Ikram, U.Z.; Snijder, M.B.; Fassaert, T.J.; Schene, A.H.; Kunst, A.E.; Stronks, K.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of perceived ethnic discrimination to depression in various ethnic minority groups in Amsterdam. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHOD: We included participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch (n = 1,744), Asian Surinamese (n = 1,126), Creole Surinamese (n =
Greenwood, Nan; Ellmers, Theresa; Holley, Jess
Focus groups are commonly used to explore participants' experiences in health and social care research. Although it is suggested that having demographically homogenous groups may help put participants at ease, the evidence is sparse.The aims of the paper are to: explore the impact of relative ethnic homogeneity and heterogeneity of focus group participants on the group discussions; improve understanding of homogeneity and heterogeneity in focus groups; suggest ways to operationalise concepts such as being 'more comfortable' with other focus group participants. Digitally recorded focus groups were undertaken with family carers of stroke survivors and were later transcribed and analysed using framework analysis. Groups were designated as more or less ethnically homogenous. More homogenous groups included, for example, only White British or Asian Indian participants whilst more heterogeneous groups comprised a mixture of, for example, Asian, White British and Black Caribbean participants. Forty-one carers participated in seven focus groups. Analysis revealed differences in discussions around ethnicity between the more or less ethnically homogenous groups. For example, participants in more ethnically homogenous focus groups were more likely to say ethnicity might influence perceptions of social care services. On the other hand, more heterogeneous groups emphasised similarity in carers' experiences, irrespective of ethnicity. Participants in the more homogenous groups were also more likely to make potentially controversial comments relating to ethnic differences. Additionally they appeared to be more at ease with each other discussing the topic. For example, they spontaneously mentioned ethnic differences earlier in these groups.In contrast, analysis of topics not specifically related to ethnicity, such as the difficult experiences of being a carer, produced no discernible patterns when comparing more and less homogenous focus groups. Considerations around focus group
Nigeria like many other African countries is an arbitrary manmade national entity amalgamated from numerous ethnic groups. Stereotypic belief proliferates as the number of these ethnic groups. This study therefore examines if stereotype is used in intra ethnic perception and inters ethnic perception; and measures the ...
Brittian, Aerika S; Kim, Su Yeong; Armenta, Brian E; Lee, Richard M; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Schwartz, Seth J; Villalta, Ian K; Zamboanga, Byron L; Weisskirch, Robert S; Juang, Linda P; Castillo, Linda G; Hudson, Monika L
Ethnic group discrimination represents a notable risk factor that may contribute to mental health problems among ethnic minority college students. However, cultural resources (e.g., ethnic identity) may promote psychological adjustment in the context of group-based discriminatory experiences. In the current study, we examined the associations between perceptions of ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms, and explored dimensions of ethnic identity (i.e., exploration, resolution, and affirmation) as mediators of this process among 2,315 ethnic minority college students (age 18 to 30 years; 37% Black, 63% Latino). Results indicated that perceived ethnic group discrimination was associated positively with depressive symptoms among students from both ethnic groups. The relationship between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms was mediated by ethnic identity affirmation for Latino students, but not for Black students. Ethnic identity resolution was negatively and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through ethnic identity affirmation for both Black and Latino students. Implications for promoting ethnic minority college students' mental health and directions for future research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Lerma, Betty Ruth Lozano
The text entitled "Femicides in ethnic and racialized groups: syntheses" presents some of the discussions that took place during a seminar on this topic in Buenaventura. Buenaventura is the main Colombian port on the Pacific, a region rich in minerals and a corridor for the movement of goods, which makes it a strategic territory and a center for disputes. At the seminar, the social and political determinants of femicide were discussed, understanding it as a tactic of waging war against women. The forum provided a space for academic discussion, but also for grievances over inter-personal violence, the manifestation of feelings and the elaboration of pain and grief through the medium of art. We believe that the dissemination of this experience to the Brazilian public, in a country with ethnic, social and racial vulnerability similar to that in Colombia, will be of value to social and health workers. The scope of this paper is therefore to provide the opinion of its authors on the determinants of femicides and on actions to tackle them, in addition to a synthesis of the discussions and debates that permeated the event.
Jannie J van der Helm
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the epidemiology of urogenital Chlamydia trachomatis infection (chlamydia in Suriname. Suriname is a society composed of many ethnic groups, such as Creoles, Maroons, Hindustani, Javanese, Chinese, Caucasians, and indigenous Amerindians. We estimated determinants for chlamydia, including the role of ethnicity, and identified transmission patterns and ethnic sexual networks among clients of two clinics in Paramaribo, Suriname. METHODS: Participants were recruited at two sites a sexually transmitted infections (STI clinic and a family planning (FP clinic in Paramaribo. Urine samples from men and nurse-collected vaginal swabs were obtained for nucleic acid amplification testing. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify determinants of chlamydia. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST was performed to genotype C. trachomatis. To identify transmission patterns and sexual networks, a minimum spanning tree was created, using full MLST profiles. Clusters in the minimum spanning tree were compared for ethnic composition. RESULTS: Between March 2008 and July 2010, 415 men and 274 women were included at the STI clinic and 819 women at the FP clinic. Overall chlamydia prevalence was 15% (224/1508. Age, ethnicity, and recruitment site were significantly associated with chlamydia in multivariable analysis. Participants of Creole and Javanese ethnicity were more frequently infected with urogenital chlamydia. Although sexual mixing with other ethnic groups did differ significantly per ethnicity, this mixing was not independently significantly associated with chlamydia. We typed 170 C. trachomatis-positive samples (76% and identified three large C. trachomatis clusters. Although the proportion from various ethnic groups differed significantly between the clusters (P = 0.003, all five major ethnic groups were represented in all three clusters. CONCLUSION: Chlamydia prevalence in Suriname is high and targeted prevention
Consequently, ethnic minority groups in Nigeria have been engaged not just in different efforts to reduce the dominance of the major ethnic groups but also on how best to live side by side with them. Federalism and states creation exercises are two major solutions that have been tried over time in the quest for national ...
A survey of ten selected anthropometric dimensions of two Nigerian major ethnic groups (Hausa and Yoruba) living in southwestern Nigeria was conducted. The aim were to obtain anthropometric data that could be useful for design purpose and to examine possible differences between the data of the two ethnic groups and ...
S. P. Henzi
Full Text Available Previous studies on facial recognition have considered widely separated populations, both geographically and culturally, making it hard to disentangle effects of familiarity with an ability to identify ethnic groups per se.We used data from a highly intermixed population of African peoples from South Africa to test whether individuals from nine different ethnic groups could correctly differentiate between facial images of two of these, the Tswana and Pedi. Individuals could not assign ethnicity better than expected by chance, and there was no significant difference between genders in accuracy of assignment. Interestingly, we observed a trend that individuals of mixed ethnic origin were better at assigning ethnicity to Pedi and Tswanas, than individuals from less mixed backgrounds. This result supports the hypothesis that ethnic recognition is based on the visual
Full Text Available Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.
Zhang, Hai-Guo; Chen, Yao-Fong; Ding, Ming; Jin, Li; Case, D Troy; Jiao, Yun-Ping; Wang, Xian-Ping; Bai, Chong-Xian; Jin, Gang; Yang, Jiang-Ming; Wang, Han; Yuan, Jian-Bing; Huang, Wei; Wang, Zhu-Gang; Chen, Ren-Biao
Completion of a survey of dermatoglyphic variables for all ethnic groups in an ethnically diverse country like China is a huge research project, and an achievement that anthropological and dermatoglyphic scholars in the country could once only dream of. However, through the endeavors of scientists in China over the last 30 years, the dream has become reality. This paper reports the results of a comprehensive analysis of dermatoglyphics from all ethnic groups in China. Using cluster analysis and principal component analysis of dermatoglyphics, it has been found that Chinese populations can be generally divided into a southern group and a northern group. Furthermore, there has been considerable debate about the origins of many Chinese populations and about proper assignment of these peoples to larger ethnic groups. In this paper, we suggest that dermatoglyphic data can inform these debates by helping to classify a Chinese population as a northern or southern group, using selected reference populations and quantitative methods. This study is the first to assemble and investigate dermatoglyphics from all 56 Chinese ethnic groups. It is fortunate that data on population dermatoglyphics, a field of physical anthropology, have now been collected for all 56 Chinese ethnic groups, because intermarriage between individuals from different Chinese ethnic groups occurs more frequently in recent times, making population dermatoglyphic research an ever more challenging field of inquiry.
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuijten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship.
Ginn, J; Arber, S
Minority ethnic groups have low income in later life from private pensions, partly due to shorter employment records in Britain since migration. Yet disadvantage and discrimination in the labour market, as well as differences in cultural norms concerning women's employment, may lead to persistence of ethnic variation in private pension acquisition. Little is known about the pension arrangements made by men and women in minority ethnic groups during the working life. This paper examines the extent of ethnic disadvantage in private pension scheme arrangements and analyses variation according to gender and specific ethnic group, using three years of the British Family Resources Survey, which provides information on over 97,000 adults aged 20-59, including over 5,700 from ethnic minorities. Both men and women in minority ethnic groups were less likely to have private pension coverage than their white counterparts but the extent of the difference was most marked for Pakistanis and Bangladeshis. Ethnicity interacted with gender, so that Blacks showed the least gender inequality in private pension arrangements, reflecting the relatively similar full-time employment rates of Black men and women. A minority ethnic disadvantage in private pension coverage, for both men and women, remained after taking account of age, marital and parental status, years of education, employment variables, class and income. The research suggests that minority ethnic groups - especially women - will be disproportionately dependent on means-tested benefits in later life, due to the combined effects of low private pension coverage and the policy of shifting pension provision towards the private sector.
Fraga, Elizabeth D; Atkinson, Donald R; Wampold, Bruce E
Asian American (n = 155), European American (n = 200), and Hispanic (n = 152) undergraduate students were surveyed using a paired-comparison format to determine preferences for the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 11 knowledges, and 11 skills identified by D. W. Sue, P. Arredondo, and R. J. McDavis (1992) as characteristics of the competent multicultural counselor. The Bradley-Terry-Luce model, which uses a weighted least square regression to place the competencies on a continuum from least preferred to most preferred and to test for significant intergroup differences, was used to analyze the data. Results indicated that preferences for 5 of the 9 attitudes/beliefs, 5 of the 11 knowledges, and 7 of the 11 skills competencies varied as a function of race/ethnicity.
Diep Lien M
Full Text Available Abstract Background The population in Norway has become multi-ethnic due to migration from Asia and Africa over the recent decades. The aim of the present study was to explore differences in the self-reported prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD and associated risk factors by diabetes status in five ethnic minority groups compared to ethnic Norwegians. Methods Pooled data from three population-based cross-sectional studies conducted in Oslo between 2000 and 2002 was used. Of 54,473 invited individuals 24,749 (45.4% participated. The participants self-reported health status, underwent a clinical examination and blood samples were drawn. A total of 17,854 individuals aged 30 to 61 years born in Norway, Sri-Lanka, Pakistan, Iran, Vietnam or Turkey were included in the study. Chi-square tests, one-way ANOVAs, ANCOVAs, multiple and logistic regression were used. Results Age- and gender-standardized prevalence of self-reported CVD varied between 5.8% and 8.2% for the ethnic minority groups, compared to 2.9% among ethnic Norwegians (p Conclusions Ethnic differences in the prevalence of CVD were prominent for individuals without diabetes. Primary CVD prevention including identification of undiagnosed diabetes should be prioritized for ethnic minorities without known diabetes.
Galina F. Balakina
Full Text Available Studying the issue of how ethnic groups in Tuva adapt to contemporary social and economic transformations is of special importance at the moment due to the fact that Tuva is an ethnically heterogeneous region, and also because the issue of such adaptation has not been sufficiently studied so far. The ethnic and cultural profile of the population of a certain region is also important for assessing the prospects of its development. In order to study the whole scope of techniques, pace and scale of ethnic groups’ adaptation to the transforming environment, the authors of this article launched and led two public opinion polls (2010 and 2014. A representative sample of 400 residents of Tuva of working age was polled by means of a questionnaire. The analysis of the data thus obtained shows that the adaptation patterns in various ethnic groups (primarily Tuvans and Russians are different. An additional obstacle ethnic Russians face is that they have to adapt to both new socioeconomic situation and new ethnopolitical reality. While basic value orientations of ethnic Russians and Tuvans are quite similar, in the issues of equality and social mobility Russians, including the younger generation, still feel more disadvantaged than Tuvans. Low confidence in the future cripples their self-esteem, especially concerning career prospects and social mobility. Ethnic Tuvans feel more confident in their future due to their trust in kinship and territorial networks. Nevertheless, the overall adaptation level remains rather low, with a marked prevalence of paternalist expectations and passive outlook. In general, it is quite clear that the level of adaptation to the realities of the new economy does not match the requirements of the region’s social and economic development. The degree of frustration and deprivation among the population of Tuva is still high. Opinion polls show a rise of pro-migration mood: while Russians aim to move out of the region, ethnic
Rafael Grady Christianto
Full Text Available This research uses qualitative method approach. The data is taken through semi structured interviews so that the researcher can get the deepest information from the subject but still use interview and observation guidance. Aims to determine the perspectives between ethnic groups by looking at how the interactions or relationships that occur in everyday activities, the management of conflicts, what activities are usually done together, and the attachment that exists between various ethnic groups in Kelurahan Pengasinan Kota Bekasi to meet Practical needs. The theory used is the group definition theory of Joseph S. Roucek, Major Polak, and Wila Huky, inter-group relations of Kinloch and Stanley Liberson, social interaction theory of Soekanto, Sunarto-majority minority relations theory, Budiman, Suparlan and Edward M Bruner, and the inter-ethnic perspective theory of Setiaman. Social relations itself has a sense of relationship in which there are interactions that occur in society in order to prevent the emergence of conflict. Based on the results of research and discussion that has been done, it can be concluded that, good interaction among ethnic groups is the key in maintaining relationships among ethnic groups. This will affect the survival, social behavior, and perspectives that arise and develop among others.
In New Zealand, Pacific health figures are traditionally presented for all Pacific ethnic groups combined. Use of EDs and urgent care clinics is high compared with Maori and non-Maori, non-Pacific (nMnP) use. By controlling for proximity to the hospital and socioeconomic status, we demonstrate greater variation between Pacific ethnic groups than between Pacific and nMnP, or between Maori and nMnP groups. We discuss the significance of subpopulation variation in use of urgent care services. © 2016 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
Masson, C.N.; M.J.A.M. Verkuyten (Maykel)
textabstractSocial identity theory, the contact hypothesis, and prejudice research are three important perspectives for studying ingroup information and preferences in the context of ethnic groups. This paper studies the utility of the three perspectives in a particular interethnic group context
Saha, N; Bhattacharyya, S P
Autopsy liver samples from 244 Chinese, 119 Malays and 136 Indians were screened for glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) subtypes by starch-gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing at pH 5-7. Altogether, ten phenotypes controlled by four alleles (GPT1, GPT2A, GPT2B and GPT3) were identified. There was no significant difference in the frequency of GPT alleles between the ethnic groups. The distribution of GPT types was in agreement with the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all the ethnic groups.
Hitti, Aline; Killen, Melanie
This study investigated three factors that contribute to social exclusion: group norms, individual characteristics, and stereotypes. Non-Arab American 12- and 16-year-olds (N = 199) judged their expectations about the inclusivity of Arab American and non-Arab American peer groups toward new peers characterized by: (a) different ethnic identity but similar interests (e.g., hobbies) and (b) same ethnic identity but different interests. Participants expected that when groups had exclusive norms, Arab American peers would base inclusion decisions on ethnic identity, but that their own non-Arab group would base decisions on shared interests. Participants who reported stereotypes expected their in-group to be ethnically less inclusive. With age, ethnic-based exclusion increased. The findings are discussed in light of current research on developmental intergroup relationships. © 2015 The Authors. Child Development © 2015 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Nwabunike, Collins; Tenkorang, Eric Y
There is evidence that between half and two thirds of Nigerian women have experienced domestic violence, and that this is higher in some ethnic groups than others. Yet, studies that examine the ethnic dimensions of domestic and marital violence are conspicuously missing in the literature. We fill this void using data from the Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey. Results indicate significant ethnic differences with Igbo women more likely to have experienced sexual and emotional violence compared with Yoruba women. Hausa women were however significantly less likely to experience physical and sexual violence but not emotional violence, compared with Yoruba women. Women with domineering husbands were significantly more likely to experience physical, sexual, and emotional violence. Similarly, those who thought wife-beating was justified were more likely to experience all three types of violence. The independent effects of ethnicity on domestic violence suggests that specific interventions may be needed for women belonging to different ethnic groups if the problem of domestic violence is to be dealt with effectively in Nigeria. © The Author(s) 2015.
Socio-Cultural factors and ethnic group relationship in comtemporary Nigerian society. M Ifeyinwa. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/aa.v10i2.46158 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE ...
Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart
Production sectors are interdependent and the benefits of output growth for poverty reduction therefore spread over the economy. The role of such interdependencies is explicitly studied in this paper. A social accounting matrix for Malaysia that distinguishes between the major ethnic groups in
not have access to weight training equipment. In response to these findings SARU and the Sports Science Institute of South Africa. Background. The South African Rugby Union (SARU) has had a continual challenge to make the game representative of players of all ethnic groups at all levels of play. In response to this ...
The usefulness of craniometry in facilitating proper identification of skeletal remains and in emphasizing a common origin of studied populations is far reaching. Conducting anthropological studies with the aim of obtaining the characteristics of ethnic groups assists not only in understanding the frequency distribution of ...
Minority language literacy is an important issue in national education policy for any multi-nationality country. China sticks to the policy of safeguarding the rights and interests of ethnic minority groups to use their own languages and writing systems. In education, considering communications among different nationalities and the development of…
In the dawn of a new era in development, “China Africa” development cooperation based on equality and mutual respect, what does the historical impact of globalization on the development of ethnic groups holds for the future of these two countries in particular and Africa in general? What lessons can we learn from the past ...
Maes, Marlies; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Verkuyten, Maykel
Previous research has identified ethnic group identification as a moderator in the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and problem behaviors in ethnic minority children. However, little is known about the influence of religious and host national identification on this relationship. This study investigated the moderating role of…
Griffiths, Lucy J; Tate, A Rosemary; Dezateux, Carol
To examine UK country and ethnic variations in infant feeding practices. Cohort study. Infants enrolled in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between September 2000 and January 2002. A total of 18 150 natural mothers (11 286 (8207 white) living in England) of singleton infants. Breast-feeding initiation, breast-feeding discontinuation and introduction of solid foods before 4 months. EXPLANATORY VARIABLES: Maternal ethnic group, education and social class. Seventy per cent of UK mothers started to breast-feed, of whom 62% stopped before 4 months. Median age at discontinuing breast-feeding was 14, 13, 10 and 6 weeks in Scotland, England, Wales and Northern Ireland, respectively. Thirty-six per cent of UK mothers (34% in England) introduced solids before 4 months. White mothers were more likely to discontinue breast-feeding (62%) and introduce solids early (37%) than most other ethnic minority groups; those stopping before 4 months were more likely to introduce solids early compared with those continuing to breast-feed beyond this age (adjusted rate ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.3 (1.1-1.2)). Educated mothers were less likely to stop breast-feeding before 4 months (white mothers, 0.8 (0.8-0.9); non-white mothers, 0.9 (0.8-1.0)) than those with no/minimal qualifications but, among ethnic minorities, were more likely to introduce solids early (1.3 (1.0-1.6)). Socio-economic status was positively associated with breast-feeding continuation among white women, and with age at introduction of solids among non-white women. We have identified important geographic, ethnic and social inequalities in breast-feeding continuation and introduction of solids within the UK, many of which have not been reported previously. The factors mediating these associations are complex and merit further study to ensure that interventions proposed to promote maternal adherence to current infant feeding recommendations are appropriate and effective.
David W Lawson
Full Text Available The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological
Lawson, David W.; Borgerhoff Mulder, Monique; Ghiselli, Margherita E.; Ngadaya, Esther; Ngowi, Bernard; Mfinanga, Sayoki G. M.; Hartwig, Kari; James, Susan
The Maasai of northern Tanzania, a semi-nomadic ethnic group predominantly reliant on pastoralism, face a number of challenges anticipated to have negative impacts on child health, including marginalisation, vulnerabilities to drought, substandard service provision and on-going land grabbing conflicts. Yet, stemming from a lack of appropriate national survey data, no large-scale comparative study of Maasai child health has been conducted. Savannas Forever Tanzania surveyed the health of over 3500 children from 56 villages in northern Tanzania between 2009 and 2011. The major ethnic groups sampled were the Maasai, Sukuma, Rangi, and the Meru. Using multilevel regression we compare each ethnic group on the basis of (i) measurements of child health, including anthropometric indicators of nutritional status and self-reported incidence of disease; and (ii) important proximate determinants of child health, including food insecurity, diet, breastfeeding behaviour and vaccination coverage. We then (iii) contrast households among the Maasai by the extent to which subsistence is reliant on livestock herding. Measures of both child nutritional status and disease confirm that the Maasai are substantially disadvantaged compared to neighbouring ethnic groups, Meru are relatively advantaged, and Rangi and Sukuma intermediate in most comparisons. However, Maasai children were less likely to report malaria and worm infections. Food insecurity was high throughout the study site, but particularly severe for the Maasai, and reflected in lower dietary intake of carbohydrate-rich staple foods, and fruits and vegetables. Breastfeeding was extended in the Maasai, despite higher reported consumption of cow's milk, a potential weaning food. Vaccination coverage was lowest in Maasai and Sukuma. Maasai who rely primarily on livestock herding showed signs of further disadvantage compared to Maasai relying primarily on agriculture. We discuss the potential ecological, socioeconomic, demographic
Full Text Available HLA antigens and their relationship with malaria infection were studied in four different ethnic groups in Colombia (South America: two groups of indians (Kunas and Katios, one of negroes and a group of mixed ancestry. A total of 965 persons were studied, 415 with malaria and 550 as controls. HLA-A,B, and C antigen frequencies in the four groups are reported. The association of each HLA antigen with malaria infection due to P. vivax and to P. falciparum was evaluated. Negroes, Kunas and Katios indians variously lack from 6 to 9 of the HLA antigens found in the mixed group. In the designated ethnic groups, antigens B5, B13, B15, Cw2 and Cw4 showed borderline association with malaria infection. However, in the mixed ethnic group, statistically significant associations were found with malaria infection and the presence of A9, Aw19, B17, B35, and Z98 (a B21-B45: crossreacting determinant with few differences when P. vivax infection and P. falciparum infection were considered individually. This finding may represent a lack of general resistance to malaria in the group that harbors antigens of Caucasian origin. These individuals have been in direct and permanent contact with malaria only in the past 65 years. In contrast, indians, both Kunas and Katios, and Negroes have lived for centuries in malaria endemic areas, and it is possible that a natural selection system has developed through which only those individuals able to initiate an acute immune response to malaria have survived.
Facetti-Masulli, J.F.; Romero de Gonzalez, V.; Zulma de Diaz; Kump, P.
Artefacts of pottery belonging to the Guarani ethnic group were investigated by XRF techniques. The Tupi-Guarani, is one of the three main representatives of the Neolithic culture in the Amazonian scope. Such an ethnic group dispersed towards the South; in the Paraguayan area between the Paraguay and the Parana Rivers several Guarani ethnic movements by both rivers and their tributaries are perceived. The lithology and ceramics typology have contributed to support that perception. The archaeological findings help to clarify prehistoric cultural aspects and dispersal areas. In that context, the knowledge of the chemical composition of the found ceramic devices, in particular of the rare earth elements (REE) and other refractory ones provide information on this dispersion and its expansion. Selected trace elements (Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, and Nd) were determined in samples from thirteen archaeological sites with XRF using an Am-241 source. Their spidergrams have allowed identifying four different sets of samples according to their areas of provenance. (author)
Ritchwood, Tiarney D; Ebesutani, Chad K; Chin, Eu Gene; Young, John
A state of loneliness describes an individual's perception of having dissatisfying social connections to others. Though it is notable across the life span, it may have particularly deleterious effects in childhood and adolescence, leading to increased risk of emotional impairment. The current study evaluates a widely used test of loneliness, the Loneliness Questionnaire, for measurement invariance across ethnic groups in a large, representative sample of youth in the 2nd to 12th grades ( N = 12,344; 41% African American) in Mississippi. Analyses were conducted using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis following a published, sequential method to examine invariance in form, factor loadings, and item intercepts. Overall, our results indicated that the instrument was invariant across ethnicities, suggesting that youth with equivalent manifest scores can be discerned as having comparable levels of latent loneliness. The loneliness scores also corresponded significantly with depression and anxiety scores for most subsamples, with one exception. These findings are discussed in the context of previous results comparing levels of loneliness across ethnicities. Additionally, the broader context of the need to expand invariance studies in instrumentation work is highlighted.
Li, Qin; Han, Sha-Sha; Guo, Zhong-Hui; Yang, Ying; Zhou, Jie; Zhu, Zi-Yan
This work aims to explain the complexity of the Knops blood group system in the Chinese population. The Knops blood group system consists of antigens encoded by CR1 gene exon 29. A total of 281 individuals from the Han, Uigur, Tu, Lisu and Dong ethnic groups were studied. The coding region of the CR1 gene of 11 Han donors was analysed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing. CR1 gene exon 29 in the 39 samples was analysed through genomic DNA sequencing. According to the sequencing result, a PCR-sequence-specific primers system was designed to screen the A4646G and A4870G alleles in the Chinese population. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were observed in the coding region of the CR1 gene in the Han population. Two SNPs (A4646G and A4870G) were detected in the CR1 gene exon 29. The 4646G allele was found only in the Uigur and Tu ethnic groups, in which the allele frequencies were 0·11 and 0·06, respectively. The frequencies of the 4870A allele in the Han, Uigur, Tu, Lisu and Dong ethnic groups were 0·82, 0·83, 0·82, 0·57 and 0·57, respectively. The CR1 gene in the Chinese people is more conservative than that in the Caucasian or African people. Different Chinese ethnic groups may have their own different CR1 gene characteristics. The existence of 4646G in the Uigur and Tu ethnic groups suggests that both may carry certain Caucasian characteristics in the CR1 gene. The frequency of 4870G in the Lisu and Dong ethnic groups implies possible incidence of evolutionary pressure similar to what the Africans had experienced. © 2010 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2010 British Blood Transfusion Society.
Using the CBS-micro survey, ethnic and gender wage differentials in the Netherlands are examined between native Dutch labourers and 7 ethnic minority groups that are highly differentiated in their human capital endowment and immigration history. Estimations indicate that wage discrimination occurs mainly on the basis of their ethnic background rather than gender. Moroccans suffer the largest wage gap due to discrimination. This result is likely an indication of employer’s response on...
Full Text Available The following article deals with the current situation of the Sorbs – a Slavic ethnic group leaving in Lusatia, which is a region belonging to former East Germany. The development of this ethnic group – starting from the end of the 19th Century and considering both Nazi times and former East Germany situation – will be shown. The article discusses on the one hand the attempts to maintain the Sorbian language, among others due to the activities of the Language Centre WITAJ, and on the other hand it stresses the consequences of the brown coal mining in the region of Lusatia. In addition, the attitudeof German natives towards the Sorbs is analysed. On basis of the own research conducted by the author in the year 2010 near the Sorbian town Slepo (ger. Schleife, dilemmas of the local people, who feel dependent on energy concern Vattenfall, are shown. Although the concern guarantees work places, it also jeopardizes the existence of local people’s houses and the cultivation of the Sorbian tradition. The coal mines destroy the natural and social environment. More and more villages are demolished and social networks are being broken by people’s displacements. The current situation makes the Sorbs even more cautious about their own culture and motivates them to fight for their cultural survival.
Veldhuizen, Eleonore M; Musterd, Sako; Dijkshoorn, Henriëtte; Kunst, Anton E
Studies on the association between health and neighborhood ethnic composition yielded inconsistent results, possibly due to methodological limitations. We assessed these associations at different spatial scales and for different measures of ethnic composition. We obtained health survey data of 4673 respondents of Dutch, Surinamese, Moroccan, Turkish other non-Western and other Western origin. Neighborhood ethnic composition was measured for buffers varying from 50-1000 m. Associations with self-rated health were measured using logistic multilevel regression analysis, with control for socioeconomic position at the individual and area level. Overall ethnic heterogeneity was not related to health for any ethnic group. The presence of other Surinamese was associated with poor self-rated health among Surinamese respondents. The presence of Moroccans or Turks was associated with poor health among some groups. The presence of Dutch was associated with better self-rated health among Surinamese and Turks. In most cases, these associations were stronger at lower spatial scales. We found no other associations. In Amsterdam, self-rated health was not associated with ethnic heterogeneity in general, but may be related to the presence of specific ethnic groups. Policies regarding social and ethnic mixing should pay special attention to the co-residence of groups with problematic interrelations.
Visser, Marlies J.; Ikram, Umar Z.; Derks, Eske M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Kunst, Anton E.
We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of
This thesis examines the lives of two ethnicities in Kyrgyzstan, their history of evolvement, territorial conditions and possibilities for inter-ethnic conflicts with the Kyrgyz majority, from the perspective of living within ethnic boundaries. For the comparative analysis I have chosen two minority groups: Kurds and Dungans. My main reason for choosing these ethnic groups in particular is their tendency to create ethnic boundary space and their involvements in inter-ethnic conflicts. (It is ...
