated to provide the quantitative information needed to support the valuation of criteria and metrics used for the study. Included in this set of representative options are Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs), the analysis of which requires several capabilities that are not adequately supported by the current version of SCALE or other neutronics depletion software packages (e.g., continuous online feed and removal of materials). A new analysis approach was developed for MSR analysis using SCALE by taking user-specified MSR parameters and performing a series of SCALE/TRITON calculations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. This paper provides a detailed description of the new analysis approach, including the modeling equations and radiation transport models used. Results for an MSR fuel cycle option of interest are also provided to demonstrate the application to a relevant problem. The current implementation is through a utility code that uses the two-dimensional (2D) TRITON depletion sequence in SCALE 6.1 but could be readily adapted to three-dimensional (3D) TRITON depletion sequences or other versions of SCALE. (authors)

  20. A new approach for modeling and analysis of molten salt reactors using SCALE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powers, J. J.; Harrison, T. J.; Gehin, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The Office of Fuel Cycle Technologies (FCT) of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy is performing an evaluation and screening of potential fuel cycle options to provide information that can support future research and development decisions based on the more promising fuel cycle options. [1] A comprehensive set of fuel cycle options are put into evaluation groups based on physics and fuel cycle characteristics. Representative options for each group are then evaluated to provide the quantitative information needed to support the valuation of criteria and metrics used for the study. Included in this set of representative options are Molten Salt Reactors (MSRs), the analysis of which requires several capabilities that are not adequately supported by the current version of SCALE or other neutronics depletion software packages (e.g., continuous online feed and removal of materials). A new analysis approach was developed for MSR analysis using SCALE by taking user-specified MSR parameters and performing a series of SCALE/TRITON calculations to determine the resulting equilibrium operating conditions. This paper provides a detailed description of the new analysis approach, including the modeling equations and radiation transport models used. Results for an MSR fuel cycle option of interest are also provided to demonstrate the application to a relevant problem. The current implementation is through a utility code that uses the two-dimensional (2D) TRITON depletion sequence in SCALE 6.1 but could be readily adapted to three-dimensional (3D) TRITON depletion sequences or other versions of SCALE. (authors)

  1. Creaming enhancement in a liter scale ultrasonic reactor at selected transducer configurations and frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Pablo; Temmel, Sandra; Rout, Manoj; Swiergon, Piotr; Mawson, Raymond; Knoerzer, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Recent research has shown that high frequency ultrasound (0.4-3 MHz), can enhance milkfat separation in small scale systems able to treat only a few milliliters of sample. In this work, the effect of ultrasonic standing waves on milkfat creaming was studied in a 6L reactor and the influence of different frequencies and transducer configurations in direct contact with the fluid was investigated. A recombined coarse milk emulsion with fat globules stained with oil-red-O dye was selected for the separation trials. Runs were performed with one or two transducers placed in vertical (parallel or perpendicular) and horizontal positions (at the reactor base) at 0.4, 1 and/or 2 MHz (specific energy 8.5 ± 0.6 kJ/kg per transducer). Creaming behavior was assessed by measuring the thickness of the separated cream layer. Other methods supporting this assessment included the measurement of fat content, backscattering, particle size distribution, and microscopy of samples taken at the bottom and top of the reactor. Most efficient creaming was found after treatment at 0.4 MHz in single and double vertical transducer configurations. Among these configurations, a higher separation rate was obtained when sonicating at 0.4 MHz in a vertical perpendicular double transducer setup. The horizontal transducer configuration promoted creaming at 2 MHz only. Fat globule size increase was observed when creaming occurred. This research highlights the potential for enhanced separation of milkfat in larger scale systems from selected transducer configurations in contact with a dairy emulsion, or emulsion splitting in general. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cryogenic hydrogen fuel for controlled inertial confinement fusion (formation of reactor-scale cryogenic targets)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aleksandrova, I. V.; Koresheva, E. R., E-mail: elena.koresheva@gmail.com; Krokhin, O. N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Osipov, I. E. [Power Efficiency Centre, Inter RAO UES (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    In inertial fusion energy research, considerable attention has recently been focused on low-cost fabrication of a large number of targets by developing a specialized layering module of repeatable operation. The targets must be free-standing, or unmounted. Therefore, the development of a target factory for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is based on methods that can ensure a cost-effective target production with high repeatability. Minimization of the amount of tritium (i.e., minimization of time and space at all production stages) is a necessary condition as well. Additionally, the cryogenic hydrogen fuel inside the targets must have a structure (ultrafine layers—the grain size should be scaled back to the nanometer range) that supports the fuel layer survivability under target injection and transport through the reactor chamber. To meet the above requirements, significant progress has been made at the Lebedev Physical Institute (LPI) in the technology developed on the basis of rapid fuel layering inside moving free-standing targets (FST), also referred to as the FST layering method. Owing to the research carried out at LPI, unique experience has been gained in the development of the FST-layering module for target fabrication with an ultrafine fuel layer, including a reactor- scale target design. This experience can be used for the development of the next-generation FST-layering module for construction of a prototype of a target factory for power laser facilities and inertial fusion power plants.

  3. Current and future trends for biofilm reactors for fermentation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Duygu; Demirci, Ali

    2015-03-01

    Biofilms in the environment can both cause detrimental and beneficial effects. However, their use in bioreactors provides many advantages including lesser tendencies to develop membrane fouling and lower required capital costs, their higher biomass density and operation stability, contribution to resistance of microorganisms, etc. Biofilm formation occurs naturally by the attachment of microbial cells to the support without use of any chemicals agent in biofilm reactors. Biofilm reactors have been studied and commercially used for waste water treatment and bench and pilot-scale production of value-added products in the past decades. It is important to understand the fundamentals of biofilm formation, physical and chemical properties of a biofilm matrix to run the biofilm reactor at optimum conditions. This review includes the principles of biofilm formation; properties of a biofilm matrix and their roles in the biofilm formation; factors that improve the biofilm formation, such as support materials; advantages and disadvantages of biofilm reactors; and industrial applications of biofilm reactors.

  4. Multi-scale analysis of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulics-first applications using the NEPTUNE platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelfi, A.; Boucker, M.; Mimouni, S.; Bestion, D.; Boudier, P.

    2005-01-01

    The NEPTUNE project aims at building a new two-phase flow thermal-hydraulics platform for nuclear reactor simulation. EDF (Electricite de France) and CEA (Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique) with the co-sponsorship of IRSN (Institut de Radioprotection et Surete Nucleaire) and FRAMATOME-ANP, are jointly developing the NEPTUNE multi-scale platform that includes new physical models and numerical methods for each of the computing scales. One usually distinguishes three different scales for industrial simulations: the 'system' scale, the 'component' scale (subchannel analysis) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). In addition DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation) can provide information at a smaller scale that can be useful for the development of the averaged scales. The NEPTUNE project also includes work on software architecture and research on new numerical methods for coupling codes since both are required to improve industrial calculations. All these R and D challenges have been defined in order to meet industrial needs and the underlying stakes (mainly the competitiveness and the safety of Nuclear Power Plants). This paper focuses on three high priority needs: DNB (Departure from Nucleate Boiling) prediction, directly linked to fuel performance; PTS (Pressurized Thermal Shock), a key issue when studying the lifespan of critical components and LBLOCA (Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident), a reference accident for safety studies. For each of these industrial applications, we provide a review of the last developments within the NEPTUNE platform and we present the first results. A particular attention is also given to physical validation and the needs for further experimental data. (authors)

  5. Scale analysis of decay heat removal system between HTR-10 and HTR-PM reactors under accidental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Thiago D.; Alvim, Antonio C.M.

    2017-01-01

    The 10 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test module (HTR-10) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled pebble bed reactor prototype that was designed to demonstrate the technical and safety feasibility of this type of reactor project under normal and accidental conditions. In addition, one of the systems responsible for ensuring the safe operation of this type of reactor is the passive decay heat removal system (DHRS), which operates using passive heat removal processes. A demonstration of the heat removal capacity of the DHRS under accidental conditions was analyzed based on a benchmark problem for design-based accidents on an HTR-10, i.e., the pressurized loss of forced cooling (PLOFC) described in technical reports produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency. In fact, the HTR-10 is also a proof-of-concept reactor for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM), which generates approximately 25 times more heat than the HTR-10, with a thermal power of 250 MW, thereby requiring a DHRS with a higher system capacity. Thus, because an HTR-10 is a prototype reactor for an HTR-PM, a scaling analysis of the heat transfer process from the reactor to the DHRS was carried out between the HTR-10 and HTR-PM systems to verify the distortions of scale and the differences between the main dimensionless numbers from the two projects. (author)

  6. Scale analysis of decay heat removal system between HTR-10 and HTR-PM reactors under accidental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Thiago D.; Alvim, Antonio C.M. [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Lapa, Celso M.F., E-mail: thiagodbtr@gmail.com, E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br, E-mail: alvim@nuclear.ufrj.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The 10 MW high-temperature gas-cooled test module (HTR-10) is a graphite-moderated and helium-cooled pebble bed reactor prototype that was designed to demonstrate the technical and safety feasibility of this type of reactor project under normal and accidental conditions. In addition, one of the systems responsible for ensuring the safe operation of this type of reactor is the passive decay heat removal system (DHRS), which operates using passive heat removal processes. A demonstration of the heat removal capacity of the DHRS under accidental conditions was analyzed based on a benchmark problem for design-based accidents on an HTR-10, i.e., the pressurized loss of forced cooling (PLOFC) described in technical reports produced by the International Atomic Energy Agency. In fact, the HTR-10 is also a proof-of-concept reactor for the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor pebble-bed module (HTR-PM), which generates approximately 25 times more heat than the HTR-10, with a thermal power of 250 MW, thereby requiring a DHRS with a higher system capacity. Thus, because an HTR-10 is a prototype reactor for an HTR-PM, a scaling analysis of the heat transfer process from the reactor to the DHRS was carried out between the HTR-10 and HTR-PM systems to verify the distortions of scale and the differences between the main dimensionless numbers from the two projects. (author)

  7. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW th . A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign

  8. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel, E-mail: juand.martinez@upb.edu.co [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain); Grupo de Investigaciones Ambientales, Instituto de Energía, Materiales y Medio Ambiente, Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana, Circular 1 N°70-01, Bloque 11, piso 2, Medellín (Colombia); Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto [Instituto de Carboquímica, ICB-CSIC, Miguel Luesma Castán 4, 50018, Zaragoza (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The continuous pyrolysis of waste tire has been demonstrated at pilot scale in an auger reactor. • More than 500 kg of waste tires were processed in 100 operational hours. • The yields and characteristics of the pyrolysis products remained constant. • Mass and energy balances for an industrial scale plant are provided. • The reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis was determined. -- Abstract: This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kW{sub th}. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550 °C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign.

  9. Evaluation of operational incidents in the research reactor RP-10 according to scale INES; Evaluacion de incidentes operacionales en el reactor de investigacion RP-10 segun escala INES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrieta, Rolando W.B.; Vela Mora, Mariano, E-mail: rarrieta@ipen.gob.pe, E-mail: mvela@ipen.gob.pe [Instituto Peruano de energia Nuclear, Lima (Peru). Dept. de Operacion de Reactores

    2013-07-01

    This report presents the evaluation of the events in 2011 in the RP-10 Nuclear Reactor Nuclear Center Huarangal from the point of view of safety. To classify these events produced is used Scale International Nuclear and Radiological Event Scale (INES) to facilitate a common understanding between the technical community, the media and the general public. From the results we can say that in 2011 all related to security events that occurred in the RP -10 are classified as 'below scale' or no safety significance. (author)

  10. Reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Vivek; Vaz Salles, Marcos António

    2018-01-01

    The requirements for OLTP database systems are becoming ever more demanding. Domains such as finance and computer games increasingly mandate that developers be able to encode complex application logic and control transaction latencies in in-memory databases. At the same time, infrastructure...... engineers in these domains need to experiment with and deploy OLTP database architectures that ensure application scalability and maximize resource utilization in modern machines. In this paper, we propose a relational actor programming model for in-memory databases as a novel, holistic approach towards......-level function calls. In contrast to classic transactional models, however, reactors allow developers to take advantage of intra-transaction parallelism and state encapsulation in their applications to reduce latency and improve locality. Moreover, reactors enable a new degree of flexibility in database...

  11. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.; Shenoy, K.T.; Sreenivas, T.

    2015-01-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40–60 MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. - Highlights: • Radiotracer technique was applied for evaluation of design of a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor. • Mean residence time and dead volume were estimated. Dead volume was found to be ranging from 4% to 15% at different operating conditions. • Tank-in-series model was used to simulate the measured RTD data and was found suitable to describe the flow in the reactor. • No flow abnormality was found and the reactor behaved as a well-mixed system. The design of the reactor was validated

  12. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option

  13. Simulation for Supporting Scale-Up of a Fluidized Bed Reactor for Advanced Water Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhana Tisa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simulation of fluidized bed reactor (FBR was accomplished for treating wastewater using Fenton reaction, which is an advanced oxidation process (AOP. The simulation was performed to determine characteristics of FBR performance, concentration profile of the contaminants, and various prominent hydrodynamic properties (e.g., Reynolds number, velocity, and pressure in the reactor. Simulation was implemented for 2.8 L working volume using hydrodynamic correlations, continuous equation, and simplified kinetic information for phenols degradation as a model. The simulation shows that, by using Fe3+ and Fe2+ mixtures as catalyst, TOC degradation up to 45% was achieved for contaminant range of 40–90 mg/L within 60 min. The concentration profiles and hydrodynamic characteristics were also generated. A subsequent scale-up study was also conducted using similitude method. The analysis shows that up to 10 L working volume, the models developed are applicable. The study proves that, using appropriate modeling and simulation, data can be predicted for designing and operating FBR for wastewater treatment.

  14. E-SCAPE: A scale facility for liquid-metal, pool-type reactor thermal hydraulic investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Tichelen, Katrien, E-mail: kvtichel@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Mirelli, Fabio, E-mail: fmirelli@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Greco, Matteo, E-mail: mgreco@sckcen.be [SCK-CEN, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium); Viviani, Giorgia, E-mail: giorgiaviviani@gmail.com [University of Pisa, Lungarno Pacinotti 43, 56126 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • The E-SCAPE facility is a thermal hydraulic scale model of the MYRRHA fast reactor. • The focus is on mixing and stratification in liquid-metal pool-type reactors. • Forced convection, natural convection and the transition are investigated. • Extensive instrumentation allows validation of computational models. • System thermal hydraulic and CFD models have been used for facility design. - Abstract: MYRRHA (Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications) is a flexible fast-spectrum research reactor under design at SCK·CEN. MYRRHA is a pool-type reactor with lead bismuth eutectic (LBE) as primary coolant. The proper understanding of the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring in the reactor pool is an important issue in the design and licensing of the MYRRHA system and liquid-metal cooled reactors by extension. Model experiments are necessary for understanding the physics, for validating experimental tools and to qualify the design for the licensing. The E-SCAPE (European SCAled Pool Experiment) facility at SCK·CEN is a thermal hydraulic 1/6-scale model of the MYRRHA reactor, with an electrical core simulator, cooled by LBE. It provides experimental feedback to the designers on the forced and natural circulation flow patterns. Moreover, it enables to validate the computational methods for their use with LBE. The paper will elaborate on the design of the E-SCAPE facility and its main parameters. Also the experimental matrix and the pre-test analysis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and system thermal hydraulics codes will be described.

  15. Ex-vessel boiling experiments: laboratory- and reactor-scale testing of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention. Pt. II. Reactor-scale boiling experiments of the flooded cavity concept for in-vessel core retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, T.Y.; Bentz, J.H.; Slezak, S.E.; Pasedag, W.F.

    1997-01-01

    For pt.I see ibid., p.77-88 (1997). This paper summarizes the results of a reactor-scale ex-vessel boiling experiment for assessing the flooded cavity design of the heavy water new production reactor. The simulated reactor vessel has a cylindrical diameter of 3.7 m and a torispherical bottom head. Boiling outside the reactor vessel was found to be subcooled nucleate boiling. The subcooling mainly results from the gravity head, which in turn results from flooding the side of the reactor vessel. The boiling process exhibits a cyclic pattern with four distinct phases: direct liquid-solid contact, bubble nucleation and growth, coalescence, and vapor mass dispersion. The results show that, under prototypic heat load and heat flux distributions, the flooded cavity will be effective for in-vessel core retention in the heavy water new production reactor. The results also demonstrate that the heat dissipation requirement for in-vessel core retention, for the central region of the lower head of an AP-600 advanced light water reactor, can be met with the flooded cavity design. (orig.)

  16. Traveling-wave reactors: A truly sustainable and full-scale resource for global energy needs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, T.; Petroski, R.; Hejzlar, P.; Zimmerman, G.; McAlees, D.; Whitmer, C.; Touran, N.; Hejzlar, J.; Weave, K.; Walter, J. C.; McWhirter, J.; Ahlfeld, C.; Burke, T.; Odedra, A.; Hyde, R.; Gilleland, J.; Ishikawa, Y.; Wood, L.; Myhrvold, N.; Gates Iii, W. H.

    2010-01-01

    Rising environmental and economic concerns have signaled a desire to reduce dependence on hydrocarbon fuels. These concerns have brought the world to an inflection point and decisions made today will dictate what the global energy landscape will look like for the next half century or more. An optimal energy technology for the future must meet stricter standards than in the past; in addition to being economically attractive, it now must also be environmentally benign, sustainable and scalable to global use. For stationary energy, only one existing resource comes close to fitting all of the societal requirements for an optimal energy source: nuclear energy. Its demonstrated economic performance, power density, and emissions-free benefits significantly elevate nuclear electricity generation above other energy sources. However, the current nuclear fuel cycle has some attributes that make it challenging to expand on a global scale. Traveling-wave reactor (TWR) technology, being developed by TerraPower, LLC, represents a potential solution to these limitations by offering a nuclear energy resource which is truly sustainable at full global scale for the indefinite future and is deployable in the near-term. TWRs are capable of offering a ∼40-fold gain in fuel utilization efficiency compared to conventional light-water reactors burning enriched fuel. Such high fuel efficiency, combined with an ability to use uranium recovered from river water or sea-water (which has been recently demonstrated to be technically and economically feasible) suggests that enough fuel is readily available for TWRs to generate electricity for 10 billion people at United States per capita levels for million-year time-scales. Interestingly, the Earth's rivers carry into the ocean a flux of uranium several times greater than that required to replace the implied rate-of-consumption, so that the Earth's slowly-eroding crust will provide a readily-accessible flow of uranium sufficient for all of

  17. Development of volumetric methane measurement instrument for laboratory scale anaerobic reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahito, A.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a newly developed VMMI (volumetric Methane-Measuring Instrument) for laboratory scale anaerobic reactors is presented. The VMMI is a reliable, inexpensive, easy to construct, easy to use, corrosion resistant device that does not need maintenance, can measure a wide flow range of gas at varying pressure and temperature. As per the results of the error analysis, the accuracy of the VMMI is unilateral, i.e. -6.91 %. The calibration of VMMI was investigated and a linear variation was found; hence, in situ calibration is recommended for this type of instrument. As per chromatographic analysis, it absorbs almost 100% of the carbon dioxide present in the biogas, results only the methane, and thus eliminates the need of cost intensive composition analysis of biogas through gas chromatograph. (author)

  18. Hybrid parallel strategy for the simulation of fast transient accidental situations at reactor scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faucher, V.; Galon, P.; Beccantini, A.; Crouzet, F.; Debaud, F.; Gautier, T.