Full Text Available Starting from the notion that making individuals in-teract across ethnic lines seems to be a major difficulty (Amir,1976, this comparative field study offers two explanations for the differences in inter-ethnic contacts among German, Turkish and Aussiedler (Resettler adolescents. One assumption is based on Social Identity Theory research with its central proposition that in group affiliation is likely to trigger out-group rejection. Thus in group favouritism is expected to decrease the frequency of inter-ethnic encounters. The other assumption is built on acculturation research and argues that certain dispositions towards acculturation facilitate or inhibit inter-ethnic contacts considerably. A preference for interaction is supposed to function as a facilitating factor where as assimilation is likely to prevent inter-ethnic encounters.On the whole the findings of this field study corroborate the assumptionsfor in-group favouritism and acculturation preferences.Further, young men tend more often to approve of in-group favouritism which prohibits inter-ethnic contact, while in contrast, young women more often agree with notions of dissimilation orinteraction which facilitate encounters with out-group members.Finally, subgroup analyses point to the importance of religious affiliation sand their consequences for inter-ethnic contacts under certain conditions.
Two vignette studies were conducted in which preadolescent children (Study 1: N=542; Study 2: N=137; aged 8-13years) evaluated the exclusion, for unknown reasons, of an immigrant minority child by a native majority peer (majority interethnic exclusion). Study 1 compared children's evaluations of majority interethnic exclusion with their evaluations of (majority and minority) intraethnic exclusion and minority interethnic exclusion, and Study 2 examined children's underlying explanations. Each study compared ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents and examined the role of in-group bias for the former. Overall, both ethnic majority and ethnic minority respondents regarded majority interethnic exclusion more negatively than the other exclusion types (majority intraethnic, minority interethnic, and minority intraethnic). All children, but especially older minority respondents, were more likely to reject majority interethnic exclusion if they perceived it to be discriminatory (ethnicity based). Among the majority children, a strong in-group bias was associated with a weaker condemnation of majority interethnic exclusion, but this was not due to a larger tolerance of ethnicity-based discrimination. Biased majority children were also less likely to reject minority intraethnic exclusion, indicating an overall weaker concern for out-group victims. Taken together, the studies show that children are relatively negative about majority (prototypical) interethnic exclusion because it implies the possibility of ethnic discrimination, and they concur with previous evidence for a developmental increase in the awareness of discrimination in ethnic minority youths. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Tropp, Linda R; Hawi, Diala R; Van Laar, Colette; Levin, Shana
This research examines cross-ethnic friendships as a predictor of perceived discrimination and support for ethnic activism over time among African American, Latino American, and Asian American undergraduate participants from a multi-year, longitudinal study conducted in the United States. Our research builds on prior cross-sectional research by testing effects longitudinally and examining how relationships among these variables may differ across ethnic minority groups. Results indicate that, over time, greater friendships with Whites predict both lower perceptions of discrimination and less support for ethnic activism among African Americans and Latino Americans, but not among Asian Americans. Implications of these findings for future research on inter-group contact, minority-majority relations, and ethnic group differences in status are discussed. © 2012 The British Psychological Society.
Simonenkova Irina Petrovna
Main staff players differ from bench players in their perceptions and demonstrate different responses. This research compares the situation of bench players with the situation of starters in high league Latvian football teams.
Singapore is a multi-ethnic nation-state with the following ethnic groups: Chinese (76.8%), Malay (13.9%), Indian (7.9%), and Others (1.4%) such as Eurasians, Europeans, Arabs, Jews, and Japanese. A bilingual policy, which takes English as a lingua franca and Mandarin, Malay, and Tamil as mother tongue for each ethnic group, reflects this…
Nielsen, Annemette; Krasnik, Allan; Holm, Lotte
This study explores concerns and dilemmas connected with diet, health and child-feeding in families with ethnic minority background. The aim is to contribute to better targeting of dietary advice to ethnic minority parents in Denmark. Four focus group interviews were carried out with mothers of children between 4 months and 2 and a half years who were descendants of Turkish or Pakistani immigrants. The focus groups investigated: (1) everyday feeding practices; (2) values and concerns behind food choice; (3) social and cultural norms influencing feeding and eating practices; (4) experienced dilemmas in dietary change; and (5) sources of nutritional advice. Public health authorities in Denmark tend to link diet-related health problems among ethnic minority populations with their ethnic identity, dichotomising ethnic and Danish dietary habits. This may overlook values and concerns other than those related to ethnicity that are sometimes more important in determining food habits. The present study found that child-feeding practices were shaped by two main aims: (1) securing and improving child health; and (2) ensuring multi-cultural eating competence in children. The results confirm that ethnic distinctions do matter in the concerns and dilemmas mothers experience when feeding their children, but they also challenge the health authorities' reliance on dichotomies in promoting health among immigrant families. The participants' ethnic self-identification through food practices did not refer primarily to the birthplaces of their parents. Rather, it was context dependent and directed simultaneously towards majority and minority culture. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
The research findings revealed that the actors for advocacy policy in basic education for ethnic groups consist of: 1 the primary education service area, 2 community, 3 NGOs, 4 scholars, and 5 schools. This study indicated that the provision of basic education policy for ethnic groups must consist of knowledge from communities such as ethnic life styles integrated in the curriculum, and a special education mechanism and process for Thai ethnic groups, including facilitation of ethnic group participation in the abovementioned actors by various means.
Ibrahim, Rose Irnawaty; Siri, Zailan
The number of people surviving until old age has been increasing worldwide. Reduction in fertility and mortality have resulted in increasing survival of populations to later life. This study examines the mortality trends among the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia, namely; the Malays, Chinese and Indians for four important age groups (adolescents, adults, middle age and elderly) for both gender. Since the data on mortality rates in Malaysia is only available in age groups such as 1-5, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19 and so on, hence some distribution or interpolation method was essential to expand it to the individual ages. In the study, the Heligman and Pollard model will be used to expand the mortality rates from the age groups to the individual ages. It was found that decreasing trend in all age groups and ethnic groups. Female mortality is significantly lower than male mortality, and the difference may be increasing. Also the mortality rates for females are different than that for males in all ethnic groups, and the difference is generally increasing until it reaches its peak at the oldest age category. Due to the decreasing trend of mortality rates, the government needs to plan for health program to support more elderly people in the coming years.
Lee, Richard M.
This study investigated the resilience of 84 Korean American college students in the context of perceived ethnic discrimination. Two cultural resources, multidimensional ethnic identity and other-group orientation, were hypothesized as protective factors that moderate the negative effects of discrimination. Only 1 aspect of ethnic identity was…
Much has been discussed and written about ethnicity. This paper is therefore intended as a contribution to the management of interethnic/intercultural conflicts in Nigeria, with a focus on new ways of handling the basic socio-cultural institutions shaping ethnic consciousness. Furthermore, this paper highlights the basic ...
Background: There are differences in the distribution of ABO, sub group A BO and Rh(D) blood groups in different populations of the world. Relatively little information is available about blood group distributions in Sudanese population. To see the frequency of ABO, subgroup ABO and Rh(D) blood groups in major Sudanese ethnic groups(Danagla Shaygia and Gaaleen). Blood testing for ABO, subgroup ABO and Rh(D) typing was done over six months, in 300 unrelated individuals, from both genders. Blood samples were collected from students of the college of medical laboratory science - Sudan University of Science and Technology using finger prick method and following routine slide method. Blood group 'O' was the most predominant ( 52.7%) in both Rh positive and negative subjects followed by blood group A, B and AB. Majority (98.0%)o f the subjects were Rh(D) positive and only 2% were Rh negative. The predominant subgroup of ABO was A2 (14.1% ). The frequency of ABO blood groups in both Rh positive and negative subjects among the major Sudanese ethnic group was similar to that reported from neighbouring regions. (author)
Charles, Shana Alex; Ponce, Ninez; Ritley, Dominique; Guendelman, Sylvia; Kempster, Jennifer; Lewis, John; Melnikow, Joy
Addressing racial/ethnic group disparities in health insurance benefits through legislative mandates requires attention to the different proportions of racial/ethnic groups among insurance markets. This necessary baseline data, however, has proven difficult to measure. We applied racial/ethnic data from the 2009 California Health Interview Survey to the 2012 California Health Benefits Review Program Cost and Coverage Model to determine the racial/ethnic composition of ten health insurance market segments. We found disproportional representation of racial/ethnic groups by segment, thus affecting the health insurance impacts of benefit mandates. California's Medicaid program is disproportionately Latino (60 % in Medi-Cal, compared to 39 % for the entire population), and the individual insurance market is disproportionately non-Latino white. Gender differences also exist. Mandates could unintentionally increase insurance coverage racial/ethnic disparities. Policymakers should consider the distribution of existing racial/ethnic disparities as criteria for legislative action on benefit mandates across health insurance markets.
Deutekom, M.; van Rijn, A. F.; Dekker, E.; Blaauwgeers, H.; Stronks, K.; Fockens, P.; Essink-Bot, M.-L.
We investigated the participation rates in CRC screening with a FOBT among various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Individuals (n = 10 054) were invited by mail and grouped by country of birth. Overall participation rate was 49%. Participation among ethnic minority groups was significantly lower
Leong, Kai'En; Weiland, Tracey J; Dent, Andrew W
To explore and compare beliefs about healthcare and treatment of four ethnic groups attending a Melbourne emergency department (ED), and the corresponding perceptions held by emergency clinicians. Prospective survey of ED doctors and patients from Greek, Italian, Vietnamese and Anglo-Saxon backgrounds. Vietnamese patients were least likely to believe their ethnic group received the best available care but less likely to believe in the existence of ethnic healthcare disparities. They were most likely to have an ethnically concordant GP and preferred most strongly to raise sensitive issues with an ethnically concordant doctor. Anglo-Saxon patients placed less importance on family support and older Anglo-Saxons were less likely than other groups to turn to God for comfort. Doctors perceived the existence of ethnic healthcare disparity, which was not perceived by the ethnic groups themselves. They underestimated the extent of patient-perceived disease control, external supports for coping, or use of complementary practitioners. Doctors overestimated patient perceived importance of doctor-patient ethnic concordance for Anglo-Saxons but underestimated the importance this has for Vietnamese patients. They also underestimated importance of clinician-demonstrated cultural understanding. Beliefs about healthcare and treatment differ across the four major ethnic groups attending a Melbourne ED. Doctors' misperceptions of patients' beliefs suggest that cultural competence amongst ED doctors could be improved.
Kosica, Ankica; Phalet, Karen
People usually perceive immigrants from different national origins as similar to each other, and thus as belonging to a limited number of ethnic out-groups [Sporer, S. L. (2001a). Recognizing faces of other ethnic groups: An integration of theories. Psychology, Public and Law, 7, 36–97, Sporer, S.
Henderson, Joseph Neil
Although data indicate that Alzheimer's disease occurs among all racial and ethnic populations, the Alzheimer's disease support group system is used nationally primarily by white, middle-class caregivers. Developing a model ethnic-specific support group for Hispanics requires delineation of formal and informal health care networks in the ethnic…
This study aims to evaluate the diversity of sacred species and totemic species according to the different ethnic groups of Burkina Faso and to determine the influence of these taboos on the conservation of biodiversity. A sample of 2503 people from 32 ethnic groups were investigated in 330 villages based on the liveliness ...
Rahavard, Behnoosh B; Candido, Kenneth D; Knezevic, Nebojsa Nick
Our goal in this study was to review the similarities and differences among ethnic groups and their respective responses to acute and chronic clinically related and experimentally induced pain. In this review, the PUBMED and Google-Scholar databases were searched to analyze articles that have assessed the variations in both acute and chronic pain responses among different ethnic/racial groups. According to the results from 42 reviewed articles, significant differences exist among ethnic-racial groups for pain prevalence as well as responses to acute and chronic pain. Compared with Caucasians, other ethnic groups are more susceptible to acute pain responses to nociceptive stimulation and to the development of long-term chronic pain. These differences need to be addressed and assessed more extensively in the future in order to minimize the pain management disparities among various ethnic-racial groups and also to improve the relationship between pain management providers and their patients.
Rabold, Susann; Baier, Dirk
Ethnic differences in violent behavior can be found in official crime statistics, as well as in surveys on juvenile delinquency. To explain these differences, research mainly focuses on factors like parental violence, violence legitimizing norms of masculinity, or socio-economic status. Little research has examined the role of friendship network's…
Dewi, Z.L.; Halim, M.S.; Derksen, J.J.L.
This study attempts to provide a portrayal of emotional intelligence (EI) of the Indonesians, one of the fourth most populous countries and multiethnic societies in the world, specifically across the 404 Bataks, 430 Minangkabau, and 479 Javanese ethnics. The result indicated that the Indonesian
The present study was an assessment of attitudes of 410 ethnically Dutch adolescents toward three ethnic minority groups living in the Netherlands. Stereotypes, symbolic beliefs, affective associations, and the evaluation of possible interactions were used to predict the global evaluation of ethnic outgroups and accounted for much of the variance in ethnic attitudes. The relative importance of the four predictors varied by target group and location. Gender differences were found in the structure of attitudes; symbolic beliefs played a greater role in the attitudes of boys, whereas emotions played a more central role in the attitudes of girls. The evaluation of Dutch identity was related to the favorability of ethnic attitudes and also to the underlying structure. Respondents with a positive national identity had less favorable ethnic attitudes, and emotions were more predictive of their attitudes, whereas symbolic beliefs were most predictive among respondents with a less positive national identity.
Mallett, Rosemarie; Leff, Julian; Bhugra, Dinesh; Takei, Nori; Corridan, Bryan
The need to achieve is common to all societies, and failure to do so may have a highly detrimental psychological impact. For those on the margins of mainstream society, especially migrants or descendants of migrants, the impact of failed or poor achievements may increase their vulnerability to mental illness. In a prospective study of schizophrenia in three ethnic groups (White, Indian and African-Caribbean) we studied the impact of goal striving and investigated whether the gap between the poor achievement and the high aspirations of members of some minority ethnic groups was potentially a factor contributing to the development of the illness. The patients and age- and sex-matched controls from their respective communities were asked to rate their perceived current levels of achievement and their past and future expectations in five domains--social standing, housing, education, employment and financial status on a 10-point scale. The control subjects from the three ethnic groups scored similarly in most areas, supporting the validity of inter-ethnic comparisons. The gap between achievement and expectations did not appear to cause high disappointment levels in any group, and in fact only in the domain of housing did the African-Caribbean patients assess their current achievement as being significantly lower than that of their matched controls. Poor housing conditions may be one of the risk factors contributing to the high incidence of schizophrenia in African-Caribbeans.
Full Text Available The human gut microbiota consists of complex microbial communities, which possibly play crucial roles in physiological functioning and health maintenance. China has evolved into a multicultural society consisting of the major ethnic group, Han, and 55 official ethnic minority groups. Nowadays, these minority groups inhabit in different Chinese provinces and some of them still keep their unique culture and lifestyle. Currently, only limited data are available on the gut microbiota of these Chinese ethnic groups. In this study, 10 major fecal bacterial groups of 314 healthy individuals from 7 Chinese ethnic origins were enumerated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our data confirmed that the selected bacterial groups were common to all 7 surveyed ethnicities, but the amount of the individual bacterial groups varied to different degree. By principal component and canonical variate analyses of the 314 individuals or the 91 Han subjects, no distinct group clustering pattern was observed. Nevertheless, weak differences were noted between the Han and Zhuang from other ethnic minority groups, and between the Heilongjiang Hans from those of the other provinces. Thus, our results suggest that the ethnic origin may contribute to shaping the human gut microbiota.
Sabina, Chiara; Cuevas, Carlos A; Schally, Jennifer L
Interpersonal violence research on Latinos has largely ignored the ethnic group variations that are included under the pan-ethnic term Latino. The current study adds to the literature by utilizing a national sample of Latino women to examine the interpersonal victimization experiences and help-seeking responses to victimization by ethnic group. The sample was drawn from the Sexual Assault Among Latinas Study (SALAS; Cuevas & Sabina, 2010) that surveyed 2,000 self-identified adult Latino women. For the purpose of this study, victimization in the United States was examined among Mexican ethnics (73.3% of sample), Cuban ethnics (14%), and other ethnics (12.8%). Mexican ethnicity was found to be significantly associated with increased odds of experiencing any, physical, sexual, threat, and stalking victimization. Findings also show that higher levels of Latino orientation and being an immigrant were associated with decreased odds of experiencing any victimization, whereas Anglo orientation, as measured by the Brief ARSMA-II (Cuéllar, Arnold, & Maldonado, 1995), was associated with greater odds of experiencing any victimization. Anglo orientation was significantly associated with formal help seeking. Taken as a whole, these findings emphasize the importance of bilingual and culturally competent services and also reveal that culturally competent services includes developing an understanding of the cultural differences between Latino ethnic groups. Specifically, service providers should be aware that Latinos of Mexican ethnicity may face unique risks for victimization. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Mihaela Luminiţa Sandu
Full Text Available The Romanian people, especially ethnic belonging of the people was one of the people subject to the proletarian dictatorship, which has claimed over a long period study in this area. In the last decade we are witnessing a revival of studies on ethnic groups in Romania. This is due not only progress and the spread of democracy, encouraging linguistic, but also some deeper theoretical perspectives on diversity of ethnicity seen as opposed unification that could bring world economic globalization and scientific and technological. Ethnic groups, social organizations with specific characteristics becomes more pronounced as, the strongest influence their component elements (organizations and institutions and through their people. Differences between ethnic groups become noticeable if we refer to the organization and functioning of families in urban and rural communities, ways to produce goods or ways to spend your free time. The difference of the ethnic groups, however, does not stop here. They are obvious and if it investigates the ways in which group members analyze and interpret them. By how they are managing their own ethnic groups, rules of internal organization, the statuses and roles of men, the ways in which they are sanctioned adverse behaviors and encourage behaviors that may be favorable, the illustrations and pictures about them, they generate especially the people involved in their operation, ethnic organizations causes people to act as their members, maintain self-awareness and ethnic groups to preserve. Currently in Romania live, learn and work together membership of several ethnicities such as Romanian, Hungarian, Saxon, Székely, Bulgarians, Armenians, Russians, Turks, Tatars, Roma, Macedo and so on, each with its own cultural particularities, characteristics known little or unknown to others.
Morales-Chicas, Jessica; Graham, Sandra
This study examined the association between change in ethnic group representation from elementary to middle school and Latino students' school belonging and achievement. The ethnic diversity of students' middle school was examined as a moderator. Participants were 1,825 Latino sixth graders from 26 ethnically diverse urban middle schools. Hierarchical regression analyses showed that a change in ethnic representation toward fewer Latinos in middle school than elementary school was related to less perceived belonging and lower achievement in schools with low ethnic diversity. There were no mean differences as a function of declining representation in more diverse middle schools, suggesting that greater school diversity was protective. Findings highlight the importance of examining school ethnic context, especially across the middle school transition. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Research on Adolescence © 2016 Society for Research on Adolescence.
Mowbray, Orion; Campbell, Rosalyn Denise; Kim, Irang; Scott, Jessica A
Research on racial/ethnic differences in quitting mental health services has yet to examine the multiple forms of services offered and reasons why racial/ethnic groups quit. Data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES) examined whether race/ethnicity was related to quitting nine types of mental health services within a multivariate framework, and whether any racial/ethnic differences emerged among 16 assessed reasons for quitting mental health services (N = 437). Odds of quitting mental health services provided by social workers, non-medical health professionals, counselors, psychiatrists, and psychologists varied significantly by race/ethnicity. The most common reasons for quitting services included individuals wanting to handle the problem on their own, getting better, or not needing help anymore. The increased likelihood of quitting services represents an underexplored area for mental health service disparities and calls for improved efforts to retain racial and ethnic minorities in the mental health system.
Rockliffe, Lauren; Waller, Jo; Marlow, Laura A V; Forster, Alice S
Research suggests that girls from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination than white British girls; however, the specific ethnic minority groups that have lower uptake have not been identified. This study aimed to examine the relationship between school-level uptake and ethnicity as well as uptake and other ethnicity-related factors, to understand which specific groups are less likely to receive the vaccination. Aggregated uptake rates from 195 schools were obtained for each of the three recommended vaccine doses from 2008 to 2010. Census data at the lower super output area (LSOA) level for the postcode of each school were also obtained, describing the ethnic breakdown of the resident population (ethnicity, language spoken, religion, proficiency in English and duration of residency in the UK). These were used as proxy measures of the ethnic make-up of the schools. The most prevalent non-majority group for each ethnicity and ethnicity-related factor was assigned to each school. Analyses explored differences in uptake by ethnicity and ethnicity-related factors. No significant differences in vaccination uptake were found by ethnicity or ethnicity-related factors, although descriptive differences were apparent. Schools in areas where black ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently low rates of uptake for all doses. Schools in areas where some Asian ethnicities were the most prevalent non-white British ethnicities had consistently high rates of uptake for all doses. There was evidence of variability in mean uptake rates for ethnicities within 'black' and 'Asian' ethnic groups. Future research would benefit from focusing on specific ethnicities rather than broad ethnic categories. Replication of this study with a larger sample and using complete individual-level data, collected on a national level, would provide a clearer indication of where ethnic differences in HPV vaccination
For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life
For most immigrants and ethnic minority groups, everyday life in the country of settlement raises question of adaptation and belonging. Aside from factors such as lower income, lower education and poorer health, being an ethnic minority member carries additional factors that can lower general life
Tatarko, A. N.
Data of cross-cultural study of social capital of five ethnic groups of Russia (n = 300) is presented. According to proposed psychological point of view trust, social solidarity, civil identity, ethnic tolerance constitute the structure of social capital of polycultural society. The application of
Schuster, John; Beune, Erik; Stronks, Karien
Background. This article examines the various metaphors used by hypertensive patients from different ethnic groups in multi-ethnic and multicultural Netherlands. The choice for the study of metaphors is based on the need of people to use metaphors, analogies and symbols to make sense of and express
Dewi, Fellani Danasra; Gundavarapu, Kalyan C; Cugati, Navaneetha
To find the differences in patient satisfaction related to dental services among three ethnic groups - Chinese, Indian and Malay - at AIMST University Dental Centre and analyse them with an importance-performance grid, identifying the weak and strong points, in order to provide better service. This questionnaire-based study consisted of convenience samples of 174 patients of Chinese, Indian and Malay ethnicity. Importance-performance analysis for 20 attributes were compared using Likert's scale. The data obtained were statistically analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Chinese and Indians both emphasised low performance on the interpersonal relationship attribute in terms of the receptionist's courtesy, whereas the Malay participants were concerned with convenience attributes. All the ethnic groups favoured maintaining existing major attributes towards technical competency, interpersonal relationship and facility factors. This study demonstrated priority differences between the ethnic groups' perception of the quality of dental services, where ethnic Chinese showed the highest gap (measure of dissatisfaction) between importance and performance compared to ethnic Malays, followed by ethnic Indians. The patients from the three major ethnic groups of Malaysia were generally well satisfied. Perhaps more priority should be placed on improving the interpersonal relationship attribute, especially with the receptionists.
Zhang, Suhua; Bian, Yingnan; Li, Li; Sun, Kuan; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Qi; Zha, Lagabaiyila; Cai, Jifeng; Gao, Yuzhen; Ji, Chaoneng; Li, Chengtao
As a multi-ethnic country, China has some indigenous population groups which vary in culture and social customs, perhaps as a result of geographic isolation and different traditions. However, upon close interactions and intermarriage, admixture of different gene pools among these ethnic groups may occur. In order to gain more insight on the genetic background of X-Chromosome from these ethnic groups, a set of X-markers (18 X-STRs and 16 X-Indels) was genotyped in 5 main ethnic groups of China (HAN, HUI, Uygur, Mongolian, Tibetan). Twenty-three private alleles were detected in HAN, Uygur, Tibetan and Mongolian. Significant differences (p population differentiation of HUI and Uygur. However, the HAN, Tibetan and Mongolian ethnic groups were closely clustered. Eighteen X-Indels exhibited in general congruent phylogenetic signal and similar cluster among the 5 ethnic groups compared with 16 X-STRs. Aforementioned results proved the genetic polymorphism and potential of the 34 X-markers in the 5 ethnic groups.
Visser, Marlies J; Ikram, Umar Z; Derks, Eske M; Snijder, Marieke B; Kunst, Anton E
We examined the associations of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with smoking and alcohol consumption in ethnic minority groups residing in a middle-sized European city. Data were derived from the HELIUS study in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. We included 23,126 participants aged 18-70 years of Dutch, South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan origin. We collected self-reported data on PED, current smoking, heavy smoking, nicotine dependence, current drinking, excessive drinking, and alcohol dependence. Logistic regression was used. In general, we observed positive associations in participants of African Surinamese and Ghanaian origin, but no associations in those of South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish, or Moroccan origin. In African Surinamese, the associations were positive for current smoking, nicotine, and alcohol dependence (odds ratios of 1.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.27, 1.34; 1.15-1.57 and 1.40; 1.20-1.64, respectively). In Ghanaians, positive association was observed for current drinking (1.21; 1.08-1.36). The associations of PED with smoking and alcohol consumption considerably varied by ethnicity and outcome measure. This suggests that ethnic minority groups in Europe might use different behavioural strategies to cope with PED.
Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies. PMID:21995750
religious scripts in Buddhist monasteries. Three plant species (Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. Conclusion The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.
Namsa, Nima D; Mandal, Manabendra; Tangjang, Sumpam; Mandal, Subhash C
(Derris scandens, Aesculus assamica, and Polygonum hydropiper) were frequently used to poison fish during the month of June-July every year and the underground tuber of Aconitum ferrox is widely used in arrow poisoning to kill ferocious animals like bear, wild pigs, gaur and deer. The most frequently cited plant species; Buddleja asiatica and Hedyotis scandens were used as common growth supplements during the preparation of fermentation starter cultures. The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Monpa ethnic group incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions without any written document. This traditional knowledge is however, currently threatened mainly due to acculturation and deforestation due to continuing traditional shifting cultivation. This study reveals that the rural populations in Arunachal Pradesh have a rich knowledge of forest-based natural resources and consumption of wild edible plants is still an integral part of their socio-cultural life. Findings of this documentation study can be used as an ethnopharmacological basis for selecting plants for future phytochemical and pharmaceutical studies.
Castro, Yessenia; Kendzor, Darla E; Businelle, Michael S; Mazas, Carlos A; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Cinciripini, Paul M; Wetter, David W
The Wisconsin Smoking Withdrawal Scale (WSWS) is a valid and reliable scale among non-Latino Whites but has not been validated for use among other racial/ethnic groups despite increasing use with these populations. The current study examined the structural invariance and predictive equivalency of the WSWS across three racial/ethnic groups. The WSWS scores of 424 African American, Latino, and White smokers receiving smoking cessation treatment were analyzed in a series of factor analyses and multiple-group analyses. Additionally, hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine whether WSWS scores differentially predicted smoking relapse across racial/ethnic groups. These analyses were consistent with a step-down hierarchical regression procedure for examination of test bias. The 7-factor structure of the WSWS was largely confirmed in the current study, with the exception of the removal of two offending items. Evidence of full invariance across race/ethnicity was found in multiple-group analyses. The WSWS total score and subscales measuring anger, anxiety, concentration, and sadness predicted relapse, whereas the hunger, craving, and sleep subscales did not. None of these scales displayed differential predictive ability across race/ethnicity. The WSWS sleep subscale showed a significant interaction with race/ethnicity such that it was a significant predictor of relapse among Whites but not African Americans or Latinos. Overall, the WSWS is similar in structure and predictive of relapse across racial/ethnic groups. Caution should be exercised when using the WSWS sleep subscale with African Americans and Latinos.
Johnson, Kimberly J; Lee, S Hannah
The present study investigated how volunteering was influenced by individual resources and social capital among four racial/ethnic groups of adults aged 50 and older. The data came from the California Health Interview Survey, a statewide sample that includes non-Hispanic Whites ( n = 18,927), non-Hispanic Asians ( n = 2,428), non-Hispanic Blacks ( n = 1,265), and Hispanics ( n = 3,799). Logistic regression models of volunteering were estimated to explore the effects of human and social capital within and across the racial/ethnic groups. Compared to Whites, racial/ethnic minority adults volunteered less. Although education was a significant predictor of volunteering across all groups, the findings indicated group-specific factors related to human and social capital. Results showed similarities and differences associated with volunteer participation among diverse racial/ethnic groups. The findings underscore the importance of understanding ways of creating inclusive opportunities for civic engagement among an increasingly diverse population.
Rosas, Lisa G; Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Emma V; Sánchez, Brisa N
Little is known about body mass index (BMI) patterns by nativity and length of US residence among Asian American ethnic groups. We used linear regression to examine the association of BMI with nativity and length of residence across six ethnic groups (Filipinos, Japanese, Chinese, Koreans, South Asians, and Vietnamese) using data from the California Health Interview Study. There was significant heterogeneity in the nativity/length of residence patterns in unadjusted BMI across ethnic groups (p residence was positively associated with BMI among all groups, though only significant among Filipinos and Koreans. Programs targeting Asian Americans should take into consideration BMI patterns by nativity and US length of residence among diverse Asian American ethnic groups.
This study compares the effects of racial incidents on reported levels of satisfaction with military service across racial/ethnic groups by analyzing responses to the Armed Forces Equal Opportunity Survey (AFEOS...
Pool, Michelle S.; Agyemang, Charles O.; Smalbrugge, Martin
Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative
Chen, Dengkai; Ding, Jingjing; Gao, Minzhuo; Ma, Danping; Liu, Donghui
The use of pan-ethnic-group products form knowledge primarily depends on a designer's subjective experience without user participation. The majority of studies primarily focus on the detection of the perceptual demands of consumers from the target product category. A pan-ethnic-group products form gene clustering method based on emotional semantic is constructed. Consumers' perceptual images of the pan-ethnic-group products are obtained by means of product form gene extraction and coding and computer aided product form clustering technology. A case of form gene clustering about the typical pan-ethnic-group products is investigated which indicates that the method is feasible. This paper opens up a new direction for the future development of product form design which improves the agility of product design process in the era of Industry 4.0.
Singh, J; Gross, M; Sage, B; Davis, H T; Maibach, H I
The effect of saline iontophoresis on skin barrier function and irritation was investigated in four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Hispanics, Blacks and Asians). Forty healthy human volunteers were recruited according to specific entry criteria. Ten subjects, five males and five females, were assigned to each ethnic group. Skin barrier function was examined after 4 hours of saline iontophoresis at a current density of 0.2 mA/cm(2) on a 6.5 cm(2) area in terms of the measured responses: transepidermal water loss (TEWL), skin capacitance, skin temperature and visual scores. There were significant differences in TEWL among the ethnic groups prior to patch application. TEWL at baseline in ethnic groups was in the rank order: Caucasian>Asian>Hispanic>Black. Iontophoresis was generally well tolerated, and skin barrier function was not irreversibly affected by iontophoresis in any group. There was no significant skin temperature change, compared to baseline, in any ethnic groups at any observation point. Edema was not observed. At patch removal, the erythema score was elevated in comparison to baseline in all ethnic groups; erythema resolved within 24 hours. Thus, saline iontophoresis produced reversible changes in skin barrier function and irritation in healthy human subjects.
Lewis, Irene Daniels; McBride, Melen
This article provides some brief demographic data on aging, describes anticipatory grief, and presents two cases of anticipatory grief involving elders in racial/ethnic minority groups with some analysis including cultural values and beliefs and some practical guidelines.Melen McBride and Mycel JacobIrene Daniels and Lillian DavisIrene and Don Lewis The discussion ends with a useful process model for improving communications with elders in racial/ethnic groups and their families.
Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling
We explored the effects of 3 group features (i.e., status, cohesion, and ethnic composition) on socialization processes of aggression in early adolescents' natural peer social groups. Gender differences in these effects were also determined. A total of 245 seventh-grade individuals belonging to 65 peer groups were included in the analyses. All 3…
Pérez-Bravo, F; Albala, C; Santos, J L; Yañez, M; Carrasco, E
Leptin, the product of the human ob gene is increased in obese individuals, suggesting resistance to its effect. We examined the relationship of serum leptin levels with respect to obesity, gender and insulin levels in two populations with different ethnic compositions in Chile. Leptin and insulin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and correlated with body mass index (BMI), gender and ethnic background. 79 Caucasian subjects from Santiago and 65 Mapuche natives from the Araucania region, Chile, were included in this study. Leptin concentrations in obese subjects were significantly increased in both ethnic groups in relation to lean status: Caucasian and Mapuche obese 19.3 +/- 11.6 and 10.1 +/- 5.8 (P Mapuche lean 10.4 +/- 5.8 and 4.7 +/- 2.9 (P Mapuche and Caucasian groups, similar leptin levels were observed among the males of the two populations in both metabolic states (lean and obese). In contrast, the leptin level distributions between women showed a marked difference, having a minor value in the Mapuche women with a comparable value with the male group in this ethnic population. The leptin concentrations are associated with obesity in both ethnic groups in Chile. However, the leptin levels between the Mapuche natives were significantly decreased compared to the Caucasian group. The gender distribution does not seem to be important in the Mapuche natives. The ethnic composition seems to be important in the leptin distribution in the analysed populations.
Leon David A
Full Text Available Abstract Background Inter-ethnic differences have been reported for many mental health outcomes in the UK, but no systematic review on child mental health has been published. The aim of this review is to compare the population-based prevalence of child mental disorders between ethnic groups in Britain, and relate these findings to ethnic differences in mental health service use. Methods A systematic search of bibliographic databases for population-based and clinic-based studies of children aged 0–19, including all ethnic groups and the main child mental disorders. We synthesised findings by comparing each minority group to the White British study sample. Results 31 population-based and 18 clinic-based studies met the inclusion criteria. Children in the main minority groups have similar or better mental health than White British children for common disorders, but may have higher rates for some less common conditions. The causes of these differences are unclear. There may be unmet need for services among Pakistani and Bangladeshi children. Conclusion Inter-ethnic differences exist but are largely unexplained. Future studies should address the challenges of cross-cultural psychiatry and investigate reasons for inter-ethnic differences.
Rahim-Williams, Bridgett; Riley, Joseph L; Williams, Ameenah K K; Fillingim, Roger B
Pain is a subjectively complex and universal experience. We examine research investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain response and factors contributing to group differences. We conducted a systematic literature review and analysis of studies using experimental pain stimuli to assess pain sensitivity across multiple ethnic groups. Our search covered the period from 1944 to 2011, and used the PubMed bibliographic database; a reference source containing over 17 million citations. We calculated effect sizes; identified ethnic/racial group categories, pain stimuli, and measures; and examined findings regarding biopsychosociocultural factors contributing to ethnic/racial group differences. We found 472 studies investigating ethnic group differences and pain. Twenty-six of these met our review inclusion criteria of investigating ethnic group differences in experimental pain. The majority of studies included comparisons between African Americans (AA) and non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). There were consistently moderate to large effect sizes for pain tolerance across multiple stimulus modalities; AA demonstrated lower pain tolerance. For pain threshold, findings were generally in the same direction, but effect sizes were small to moderate across ethnic groups. Limited data were available for suprathreshold pain ratings. A subset of studies comparing NHW and other ethnic groups showed a variable range of effect sizes for pain threshold and tolerance. There are potentially important ethnic/racial group differences in experimental pain perception. Elucidating ethnic group differences has translational merit for culturally competent clinical care and for addressing and reducing pain treatment disparities among ethnically/racially diverse groups. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel
This study examines ethnic and gender differences in exposure to discrimination and its association with depressive symptoms among five immigrant groups. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey of 900 adult immigrants (50.8% men, 49.2% women) sampled from five ethnic immigrant communities in Toronto between April and September 2001. Men reported higher levels of discrimination than women. Ethiopians had the highest perception of discrimination followed by Korean, Iranian, Vietnamese, and Irish immigrants. With regard to discrimination-related depressive symptoms, Iranian and Korean men showed a greater risk than their Irish counterparts. Among women, Vietnamese and Irish seemed to be more vulnerable to discrimination than other ethnic groups. Despite experiencing the highest level of discrimination, Ethiopian men and women showed no association between discrimination and depressive symptoms. The exposure and psychological response to discrimination vary significantly across ethnicities and gender.
Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi
Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia.
Hatin, Wan Isa; Nur-Shafawati, Ab Rajab; Zahri, Mohd-Khairi; Xu, Shuhua; Jin, Li; Tan, Soon-Guan; Rizman-Idid, Mohammed; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi
Patterns of modern human population structure are helpful in understanding the history of human migration and admixture. We conducted a study on genetic structure of the Malay population in Malaysia, using 54,794 genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism genotype data generated in four Malay sub-ethnic groups in peninsular Malaysia (Melayu Kelantan, Melayu Minang, Melayu Jawa and Melayu Bugis). To the best of our knowledge this is the first study conducted on these four Malay sub-ethnic groups and the analysis of genotype data of these four groups were compiled together with 11 other populations' genotype data from Indonesia, China, India, Africa and indigenous populations in Peninsular Malaysia obtained from the Pan-Asian SNP database. The phylogeny of populations showed that all of the four Malay sub-ethnic groups are separated into at least three different clusters. The Melayu Jawa, Melayu Bugis and Melayu Minang have a very close genetic relationship with Indonesian populations indicating a common ancestral history, while the Melayu Kelantan formed a distinct group on the tree indicating that they are genetically different from the other Malay sub-ethnic groups. We have detected genetic structuring among the Malay populations and this could possibly be accounted for by their different historical origins. Our results provide information of the genetic differentiation between these populations and a valuable insight into the origins of the Malay sub-ethnic groups in Peninsular Malaysia. PMID:21483678
Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Agyemang, Charles; Schene, Aart H; Peters, Ron J G; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E
Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. Baseline data were used from the Healthy Life in an Urban Setting study collected in the Netherlands from 2011 to 2014. The population-based sample included South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, Ghanaian, Turkish, and Moroccan participants (aged 18 to 70 years). PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. The metabolic syndrome was determined according to the harmonized definition of the International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association, and others. Logistic regression was used for analysis. population-attributable fraction was used to calculate the contribution of PED. PED was positively associated with the metabolic syndrome in South-Asian Surinamese, African Surinamese, and Moroccan participants (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.13 [0.99-1.30], 1.15 [1.00-1.32], and 1.19 [1.03-1.38], respectively) after adjusting for potential confounders and mediators. No significant association was observed among Ghanaian and Turkish participants. For the individual components, the associations were statistically significant for blood pressure, fasting glucose, and waist circumference among Surinamese participants. PED was associated with dyslipidemia in Moroccan participants. The population-attributable fractions were 5% for South-Asian Surinamese and Moroccan participants, and 7% for African Surinamese participants. We found a positive association of PED with the metabolic syndrome in some ethnic groups, with PED contributing around 5% to 7% to the metabolic syndrome among Surinamese and Moroccans. This suggests that PED might contribute to ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome.
Shariff-Marco, Salma; Breen, Nancy; Landrine, Hope; Reeve, Bryce B; Krieger, Nancy; Gee, Gilbert C; Williams, David R; Mays, Vickie M; Ponce, Ninez A; Alegría, Margarita; Liu, Benmei; Willis, Gordon; Johnson, Timothy P
While it is clear that self-reported racial/ethnic discrimination is related to illness, there are challenges in measuring self-reported discrimination or unfair treatment. In the present study, we evaluate the psychometric properties of a self-reported instrument across racial/ ethnic groups in a population-based sample, and we test and interpret findings from applying two different widely-used approaches to asking about discrimination and unfair treatment. Even though we found that the subset of items we tested tap into a single underlying concept, we also found that different groups are more likely to report on different aspects of discrimination. Whether race is mentioned in the survey question affects both frequency and mean scores of reports of racial/ethnic discrimination. Our findings suggest caution to researchers when comparing studies that have used different approaches to measure racial/ethnic discrimination and allow us to suggest practical empirical guidelines for measuring and analyzing racial/ethnic discrimination. No less important, we have developed a self-reported measure of recent racial/ethnic discrimination that functions well in a range of different racial/ethnic groups and makes it possible to compare how racial/ethnic discrimination is associated with health disparities among multiple racial/ethnic groups.
Gaume, Amber; Prager, Thomas C; Bergmanson, Jan P G; Quintero, Sam; Harden, John; Perrigin, Judith; Piccolo, Marc
The opaque contact lens (OCL) market is profitable and expanding. This pilot study sought to identify OCL color preferences among women of three ethnic groups, African American (A), white (W), and Hispanic Americans (H). Sixty-three brown-eyed female subjects (19 A; 22 W; 22 H), 18 to 35 years of age, with uncorrected near visual accuity of at least 20/50 were recruited. Each subject was presented with OCLs of three different color pattern designs in each of four colors (blue, green, gray, and hazel). The subjects viewed their appearance in a mirror while wearing each lens. Once all lenses had been observed, the subjects chose their lens color preference. Using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, an ethnic preference was shown for all but the gray contact lenses. In group A 47.4% rated the hazel lens as their first choice whereas 0% chose the blue lens. In contrast, 45.5% of group C chose the blue lens over the other colors but did not favor the hazel lens, which was their first choice only 4.5% of the time. Group H demonstrated the most diversity in color preference, however, 36.4% chose green as their overall lenscolor preference. Distinct differences exist in OCL color preferences among the three ethnic groups studied. Improved understanding of this ethnic difference could increase the efficiency of the trial lens process while possibly decreasing inventory costs when one ethnic group dominates a practice patient base.
Schmengler, Heiko; Ikram, Umar Z; Snijder, Marieke B; Kunst, Anton E; Agyemang, Charles
Discrimination is associated with obesity, but this may differ according to the type of obesity and ethnic group. This study examines the association of perceived ethnic discrimination (PED) with general and abdominal obesity in 5 ethnic minority groups. We used cross-sectional data from the HELIUS study, collected from 2011 to 2015. The study sample included 2297 Ghanaians, 4110 African Surinamese, 3021 South-Asian Surinamese, 3562 Turks and 3868 Moroccans aged 18-70 years residing in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Body mass index (BMI) was used as a measure for general obesity, and waist circumference (WC) for abdominal obesity. PED was measured using the Everyday Discrimination Scale. We used linear regression models adjusted for sociodemographics, psychosocial stressors and health behaviours. In additional analysis, we used standardised variables to compare the strength of the associations. In adjusted models, PED was significantly, positively associated with BMI in the South-Asian Surinamese (β coefficient 0.338; 95% CI 0.106 to 0.570), African Surinamese (0.394; 0.171 to 0.618) and Turks (0.269; 0.027 to 0.510). For WC, a similar pattern was seen: positive associations in the South-Asian Surinamese (0.759; 0.166 to 1.353), African Surinamese (0.833; 0.278 to 1.388) and Turks (0.870; 0.299 to 1.440). When stratified by sex, we found positive associations in Surinamese women, Turkish men and Moroccan men. The strength of the associations with BMI and WC was comparable in the groups. Among the Ghanaians, no significant associations were observed. Ethnic and sex variations are observed in the association of PED with both general and abdominal obesity. Further research on psychosocial buffers and underlying biological mechanisms might help in understanding these variations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Fagan, Pebbles; Moolchan, Eric T; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe'aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A; Trinidad, Dennis R; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S
We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18-35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3' hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social-environmental stressors. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification.
Moolchan, Eric T.; Pokhrel, Pallav; Herzog, Thaddeus; Cassel, Kevin D.; Pagano, Ian; Franke, Adrian A.; Kaholokula, Joseph Keawe’aimoku; Sy, Angela; Alexander, Linda A.; Trinidad, Dennis R.; Sakuma, Kari-Lyn; Johnson, C. Anderson; Antonio, Alyssa; Jorgensen, Dorothy; Lynch, Tania; Kawamoto, Crissy; Clanton, Mark S.
Objectives. We examined biomarkers of tobacco smoke exposure among Native Hawaiians, Filipinos, and Whites, groups that have different lung cancer risk. Methods. We collected survey data and height, weight, saliva, and carbon monoxide (CO) levels from a sample of daily smokers aged 18–35 (n = 179). Mean measures of nicotine, cotinine, cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, trans 3′ hydroxycotinine, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), and expired CO were compared among racial/ethnic groups. Results. The geometric means for cotinine, the cotinine/cigarettes per day ratio, and CO did not significantly differ among racial/ethnic groups in the adjusted models. After adjusting for gender, body mass index, menthol smoking, Hispanic ethnicity, and number of cigarettes smoked per day, the NMR was significantly higher among Whites than among Native Hawaiians and Filipinos (NMR = 0.33, 0.20, 0.19, P ≤ .001). The NMR increased with increasing White parental ancestry. The NMR was not significantly correlated with social–environmental stressors. Conclusions. Racial/ethnic groups with higher rates of lung cancer had slower nicotine metabolism than Whites. The complex relationship between lung cancer risk and nicotine metabolism among racial/ethnic groups needs further clarification. PMID:25880962
Sharma, Sangita; Wilkens, Lynne R; Shen, Lucy; Kolonel, Laurence N
Data are limited on how dietary sources of energy and nutrient intakes differ among ethnic groups in the USA. The objective of the present study was to characterise dietary sources of energy, total fat, saturated fat, protein, dietary fibre and added sugar for five ethnic groups. A validated quantitative FFQ was used to collect dietary data from 186,916 men and women aged 45-75 years who were living in Hawaii and Los Angeles between 1993 and 1996. Participants represented five ethnic groups: African-American; Japanese-American; Native Hawaiian; Latino; Caucasian. The top ten dietary sources of energy contributed 36·2-49·6% to total energy consumption, with rice and bread contributing the most (11·4-27·8%) across all ethnic-sex groups. Major dietary sources of total fat were chicken/turkey dishes and butter among most groups. Ice cream, ice milk or frozen yogurt contributed 4·6-6·2% to saturated fat intake across all ethnic-sex groups, except Latino-Mexico women. Chicken/turkey and bread were among the top dietary sources of protein (13·9-19·4%). The top two sources of dietary fibre were bread and cereals (18·1-22%) among all groups, except Latino-Mexico men. Regular sodas contributed the most to added sugar consumption. The present study provides, for the first time, data on the major dietary sources of energy, fat, saturated fat, protein, fibre and added sugar for these five ethnic groups in the USA. Such data are valuable for identifying target foods for nutritional intervention programmes and directing public health strategies aimed at reducing dietary risk factors for chronic disease.
Gladkova A. A.
Full Text Available This article examines the exposure of Russian public to reports about ethnic groups in current mainstream Russian media by analyzing the amount of such reports today, as well as results of an online survey (n = 1040 aimed at revealing to what extent the public is indeed exposed to them by the respondents’ own estimations. The survey showed that generally users tend to lack information about ethnicities in mainstream media and demonstrate a certain interest in learning more about other ethnic groups in Russia through media channels. We argue thus that the public’s exposure to information about ethnic issues, although relatively high on a quantitative level (i.e., in terms of the actual number of reports, is lower on a qualitative one (i.e., the share of the respondents who actually come across such reports. The paper also reveals a number of tendencies from analyzing users’ age groups and their regions of living. In general, we believe that singling out both specifics of the public’s exposure to information about ethnicities and the connection between this exposure and the public’s attitudes toward ethnicities (which is planned as the second stage of the current research project may contribute to better understanding of the effects media can have on their audience in terms of agenda-setting and psychological influence. The current research can also be of interest when discussing the role mass media play in building harmonious relationships between representatives of different ethnic groups in a multiethnic society such as the Russian one.
Full Text Available Sustainable tourism emphasises responsible utilisation of economic, socio-cultural and environmental resources for tourism development. Extant literature in sustainable tourism leans towards subjective and qualitative description in explaining the dynamic nature of the trans-disciplinary indicators of sustainability. However, few mechanisms have been proposed or developed to quantify the indicators measuring sustainable tourism in an indigenous ethnic context. The current study measures 61 sustainable indigenous tourism indicators of the Mah Meri ethnic group that comprise three constructs, namely, community resources, community development and sustainable tourism. Simple random sampling was employed for data elicitation and a weighted average score using R software as the basis of analysis was used to produce a sustainable indigenous tourism barometer (SITB. The study identifies 11 sustainability dimensions from the initial three main constructs that are treated as the relationship aspects in this study. Based on the Sustainable Indigenous Tourism Barometer (SITB, community participation, empowerment, economic and socio-cultural sustainability are found to be the main influencing dimensions of sustainability of the Mah Meri ethnic group. However, natural resources, financial resources and environmental sustainability indicated weaker relationships in explaining sustainability of the Mah Meri ethnic group. Based on the SITB, the results demonstrate that the Mah Meri ethnic group are a “potential sustainable” tourism stakeholder.
Full Text Available In this paper, we focus on the influence of pre-Slavic ethnic groups on the hydronymy of present-day Slovakia. The migration of entire ethnic groups – especially after the dissolution of the Roman Empire – led to contact between native and incoming people. Ethnic contact also affected languages of these ethnic groups, as mutual influencing and borrowing of vocabulary occurred. Incoming ethnic groups had to find their way around in the new surroundings as well as identify and distinguish important landmarks, mainly hills, mountains and streams. We can approach the issue of pre-Slavic hydronyms from two points of view: one, by analyzing the names preserved from the time period before the arrival of Slavs in the territory of Slovakia, and two, by analyzing the names whose origin some authors consider to be pre-Slavic. The oldest name of a river from the Slovak region comes from the time period before the arrival of the Slavs. It was recorded by the Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius in years 166–180 AD as Granoua. It is a record of the river Hron at which Roman legions fought against the Germanic tribes of the Marcomanni and Quadi. Several historians and linguists believe that besides the rivers Dunaj, Morava and Tisa, other names of big rivers date from before the arrival of Slavs in the central Europe. In the paper, we analyse the names Dunaj, Morava, Váh, Hron, Tisa, Nitra and Hornád.
Verkuyten, Maykel J. A. M.
This article discusses the ways in which ethnic minority and majority group members account, in an interview context, for the existence of discrimination in Dutch society. Taking a discursive approach, the focus is on the strategies used to describe and explain discrimination. In both groups,
Kumar, Vinod; Hunsigi, Prahalad; Kaipa, Balakasi Reddy; Reddy, Rajini; Ealla, Kranti Kiran Reddy; Kumar, Chakki B Arun; Prasanna, M D
The position of mental foramen varies in different ethnic groups. The position of mental foramen is mainly important for achieving effective mental nerve block to carry out dental surgical procedures in mandible. Deviation in its position can be a cause of complication during local anesthesia or surgical procedures. The position of the mental foramen in South Indian and Northeast Indian population has not been reported. The purpose of the current study was to determine the most common location of the mental foramen (MF) and its bilateral symmetry in selected Indian population. 380 digital panoramic radiographs (DPR) of a randomly selected 2 Ethnic groups of Indian population were studied. The common position (59.2%) of the mental foramen was located between the 1st and 2nd premolars (P3) in Northeast Indians and in South Indians the common location (62.8%) was in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar (P4), which was statistically significant in both Populations. A bilateral symmetry was observed in the location of mental foramina, either mesial to or in line with the long axis of the 2nd premolar, which is consistent with the observations of similar studies in various ethnic or racial groups. In our study a statistically significant association between the 2 ethnic groups and the position of mental foramen exists. Therefore the position of mental foramen may be specific to racial groups facilitating accurate landmark for mental nerve block depending on the ethnic group. Further, studies are required with larger sample for better understanding of mental foramen location in different ethnic groups.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosing childhood asthma is dependent upon parental symptom reporting but there are problems in the use of words and terms. The purpose of this study was to describe and compare understandings of childhood 'asthma' by mothers from three different ethnic backgrounds who have no personal experience of diagnosing asthma. A better understanding of parents' perceptions of an illness by clinicians should improve communication and management of the illness. Method Sixty-six mothers living in east London describing their ethnic backgrounds as Bangladeshi, white English and black Caribbean were recruited to 9 focus groups. Discussion was semi-structured. Three sessions were conducted with each ethnic group. Mothers were shown a video clip of a boy with audible wheeze and cough and then addressed 6 questions. Sessions were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Responses were compared within and between ethnic groups. Results Each session, and ethnic group overall, developed a particular orientation to the discussion. Some mothers described the problem using single signs, while others imitated the sound or made comparisons to other illnesses. Hereditary factors were recognised by some, although all groups were concerned with environmental triggers. Responses about what to do included 'normal illness' strategies, use of health services and calls for complementary treatment. All groups were concerned about using medication every day. Expectations about the quality of life were varied, with recognition that restrictions may be based on parental beliefs about asthma, rather than asthma itself. Conclusion Information from these focus groups suggests mothers know a great deal about childhood asthma even though they have no personal experience of it. Knowledge of how mothers from these ethnic backgrounds perceive asthma may facilitate doctor – patient communication with parents of children experiencing breathing difficulties.
Li, T G; Wang, M
In recent years, great effort has been made in the promotion of health for all in China. Articles on column on chronic and non-communicable disease risk factors in Uighur population, analysis based on the investigation results of Uygur population health status in the Kashi area of Xinjiang of China and similar domestic and foreign studies showed that the health data in different countries are different. The differences in health related data exist in different ethnic groups even in same country or same ethnic group in different areas. Only by fully understanding the differences in disease and related factors among different ethnic groups, developing individualized health indicators and conducting targeted intervention, the goal of health for all can be achieved.
Kelaher, Margaret; Paul, Sheila; Lambert, Helen; Ahmad, Waqar; Smith, George Davey
In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups:1) Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators2) Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities3) Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata The sample consisted of White (n = 227), African-Caribbean (n = 213) and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233) adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain pound10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research is required to establish the degree to which results of
Full Text Available Abstract Background In this paper we seek to tease out differences in socioeconomic position between ethnic groups. There are 3 main reasons why conventional socioeconomic indicators and asset based measures may not be equally applicable to all ethnic groups: 1 Differences in response rate to conventional socioeconomic indicators 2 Cultural and social differences in economic priorities/opportunities 3 Differences in housing quality, assets and debt within socioeconomic strata Methods The sample consisted of White (n = 227, African-Caribbean (n = 213 and Indian and Pakistani (n = 233 adults aged between 18 and 59 years living in Leeds as measured in a stratified population survey. Measures included income, education, employment, car ownership, home ownership, housing quality, household assets, investments, debt, perceived ability to obtain various sums and perceived level of financial support given and received. Results Response rates to education and income questions were similar for the different ethnic groups. Overall response rates for income were much lower than those for education and biased towards wealthier people. There were differences between ethnic groups in economic priorities/opportunities particularly in relation to car ownership, home ownership, investment and debt. Differences in living conditions, household assets and debt between ethnic groups were dependent on differences in education; however differences in car ownership, home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, and loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment persisted after adjustment for education. Conclusion In the UK, education appears to be an effective variable for measuring variation in SEP across ethnic groups but the ability to account for SEP differences may be improved by the addition of car and home ownership, ability to obtain £10 000, loaning money to family/friends and income from employment/self employment. Further research
Hinojosa, Melanie Sberna; Kadivar, Hajar; Fernandez-Baca, Daniel; Chisholm, TaJuana; Thompson, Lindsay A; Stanford, Jevetta; Shenkman, Elizabeth
Recruiting and enrolling low income, racially and ethnically diverse adolescents into research studies can be a challenge. This paper details our research team's methodology in the recruitment and enrollment of low income and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents in three cities as part of a broader study to understand adolescent perceptions of a health risks. Our team used Florida's Medicaid and Children's Health Insurance Plan administrative databases to identify a sample of adolescents for focus group participation. Utilizing geographic information systems software we generated maps of racial and ethnic group clusters in three cities and identified community centers within each cluster to hold the focus groups. We mailed initial focus group introduction letters, conducted follow-up phone calls for recruitment and further implemented techniques to optimize participant confidentiality and comfort. We enrolled 35 participants for eight focus groups in three cities at a total cost of $264 per participant, including personnel, materials, travel, and incentives costs. As a result of our efforts, groups were fairly evenly distributed by both race and gender. Administrative databases provide opportunities to identify and recruit low income and racially/ethnically diverse adolescents for focus groups that might not otherwise have the opportunity to participate in research studies. It is important that researchers ensure these populations are represented when conducting health assessment tool evaluations.
Brown, Tyson H.; O’Rand, Angela M.; Adkins, Daniel E.
Racial-ethnic disparities in static levels of health are well documented. Less is known about racial-ethnic differences in age trajectories of health. The few studies on this topic have examined only single health outcomes and focused on black-white disparities. This study extends prior research by using a life course perspective, panel data from the Health and Retirement Study, and multilevel growth curve models to investigate racial-ethnic differences in the trajectories of serious conditions and functional limitations among blacks, Mexican Americans, and whites. We test three hypotheses on the nature of racial-ethnic disparities in health across the life course (aging-as-leveler, persistent inequality, and cumulative disadvantage). Results controlling for mortality selection reveal that support for the hypotheses varies by health outcome, racial-ethnic group, and life stage. Controlling for childhood socioeconomic status, adult social and economic resources, and health behaviors reduces but does not eliminate racial-ethnic disparities in health trajectories. PMID:22940814
Donovan, Roxanne A; Huynh, Que-Lam; Park, Irene J K; Kim, Su Yeong; Lee, Richard M; Robertson, Emily
Examine whether personal identity confusion and ethnic identity, respectively, moderate and/or mediate the relationship between perceived discrimination (PD) and depressive symptoms (DS) in eight ethnic-generational groups. The sample consisted of 9665 students (73% women; mean age 20.31) from 30 colleges and universities from around the United States. Cross-sectional data were gathered through a confidential online survey. Across groups, PD and ethnic identity levels varied, while identity confusion levels were mostly similar. Neither identity confusion nor ethnic identity moderated the PD-DS relationship for any groups. However, identity confusion was a partial mediator for immigrant and nonimmigrant Hispanic/Latino(a) and White/European American participants. Identity confusion also suppressed the PD-DS relationship for Black/African American participants. Results highlight the need for additional research on identity confusion's role in the PD-distress link and the importance of addressing ethnicity and generation status when examining the effects of PD on college students' mental health. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Brockerhoff, M; Hewett, P
Accounts by journalists of wars in several countries of sub-Saharan Africa in the 1990s have raised concern that ethnic cleavages and overlapping religious and racial affiliations may widen the inequalities in health and survival among ethnic groups throughout the region, particularly among children. Paradoxically, there has been no systematic examination of ethnic inequality in child survival chances across countries in the region. This paper uses survey data collected in the 1990s in 11 countries (Central African Republic, Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Uganda, and Zambia) to examine whether ethnic inequality in child mortality has been present and spreading in sub-Saharan Africa since the 1980s. The focus was on one or two groups in each country which may have experienced distinct child health and survival chances, compared to the rest of the national population, as a result of their geographical location. The factors examined to explain potential child survival inequalities among ethnic groups included residence in the largest city, household economic conditions, educational attainment and nutritional status of the mothers, use of modern maternal and child health services including immunization, and patterns of fertility and migration. The results show remarkable consistency. In all 11 countries there were significant differentials between ethnic groups in the odds of dying during infancy or before the age of 5 years. Multivariate analysis shows that ethnic child mortality differences are closely linked with economic inequality in many countries, and perhaps with differential use of child health services in countries of the Sahel region. Strong and consistent results in this study support placing the notion of ethnicity at the forefront of theories and analyses of child mortality in Africa which incorporate social, and not purely epidemiological, considerations. Moreover, the typical advantage of relatively small, clearly
Martinovic, B.; Verkuyten, M.J.A.M.; Weesie, H.M.