    2013-01-01

    This contribution is dedicated to the latest methodological developments implemented in the fast transient dynamics software EUROPLEXUS (EPX) to simulate the mechanical response of fully coupled fluid-structure systems to accidental situations to be considered at reactor scale, among which the Loss of Coolant Accident, the Core Disruptive Accident and the Hydrogen Explosion. Time integration is explicit and the search for reference solutions within the safety framework prevents any simplification and approximations in the coupled algorithm: for instance, all kinematic constraints are dealt with using Lagrange Multipliers, yielding a complex flow chart when non-permanent constraints such as unilateral contact or immersed fluid-structure boundaries are considered. The parallel acceleration of the solution process is then achieved through a hybrid approach, based on a weighted domain decomposition for distributed memory computing and the use of the KAAPI library for self-balanced shared memory processing inside sub-domains. (authors)

  19. Mark I 1/5-scale boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment facility report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altes, R.G.; Pitts, J.H.; Ingraham, R.F.; Collins, E.K.; McCauley, E.W.

    1977-01-01

    An accurate Mark I 1 / 5 -scale, boiling water reactor (BWR), pressure suppression facility was designed and constructed at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) in 11 months. Twenty-seven air tests using the facility are described. Cost was minimized by utilizing equipment borrowed from other LLL programs. The total value of borrowed equipment exceeded the program's budget of $2,020,000. Substantial flexibility in the facility was used to permit independent variation in the drywell pressure-time history, initial pressure in the drywell and toroidal wetwells, initial toroidal wetwell water level and downcomer length, vent line flow resistance, and vent line flow asymmetry. The two- and three-dimensional sectors of the toroidal wetwell provided significant data

  20. Gas and water permeability of concrete for reactor buildings--prototype scale specimens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    The permeability testing was performed on four concrete cylinders, 0.25 m in diameter and 2 m long, modelling the wall-thickness of reactor containment structures on the prototype scale. Tests were performed on the cylinders before and after artificial induction of longitudinal cracks, intented to model defects developing after some period of adverse service conditions. Permeability increased greatly with the introduction of longitudinal cracks in the concrete, and was also affected by moisture content and casting direction. The influence of reinforcing steel could not be resolved within the bounds of experimental variability. Ultrasound measurements were taken on each cylinder before and after cracking, and a correlation between increased permeability and lowered Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity was observed. Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity measurements thus show promise as a means of continuous monitoring of the integrity of the concrete barrier in service

  1. Digital simulation of a commercial scale high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, A.; Bowman, H.F.

    1978-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of a commercial scale high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) steam power plant was derived in state-space form from fundamental principles. The plant model is 40th order, time-invariant, deterministic and continuous-time. Numerical results were obtained by digital simulation. Steady-state performance of the nonlinear model was verified with plant heat balance data at 100, 75 and 50 percent load levels. Local stability, controllability and observability were examined in this range using standard linear algorithms. Transfer function matrices for the linearized models were also obtained. Transient response characteristics of 6 system variables for independent step distrubances in 2 different input variables are presented as typical results

  2. Prediction of Hydraulic Performance of a Scaled-Down Model of SMART Reactor Coolant Pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Sun Guk; Park, Jin Seok; Yu, Je Yong; Lee, Won Jae [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-08-15

    An analysis was conducted to predict the hydraulic performance of a reactor coolant pump (RCP) of SMART at the off-design as well as design points. In order to reduce the analysis time efficiently, a single passage containing an impeller and a diffuser was considered as the computational domain. A stage scheme was used to perform a circumferential averaging of the flux on the impeller-diffuser interface. The pressure difference between the inlet and outlet of the pump was determined and was used to compute the head, efficiency, and break horse power (BHP) of a scaled-down model under conditions of steady-state incompressible flow. The predicted curves of the hydraulic performance of an RCP were similar to the typical characteristic curves of a conventional mixed-flow pump. The complex internal fluid flow of a pump, including the internal recirculation loss due to reverse flow, was observed at a low flow rate.

  3. Scaling factors for the activity determination of radioactive waste from nuclear power reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medici, Marcela A.; Piumetti, Elsa H.

    2007-01-01

    Specific information of the total activity and activity concentration of the radionuclides contained is required for conditioning, transporting and final disposal of radioactive waste. Due to the complexity associated to alpha and beta measurements for these emitters it is worldwide used, particularly in the case of heterogeneous radioactive waste, the Scaling Factor Method. As in other cases, inputs of the results of the analysis of waste samples taking from waste streams are necessary. The Scaling Factor Method is based on the determination of averaged correlations between the activity concentrations of Difficult to Measure (DTM) nuclides (i.e. alpha and beta emitters) and the activity concentration of easy to measure nuclides (i.e. strong gamma emitters) called Key Nuclides (KN). In the application of this method two phases may be identified: in the first one the degree of correlation between averaged activities of DTM and a given KN is verified, and specific Scaling Factors are derived for every DTM radionuclide. In the second stage the total activity and the activity concentration of the selected KN is determined in each waste item and, by applying the SFs obtained previously, the activities of DTM nuclides are calculated. It is concluded that this method is appropriate and cost-effective and it is stressed that it is only applicable while the Nuclear Power Reactor is in operation. (author)

  4. Scale-4 analysis of pressurized water reactor critical configurations: Volume 5, North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, S.M.; Suto, T.

    1996-10-01

    ANSI/ANS 8.1 requires that calculational methods for away-from- reactor (AFR) criticality safety analyses be validated against experiment. This report summarizes part of the ongoing effort to benchmark AFR criticality analysis methods using selected critical configurations from commercial PWRs. Codes and data in the SCALE-4 code system were used. This volume documents the SCALE system analysis of one reactor critical configuration for North Anna Unit 1 Cycle 5. The KENO V.a criticality calculations for the North Anna 1 Cycle 5 beginning-of-cycle model yielded a value for k eff of 1. 0040±0.0005

  5. Compact-toroid fusion reactor based on the field-reversed theta pinch: reactor scaling and optimization for CTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagenson, R.L.; Krakowski, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Early scoping studies based on approximate, analytic models have been extended on the basis of a dynamic plasma model and an overall systems approach to examine a Compact Toroid (CT) reactor embodiment that uses a Field-Reversed Theta Pinch as a plasma source. The field-reversed plasmoid would be formed and compressionally heated to ignition prior to injection into and translation through a linear burn chamber, thereby removing the high-technology plasmoid source from the hostile reactor environment. Stabilization of the field-reversed plasmoid would be provided by a passive conduction shell located outside the high-temperature blanket but within the low-field superconducting magnets and associated radiation shielding. On the basis of this batch-burn but thermally steady-state approach a reactor concept emerges with a length below approx. 40 m that generates 300 to 400 MWe of net electrical power with a recirculating power fraction less than 0.15

  6. Studies on the hydroprocessing of deashed oil. 10. ; Comparison of the reaction performance between pilot plant and BSU. Deashed oil no suisoka bunkai hanno ni kansuru kenkyu. 10. ; Pilot to bench hanno sochi no hanno tokusei no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hijiriyama, M.; Kaneko, T. (Mitsubishi Kasei Co., Tokyo (Japan)); Kageyama, Y. (Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-11-29

    The secondary hydroprocessing process in the two-stage hydrogenating liquefaction equipment under development at Nippon Brown Coal Liquefaction Company uses a fixed bed system. This paper describes operation of a bench reaction equipment using catalyst used in the pilot plant to compare it with fresh catalyst, and compare characteristics of the bench scale equipment with those of the pilot reactor. The catalyst is Ca-Ni-No/Al2O. The reaction was carried out in a gas-liquid downward parallel-flow fixed-bed reactor using deashed oil (DAO) with the same material as that used in the pilot plant and the same equilibrium solvent. The experiment result indicates that the used catalyst had its activity fallen below the fresh catalyst, but its temperature dependence was identical, and the selectivity on products of both catalysts was also identical. The result of reactions in the bench scale equipment clarified that the relationship between the DAO conversion rate and denitrogenation activity and the relationship between fa and H/C in the products are in good agreement, and that there is no difference in reaction selectivity. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Calculation of mixed HEU-LEU cores for the HOR research reactor with the scale code system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leege, P.F.A. de; Gibcus, H.P.M.; Hoogenboom, J.E.; Vries, J.W. de

    1997-01-01

    The HOR reactor of Interfaculty Reactor Institute (IRI), Delft, The Netherlands, will be converted to use low enriched fuel (LEU) assemblies. As there are still many usable high enriched (HEU) fuel assemblies present, there will be a considerable reactor operation time with mixed cores with both HEU and LEU fuel assemblies. At IRI a comprehensive reactor physics code system and evaluated nuclear data is implemented for detailed core calculations. One of the backbones of the IRI code system is the well-known SCALE code system package. Full core calculations are performed with the diffusion theory code BOLD VENTURE, the nodal code SILWER, and the Monte Carlo code KENO Va. Results are displayed of a strategy from a HEU core to a mixed HEU-LEU core and eventually a LEU core. (author)

  8. Evaluation of creep-fatigue crack growth for large-scale FBR reactor vessel and NDE assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Young Sang; Kim, Jong Bum; Kim, Seok Hun; Yoo, Bong

    2001-03-01

    Creep fatigue crack growth contributes to the failure of FRB reactor vessels in high temperature condition. In the design stage of reactor vessel, crack growth evaluation is very important to ensure the structural safety and setup the in-service inspection strategy. In this study, creep-fatigue crack growth evaluation has been performed for the semi-elliptical surface cracks subjected to thermal loading. The thermal stress analysis of a large-scale FBR reactor vessel has been carried out for the load conditions. The distributions of axial, radial, hoop, and Von Mises stresses were obtained for the loading conditions. At the maximum point of the axial and hoop stress, the longitudinal and circumferential surface cracks (i.e. PTS crack, NDE short crack and shallow long crack) were postulated. Using the maximum and minimum values of stresses, the creep-fatigue crack growth of the proposed cracks was simulated. The crack growth rate of circumferential cracks becomes greater than that of longitudinal cracks. The total crack growth of the largest PTS crack is very small after 427 cycles. The structural integrity of a large-scale reactor can be maintained for the plant life. The crack depth growth of the shallow long crack is faster than that of the NDE short crack. In the ISI of the large-scale FBR reactor vessel, the ultrasonic inspection is beneficial to detect the shallow circumferential cracks.

  9. Reclamation of grey water for non-potable purposes using pilot-scale solar photocatalytic tubular reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saran, Sarangapany; Arunkumar, Patchaiyappan; Manjari, Gangarapu; Devipriya, Suja P

    2018-05-05

    Application of pilot-scale slurry-type tubular photocatalytic reactor was tested for the decentralized treatment of actual grey water. The reactors were fabricated by reusing the locally available materials at low cost, operated in batch recycle mode with 25 L of grey water. The influence of operational parameters such as catalysts' concentration, initial slurry pH and addition of H 2 O 2 on COD abatement were optimized. The results show that Ag-decorated TiO 2 showed a two-fold increase in COD abatement than did pure TiO 2 . Better COD abatement was observed under acidic conditions, and addition of H 2 O 2 significantly increases the rate of COD abatement. Within 2 h, 99% COD abatement was observed when the reactor was operated with optimum operational conditions. Silver ion lixiviate was also monitored during the experiment and is five times less than the permissible limits. The catalyst shows good stability even after five cycles without much loss in its photocatalytic activity. The results clearly reveal that pilot-scale slurry tubular solar photocatalytic reactors could be used as a cost-effective method to treat grey water and the resulting clean water could be reused for various non-potable purposes, thus conserving precious water resource. This study favours decentralized grey water treatment and possible scaling up of solar photocatalytic reactor using locally available materials for the potential reuse of treated water.

  10. Performance Assessment of Turbulence Models for the Prediction of the Reactor Internal Flow in the Scale-down APR+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Gonghee; Bang, Youngseok; Woo, Swengwoong; Kim, Dohyeong; Kang, Minku

    2013-01-01

    The types of errors in CFD simulation can be divided into the two main categories: numerical errors and model errors. Turbulence model is one of the important sources for model errors. In this study, in order to assess the prediction performance of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)-based two equations turbulence models for the analysis of flow distribution inside a 1/5 scale-down APR+, the simulation was conducted with the commercial CFD software, ANSYS CFX V. 14. In this study, in order to assess the prediction performance of turbulence models for the analysis of flow distribution inside a 1/5 scale-down APR+, the simulation was conducted with the commercial CFD software, ANSYS CFX V. 14. Both standard k-ε model and SST model predicted the similar flow pattern inside reactor. Therefore it was concluded that the prediction performance of both turbulence models was nearly same. Complex thermal-hydraulic characteristics exist inside reactor because the reactor internals consist of fuel assembly, control rod assembly, and the internal structures. Either flow distribution test for the scale-down reactor model or computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation have been conducted to understand these complex thermal-hydraulic features inside reactor

  11. Chemical looping reforming in packed-bed reactors : modelling, experimental validation and large-scale reactor design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spallina, V.; Marinello, B.; Gallucci, F.; Romano, M.C.; van Sint Annaland, M.

    This paper addresses the experimental demonstration and model validation of chemical looping reforming in dynamically operated packed-bed reactors for the production of H2 or CH3OH with integrated CO2 capture. This process is a combination of auto-thermal and steam methane reforming and is carried

  12. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manglik, R M; Athavale, A; Kalaikadal, D S; Deodhar, A; Verma, U

    2011-09-02

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  13. Multi-scale Control and Enhancement of Reactor Boiling Heat Flux by Reagents and Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manglik, R.M.; Athavale, A.; Kalaikadal, D.S.; Deodhar, A.; Verma, U.

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenological characterization of the use of non-invasive and passive techniques to enhance the boiling heat transfer in water has been carried out in this extended study. It provides fundamental enhanced heat transfer data for nucleate boiling and discusses the associated physics with the aim of addressing future and next-generation reactor thermal-hydraulic management. It essentially addresses the hypothesis that in phase-change processes during boiling, the primary mechanisms can be related to the liquid-vapor interfacial tension and surface wetting at the solidliquid interface. These interfacial characteristics can be significantly altered and decoupled by introducing small quantities of additives in water, such as surface-active polymers, surfactants, and nanoparticles. The changes are fundamentally caused at a molecular-scale by the relative bulk molecular dynamics and adsorption-desorption of the additive at the liquid-vapor interface, and its physisorption and electrokinetics at the liquid-solid interface. At the micro-scale, the transient transport mechanisms at the solid-liquid-vapor interface during nucleation and bubblegrowth can be attributed to thin-film spreading, surface-micro-cavity activation, and micro-layer evaporation. Furthermore at the macro-scale, the heat transport is in turn governed by the bubble growth and distribution, macro-layer heat transfer, bubble dynamics (bubble coalescence, collapse, break-up, and translation), and liquid rheology. Some of these behaviors and processes are measured and characterized in this study, the outcomes of which advance the concomitant fundamental physics, as well as provide insights for developing control strategies for the molecular-scale manipulation of interfacial tension and surface wetting in boiling by means of polymeric reagents, surfactants, and other soluble surface-active additives.

  14. Effect of calcium on microbial aggregation during UASB reactor start-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahoney, E.M.; Varangu, L.K.; Cairns, W.L.; Kosaric, N.; Murray, R.G.E.

    1987-01-01

    The dynamics of granule formation were studied using cells from two bench-scale UASB reactors. The objective was to elucidate factors which influence formation and maintenance of highly active self-agglomerated microbial biomass. Simultaneous examination of biological and physical parameters was performed during the start-up of a calcium-positive (100 mg/l) reactor and a reactor without added calcium. The influence of carbon nutrients and Ca++ on the cell surface and microbial aggregation was studied. The granules formed in both reactors but were larger in the calcium-positive reactor in which they settled 3-4 times faster. A higher rate of biomass accumulation also was evident in the calcium-positive reactor and this allowed a more frequent increase in the substrate loading rate and earlier development of the granular sludge. (Refs. 17).

  15. Reactor similarity for plasma–material interactions in scaled-down tokamaks as the basis for the Vulcan conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Olynyk, G.M.; Barnard, H.S.; Bonoli, P.T.; Bromberg, L.; Garrett, M.L.; Haakonsen, C.B.; Hartwig, Z.S.; Mumgaard, R.T.; Podpaly, Y.A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Discussion of similarity scalings for reduced-size tokamaks. ► Proposal of a new set of scaling laws for divertor similarity. ► Discussion of how the new scaling provides fidelity to a reactor. ► The new scaling is used as the basis for the Vulcan conceptual design. - Abstract: Dimensionless parameter scaling techniques are a powerful tool in the study of complex physical systems, especially in tokamak fusion experiments where the cost of full-size devices is high. It is proposed that dimensionless similarity be used to study in a small-scale device the coupled issues of the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma, plasma–material interactions (PMI), and the plasma-facing material (PFM) response expected in a tokamak fusion reactor. Complete similarity is not possible in a reduced-size device. In addition, “hard” technological limits on the achievable magnetic field and peak heat flux, as well as the necessity to produce non-inductive scenarios, must be taken into account. A practical approach is advocated, in which the most important dimensionless parameters are matched to a reactor in the reduced-size device, while relaxing those parameters which are far from a threshold in behavior. “Hard” technological limits are avoided, so that the reduced-size device is technologically feasible. A criticism on these grounds is offered of the “P/R” model, in which the ratio of power crossing the last closed flux surface (LCFS), P, to the device major radius, R, is held constant. A new set of scaling rules, referred to as the “P/S” scaling (where S is the LCFS area) or the “PMI” scaling, is proposed: (i) non-inductive, steady-state operation; (ii) P is scaled with R 2 so that LCFS areal power flux P/S is constant; (iii) magnetic field B constant; (iv) geometry (elongation, safety factor q * , etc.) constant; (v) volume-averaged core density scaled as n≈n ¯ e ∼R −2/7 ; and (vi) ambient wall material temperature T W,0 constant. It is

  16. Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujibayashi, Toru.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To provide a boiling water reactor which can enhance a quake resisting strength and flatten power distribution. Structure: At least more than four fuel bundles, in which a plurality of fuel rods are arranged in lattice fashion which upper and lower portions are supported by tie-plates, are bundled and then covered by a square channel box. The control rod is movably arranged within a space formed by adjoining channel boxes. A spacer of trapezoidal section is disposed in the central portion on the side of the channel box over substantially full length in height direction, and a neutron instrumented tube is disposed in the central portion inside the channel box. Thus, where a horizontal load is exerted due to earthquake or the like, the spacers come into contact with each other to support the channel box and prevent it from abnormal vibrations. (Furukawa, Y.)

  17. Scaling the Shear-flow Stabilized Z-pinch to Reactor Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, H. S.; Schmidt, A.; Shumlak, U.; Nelson, B. A.; Golingo, R. P.; Cleveau, E.