Within the context of the Basque Country in Spain we examined how ethnic (Basque) and national (Spanish) identification relate to the evaluation of Spaniards, Basques, Andalusians and Catalans. On a sample of adolescent participants we tested a structural equation model which considered identity
Galanter, Joshua M; Gignoux, Christopher R; Oh, Sam S; Torgerson, Dara; Pino-Yanes, Maria; Thakur, Neeta; Eng, Celeste; Hu, Donglei; Huntsman, Scott; Farber, Harold J; Avila, Pedro C; Brigino-Buenaventura, Emerita; LeNoir, Michael A; Meade, Kelly; Serebrisky, Denise; Rodríguez-Cintrón, William; Kumar, Rajesh; Rodríguez-Santana, Jose R; Seibold, Max A; Borrell, Luisa N; Burchard, Esteban G; Zaitlen, Noah
Populations are often divided categorically into distinct racial/ethnic groups based on social rather than biological constructs. Genetic ancestry has been suggested as an alternative to this categorization. Herein, we typed over 450,000 CpG sites in whole blood of 573 individuals of diverse Hispanic origin who also had high-density genotype data. We found that both self-identified ethnicity and genetically determined ancestry were each significantly associated with methylation levels at 916 and 194 CpGs, respectively, and that shared genomic ancestry accounted for a median of 75.7% (IQR 45.8% to 92%) of the variance in methylation associated with ethnicity. There was a significant enrichment (p=4.2×10-64) of ethnicity-associated sites amongst loci previously associated environmental exposures, particularly maternal smoking during pregnancy. We conclude that differential methylation between ethnic groups is partially explained by the shared genetic ancestry but that environmental factors not captured by ancestry significantly contribute to variation in methylation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20532.001 PMID:28044981
Full Text Available Objective – This study aims to investigate the attitude of Malaysian young adults towards advertising. How this segment responds to advertising, and how ethnic/cultural differences moderate are assessed. Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative questionnaire is used to collect data at two universities. Purposive sampling technique is adopted to ensure the sample represents the actual population. Structural equation modelling (SEM and multi-group analysis (MGA are utilized in analysis. Findings - The findings show that product information, hedonism, and good for economy are significant predictors of attitude towards advertising among young adults. Additionally, falsity is found to be significant among the Chinese, while social role and materialism among the Dayaks. No difference is observed in the effect of attitude on intention towards advertising by ethnicity. While homogeneity in advertising beliefs is assumed across ethnic groups, the Chinese and Dayak young adults are different in some of their advertising beliefs. Practical implications – Despite cultural effect being well-documented, young adults today seem to have similar beliefs and attitude towards advertising. Knowing what is shared and what is not for this segment is essential. Hence, it is imperative to keep track of their values in diversified communities to ensure effective communication process in advertising. Originality/value – In addition to the theory of reasoned action, MGA is utilized to assess the moderating effect of ethnic/culture on the whole model. This affords a more comprehensive understanding on the subject matter in multi-ethnic and cultural countries.
Schofield, Peter; Thygesen, Malene; Das-Munshi, Jay; Becares, Laia; Cantor-Graae, Elizabeth; Pedersen, Carsten; Agerbo, Esben
Rates of psychotic disorder are raised for many migrant groups. Understanding the role played by the social context in which they live may help explain why. This study investigates the effect of both neighbourhood ethnic density and urbanicity on the incidence of non-affective psychosis for migrant groups. Population based cohort of all those born 1965 or later followed from their 15th birthday (2,224,464 people) to 1st July 2013 (37,335,812 person years). Neighbourhood exposures were measured at age 15. For all groups incidence of non-affective psychosis was greater in lower ethnic density neighbourhoods. For migrants of African origin there was a 1.94-fold increase (95% CI, 1.17-3.23) comparing lowest and highest density quintiles; with similar effects for migrants from Europe (excluding Scandinavia): incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.99 (95% CI, 1.56-2.54); Asia: IRR 1.63 (95% CI, 1.02-2.59); and the Middle East: IRR 1.68 (95% CI, 1.19-2.38). This initial analysis found no evidence for an urbanicity effect for migrant groups. Adjusting for ethnic density revealed a positive association between level of urbanicity and psychosis for two groups, with a statistically significant linear trend (average effect of a one quintile increase) for migrants from Europe: IRR 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.16) and the Middle East: IRR 1.12 (95% CI, 1.01-1.23). In this first nationwide population-based study of ethnic density, urbanicity and psychosis we show that lower ethnic density is associated with increased incidence of non-affective psychosis for different migrant groups; masking urban/rural differences in psychosis for some groups. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Meeussen, Loes; Agneessens, Filip; Delvaux, Ellen; Phalet, Karen
People often collaborate in groups that are increasingly diverse. As research predominantly investigated effects of diversity, the processes behind these effects remain understudied. We follow recent research that shows creating shared values is important for group functioning but seems hindered in high diversity groups - and use longitudinal social network analyses to study two interpersonal processes behind value sharing: creating relations between members or 'social bonding' (network tie formation and homophily) and sharing values - potentially through these relationships - or 'social norming' (network convergence and influence). We investigate these processes in small interactive groups with low and high ethnic diversity as they collaborate over time. In both low and high diversity groups, members showed social bonding and this creation of relations between members was not organized along ethnic lines. Low diversity groups also showed social norming: Members adjusted their relational values to others they liked and achievement values converged regardless of liking. In high diversity groups, however, there was no evidence for social norming. Thus, ethnic diversity seems to especially affect processes of social norming in groups, suggesting that targeted interventions should focus on facilitating social norming to stimulate value sharing in high diversity groups. © 2018 The British Psychological Society.
Masland, Mary C; Kang, Soo H; Ma, Yifei
Misunderstanding of prescription labels results in adverse drug events and non-adherence. We assessed the effect of limited English and other factors on prescription understanding among five ethnic groups in a controlled analysis. Subjects were respondents to California's 2007 Health Interview Survey who received a prescription in the past year. In separate logistic regressions, limited English's effect on self-reported prescription understanding - controlling for bilingual doctor, education level, medications for chronic conditions, disability, years in USA, citizenship and socio-demographics - was estimated for Mexicans, Central Americans, Chinese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. Unweighted sample size was 48,968. Approximately 14% had limited English and 8% had difficulty in understanding prescriptions. In multivariate analysis, limited English increased odds of difficulty in understanding prescriptions by three times for Mexicans, Central Americans, and Koreans, and four times for Chinese; it was insignificant for Vietnamese. Generally, having a bilingual doctor reduced odds of difficulty while disability, low education, low income or recent immigration increased odds of difficulty. Effects varied according to the ethnic group. In controlled analysis, Chinese and Korean ethnicity increased odds of difficulty compared to Mexican or Central American ethnicity; Vietnamese ethnicity reduced odds of difficulty compared to others. Limited English blocked prescription understanding for all groups except Vietnamese. Translated prescription labels and interpreted in-person pharmacy consultations are indicated. Education and ethnicity affected prescription understanding; prescription instructions must be compatible with patients' educational level and culture. Bilingual/bicultural providers and interpreters can help bridge linguistic/cultural gaps but efforts should be made to ensure that they are truly culturally and linguistically concordant. Linguistic, cultural or
Hatch, S L; Gazard, B; Williams, D R; Frissa, S; Goodwin, L; Hotopf, M
Few studies have examined discrimination and mental health in the UK, particularly by migrant status and in urban contexts with greater demographic diversity. This study aims to (1) describe the prevalence of discrimination experiences across multiple life domains; (2) to describe associations between discrimination experiences and common mental disorder (CMD); (3) to determine whether or not the relationship between discrimination and CMD varies by migrant status and ethnicity. Data on major, anticipated and everyday discrimination and CMD symptoms were collected from an ethnically diverse prospective sample of 1052 participants followed up from 2008 to 2013 in the South East London Community Health study, a population-based household survey. With few exceptions, discrimination was most prevalent among those in the Black Caribbean group. However, those in the White Other ethnic group had similar or greater reporting major and anticipated discrimination to Black or mixed ethnic minority groups. The effects of discrimination on CMD were most pronounced for individuals who had recently migrated to the UK, an ethnically heterogeneous group, and for Black and Mixed ethnic minority groups in partially adjusted models. Prior CMD accounted for differences between the Mixed and White British ethnic groups, but the strength of the association for the most recent migrant group and the Black ethnic groups remained two or more times greater than the reference groups. The strength of the relationship suggests a need for more consideration of migration status along with ethnicity in examining the impact of discrimination on mental disorder in community and clinical samples.
Verrips, G.H.; Frencken, J.E.; Kalsbeek, H.; Filedt Kok-Weimar, T.L.
This investigation was first, to assess the oral health of 11-year-old children in four ethnic groups in Amsterdam; second, to assess their dental behaviour and third, to identify potential determinants of frequency of toothbrushing. Representative samples of 97 Surinamese, 209 Moroccan, 128 Turkish
Background: Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) is involved in metabolism of many important drugs and its genotype variations is thought to affect drug efficacy and the treatment process. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the distribution of CYP2C9 allele and genotypic variants in Sistani ethnic group, living in Gorgan, ...
Celenk, O.; van de Vijver, F.J.R.
This study examines predictors of life satisfaction that are more distal (spousal normative beliefs and attitudes) and more proximal (marital satisfaction) in 404 mainstreamers, 375 Western, and 195 non-Western immigrants living in the Netherlands. In the immigrant groups, we used ethnic and
Full Text Available Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.
Saari, M. Yusof; Dietzenbacher, Erik; Los, Bart
A new social accounting matrix is constructed for Malaysia for the year 2000 to analyze sources of income inequality among ethnic groups in Malaysia. The analysis reveals that income inequality can be decomposed into the interaction of: (i) hourly wages; (ii) working hours per week; and (iii) number
Admiraal, W. M.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; L de Munter, J. S.; Stronks, K.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Holleman, F.
Diabet. Med. 28, 668-672 (2011) ABSTRACT: Aims To study differences in the association between physical inactivity and Type 2 diabetes among subjects from different ethnic groups. Methods We analysed data on 508 Caucasian, 596 African-Surinamese and 339 Hindustani-Surinamese participants, aged
Lemic-Stojcevic, N; Dundas, R; Jenkins, S; Rudd, A; Wolfe, C
People of African Caribbean descent have higher mortality rates from stroke than other ethnic groups. However, little is known about the prevalence of stroke risk factors in UK ethnic minority groups. We investigated the prevalence of these risk factors amongst African Caribbeans, black Africans and whites. A random sample of patients aged 45-74 registered with 16 general practices in south London was surveyed in 1995. Main outcome measures were: prevalence of hypertension, mean serum cholesterol, serum fibrinogen and glycosylated haemoglobin AIC. Logistic and linear regressions were used to determine ethnic differences in these measures. Hypertension was more prevalent in black Caribbeans (79.4%) and black Africans (71.6%) than in whites (54.3%) (p Africans had similar rates to black Caribbeans for these risk factors apart from lower triglvceride levels. These differences in risk factors may partially explain the high stroke mortality rates in black Caribbeans and black Africans compared to whites. There was little difference in prevalence of these risk factors between black Caribbean and black African groups. Specific strategies targeted to each ethnic group need to be developed to reduce risk factors.
The load of mutations disclosed by inbreeding, according to the ethnic group of the parents, has been analyzed in our data. Besides the total of the population, a sample with no alien ancestrals has also been analyzed. Genetic load has been studied for absortions, still births, pos-natal mortality, total mortality, anomalies, total mortality + anomalies, and abnormalities in general [pt
Gatbonton, Elizabeth; Trofimovich, Pavel
With economic globalisation making second language (L2) learning inevitable throughout the world, understanding what factors facilitate success is a socioeconomic necessity. This paper examined the role of social factors, those related to ethnic group affiliation (EGA), in the development of L2 proficiency. Although numerous studies have…
De Moor, Carl; And Others
Compared generic tobacco use among Hispanic, White, Black, and Asian youths (N=4,980) in grades 4, 7, 10, and 12. Found prevalence of regular use was highest among Whites, followed by Hispanics, Blacks, and Asians. Marijuana, alcohol, and other drug use explained approximately 40 percent of variance in tobacco use in each ethnic group. Other…
Bank, Adam L.; Arguelles, Soledad; Rubert, Mark; Eisdorfer, Carl; Czaja, Sara J.
Purpose: Dementia caregiving is a rapidly growing public health problem. Logistical problems prevent many caregivers from utilizing available interventions. This article provides a demonstration of the usefulness of technology for conducting telephone-based support groups in ethnically diverse dementia caregivers. Design and Methods: Participants…
Ullah, Inam; Olofsson, Jill K.; Margaryan, Ashot
, these five ethnic groups fall mostly outside the previously characterized Y-chromosomal gene pools of the Indo-Pakistani subcontinent. Male founder effects, coupled with culturally and topographically based constraints upon marriage and movement, are likely responsible for the high degree of genetic...
This study aimed to explore cross-ethnic variation in the pattern of the associations between psychiatric disorders and self-rated mental health (SRMH) in the USA. This cross-sectional study used data from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003, a national household probability sample. The study enrolled 18,237 individuals who were either Non-Hispanic White (n = 7587), African American (n = 4746), Mexican (n = 1442), Cuban (n = 577), Puerto Rican (n = 495), Other Hispanic (n = 1106), Vietnamese (n = 520), Filipino (n = 508), Chinese (n = 600) or Other Asian (n = 656). SRMH was the outcome. Independent variables were psychiatric disorders including major depressive disorder [MDD], general anxiety disorder [GAD], social phobia, alcohol abuse, binge eating disorders, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder [PTSD], measured by the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were covariates. The only psychiatric disorder which was universally associated with SRMH across all ethnic groups was MDD. More psychiatric disorders were associated with poor SRMH in Non-Hispanic Whites than any other ethnic groups. Among African Americans, demographic and socioeconomic factors could fully explain the associations between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Among Mexican and Other Hispanics, demographic and socioeconomic factors could only explain the association between some but not all psychiatric disorders and SRMH. In all other ethnic groups, demographic and socioeconomic factors did not explain the link between psychiatric disorders and SRMH. Although SRMH is a useful tool for estimation of mental health needs of populations, poor SRMH may not have universal meanings across ethnically diverse populations. Ethnic groups differ in how their poor SRMH reflects psychiatric conditions and the role of demographic and socioeconomic factors
Full Text Available There is a long running debate on the significance of ethnic residential segregation levels in Britain. These phenomena have been related to the extent of community cohesion in British cities, and particularly to the riots of 2001 in the north of England. Further light is cast on these issues by examining ethnic segregation by age in the case of Bradford, the location of the largest riot. Both the dissimilarity index and the exposure index are used to consider relations between the White British and the largest minorities at ward level and at census output area level. The level of segregation is shown to vary with age, usually in a consistent direction. The direction varies between ethnic groups however.
Devine, C M; Wolfe, W S; Frongillo, E A; Bisogni, C A
To examine how life-course experiences and events are associated with current fruit and vegetable consumption in 3 ethnic groups. A theoretic model developed from previous qualitative research guided the development of a telephone survey. Data were collected on fruit and vegetable consumption, sociodemographic characteristics, ethnic identity, and life-course events and experiences, including food upbringing, social roles, food skills, dietary changes for health, and practice of food traditions. Low- to moderate-income adults living in a northeastern US city were selected randomly from 3 ethnic groups: black (n = 201), Hispanic (n = 191), and white (n = 200). Bivariate and multiple linear regression analysis of associations between life-course variables and fruit and vegetable consumption. Black, Hispanic, and white respondents differed significantly in life-course experiences, family roles, socio-demographic characteristics, and place of birth. Explanatory models for fruit and vegetable consumption differed among ethnic groups and between fruits and vegetables. Among black respondents, a college education was positively associated with fruit consumption; education and family roles contributed most to differences in fruit (R2 = .16) and vegetable (R2 = .09) consumption. Among Hispanic respondents, life-course experiences such as liking fruits and vegetables in youth, making dietary changes for health, and food skills were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .25) and vegetable (R2 = .35) consumption. Among white respondents, socio-demographic characteristics, such as being married with a young child or single with no child and having a garden as an adult, were positively associated with fruit (R2 = .20) and vegetable (R2 = .22) consumption. An understanding of the determinants of food choice in different subcultural groups can be used to design effective nutrition interventions to increase fruit and vegetable consumption. Experiences such as eating fresh
Ashdown, Brien K; Gibbons, Judith L; de Baessa, Yetilú; Brown, Carrie M
It is important to identify stereotypes about indigenous people because those stereotypes influence prejudice and discrimination, both obstacles to social justice and universal human rights. The purpose of the current study was to document the stereotypes, as held by Guatemalan adolescents, of indigenous Maya people (e.g., Maya) and nonindigenous Ladinos in Guatemala (the 2 main ethnic groups in Guatemala). Guatemalan adolescents (N = 465; 38.3% female; Mage = 14.51 years; SDage = 1.81 years) provided drawings and written characteristics about indigenous Maya and nonindigenous Ladino people, which were then coded for patterns in the data. These patterns included negative stereotypes, such as the Maya being lazy and Ladina women being weak; and positive stereotypes, such as the Maya being caring and warm and Ladino men being successful. There were also interactions between the participants' own gender and ethnicity and how they depicted the target they were assigned. For example, male participants were unlikely to depict male targets of either ethnicity engaging in homemaking activities. Finally, there was evidence of in-group bias based both on gender and ethnicity. These findings suggest that perhaps because indigenous groups around the world share some common negative stereotypes, an understanding of these stereotypes will aid in decreasing prejudice and discrimination against indigenous people, could reduce intergroup conflict, and increase access to basic human rights. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Scior, Katrina; Potts, Henry W; Furnham, Adrian F
Research has examined the public's understanding of mental illness and stigma, but there is scant evidence on intellectual disabilities. This study investigated whether the public from different ethnic groups can recognise symptoms of schizophrenia and intellectual disability depicted in a vignette, and what factors predict recognition and social distance. A survey of lay people of working age was completed in the UK (N=1002). The sample was ethnically mixed, with the largest groups consisting of white UK residents, and people from Asian and black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Regression analyses were performed to identify predictors of recognition and social distance. Across the whole sample, 25.7% recognised schizophrenia and 28.0% intellectual disability. Ethnicity, gender, education and prior contact predicted recognition of both vignettes. Social distance was higher for schizophrenia than intellectual disability, but overall participants were ambivalent to mildly negative about social contact with individuals with either symptomatology. Familiarity was associated with lower social distance for both conditions. Symptom recognition predicted reduced social distance for intellectual disability, but not for schizophrenia. The low levels of awareness of symptoms and high levels of stigma among some ethnic groups indicate a need for targeted public education efforts and further research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
In this study, we compared 10 ethnic groups for associations between psychiatric disorders and physical self-rated health (SRH) in the United States. Data came from the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES), 2001-2003. The study included 7587 non-Latino White, 4746 African American, 1442 Mexican, 1106 other Hispanic, 656 other Asian, 600 Chinese, 577 Cuban, 520 Vietnamese, 508 Filipino, and 495 Puerto Rican individuals. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was used to measure psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), general anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), alcohol abuse, and binge eating disorders. A single-item measure was used to estimate physical SRH. Demographic (age and gender) and socioeconomic (education and income) factors were also measured. Unadjusted and adjusted correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were calculated. Major ethnic variations were found in the correlation between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH; as well as the role of demographic and socioeconomic status (SES) factors in explaining these associations. non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans showed more correlations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH than other ethnic groups. In non-Hispanic Whites, the associations between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH were explained by demographic factors. In African Americans, the link between psychiatric disorders and poor physical SRH were explained by SES indicators. In conclusion , although single-item physical SRH measures are traditionally assumed to reflect the physical health needs of populations, they may also indicate psychiatric disorders in some ethnic groups, such as non-Hispanic Whites, Cubans, and African Americans. Demographic and socioeconomic factors also have differential roles in explaining the link between psychiatric disorders and physical SRH. Physical
Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are the most common of all human birth defects. Numerous studies have shown that a deletion within chromosome 22q11 is associated with DiGeorge syndrome and certain forms of sporadic congenital cardiovascular disease. We have determined the value of a PCR assay using markers D22S941, D22S944 and D22S264 designed for the screening of 22q11.2 deletion through consecutive homozygosity in an ethnically admixed urban population. The study population comprised 149 unrelated men and women from three different ethnic groups (white, mulatto and black. Test specificity for the overall population was estimated at 98.3%. We found no significant difference when comparing heterozygosity indices and ethnicity (P value = 0.43 (D22S944, 0.22 (D22S264, and 0.58 (D22S941. There was no significant difference regarding assay specificity between the three different ethnic groups studied. This assay could constitute a cost-effective way to screen a large number of patients at increased risk, since PCR techniques are easily available, are fast, can be automatized, and are significantly less expensive than fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Craig, P G; Bryan, J P; Miller, R E; Reyes, L; Hakre, S; Jaramillo, R; Krieg, R E
Little is known about the prevalence of infection with hepatitis viruses in Belize, Central America. We conducted a serologic survey among members of the Belize Defence Force (BDF), which is composed of the five major ethnic groups in Belize, to estimate prevalence rates of hepatitis A, B, and C among military-aged men and women in Belize. Of approximately 600 men and women in the BDF, 492 (82%) completed a questionnaire and blood collection. Antibody to hepatitis A was found in 94%, with similar rates by age, sex, rank, and ethnicity. Antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc) was found in 31%. Rates of anti-HBc varied significantly among the ethnic groups with the lowest rates in Mestizo (5%) and Mayan Indians (9%), and significantly higher rates among Creoles (30%) and Garifuna (56%). Rates increased with increasing age from 28% in those 18-24 years old to 35% in those > or = 35 years old (P = 0.07, by chi-square test for trend). Hepatitis B surface antigen was found in 21 (4%) overall. Antibody to hepatitis C was found in two (0.4%). In this young healthy population, exposure to hepatitis A before the age of 18 is almost universal, while exposure to hepatitis B is related to age and ethnic origin.
Mansourvar, Marjan; Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Raj, Ram Gopal; Kareem, Sameem Abdul; Aik, Saw; Gunalan, Roshan; Antony, Chermaine Deepa
Recently, determination of skeletal age, defined as the assessment of bone age, has rapidly become an important task between forensic experts and radiologists. The Greulich-Pyle (GP) atlas is one of the most frequently used methods for the assessment of skeletal age around the world. After presentation of the GP approach for the estimation of the bone age, much research has been conducted to examine the usability of this method in various geographic or ethnic categories. This study investigates on a small-scale and compares the reliability of the GP atlas for assessment of the bone age for four ethnic groups - Asian, African/American, Caucasian and Hispanic - for a different range of ages. Plain radiographs of 184 left hands and wrists for males from the healthy sample between 1 to 18 years of age for four ethnic groups were taken. The skeletal age (SA) was estimated by a radiologist using the GP atlas. The blind method was utilized. The mean (SA) results were compared with mean chronological ages (CA) for the separate ethnic groups. SPSS was used to conduct the analysis and the paired t-test was applied to show the difference between the mean CA and mean SA achieved from the GP atlas. The results from the GP atlas were compared to the CA of the samples. In Asian subjects the mean difference was 0.873 years. The GP atlas showed delayed bone age at 2-7 ages (from 0.2 to 2.3 year) and then advanced bone age for age 8. In the African/American subjects the difference between CA and SA was statistically significant (P-value = 0.048). The mean difference in the Caucasian and Hispanic subjects reflects no considerable distinction with a standard deviation (SD) of 0.3088 and 0.3766, respectively, (P-value >0.05 for both groups). According to the present study, it is concluded that although the GP atlas is reliable for Caucasian and Hispanic ethnic groups it is not applicable for other ethnic groups for different ranges of age, especially in the sample of the male African
Ikram, Umar Z.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Agyemang, Charles; Schene, Aart H.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Stronks, Karien; Kunst, Anton E.
Ethnic differences in the metabolic syndrome could be explained by perceived ethnic discrimination (PED). It is unclear whether PED is associated with the metabolic syndrome. We assessed this association and quantified the contribution of PED to the metabolic syndrome. Baseline data were used from
Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S.
Background Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. Methods Data were from the 2005–2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD. Results Approximately 1.5 % of adults met criteria for a CUD in the past year. Regardless of survey year, cannabis dependence was more common than cannabis abuse, representing 66% of adults with a CUD. Across racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of cannabis abuse and dependence remained stable during 2005–2013. In the total adult sample, the odds of weekly CU, monthly CU, and cannabis dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and mixed-race adults than whites. Among cannabis users, the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and Hispanics than whites. Logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, and survey year indicated an increased trend in monthly CU and weekly CU in the total sample and among past-year cannabis users. Younger age, male sex, and low education were associated with increased odds of cannabis dependence. Conclusions The large sample provides robust information that indicates a need for research to monitor CUD and identify culturally appropriate interventions especially for targeting minority populations. PMID:27317045
Wu, Li-Tzy; Zhu, He; Swartz, Marvin S
Minority groups generally experience more disparities than whites in behavioral healthcare use. The population of racial/ethnic groups is growing faster than whites. Given increased concerns of cannabis use (CU) and its associations with health conditions, we examined national trends in cannabis use disorder (CUD) among adults aged ≥18 by race/ethnicity. Data were from the 2005-2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (N=340,456). We compared CU patterns and the conditional prevalence of CUD among cannabis users by race/ethnicity to understand racial/ethnic variations in CUD. Approximately 1.5% of adults met criteria for a CUD in the past year. Regardless of survey year, cannabis dependence was more common than cannabis abuse, representing 66% of adults with a CUD. Across racial/ethnic groups, the prevalence of cannabis abuse and dependence remained stable during 2005-2013. In the total adult sample, the odds of weekly CU, monthly CU, and cannabis dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and mixed-race adults than whites. Among cannabis users, the odds of cannabis abuse and dependence were greater among blacks, native-Americans, and Hispanics than whites. Logistic regression controlling for age, sex, education, and survey year indicated an increased trend in monthly CU and weekly CU in the total sample and among past-year cannabis users. Younger age, male sex, and low education were associated with increased odds of cannabis dependence. The large sample provides robust information that indicates a need for research to monitor CUD and identify culturally appropriate interventions especially for targeting minority populations. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Wang, H H
The purpose of this study was to examine the predictors of health promotion lifestyle (HPL) and examine the similarities and differences among three ethnic groups of elderly rural women in Taiwan. Pender's Health Promotion Model was used as the conceptual framework of this study. A convenience sample of 599 elderly rural women was recruited from three rural areas: Kao-Shu, San-Di-Men, and Ma-Chia. Ho-Lo, Hakka, and aboriginal people are the three main ethnic groups in these areas. Of the 599 elderly women, 391 completed all of the interview questions. Subjects ranged from 65 to 91 years old. All instruments used in this study have been evaluated for their content validity. The interrater reliability and alpha coefficient reliability of all instruments were greater than 0.70. A survey-interview method was used to collect data. Findings showed that the predictors of HPL have differences and similarities among elderly rural women from different ethnicities. In the group of elderly Ho-Lo women, age, education, living arrangements, and perceived barriers to health promotion lifestyle (PBaHPL) were significant predictors and they explained 41.9% of total variance in HPL. In the group of elderly Hakka women, education, number of chronic health problems, PBaHPL, and perceived benefits of health promotion lifestyle (PBeHPL) were significant predictors in explaining 53.9% of total variance in HPL. Finally, in the group of elderly aboriginal women, living arrangements, PBaHPL, and PBeHPL were significant predictors in explaining 70.0% of total variance in HPL. Community nurses can use their understanding of different ethnic groups to assess, identify, and use effective health promotion interventions for elderly rural women.
Butani, Yogita; Weintraub, Jane A; Barker, Judith C
The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino) were chosen as exemplar populations. The dental literature published in English for the period 1980-2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations.
Barker Judith C
Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess information available in the dental literature on oral health-related cultural beliefs. In the US, as elsewhere, many racial/ethnic minority groups shoulder a disproportionate burden of oral disease. Cultural beliefs, values and practices are often implicated as causes of oral health disparities, yet little is known about the breadth or adequacy of literature about cultural issues that could support these assertions. Hence, this rigorous assessment was conducted of work published in English on cultural beliefs and values in relation to oral health status and dental practice. Four racial/ethnic groups in the US (African-American, Chinese, Filipino and Hispanic/Latino were chosen as exemplar populations. Methods The dental literature published in English for the period 1980–2006 noted in the electronic database PUBMED was searched, using keywords and MeSH headings in different combinations for each racial/ethnic group to identify eligible articles. To be eligible the title and abstract when available had to describe the oral health-related cultural knowledge or orientation of the populations studied. Results Overall, the majority of the literature on racial/ethnic groups was epidemiologic in nature, mainly demonstrating disparities in oral health rather than the oral beliefs or practices of these groups. A total of 60 relevant articles were found: 16 for African-American, 30 for Chinese, 2 for Filipino and 12 for Hispanic/Latino populations. Data on beliefs and practices from these studies has been abstracted, compiled and assessed. Few research-based studies were located. Articles lacked adequate identification of groups studied, used limited methods and had poor conceptual base. Conclusion The scant information available from the published dental and medical literature provides at best a rudimentary framework of oral health related ideas and beliefs for specific populations.
Fassaert, T.; Nielen, M.; Verheij, R.; Verhoeff, A.; Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.; Wit, M. de
OBJECTIVE: There is widespread concern about access to good quality health care for ethnic minority groups. This study investigates differences between ethnic groups regarding prevalence of anxiety and depression, and adherence to treatment guidelines by family practitioners in urban areas in the
Fassaert, T.; Nielen, M.M.A.; Verheij, R.; Verhoeff, A.; Dekker, J.; Beekman, A.T.F.; de Wit, M.
Objective: There is widespread concern about access to good quality health care for ethnic minority groups. This study investigates differences between ethnic groups regarding prevalence of anxiety and depression, and adherence to treatment guidelines by family practitioners in urban areas in the
Evans, N.; Meñaca, A.; Andrew, E.V.W.; Koffman, J.; Harding, R.; Higginson, I.J.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.
Context Patients from minority ethnic groups experience lower rates of referrals to end-of-life (EoL) care services, higher levels of dissatisfaction with services, and perceive some services as culturally inappropriate. Objectives To systematically review original studies of minority ethnic groups
Zhang, Hao; Zhang, Ruifeng; Ran, Yuping; Dai, Yaling; Lu, Yao; Wang, Peng
Reported isolation rates of Malassezia yeast from human skin show geographic variations. In China, the populations of the Han (1,182.95 million) and Tibetan (5.41 million) ethnic groups are distributed over 9.6 and 3.27 million square kilometers respectively, making biodiversity research feasible and convenient. Malassezia furfur clinical strains (n = 29) isolated from different individuals, with or without associated dermatoses, of these two ethnic groups (15 Han and 12 Tibetan) were identified and analyzed with DNA fingerprinting using single primers specific to minisatellites. Using the Bionumerics software, we found that almost all M. furfur clinical isolates and type strains formed five distinct group clusters according to their associated skin diseases and the ethnic groups of the patients. These findings are the first to focus on the genetic diversity and relatedness of M. furfur in the Tibetan and Han ethnic groups in China and reveal genetic variation associated with related diseases, host ethnicity and geographic origin.
Full Text Available A large body of research has been conducted both on the social stratification of education at the general level and on the educational attainments of ethnic minority groups in the UK. The former has established the increasing fluidity in the class–education association, without paying much attention to ethnicity, whilst the latter has shown reinvigorated aspirations by the second generation without fine-grained analyses. This paper adds to this literature by examining the relationship between family class, ethno-generational status and educational attainment for various 1st, 1.5, 2nd, 2.5, 3rd and 4th generations in contemporary UK society. Using data from Understanding Society, we study the educational attainment of different ethno-generational groups. Our analysis shows high educational selectivity among the earlier generations, a disruptive process for the 1.5 generation, high second-generation achievement, and a ‘convergence toward the mean’ for later generations. Parental class generally operates in a similar way for the ethno-generational groups and for the majority population, yet some minority ethnic groups of salariat origins do not benefit from parental advantages as easily. An ‘elite, middle and lower’ structure manifests itself in the intergenerational transmission of advantage in educational attainment. This paper thus reveals new features of class-ethno relations hitherto unavailable in UK research.
Full Text Available Ali M Soltani, Cameron S Francis, Arash Motamed, Ashley L Karatsonyi, Jeffrey A Hammoudeh, Pedro A Sanchez-Lara, John F Reinisch, Mark M UrataDivision of Plastic and Maxillofacial Surgery at Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA; The Division of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery at the Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USABackground: Although hypertrophic scar (HTS formation following cleft lip repair is relatively common, published rates vary widely, from 1% to nearly 50%. The risk factors associated with HTS formation in cleft patients are not well characterized. The primary aim of this retrospective study of 180 cleft lip repairs is to evaluate the frequency of postoperative HTS among various ethnic groups following cleft lip repair.Methods: A retrospective chart view of patients undergoing primary cleft lip repair over a 16-year period (1990–2005 by the senior surgeon was performed. The primary outcome was the presence of HTS at 1 year postoperatively. Bivariate analysis and multivariable logistic regression were used to evaluate potential risk factors for HTS, including ethnicity, type and laterality of cleft, and gender.Results: One hundred and eighty patients who underwent cleft lip repair were included in the study. The overall rate of postoperative HTS formation was 25%. Ethnicity alone was found to be an independent predictor of HTS formation. Caucasian patients had the lowest rate of HTS formation (11.8% and were used as the reference group. HTS rates were significantly higher in the other ethnicities, 32.2% in Hispanic patients (odds ratio [OR]: 3.51; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.53–8.85, and 36.3% for Asian patients (OR 4.27; 95% CI: 1.36–13.70. Sex, cleft type, and cleft laterality were not associated with increased rates of HTS.Conclusions: Differences in ethnic makeup of respective patient populations may be a major factor influencing the wide variability of reported
Benjamins, Maureen R; Whitman, Steven
Discrimination has been found to be detrimental to health, but less is known about the influence of discrimination in health care. To address this, the current study (1) compared levels of racial/ethnic discrimination in health care among four race/ethnic groups; (2) determined associations between this type of discrimination and health care outcomes; and (3) assessed potential mediators and moderators as suggested by previous studies. Multivariate logistic regression models were used within a population-based sample of 1,699 White, African American, Mexican, and Puerto Rican respondents. Overall, 23% of the sample reported discrimination in health care, with levels varying substantially by race/ethnicity. In adjusted models, this type of discrimination was associated with an increased likelihood of having unmet health care needs (OR = 2.48, CI = 1.57-3.90) and lower odds of perceiving excellent quality of care (OR = 0.43, CI = 0.28-0.66), but not with the use of a physician when not sick or use of alternative medicine. The mediating role of mental health factors was inconsistently observed and the relationships were not moderated by race/ethnicity. These findings expand the literature and provide preliminary evidence that can eventually inform the development of interventions and the training of health care providers.
Full Text Available In the article there are outlined the prospects of global economic development. There was built an evolutional model of theoretical studies of the phenomenon “culture” in the context of universal, system and value approaches. It gives the brief characteristics of the cultural assimilation model “melting crucible”. There have been determined the indicators of the successfulness verticals of the U.S. ethnic groups and made their assessment. By virtue of the author’s method is given the assessment of the comparative significance of the heterogeneous cultural codes of maternal (immigration and hosting environment of the USA, which gave the possibility to determine the factors that ensure the economic success of the American ethnic groups. The results of the research provide reasoning for the change of traditional vector of the cultures’ typology and confirm the existence of the progressive cultural codes.
Hawkins, Summer Sherburne; Law, Catherine; Graham, Hilary
Studies using a lifecourse framework to examine women's smoking behaviour have focused on samples of predominantly white women. We examined the contributions of conventional lifecourse factors and women's domestic trajectories to smoking behaviour before pregnancy and postpartum among women from ethnic minority groups. We analysed data from 2140 mothers from ethnic minority groups in the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Mothers reported their smoking habits (smoking >or=1 cigarette/day) before pregnancy, at 9 months, and 3 years postpartum, along with information used to characterise their social and domestic lifecourse trajectories. In a mutually adjusted model, women were more likely to smoke before pregnancy if, when they were children, their father held a routine/manual occupation [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval 1.00-2.80] (compared with managerial/professional), they left education at age or=22), or they were currently in a routine/manual occupation (aOR 1.53, 0.84-2.76) (compared with managerial/professional). Women were also more likely to smoke before pregnancy if they were age 14-19 years at their first birth (aOR 1.92, 1.05-3.50) (compared with age >or=30) or a lone parent (aOR 3.39, 2.18-5.28) (compared with non-lone parents). Similar relationships were apparent for smoking at 9 months and 3 years postpartum. Among women from ethnic minority groups, those on more disadvantaged social and domestic lifecourse trajectories were more likely to smoke before pregnancy and postpartum. These patterns are consistent with studies of predominantly white women, indicating the importance of disadvantage across the lifecourse in all ethnic groups.
Hiram Ting; Ernest Cyril de Run; Ramayah Thurasamy
Objective – This study aims to investigate the attitude of Malaysian young adults towards advertising. How this segment responds to advertising, and how ethnic/cultural differences moderate are assessed.Design/methodology/approach – A quantitative questionnaire is used to collect data at two universities. Purposive sampling technique is adopted to ensure the sample represents the actual population. Structural equation modelling (SEM) and multi-group analysis (MGA) are utilized in analysis.Fin...
Swami, Viren; Hendrikse, Sinead
Previous work has suggested that ethnic minority women have more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery than British Whites, but reasons for this are not fully understood. To overcome this dearth in the literature, the present study asked 250 British Asian and 250 African Caribbean university students to complete measures of attitudes to cosmetic surgery, cultural mistrust, adherence to traditional cultural values, ethnic identity salience, self-esteem, and demographics. Preliminary analyses showed that there were significant between-group differences only on cultural mistrust and self-esteem, although effect sizes were small (d values = .21-.37). Further analyses showed that more negative attitudes to cosmetic surgery were associated with greater cultural mistrust, stronger adherence to traditional values, and stronger ethnic identity salience, although these relationships were weaker for African Caribbean women than for British Asians. These results are discussed in relation to perceptions of cosmetic surgery among ethnic minority women.
Guerrero, Erick G; Marsh, Jeanne C; Duan, Lei; Oh, Christine; Perron, Brian; Lee, Benedict
To evaluate disparities in substance abuse treatment completion between and within racial and ethnic groups in publicly funded treatment in Los Angeles County, California. The Los Angeles County Participant Reporting System with multicross-sectional annual data (2006-2009) for adult participants (n = 16,637) who received treatment from publicly funded programs (n = 276) for the first time. Retrospective analyses of county discharge and admission data. Hierarchical linear regressions models were used to test the hypotheses. Client data were collected during personal interviews at admission and discharge for most participants. African Americans and Latinos reported lower odds of completing treatment compared with Whites. Within-group analysis revealed significant heterogeneity within racial and ethnic groups, highlighting primary drug problem, days of drug use before admission, and homelessness as significant factors affecting treatment completion. Service factors, such as referral by the criminal justice system, enabled completion among Latinos and Whites only. These findings have implications for reducing health disparities among members of racial and ethnic minorities by identifying individual and service factors associated with treatment adherence, particularly for first-time clients. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Renshaw, Christine; Jack, Ruth H; Dixon, Steve; Møller, Henrik; Davies, Elizabeth A
Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA) based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42]) and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13]) and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]). Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]); while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35]) and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15]) were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with large Black populations, suggesting the need to improve
Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast screening uptake in London is below the Government's target of 70% and we investigate whether ethnicity affects this. Information on the ethnicity for the individual women invited is unavailable, so we use an area-based method similar to that routinely used to derive a geographical measure for socioeconomic deprivation. Methods We extracted 742,786 observations on attendance for routine appointments between 2004 and 2007 collected by the London Quality Assurance Reference Centre. Each woman was assigned to a lower super output (LSOA based on her postcode of residence. The proportions of the ethnic groups within each LSOA are known, so that the likelihood of a woman belonging to White, Black and Asian groups can be assigned. We investigated screening attendance by age group, socioeconomic deprivation using the Index of Deprivation 2004 income quintile, invitation type and breast screening service. Using logistic regression analysis we calculated odds ratios for attendance based on ethnic composition of the population, adjusting for age, socioeconomic status, the invitation type and screening service. Results The unadjusted attendance odds ratios were high for the White population (OR: 3.34 95% CI [3.26-3.42] and low for the Black population (0.13 [0.12-0.13] and the Asian population (0.55 [0.53-0.56]. Multivariate adjustment reduced the differences, but the Black population remained below unity (0.47 [0.44-0.50]; while the White (1.30 [1.26-1.35] and Asian populations (1.10 [1.05-1.15] were higher. There was little difference in the attendance between age groups. Attendance was highest for the most affluent group and fell sharply with increasing deprivation. For invitation type, the routine recall was higher than the first call. There were wide variations in the attendance for different ethnic groups between the individual screening services. Conclusions Overall breast screening attendance is low in communities with
Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Schilling, Chris; Yang, Qing; Kaye-Blake, William; Genç, Murat; Blakely, Tony
Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE) values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE) or another good (cross-PE). We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori). Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions) ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02)). Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00). Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.
Cliona Ni Mhurchu
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Targeted food pricing policies may improve population diets. To assess their effects on inequalities, it is important to determine responsiveness to price changes across income levels and ethnic groups. OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to estimate price elasticity (PE values for major commonly consumed food groups in New Zealand, by income and ethnicity. PE values represent percentage change in demand associated with 1% change in price of that good (own-PE or another good (cross-PE. DESIGN: We used food expenditure data from national household economic surveys in 2007/08 and 2009/10 and Food Price Index data from 2007 and 2010. Adopting an Almost Ideal Demand System approach, own-PE and cross-PE estimates were derived for 24 food categories, household income quintiles, and two ethnic groups (Māori and non-Māori. RESULTS: Own-PE estimates (with two exceptions ranged from -0.44 to -1.78. Cross-PE estimates were generally small; only 31% of absolute values were greater than 0.10. Excluding the outlier 'energy drinks', nine of 23 food groups had significantly stronger own-PEs for the lowest versus highest income quintiles (average regression-based difference across food groups -0.30 (95% CI -0.62 to 0.02. Six own-PEs were significantly stronger among Māori; the average difference for Māori: non-Māori across food groups was -0.26 (95% CI -0.52 to 0.00. CONCLUSIONS: Food pricing policies have potential to improve population diets. The greater sensitivity of low-income households and Māori to price changes suggests the beneficial effects of such policies on health would be greatest for these groups.
Perini, Wilco; Snijder, Marieke B; Schene, Aart H; Kunst, Anton E
Earlier studies found chronic nonspecific lung disease (CNSLD) to be associated with depressive symptoms. We aimed to assess whether the association between CNSLD and depressive symptoms varies between ethnic groups. We used questionnaire data from 10916 participants of the HELIUS study in Amsterdam from six different ethnic groups. We applied logistic regression analysis to determine the association between CNSLD and depressive symptoms and interaction terms to test whether this association varied between ethnic groups. CNSLD prevalence was higher among South-Asian Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccans (10.1% to 12.5%) than African Surinamese, Dutch and Ghanaians (4.8% to 6.3%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among participants with CNSLD (28.4% vs. 13.7%). This association was not significantly different between ethnic groups. The absolute prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher among the CNSLD patients from ethnic minority groups (19.2 % to 35.6%) as compared with the Dutch-origin majority group (11.2%). CNSLD is associated with a high risk of depressive symptoms, especially among the five ethnic minority groups. These results imply a need to monitor the mental health of CNSLD patients in particular when a patient is from an ethnic minority group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chin, Man Pan; Siong, Kar Ho; Chan, Ka Ho; Do, Chi Wai; Chan, Henry Ho Lung; Cheong, Allen Ming Yan
There is currently limited information about ethnic differences in myopia prevalence within mainland China, especially in rural or semi-rural areas. We examined the prevalence of refractive errors, visual impairment and spectacle coverage in school children of varying ethnicity in Turpan, Xinjiang province. A community eye care service was provided for five schools. Presenting monocular distance and near visual acuity (VA), and ocular alignment were assessed. Retinoscopy and cycloplegic subjective refraction were performed for participants with presenting visual impairment (distance VA worse than 0.3 logMAR; Snellen 6/12 or 20/40) or abnormal binocular vision. Questionnaires administered prior to the eye examinations were used to collect information regarding personal lifestyle and parental myopia. A total of 646 out of 690 (94%) subjects aged four to 19 years (11.9 ± 2.6; mean ± S.D.) completed the eye examination. Three hundred and eighty-two (59%) of participants were of Uyghur ethnicity, followed by Han, 176 (27%) and Hui, 74 (12%). The mean age of Uyghur, Han and Hui students was 12.3 ± 2.7, 11.4 ± 2.6 and 11.4 ± 2.3 years respectively, in which the Uyghur students were significantly older than the Han and Hui students (F(3,631) = 5.58 p prevalence of presenting visual impairment was not significantly different among the ethnic groups (p = 0.26). After cycloplegic refraction, most subjects' VA (98%) improved to better than 0.3 logMAR (Snellen 6/12 or 20/40). The prevalence of "clinically-significant myopia" (≤-0.50 dioptres) was 27%, 18% and 13% in Han, Hui and Uyghur children, respectively (p prevalence of astigmatism (Uyghur 12%, Han 5%, Hui 4%). The overall spectacle coverage was 36%, while spectacle coverage among ethnic groups were similar (Han, 41%; Uyghur, 32%; Hui, 41%; χ(2) = 2.23, df = 2, p = 0.33). The prevalence of clinically significant myopia varied markedly with ethnicity in school children sampled from a semi-rural region of mainland
Iganski, P; Payne, G
The consequences of major changes in employment, due to the decline of manufacturing and the growth of the service sector, have not been well-documented, nor theorized, in the sociology of ethnic relations, even in recent studies. For example, Blumer's classic argument that economic development adapts to 'race relations', rather than the reverse as predicted by the modernization school, has not been either empirically resolved or conceptually applied to the UK. By adapting data from the Labour Force Survey and the Census, the paper begins to fill this gap with a detailed account of three main minority ethnic groups, and a separate analysis of male and female employment. It is demonstrated that, contrary to assumptions that members of the minority ethnic groups suffered most from de-industrialization, they actually did rather well, and in some cases did better than the majority population. These findings are re-conceptualized as collective social mobility, as part of a review of a number of conceptual frameworks in the light of the data.
Tey, Siew Ling; Van Helvoort, Ardy; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar
A limited number of studies have compared the glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic responses (GR) to solid foods between Caucasians and Asians. These studies have demonstrated that Asians have greater GI and GR values for solid foods than Caucasians. However, no study has compared the GI and GR to liquids among various Asian ethnic groups. A total of forty-eight males and females (16 Chinese, 16 Indians, and 16 Malay) took part in this randomised, crossover study. Glycaemic response to the reference food (glucose beverage) was measured on three occasions, and GR to three liquids were measured on one occasion each. Liquids with different macronutrient ratio's and carbohydrate types were chosen to be able to evaluate the response to products with different GIs. Blood glucose concentrations were measured in duplicate at baseline (-5 and 0 min) and once at 15, 30, 45, 60, 90, and 120 min after the commencement of beverage consumption. There were statistically significant differences in GI and GR between the three liquids (P Chinese vs. Indian vs. Malay). The GR for three different types of liquid nutritional supplements did not differ between the three main ethnic groups in Asia. It appears that the GI of liquid food derived from one Asian ethnicity can be applicable to other Asian populations.
Jack, R H; Davies, E A; Møller, H
Studies from the US have shown variations in breast cancer incidence, stage distribution, treatment and survival between ethnic groups. Data on 35 631 women diagnosed with breast cancer in South East England between 1998 and 2003 with self-assigned ethnicity information available were analysed. Results are reported for White, Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean, Black African and Chinese women. Age-standardised breast cancer incidence rate ratios, patterns of stage of disease at diagnosis, treatment, overall and breast cancer-specific survival were examined. All ethnic groups studied had lower age-standardised breast cancer incidence rates than White women, with Bangladeshi women having the lowest rate ratio (0.23, 95% CI: 0.20–0.26). White women were the most likely to have a stage recorded at diagnosis (adjusted proportion 75%), and least likely to be diagnosed with metastatic disease (7%). Black African women were the least likely to have a record of cancer surgery (63%) or hormone therapy (32%), and most likely to receive chemotherapy (38%). After fully adjusting for age, socioeconomic deprivation, stage of disease and treatment received, there was no significant variation in breast cancer-specific survival. However, Black African women had significantly worse overall survival (hazard ratio 1.24, P=0.025). These findings suggest that a strategy of earlier detection should be pursued in Black and South Asian women. PMID:19127253
Full Text Available Speakers of English often understand ethnic and racial differences in terms of food imagery. It is quite common in this language to encounter metaphors presenting different groups of people in terms of beans, rice, bread, cheese, apples or chocolate. Given the cognitive and social force of metaphor in our understanding of the world and of ourselves as well as the important role language plays as a channel through which ideas and beliefs are transmitted and perpetuated, such food images may offer a window on the (deconstruction of ethnic identi-ties and, ultimately, hide racist views against others who are different because of their skin color, physical features, languages and, obviously, diets.
Gershoni-Baruch, R. (Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa (Israel)); Rosenmann, A. (Hadassah Medical Center, Jerusalem (Israel)); Droetto, S.; Holmes, S.; Tripathi, R.K.; Spritz, R.A. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States))
The authors have analyzed the tyrosinase (TYR) gene in 38 unrelated patients with oculocutaneous albinism (OCA), derived from several different ethnic groups of the diverse population of Israel. They detected TYR gene mutations in 23 of the 34 patients with apparent type I (i.e., tyrosinase-deficient) OCA and in none of the patients with other clinical forms of albinism. Among Moroccan Jews with type IA (i.e., tyrosinase-negative) OCA, they detected a highly predominant mutant allele containing a missense substitution, Gly47Asp (G47D). This mutation occurs on the same haplotype as in patients from the Canary Islands and Puerto Rico, suggesting that the G47D mutation in these ethnically distinct populations may stem from a common origin. 28 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.
Gilbert, Penelope A; Khokhar, Santosh
A systematic review of the literature suggests the dietary habits of some ethnic groups living in Europe are likely to become less healthy as individuals increase consumption of processed foods that are energy dense and contain high levels of fat, sugar, and salt. Such products often replace healthy dietary components of the native diet, such as fruits, vegetables, nuts, and grains. Mixed food habits are emerging mainly amongst younger people in the second and third generations, most likely due to acculturation and adoption of a Western lifestyle. Age and immigrant generation are the major factors accounting for changes in dietary habits, whilst income, level of education, dietary laws, religion, and food beliefs are also important factors. Obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension present major problems for the mainstream European population. However, the risk of chronic disease is reported to be higher in ethnic populations, particularly South Asians, African Caribbeans, and Mexicans.
Vizcaíno, Gilberto; Diez-Ewald, María; Herrmann, Falko H; Schuster, Gudrun; Torres-Guerra, Enrique; Arteaga-Vizcaíno, Melvis
The prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and C677T MTHFR polymorphism was studied in various ethnic groups from Western Venezuela (60 Wayuu Indians, 42 italian immigrants and 77 Venezuelan mestizos) in relation with the prevalence of hyperhomocysteinemia and the C677T MTHFR polymorphism. Homocysteinemia was determined by polarized fluorescence immunoassay in an IMX system, serum folate was measured by radioimmunoanalysis and the MTHFR genotype was determined by PCR and restriction analysis. Hyperhomocysteinemia was defined as a value over 2 SD above the mean value for normal MTHFR (CC677) in each group. The prevalence of MTHFR variants (C677T and 677TT) was elevated in all ethnic groups (78% among the wayuu, 76% among Italians and 63% among mestizos) with a significant association between the concentrations of homocysteine and the levels of serum folate among the wayuu (p wayuu (OR: 6.17, CI 95: 0.74-51.36), 9.5% of the Italians (OR: 0.93, CI 95: 0.085-10.10) and 20.7 of the Venezuelans mestizos (OR: 5.2, CI 95: 1.08-24.90, p > 0.03). There was no relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and folate deficiency in any of the groups studied. In conclusion, despite a high prevalence of C677T MTHFR variants in these ethnic groups of western Venezuela, the lack of no evidence of hyperhomocysteinemia combined with folate deficiency may imply that the nutritional status of these groups plays an important role in the control of hyperhomocysteinemia as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease.
Wei, Cheong Tar; Al-Hassan, Faisal Muti; Naim, Norris; Knight, Aishah; Joshi, Sanmukh R
Diego blood group antigen, Di(a), is very rare among Caucasians and Blacks, but relatively common among the South American Indians and Asians of Mongolian origin. The antibody to Di(a) is clinically significant to cause hemolytic disease in a new-born or hemolytic transfusion reaction. This study was designed to determine the prevalence of Di(a) antigen among the blood donors from the three major ethnic groups in Klang Valley of Malaysia as well as to find an incidence of an antibody of the Diego antigen, anti-Di(a), in a tertiary care hospital to ascertain the need to include Di(a+) red cells for an antibody screen cell panel. Serological tests were performed by column agglutination technique using commercial reagents and following instruction as per kit insert. Di(a) antigen was found with a frequency of 2.1% among the Malaysians donors in three ethnic groups viz, Malay, Chinese and Indian. It was present among 1.25% of 401 Malay, 4.01% of Chinese and 0.88% of 114 Indian origin donors. None of the 1442 patients, including 703 antenatal outpatients, had anti-Di(a) in serum. The prevalence of Di(a) antigen was found among the donors of all the three ethnic background with varying frequency. Inclusion of Di(a+) red cells in routine antibody screening program would certainly help in detection of this clinically significant antibody and to provide safe blood transfusion in the Klang Valley, though the incidence of antibody appears to be very low in the region.
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005, Embase (1980-2001, Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and RB's personal files. A total of 72 studies were included, 39 starting after 1975. Decision-making on inclusion and exclusion of racial/ethnic groups, the conceptual basis of race/ethnicity, and methods of classification of racial/ethnic groups were rarely explicit. Few publications provided details on the racial/ethnic composition of the study setting or sample, and 39 gave no description. Several studies were located in small towns or in occupational settings, where ethnic minority populations are underrepresented. Studies on general populations usually had too few participants for analysis by race/ethnicity. Eight studies were explicitly on Caucasians/whites, and two excluded ethnic minority groups from the whole or part of the study on the basis of language or birthplace criteria. Ten studies were designed to compare white and nonwhite populations, while five studies focused on one nonwhite racial/ethnic group; all 15 of these were performed in the US. CONCLUSIONS: There is a shortage of information from cardiovascular cohort studies on racial/ethnic minority populations, although this has recently changed in the US. There is, particularly in Europe, an inequity resulting from a lack of research data in nonwhite populations. Urgent action is now required in Europe to address this disparity.
Brown, Christia Spears; Spatzier, Agnieszka; Tobin, Mollie
The current study examined the ethnic identity of White (N = 120), Latino (N = 87), and African-American (N = 65) children and early adolescents (aged = 9-14 years), with an emphasis on whether the specific ethnic label White children used to describe themselves might reflect differences in their inter-group attitudes and whether those differences…
Evans, N.C.; Menaca, A.; Andrew, E.V.; Koffman, J.; Harding, R.; Higginson, I.J.; Pool, R.; Gysels, M.
Context: Patients from minority ethnic groups experience lower rates of referrals to end-of-life (EoL) care services, higher levels of dissatisfaction with services, and perceive some services as culturally inappropriate. Objectives: To systematically review original studies of minority ethnic
Neeleman, J; Mak, [No Value; Wessely, S
Background information on suicide in ethnic and immigrant groups in England and Wales is limited. Method A three-year (1991-1993) survey was conducted of all unnatural deaths of residents of an urban area. True likely and 'official' age-adjusted suicide rates were compared by ethnicity and, for
Nguyen, Nga Thi; Sanchaisuriya, Kanokwan; Sanchaisuriya, Pattara; Van Nguyen, Hoa; Phan, Hoa Thi Thuy; Fucharoen, Goonnapa; Fucharoen, Supan
Thalassemia is a genetic condition that can result in long and expensive treatments, and severe thalassemia may lead to death if left untreated. Couples contributing two genes for thalassemia place their children at particular risk for severe thalassemia. Gene frequency of thalassemia varies in Vietnam, but presents remarkably high levels among some ethnic minority groups. Limited information about thalassemia frequency makes prevention and control of thalassemia difficult. This study aimed to determine gene frequency of certain types of thalassemia among 390 women of reproductive age of the Ta-Oi ethnic minority. Hemoglobin and DNA analyses were carried out to diagnose thalassemia and hemoglobinopathies. Of the total participants, 56.1% (95% CI = 51.1-61.1) carried thalassemia genes. A remarkably high frequency of hemoglobin Constant Spring (Hb CS) of 23.8% (95% CI = 19.7-28.4) was noted. The frequency of α + -thalassemia (-3.7 kb deletion) was 26.4% (95% CI = 22.1-31.1), while hemoglobin E (Hb E) and hemoglobin Paksé (Hb Ps) were identified at frequencies of 14.6 (95% CI = 11.2-18.5) and 2.6% (95% CI = 1.4-5.0), respectively. Further analysis of α-globin gene haplotype revealed the same Hb CS haplotype (+ - M + + -) as of the Co-Tu minority, a neighboring minority of the Ta-Oi, indicating that these two minorities may share the same ancestors. This information will be helpful for further studies in population genetics, as well as the development prevention and control program in the region.