    2015-11-01

    We present a conceptual design along with scaling calculations for a pulsed fusion reactor based on the shear-flow-stabilized Z-pinch device. Experiments performed on the ZaP device, at the University of Washington, have demonstrated stable operation for durations of 20 usec at ~100kA discharge current for pinches that are ~1 cm in diameter and 100 cm long. The inverse of the pinch diameter and plasma energy density scale strongly with pinch current and calculations show that maintaining stabilization durations of ~7 usec for increased discharge current (~15x) in a shortened pinch (10 cm) results in a pinch diameter of ~200 um and plasma conditions that approach those needed to support significant fusion burn and energy gain (Ti ~ 30keV, density ~ 3e26/m3, ntau ~1.4e20 sec/m3). Compelling features of the concept include operation at modest discharge current (1.5 MA) and voltage (40kV) along with direct adoption of liquid metals for at least one electrode--technological capabilities that have been proven in existing, commercial, pulse power devices such as large ignitrons. LLNL-ABS-674920. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy ARPAe ALPHA Program by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  18. Vibration tests and analyses of the reactor building model on a small scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Hideo; Tanaka, Mitsuru; Ogihara, Yukio; Moriyama, Ken-ichi; Nakayama, Masaaki

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the vibration tests and the simulation analyses of the reactor building model on a small scale. The model vibration tests were performed to investigate the vibrational characteristics of the combined super-structure and to verify the computor code based on Dr. H. Tajimi's Thin Layered Element Theory, using the uniaxial shaking table (60 cm x 60 cm). The specimens consist of ground model, three structural model (prestressed concrete containment vessel, inner concrete structure, and enclosure building), a combined structural model and a combined structure-soil interaction model. These models are made of silicon-rubber, and they have a scale of 1:600. Harmonic step by step excitation of 40 gals was performed to investigate the vibrational characteristics for each structural model. The responses of the specimen to harmonic excitation were measured by optical displacement meters, and analyzed by a real time spectrum analyzer. The resonance and phase lag curves of the specimens to the shaking table were obtained respectively. As for the tests of a combined structure-soil interaction model, three predominant frequencies were observed in the resonance curves. These values were in good agreement with the analytical transfer function curves on the computer code. From the vibration tests and the simulation analyses, the silicon-rubber model test is useful for the fundamental study of structural problems. The computer code based on the Thin Element Theory can simulate well the test results. (Kobozono, M.)

  19. Team training using full-scale reactor coolant pump seal mock-ups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, T.J.; Hamill, R.W.

    1987-01-01

    The use of full-scale reactor coolant pump (RCP) seal mock-ups has greatly enhanced Northeast Utilities' ability to effectively utilize the team training approach to technical training. With the advent of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations accreditation come a new emphasis and standards for the integrated training of plant engineering personnel, maintenance mechanics, quality control personnel, and health physics personnel. The results of purchasing full-scale RCP mock-ups to pilot the concept of team training have far exceeded expectations and cost-limiting factors. The initial training program analysis identified RCP seal maintenance as a task that required training for maintenance department personnel. Due to radiation exposure considerations and the unavailability of actual plant equipment for training purposes, the decision was made to procure a mock-up of an RCP seal assembly and housing. This mock-up was designed to facilitate seal cartridge removal, disassembly, assembly, and installation, duplicating all internal components of the seal cartridge and housing area in exact detail

  20. Updating of a dynamic finite element model from the Hualien scale model reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billet, L.; Moine, P.; Lebailly, P.

    1996-08-01

    The forces occurring at the soil-structure interface of a building have generally a large influence on the way the building reacts to an earthquake. One can be tempted to characterise these forces more accurately bu updating a model from the structure. However, this procedure requires an updating method suitable for dissipative models, since significant damping can be observed at the soil-structure interface of buildings. Such a method is presented here. It is based on the minimization of a mechanical energy built from the difference between Eigen data calculated bu the model and Eigen data issued from experimental tests on the real structure. An experimental validation of this method is then proposed on a model from the HUALIEN scale-model reactor building. This scale-model, built on the HUALIEN site of TAIWAN, is devoted to the study of soil-structure interaction. The updating concerned the soil impedances, modelled by a layer of springs and viscous dampers attached to the building foundation. A good agreement was found between the Eigen modes and dynamic responses calculated bu the updated model and the corresponding experimental data. (authors). 12 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs

  1. Nutrient Removal and Biomass Production in an Outdoor Pilot-Scale Phototrophic Biofilm Reactor for Effluent Polishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boelee, N.C.; Janssen, M.; Temmink, H.; Shrestha, R.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative pilot-scale phototrophic biofilm reactor was evaluated over a 5-month period to determine its capacity to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from Dutch municipal wastewater effluents. The areal biomass production rate ranged between 2.7 and 4.5 g dry weight/m2/day. The areal nitrogen and

  2. Lipozyme IM-catalyzed interesterification for the production of margarine fats in a 1 kg scale stirred tank reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Hong; Xu, Xuebing; Mu, Huiling

    2000-01-01

    Lipozyme IM-catalyzed interesterification of the oil blend between palm stearin and coconut oil (75/25 w/w) was studied for the production of margarine fats in a 1 kg scale batch stirred tank reactor. Parameters such as lipase load, water content, temperature, and reaction time were investigated...

  3. PASC-1, Petten AMPX-II/SCALE-3 Code System for Reactor Neutronics Calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaoqing, W.; Oppe, J.; Haas, J.B.M. de; Gruppelaar, H.; Slobben, J.

    1995-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: The Petten AMPX-II/SCALE-3 Code System PASC-1 is a reactor neutronics calculation programme system consisting of well known IBM-oriented codes, that have been translated into FORTRAN-77, for calculations on a CDC-CYBER computer. Thus, the portability of these codes has been increased. In this system, some AMPX-II and SCALE-3 modules, the one-dimensional transport code ANISN and the 1 to 3-dimensional diffusion code CITATION are linked together on the CDC-CYBER/855 computer. The new cell code XSDRNPM-S and the old XSDRN code are included in the system. Starting from an AMPX fine group library up to CITATION, calculations can be performed for each individual module. Existing AMPX master interface format libraries, such as CSRL-IV, JEF-1, IRI and SCALE-45, and the old XSDRN-formatted libraries such as the COBB library can be used for the calculations. The code system contains the following modules and codes at present: AIM, AJAX, MALOCS, NITAWL-S, REVERT-I, ICE-2, CONVERT, JUAN, OCTAGN, XSDRNPM-S, XSDRN, ANISN and CITATION. The system will be extended with other SCALE modules and transport codes. 2 - Method of solution: The PASC-1 system is based on AMPX-II/SCALE-3 modules. Except for some SCALE-3 modules taken from the SCALIAS package, the original AMPX-II modules were IBM versions written in FORTRAN IV. These modules have been translated into CDC FORTRAN V. In order to test these modules and link them with some codes, some of the sample problem calculations have been performed for the whole PASC-1 system. During these calculations, some FORTRAN-77 errors were found in MALOCS, REVERT, CONVERT and some subroutines of SUBLIB (FORTRAN-77 subroutine library). These errors have been corrected. Because many corrections were made for the REVERT module, it is renamed as REVERT-I (improved version of REVERT). After these corrections, the whole system is running on a CDC-CYBER Computer (NOS-BE operating system). 3 - Restrictions on the

  4. Modelling an industrial anaerobic granular reactor using a multi-scale approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, H; Flores-Alsina, X; Ramin, P; Kjellberg, K; Jeppsson, U; Batstone, D J; Gernaey, K V

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to show the results of an industrial project dealing with modelling of anaerobic digesters. A multi-scale mathematical approach is developed to describe reactor hydrodynamics, granule growth/distribution and microbial competition/inhibition for substrate/space within the biofilm. The main biochemical and physico-chemical processes in the model are based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No 1 (ADM1) extended with the fate of phosphorus (P), sulfur (S) and ethanol (Et-OH). Wastewater dynamic conditions are reproduced and data frequency increased using the Benchmark Simulation Model No 2 (BSM2) influent generator. All models are tested using two plant data sets corresponding to different operational periods (#D1, #D2). Simulation results reveal that the proposed approach can satisfactorily describe the transformation of organics, nutrients and minerals, the production of methane, carbon dioxide and sulfide and the potential formation of precipitates within the bulk (average deviation between computer simulations and measurements for both #D1, #D2 is around 10%). Model predictions suggest a stratified structure within the granule which is the result of: 1) applied loading rates, 2) mass transfer limitations and 3) specific (bacterial) affinity for substrate. Hence, inerts (X I ) and methanogens (X ac ) are situated in the inner zone, and this fraction lowers as the radius increases favouring the presence of acidogens (X su ,X aa , X fa ) and acetogens (X c4 ,X pro ). Additional simulations show the effects on the overall process performance when operational (pH) and loading (S:COD) conditions are modified. Lastly, the effect of intra-granular precipitation on the overall organic/inorganic distribution is assessed at: 1) different times; and, 2) reactor heights. Finally, the possibilities and opportunities offered by the proposed approach for conducting engineering optimization projects are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  5. Techno-economic prospects of small-scale membrane reactors in a future hydrogen-fuelled transportation sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjardin, M.; Damen, K.J.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2006-01-01

    The membrane reactor is a novel technology for the production of hydrogen from natural gas. It promises economic small-scale hydrogen production, e.g. at refuelling stations and has the potential of inexpensive CO 2 separation. Four configurations of the membrane reactor have been modelled with Aspen plus to determine its thermodynamic and economic prospects. Overall energy efficiency is 84% HHV without H 2 compression (78% with compression up to 482bar). The modelling results also indicate that by using a sweep gas, the membrane reactor can produce a reformer exit stream consisting mainly of CO 2 and H 2 O (>90% mol ) suited for CO 2 sequestration after water removal with an efficiency loss of only 1% pt . Reforming with a 2MW membrane reactor (250 unit production volume) costs 14$/GJ H 2 including compression, which is more expensive than conventional steam reforming+compression (12$/GJ). It does, however, promise a cheap method of CO 2 separation, 14$/t CO 2 captured, due to the high purity of the exit stream. The well-to-wheel chain of the membrane reactor has been compared to centralised steam reforming to assess the trade-off between production scale and the construction of a hydrogen and a CO 2 distribution infrastructure. If the scale of centralised hydrogen production is below 40MW, the trade-off could be favourable for the membrane reactor with small-scale CO 2 capture (18$/GJ including H 2 storage, dispensing and CO 2 sequestration for 40MW SMR versus 19$/GJ for MR). The membrane reactor might become competitive with conventional steam reforming provided that thin membranes can be combined with high stability and a cheap manufacturing method for the membrane tubes. Thin membranes, industrial utility prices and larger production volumes (i.e. technological learning) might reduce the levelised hydrogen cost of the membrane reactor at the refuelling station to less than 14$/GJ including CO 2 sequestration cost, below that of large-scale H 2 production with

  6. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, H.J.; Sharma, V.K.

    2016-01-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. - Highlights: • Residence time distributions of liquid phase were measured in a trickle bed reactor. • Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer. • Mean residence times, holdups and radial distribution of liquid phase were quantified. • Axial dispersion with exchange model was used to simulate the measured data. • The trickle bed reactor behaved as a plug flow reactor.

  7. Conceptual design for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors using scale laws

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwang Gu; Chang, Soon Heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The feasibility study on conceptual design methodology for accelerator-driven sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactors has been conducted to optimize the design parameters from the scale laws and validates the reactor performance with the integrated code system. A 1000 MWth sodium-cooled sub-critical transmutation reactor has been scaled and verified through the methodology in this paper, which is referred to Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR). A Pb-Bi target material and a partitioned fuel are the liquid phases, and they are cooled by the circulation of secondary Pb-Bi coolant and by primary sodium coolant, respectively. Overall key design parameters are generated from the scale laws and they are improved and validated by the integrated code system. Integrated Code System (ICS) consists of LAHET, HMCNP, ORIGEN2, and COMMIX codes and some files. Through ICS the target region, the core region, and thermal-hydraulic related regions are analyzed once-through Results of conceptual design are attached in this paper. 5 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab. (Author)

  8. Chemical Reactor Automation as a way to Optimize a Laboratory Scale Polymerization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Campa, Jose L.; Saenz de Buruaga, Isabel; Lopez, Raymundo

    2004-10-01

    The automation of the registration and control of variables involved in a chemical reactor improves the reaction process by making it faster, optimized and without the influence of human error. The objective of this work is to register and control the involved variables (temperatures, reactive fluxes, weights, etc) in an emulsion polymerization reaction. The programs and control algorithms were developed in the language G in LabVIEW®. The designed software is able to send and receive RS232 codified data from the devices (pumps, temperature sensors, mixer, balances, and so on) to and from a personal Computer. The transduction from digital information to movement or measurement actions of the devices is done by electronic components included in the devices. Once the programs were done and proved, chemical reactions of emulsion polymerization were made to validate the system. Moreover, some advanced heat-estimation algorithms were implemented in order to know the heat caused by the reaction and the estimation and control of chemical variables in-line. All the information gotten from the reaction is stored in the PC. The information is then available and ready to use in any commercial data processor software. This work is now being used in a Research Center in order to make emulsion polymerizations under efficient and controlled conditions with reproducible results. The experiences obtained from this project may be used in the implementation of chemical estimation algorithms at pilot plant or industrial scale.

  9. Large-scale experiments on aerosol behavior in light water reactor containments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schock, W.; Bunz, H.; Adams, R.E.; Tobias, M.L.; Rahn, F.J.

    1988-01-01

    Recently, three large-scale experimental programs were carried out dealing with the behavior of aerosols during core-melt accidents in light water reactors (LWRs). In the Nuclear Safety Pilot Plant (NSPP) program, the principal behaviors of different insoluble aerosols and of mixed aerosols were measured in dry air atmospheres and in condensing steam-air atmospheres contained in a 38-m/sup 3/ steel vessel. The Demonstration of Nuclear Aerosol Behavior (DEMONA) program used a 640-m/sup 3/ concrete containment model to simulate typical accident sequence conditions, and measured the behavior of different insoluble aerosols and mixed aerosols in condensing and transient atmospheric conditions. Part of the LWR Aerosol Containment Experiments (LACE) program was also devoted to aerosol behavior in containment; and 852-m/sup 3/ steel vessel was used, and the aerosols were composed of mixtures of insoluble and soluble species. The results of these experiments provide a suitable data base for validation of aerosol behavior codes. Fundamental insight into details of aerosol behavior in condensing environments has been gained through the results of the NSPP tests. Code comparisons have been and are being performed in the DEMONA and LACE experiments

  10. Demonstration of the waste tire pyrolysis process on pilot scale in a continuous auger reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Daniel; Murillo, Ramón; García, Tomás; Veses, Alberto

    2013-10-15

    This work shows the technical feasibility for valorizing waste tires by pyrolysis using a pilot scale facility with a nominal capacity of 150 kWth. A continuous auger reactor was operated to perform thirteen independent experiments that conducted to the processing of more than 500 kg of shredded waste tires in 100 h of operation. The reaction temperature was 550°C and the pressure was 1 bar in all the runs. Under these conditions, yields to solid, liquid and gas were 40.5 ± 0.3, 42.6 ± 0.1 and 16.9 ± 0.3 wt.% respectively. Ultimate and proximate analyses as well as heating value analysis were conducted for both the solid and liquid fraction. pH, water content, total acid number (TAN), viscosity and density were also assessed for the liquid and compared to the specifications of marine fuels (standard ISO 8217). Gas chromatography was used to calculate the composition of the gaseous fraction. It was observed that all these properties remained practically invariable along the experiments without any significant technical problem. In addition, the reaction enthalpy necessary to perform the waste tire pyrolysis process (907.1 ± 40.0 kJ/kg) was determined from the combustion and formation enthalpies of waste tire and conversion products. Finally, a mass balance closure was performed showing an excellent reliability of the data obtained from the experimental campaign. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Laboratory scale development of coating for improving characteristics of candidate materials for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwala, R.P.

    1989-01-01

    Application of coatings of refractory low atomic number materials on to different components of Tokamak type controlled thermonuclear reactor are expected to provide a degree of design flexibility. The project envisages to deal with the challenging problem on laboratory scale. Coatings investigated include carbon, beryllium, boron, titanium carbide and alumina and substrates chosen have been 304, 316 stainless steels, monel-400, molybdenum, copper, graphite, etc. For their deposition, different techniques (e.g. evaporation, sputtering and their different variants) have been tried, appropriate ones chosen and their parameters optimized. The coating composition has been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering analysis (RBS) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS). Surface morphology has been studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Sebastian coating adherence tester has been used for adhesion measurement and Wilson's Tukon microhardness tester for their microhardness measurement. The coatings have been subjected to pulses from YAG laser to evaluate their thermal cycling behaviour. Deuterium ion bombardment (Energy: 20-120 keV; doses: 10 19 -9.3x10 20 ions/cm 2 ) behaviour has also been studied. In general, adherent and hard coatings capable of withstanding thermal cycling could be deposited. Out of the coatings studied, titanium carbide shows best results. The following pages are reprints and not mircrofiched: p. 25-32, 39-41, 57-81. Bibliographic description is on page 13

  12. Hydrodynamic Modelling of Municipal Solid Waste Residues in a Pilot Scale Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cardoso

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer behavior of municipal solid waste (MSW gasification in a pilot scale bubbling fluidized bed reactor. A multiphase 2-D numerical model following an Eulerian-Eulerian approach within the FLUENT framework was implemented. User defined functions (UDFs were coupled to improve hydrodynamics and heat transfer phenomena, and to minimize deviations between the experimental and numerical results. A grid independence study was accomplished through comparison of the bed volume fraction profiles and by reasoning the grid accuracy and computational cost. The standard deviation concept was used to determine the mixing quality indexes. Simulated results showed that UDFs improvements increased the accuracy of the mathematical model. Smaller size ratio of the MSW-dolomite mixture revealed a more uniform mixing, and larger ratios enhanced segregation. Also, increased superficial gas velocity promoted the solid particles mixing. Heat transfer within the fluidized bed showed strong dependence on the MSW solid particles sizes, with smaller particles revealing a more effective process.

  13. Design concept of a cryogenic distillation column cascade for a ITER scale fusion reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-07-01

    A column cascade has been proposed for the fuel cycle of a ITER scale fusion reactor. The proposed cascade consists of three columns and has significant features: either top or bottom product is prior to the other for each column; it is avoided to withdraw side streams as products or feeds of down stream columns; and there is no recycle steam between the columns. In addition, the product purity of the cascade can be maintained against the changes of flow rates and compositions of feed streams just by adjusting the top and bottom flow rates. The control system has been designed for each column in the cascade. A key component in the prior product stream was selected, and the analysis method of this key component was proposed. The designed control system never brings instability as long as the concentration of the key component is measured with negligible time lag. The time lag for the measurement considerably affects the stability of the control system. A significant conclusion by the simulation in this work is that permissible time for the measurement is about 0.5 hour to obtain stable control. Hence, the analysis system using the gas chromatography is valid for control of the columns.

  14. Ozonation kinetics of winery wastewater in a pilot-scale bubble column reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Marco S; Peres, José A; Lan, Bing Yan; Li Puma, Gianluca

    2009-04-01

    The degradation of organic substances present in winery wastewater was studied in a pilot-scale, bubble column ozonation reactor. A steady reduction of chemical oxygen demand (COD) was observed under the action of ozone at the natural pH of the wastewater (pH 4). At alkaline and neutral pH the degradation rate was accelerated by the formation of radical species from the decomposition of ozone. Furthermore, the reaction of hydrogen peroxide (formed from natural organic matter in the wastewater) and ozone enhances the oxidation capacity of the ozonation process. The monitoring of pH, redox potential (ORP), UV absorbance (254 nm), polyphenol content and ozone consumption was correlated with the oxidation of the organic species in the water. The ozonation of winery wastewater in the bubble column was analysed in terms of a mole balance coupled with ozonation kinetics modeled by the two-film theory of mass transfer and chemical reaction. It was determined that the ozonation reaction can develop both in and across different kinetic regimes: fast, moderate and slow, depending on the experimental conditions. The dynamic change of the rate coefficient estimated by the model was correlated with changes in the water composition and oxidant species.

  15. Three dimensional numerical simulation of a full scale CANDU reactor moderator to study temperature fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarchami, Araz; Ashgriz, Nasser; Kwee, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D model of a Candu reactor is modeled to investigate flow distribution. • The results show the temperature distribution is not symmetrical. • Temperature contours show the hot regions at the top left-hand side of the tank. • Interactions of momentum flows and buoyancy flows create circulation zones. • The results indicate that the moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode. -- Abstract: Three dimensional numerical simulations are conducted on a full scale CANDU Moderator and transient variations of the temperature and velocity distributions inside the tank are determined. The results show that the flow and temperature distributions inside the moderator tank are three dimensional and no symmetry plane can be identified. Competition between the upward moving buoyancy driven flows and the downward moving momentum driven flows in the center region of the tank, results in the formation of circulation zones. The moderator tank operates in the buoyancy driven mode and any small disturbances in the flow or temperature makes the system unstable and asymmetric. Different types of temperature fluctuations are noted inside the tank: (i) large amplitude are at the boundaries between the hot and cold; (ii) low amplitude are in the core of the tank; (iii) high frequency fluctuations are in the regions with high velocities and (iv) low frequency fluctuations are in the regions with lower velocities

  16. Design concept of a cryogenic distillation column cascade for a ITER scale fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanishi, Toshihiko; Enoeda, Mikio; Okuno, Kenji

    1994-07-01

    A column cascade has been proposed for the fuel cycle of a ITER scale fusion reactor. The proposed cascade consists of three columns and has significant features: either top or bottom product is prior to the other for each column: it is avoided to withdraw side streams as products or feeds of down stream columns: and there is no recycle steam between the columns. In addition, the product purity of the cascade can be maintained against the changes of flow rates and compositions of feed streams just by adjusting the top and bottom flow rates. The control system has been designed for each column in the cascade. A key component in the prior product stream was selected, and the analysis method of this key component was proposed. The designed control system never brings instability as long as the concentration of the key component is measured with negligible time lag. The time lag for the measurement considerably affects the stability of the control system. A significant conclusion by the simulation in this work is that permissible time for the measurement is about 0.5 hour to obtain stable control. Hence, the analysis system using the gas chromatography is valid for control of the columns. (author)

  17. Study on applicability of PIV measurement to natural convection in a scaled reactor vessel model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Takahiro; Koga, Tomonari; Eguchi, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Osamu

    2009-01-01

    The applicability of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to natural convection in the plenum of a scaled water test model of the Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) is studied in the paper. PIV measurement of such a buoyancy-driven flow in a geometrically complicated vessel is difficult in general, because the detection rate of tracer particles tends to decrease, and the noisy optical reflection to increase. In our measurements, tracer particles are adequately seeded in the hot plenum and particle images are captured by using a double-pulsed Nd:YAG laser and a high-speed camera. Then, image-processing techniques are employed to eliminate unphysical velocity vectors and unnecessary background images. The PIV results have shown that clear flow pattern can be extracted by time-averaging 300 sets of instantaneous PIV data in spite of highly fluctuating features of velocity in space and time. Moreover, the evaluation of the statistical quantities such as variance, skewness, and kurtosis has revealed the characteristic of the non-stationary spouting flows at the heater outlet. (author)

  18. Molten salt reactor technology for long-range and wide-scale nuclear energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, V.; Alexseev, P.; Menshikov, L.; Prusakov, V.; Subbotine, S.

    1997-01-01

    A possibility of creation of multi-component nuclear power system in which alongside with thermal and fast reactors, molten salt burner reactors, for incineration of weapon grade plutonium, some minor actinides and transmutation of some fission products will be presented. The purposes of this work are to review the present status of the molten salt reactor technology and innovative non-aqueous chemical processing methods, to indicate the importance of the uncertainties remaining, to identify the additional work needed, and to evaluate the probability of success in obtaining improved safety characteristics for new concept of molten salt - burner reactor with external neutron source. 8 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol [UNIST, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyoung Tae [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  20. Isothermal flow measurement using planar PIV in the 1/4 scaled model of CANDU reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Sunghyuk; Sung, Hyung Jin; Seo, Han; Bang, In Cheol; Kim, Hyoung Tae

    2015-01-01

    The local temperature of the moderator is a key parameter in determining the available subcooling. To predict the flow field and local temperature distribution in the calandria, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a national R and D research programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the Moderator Circulation Test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) techniques. Small-scale 1/40 and 1/8 small-scale model tests were performed prior to installation of the main MCT facility to identify the potential problems of the flow visualization and measurement expected in the 1/4 scale MCT facility. In the 1/40 scale test, a flow field was measured with a PIV measurement technique under an iso-thermal state, and the temperature field was visualized using a LIF technique. In this experiment, the key point was to illuminate the region of interest as uniformly as possible since the velocity and temperature fields in the shadow regions were distorted and unphysical. In the 1/8 scale test, the flow patterns from the inlet nozzles to the top region of the tank were investigated using PIV measurement at two different positions of the inlet nozzle. For each position of laser beam exposure the measurement sections were divided to 7 groups to overcome the limitation of the laser power to cover the relatively large test section. The MCT facility is the large-scale facility designed to reproduce the important characteristics of moderator circulation in a CANDU6 calandria under a range of operating conditions. It is reduced in a 1/4 scale and a moderator test vessel is built to the specifications of the CANDU6 reactor design, where a working fluid is sub-cooled water with atmospheric pressure. Previous studies were

  1. Measurements of liquid phase residence time distributions in a pilot-scale continuous leaching reactor using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Shenoy, K T; Sreenivas, T

    2015-03-01

    An alkaline based continuous leaching process is commonly used for extraction of uranium from uranium ore. The reactor in which the leaching process is carried out is called a continuous leaching reactor (CLR) and is expected to behave as a continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for the liquid phase. A pilot-scale CLR used in a Technology Demonstration Pilot Plant (TDPP) was designed, installed and operated; and thus needed to be tested for its hydrodynamic behavior. A radiotracer investigation was carried out in the CLR for measurement of residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase with specific objectives to characterize the flow behavior of the reactor and validate its design. Bromine-82 as ammonium bromide was used as a radiotracer and about 40-60MBq activity was used in each run. The measured RTD curves were treated and mean residence times were determined and simulated using a tanks-in-series model. The result of simulation indicated no flow abnormality and the reactor behaved as an ideal CSTR for the range of the operating conditions used in the investigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. COD fractions of leachate from aerobic and anaerobic pilot scale landfill reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilgili, M. Sinan; Demir, Ahmet; Akkaya, Ebru; Ozkaya, Bestamin

    2008-01-01

    One of the most important problems with designing and maintaining a landfill is managing leachate that generated when water passes through the waste. In this study, leachate samples taken from aerobic and anaerobic landfill reactors operated with and without leachate recirculation are investigated in terms of biodegradable and non-biodegradable fractions of COD. The operation time is 600 days for anaerobic reactors and 250 days for aerobic reactors. Results of this study show that while the values of soluble inert COD to total COD in the leachate of aerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and aerobic dry reactors are determined around 40%, this rate was found around 30% in the leachate of anaerobic landfill with leachate recirculation and traditional landfill reactors. The reason for this difference is that the aerobic reactors generated much more microbial products. Because of this condition, it can be concluded that total inert COD/total COD ratios of the aerobic reactors were 60%, whereas those of anaerobic reactors were 50%. This study is important for modeling, design, and operation of landfill leachate treatment systems and determination of discharge limits

  3. Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete

  4. Conceptual design of ICF reactor SENRI, Part II. Advances in design and pellet gain scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ido, S.; Mima, K.; Nakai, S.; Tsuji, R.; Yamanaka, C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the recent design studies on reactor concepts with magnetically guided lithium flow, SENRI-I, SENRI-IA and SENRI-II. The routes from the present status to power reactors and an advanced fuel pellet concept is also discussed. Topics covered include pellet design, magnetohydrodynamic design of liquid lithium flow; reactor cavity concepts with magnetically guided lithium flow, a thermo-hydraulic analysis, a tritium recovery system; and an advanced fuel pellet concept for an inertial confinement fusion (ICF) reactor without a tritium breeding blanket. An advanced fuel pellet for an ICF reactor without a T breeder was studied in the model calculations, which showed sufficiently high values of pellet gain. Includes a table and 8 diagrams

  5. Dynamic study of an anaerobic reactor in pilot plant scale using radioactive tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, A.M.F.; Moreira, R.M.; Chernicharo, C.A.L.

    1995-01-01

    The use of flow traces is a common practice in hydrodynamic studies. However chemical tracers have some shortcomings, such as the need of sampling, analysis and possible interferences with the delicate biological processes taking place within the reactor. Thus a radiotracer, Br 82 has been chosen for this purpose. The advantages of this radioisotope are its energetic gamma emission which can be easily detected outside the reactor walls, its solubility and lack of adsorption, besides having a convenient half-life and being easily produced is small nuclear reactors. The tracer responses to instantaneous injections at the reactor entrance were used to determine the resistance time and the mixing patterns of the reactors. The normalized residence time distributions were fitted to mathematical models by a least-squares subroutine. The axial dispersion model and the tanks-in-series model have been used, thus allowing the determination of the dispersion coefficient and the Peclet Number. (author). 5 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  6. Combined sift and methanation in a fluidized-bed reactor. Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1980-30 September 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Streeter, R.C.

    1980-10-01

    Four bench-scale reactor tests were completed. One test employed the older life-test apparatus to evaluate two samples of a Ru/Ni-on-titania catalyst from Johnson Matthey. The remaining three bench-scale tests were conducted using the newer bench-scale reactor with feed gas H/sub 2//CO ratios of 2/1 and 1/1. The tests at H/sub 2//CO = 2/1 (no steam) completed a series designed to show the effect of temperature on carbon formation potential. The results were inconclusive, however, due to one temperature upset and occasional plugging of the reactor tubes with carbon deposits. Nevertheless, the data did indicate that the catalysts were able to remain active for longer periods of time at the higher temperatures despite significant carbon buildup. The bench-scale test at H/sub 2//CO = 1/1 was carried out at 950/sup 0/F in the absence of steam. Not surprisingly, therefore, significant carbon deposition was again experienced. This series of tests will be continued to examine the effect of increasing steam concentrations on carbon formation potential. A 5-day PEDU test (Test SM-4) was conducted using the UCI catalyst. The catalyst showed very high activity in steady-state periods of 36 hours at H/sub 2//CO = 1/1 (without steam) and 39 hours at H/sub 2//CO = 1/1 (with a steam/gas ratio of 0.2). Most importantly, the carbon content of the catalyst did not increase throughout the course of the test. The only drawback was that the catalyst tended to compact in a hard layer on the inner walls of the distributor, interfering with temperature control near the reactor inlet.

  7. Green synthesis of isopropyl myristate in novel single phase medium Part II: Packed bed reactor (PBR) studies

    OpenAIRE

    Vadgama, Rajeshkumar N.; Odaneth, Annamma A.; Lali, Arvind M.

    2015-01-01

    Isopropyl myristate is a useful functional molecule responding to the requirements of numerous fields of application in cosmetic, pharmaceutical and food industry. In the present work, lipase-catalyzed production of isopropyl myristate by esterification of myristic acid with isopropyl alcohol (molar ratio of 1:15) in the homogenous reaction medium was performed on a bench-scale packed bed reactors, in order to obtain suitable reaction performance data for upscaling. An immobilized lipase B fr...

  8. Multi-resolution and multi-scale simulation of the thermal hydraulics in fast neutron reactor assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, P.-E.

    2011-01-01

    The present work is devoted to a multi-scale numerical simulation of an assembly of fast neutron reactor. In spite of the rapid growth of the computer power, the fine complete CFD of a such system remains out of reach in a context of research and development. After the determination of the thermalhydraulic behaviour of the assembly at the macroscopic scale, we propose to carry out a local reconstruction of the fine scale information. The complete approach will require a much lower CPU time than the CFD of the entire structure. The macro-scale description is obtained using either the volume averaging formalism in porous media, or an alternative modeling historically developed for the study of fast neutron reactor assemblies. It provides some information used as constraint of a down-scaling problem, through a penalization technique of the local conservation equations. This problem lean on the periodic nature of the structure by integrating periodic boundary conditions for the required microscale fields or their spatial deviation. After validating the methodologies on some model applications, we undertake to perform them on 'industrial' configurations which demonstrate the viability of this multi-scale approach. (author) [fr

  9. Photographic and video techniques used in the 1/5-scale Mark I boiling water reactor pressure suppression experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, D.; Lord, D.

    1978-01-01

    The report provides a description of the techniques and equipment used for the photographic and video recordings of the air test series conducted on the 1/5 scale Mark I boiling water reactor (BWR) pressure suppression experimental facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) between March 4, 1977, and May 12, 1977. Lighting and water filtering are discussed in the photographic system section and are also applicable to the video system. The appendices contain information from the photographic and video camera logs

  10. Scaling analysis of the coupled heat transfer process in the high-temperature gas-cooled reactor core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conklin, J.C.

    1986-08-01

    The differential equations representing the coupled heat transfer from the solid nuclear core components to the helium in the coolant channels are scaled in terms of representative quantities. This scaling process identifies the relative importance of the various terms of the coupled differential equations. The relative importance of these terms is then used to simplify the numerical solution of the coupled heat transfer for two bounding cases of full-power operation and depressurization from full-system operating pressure for the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. This analysis rigorously justifies the simplified system of equations used in the nuclear safety analysis effort at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

  11. The Effect of Initial Inoculum Source on the Microbial Community Structure and Dynamics in Laboratory-Scale Sequencing Batch Reactors

    KAUST Repository

    Hernandez, Susana

    2011-07-01

    Understanding the factors that shapes the microbial community assembly in activated sludge wastewater treatment processes provide a conceptual foundation for improving process performance. The aim of this study was to compare two major theories (deterministic theory and neutral theory) regarding the assembly of microorganisms in activated sludge: Six lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactors were inoculated with activated sludge collected from three different sources (domestic, industrial, and sugar industry WWTP). Additionally, two reactors were seeded with equal proportion of sludge from the three WWTPs. Duplicate reactors were used for each sludge source (i.e. domestic, industrial, sugar and mix). Reactors were operated in parallel for 11 weeks under identical conditions. Bacterial diversity and community structure in the eight SBRs were assessed by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. The 16S rRNA gene sequences were analyzed using taxonomic and clustering analysis and by measuring diversity indices (Shannon-weaver and Chao1 indices). Cluster analysis revealed that the microbial community structure was dynamic and that replicate reactors evolved differently. Also the microbial community structure in the SBRs seeded with a different sludge did not converge after 11 weeks of operation under identical conditions. These results suggest that history and distribution of taxa in the source inoculum were stronger regulating factors in shaping bacterial community structure than environmental factors. This supports the neutral theory which states that the assembly of the local microbial community from the metacommunity is random and is regulated by the size and diversity of the metacommunity. Furthermore, sludge performance, measured by COD and ammonia removal, confirmed that broad-scale functions (e.g. COD removal) are not influenced by dynamics in the microbial composition, while specific functions (e.g. nitrification) are more susceptible to these changes.

  12. Kinetic modelling and characterization of microbial community present in a full-scale UASB reactor treating brewery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enitan, Abimbola M; Kumari, Sheena; Swalaha, Feroz M; Adeyemo, J; Ramdhani, Nishani; Bux, Faizal

    2014-02-01

    The performance of a full-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating brewery wastewater was investigated by microbial analysis and kinetic modelling. The microbial community present in the granular sludge was detected using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and further confirmed using polymerase chain reaction. A group of 16S rRNA based fluorescent probes and primers targeting Archaea and Eubacteria were selected for microbial analysis. FISH results indicated the presence and dominance of a significant amount of Eubacteria and diverse group of methanogenic Archaea belonging to the order Methanococcales, Methanobacteriales, and Methanomicrobiales within in the UASB reactor. The influent brewery wastewater had a relatively high amount of volatile fatty acids chemical oxygen demand (COD), 2005 mg/l and the final COD concentration of the reactor was 457 mg/l. The biogas analysis showed 60-69% of methane, confirming the presence and activities of methanogens within the reactor. Biokinetics of the degradable organic substrate present in the brewery wastewater was further explored using Stover and Kincannon kinetic model, with the aim of predicting the final effluent quality. The maximum utilization rate constant U max and the saturation constant (K(B)) in the model were estimated as 18.51 and 13.64 g/l/day, respectively. The model showed an excellent fit between the predicted and the observed effluent COD concentrations. Applicability of this model to predict the effluent quality of the UASB reactor treating brewery wastewater was evident from the regression analysis (R(2) = 0.957) which could be used for optimizing the reactor performance.

  13. Metal removal efficiency and ecotoxicological assessment of field-scale passive treatment biochemical reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic biochemical reactors (BCRs) are useful for removing metals from mining-impacted water (MIW) at remote sites. Removal processes include sorption and precipitation of metal sulfides, carbonates and hydroxides. A question of interest is whether BCRs remove aquatic toxicit...

  14. Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (≤2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (≥2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months.

  15. CO2 Energy Reactor - Integrated Mineral Carbonation: Perspectives on Lab-Scale Investigation and Products Valorization

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael M Santos; Pol CM Knops; Keesjan L Rijnsburger; Yi Wai eChiang

    2016-01-01

    To overcome the challenges of mineral CO2 sequestration, Innovation Concepts B.V. is developing a unique proprietary gravity pressure vessel (GPV) reactor technology and has focussed on generating reaction products of high economic value. The GPV provides intense process conditions through hydrostatic pressurization and heat exchange integration that harvests exothermic reaction energy, thereby reducing energy demand of conventional reactor designs, in addition to offering other benefits. In ...

  16. Fast reactors as a solution for future small-scale nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtseva, A.; Danilenko, K.; Dorofeev, K.

    2013-01-01

    Small nuclear power plants can provide a future platform for decentralized energy supply providing better levels of accessibility, safety and environmental friendliness. The optimal solution for SMR deployment is fast reactors with inherent safety. To compete alternative solutions SMRs must exhibit some evident advantages in: safety, technology, and economic. Small modular reactors with lead-bismuth coolant (SVBR-100) under development in Russia can be a prospective solution for future small and decentralized energy

  17. Scaling Studies for Advanced High Temperature Reactor Concepts, Final Technical Report: October 2014—December 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Brian; Gutowska, Izabela; Chiger, Howard

    2018-03-26

    Computer simulations of nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic phenomena are often used in the design and licensing of nuclear reactor systems. In order to assess the accuracy of these computer simulations, computer codes and methods are often validated against experimental data. This experimental data must be of sufficiently high quality in order to conduct a robust validation exercise. In addition, this experimental data is generally collected at experimental facilities that are of a smaller scale than the reactor systems that are being simulated due to cost considerations. Therefore, smaller scale test facilities must be designed and constructed in such a fashion to ensure that the prototypical behavior of a particular nuclear reactor system is preserved. The work completed through this project has resulted in scaling analyses and conceptual design development for a test facility capable of collecting code validation data for the following high temperature gas reactor systems and events— 1. Passive natural circulation core cooling system, 2. pebble bed gas reactor concept, 3. General Atomics Energy Multiplier Module reactor, and 4. prismatic block design steam-water ingress event. In the event that code validation data for these systems or events is needed in the future, significant progress in the design of an appropriate integral-type test facility has already been completed as a result of this project. Where applicable, the next step would be to begin the detailed design development and material procurement. As part of this project applicable scaling analyses were completed and test facility design requirements developed. Conceptual designs were developed for the implementation of these design requirements at the Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF). The original HTTF is based on a ¼-scale model of a high temperature gas reactor concept with the capability for both forced and natural circulation flow through a prismatic core with

  18. Severe accidents in nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohai, Dumitru; Dumitrescu, Iulia; Tunaru, Mariana

    2004-01-01

    The likelihood of accidents leading to core meltdown in nuclear reactors is low. The consequences of such an event are but so severe that developing and implementing of adequate measures for preventing or diminishing the consequences of such events are of paramount importance. The analysis of major accidents requires sophisticated computation codes but necessary are also relevant experiments for checking the accuracy of the predictions and capability of these codes. In this paper an overview of the severe accidents worldwide with definitions, computation codes and relating experiments is presented. The experimental research activity of severe accidents was conducted in INR Pitesti since 2003, when the Institute jointed the SARNET Excellence Network. The INR activity within SARNET consists in studying scenarios of severe accidents by means of ASTEC and RELAP/SCDAP codes and conducting bench-scale experiments

  19. Comparison of results for burning with BWR reactors CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON / NEWT); Comparacion de los resultados de quemado para reactores BWR con CASMO y SCALE 6.2 (TRITON/NEWT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesado, C.; Miro, R.; Barrachina, T.; Verdu, G.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we compare the results from two codes burned, CASMO and SCALE 6.2 (TRITON). To do this, is simulated all segments corresponding to a boiling water reactor (BWR) using both codes. In addition, to account for different working points, simulations changing the instantaneous variables, these are repeated: void fractions (6 points), fuel temperature (6 points) and control rods (two points), with a total of 72 possible combinations of different instantaneous variables for each segment. After all simulations are completed for each segment, we can reorder the obtained cross sections, as SCALE CASMO both, to create a library of compositions nemtab format. This format is accepted by the neutronic code of nodal diffusion, PARCS v2.7. Finally compares the results obtained with PARCS and with the SIMULATE3 -SIMTAB methodology to level of full reactor. Also, we have made use of the KENO-VI and MCDANCOFF modules belonging to SCALE. The first is a Monte Carlo transport code with which you can validate the value of the multiplier, the second has been used to obtain values of Dancoff factor and increase the accuracy of model SCALE. (Author)

  20. Simulation of Induction Traction Drive with Supercapacitor Energy Storage System Test Bench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stana Girts

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the application of supercapacitor energy storage system for induction traction drive test bench that replaces a real electric public transport for performing testing and researches. The suitability and usage of such bench for research purposes is explained and the importance of the development of software mathematical model for performing simulations to be done before physical implementation measures is reasoned. The working principle of the bench and applied components are described. A virtual model of the bench was built and simulations were performed using Matlab/Simulink software. The basic topology of the virtual bench model is described as well. The calculations of this work show the scaling of supercapacitor energy storage system by setting different limits of working voltage range in order to adjust them to test bench parameters, whereas the modelling compares two simulation cases – the application of less supercapacitors and the application of more supercapacitors with the same common rated voltage. The autonomous mode simulations were also performed. Simulation results are analyzed and recommendations for the application of the supercapacitor energy storage system, with respect to initial supercapacitor circuit voltage, are given.