Keeler, Jarrod A; Patki, Aniruddha; Woodard, Charles R; Frank-Ito, Dennis O
Very little is known about the role of nasal morphology due to ethnic variation on particle deposition pattern in the sinonasal cavity. This preliminary study utilizes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling to investigate sinonasal airway morphology and deposition patterns of intranasal sprayed particles in the nose and sinuses of individuals from four different ethnic groups: African American (Black); Asian; Caucasian; and Latin American. Sixteen subjects (four from each ethnic group) with "normal" sinus protocol computed tomography (CT) were selected for CFD analysis. Three-dimensional reconstruction of each subject's sinonasal cavity was created from their personal CT images. CFD simulations were carried out in ANSYS Fluent(™) in two phases: airflow phase was done by numerically solving the Navier-Stokes equations for steady state laminar inhalation; and particle dispersed phase was solved by tracking injected (sprayed) particles through the calculated airflow field. A total of 10,000 particle streams were released from each nostril, 1000 particles per diameter ranging from 5 μm to 50 μm, with size increments of 5 μm. As reported in the literature, Caucasians (5.31 ± 0.42 cm(-1)) and Latin Americans (5.16 ± 0.40cm(-1)) had the highest surface area to volume ratio, while African Americans had highest nasal index (95.91 ± 2.22). Nasal resistance (NR) was highest among Caucasians (0.046 ± 0.008 Pa.s/mL) and Asians (0.042 ± 0.016Pa.s/mL). Asians and African Americans had the most regions with particle deposition for small (5 μm-15 μm) and large (20 μm-50 μm) particle sizes, respectively. Asians and Latin Americans individuals had the most consistent regional particle deposition pattern in the main nasal cavities within their respective ethnic groups. Preliminary results from these ethnic groups investigated showed that Caucasians and Latin Americans had the least patent nasal cavity. Furthermore, Caucasians
Pool, Michelle S; Agyemang, Charles O; Smalbrugge, Martin
Like the European general population, ethnic minorities are aging. In this group, important social determinants of health (social participation, social isolation and loneliness) that lead to negative health outcomes frequently occur. Interventions targeting these determinants may decrease negative health outcomes. The goal of this article was to identify effective interventions that improve social participation, and minimise social isolation and loneliness in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. An electronic database (PubMed) was systematically searched using an extensive search strategy, for intervention studies in English, French, Dutch of German, without time limit. Additional articles were found using references. Articles were included if they studied an intervention aimed to improve social participation or minimise social isolation or loneliness and were focusing on community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Data regarding studies characteristics and results were extracted. Six studies (three randomized controlled trials, three non-controlled intervention studies) were included in the review. All studies were group-based interventions and had a theoretical basis. Five out of six studies showed improvement on a social participation, -isolation or loneliness outcome. Type of intervention included volunteering-, educational- and physical activities. In three studies active participation of the participant was required, these interventions were not more effective than other interventions. Some interventions improved the included social determinants of health in community dwelling elderly ethnic minorities. Investment in further development and implementation of these interventions may help to improve social determinants of health in these populations. It is necessary to evaluate these interventions in the European setting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Nielsen, T. Rune; Waldemar, Gunhild
of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) among four ethnic groups in Copenhagen, Denmark, and to assess the influence of education and acculturation. METHODS: Quantitative survey data from 260 participants were analyzed: 100 native Danish, and 47 Polish, 51 Turkish, and 62 Pakistani immigrants. Knowledge...... and perceptions of dementia and AD were assessed with the Dementia Knowledge Questionnaire (DKQ) supplemented with two questions from the Alzheimer's Disease Awareness Test (ADAT). Knowledge and perceptions of dementia and AD in the four groups were compared, and the influence of education and acculturation...
Dasgupta, Doyel; Pal, Baidyanath; Ray, Subha
We attempted to find out how menopausal problems cluster with each other. The study was conducted among a group of women belonging to a Bengali-speaking Hindu ethnic group of West Bengal, a state located in Eastern India. We recruited 1,400 participants for the study. Information on sociodemographic aspects and menopausal problems were collected from these participants with the help of a pretested questionnaire. Results of cluster analysis showed that vasomotor, vaginal, and urinary problems cluster together, separately from physical and psychosomatic problems.
Hansen, Andreas Wolff; Christensen, Dirk; Larsson, Melanie
assessed from the number of meals and snacks per day and from the food items and major food groups registered, and their contribution to energy intake (EI) was calculated. Anthropometric values were measured and sociodemographic data obtained using a questionnaire. Setting. A cross-sectional study......, respectively. Conclusions. The degree of food insecurity measured as a degree of undernutrition and as dietary patterns differed considerably among the ethnic groups. The Maasai and Kamba in particular were exposed to food insecurity. Copyright © The Authors 2011....
Mohamed Saini, Suriati; Nik Jaafar, Nik Ruzyanei; Sidi, Hatta; Midin, Marhani; Mohd Radzi, Azizah; Abdul Rahman, Abdul Hamid
The risk variants have been shown to vary substantially across populations and a genetic study in a heterogeneous population might shed a new light in the disease mechanism. This preliminary study aims to determine the frequency of the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR) in the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia and its association with bipolar disorder. This is a candidate gene association study of randomly selected forty five unrelated bipolar disorder probands and sixty six controls. Diagnosis was evaluated using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I). The control group consisted of healthy volunteers without personal psychiatric history and family history of mood disorder. Patients' whole blood was collected for genotyping. This study revealed that the frequency of the short variant of 5-HTTLPR in healthy control group was highest in Indians (42.9%) followed by Malays (23.5%) and was absent in Chinese. The association between the homozygous ss genotype of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism with bipolar disorder was not found in the pooled subjects (χ(2)=1.52, d.f.=1, p=0.218, OR=4.67, 95% C.I.=0.69-7.58) and after stratification into Malays (p=0.315, OR=2.03, 95% CI=0.50-8.17), Indians (p=0.310; OR=0.44, 95% CI=0.21-0.92) and Chinese. The differences in the frequency of the short allele of 5-HTTLPR across the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia were noteworthy. The present study showed no significant association between the homozygous short variant of the 5-HTTLPR and bipolar disorder in the pooled subject and after stratification into the three main ethnic groups in Malaysia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mary E. Northridge
Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Methods Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR, this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents, executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. Results While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24 and numbers of participants (n = 194. Conclusions This study adds to the
Northridge, Mary E; Shedlin, Michele; Schrimshaw, Eric W; Estrada, Ivette; De La Cruz, Leydis; Peralta, Rogelina; Birdsall, Stacia; Metcalf, Sara S; Chakraborty, Bibhas; Kunzel, Carol
Despite a body of evidence on racial/ethnic minority enrollment and retention in research, literature specifically focused on recruiting racially/ethnically diverse older adults for social science studies is limited. There is a need for more rigorous research on methodological issues and the efficacy of recruitment methods. Cultural obstacles to recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults include language barriers, lack of cultural sensitivity of target communities on the part of researchers, and culturally inappropriate assessment tools. Guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR), this study critically appraised the recruitment of racial/ethnic minority older adults for focus groups. The initial approach involved using the physical and social infrastructure of the ElderSmile network, a community-based initiative to promote oral and general health and conduct health screenings in places where older adults gather, to recruit racial/ethnic minority adults for a social science component of an interdisciplinary initiative. The process involved planning a recruitment strategy, engaging the individuals involved in its implementation (opinion leaders in senior centers, program staff as implementation leaders, senior community-based colleagues as champions, and motivated center directors as change agents), executing the recruitment plan, and reflecting on the process of implementation. While the recruitment phase of the study was delayed by 6 months to allow for ongoing recruitment and filling of focus group slots, the flexibility of the recruitment plan, the expertise of the research team members, the perseverance of the recruitment staff, and the cultivation of change agents ultimately resulted in meeting the study targets for enrollment in terms of both numbers of focus group discussions (n = 24) and numbers of participants (n = 194). This study adds to the literature in two important ways. First, we leveraged the social and
Porter, M; Todd, A L; Zhang, L Y
Australia has one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse maternal populations in the world. Routinely few variables are recorded in clinical data or health research to capture this diversity. This paper explores how pregnant women, Australian-born and overseas-born, respond to survey questions on ethnicity or cultural group identity, and whether country of birth is a reliable proxy measure. As part of a larger study, pregnant women attending public antenatal clinics in Sydney, Australia, completed a survey about their knowledge and expectations of pregnancy duration. The survey included two questions on country of birth, and identification with an ethnicity or cultural group. Country of birth data were analysed using frequency tabulations. Responses to ethnicity or cultural group were analysed using inductive coding to identify thematic categories. Among the 762 with 75 individual cultural groups or ethnicities and 68 countries of birth reported. For Australian-born women (n=293), 23% identified with a cultural group or ethnicity, and 77% did not. For overseas-born women (n=469), 44% identified with a cultural group or ethnicity and 56% did not. Responses were coded under five thematic categories. Ethnicity and cultural group identity are complex concepts; women across and within countries of birth identified differently, indicating country of birth is not a reliable measure. To better understand the identities of the women receiving maternity care, midwives, clinicians and researchers have an ethical responsibility to challenge practices that quantify cultural group or ethnicity, or use country of birth as a convenient proxy measure. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Midwives. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel
Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of
Bryant, Allison S; Cheng, Yvonne W; Caughey, Aaron B
The objective of this article is to determine whether racial/ethnic disparities exist in screening for group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization among pregnant women. A retrospective cohort study of deliveries at a single institution was conducted. The primary outcome was the availability of GBS culture data at the time of delivery; the primary predictor was maternal race/ethnicity. Analyses were stratified by the time periods before and after the CDC recommendations for universal screening for GBS. Among 16,333 deliveries, 60.4% of the population was screened for GBS but screening rates varied markedly by year of delivery. Black women had a lower odds of having available GBS data (AOR 0.81 [0.69, 0.95]) but this disparity was limited to the period of time before universal screening was recommended. Prior to the recommendation for universal screening for GBS, racial/ethnic disparities existed in rates of screening among pregnant women delivering at term. These differences were reduced after 2002, suggesting that uniform policies regarding obstetrical care may be effective in eliminating disparities in obstetrical care and outcomes.
Banoei, Mohammad Mehdi; Chaleshtori, Morteza Hashemzadeh; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Shariati, Parvin; Houshmand, Massoud; Majidizadeh, Tayebeh; Soltani, Niloofar Jahangir; Golalipour, Massoud
Variation of a VNTR in the DAT1 gene in seven ethnic groups of the Middle East was used to infer the history and affinities of these groups. The populations consisted of Assyrian, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Armenian, Turkmen, and Arab peoples of Iran, Iraq, and Kuwait. Three hundred forty subjects from these seven ethnic groups were screened for DAT1. DAT1 VNTR genotyping showed 3, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 alleles in the samples. Analysis of these data revealed differentiation and relationship among the populations. In this region, which covers an area of 2-2.5 million km2, the influence of geography and especially of linguistic characteristics has had potentially major effects on differentiation. Religion also has played a major role in imposing restrictions on some ethnic groups, who as a consequence have maintained their community. Overall, these ethnic groups showed greater heterogeneity compared to other populations.
Jaafar, N; Abdul Razak, I
Different groups of people will view and use modern dental services differently. This is determined by their traditional beliefs and cultural background. The aim of this study is to identify variations in utilization among adults in the three major ethnic groups in Malaysia. Dental records of 500 adults attending the University dental center were randomly selected and analyzed by sex and ethnic group. Results from this pilot study clearly indicate that different ethnic groups tend to use certain types of services more than others. Similarly, there is evidence of variation in the type of dental service preferred between males and females. The implications of these findings for dental health educators, program planners and further research is emphasized in order to promote a more positive pattern of utilization among the various ethnic groups.
Nieuwenhuijsen, Karen; Schene, Aart H; Stronks, Karien; Snijder, Marieke B; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W; Sluiter, Judith K
Ethnic inequalities in mental health have been found in many high-income countries. The purpose of this study is to test whether mental health inequalities between ethnic groups are mediated by exposure to unfavourable working conditions. Workers (n = 6278) were selected from baseline data of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study. Measures included two indices of unfavourable working conditions (lack of recovery opportunities, and perceived work stress), and two mental health outcomes (generic mental health: MCS-12 and depressive symptoms: PHQ-9). Mediation of the relationships between ethnicity and mental health by unfavourable working conditions was tested using the bias-corrected bootstrap confidence intervals technique. Linear models with and without the mediators included, and adjusted for gender and age. Attenuation was calculated as the change in B between the models with and without mediators. The sample comprised Dutch (1355), African Surinamese (1290), South-Asian Surinamese (1121), Turkish (1090), Ghanaian (729), and Moroccan (693) workers. After controlling for age and gender, all ethnic minorities had a higher risk of mental health problems as compared to the Dutch host population, with the exception of Ghanaians in the case of depressive symptoms, and African Surinamese workers with regard to both outcomes. The Turkish group stands out with the lowest mental health on both mental health indices, followed by Moroccan and South-Asian Surinamese workers. A lack of recovery opportunities mediated the relationship between ethnic group and a higher risk of mental health problems. Perceived work stress did not contribute to the explanation of ethnic inequalities. The higher risk of mental health problems in ethnic minority groups can be partly accounted for by a lack of recovery opportunities at work, but not by perceived work stress. This may imply that workplace prevention targeting recovery opportunities have the potential to reduce ethnic inequalities, but
Yu, Jiang; Warner, Lynn A
According to New York statewide substance abuse treatment and discharge data, Asians are a small minority who differ significantly from other racial-ethnic groups on income, primary language, treatment setting, substance abuse, referral source, and discharge status. The present study further compares alcohol and substance abuse service utilization patterns of Asians with those of Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics in New York State. Cox regressions were employed to examine the differences in treatment admission patterns among Asians and other ethnic groups, while controlling a number of demographic, treatment-related, and non-treatment-related factors. A sample of 408,158 clients was selected from the Client Data System of the New York State Office of Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Services for the analysis. While Asians in general are less likely to use treatment services and to have multiple treatment admissions compared with other groups, those Asians with multiple admissions tend to show utilization patterns - the period of greatest risk for readmission, the rate at which readmissions occur, and the likelihood of readmission - similar to the other groups at each subsequent admission. These findings suggest both similarities and differences in treatment readmission patterns between Asians and other clients of substance abuse treatment services. Future research on the cultural and linguistic factors related to Asians' recovery and service utilization patterns after the initial treatment experience may be particularly important for systems of care seeking to be responsive to Asians' needs.
Padmanabhanunni, Anita; Jaffer, Labeeqah; Steenkamp, Jeanette
A growing body of research has emphasised the salience of cultural beliefs and traditional practices to women's experiences of menstruation. Relatively less research has, however, been undertaken in South Africa. This study explored the experience of menstruation among women from the ama-Xhosa ethnic group, one of the largest ethnic groups in the country. Among the ama-Xhosa, there are distinct cultural practices associated with menstruation, including the female rite of passage (intonjane) and virginity testing (inkciyo). However, few studies have explored the experience of menstruation for women from this cultural group. This study involved the synthesis of data from individual interviews and focus group discussions conducted among a sample of ama-Xhosa women. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. Distinctive findings included women's participation in traditional cultural practices of intonjane and inkciyo and the presence of cultural taboos associated with menstruation. Women's narratives revealed strong ambivalence regarding these practices. On the one hand, they wanted to adhere to traditional practices but experienced these customs as evoking discomfort and shame. The study confirmed the prevalence of negative constructions of menstruation. Positive appraisals of menstruation as evoking joy and happiness were also encountered.
Thibeault, M Alexander; Stein, Gabriela L; Nelson-Gray, Rosemery O
Ethnic discrimination increases risk for depressive symptoms, but less is known about factors that influence the impact of this cultural challenge on psychological adjustment for immigrant-origin college students. Sociocultural identity development is especially relevant during emerging adulthood. Studies examining exacerbating or buffering impacts of ethnic identity have yielded mixed results. The current study examines conditions under which one aspect of ethnic identity, affirmation/belonging, moderates the impact of perceived ethnic discrimination stress on depressive symptoms. This was expected to vary by other-group orientation and gender, in accordance with rejection sensitivity theory. A multicultural sample of 290 non-White immigrant-origin emerging adults (aged 18-25) from mixed cultural backgrounds and generational statuses attending a college in the Southeastern United States completed electronic self-report questionnaires. More robust support was provided for social identity theory rather than rejection sensitivity theory: stronger affirmation/belonging was inversely associated with depressive symptoms across the sample, with a notable buffering impact for women. Trend-level results indicated a protective effect for those endorsing stronger affirmation/belonging paired with greater other-group orientation. Additionally, women with weaker affirmation/belonging demonstrated greater increased depressive symptoms compared to men with weaker affirmation/belonging. For this sample, social identity theory was relevant to the impact of affirmation/belonging on the relation between ethnic discrimination and depressive symptoms contingent on other-group orientation and gender. This finding underscores the importance of examining ethnic identity in a nuanced manner. Implications for these results extend to college counseling centers, where inclusion of sociocultural identity in case conceptualization would be useful. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all
Marissa Janine Carter
Full Text Available PURPOSE: To characterize refractive errors in Paraguayan children aged 5-16 years and investigate effect of age, gender, and ethnicity. METHODS:The study was conducted at 3 schools that catered to Mennonite, indigenous, and mixed race children. Children were examined for presenting visual acuity, autorefraction with and without cycloplegia, and retinoscopy. Data were analyzed for myopia and hyperopia (SE ≤-1 D or -0.5 D and ≥2 D or ≥3 D and astigmatism (cylinder ≥1 D. Spherical equivalent (SE values were calculated from right eye cycloplegic autorefraction data and analyzed using general linear modelling. RESULTS: There were 190, 118, and 168 children of Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race ethnicity, respectively. SE values between right/left eyes were nonsignificant. Mean visual acuity (VA without correction was better for Mennonites compared to indigenous or mixed race children (right eyes: 0.031, 0.090, and 0.102 logMAR units, respectively; P<0.000001. There were 2 cases of myopia in the Mennonite group (1.2% and 2 cases in the mixed race group (1.4% (SE ≤-0.5 D. The prevalence of hyperopia (SE ≥2 D was 40.6%, 34.2%, and 46.3% for Mennonite, indigenous and mixed race children. Corresponding astigmatism rates were 3.2%, 9.5%, and 12.7%. Females were slightly more hyperopic than males, and the 9-11 years age group was the most hyperopic. Mennonite and mixed race children were more hyperopic than indigenous children. CONCLUSIONS: Paraguayan children were remarkably hyperopic and relatively free of myopia. Differences with regard to gender, age, and ethnicity were small.
Forster, Alice S; Rockliffe, Lauren; Chorley, Amanda J; Marlow, Laura A V; Bedford, Helen; Smith, Samuel G; Waller, Jo
Uptake of some childhood immunisations in the UK is lower among those from some Black and Asian Minority Ethnic (BAME) backgrounds. This systematic review of qualitative research sought to understand the factors that are associated with ethnicity that influence the immunisation decisions of parents from BAME backgrounds living in the UK. Databases were searched on 2 December 2014 for studies published at any time using the terms 'UK' and 'vaccination' and 'qualitative methods' (and variations of these). Included articles comprised participants who were parents from BAME backgrounds. Thematic synthesis methods were used to develop descriptive and higher order themes. Themes specific to ethnicity and associated factors are reported. Eight papers were included in the review. Most participants were from Black (n=62) or Asian (n=38) backgrounds. Two ethnicity-related factors affected immunisation decisions. First, factors that are related to ethnicity itself (namely religion, upbringing and migration, and language) affected parents' perceived importance of immunisations, whether immunisations were permitted or culturally acceptable and their understanding of immunisation/the immunisation schedule. Second, perceived biological differences affected decision-making and demand for information. Factors related to ethnicity must be considered when seeking to understand immunisation decisions among parents from BAME backgrounds. Where appropriate and feasible, vaccination information should be targeted to address beliefs about ethnic differences held by some individuals from some BAME backgrounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Sharafi Farzad, M; Tomas Mas, Carmen; Børsting, C
A total number of 149 individuals from Iran (Persians, Lurs and Kurds) were analyzed for 49 autosomal SNPs using PCR, SBE and capillary electrophoresis. No deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations was observed. One SNP pair (rs1015250-rs251934) showed significant linkage disequilibrium in Kurds...... Asian populations in the MDS plot drawn from the FST values. Statistical parameters of forensic interest calculated for the Iranian ethnic groups showed values of the same order of magnitudes as those obtained for Asians. The mean match probability calculated for the 49 SNPs ranged from 1.7x10...
David, Wahyudi; Widianingsih, Nayu Nuringdati; Ardiansyah
Cooking behaviour can reflect how natural resources have been converted into human nutrition. Cooking is activity from collecting to preparing food. Cooking competencies reflect the ability of people to provide for their food-based needs. Harapan Rainforest is a restoration forest with limited food...... resources remaining in it. This study investigated the relationship between cooking behaviour and the associated socio-economic characteristics of three ethnic groups residing in remaining rainforest. The quantitative data were collected from 101 households by using semi-structured questionnaires...
Full Text Available Abstract Background The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position. Methods Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871, Turkey (n = 387, Vietnam (n = 553, Sri Lanka (n = 879 and Pakistan (n = 420. Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position. Results The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men: Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7/20.0% (14.9-25.2; Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9/20.7% (17.3-24.2, Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7/12.0% (7.6-16.4, Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2/10.4% (6.6-14.1 and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7/6.4% (4.6-8.1. The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p Conclusions A high prevalence of diabetes was found in 30-to 60-year-olds from ethnic minority groups in Oslo, with those from Sri Lanka and Pakistan at highest risk. For all levels of adiposity, a higher susceptibility for diabetes was observed for ethnic minority
Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab
Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups.
Abraham P. Buunk
Full Text Available This study examined the opposition against out-group mating and the attitude towards parental influence on mate choice among 107 Dutch, 69 Moroccan, and 69 Turkish participants aged between 15 and 25. The level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was considerably higher among the Turks and Moroccans than among the Dutch, but females in both ethnic groups were less in favor of parental influence on mate choice than males were. Overall, males showed a higher opposition against interethnic dating than females did, and the Turks showed a higher level of opposition to interethnic mating than both the Moroccans and the Dutch. In addition, the effect of opposition against interethnic mating on preferred parental influence on mate choice was especially pronounced among the Turks, somewhat less so among the Moroccans, and least strong among the Dutch. Especially young males with a Turkish and Moroccan background seem to hold on to the values of the cultures they come from, and particularly Turkish immigrants seem keen on keeping the cohesion of their ethnic group intact by opposing interethnic dating, and by favoring parental influence on mate choice as a way to achieve this goal.
Crocker Sagastume, René; Cosío González, Antonio Tunuri; López López, Martina Haulima; Ruiz Domínguez, Liah; Andrade Ureña, Diana; Gutiérrez Gómez, Yareni
The high prevalence of eating-nutritional problems and the low degree of impact the food programs have, mainly because the cosmovision of this people has been overlooked warrants the recovery of the eating-nutritional culture of the Wixarika ethnic group in Mexico. This research is aimed at providing elements for constructing a sustainable, intercultaral, participation-based eating and nutrition model bringing together modernity and this people's ancestral taditions. The participative action based on the Sociocritical epistemology was employed as the research methodology with the in-depth survey and participating ethnography techniques. This research was conducted in the Wixarika of Santa Catarina Cuexcomatitlan community in the municipality of Mezquitic, Jalisco, Mexico. The foods eaten by the Wixarika people have a religious meaning, in which corn is the main connecting force of their food-related cosmovision. As most Mesoamerican cultures, the basis of food production and consumption is comprised by the "three sisters: corn, beans and squash, to which jitomate and chile have been added, as well as the gathering of foods from the surrounding environment such as fungus, chelites and nopal, foods which, on being produced and eaten in sufficient quantities and properly combined may provide for this ethic group being properly fed. Food comprises a central aspect in the way in which the cosmovision of the Wixarika people is set out, these being representations and meanings which must be integrated in order to model which will ensure the eating-nutritional soundness of this ethnic group.
van der Ven, Elsje; Bourque, François; Joober, Ridha; Selten, Jean-Paul; Malla, Ashok K
To explore differences in severity and nature of symptoms of first-episode psychosis (FEP) according to ethnic group and migrant status. We administered rating scales to assess positive and negative symptoms, as well as general psychopathology, to 301 consecutive patients presenting with an FEP within a defined catchment area in Montreal, Quebec, classified according to ethnicity and migrant status. Symptom scores of Euro-Canadian patients without a recent history of migration, that is, the reference group (n = 145), were compared with those of African and Afro-Caribbean (n = 39), Asian (n = 27), Central and South American (n = 15), Middle Eastern and North African (n = 24), and European and North American (n = 39) patients. Except for referral source, there were no significant differences between ethnic groups on any demographic variables. The African and Afro-Caribbean group had a higher level of negative symptoms (especially alogia) and general psychopathology scores on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (especially, uncooperativeness, preoccupation, and poor attention), compared with the reference group. Ethnic groups did not differ on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms scores. A comparison of FEP patients from different ethnic groups and native-born Euro-Canadians revealed no significant differences in the nature of positive symptoms at first presentation or in age at onset, suggesting that there was no evidence for the hypothesis that ethnic minorities are misdiagnosed as psychotic. Increased severity of negative symptoms and general psychopathology, specifically among the black ethnic minority group, may have implications for the role of ethnicity for the treatment and outcome of the initial episode of psychotic disorders.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous health research has often explicitly excluded individuals from minority ethnic backgrounds due to perceived cultural and communication difficulties, including studies where there might be language/literacy problems in obtaining informed consent. This study addressed these difficulties by developing audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent and recording data. This report outlines 1 our experiences with securing recruitment to a qualitative study investigating alternative methods of data collection, and 2 the development of a standardised process for obtaining informed consent from individuals from minority ethnic backgrounds whose main language does not have an agreed written form. Methods Two researchers from South Asian backgrounds recruited adults with Type 2 diabetes whose main language was spoken and not written, to attend a series of focus groups. A screening tool was used at recruitment in order to assess literacy skills in potential participants. Informed consent was obtained using audio-recordings of the patient information and recording patients' verbal consent. Participants' perceptions of this method of obtaining consent were recorded. Results Recruitment rates were improved by using telephone compared to face-to-face methods. The screening tool was found to be acceptable by all potential participants. Audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent were easy to implement and accepted by all participants. Attrition rates differed according to ethnic group. Snowballing techniques only partly improved participation rates. Conclusion Audio-recorded methods of obtaining informed consent are an acceptable alternative to written consent in study populations where literacy skills are variable. Further exploration of issues relating to attrition is required, and a range of methods may be necessary in order to maximise response and participation rates.
Jack, Ruth H; Davies, Elizabeth A; Renshaw, Christine; Tutt, Andrew; Grocock, Melanie J; Coupland, Victoria H; Møller, Henrik
Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with different ethnic groups in the United States (US), however this has not previously been examined in a population-based study within the United Kingdom (UK). Electronic pathology reports from the North East London Cancer Network (NELCN) on women diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2007 were collated. The statuses of oestrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and HER-2 were extracted. Women were classified as having TNBC if all three receptor statuses were negative, and as not having TNBC if at least one receptor was positive or borderline. Logistic regression was used to quantify the association between TNBC and ethnicity, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis and socioeconomic deprivation. Overall survival in different ethnic groups was examined using Cox regression, adjusting as appropriate for age, stage of disease, triple negative status, year of diagnosis, socioeconomic deprivation and recorded treatment. There were 2417 women resident in NELCN diagnosed with breast cancer between 2005 and 2007, and TNBC status was determined for 1228 (51%) women. Overall, of women who had their TNBC status determined, 128 (10%) were diagnosed with TNBC. Compared with White women, Black (odds ratio [OR]=2.81, p<0.001) and South Asian (OR=1.80, p=0.044) women with breast cancer were more likely to have TNBC. Black women had a worse age-adjusted survival than White women (hazard ratio [HR]=2.05, p<0.001). This was attenuated by further adjustment for stage of disease (1.52, p=0.032) and triple negative status (1.31, p=0.175). Better methods of early detection may need to be developed in addition to more effective systemic treatment in order to improve outcomes for women with TNBC. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Scior, K; Addai-Davis, J; Kenyon, M; Sheridan, J C
Attitudes to the inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities (IDs) have been studied extensively, yet evidence on public awareness about ID and stigma is limited. The relationship between attitudes, knowledge and stigma associated with ID is poorly understood. The present study examined these factors and the relationships between them in the context of a multicultural society. UK residents of working age (n = 1002) were presented with a diagnostically unlabelled vignette of someone with a mild ID. They were asked to label the difficulties presented and to complete measures of social distance and attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs. While attitudes to the inclusion of people with IDs were relatively positive overall, social contact was viewed with ambivalence. Inclusion attitudes and social distance were only moderately correlated. Across the whole sample 28% recognised typical symptoms of mild ID. Recognition of ID was associated with lower stigma and more positive attitudes than attribution of the difficulties presented to other causes. White Westerners showed increased knowledge, lower stigma and favoured inclusion more than participants from ethnic minorities. Among the latter group, Asians showed lower stigma and attitudes more in line with inclusion policies than participants of Black African/Caribbean backgrounds. Once a host of contextual factors were considered jointly, only contact was consistently associated with the variables measured. Stigma associated with ID is of concern across all ethnic groups, although it appears to be increased among the public from ethnic minorities. Given that contact and awareness are associated with reduced stigma, they should be considered as prime foci for efforts to tackle ID stigma. The current findings serve as baseline for attempts to increase public awareness and tackle stigma. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd, MENCAP & IASSID.
Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context. Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital. Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses. Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted. Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking. Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.