  1. An improved reactor system for small-scale fuel processing - the Optiformer concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silversand, Fredrik; Karlsson, Charlotte (Catator AB, Lund (Sweden))

    2008-08-15

    Catator AB (CAT) has evaluated a revised design of the previously described Ultraformer concept. In comparison to the original Ultraformer, the new reformer concept (Optiformer) shows enhanced performances with respect to thermo-mechanic durability and conversion efficiencies. The unit is also easy to manufacture and ordinary high-temperature steel alloys may be used. The new concept is based on a helix-shaped tubular heat-exchanger reactor designed by ICI Caldaie (ICI) fitted with CATs proprietary wire-mesh catalyst. The concept has currently been evaluated for production rates between 0.5 and 30 nm3/hr of hydrogen and this report describes a detailed study of a unit for small-scale CHP-applications. Such systems will involve a fuel processor together with a suitable fuel cell, e.g. a solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) or a high-temperature PEFC (HT-PEFC). The evaluations performed in this study indicate stable operation over a wide window of capacities with negligible emissions of hydrocarbons. Since it is possible to operate the redesigned unit at a higher temperature (>900 deg C) than the original Ultraformer unit (750- 800 deg C), the conversion degree is much higher for thermo-dynamical reasons. The redesigned unit contains all necessary structures for vaporization, recuperation, effect supply and gas purification in a highly integrated structure. Furthermore, the unit is equipped with an internal insulation and a cooling jacked to reduce the skin temperature of the unit. The reactor has undergone about 100 full thermal cycles without any thermo-mechanical issues or catalyst degradation. Natural gas and different kerosene qualities have so far been evaluated with respect to conversion degree and possible slip of hydrocarbons. The conversion degree at rated load (100%) was above 99%, which enable us to reach superior efficiencies. If the unit were to be used together with a SOFC, the WGS-step could be omitted, reducing the size and weight further from about 2.2 l

  2. Evaluation of sludge properties in a pilot-scale UASB reactor for sewage treatment in a temperate region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syutsubo, K; Yoochatchaval, W; Tsushima, I; Araki, N; Kubota, K; Onodera, T; Takahashi, M; Yamaguchi, T; Yoneyama, Y

    2011-01-01

    In this study, continuous operation of a pilot-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for sewage treatment was conducted for 630 days to investigate the physical and microbial characteristics of the retained sludge. The UASB reactor with a working volume of 20.2 m(3) was operated at ambient temperature (16-29 °C) and seeded with digested sludge. After 180 days of operation, when the sewage temperature had dropped to 20 °C or lower, the removal efficiency of both total suspended solids (TSS) and total biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) deteriorated due to washout of retained sludge. At low temperature, the cellulose concentration of the UASB sludge increased owing to the rate limitation of the hydrolytic reaction of suspended solids in the sewage. However, after an improvement in sludge retention (settleability and concentration) in the UASB reactor, the process performance stabilized and gave sufficient results (68% of TSS removal, 75% of total BOD removal) at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 9.7 h. The methanogenic activity of the retained sludge significantly increased after day 246 due to the accumulation of Methanosaeta and Methanobacterium following the improvement in sludge retention in the UASB reactor. Acid-forming bacteria from phylum Bacteroidetes were detected at high frequency; thus, these bacteria may have an important role in suspended solids degradation.

  3. Long-term irradiation effects on reactor-pressure vessel steels. Investigations on the nanometer scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Arne

    2017-06-01

    The exposure of reactor pressure vessel (RPV) steels to neutron irradiation gives rise to irradiation-enhanced diffusion, a rearrangement of solute atoms and, consequently, a degradation of the mechanical properties. The increasing age of existing nuclear power plants raises new questions specific to long-term operation. Two of them are addressed in this thesis: flux effects and the late-blooming effect. Can low-flux irradiations up to a given fluence be reproduced by more rapid high-flux irradiations up to the same fluence? Can the irradiation response of RPV steels be extrapolated to higher fluences or are there unexpected ''late-blooming'' effects. Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS), atom-probe tomography (APT) and Vickers-hardness testing were applied. A novel Monte-Carlo based fitting algorithm for SANS data was implemented in order to derive statistically reliable characteristics of irradiation-induced solute-atom clusters. APT was applied in selected cases to gain additional information on the composition and the shape of clusters. Vickers hardness testing was performed on the SANS samples to link the nanometer-scale changes to irradiation hardening. The investigations on flux effects show that clusters forming upon high-flux irradiation are smaller and tend to have a higher number density compared to low-flux irradiations at a given neutron fluence. The measured flux dependence of the cluster-size distribution is consistent with the framework of deterministic growth (but not with coarsening) in combination with radiation-enhanced diffusion. Since the two effects on cluster-size and volume fraction partly cancel each other out, no significant effect on the hardening is observed. The investigations of a possible late-blooming effect indicate that the very existence (yes or no) of such an effect depends on the irradiation conditions. Irradiations at lower fluxes and a lower temperature (255 C) give rise to a significant increase of the

  4. Processing Tritiated Water at the Savannah River Site: A Production-Scale Demonstration of a palladium membrane reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, K

    2004-01-01

    The Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR) process was installed in the Tritium Facilities at the Savannah River Site to perform a production-scale demonstration for the recovery of tritium from tritiated water adsorbed on molecular sieve (zeolite). Unlike the current recovery process that utilizes magnesium, the PMR offers a means to process tritiated water in a more cost effective and environmentally friendly manner. The design and installation of the large-scale PMR process was part of a collaborative effort between the Savannah River Site and Los Alamos National Laboratory. The PMR process operated at the Savannah River Site between May 2001 and April 2003. During the initial phase of operation the PMR processed thirty-four kilograms of tritiated water from the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The water was processed in fifteen separate batches to yield approximately 34,400 liters (STP) of hydrogen isotopes. Each batch consisted of round-the-clock operations for approximately nine days. In April 2003 the reactor's palladium-silver membrane ruptured resulting in the shutdown of the PMR process. Reactor performance, process performance and operating experiences have been evaluated and documented. A performance comparison between PMR and current magnesium process is also documented

  5. High-resolution coupled physics solvers for analysing fine-scale nuclear reactor design problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahadevan, Vijay S.; Merzari, Elia; Tautges, Timothy; Jain, Rajeev; Obabko, Aleksandr; Smith, Michael; Fischer, Paul

    2014-01-01

    An integrated multi-physics simulation capability for the design and analysis of current and future nuclear reactor models is being investigated, to tightly couple neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics physics under the SHARP framework. Over several years, high-fidelity, validated mono-physics solvers with proven scalability on petascale architectures have been developed independently. Based on a unified component-based architecture, these existing codes can be coupled with a mesh-data backplane and a flexible coupling-strategy-based driver suite to produce a viable tool for analysts. The goal of the SHARP framework is to perform fully resolved coupled physics analysis of a reactor on heterogeneous geometry, in order to reduce the overall numerical uncertainty while leveraging available computational resources. The coupling methodology and software interfaces of the framework are presented, along with verification studies on two representative fast sodium-cooled reactor demonstration problems to prove the usability of the SHARP framework. PMID:24982250

  6. Efficiency of a pilot-scale integrated sludge thickening and digestion reactor in treating low-organic excess sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qiang; Li, Jiang; Liu, Hongxia; Tang, Chuandong; de Koning, Jaap; Spanjers, Henri

    2012-06-01

    The sludge production from medium- and small-scale wastewater treatment plants in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region is low and non-stable; especially, the organic content in this sludge is low (near 40% of VS/TS). An integrated thickening and digestion (ISTD) reactor was developed to treat this low-organic excess sludge. After a flow test and start-up experiment of the reactor, a running experiment was used to investigate the excess sludge treatment efficiency under five different excess sludge inflows: 200, 300, 400, 500 and 400 L/d (a mixture of excess sludge and primary sludge in a volume ratio of 9:1). This trial was carried out in the wastewater treatment plant in Chongqing, which covers 80% of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, under the following conditions: (1) sludge was heated to 38-40 degrees C using an electrical heater to maintain anaerobic mesophilic digestion; (2) the biogas produced was recirculated to mix raw sludge with anaerobic sludge in the reactor under the flow rate of 12.5 L/min. There were three main results. Firstly, the flow pattern of the inner reactor was almost completely mixed under the air flow of 12.0 L/min using clear water. Secondly, under all the different sludge inflows, the water content in the outlet sludge was below 93%. Thirdly, the organic content in the outlet sludge was decreased from 37% to 30% and from 24% to 20%, whose removal ratio was in relation to the organic content of the inlet sludge. The excess sludge treatment capacity of the ISTD reactor was according to the organic content in the excess sludge.

  7. Influence of bench angle on upper extremity muscular activation during bench press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauver, Jakob D; Cayot, Trent E; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the muscular activation of the pectoralis major, anterior deltoid and triceps brachii during a free-weight barbell bench press performed at 0°, 30°, 45° and -15° bench angles. Fourteen healthy resistance trained males (age 21.4 ± 0.4 years) participated in this study. One set of six repetitions for each bench press conditions at 65% one repetition maximum were performed. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was utilised to examine the muscular activation of the selected muscles during the eccentric and concentric phases. In addition, each phase was subdivided into 25% contraction durations, resulting in four separate time points for comparison between bench conditions. The sEMG of upper pectoralis displayed no difference during any of the bench conditions when examining the complete concentric contraction, however differences during 26-50% contraction duration were found for both the 30° [122.5 ± 10.1% maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC)] and 45° (124 ± 9.1% MVIC) bench condition, resulting in greater sEMG compared to horizontal (98.2 ± 5.4% MVIC) and -15 (96.1 ± 5.5% MVIC). The sEMG of lower pectoralis was greater during -15° (100.4 ± 5.7% MVIC), 30° (86.6 ± 4.8% MVIC) and horizontal (100.1 ± 5.2% MVIC) bench conditions compared to the 45° (71.9 ± 4.5% MVIC) for the whole concentric contraction. The results of this study support the use of a horizontal bench to achieve muscular activation of both the upper and lower heads of the pectoralis. However, a bench incline angle of 30° or 45° resulted in greater muscular activation during certain time points, suggesting that it is important to consider how muscular activation is affected at various time points when selecting bench press exercises.

  8. Home brew technetium : clinical scale desktop plasma fusion neutron source to produce Tc99m as an alternative to industrial scale fission reactor sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosi, S.G.; Khachan, J.; Oborn, B.M.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Tc-99m (decay product of Mo-99) accounts for ∼ 90% of world's production of radiopharmaceuticals. Recent unexpected shutdowns of two fission reactors and routine maintenance closures .e created a global shortage of Tc-99m, hence the large global effort to find alternative sources. This project aims to design and produce a novel prototype Mo-99/Tc-99m source. An operational desktop neutron source is available at the University of Sydney, employing a deuterium fusion-plasma to create 2.45 MeV neutrons. These neutrons will be used to activate Mo-98 thin an activation vessel. In one embodiment, the activation vessel contains an aqueous slurry or gel containing Mo-98 which converts to 0-99 upon activation. The decay product Tc-99m could then be milked, similar to existing Tc-99m generators. Monte Carlo will be :ed to assess yield versus size and geometry for various vessel designs. The neutron source filled with deuterium operating at 250 W, produces 3 x 106 neutrons continuously. The neutron flux can be increased ∼ 100-fold if the fill gas is 50% tritium and by another ∼ 100-1000-fold by increasing the power. This is being designed for local use, perhaps on the scale f one or a few hospitals, so the yield would not need to be industrial ;ale as with fission reactor sources. This device is low cost <$300 K) compared with cyclotrons and fission reactors.

  9. Validation of SCALE4.4a for Calculation of Xe-Sm Transients After a Scram of the BR2 Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalcheva, S.; Ponsard, B.; Koonen, E.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this report is to validate the computational modules system SCALE4.4a for evaluation of reactivity changes, macroscopic absorption cross sections and calculations of the positions of the Control Rods during their motion in Xe-Sm transient after a scram of the BR-2 reactor. The rapid shutting down of the reactor by inserting of negative reactivity by the Control Rods is known as a reactor scram. Following reactor scram, a large xenon and samarium buildup occur in the reactor, which may appreciably affect the multiplication factor of the core due to enormous neutron absorption. The validation of the calculations of Xe-Sm transients by SCALE4.4a has been performed on the measurements of the positions of the Control Rods during their motion in Xe-Sm transients of the BR-2 reactor and on comparison with the calculations by the standard procedure XESM, developed at the BR-2 reactor. A final conclusion is made that the SCALE4.4a modules system can be used for evaluation of Xe-Sm transients of the BR-2 reactor. The utilization of the code is simple, the computational time takes from few seconds.

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND ADAPTATION OF VORTEX REALIZABLE MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR BENCHMARK TEST WITH LARGE SCALE MODEL OF NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Dmitriev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The last decades development of applied calculation methods of nuclear reactor thermal and hydraulic processes are marked by the rapid growth of the High Performance Computing (HPC, which contribute to the active introduction of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The use of such programs to justify technical and economic parameters and especially the safety of nuclear reactors requires comprehensive verification of mathematical models and CFD programs. The aim of the work was the development and adaptation of a measuring system having the characteristics necessary for its application in the verification test (experimental facility. It’s main objective is to study the processes of coolant flow mixing with different physical properties (for example, the concentration of dissolved impurities inside a large-scale reactor model. The basic method used for registration of the spatial concentration field in the mixing area is the method of spatial conductometry. In the course of the work, a measurement complex, including spatial conductometric sensors, a system of secondary converters and software, was created. Methods of calibration and normalization of measurement results are developed. Averaged concentration fields, nonstationary realizations of the measured local conductivity were obtained during the first experimental series, spectral and statistical analysis of the realizations were carried out.The acquired data are compared with pretest CFD-calculations performed in the ANSYS CFX program. A joint analysis of the obtained results made it possible to identify the main regularities of the process under study, and to demonstrate the capabilities of the designed measuring system to receive the experimental data of the «CFD-quality» required for verification.The carried out adaptation of spatial sensors allows to conduct a more extensive program of experimental tests, on the basis of which a databank and necessary generalizations will be created

  11. TRAC calculations of a loss-of-coolant accident in a reactor scale model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyun, J.J.

    1981-01-01

    The TRAC (Transient Reactor Analysis Code) is being developed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory as an advanced best-estimate computer program for analysis of postulated hypothetical accidents in pressurized water reactors. As a part of the TRAC developmental verification efforts, a TRAC posttest analysis of Semiscale Mod-3 Test S-07-6 was conducted. The results of this analysis show that the agreement between TRAC calculations and experimental data is not very good. In particular, TRAC does not predict the long term doncomer and core liquid level oscillations during the reflood phase

  12. Micro-scale H2-CO2 dynamics in a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic membrane reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia-Robledo, Emilio; Ottosen, Lars Ditlev Mørck; Voigt, Niels Vinther

    2016-01-01

    Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activ......Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study...

  13. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu, E-mail: power@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, In-Keun, E-mail: yuik@changwon.ac.kr [Changwon National University, 55306 Sarim-dong, Changwon 641-773 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sangjin [Uiduk University, Gyeongju 780-713 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Highlights: • A 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC transmission system. • The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor was connected to real power network via the HVDC system. • The DC current flowed in HTS DC reactor has several harmonic components and it was analyzed using FFT. - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  14. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC transmission system. • The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor was connected to real power network via the HVDC system. • The DC current flowed in HTS DC reactor has several harmonic components and it was analyzed using FFT. - Abstract: High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  15. Scale-up and design optimisation of anaerobic immobilised cell reactors for wastewater treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melidis, P.; Georgiou, D.; Aivasidis, A. [Department of Environmental Engineering, Demokritos University of Thrace, Xanthi (Greece)

    2003-07-01

    The legitimacy of model transfer in process technology has to date found no noteworthy influence on the design and dimensioning of immobilized cell bioreactors for anaerobic wastewater treatment. The latter still takes place solely on the basis of purely empirical rather than scientific considerations. However, it is possible to carry out design dimensioning on the basis of model theory considerations founded on process technology, as the examples of the design of fixed-bed-loop reactors and that of fluidized-bed reactors demonstrate. Together with the spatial separation of fermentative acid formation and methanogenesis (through a two-stage biology with two different microbial populations), a multi-stage design of methanisation through cascade connection of fixed-bed-loop reactors (for the narrowing of the residence time distribution) has proved particularly advantageous when applied to highly loaded and complex constituted wastewater. Technical reaction investigations on appropriately configured variants showed that for a COD conversion of 80-90% (wastewater from the foodstuffs industry), the reactor volume of the two-stage methanisation cascade could be reduced by 40-50% compared to that of the simply performed methanisation stage. (author)

  16. Numerical simulation of scale-up effects of methanol-to-olefins fluidized bed reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Bona; Zhang, Jingyuan; Luo, Hao

    2017-01-01

    )-based drag models are combined in simulations. The fluidization characteristics in terms of flow structures, velocity distribution, mass fractions of gaseous product and coke distribution are presented against available experimental data for different-sized reactors. It is found that typical hydrodynamic...