Weidmann, Nils B; Benitez-Baleato, Suso; Hunziker, Philipp; Glatz, Eduard; Dimitropoulos, Xenofontas
The global expansion of the Internet is frequently associated with increased government transparency, political rights, and democracy. However, this assumption depends on marginalized groups getting access in the first place. Here we document a strong and persistent political bias in the allocation of Internet coverage across ethnic groups worldwide. Using estimates of Internet penetration obtained through network measurements, we show that politically excluded groups suffer from significantly lower Internet penetration rates compared with those in power, an effect that cannot be explained by economic or geographic factors. Our findings underline one of the central impediments to "liberation technology," which is that governments still play a key role in the allocation of the Internet and can, intentionally or not, sabotage its liberating effects. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Huang, Z Jennifer; Zheng, Chaoyi
We examined associations between generational status and age-adjusted type 2 diabetes (T2DM) among Asians living in California. We abstracted data on 7,188 Asian Americans of six ethnicities from the 2007 and 2009 California Health Interview Survey. Age-and ethnicity-specific logistic regression analyses were used to model prevalence of T2DM based on 29 generational status and language spoken at home. Second-generation Asian men and first-generation Asian women had higher T2DM prevalence compared with their White peers. Such a trend was observed among Chinese and Filipino men, and Filipina and Korean women. In addition, Filipinas who spoke only English at home had lower odds of T2DM than other Filipinas (OR=0.3, 95% CI: 0.1-1.0) while the relationship was reversed among Filipino men (OR=3.2, 95% CI 1.0-10.1). Associations between generational status and T2DM among Asian Americans are non-linear and strongly influenced by gender and ethnicity.
Full Text Available Orientation: Researching entrepreneurship using a network perspective is important, as social networks are assets for small business owners struggling to survive in competitive markets.Research purpose: The research question of this study has focused on what we can learn about entrepreneurial networking, considering that there is an under-explored and unarticulated set of networking principles and practices which have not been previously analysed in terms of a multiethnic country context.Motivation for the study: Often the lack of network use is reported as a feature of entrepreneurs, who have less opportunity to utilise formal social capital features. Social networks provided by extended family, community-based or organisational relationships are often theorised to supplement the effects of education, experience and financial capital.Research design, approach and method: Based on hypothesised differences in networking ties, network assistance and support relationships, a survey was used to collect data on quantitative measures. Descriptive statistics were calculated and differential tests were conducted to test the hypotheses.Main findings: Results indicate that entrepreneurial networking is largely independent on group composition. Generally at least some aspects of networking are generic and as a consequence, a more integrated view of networking can be adopted.Practical/managerial implications: The practical value of the present study points to several areas of interest to entrepreneurs, policy makers and educators, through demonstrating the multifaceted nature of entrepreneurial networks for different groups and their explanatory potential in understanding networking.Contribution/value-add: Despite the importance of entrepreneurial networking, little empirical or theoretical research has examined the dynamics of networking in a developing country context such as South Africa, which has lower than expected total entrepreneurship activity.
Vasić Aleksandar D.
Full Text Available Dealing with many and various problems presented by the reality of the Roma ethnic group is at the centre of interest of numerous scientific disciplines and social sciences. Compiling the inventory of new and fresh items of knowledge about various aspects of the Roma life is an important element of a wider field of research in which the Roma are one of the ethnic groups under scientific investigation. Readiness to treat the Roma in the spirit of humanist tradition which in modern times has been accepted as a paradigm of human development, has launched numerous initiatives by society and social institutions to realize a justified request that the problems of the position of the Roma deserve to be treated in the context of both science as well as the global context of social structure. The research into essential questions of the life of the Roman community comprise a number of historical, ethnological, anthropological, demographic and sociological aspect which can be investigated together can be placed within a scientific framework.
Fielding, Jane L
Previous research has shown that many vulnerable communities experience disproportional exposure to flood risk. This paper, though, is the first to look at broad ethnic/racial group differences in the United Kingdom. It contends that differences in culture and language, especially those of new immigrants, bestow vulnerabilities on such communities, resulting in a lack of knowledge that enables people to be aware, to be prepared, or to recover expediently after a flood emergency. Using UK 2011 Census data and Environment Agency flood maps, the paper demonstrates that it is the non-white communities in Wales that confront the most disproportionate level of flood risk: 23 per cent as compared to 11.4 per cent of their white neighbours. In contrast, the difference in flood risk between white and non-white ethnic/racial groups in regions of England is within a range of plus or minus two per cent, except for in Yorkshire and The Humber where white populations face a much greater risk of flooding. © 2018 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2018.
Binh, Tran Thanh; Tuan, Vo Phuoc; Dung, Ho Dang Quy; Tung, Pham Huu; Tri, Tran Dinh; Thuan, Ngo Phuong Minh; Tam, Le Quang; Nam, Bui Chi; Giang, Do Anh; Hoan, Phan Quoc; Uchida, Tomohisa; Trang, Tran Thi Huyen; Khien, Vu Van; Yamaoka, Yoshio
The Helicobacter pylori -induced burden of gastric cancer varies based on geographical regions and ethnic grouping. Vietnam is a multiethnic country with the highest incidence of gastric cancer in Southeast Asia, but previous studies focused only on the Kinh ethnic group. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted using 494 volunteers (18-78 years old), from 13 ethnic groups in Daklak and Lao Cai provinces, Vietnam. H. pylori status was determined by multiple tests (rapid urease test, culture, histology, and serology). cagA and vacA genotypes were determined by PCR-based sequencing. The overall H. pylori infection rate was 38.1%. Multivariate analysis showed that variations in geographical region, age, and ethnicity were independent factors associated with the risk of H. pylori acquisition. Therefore, multicenter, multiethnic, population based study is essential to assess the H. pylori prevalence and its burden in the general population. Only the E De ethnicity carried strains with Western-type CagA (82%) and exhibited significantly lower gastric mucosal inflammation compared to other ethnic groups. However, the histological scores of Western-type CagA and East-Asian-type CagA within the E De group showed no significant differences. Thus, in addition to bacterial virulence factors, host factors are likely to be important determinants for gastric mucosal inflammation and contribute to the Asian enigma.
Liu, Fen; Adi, Dilare; Xie, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Mei; Fu, Zhen-Yan; Shan, Chun-Fang; Huang, Ying; Chen, Bang-Dang; Gai, Min-Tao; Gao, Xiao-Ming; Ma, Yi-Tong; Yang, Yi-Ning
Little is known about isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH) among different ethnicity groups. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for IDH among the major ethnicity population i.e. Han, Uygur and Kazakh in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. In total, 14,618 adult participants (7,799 males, 6,819 females) were recruited from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, body mass index and standard lipid profile and fasting glucose level from plasma were measured. The overall prevalence of IDH was 10.8% in the Han, 4.5% in the Uygur and 8.7% in the Kazakh populations. When stratified by gender, IDH prevalence was 9.8% in men and 6.8% in women (P<0.001). The prevalence of IDH also varied significantly with age and it was highest in those aged 35-44 yrs old (9.7%) and lowest in those over 75 yrs old (4.1%, P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight (OR = 1.179, 95%CI: 1.015-1.369) or obesity (OR = 1.202, 95%CI: 1.015-1.424), smoking (OR = 1.362, 95%CI: 1.156-1.604) and high total cholesterol (TC) hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.237, 95%CI: 1.074-1.423) were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IDH. Identified risk factors for IDH differed among ethnicity groups with male gender, young age (35-44 yrs old), more coffee or tea consumption and high TC hyperlipidemia in the Han; smoking and often coffee or tea consumption in the Uygur and male gender and overweight or obesity in the Kazakh populations. IDH prevalence in the Han population is higher than that in the Uygur and Kazak populations in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Male gender, middle age, overweight or obesity, smoking and high TC hyperlipidemia appear to be relevant risk factors of IDH in adults. Different ethnicity background had different sets of risk factors for IDH.
Full Text Available Little is known about isolated diastolic hypertension (IDH among different ethnicity groups. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk factors for IDH among the major ethnicity population i.e. Han, Uygur and Kazakh in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China.In total, 14,618 adult participants (7,799 males, 6,819 females were recruited from the Cardiovascular Risk Survey conducted during 2007 and 2010. Blood pressure, body mass index and standard lipid profile and fasting glucose level from plasma were measured.The overall prevalence of IDH was 10.8% in the Han, 4.5% in the Uygur and 8.7% in the Kazakh populations. When stratified by gender, IDH prevalence was 9.8% in men and 6.8% in women (P<0.001. The prevalence of IDH also varied significantly with age and it was highest in those aged 35-44 yrs old (9.7% and lowest in those over 75 yrs old (4.1%, P<0.001. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that overweight (OR = 1.179, 95%CI: 1.015-1.369 or obesity (OR = 1.202, 95%CI: 1.015-1.424, smoking (OR = 1.362, 95%CI: 1.156-1.604 and high total cholesterol (TC hyperlipidemia (OR = 1.237, 95%CI: 1.074-1.423 were significantly associated with a higher prevalence of IDH. Identified risk factors for IDH differed among ethnicity groups with male gender, young age (35-44 yrs old, more coffee or tea consumption and high TC hyperlipidemia in the Han; smoking and often coffee or tea consumption in the Uygur and male gender and overweight or obesity in the Kazakh populations.IDH prevalence in the Han population is higher than that in the Uygur and Kazak populations in Xinjiang, northwestern part of China. Male gender, middle age, overweight or obesity, smoking and high TC hyperlipidemia appear to be relevant risk factors of IDH in adults. Different ethnicity background had different sets of risk factors for IDH.
The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between reserved seats for ethnic groups in national legislatures and corruption. In 2008, over 30 countries were reserving seats for ethnic groups in their national legislature. The share of seats that was reserved ranged from a 2 percent reserved seats arrangement for a small ethnic minority, to a 100 percent reserved seats power-sharing arrangement between two or more ethnic groups. By applying theories of informal power, this essay hypo...
Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G
To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the United States, we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the endorsement of major depressive disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, agoraphobia without history of panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance use disorders in varying degrees among the three minority groups, independent of the socioeconomic status, level of education, age, and gender of participants. The results suggest that the perception of racial discrimination is associated with psychopathology in the three most common U.S. minority groups.
Gloria A. Miranda-Zambrano
Full Text Available The work exposes some forms of indigenous groups participation on entrepreneurial family businesses, mainly in the region of Laja - Bajío where the family plays an important role in these organizations. The work point out the approach on technical ethnic division of labour to locate such actors in labour circuits, in economic activities or guilds that have been built in various social processes. To analyze the ways in which they operate, the role of the family, their knowledge (cultural capital, its forms of linkage with the community of origin and with the Group (social capital, as well as the existence of certain differences with business in common. This research is part of a larger work on family businesses.
Razani, Jill; Burciaga, Joaquin; Madore, Michelle; Wong, Jennifer
The objective of this study was to examine differences between fluent English-speaking ethnically diverse (ED) individuals (from Hispanic, Asian and Middle-Eastern descent) and monolingual English-speaking Anglo-Americans (MEAA) on commonly used tests of information processing and attention. A sample of 123 (84 ED and 39 MEAA) healthy individuals participated. The results revealed that the MEAA group outperformed the ED group on Trail Making Test Part B, Stroop B and C, and Auditory Consonant Trigrams (18s delay condition). Additionally, a host of acculturation variables such as score on a formal acculturation scale, amount of time educated outside of the U.S., and the amount of English spoken when growing up correlated with these various neuropsychological tests. The findings from this study highlight the importance of taking acculturation into account for fluent English-speaking ED individuals when administering and interpreting neuropsychological tests.
De Jong Gierveld, Jenny; Van der Pas, Suzan; Keating, Norah
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale. Determinants of loneliness included country of birth, ethnic background (cultural context); belongingness (community context) and social networks (social context). Results showed that only some immigrant groups are significantly lonelier than older adults born in Canada. Immigrants with similar language and culture are not lonelier; while those from countries that differ in native language/culture are significantly higher on loneliness. Multivariate analyses showed the importance of cultural background, of composition of the network of relatives and friends, and of local participation and feelings of belonging to the Canadian society in explaining loneliness of older immigrants.
Dzhumabaev, M N; Dzhumanova, R G; Sabirov, I S
The main aim was to study the ethnic and social characteristics of the prevalence of certain risk factors among Kyrgyz ethnic population infected with Helicobacter pylori without clinical signs of the disease of upper gastrointestinal tract. The study involved 116 healthy individuals (57 and 49 Kyrgyz, Russian) who were tested on H. pylori infection, taking into account risk factors such as smoking, alcohol consumption, low or serious teeth damage. The identified H.pylori infection was independent from ethnic affiliation. Significant relation between absence or high damage of the teeth and H. pylori contamination was revealed in surveyed Kyrgyz group.
Lee, Roland Y; Huang, Guofu; Cui, Qi N; He, Mingguang; Porco, Travis C; Lin, Shan C
To compare lens vault between open-angle and narrow-angle eyes in African-, Caucasian-, Hispanic-, Chinese- and Filipino-Americans. In this prospective study, 436 patients with open angle and narrow angle based on the Shaffer gonioscopic grading classification underwent anterior-segment optical coherence tomography. The Zhongshan Angle Assessment Program was used to calculate lens vault. The narrow-angle group included 32 Chinese-Americans, 22 Filipino-Americans, 26 African-Americans, 24 Hispanic-Americans and 73 Caucasian-Americans. The open-angle group included 56 Chinese-Americans, 29 Filipino-Americans, 45 African-Americans, 27 Hispanic-Americans and 102 Caucasian-Americans. Linear mixed effect regression models, accounting for the use of both eyes and adjusting for age, sex, pupil diameter and spherical equivalent, were used to test for the ethnicity and angle coefficients. Tukey's multiple comparison test was used for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups. Significant difference in lens vault was found among the open-angle racial groups (P = 0.022). For the open-angle patients, mean values for the lens vault measurements were 265 ± 288 µm for Chinese-Americans, 431 ± 248 µm for Caucasian-Americans, 302 ± 213 µm for Filipino-Americans, 304 ± 263 µm for Hispanic-Americans and 200 ± 237 µm for African-Americans. Using Tukey's multiple comparison for pairwise comparisons among the open-angle racial groups, a significant difference was found between African-American and Caucasian-Americans groups (P values for the rest of the pairwise comparisons were not statistically significant. No significant difference was found among the narrow-angle racial groups (P = 0.14). Comparison between the open angle and narrow angle within each racial group revealed significant difference for all racial groups (P < 0.05). Among all the ethnicities included in this study, narrow-angle eyes have greater lens vault compared to open
Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric F.; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Landau, Simha; Shikaki, Khalil; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir
Ethno-political conflict impacts thousands of youth globally and has been associated with a number of negative psychological outcomes. Extant literature has mostly addressed the adverse emotional and behavioral outcomes of exposure while failing to examine change over time in social-cognitive factors in contexts of ethno-political conflict. Using cohort-sequential longitudinal data, the present study examines ethnic variation in the development of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups among Palestinian (n=600), Israeli Jewish (n=451), and Israeli Arab (n=450) youth over three years. Age and exposure to ethno-political violence were included as covariates for these trajectories. Findings indicate important ethnic differences in trajectories of negative stereotypes about ethnic out-groups, as well as variation in how such trajectories are shaped by prolonged ethno-political conflict. PMID:27019573
Simonstein, Frida; Mashiach-Eizenberg, Michal
The present study investigated a possible relationship between the attitudes toward genetic technologies and the understanding of genetics, reproduction, and reproductive risk among Israeli Arabs and Israeli Jews. The study included 203 respondents, who answered a structured self-report questionnaire. They were recruited using a snowball method, which increased the participation of Israeli Arabs in the sample, although the sample was not representative of the Israeli population as a whole (there were more Arabs and fewer men). The respondents in this study expressed a positive attitude toward genetic technologies, but were less in favor of using genetic tools for non-medical purposes. Respondents of both groups were not knowledgeable of genetics; however, they scored higher on the items related to reproductive risk, which suggests that some awareness about genetic risk exists in both sectors of the Israeli population. Nevertheless, Israeli Arabs were less positive than Israeli Jews regarding the application of genetic tools. Moreover, although an understanding of genetics correlated positively with the attitude among Arabs, it did not affect the attitude of Jews, who remained very positive, regardless of their level of understanding. This result suggests that other social and cultural factors, besides understanding, might be at work among these two major ethnic sectors. Further studies that integrate educational, social, and cultural aspects among ethnic sectors of the population are required to improve health services and genetic counselling in Israel and in other countries.
Luczak, Susan E; Khoddam, Rubin; Yu, Sheila; Wall, Tamara L; Schwartz, Anna; Sussman, Steve
We conducted a review of the prevalence and co-occurrence of 12 types of addictions in US ethnic/racial groups and discuss the implications of the results for genetic research on addictions. We utilized MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases to review the literature on alcohol, tobacco, marijuana, illicit drugs, gambling, eating/food, internet, sex, love, exercise, work, and shopping. We present results for each addiction based on total US prevalence, prevalence within ethnic groups, and co-occurrence of addictions among ethnic groups when available. This review indicates very little research has examined the interrelationships of addictive behaviors among US ethnic groups. The studies that exist have focused nearly exclusively on comorbidity of substances and gambling behaviors. Overall findings suggest differences among US ethnic groups in prevalence of addictions and in prevalence of addiction among those who use substances or engage in gambling. Almost no ethnic group comparisons of other addictive behaviors including eating/food, internet, love, sex, exercise, work, and shopping were identified in the literature. Despite large-scale research efforts to examine alcohol and substance use disorders in the United States, few studies have been published that examine these addictive behaviors among ethnic groups, and even fewer examine co-occurrence and comorbidity with other addictions. Even with the limited studies, these findings have implications for genetic research on addictive behaviors. We include a discussion of these implications, including issues of population stratification, disaggregation, admixture, and the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in understanding the etiology and treatment of addictions. (Am J Addict 2017;26:424-436). © 2016 American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry.
J. Torabizade maatoghi
Conclusion: Our study showed ethnicity-related prevalence. Overall, the blood group O had the highest prevalence and AB the lowest percentage among the ethnicities, indicating a significant difference with studies in other parts of the world.
Leff, H Stephen; Chow, Clifton; Wieman, Dow A; Ostrow, Laysha; Cortés, Dharma E; Harris, Treniece
Measurement of patient satisfaction is now considered essential for providing patient centered care and is an important tool for addressing health care disparities. However, little is known about how ethnically and racially diverse (ERD) groups differ in how they perceive quality, and widely used instruments for measuring perceived quality give little attention to cultural elements of care. This study examined the relationship between the culturally determined beliefs and expectations of four ERD groups (African Americans, Latinos, Portuguese-speakers, and Haitians, total N = 160) and the technical quality of treatment for depression provided in four "culturally-specific" primary care clinics. Using data from the Experiences of Care and Health Outcomes survey, chart reviews and focus groups, the study addressed a set of questions related to the psychometric properties of perceived care measures and the technical quality of care. The groups differed in preferred cultural elements except all preferred inclusion of religion. They did not differ in overall perceived quality. Technical quality was higher for Portuguese and Haitians than for African Americans and Latinos. Implications of group differences for measuring quality are discussed.
Heidi E. Stolz
Full Text Available This study utilized data from over 9,300 youth from 11 national or within-nation ethnic groups to evaluate the relationship between youth religiosity and youth social outcomes (social initiative, antisocial behavior and psychological outcomes (self-esteem and depression considering the roles of religious tradition, national-ethnic group, and gender. We created national-ethnic group by religious tradition (NEG × RT combinations, partitioned religiosity into between-group and within-group components, and performed a series of mixed model regressions for each outcome. The levels of all four outcomes of interest differed significantly across NEG × RT groups, and these differences were attributable to national-ethnic group rather than religious tradition. Youth reports of antisocial behavior and self-esteem were predicted by between-group religiosity. Additionally, within-group religiosity predicted all four outcomes, indicating that the protective role of religiosity functions in a comparative, or relative, manner with youth who are more religious than others in their group reaping the most benefits.
Estevez, Y; Castillo, D; Pisango, M Tangoa; Arevalo, J; Rojas, R; Alban, J; Deharo, E; Bourdy, G; Sauvain, M
A total of 27 ethanolic plant extracts from 27 species were screened for leishmanicidal activity in vitro against Leishmania amazonensis. Most of the selected species (19) are traditionally used by the Chayahuitas, an Amazonian Peruvian ethnic group, to treat skin affections and/or leishmaniasis. A colorimetric method based on the reduction of tetrazolium salt (MTT) was used to measure the viability of Leishmania amazonensis promastigote and amastigote stages. Only the leaves of two species of the Piperaceae family (Piper hispidum Sw., and Piper strigosum Trel.) showed good leishmanicidal activities (IC(50)Cycadaceae) showed low activity against amastigote stage (IC(50) around 50 microg/ml). Of those only Tabernaemontana sananho displayed also good activity on promastigotes (IC(50)<10 microg/ml). Results are discussed herein, in relation with the traditional use of the plants and compared with other data from the relevant literature.
Gooren, Louis J
Guidelines for cross-sex hormone treatment of transsexual people have been developed, but no attention has been paid to the specifics of ethnic groups. South East (SE) Asian male-to-female (MtoF) transsexual people may be able to transition to the female sex with lower doses of estrogens/progestins than Caucasians thus reducing health risks. Female-to-male (FtoM) may virilize less profoundly with standard doses of androgens, but this is probably sufficient to pass acceptably as men in view of the less pronounced sex differences in physique in Asians compared with Caucasians. It is timely that studies in Asians are conducted to get a better insight into their specific needs and risks of cross-sex hormone treatment. PMID:25038187
Martínez Cortés, F; Martínez Guerrero, M V; Valdivielso Felices, P; Legros Carrenard, J R; Martín Sánchez, J
We have studied the birth weights, obstetrics data and anthropometrical data from 1.157 full-term newborns who were delivered in the Hospital del Insalud-Cruz Roja in Ceuta (Spain). Of these newborns, 489 were of arabic origin and 668 of hispanic origin. Arabic newborns were heavier (3.248 +/- 473 g versus 3.280 +/- 431 g, p < 0.001) and longer (50.2 +/- 1.8 cm versus 49.6 +/- 1.8 cm, p < 0.001) than their hispanic counterparts. These differences were not due to a disproportion in sex or gestational age between the groups. Furthermore, the differences were still present after adjustments were made for maternal age, parity and the mother's smoking habit. Thus, this difference in size at birth between arabic and hispanic newborns could be, at least in part, ethnically related.
Mr. Evgeny M. Klimenko
Full Text Available The article considers the problem of intellectuals as social class, features of the national intellectuals, and the problems that national intellectuals of indigenous ethnic groups of Khabarovsk region came across with in the 1990s. These are the problems of preservation of national culture, national language, and difficulties, which have arisen in the sphere of getting national education by representatives of the autochthonic population. The article investigates the transformation process of national culture happening after the Soviet culture had changed into the global culture. When writing this paper the author used unpublished archival documentation. The research is made with assistance of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, the contract No. 14.Z56.16.5304-MK, a project subject: "Regional model of transformation of indigenous small ethnos culture in the conditions of socialist modernization of the Russian Far East in the second half of 1930-1970s".
Roth, P L; Bobko, P
College grade point average (GPA) is often used in a variety of ways in personnel selection. Unfortunately, there is little empirical research literature in human resource management that informs researchers or practitioners about the magnitude of ethnic group differences and any potential adverse impact implications when using cumulative GPA for selection. Data from a medium-sized university in the Southeast (N = 7,498) indicate that the standardized average Black-White difference for cumulative GPA in the senior year is d = 0.78. The authors also conducted analyses at 3 GPA screens (3.00, 3.25, and 3.50) to demonstrate that employers (or educators) might face adverse impact at all 3 levels if GPA continues to be implemented as part of a selection system. Implications and future research are discussed.
Full Text Available Building on previous research on antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions, various measures were tested across different ethnic groups in South Africa. Factorial homogeneity is an important attribute for any scale intended for use in multicultural research, and since tests of equivalency are not routinely applied, this article hypothesised measurement invariance across ethnic groups. Theoretical discussions on Hofstede’s (2001 value survey module (VSM 94, attitudes towards and beliefs about entrepreneurial intentions, general self-efficacy (GSE, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE preceded the use of statistical analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis based on 210 respondents indicated that equivalence for the underlying factors across the different ethnic groups could not be established, and that the three groups demonstrated different underlying structures. In conclusion, stereotypic declarations of an integrated South African culture were not supported by this research in terms of entrepreneurial intentions and their antecedents.
Full Text Available Building on previous research on antecedents of entrepreneurial intentions, various measures were tested across different ethnic groups in South Africa. Factorial homogeneity is an important attribute for any scale intended for use in multicultural research, and since tests of equivalency are not routinely applied, this article hypothesised measurement invariance across ethnic groups. Theoretical discussions on Hofstede’s (2001 value survey module (VSM 94, attitudes towards and beliefs about entrepreneurial intentions, general self-efficacy (GSE, and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE preceded the use of statistical analysis. Confirmatory factor analysis based on 210 respondents indicated that equivalence for the underlying factors across the different ethnic groups could not be established, and that the three groups demonstrated different underlying structures. In conclusion, stereotypic declarations of an integrated South African culture were not supported by this research in terms of entrepreneurial intentions and their antecedents.
Schuster, John; Beune, Erik; Stronks, Karien
This article examines the various metaphors used by hypertensive patients from different ethnic groups in multi-ethnic and multicultural Netherlands. The choice for the study of metaphors is based on the need of people to use metaphors, analogies and symbols to make sense of and express their illness experiences. Given the high prevalence of hypertension in Western countries, such as the Netherlands, and the fact that hypertension is also a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease among immigrants makes it necessary to study the various metaphors these groups use when speaking about the causes and consequences of their hypertension. This can contribute to a shared understanding and communication about this illness. Discursive analysis of the metaphorical constructions of the causes and consequences of hypertension 55 participants of Creole, (White) Dutch and Hindustani descent employed in-depth interviews. The findings illustrate that the participants use several metaphors to 'live' their hypertension. The metaphors some of the participants employed to explain the origins of their hypertension construct the human body and its organs as machines or parts of machines. When speaking about the possible consequences the participants used metaphors that represented of hypertension as an unknown enemy, they feared because of its silent, invisible and uncontrollable character and the way it abruptly makes itself known. Metaphors people employ to speak about their hypertension open up a space for patients to explain how they understand their hypertension and how they want to live with it even if it means resisting recommendations put forward by their doctors. It is therefore necessary to find metaphors that can work for health care providers and patients that work the best for communication about hypertension and its medical treatment.
Miyawaki, Christina E
Social isolation is a social and public health problem that affects people of all ages, especially elders. Previous studies have found that social isolation across numerous industrialised countries is associated with negative health outcomes. However, it is unknown whether and how this association differs by race/ethnicity and age. To begin to address this gap, this study examines the association of social isolation and physical and mental health among Black, White and Hispanic elders in the United States of America. Building on Cornwell and Waite's perceived isolation and social disconnectedness dimension model of social isolation, the author used multi-stage survey data from a nationally representative sample of 3,005 community-residing adults aged 57-85 from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project. Tests for association were conducted on health by age, gender, marital status, education and race/ethnicity separately. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to test the association of social isolation and health exclusively and separately among these three groups. Results showed that social isolation is strongly associated with physical and mental health. Both perceived isolation and social disconnectedness had a significant negative association with physical and mental health among White elders. For Blacks, social disconnectedness is negatively associated with their physical health while perceived isolation had a negative association with mental health. Among Hispanic elders, there seemed to be no association between social isolation and physical health, but a significant negative association was found with their mental health. Despite various associated patterns, however, social isolation overall was associated with health outcomes that were similar across three elder groups. By identifying factors influencing social isolation and health among minority older Americans, this study has relevance to the development of culturally sensitive health
Rong, Xiao-Xiang; Li, Gui
By Zhuang materia medica, it refers to application of medicines under the instructions of medical theory of Zhuang ethnic group. By studying the pronunciation of the Zhuang language for the terms "zhu yu", "bai jiu", and "mi gu" included in the shan hai jing nan shan jing (The Classic of Southern Mountain in Classic of Seas and Mountains) carried out by the Zhuang scholar Qin Bao-lin, it was concluded that the Zhuang minority already applied medicines early in the pre-Qin period. Through extensive cultural communication in different regions in the Wei-Jin-Southern-Northern Dynasties, the medicinal experiences of the Zhuang ethnic group appeared in ancient literature. The antidotes in Zhou hou fang (Handbook of Prescriptions for Emergency), for instance, were mostly coming from the Southern Ridge area. Since the Sui-Tang Dynasties, many materia medica recorded in the herbal works and regional gazetteers, and Annals such as the Guangxi Annals, Gazetteer of Nanning County, and Gazetteer of Liuzhou County, Gazetteer of Binzhou County etc., also carry medicines such as Cinnamom twigs and bark, and mangosteen etc., which are similar to those of the Zhuang medicines. In the Republican period, many manuscripts of Zhuang medicines appeared. After 1949, many institutions of Zhuang medicine were set up successively, including The Nanning Medical Institute, The Medical Institute of Wuzhou, The Medical Institute of Guilin. Systematic researches were also done, with publication of a series of works on Zhuang materia medica. Reformation of part of the prescription forms of Zhuang medicine were also accomplished.
Shaikh, S.A.; Iqbal, J.; Faisal, L.; Islam, Z.U.; Ajmal, R.