  17. SP2Bench: A SPARQL Performance Benchmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Michael; Hornung, Thomas; Meier, Michael; Pinkel, Christoph; Lausen, Georg

    A meaningful analysis and comparison of both existing storage schemes for RDF data and evaluation approaches for SPARQL queries necessitates a comprehensive and universal benchmark platform. We present SP2Bench, a publicly available, language-specific performance benchmark for the SPARQL query language. SP2Bench is settled in the DBLP scenario and comprises a data generator for creating arbitrarily large DBLP-like documents and a set of carefully designed benchmark queries. The generated documents mirror vital key characteristics and social-world distributions encountered in the original DBLP data set, while the queries implement meaningful requests on top of this data, covering a variety of SPARQL operator constellations and RDF access patterns. In this chapter, we discuss requirements and desiderata for SPARQL benchmarks and present the SP2Bench framework, including its data generator, benchmark queries and performance metrics.

  18. Test Bench Development for Femur Stability Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel SANCHEZ-CABALLERO

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the design and development of a test bench for humanfemurs. The main uses of this test bench will run from artificial femurs comparisonwith real femurs, to join stability assessment after bone a fracture repair. Amongthis uses is specially designed for condylar fractures testing. The test bench isdeveloped from a self-made existing tensile/compression testing machine. Thedesign procedure is supported by a literature review about the bone mechanicalbehavior and composition generally and the knee joint performance and repairparticularly. On the basis of this review, the machine was designed to simulate theadduction and abduction movements of the joint. The magnitudes to be measuredare: the compression force, the bone displacement (vertical and the knee jointrotation

  19. The national hydrologic bench-mark network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Ernest D.; Biesecker, J.E.

    1971-01-01

    The United States is undergoing a dramatic growth of population and demands on its natural resources. The effects are widespread and often produce significant alterations of the environment. The hydrologic bench-mark network was established to provide data on stream basins which are little affected by these changes. The network is made up of selected stream basins which are not expected to be significantly altered by man. Data obtained from these basins can be used to document natural changes in hydrologic characteristics with time, to provide a better understanding of the hydrologic structure of natural basins, and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. There are 57 bench-mark basins in 37 States. These basins are in areas having a wide variety of climate and topography. The bench-mark basins and the types of data collected in the basins are described.

  20. BWR Mark I pressure suppression study: characterization of the vertical load function utilizing bench top model tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Lai, W.

    1977-02-01

    A study was conducted to characterize the mechanisms which give rise to observed oscillations in the vertical load function (VLF) of bench top pool dynamics tests. This is part of a continuing investigation at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory of the General Electric Mark I Nuclear Reactor pressure suppression system

  1. Role and status of scaled experiments in the development of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactors - 15185

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweibaum, N.; Huddar, L.; Laufer, M.R.; Peterson, P.F.; Hughes, J.T.; Blandford, E.D.; Scarlat, R.O.

    2015-01-01

    Development of fluoride-salt-cooled, high-temperature reactor (FHR) technology requires a better understanding of key hydrodynamic and heat transfer phenomena associated with this novel class of reactors. The use of simulant fluids that can match the most important non dimensional numbers between scaled experiments and prototypical FHR systems enables integral effects tests (IETs) to be performed at reduced cost and difficulty for FHR code validation. The University of California at Berkeley (UCB) and the University of New Mexico (UNM) have built a number of IETs and separate effects tests to investigate pebble-bed FHR (PB-FHR) phenomenology using water or simulant oils such as Dowtherm A. PB-FHR pebble motion and porous media flow dynamics have been investigated with UCB's pebble recirculation experiments using water and plastic spheres. Transient flow of high-Prandtl-number fluids around hot spheres has also been investigated by UCB to measure Nusselt numbers in pebble-bed cores, using simulant oils and copper spheres. Finally, single-phase forced/natural circulation has been investigated using the scaled height, reduced flow area loops of the Compact Integral Effects Test facility at UCB and a multi-flow regime loop at UNM, using Dowtherm A oil. The scaling methodology and status of these ongoing experiments are described here

  2. Co-Fuelling of Peat with Meat and Bone Meal in a Pilot Scale Bubbling Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markku Orjala

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Co-combustion performance trials of Meat and Bone Meal (MBM and peat were conducted using a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB reactor. In the combustion performance trials the effects of the co-combustion of MBM and peat on flue gas emissions, bed fluidization, ash agglomeration tendency in the bed and the composition and quality of the ash were studied. MBM was mixed with peat at 6 levels between 15% and 100%. Emissions were predominantly below regulatory limits. CO concentrations in the flue gas only exceeded the 100 mg/m3 limit upon combustion of pure MBM. SO2 emissions were found to be over the limit of 50 mg/m3, while in all trials NOx emissions were below the limit of 300 mg/m3. The HCl content of the flue gases was found to vary near the limit of 30 mg/m3. VOCs however were within their limits. The problem of bed agglomeration was avoided when the bed temperature was about 850 °C and only 20% MBM was co-combusted. This study indicates that a pilot scale BFB reactor can, under optimum conditions, be operated within emission limits when MBM is used as a co-fuel with peat. This can provide a basis for further scale-up development work in industrial scale BFB applications.

  3. Treatment of arsenic contaminated water in a laboratory scale up-flow bio-column reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, P.; Majumder, C.B.; Mohanty, B.

    2008-01-01

    The present paper describes the observations on the treatment of arsenic contaminated synthetic industrial effluent in a bio-column reactor. Ralstonia eutropha MTCC 2487 has been immobilized on the granular activated carbon (GAC) bed in the column reactor. The synthetic water sample containing As(T) (As(III):As(V) = 1:1), Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn at the initial concentrations of 25, 10, 2, 5, 10 ppm, respectively, was used. Concentrations of all the elements have been found to be reduced below their permissible limits in the treated water. The significant effect of empty bed contact time (EBCT) and bed height on the arsenic removal was observed in the initial stage. However, after some time of operation (approximately 3-4 days) no such effect was observed. Removal of As(III) and As(V) was almost similar after ∼2 days of operation. However, at the initial stage As(V) removal was slightly more than that of As(III). In absence of washing, after ∼4-5 days of operation, the bio-column reactor was observed to act as a GAC column reactor based on physico-chemical adsorption. Like arsenic, the percent removals of Fe, Mn, Cu and Zn also attained minimum after ∼1 day and increased significantly to the optimum value within 3-4 days of operation. Dissolved oxygen (DO) has been found to decrease along with the increasing bed height from the bottom. The pH of the solution in the reactor has increased slightly and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) has decreased with the time of operation

  4. Relationship of pectoralis major muscle size with bench press and bench throw performances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Tohdoh, Yukihiro; Hirayama, Kuniaki; Kobayashi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    This study examined the relationship of muscle size indices of the pectoralis major muscle with bench press and bench throw performances in 18 male collegiate athletes. The maximal cross-sectional area (MCSAMAx) and volume (MV) of the pectoralis major muscle were determined by magnetic resonance imaging. First, subjects were tested for their one repetition maximum bench press strength (1RMBP) using a Smith machine. At a later date, subjects performed bench throws using the Smith machine with several different loads ranging from 30.0 kg to 90% of 1RMBP. Barbell positions were measured by a linear position transducer, and bench throw power was calculated using a dynamic equation. Three trials were performed for each load. In all the trials, the maximal peak power was adopted as bench throw peak power (PPBT). The 1RMBP was significantly correlated with MCSAMAx. Similarly, the correlation coefficient between MV and PPBT was significant. In contrast to the y-intercept of the MV-PPBT regression line, that of the MCSAMAx-1RMBP regression line was not significantly different from 0. These results suggested that, although the dependence on pectoralis major muscle size is slightly different between bench press strength and bench throw power, the pectoralis major muscle size has a significant impact on bench press and throw performances. Greater muscle size leads to heavier body weight, which can be a negative factor in some sports. We therefore recommend that athletes and their coaches develop training programs for improving sports performance by balancing the advantage of increased muscle size and the potential disadvantage of increased body weight.

  5. Simulation-based rhomboid flap skills training during medical education: comparing low- and high-fidelity bench models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denadai, Rafael; Saad-Hossne, Rogerio; Raposo-Amaral, Cassio Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    To assess if the bench model fidelity interferes in the acquisition of rhomboid flap skills by medical students. Sixty novice medical students were randomly assigned to 5 practice conditions with instructor-directed Limberg rhomboid flap skills training: didactic materials (control group 1), low-fidelity rubberized line (group 2) or ethylene-vinyl acetate (group 3) bench models; high-fidelity chicken leg skin (group 4) or pig foot skin (group 5) bench models. Pretests and posttests were applied, and Global Rating Scale, effect size, and self-perceived confidence were used to evaluate all flap performances. Medical students from groups 2 to 5 showed better flap performances based on the Global Rating Scale (all P 0.05). The magnitude of the effect was considered large (>0.80) in all measurements. There was acquisition of rhomboid flap skills regardless of bench model fidelity.

  6. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B.; Ciccotti, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p 1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  7. Coupling digestion in a pilot-scale UASB reactor and electrochemical oxidation over BDD anode to treat diluted cheese whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-11-01

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of cheese whey (CW) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated cheese whey was evaluated. The diluted cheese whey, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 6 g/L, was first treated in a 600-L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB process, which was operated for 87 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 days, led to a COD removal efficiency between 66 and 97 %, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 9 and 18 A and in the presence of NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 3-4 h of reaction. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organochlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs), and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, alongside free chlorine, are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina.

  8. Investigation of flow dynamics of liquid phase in a pilot-scale trickle bed reactor using radiotracer technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K

    2016-10-01

    A radiotracer investigation was carried out to measure residence time distribution (RTD) of liquid phase in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). The main objectives of the investigation were to investigate radial and axial mixing of the liquid phase, and evaluate performance of the liquid distributor/redistributor at different operating conditions. Mean residence times (MRTs), holdups (H) and fraction of flow flowing along different quadrants were estimated. The analysis of the measured RTD curves indicated radial non-uniform distribution of liquid phase across the beds. The overall RTD of the liquid phase, measured at the exit of the reactor was simulated using a multi-parameter axial dispersion with exchange model (ADEM), and model parameters were obtained. The results of model simulations indicated that the TBR behaved as a plug flow reactor at most of the operating conditions used in the investigation. The results of the investigation helped to improve the existing design as well as to design a full-scale industrial TBR for petroleum refining applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Design and scale-up of a semi-industrial downer-reactor for the rounding of irregular polymer particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sachs, Marius; Schmidt, Jochen; Peukert, Wolfgang; Wirth, Karl-Ernst [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Institute of Particle Technology, Cauerstr. 4, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2016-03-09

    The recent development of rapid prototyping technologies towards additive manufacturing reveals some major drawbacks of processes such as laser beam melting (LBM). This contribution focuses on the lack of suitable polymer material with a fine particle size and good flowability. Polymer particles obtained by a wet grinding process 1 are treated in a heated downer reactor. This treatment changes the particles’ morphology from a chiselled state towards a spherical form by surface tension forces in a molten state 2 and leads to an improved flowability. To reach the required amount of rounded polymer powder, a downer reactor in semi-industrial scale has been established and will be characterized in this article. For the purpose of particle rounding it is necessary to avoid contact of molten particles with each other and with the hot reactor walls. Furthermore, the heat distribution has been investigated as one of the key parameters of the process. Finally, a proof of concept by rounding wet grinded PBT material was successfully conducted. The product was examined to obtain data about a change in particle size and flowability.

  10. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolley, Katherine E

    2015-01-01

    Summary The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates. PMID:26734089

  11. Continuous formation of N-chloro-N,N-dialkylamine solutions in well-mixed meso-scale flow reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. John Blacker

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The continuous flow synthesis of a range of organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines is described using either a bespoke meso-scale tubular reactor with static mixers or a continuous stirred tank reactor. Both reactors promote the efficient mixing of a biphasic solution of N,N-dialkylamine in organic solvent, and aqueous sodium hypochlorite to achieve near quantitative conversions, in 72–100% in situ yields, and useful productivities of around 0.05 mol/h with residence times from 3 to 20 minutes. Initial calorimetric studies have been carried out to inform on reaction exotherms, rates and safe operation. Amines which partition mainly in the organic phase require longer reaction times, provided by the CSTR, to compensate for low mass transfer rates in the biphasic system. The green metrics of the reaction have been assessed and compared to existing procedures and have shown the continuous process is improved over previous procedures. The organic solutions of N,N-dialkyl-N-chloramines produced continuously will enable their use in tandem flow reactions with a range of nucleophilic substrates.

  12. Méthodologie de l'extrapolation des réacteurs chimiques Methodology for Scaling Up Chemical Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trambouze P.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Après un exposé général relatif à la méthodologie du développement des procédés, applicable à l'extrapolation des réacteurs, est présenté un rapide examen critique des deux principales techniques mises en oeuvre, à savoir : - la théorie de la similitude ; - l'élaboration de modèles mathématiques. Deux exemples pratiques, relatifs aux réacteurs homogènes et aux réacteurs catalytiques à lit fixe et deux phases fluides, sont ensuite examinés à la lumière des considérations générales précédentes. After giving a general description of process-development methodology applicable to scaling up reactors, this article makes a quick critical examination of the two main techniques involved, i. e. : (a the theory of similarity, and (b the compiling of mathematical models. Two practical examples relating to homogeneous reactors and trickle-bed catalytic reactors are then examined in the light of the preceding general considerations.

  13. A calculational procedure for neutronic and depletion analysis of Molten-Salt reactors based on SCALE6/TRITON

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, R.J.; Chang, J.S.; Liu, Y.-W. H.

    2011-01-01

    Molten-Salt Reactors (MSRs) represent one of the selected categories in the GEN-IV program. This type of reactor is distinguished by the use of liquid fuel circulating in and out of the core, which makes it possible for online refueling and salt processing. However, this operation characteristic also complicates the modeling and simulation of reactor core behaviour using conventional neutronic codes. The TRITON sequence in the SCALE6 code system has been designed to provide the combined capabilities of problem-dependent cross-section processing, rigorous treatment of neutron transport, and coupled with the ORIGEN-S depletion calculations. In order to accommodate the simulation of dynamic refueling and processing scheme, an in-house program REFRESH together with a run script are developed for carrying out a series of stepwise TRITON calculations, that makes the work of analyzing the neutronic properties and performance of a MSR core design easier. As a demonstration and cross check, we have applied this method to reexamine the conceptual design of Molten Salt Actinide Recycler & Transmuter (MOSART). This paper summarizes the development of the method and preliminary results of its application on MOSART. (author)

  14. Criticality analysis of IPEN/MB-01 reactor using scale 6.0 and ENDF/B VII

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Fabiano S.; Salome, Jean; Pereira, Claubia; Fortini, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Since 1988, the IPEN/MB-01 reactor has been utilized for basic reactor physics research and as an instructional laboratory system. A series of experiments was conducted, and many of the components were evaluated in LEU-COMP-THERM-077 and LEU-COMP-THERM-089 benchmarks. In this work, we will compare the benchmark value references, with the newest ENDF/BVII libraries for neutron transport calculations through KENO-VI of the SCALE 6.0 codes. The 3D reactor model was simulated using 238 groups of energy and continuous energy libraries. The idea was to obtain, on this work, preliminary values of effective neutron multiplication factor to guide future work to get nuclear data as neutron flux, depleted fuel isotopic composition and generate homogenized and collapsed cross-sections libraries by few neutron energy groups to be used by other neutronic codes. It is expected that this study will produce a research source to be used as a support for future works employing such codes for nuclear safety criticality analysis and to verify compliance with the requirements of safety standards for nuclear fuel materials. (author)

  15. Drying kinetics characteristic of Indonesia lignite coal (IBC) using lab scale fixed bed reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, TaeJin; Jeon, DoMan; Namkung, Hueon; Jang, DongHa; Jeon, Youngshin; Kim, Hyungtaek [Ajou Univ., Suwon (Korea, Republic of). Div. of Energy Systems Research

    2013-07-01

    Recent instability of energy market arouse a lot of interest about coal which has a tremendous amount of proven coal reserves worldwide. South Korea hold the second rank by importing 80 million tons of coal in 2007 following by Japan. Among various coals, there is disused coal. It's called Low Rank Coal (LRC). Drying process has to be preceded before being utilized as power plant. In this study, drying kinetics of LRC is induced by using a fixed bed reactor. The drying kinetics was deduced from particle size, the inlet gas temperature, the drying time, the gas velocity, and the L/D ratio. The consideration on Reynold's number was taken for correction of gas velocity, particle size, and the L/D ratio was taken for correction packing height of coal. It can be found that active drying of free water and phase boundary reaction is suitable mechanism through the fixed bed reactor experiments.

  16. Sequential treatment of diluted olive pomace leachate by digestion in a pilot scale UASB reactor and BDD electrochemical oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoni, Alphathanasia; Mantzavinos, Dionissios; Diamadopoulos, Evan

    2014-06-15

    The efficiency of the anaerobic treatment of olive pomace leachate (OPL) at mesophilic conditions was investigated. Daily and cumulative biogas production was measured during the operational period. The maximum biogas flowrate was 65 L/d, of which 50% was methane. In addition, the applicability of electrochemical oxidation as an advanced post-treatment method for the complete removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD) from the anaerobically treated OPL was evaluated. The diluted OPL, having a pH of 6.5 and a total COD of 5 g/L, was first treated in a 600 L, pilot-scale up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor. The UASB reactor was operated for 71 days at mesophilic conditions (32 ± 2 °C) in a temperature-controlled environment at a hydraulic retention time of 3 days, and organic loading rates (OLR) between 0.33 and 1.67 g COD/(L.d). The UASB process led to a COD removal efficiency between 35 and 70%, while the particulate matter of the wastewater was effectively removed by entrapment in the sludge blanket of the reactor. When the anaerobic reactor effluent was post-treated over a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode at 18 A and in the presence of 0.17% NaCl as the supporting electrolyte, complete removal of COD was attained after 7 h of treatment predominantly through total oxidation reactions. During electrochemical experiments, three groups of organo-chlorinated compounds, namely trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetonitriles (HANs) and haloketons (HKs), as well as 1,2-dichloroethane (DCA) and chloropicrin were identified as by-products of the process; these, along with the residual chlorine are thought to increase the matrix ecotoxicity to Artemia salina. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Laboratory-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor for treatment of stillage from fruit distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Elena Cristina; Ragazzi, Marco; Torretta, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This work describes batch anaerobic digestion tests carried out on stillages, the residue of the distillation process on fruit, in order to contribute to the setting of design parameters for a planned plant. The experimental apparatus was characterized by three reactors, each with a useful volume of 5 L. The different phases of the work carried out were: determining the basic components of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the stillages; determining the specific production of biogas; and estimating the rapidly biodegradable COD contained in the stillages. In particular, the main goal of the anaerobic digestion tests on stillages was to measure the parameters of specific gas production (SGP) and gas production rate (GPR) in reactors in which stillages were being digested using ASBR (anaerobic sequencing batch reactor) technology. Runs were developed with increasing concentrations of the feed. The optimal loads for obtaining the maximum SGP and GPR values were 8-9 gCOD L(-1) and 0.9 gCOD g(-1) volatile solids.

  18. CSAU (code scaling, applicability and uncertainty), a tool to prioritize advanced reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.E.; Boyack, B.E.

    1990-01-01

    Best Estimate computer codes have been accepted by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission as an optional tool for performing safety analysis related to the licensing and regulation of current nuclear reactors producing commercial electrical power, providing their uncertainty is quantified. In support of this policy change, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated an uncertainty quantification methodology called CSAU. At the process level, the method is generic to any application which relies on best estimate computer code simulations to determine safe operating margins. The primary use of the CSAU methodology is to quantify safety margins for existing designs; however, the methodology can also serve an equally important role in advanced reactor research for plants not yet built. Applied early, during the period when alternate designs are being evaluated, the methodology can identify the relative importance of the sources of uncertainty in the knowledge of each plant behavior and, thereby, help prioritize the research needed to bring the new designs to fruition. This paper describes the CSAU methodology, at the generic process level, and provides the general principles whereby it may be applied to evaluations of advanced reactor designs. 9 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Operating characteristic analysis of a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor in connection with a laboratory scale LCC type HVDC system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Kwangmin; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun; Lee, Sangjin

    2015-11-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) devices are being developed due to their advantages. Most line commutated converter based high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission systems for long-distance transmission require large inductance of DC reactor; however, generally, copper-based reactors cause a lot of electrical losses during the system operation. This is driving researchers to develop a new type of DC reactor using HTS wire. The authors have developed a 400 mH class HTS DC reactor and a laboratory scale test-bed for line-commutated converter type HVDC system and applied the HTS DC reactor to the HVDC system to investigate their operating characteristics. The 400 mH class HTS DC reactor is designed using a toroid type magnet. The HVDC system is designed in the form of a mono-pole system with thyristor-based 12-pulse power converters. In this paper, the investigation results of the HTS DC reactor in connection with the HVDC system are described. The operating characteristics of the HTS DC reactor are analyzed under various operating conditions of the system. Through the results, applicability of an HTS DC reactor in an HVDC system is discussed in detail.

  20. NetBench. Automated Network Performance Testing

    CERN Document Server

    Cadeddu, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    In order to evaluate the operation of high performance routers, CERN has developed the NetBench software to run benchmarking tests by injecting various traffic patterns and observing the network devices behaviour in real-time. The tool features a modular design with a Python based console used to inject traffic and collect the results in a database, and a web user

  1. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Table of contents. Stem Cell Transplantation from Bench to Bedside · Slide 2 · Slide 3 · Slide 4 · Principles of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an allogeneic stem cell transplant · Principle of an autologous Stem Cell Transplant · Slide 8 · Conditioning · Slide 10 · Slide 11 · Stem Cell Transplantation · Slide 13.

  2. Mathematical Lens: How Much Can You Bench?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolognese, Chris A.

    2013-01-01

    "How Much Can You Bench?" appears in the "Mathematical Lens" section of "Mathematics Teacher." "Mathematical Lens" uses photographs as a springboard for mathematical inquiry and appears in every issue of "Mathematics Teacher." This month the mathematics behind the photograph includes finding areas…

  3. ESPRESSO optical bench: from mind to reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenegi, F.; Santana, S.; Gómez, J.; Rodilla, E.; Hughes, I.; Mégevand, D.; Rebolo, R.; Riva, M.; Luis-Simoes, R.

    2016-07-01

    ESPRESSO [1] is a high-resolution spectrograph under development for the VLT telescope. In general, the Optical Bench (OB) structure can be considered as a 3D one, conformed by welding thin plates of Structural Steel (St-52) with a nickelplated surface treatment, combined for getting maximum stiffness and minimum weight, that will be finally re-machined to get stringent geometrical and dimensional tolerances at I/Fs positions. TIG conventional welding procedure has been selected to minimize the cost and facilitate the own welding process. This solution follows the inheritance from HARPS [2] due to its success to achieve the required performance for the bench. This paper contains an overview of the whole process of designing and manufacturing the Optical Bench of ESPRESSO, from the very first beginning with the specifications to the current status of the bench with its integration on the Spectrograph (including the Finite Element Models and the delivery of the final structure by the supplier) and lessons learned.

  4. Spontaneous pneumomediastinum after bench press training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishino, Tomoya

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous pneumomediastinum is often associated with asthma and mainly affects adolescent males with a tall, thin body habitus. A 17-year-old man complained of chest and pharyngeal pain after bench press training and spontaneous pneumomediastinum was diagnosed. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of chest pain of uncertain cause.

  5. Encounters on a Shape-changing Bench

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinch, Sofie; Grönvall, Erik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2014-01-01

    ; a concert hall, an airport and a shopping mall. We gathered insights from more than 120 people, as they unexpectedly encountered the shape changing capabilities of the bench. By taking the user tests out of the lab and into the wild, we explored the influence of context on the users experience of a shape...

  6. Tracing Of Scaling Elements In Secondary Cooling System Of GA Siwabessy Reactor By Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lestari, Diyah Erlina

    2000-01-01

    Determination of content of chemical elements and scale formed in the secondary cooling water has been carried out by means of AAN method. The counting was performed using a gamma spectrometer equipped with high resolution HPGe gamma detector. Result of counting show the elements contained in the scale are: Na, Br, Fe, Ci, Mg and Co which are also found in the secondary cooling water. The main scaling element cannot yet be detected

  7. RemBench: A Digital Workbench for Rembrandt Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberne, Suzan; Van Leeuwen, Rudie; Gerritsen, G.H.; Boves, Lou

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present RemBench, a search engine for research into the life and works of Rembrandt van Rijn. RemBench combines the data from four different databases behind one interface using federated search technology. Metadata filtering is enabled through faceted search. RemBench enables art

  8. Fluid-dynamic characterization of real-scale raceway reactors for microalgae production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendoza, J.L.; Granados, M.R.; Godos, I. de; Acién, F.G.; Molina, E.; Banks, C.; Heaven, S.

    2013-01-01

    The fluid dynamic characterization of a 100 m length × 1 m wide channel raceway photobioreactor was carried out. The effects of water depth, liquid velocity and the presence, or absence, of sump baffles to improve the CO 2 supply transfer were considered in relation to on the power consumption, residence time and mixing in the reactor was studied. When operated at a depth of 20 cm, the power consumption was between 1.5 and 8.4 W m −3 depending on the forward velocity, with higher values occurring when the baffle was in place. Residence times and the degree of mixing at each section of the raceway (paddlewheel, bends, channels and sump) were measured experimentally. Mixing occurred mainly in the sump, paddlewheel and bends, with a maximum dispersion coefficient of 0.07 m 2 s −1 . These sections, however, only contributed a small fraction to the total volume of the raceway. Bodenstein numbers from 200 to 540 for the channel sections indicated plug-flow characteristics. Mixing times ranged from 1.4 to 6 h, with the presence of the baffle greatly increasing these times despite higher specific power consumption. A total of 15–20 circuits of the raceway were needed to achieve complete mixing without the baffle, compared to 30–40 cycles with the baffle. Vertical mixing was very poor whereas axial mixing was similar to that achieved in closed photobioreactors. The methodologies applied were shown to be useful in determining the fluid dynamics of a raceway photobioreactor. Equations useful in simulating the power consumption as a function of the design and operation parameters have been validated. -- Highlights: •Power consumption due to accessories can limit the use of raceway reactors for energy purposes. •Use of baffle to enhance mass transfer dramatically increases the power consumption in this type of photobioreactors. •High mixing time, in the order of hours, in raceway reactors limits the operation mode of these systems

  9. An elegant Breadboard of the optical bench for eLISA/NGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Arcio, Luigi; Bogenstahl, Johanna; Diekmann, Christian; Fitzsimons, Ewan D.; Heinzel, Gerhard; Hogenhuis, Harm; Killow, Christian J.; Lieser, Maike; Nikolov, Susanne; Perreur-Lloyd, Michael; Pijnenburg, Joep; Robertson, David I.; Taylor, Alasdair; Tröbs, Michael; Ward, Harry; Weise, Dennis

    2017-11-01

    The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna, as well as its reformulated European-only evolution, the New Gravitational-Wave Observatory, both employ heterodyne laser interferometry on million kilometer scale arm lengths in a triangular spacecraft formation, to observe gravitational waves at frequencies between 3 × 10-5 Hz and 1 Hz. The Optical Bench as central payload element realizes both the inter-spacecraft as well as local laser metrology with respect to inertial proof masses, and provides further functions, such as point-ahead accommodation, acquisition sensing, transmit beam conditioning, optical power monitoring, and laser redundancy switching. These functions have been combined in a detailed design of an Optical Bench Elegant Breadboard, which is currently under assembly and integration. We present an overview of the realization and current performances of the Optical Bench subsystems, which employ ultraprecise piezo mechanism, ultrastable assembly techniques, and shot noise limited RF detection to achieve translation and tilt metrology at Picometer and Nanoradian noise levels.

  10. A General Small-Scale Reactor To Enable Standardization and Acceleration of Photocatalytic Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Chi Chip; Wismer, Michael K; Shi, Zhi-Cai; Zhang, Rui; Conway, Donald V; Li, Guoqing; Vachal, Petr; Davies, Ian W; MacMillan, David W C

    2017-06-28

    Photocatalysis for organic synthesis has experienced an exponential growth in the past 10 years. However, the variety of experimental procedures that have been reported to perform photon-based catalyst excitation has hampered the establishment of general protocols to convert visible light into chemical energy. To address this issue, we have designed an integrated photoreactor for enhanced photon capture and catalyst excitation. Moreover, the evaluation of this new reactor in eight photocatalytic transformations that are widely employed in medicinal chemistry settings has confirmed significant performance advantages of this optimized design while enabling a standardized protocol.

  11. Successful hydraulic strategies to start up OLAND sequencing batch reactors at lab scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaubroeck, Thomas; Bagchi, Samik; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Carballa, Marta; Verstraete, Willy; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2012-05-01

    Oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) is a one-stage combination of partial nitritation and anammox, which can have a challenging process start-up. In this study, start-up strategies were tested for sequencing batch reactors (SBR), varying hydraulic parameters, i.e. volumetric exchange ratio (VER) and feeding regime, and salinity. Two sequential tests with two parallel SBR were performed, and stable removal rates > 0.4 g N l(-1) day(-1) with minimal nitrite and nitrate accumulation were considered a successful start-up. SBR A and B were operated at 50% VER with 3 g NaCl l(-1) in the influent, and the influent was fed over 8% and 82% of the cycle time respectively. SBR B started up in 24 days, but SBR A achieved no start-up in 39 days. SBR C and D were fed over 65% of the cycle time at 25% VER, and salt was added only to the influent of SBR D (5 g NaCl l(-1)). Start-up of both SBR C and D was successful in 9 and 32 days respectively. Reactor D developed a higher proportion of small aggregates (0.10-0.25 mm), with a high nitritation to anammox rate ratio, likely the cause of the observed nitrite accumulation. The latter was overcome by temporarily including an anoxic period at the end of the reaction phase. All systems achieved granulation and similar biomass-specific nitrogen removal rates (141-220 mg N g(-1) VSS day(-1)). FISH revealed a close juxtapositioning of aerobic and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and AnAOB), also in small aggregates. DGGE showed that AerAOB communities had a lower evenness than Planctomycetes communities. A higher richness of the latter seemed to be correlated with better reactor performance. Overall, the fast start-up of SBR B, C and D suggests that stable hydraulic conditions are beneficial for OLAND while increased salinity at the tested levels is not needed for good reactor performance. © 2012 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing

  12. Successful scaling-up of self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass under pool-type reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idris, Juferi; Shirai, Yoshihito; Andou, Yoshito; Mohd Ali, Ahmad Amiruddin; Othman, Mohd Ridzuan; Ibrahim, Izzudin; Yamamoto, Akio; Yasuda, Nobuhiko; Hassan, Mohd Ali

    2016-02-01

    An appropriate technology for waste utilisation, especially for a large amount of abundant pressed-shredded oil palm empty fruit bunch (OFEFB), is important for the oil palm industry. Self-sustained pyrolysis, whereby oil palm biomass was combusted by itself to provide the heat for pyrolysis without an electrical heater, is more preferable owing to its simplicity, ease of operation and low energy requirement. In this study, biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis of oil palm biomass in the form of oil palm empty fruit bunch was tested in a 3-t large-scale pool-type reactor. During the pyrolysis process, the biomass was loaded layer by layer when the smoke appeared on the top, to minimise the entrance of oxygen. This method had significantly increased the yield of biochar. In our previous report, we have tested on a 30-kg pilot-scale capacity under self-sustained pyrolysis and found that the higher heating value (HHV) obtained was 22.6-24.7 MJ kg(-1) with a 23.5%-25.0% yield. In this scaled-up study, a 3-t large-scale procedure produced HHV of 22.0-24.3 MJ kg(-1) with a 30%-34% yield based on a wet-weight basis. The maximum self-sustained pyrolysis temperature for the large-scale procedure can reach between 600 °C and 700 °C. We concluded that large-scale biochar production under self-sustained pyrolysis was successfully conducted owing to the comparable biochar produced, compared with medium-scale and other studies with an electrical heating element, making it an appropriate technology for waste utilisation, particularly for the oil palm industry. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Reduced scaling of thermal-hydraulic circuits for studies of PWR reactors natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Ishii et al. hydrodynamic similarity criteria for natural circulation were used for scaling reduced models of prototype passive residual heat removal system of a 600 M We PWR. The physical scales of the thermohydraulic parameters obtained presented a reasonable agreement when compared with simplified analytic models of the systems. (author)

  14. Determination of pressure distribution in an aerated bed in a controlled pilot-scale compost reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solowiej, P. [Warmia and Mazury Univ., Olsztyn (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of dealing with biological waste by composting. In particular, it examined the feasibility of recovering excess thermal energy produced in the process of composting biological waste in terms of mass and energy transport parameters required in the aerated compost bed. An experiment was performed in which a 100 dm{sup 3} adiabatic, leak-tight reactor equipped with a controlled aeration system was constructed to study the temperature and pressure distribution in the bed. Sensors were used to determine the amount and humidity of emitted gases under variable external physical conditions. The perforated bottom of the reactor allowed for bed aeration. As such, the humidity and heat were transported upwards, forced by the air pumped in and by natural convection. In terms of pressure distribution inside the composted and aerated bed, the study results showed that there were considerable differences in pressure for the selected places of the bed of the composted biological material. An increase in upwards pressure was observed in the heap throughout the experiment. Pressure differences in the same plane of the bed were also noted. The study results should facilitate the development of a model of mass and energy transport in a bed of composted material.

  15. Thermodynamic modelling of an onsite methanation reactor for upgrading producer gas from commercial small scale biomass gasifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakalis, S; Malamis, D; Moustakas, K

    2018-06-15

    Small scale biomass gasifiers have the advantage of having higher electrical efficiency in comparison to other conventional small scale energy systems. Nonetheless, a major drawback of small scale biomass gasifiers is the relatively poor quality of the producer gas. In addition, several EU Member States are seeking ways to store the excess energy that is produced from renewables like wind power and hydropower. A recent development is the storage of energy by electrolysis of water and the production of hydrogen in a process that is commonly known as "power-to-gas". The present manuscript proposes an onsite secondary reactor for upgrading producer gas by mixing it with hydrogen in order to initiate methanation reactions. A thermodynamic model has been developed for assessing the potential of the proposed methanation process. The model utilized input parameters from a representative small scale biomass gasifier and molar ratios of hydrogen from 1:0 to 1:4.1. The Villar-Cruise-Smith algorithm was used for minimizing the Gibbs free energy. The model returned the molar fractions of the permanent gases, the heating values and the Wobbe Index. For mixtures of hydrogen and producer gas on a 1:0.9 ratio the increase of the heating value is maximized with an increase of 78%. For ratios higher than 1:3, the Wobbe index increases significantly and surpasses the value of 30 MJ/Nm 3 . Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Qualification of an out-of-pile Thermohydraulic test Bench (BETHY) developed to calibrate calorimetric cells under specific JHR experimental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Vita, C.; Brun, J.; Carette, M.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Fourmentel, D.; Villard, J.F.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J.Y.

    2013-06-01

    Online in-pile measurement methods are crucial during irradiations in material testing reactors to better understand the behavior of materials under accelerated ageing conditions and of nuclear fuels under high irradiation levels. Thus, the construction of a new Material Testing Reactor such as the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR) leads to new research and development programs devoted to innovative instrumentation and measurement methods. The presented works are performed in the framework of the IN-CORE program, 'Instrumentation for Nuclear radiations and Calorimetry Online in Reactor', between CEA and Aix-Marseille University. The program aim is to develop experimental devices and test bench to quantify more precisely the nuclear heating parameter in the JHR experimental channels. This in-pile parameter is usually measured by means of calorimeter or gamma thermometer. This paper focuses on a new out-of-pile test bench called BETHY. This bench was developed to study the response of a differential calorimeter during its preliminary calibration step according to specific thermal and hydraulic conditions occurring inside one type of JHR core channel. The first section of this paper is dedicated to a detailed description of the bench. The second part presents the study of the thermal characteristics established in the bench for two main thermal running modes. The last one concerns the calibration curve of the reference cell of the differential calorimeter in the case of homogenous temperature. (authors)

  17. Structural analyses on piping systems of sodium reactors. 2. Eigenvalue analyses of hot-leg pipelines of large scale sodium reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuhashi, Ichiro; Kasahara, Naoto

    2002-01-01

    Two types of finite element models analyzed eigenvalues of hot-leg pipelines of a large-scale sodium reactor. One is a beam element model, which is usual for pipe analyses. The other is a shell element model to evaluate particular modes in thin pipes with large diameters. Summary of analysis results: (1) A beam element model and a order natural frequency. A beam element model is available to get the first order vibration mode. (2) The maximum difference ratio of beam mode natural frequencies was 14% between a beam element model with no shear deformations and a shell element model. However, its difference becomes very small, when shear deformations are considered in beam element. (3) In the first order horizontal mode, the Y-piece acts like a pendulum, and the elbow acts like the hinge. The natural frequency is strongly affected by the bending and shear rigidities of the outer supporting pipe. (4) In the first order vertical mode, the vertical sections of the outer and inner pipes moves in the axial-directional piston mode, the horizontal section of inner pipe behaves like the cantilever, and the elbow acts like the hinge. The natural frequency is strongly affected by the axial rigidity of outer supporting pipe. (5) Both effective masses and participation factors were small for particular shell modes. (author)

  18. CO{sub 2} Energy Reactor – Integrated Mineral Carbonation: Perspectives on Lab-Scale Investigation and Products Valorization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Rafael M., E-mail: rafael.santos@alumni.utoronto.ca [Chemical and Environmental Laboratories (CEL), School of Applied Chemical and Environmental Sciences, Sheridan Institute of Technology, Brampton, ON (Canada); Knops, Pol C. M.; Rijnsburger, Keesjan L. [Innovation Concepts B.V., Twello (Netherlands); Chiang, Yi Wai [School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    To overcome the challenges of mineral CO{sub 2} sequestration, Innovation Concepts B.V. is developing a unique proprietary gravity pressure vessel (GPV) reactor technology and has focussed on generating reaction products of high economic value. The GPV provides intense process conditions through hydrostatic pressurization and heat exchange integration that harvests exothermic reaction energy, thereby reducing energy demand of conventional reactor designs, in addition to offering other benefits. In this paper, a perspective on the status of this technology and outlook for the future is provided. To date, laboratory-scale tests of the envisioned process have been performed in a tubular “rocking autoclave” reactor. The mineral of choice has been olivine [~Mg{sub 1.6}Fe{sup 2+}{sub 0.4}(SiO{sub 4}) + ppm Ni/Cr], although asbestos, steel slags, and oil shale residues are also under investigation. The effect of several process parameters on reaction extent and product properties has been tested: CO{sub 2} pressure, temperature, residence time, additives (buffers, lixiviants, chelators, oxidizers), solids loading, and mixing rate. The products (carbonates, amorphous silica, and chromite) have been physically separated (based on size, density, and magnetic properties), characterized (for chemistry, mineralogy, and morphology), and tested in intended applications (as pozzolanic carbon-negative building material). Economically, it is found that product value is the main driver for mineral carbonation, rather than, or in addition to, the sequestered CO{sub 2}. The approach of using a GPV and focusing on valuable reaction products could thus make CO{sub 2} mineralization a feasible and sustainable industrial process.

  19. Characterization and modelling of the heat transfers in a pilot-scale reactor during composting under forced aeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guardia, A. de; Petiot, C.; Benoist, J.C.; Druilhe, C.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focused on the modelling of the heat transfers during composting in a pilot-scale reactor under forced aeration. The model took into account the heat production and the transfers by evaporation, convection between material and gas crossing the material, conduction and surface convection between gas and material in bottom and upper parts of the reactor. The model was adjusted thanks to the measurements practised during fifteen composting experiments in which five organic wastes were, each, composted under three constant aeration rates. Heat production was considered proportional to oxygen consumption rate and the enthalpy per mole oxygen consumed was assumed constant. The convective heat transfer coefficients were determined on basis of the continuous measurements of the temperatures of both the lid and the bottom part of the reactor. The model allowed a satisfying prediction of the temperature of the composting material. In most cases, the mean absolute discard between the experimental and the simulated temperatures was inferior to 2.5 °C and the peaks of temperature occurred with less than 8 h delay. For the half of the experiments the temperature discard between the simulated peak and the experimental one was inferior to 5 °C. On basis of the calculation of a stoichiometric production of water through oxidation of the biodegradable organic matter, the simulation of water going out from material as vapour also allowed a rather satisfying prediction of the mass of water in final mixture. The influence of the aeration rate on every type of heat loss was characterized. Finally, the model was used to evaluate the impacts on material temperature caused by the change of the insulation thickness, the ambient temperature, take the lid away, the increase or the decrease of the mass of waste to compost.

  20. A reverse method for the determination of the radiological inventory of irradiated graphite at reactor scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicaise, Gregory [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, Fontenay-aux-roses (France); Poncet, Bernard [EDF-DP2D, Lyon (France)

    2016-11-15

    Irradiated graphite waste will be produced from the decommissioning of the six gas-cooled nuclear reactors operated by Electricite De France (EDF). Determining the radionuclide content of this waste is an important legal commitment for both safety reasons and in order to determine the best suited management strategy. As evidenced by numerous studies nuclear graphite is a very pure material, however, it cannot be considered from an analytical viewpoint as a usual homogeneous material. Because of graphite high purity, radionuclide measurements in irradiated graphite exhibit very high discrepancies especially when corresponding to precursors at trace level. Therefore the assessment of a radionuclide inventory only based on few number of radiochemical measurements leads in most of cases to a gross over or under-estimation that can be detrimental to graphite waste management. A reverse method using an identification calculation-measurement process is proposed in order to assess the radionuclide inventory as precisely as possible.

  1. Structural safety of HDR reactor building during large scale vibration tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangenberg, F.; Zinn, R.

    1985-01-01

    In the second phase of the HDR investigations, a high shaker excitation of the building is planned using a large shaker which will be located on the operating floor and will be brought up to speed in a balanced condition and then unbalanced and decoupled from the drive system. With decreasing speed the shaker comes in resonance with the building frequencies and its energy is transferred to the building. In this paper the structural safety of the reactor building during the projected shaker tests is analysed. Dynamic response calculations with coupling between building and shaker by simultaneously integrating the equilibrium equations of both building and shaker are presented. The resulting building stresses, soil pressures etc. are compared with allowable values. (orig.)

  2. Computed versus measured response of HDR reactor building in large scale shaking tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werkle, H.; Waas, G.

    1987-01-01

    The earthquake resistant design of NPP structures and their installations is commonly based on linear analysis methods. Nonlinear effects, which may occur during strong earthquakes, are approximately accounted for in the analysis by adjusting the structural damping values. Experimental investigations of nonlinear effects were performed with an extremely heavy shaker at the decommissioned HDR reactor building in West Germany. The tests were directed by KfK (Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe, West Germany) and supported by several companies and institutes from West Germany, Switzerland and the USA. The objective was the dynamic repsonse behaviour of the structure, piping and components to strong earthquake-like shaking including nonlinear effects. This paper presents some results of safety analyses and measurements, which were performed prior and during the test series. It was intended to shake the building up to a level where only a marginal safety against global structural failure was left

  3. Transformation of pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles in a laboratory-scale activated sludge reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Lauren E; Auffan, Melanie; Bertrand, Marie; Barakat, Mohamed; Santaella, Catherine; Masion, Armand; Borschneck, Daniel; Olivi, Luca; Roche, Nicolas; Wiesner, Mark R; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-07-01

    Engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) are used to enhance the properties of many manufactured products and technologies. Increased use of ENMs will inevitably lead to their release into the environment. An important route of exposure is through the waste stream, where ENMs will enter wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), undergo transformations, and be discharged with treated effluent or biosolids. To better understand the fate of a common ENM in WWTPs, experiments with laboratory-scale activated sludge reactors and pristine and citrate-functionalized CeO2 nanoparticles (NPs) were conducted. Greater than 90% of the CeO2 introduced was observed to associate with biosolids. This association was accompanied by reduction of the Ce(IV) NPs to Ce(III). After 5 weeks in the reactor, 44 ± 4% reduction was observed for the pristine NPs and 31 ± 3% for the citrate-functionalized NPs, illustrating surface functionality dependence. Thermodynamic arguments suggest that the likely Ce(III) phase generated would be Ce2S3. This study indicates that the majority of CeO2 NPs (>90% by mass) entering WWTPs will be associated with the solid phase, and a significant portion will be present as Ce(III). At maximum, 10% of the CeO2 will remain in the effluent and be discharged as a Ce(IV) phase, governed by cerianite (CeO2).

  4. Bench press exercise: the key points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padulo, J; Laffaye, G; Chaouachi, A; Chamari, K

    2015-06-01

    The bench press exercise (BPE) is receiving increasing interest as a field testing, training/therapeutic modality to improve neuromuscular performance or to increase bone mass density. Several studies have been performed using BPE as a standard for increasing upper-limb strength. For this purpose, the position of the bar, the loads, the sets, the number of repetitions, the recovery time in-between sets, the movement speed, the muscular work and the use of the determination of the one repetition maximum (1-RM) are the classical tools investigated in the literature that have been shown to affect the BPE effect on neuromuscular. The goal of the present short review is to make a picture of the current knowledge on the bench press exercise, which could be very helpful for a better understanding of this standard movement and its effects. Based on the related literature, several recommendations on these key points are presented here.

  5. A PMT-Block test bench

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adragna, P.; Antonaki, A.

    2006-01-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported

  6. A PMT-Block test bench

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adragna, P [Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' , Universita di Pisa and Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa 56127 (Italy); Universita degli studi di Siena, via Roma 56, 53100 Siena (Italy); Antonaki, A [Institute of Accelerating Systems and Applications, P.O. Box 17214, Athens 10024 (Greece); National Capodistrian University of Athens, 30 Panepistimiou st., Athens 10679 (Greece)] (and others)

    2006-08-01

    The front-end electronics of the ATLAS hadronic calorimeter (Tile Cal) is housed in a unit, called PMT-Block. The PMT-Block is a compact instrument comprising a light mixer, a PMT together with its divider and a 3-in-1 card, which provides shaping, amplification and integration for the signals. This instrument needs to be qualified before being assembled on the detector. A PMT-Block test bench has been developed for this purpose. This test bench is a system which allows fast, albeit accurate enough, measurements of the main properties of a complete PMT-Block. The system, both hardware and software, and the protocol used for the PMT-Blocks characterization are described in detail in this report. The results obtained in the test of about 10 000 PMT-Blocks needed for the instrumentation of the ATLAS (LHC-CERN) hadronic Tile Calorimeter are also reported.

  7. Distal clavicular osteolysis in adults: association with bench pressing intensity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)

  8. Biotic transformation of anticoccidials in soil using a lab-scale bio-reactor as a precursor-tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Martin; Björklund, Erland; Krogh, Kristine A

    2012-01-01

    incubated for 200 h with a mixed culture of soil bacteria. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and potential transformation products were tentatively identified. Salinomycin was degraded under aerobic conditions and traces could be found after 200 h, however, seems more persistent under anaerobic conditions....... Four transformation products of salinomycin were discovered. Robenidine was degraded under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, however, traces of robenidine were observed after 200 h. Five biotic transformation products of robenidine were discovered.......Two anticoccidial agents, salinomycin and robenidine, heavily used in the worldwide veterinary meat production, were investigated for their potential biotic degradation by cultured soil bacteria. The degradation-study was performed in lab-scale bio-reactors under aerobic and anaerobic conditions...

  9. Treatment of duck house wastewater by a pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor system for sustainable duck production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jung-Jeng; Huang, Jeng-Fang; Wang, Yi-Lei; Hong, Yu-Ya

    2018-06-15

    The objective of this study is trying to solve water pollution problems related to duck house wastewater by developing a novel duck house wastewater treatment technology. A pilot-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) system using different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) for treating duck house wastewater was developed and applied in this study. Experimental results showed that removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 98.4, 98.4, 87.8, and 72.5% for the different HRTs of 5, 3, 1, and 0.5 d, respectively. In addition, removal efficiency of biochemical oxygen demand in untreated duck house wastewater was 99.6, 99.3, 90.4, and 58.0%, respectively. The pilot-scale SBR system was effective and deemed capable to be applied to treat duck house wastewater. It is feasible to apply an automatic SBR system on site based on the previous case study of the farm-scale automatic SBR systems for piggery wastewater treatment.

  10. Development of a test facility for analyzing transients in supercritical water-cooled reactors by fractional scaling analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberto, Thiago D., E-mail: thiagodbtr@gmail.com [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN—RJ), Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro Caixa-Postal: 68550, RJ (Brazil); Silva, Mário A. B. da, E-mail: mabs500@gmail.com [Departamento de Energia Nuclear (CTG/UFPE), Av. Professor Luiz Freire, 1000, Recife 50740-540, PE (Brazil); Lapa, Celso M.F., E-mail: lapa@ien.gov.br [Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN—RJ), Rua Hélio de Almeida, 75 21941-972, Rio de Janeiro Caixa-Postal: 68550, RJ (Brazil)

    2016-01-15

    The feasibility of performing experiments using water under supercritical conditions is limited by technical and financial difficulties. These difficulties can be overcome by using model fluids that are characterized by feasible supercritical conditions, that is, lower critical pressure and critical temperature. Experimental investigations are normally used to determine the conditions under which model fluids reliably represent supercritical fluids under steady-state conditions. A fluid-to-fluid scaling approach has been proposed to determine the model fluids that represent supercritical fluids in a transient state. Recently, a similar technique known as fractional scaling analysis was developed to establish the conditions under which experiments can be performed using models that represent transients in prototypes. This paper presents a fractional scaling analysis application to determine parameters for a test facility in which transient conditions in supercritical water-cooled reactors are simulated by using carbon dioxide as a model fluid, whose critical point conditions are more feasible than those of water. Similarity is obtained between water (prototype) and carbon dioxide (model) by depressurization in a simple vessel. The main parameters required for the construction of a future test facility are obtained using the proposed method.

  11. Development of a test facility for analyzing transients in supercritical water-cooled reactors by fractional scaling analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberto, Thiago D.; Silva, Mário A. B. da; Lapa, Celso M.F.

    2016-01-01

    The feasibility of performing experiments using water under supercritical conditions is limited by technical and financial difficulties. These difficulties can be overcome by using model fluids that are characterized by feasible supercritical conditions, that is, lower critical pressure and critical temperature. Experimental investigations are normally used to determine the conditions under which model fluids reliably represent supercritical fluids under steady-state conditions. A fluid-to-fluid scaling approach has been proposed to determine the model fluids that represent supercritical fluids in a transient state. Recently, a similar technique known as fractional scaling analysis was developed to establish the conditions under which experiments can be performed using models that represent transients in prototypes. This paper presents a fractional scaling analysis application to determine parameters for a test facility in which transient conditions in supercritical water-cooled reactors are simulated by using carbon dioxide as a model fluid, whose critical point conditions are more feasible than those of water. Similarity is obtained between water (prototype) and carbon dioxide (model) by depressurization in a simple vessel. The main parameters required for the construction of a future test facility are obtained using the proposed method.

  12. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  13. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was determined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  14. Bench-scale treatability testing of biological, UV oxidation, distillation, and ion-exchange treatment of trench water from a low-level radioactive waste disposal area at West Valley, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundquist, J.A.; Gillings, J.C. [Ecology and Environment, Inc. (United States); Sonntag, T.L. [New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (United States); Denault, R.P. [Pacific Nuclear, Inc. (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Ecology and Environment, Inc. (E and E), under subcontract to Pacific Nuclear Services (PNS), conducted for the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) treatability tests to support the selection and design of a treatment system for leachate from Trench 14 of the West Valley State-Licensed, Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Area (SDA). In this paper E and E presents and discusses the treatability test results and provides recommendations for the design of the full-scale treatment system.

  15. Industrial-scale application of the plunger flow electro-oxidation reactor in wastewater depth treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolong; Yao, Jiachao; Pan, Weilong; Wang, Jiade

    2016-09-01

    Effluents after biochemical treatment contain pollutants that are mostly non-degradable. Based upon previous pilot-scale test results, an industrial-scale electro-oxidation device was built to decompose these refractory materials in the effluent from a park wastewater treatment plant. The electro-oxidation device comprised a ditch-shaped plunger flow electrolysis cell, with mesh-plate Ti/PbO2 electrodes as the anode and the same size mesh-plate Ti as the cathode. Wastewater flowed vertically through electrodes; the effective volume of the cell was 2.8 m(3), and the surface-to-volume ratio was 17.14 m(2) m(-3). The optimal current density was 100 A m(-2), and a suitable flow velocity was 14.0 m h(-1). The removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand and color in the effluent were over 60.0 and 84.0 %, respectively. In addition, the electro-oxidation system offered a good disinfection capability. The specific energy consumption for this industrial-scale device was 43.5 kWh kg COD(-1), with a current efficiency of 32.8 %, which was superior to the pilot-scale one. To meet the requirements for emission or reuse, the operation cost was $0.44 per ton of effluent at an average price for electricity of $0.11 kWh(-1).

  16. Immobilized TiO2 for Phenol Degradation in a Pilot-Scale Photocatalytic Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylwia Mozia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenol degradation was carried out in a photocatalytic pilot plant reactor equipped with a UV/vis mercury lamp. The total volume of treated water was equal to 1.35 m3. TiO2 P25 was used as a photocatalyst and it was immobilized on two different supports: (i a steel mesh and (ii a fiberglass cloth. Moreover, the performance of commercially available Photospheres-40 was examined. In addition, an experiment in the absence of a photocatalyst was conducted. The commercially available Photospheres-40 were found to be inadequate for the presented application due to their fragility, which in connection with vigorous mixing and pumping led to their mechanical destruction and loss of floating abilities. The highest effectiveness of phenol decomposition and mineralization was observed in the presence of TiO2 supported on the fiberglass cloth. After 15 h of the process, phenol and total organic carbon concentrations decreased by ca. 80% and 50%, respectively.

  17. Micro-scale H2-CO2 dynamics in a hydrogenotrophic methanogenic membrane reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Garcia-Robledo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production is a key factor in a sustainable energy supply. It is possible to get biogas with very high methane content if the biogas reactors are supplied with exogenous hydrogen, and one of the technologies for supplying hydrogen is through gas permeable membranes. In this study the activity and stratification of hydrogen consumption above such a membrane was investigated by use of microsensors for hydrogen and pH. A hydrogenotrophic methanogenic community that was able to consume the hydrogen flux within 0.5 mm of the membrane with specific rates of up to 30 m3 H2 m-3 day-1 developed within 3 days in fresh manure and was already established at time zero when analyzing slurry from a biogas plant. The hydrogen consumption was dependent on a simultaneous carbon dioxide supply and was inhibited when carbon dioxide depletion elevated the pH to 9.2. The activity was only partially restored when the carbon dioxide supply was resumed. Bioreactors supplied with hydrogen gas should thus be carefully monitored and either have the hydrogen supply disrupted or be supplemented with carbon dioxide when the pH rises to values about 9.

  18. A Novel Nano/Micro-Fluidic Reactor for Evaluation of Pore-Scale Reactive Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werth, C. J.; Alcalde, R.; Ghazvini, S.; Sanford, R. A.; Fouke, B. W.; Valocchi, A. J.

    2017-12-01

    The reactive transport of pollutants in groundwater can be affected by the presence of stressor chemicals, which inhibit microbial functions. The stressor can be a primary reactant (e.g., trichloroethene), a reaction product (e.g., nitrite from nitrate), or some other chemical present in groundwater (e.g., antibiotic). In this work, a novel nano/microfluidic cell was developed to examine the effect of the antibiotic ciprofloxacin on nitrate reduction coupled to lactate oxidation. The reactor contains parallel boundary channels that deliver flow and solutes on either side of a pore network. The boundary channels are separated from the pore network by one centimeter-long, one micrometer-thick walls perforated by hundreds of nanoslits. The nanoslits allow solute mass transfer from the boundary channels to the pore network, but not microbial passage. The pore network was inoculated with a pure culture of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, and this was allowed to grow on lactate and nitrate in the presence of ciprofloxacin, all delivered through the boundary channels. Microbial growth patterns suggest inhibition from ciprofloxacin and the nitrate reduction product nitrite, and a dependence on nitrate and lactate mass transfer rates from the boundary channels. A numerical model was developed to interpret the controlling mechanisms, and results indicate cell chemotaxis also affects nitrate reduction and microbial growth. The results are broadly relevant to bioremediation efforts where one or more chemicals that inhibit microbial growth are present and inhibit pollutant degradation rates.

  19. Large-scale Samples Irradiation Facility at the IBR-2 Reactor in Dubna

    CERN Document Server

    Cheplakov, A P; Golubyh, S M; Kaskanov, G Ya; Kulagin, E N; Kukhtin, V V; Luschikov, V I; Shabalin, E P; León-Florián, E; Leroy, C

    1998-01-01

    The irradiation facility at the beam line no.3 of the IBR-2 reactor of the Frank Laboratory for Neutron Physics is described. The facility is aimed at irradiation studies of various objects with area up to 800 cm$^2$ both at cryogenic and ambient temperatures. The energy spectra of neutrons are reconstructed by the method of threshold detector activation. The neutron fluence and $\\gamma$ dose rates are measured by means of alanine and thermoluminescent dosimeters. The boron carbide and lead filters or $(n/\\gamma)$ converter provide beams of different ratio of doses induced by neutrons and photons. For the lead filter, the flux of fast neutrons with energy more than 0.1 MeV is $1.4 \\cdot 10^{10}$ \\fln and the neutron dose is about 96\\% of the total radiation dose. For the $(n/\\gamma)$ converter, the $\\gamma$ dose rate is $\\sim$500 Gy h$^{-1}$ which is about 85\\% of the total dose. The radiation hardness tests of GaAs electronics and materials for the ATLAS detector to be put into operation at the Large Hadron ...

  20. Scaling Studies for High Temperature Test Facility and Modular High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richard R. Schult; Paul D. Bayless; Richard W. Johnson; James R. Wolf; Brian Woods

    2012-02-01

    The Oregon State University (OSU) High Temperature Test Facility (HTTF) is an integral experimental facility that will be constructed on the OSU campus in Corvallis, Oregon. The HTTF project was initiated, by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), on September 5, 2008 as Task 4 of the 5-year High Temperature Gas Reactor Cooperative Agreement via NRC Contract 04-08-138. Until August, 2010, when a DOE contract was initiated to fund additional capabilities for the HTTF project, all of the funding support for the HTTF was provided by the NRC via their cooperative agreement. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began their involvement with the HTTF project in late 2009 via the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project. Because the NRC's interests in HTTF experiments were only centered on the depressurized conduction cooldown (DCC) scenario, NGNP involvement focused on expanding the experimental envelope of the HTTF to include steady-state operations and also the pressurized conduction cooldown (PCC).