To determine the bone mineral density (BMD) scores on Dual energy X ray absorptiometry (DEXA) scan in individuals of different ethnic groups among local population of Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: This cross sectional study was conducted in Departments of Anatomy and Radiology, Liaquat National Hospital and Medical College Karachi, from June 2016 to March 2017. The data were collected from the patients belonging to different ethnic groups, who were referred for DEXA scan and entered on structured proforma. SPSS 21 was used for data analysis. Results: Out of 232 patients, 206 were females and 26 were males with mean age of 59.6+-10.06 years. Majority of patients were resident of Karachi and belonging to Urdu speaking ethnic group. Mean BMI of patients was 29.3 6.69 and most of patients with osteoporosis were preobese and obese with BMI >25. The relationship of BMD with different ethnic groups showed statistically significant difference where Baloch had high incidence of osteoporosis of forearm and lumbar spine while Sindhi and Pathan had osteoporosis of hip. Conclusion: There is significant difference in BMD score on DEXA scan among different ethnic groups of Karachi. This information can help clinicians advise patients for timely DEXA scan and earlier use of bone preservation treatment. (author)
Voegeli, R; Rawlings, A V; Seroul, P; Summers, B
The aim of this exploratory study was to develop a novel colour mapping approach to visualize and interpret the complexity of facial skin hydration and barrier properties of four ethnic groups (Caucasians, Indians, Chinese and Black Africans) living in Pretoria, South Africa. We measured transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and skin capacitance on 30 pre-defined sites on the forehead, cheek, jaw and eye areas of sixteen women (four per ethnic group) and took digital images of their faces. Continuous colour maps were generated by interpolating between each measured value and superimposing the values on the digital images. The complexity of facial skin hydration and skin barrier properties is revealed by these measurements and visualized by the continuous colour maps of the digital images. Overall, the Caucasian subjects had the better barrier properties followed by the Black African subjects, Chinese subjects and Indian subjects. Nevertheless, the two more darkly pigmented ethnic groups had superior skin hydration properties. Subtle differences were seen when examining the different facial sites. There exists remarkable skin capacitance and TEWL gradients within short distances on selected areas of the face. These gradients are distinctive in the different ethnic groups. In contrast to other reports, we found that darkly pigmented skin does not always have a superior barrier function and differences in skin hydration values are complex on the different parts of the face among the different ethnic groups. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Martinovic, Borja
Social identity complexity refers to individual differences in the interrelationships among multiple ingroup identities. The present research conducted in the Netherlands examines social identity complexity in relation to Muslim immigrants' national identification and the attitude toward the host majority. Three studies are reported that focused on the interrelationship between ethnicity and religion and examined social identity complexity in different ways. Study 1 showed that lower social identity complexity is associated with lower national identification. Studies 2 and 3 examined the interaction between ethnic and religious group identification. For Muslim identifiers, higher ethnic identification was related to lower national identification and higher ingroup bias (Studies 2) and lower endorsement of national liberal practices (Study 3). In contrast, for those who did not strongly identify with Muslims, higher ethnic identification was associated with higher national identification, stronger endorsement of Dutch liberal practices, and more positive stereotypes about the Dutch outgroup (Study 3).
Marieke B. Snijder
Full Text Available Aims. Prevention of diabetes complications depends on the level of case finding and successful treatment of diabetes, which may differ between ethnicities. Therefore, we studied the prevalence by age, awareness, treatment, and control of type 2 diabetes, among a multiethnic population. Methods. We included 4,541 Dutch, 3,032 South-Asian Surinamese, 4,109 African Surinamese, 2,323 Ghanaian, 3,591 Turkish, and 3,887 Moroccan participants (aged 18–70 y from the HELIUS study. The prevalence of diabetes was analysed by sex, ethnicity, and 10-year age groups. Ethnic differences in the prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of diabetes were studied by logistic regression. Results. From the age of 31–40 years and older, the prevalence of diabetes was 3 to 12 times higher among ethnic minority groups than that among the Dutch host population. Awareness and medical treatment of diabetes were 2 to 5 times higher among ethnic minorities than that among Dutch. Among those medically treated, only 37–53% had HbA1c levels on target (≤7.0%; only Dutch men had HbA1c levels on target more often (67%. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the age limit for case finding among ethnic minority groups should be lower than that for the general population. Importantly, despite higher awareness and treatment among ethnic minorities, glycemic control was low, suggesting a need for increased efforts to improve the effectiveness of treatment in these groups.
E E Bocharova
Full Text Available The article presents the data of the empirical study of the structural organization of ethnic groups subjective well-being on the territory of the Saratov Volga region conducted on proportionally selected samples ( N = 280, whose representatives identify themselves as Russians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Armenians ( n = 70; city of Saratov, Kazakhs ( n = 70; village Alexandrov Ghay in the Saratov Region that borders on the West Kazakhstan Region of Kazakhstan with the ethnical composition represented primarily by Kazakhs, Tatars ( n = 70; village Yakovlevka in Bazarno-Karabulakskiy district of the Saratov Region with the Tatar dominant ethnical group, whose average age is 25.6 years old; SD = 9.7; sex ratio is female (52% and male (48%; respondents’ employment - 87%. It has been found that in contrast to the Russians, the sphere of social and socio-economic relations is the least “happy” area in the representatives of the Armenian, Kazakh, Tatar ethnic groups. The “happiest” is the sphere of family relations in the samples of Armenian, Kazakh and Tatar youth. The significant differences have been revealed in the structure of the subjective well-being both on the emotional and cognitive levels. A downward trend of the index of the subjective well-being of the ethnic groups from the remote areas of the region has been registered. The applied aspect of the research problem can be implemented in the development of ethno-national policy programmes of the Saratov region.
Lawrence, J M; Devlin, E; Macaskill, S; Kelly, M; Chinouya, M; Raats, M M; Barton, K L; Wrieden, W L; Shepherd, R
Lower birth weight, often found in infants from minority ethnic groups, may be partly because of the disproportionate representation of ethnic minority groups in low-income areas. To develop an intervention, to improve the nutritional intake of young women from populations at risk of low-birth-weight babies, which would be culturally sensitive and well received by the intended recipients, a community development approach was used to investigate factors that might influence food choice and the nutritional intake of girls and young women from ethnic minority groups. Focus group discussions were conducted across the UK, to explore factors that might affect the food choices of girls and young women of African and South Asian decent. The data was analysed using deductive content analysis (Qual. Soc. Res., 1, 2000, 1). Discussions were around the broad themes of buying and preparing food, eating food and dietary changes, and ideas for an intervention to improve diet. The focus group discussions indicated that all the communities took time, price, health and availability into consideration when making food purchases. The groups were also quite similar in their use of 'Western' foods which tended to be of the fast food variety. These foods were used when there was not enough time to prepare a 'traditional' meal. Many issues that affect the food choice of people who move to the UK are common within different ethnic groups. The idea of a practical intervention based on improving cooking skills was popular with all the groups.
Hann, Katie E J; Freeman, Madeleine; Fraser, Lindsay; Waller, Jo; Sanderson, Saskia C; Rahman, Belinda; Side, Lucy; Gessler, Sue; Lanceley, Anne
Genetic testing for risk of hereditary cancer can help patients to make important decisions about prevention or early detection. US and UK studies show that people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive genetic testing. It is important to understand various groups' awareness of genetic testing and its acceptability to avoid further disparities in health care. This review aims to identify and detail awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic counselling/testing for cancer risk prediction in ethnic minority groups. A search was carried out in PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. Search terms referred to ethnicity, genetic testing/counselling, cancer, awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. Quantitative and qualitative studies, written in English, and published between 2000 and 2015, were included. Forty-one studies were selected for review: 39 from the US, and two from Australia. Results revealed low awareness and knowledge of genetic counselling/testing for cancer susceptibility amongst ethnic minority groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. Attitudes towards genetic testing were generally positive; perceived benefits included positive implications for personal health and being able to inform family. However, negative attitudes were also evident, particularly the anticipated emotional impact of test results, and concerns about confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. Chinese Australian groups were less studied, but of interest was a finding from qualitative research indicating that different views of who close family members are could impact on reported family history of cancer, which could in turn impact a risk assessment. Interventions are needed to increase awareness and knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk and to reduce the perceived stigma and taboo surrounding the topic of cancer in ethnic minority groups. More detailed research is needed in countries other than the US and
Jenum, Anne Karen; Diep, Lien My; Holmboe-Ottesen, Gerd; Holme, Ingar Morten K; Kumar, Bernadette Nirmar; Birkeland, Kåre Inge
The difference in diabetes susceptibility by ethnic background is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the association between adiposity and diabetes in four ethnic minority groups compared with Norwegians, and take into account confounding by socioeconomic position. Data from questionnaires, physical examinations and serum samples were analysed for 30-to 60-year-olds from population-based cross-sectional surveys of Norwegians and four immigrant groups, comprising 4110 subjects born in Norway (n = 1871), Turkey (n = 387), Vietnam (n = 553), Sri Lanka (n = 879) and Pakistan (n = 420). Known and screening-detected diabetes cases were identified. The adiposity measures BMI, waist circumference and waist-hip ratio (WHR) were categorized into levels of adiposity. Gender-specific logistic regression models were applied to estimate the risk of diabetes for the ethnic minority groups adjusted for adiposity and income-generating work, years of education and body height used as a proxy for childhood socioeconomic position. The age standardized diabetes prevalence differed significantly between the ethnic groups (women/men): Pakistan: 26.4% (95% CI 20.1-32.7)/20.0% (14.9-25.2); Sri Lanka: 22.5% (18.1-26.9)/20.7% (17.3-24.2), Turkey: 11.9% (7.2-16.7)/12.0% (7.6-16.4), Vietnam: 8.1% (5.1-11.2)/10.4% (6.6-14.1) and Norway: 2.7% (1.8-3.7)/6.4% (4.6-8.1). The prevalence increased more in the minority groups than in Norwegians with increasing levels of BMI, WHR and waist circumference, and most for women. Highly significant ethnic differences in the age-standardized prevalence of diabetes were found for both genders in all categories of all adiposity measures (p < 0.001). The Odds Ratio (OR) for diabetes adjusted for age, WHR, body height, education and income-generating work with Norwegians as reference was 2.9 (1.30-6.36) for Turkish, 2.7 (1.29-5.76) for Vietnamese, 8.0 (4.19-15.14) for Sri Lankan and 8.3 (4.37-15.58) for Pakistani women. Men from Sri Lanka and
Wei, Chiaying; Eisenberg, Ruth E; Ramos-Olazagasti, María A; Wall, Melanie; Chen, Chen; Bird, Héctor R; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S
The current study examined (a) the mediating role of parenting behaviors in the relationship between parental risks and youth antisocial behaviors (YASB), and (b) the role of youth cultural stress in a racial/ethnic minority group (i.e., Puerto Rican [PR] youth). This longitudinal study consisted of 3 annual interviews of PR youth (N = 1,150; aged 10-14 years at wave 1) and their caretakers from the South Bronx (SB) in New York City and from San Juan, Puerto Rico. Parents reported on parental risks, parenting behaviors, and YASB. Youth also self-reported on YASB and youth cultural stress. A lagged structural equation model examined the relationship between these variables across 3 yearly waves, with youth cultural stress as a moderator of the association between effective parenting behaviors and YASB. Findings supported the positive influence of effective parenting on YASB, independently of past parental risks and past YASB: higher effective parenting significantly predicted lower YASB at the following wave. Parenting also accounted for (mediated) the association between the composite of parental risks and YASB. Youth cultural stress at wave 1 was cross-sectionally associated with higher YASB and moderated the prospective associations between effective parenting and YASB, such that for youth who perceived higher cultural stress, the positive effect of effective parenting on YASB was weakened compared to those with lower/average cultural stress. Among PR families, both parental and cultural risk factors influence YASB. Such findings should be considered when treating racial/ethnic minority youth for whom cultural factors may be a relevant influence on determining behaviors. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Kenyon, Chris; Zondo, Sizwe
The differences in HIV prevalence between South Africa's racial/ethnic groups (19.9%, 3.2%, and 0.5% among 15-49-year-old blacks, coloureds and whites, respectively) are as big as those between the countries with the highest and lowest levels of HIV prevalence worldwide. These large racial/ethnic differences are largely determined by different sexual network structures. In networks among black South Africans, sexual partnerships are more likely to be arranged concurrently - a configuration that leads to exponential increases in the spread of HIV. An examination of the historical origins of polygamy (where it is normative for partnerships to be arranged concurrently) and monogamy (serial or lifetime) reveals that it is the practice of universal monogamy in stratified societies which is the outlier. The ideology and practice of universal monogamy originated in Europe as the result of several factors, most prominently conflicts between the Christian Church and the nobility. After its imposition in Europe, the European colonial project would see this ideology disseminated around the world. Under the influence of liberalism it would mutate into a secular and unacknowledged value-programme of monogamy as a universal norm. This value-programme and practice of monogamy (mostly serial) is still the norm for white South Africans; thus, this sexual behaviour 'spandrel' (by-product of other historical processes) is a large contributor to the lower levels of HIV prevalence among whites. In pre-colonial African societies, polygyny was normative, and the Christian value-programme of monogamy never achieved the hegemonic status it did in Europe and other areas of conquest. Married black African men who converted to Christianity were no less likely to have additional sexual partners, but only more likely to conceal them. The ongoing secrecy about having concurrent partners has contributed to the connectedness of sexual networks among black Africans at large and in this manner has
Sengupta, Nikhil K; Osborne, Danny; Sibley, Chris G
The status-legitimacy hypothesis, which predicts that low-status groups will legitimize inequality more than high-status groups, has received inconsistent empirical support. To resolve this inconsistency, we hypothesized that low-status groups would display enhanced legitimation only when evaluating the fairness of the specific hierarchy responsible for their disadvantage. In a New Zealand-based probability sample (N = 6,162), we found that low-status ethnic groups (Asians and Pacific Islanders) perceived ethnic-group relations to be fairer than the high-status group (Europeans). However, these groups did not justify the overall political system more than the high-status group. In fact, Māori showed the least support for the political system. These findings clarify when the controversial status-legitimacy effects predicted by System Justification Theory will - and will not - emerge. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.
Nevalainen, Mika T.; Morrison, William B.; Zoga, Adam C.; Roedl, Johannes B. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Musculoskeletal Imaging and Interventions, Department of Radiology, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Ciccotti, Michael G. [Sidney Kimmel Medical College at Thomas Jefferson University, Division of Sports Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Thomas Jefferson University Hospital, Rothman Institute, Philadelphia, PA (United States)
To investigate the association between distal clavicular osteolysis (DCO) and bench pressing intensity. From a retrospective review of MRI shoulder reports of individuals between 20 and 40 years of age, 262 male patients with DCO and 227 age-matched male patients without DCO were selected. All patients had completed a bench pressing questionnaire. The patients' bench pressing frequency (times per week), duration (years of bench pressing), bench pressing weight (maximum bench pressing weight with one repetition = 1RM) and the ratio of bench pressing weight to body weight were compared between both groups using Chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. The results showed that 56 % (146/262) of patients with DCO were high-intensity bench pressers (1RM more than 1.5 times the body weight) compared to 6 % (14/227) in patients without DCO. High-intensity bench pressing was a risk factor for DCO (OR = 19; 95 %CI = 11-35; p < 0.001). Low-intensity bench pressing (1RM less than 1.5 times the body weight) was not a risk factor for DCO (OR = 0.6; 95 % CI = 0.4-0.8). High frequency (>1 x /week) and duration (>5 years) of bench pressing were risk factors. In bench pressers who suffered from DCO, the mean 1RM was 283 lbs (±SD 57) compared to 209 lbs (±SD 60) in bench pressers not affected by DCO (p < 0.001, Mann-Whitney). High-intensity, but not low-intensity bench pressing is a risk factor for DCO. (orig.)
Full Text Available Background: In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods: A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old. A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results: Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion: Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.
Wu, Chao; Guo, Xiaofang; Zhao, Jun; Lv, Quan; Li, Hongbin; McNeil, Edward B; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Zhou, Hongning
Background : In China, mosquito-borne diseases are most common in the sub-tropical area of Yunnan province. The objective of this study was to examine behaviors related to mosquito-borne diseases in different ethnic minority groups and different socioeconomic groups of people living in this region. Methods : A stratified two-stage cluster sampling technique with probability proportional to size was used in Mengla County, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan. Twelve villages were used to recruit adult (≥18 years old) and eight schools were used for children (<18 years old). A questionnaire on behaviors and environment variables related to mosquito-borne diseases was devised. Results : Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) grouped 20 behaviors into three domains, namely, environmental condition, bed net use behaviors, and repellent use behaviors, respectively. The Han ethnicity had the lowest odds of rearing pigs, their odds being significantly lower than those of Yi and Yao. For bed net use, Dai and other ethnic minority groups were less likely to use bed nets compared to Yi and Yao. The odds of repellent use in the Han ethnicity was lower than in Yi, but higher than in Dai. The Dai group was the most likely ethnicity to use repellents. Farmers were at a higher risk for pig rearing and not using repellents. Education of less than primary school held the lowest odds of pig rearing. Those with low income were at a higher risk for not using bed nets and repellent except in pig rearing. Those with a small family size were at a lower risk for pig rearing. Conclusion : Different ethnic and socioeconomic groups in the study areas require different specific emphases for the prevention of mosquito-borne diseases.
Katie E. J. Hann
Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic testing for risk of hereditary cancer can help patients to make important decisions about prevention or early detection. US and UK studies show that people from ethnic minority groups are less likely to receive genetic testing. It is important to understand various groups’ awareness of genetic testing and its acceptability to avoid further disparities in health care. This review aims to identify and detail awareness, knowledge, perceptions, and attitudes towards genetic counselling/testing for cancer risk prediction in ethnic minority groups. Methods A search was carried out in PsycInfo, CINAHL, Embase and MEDLINE. Search terms referred to ethnicity, genetic testing/counselling, cancer, awareness, knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions. Quantitative and qualitative studies, written in English, and published between 2000 and 2015, were included. Results Forty-one studies were selected for review: 39 from the US, and two from Australia. Results revealed low awareness and knowledge of genetic counselling/testing for cancer susceptibility amongst ethnic minority groups including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Hispanics. Attitudes towards genetic testing were generally positive; perceived benefits included positive implications for personal health and being able to inform family. However, negative attitudes were also evident, particularly the anticipated emotional impact of test results, and concerns about confidentiality, stigma, and discrimination. Chinese Australian groups were less studied, but of interest was a finding from qualitative research indicating that different views of who close family members are could impact on reported family history of cancer, which could in turn impact a risk assessment. Conclusion Interventions are needed to increase awareness and knowledge of genetic testing for cancer risk and to reduce the perceived stigma and taboo surrounding the topic of cancer in ethnic minority groups
Thomas, Justin; Bentall, Richard P; Hadden, Lowri; O'Hara, Lily
Psychotic experiences including persecutory beliefs are elevated among immigrant and minority populations, especially when living in low ethnic density neighbourhoods (the ethnic density effect). Discrimination, victimization and experiencing a sense of 'not belonging' are hypothesized to play a role in this effect. Because a secure ethnic identity protects against poor self-esteem it may also protect against paranoia. This study explores the relationship between language proficiency (Arabic/English), in-group identity (implicit and explicit) and paranoia in female Emirati university students. Female citizens of the United Arab Emirates (UAE), Emirati college women (N = 208), reported English/Arabic language proficiencies, and performed a computerized affective priming task engineered to implicitly assess in-group (Emirati) versus out-group (American) positivity. Participants also completed self-report measures of in-group identity (MIIS), and paranoia (PaDs). Arabic proficiency was negatively correlated with paranoia, as was implicit in-group positivity. Furthermore, participants reporting English language dominance, and those demonstrating an implicit out-group preference, reported the highest levels of paranoia. The study is limited by its use of an all female sample. Implicit in-group attitudes and linguistic competence protect against paranoia and may help to explain the ethnic density effect. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Alperet, Derrick Johnston; Lim, Wei-Yen; Mok-Kwee Heng, Derrick; Ma, Stefan; van Dam, Rob M
To identify optimal anthropometric measures and cutoffs to identify undiagnosed diabetes mellitus (UDM) in three major Asian ethnic groups (Chinese, Malays, and Asian-Indians). Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 14,815 ethnic Chinese, Malay, and Asian-Indian participants of the Singapore National Health Surveys, which included anthropometric measures and an oral glucose tolerance test. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used with calculation of the area under the curve (AUC) to evaluate the performance of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHTR) for the identification of UDM. BMI performed significantly worse (AUCMEN = 0.70; AUCWOMEN = 0.75) than abdominal measures, whereas WHTR (AUCMEN = 0.76; AUCWOMEN = 0.79) was among the best performing measures in both sexes and all ethnic groups. Anthropometric measures performed better in Chinese than in Asian-Indian participants for the identification of UDM. A WHTR cutoff of 0.52 appeared optimal with a sensitivity of 76% in men and 73% in women and a specificity of 63% in men and 70% in women. Although ethnic differences were observed in the performance of anthropometric measures for the identification of UDM, abdominal adiposity measures generally performed better than BMI, and WHTR performed best in all Asian ethnic groups. © 2016 The Obesity Society.
Full Text Available This research was based on the politeness in speech acts at traditional ceremonies for Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic group as native ethnic in the mainland of Southeast Sulawesi province. In traditional wedding procession, it was known as Tolea-pabitara (spokesman, both Tolea-pabitara represented the family of the bridegroom, and Tolea pabitara represented the woman's family. The competence of politeness in speech act at the traditional procession to the continuity of interaction was crucial and was the responsibility of Tolea-pabitara. The problem in this research was how the use of directive speech acts of Tolea pabitara as politeness strategies in a traditional wedding ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic group in Southeast Sulawesi. There were two objectives in this research. The first was to describe strategies of Tolea pabitara in using directive speech acts as a strategy of politeness in a traditional wedding ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic that reside in mainland of Southeast Sulawesi. The second was to describe the types of directive speech acts that were used by Tolea pabitara in the traditional wedding ceremony of Tolaki-Mekongga ethnic group in Southeast Sulawesi.
Christensen, D.; Friis, H.; Mwaniki, D.
Objective: To assess the prevalence of glucose intolerance in rural and urban Kenyan populations and in different ethnic groups. Further, to identify associations between lifestyle risk factors and glucose intolerance. Research design and methods: A cross-sectional study included an opportunity...... intolerance among the rural ethnic groups. High BMI, WC, AFA, abdominal visceral and subcutaneous fat thickness, low fitness and physical activity, frequent alcohol consumption, and urban residence were associated with glucose intolerance. Conclusions: The prevalence of diabetes and IGT among different Kenyan...
Singh, Gagandeep; Talwar, Indu; Sharma, Rubina; Matharoo, Kawaljit; Bhanwer, A J S
The state of Punjab in the North-West part of India has acted as the main passage for all the major human invasions into the Indian subcontinent. It has resulted in the mixing of foreign gene pool into the local populations, which led to an extensive range of genetic diversity and has influenced the genetic structure of populations in Punjab, North-West India. The present study was conducted to examine the genetic structure, relationships, and extent of genetic differentiation in five Indo-European speaking ethnic groups of Punjab. A total of 1021 unrelated samples belonging to Banias, Brahmins, Jat Sikhs, Khatris, and Scheduled castes were analyzed for four human-specific Ins/Del polymorphic loci (ACE, APO, PLAT, and D1) and three restriction fragment length polymorphisms ESR (PvuII), LPL (PvuII), and T2 (MspI) using Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the loci were found to be polymorphic among the studied populations. The frequency of the Alu insertion at APO locus was observed to exhibit the highest value (82.6-96.3 %), whereas D1 exhibited the lowest (26.5-45.6 %) among all the ethnic groups. The average heterozygosity among the studied populations ranged from 0.3816 in Banias to 0.4163 in Khatris. The F ST values ranged from 0.0418 to 0.0033 for the PLAT and LPL loci, respectively, with an average value being 0.0166. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Banias and Khatris are genetically closest to each other. The Jat Sikhs are genetically close to Brahmins and are distant from the Banias. The Jat Sikhs, Banias, Brahmins, and Khatris are genetically very distant from the Scheduled castes. Overall, Uniform allele frequency distribution patterns, high average heterozygosity values, and a small degree of genetic differentiation in this study suggest a genetic proximity among the selected populations. A low level of genetic differentiation was observed in the studied population groups indicating that genetic drift might have been small or negligible in shaping
Loyen, A.; Nicolaou, M.; Snijder, M.B.; Peters, R.J.G.; Stronks, K.; Langøien, L.J.; van der Ploeg, H.P.; Brug, J.; Lakerveld, J.
Introduction Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognised as a health risk. While differences in this behaviour might help explain ethnic differences in disease profiles, studies on sedentary behaviour in ethnic minorities are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and the
Loyen, Anne; Nicolaou, Mary; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; Stronks, Karien; Langøien, Lars J.; van der Ploeg, Hidde P.; Brug, Johannes; Lakerveld, Jeroen
Sedentary behaviour is increasingly recognised as a health risk. While differences in this behaviour might help explain ethnic differences in disease profiles, studies on sedentary behaviour in ethnic minorities are scarce. The aim of this study was to compare the levels and the socio-demographic
Snowden, Lonnie R.; Cheung, Freda K.
Discusses the ethnic-related differences in mental hospitalization admittance rates, diagnoses, and length of treatment. Explores reasons other than ethnic origin that may account for these differences, including socioeconomic standing, access to alternative services, bias in practitioners' assignment of diagnostic labels, and differential stigma…
Smith, Justin D.; Knoble, Naomi B.; Zerr, Argero A.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.
Objective Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent–child interactions for diverse cultural groups. Method A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Results Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6 through 8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Conclusions Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research. PMID:24731120
Smith, Justin D; Knoble, Naomi B; Zerr, Argero A; Dishion, Thomas J; Stormshak, Elizabeth A
Multicultural responsiveness and adaptation have been a recent area of emphasis in prevention and intervention science. The changing demographics of the United States demand the development of intervention strategies that are acceptable and effective for diverse cultural and ethnic groups. The Family Check-Up (FCU) was developed to be an intervention framework that is flexible and adaptive to diverse cultural groups (Dishion & Stormshak, 2007 ). We empirically evaluated the extent to which the intervention is effective for improving youth adjustment and parent-child interactions for diverse cultural groups. A sample of 1,193 families was drawn from 2 large-scale randomized prevention trials conducted in diverse urban middle schools. We formulated 3 groups on the basis of youth self-identification of ethnicity (European American, African American, Hispanic) and examined group differences in the hypothesized mediating effect of family conflict (FC) on later antisocial behavior (ASB). Path analysis revealed that youths in the intervention condition reported significantly less ASB over a 2-year period (Grades 6-8). Moreover, youth-reported reductions in FC at 12 months were an intervening effect. Ethnicity did not moderate this relationship. Consistent with one of the primary tenets of coercion theory, participation in the FCU acts on ASB through FC across diverse ethnic groups, lending support to the multicultural competence of the model. Limitations of this study are discussed, along with areas for future research.
Dr.sc. Harun Hadzic
Full Text Available This paper presents a very courageous, scientifically founded prediction, concerning the imminent and inevitable process of strengthening the political and nation-building subjectivity of national minorities and ethnic groups, i.e., minority indigenous people. For, a more lasting peace and stability, for which we want to dominate in Europe and the world, can only be achieved by deflection of the discontent of these nationalities, on one hand, and strengthening of the public recognition of their international legal subjectivity, on the other hand. This implies the exercise of their right to self-determination and the creation of independent autonomies, regions or countries, which also implies reclassification and conversion of the internal, but also of the interstate borders. These new limits must be established precisely in those parts of the world where there is a political struggle, and a long-time demand of these organized groups, which would, in effect, mean that the international community should accept their demand for creation of new states, or, at least, another, lower, level of independence.
Guzmán, Michele R; Santiago-Rivera, Azara L; Hasse, Richard F
This study tested the relationships among ethnic identity, other-group orientation, fatalism, and 2 dependent variables: attitude toward education and school, and grade point average (GPA). Mexican-origin adolescents (N = 222) completed the Multigroup Ethnic Identity Measure (J. S. Phinney, 1992), the fatalism scale of the Multiphasic Assessment of Cultural Constructs-Short Form (I. Cuellar, B. Arnold, & G. Gonzalez, 1995), and the attitude scale of the Learning and Study Strategies Inventory-High School (C. E. Weinstein & D. R. Palmer, 1990a). Other-group orientation was positively related to attitude and GPA, and a negative relationship between fatalism and attitude was demonstrated. No relationship emerged between ethnic identity and the dependent variables. ((c) 2005 APA, all rights reserved).
Jack, Ruth H; Møller, Henrik; Robson, Tony; Davies, Elizabeth A
To use newly available self-assigned ethnicity information to investigate variation in breast cancer screening uptake for women from the 16 specific ethnic groups within the broad Asian, Black and White groups that previous studies report. National cancer screening programme services within London. 655,516 female residents aged 50-69, invited for screening between March 2006 and December 2009. Ethnicity information was available for 475,478 (72.5%). White British women were the largest group (306,689, 46.8%), followed by Indian (34,687, 5.3%), White Other (30,053, 4.6%), Black Caribbean (25,607, 3.9%), White Irish (17,271, 2.6%), Black African (17,071, 2.6%) and Asian Other (10,579, 1.6%). Uptake for women in different ethnic groups aged 50-52 for a first call invitation to the programme, and for women aged 50-69 for a routine recall invitation after a previous mammography. Uptake is reported (1) for London overall, adjusted using logistic regression, for age at invitation, socioeconomic deprivation and geographical screening area, and (2) for individual areas, adjusted for age and deprivation. White British women attended their first call (67%) and routine recall (78%) invitations most often. Indian women were more likely to attend their first (61%) or routine recall (74%) than Bangladeshi women (43% and 61%, respectively), and Black Caribbean women were more likely than Black African women to attend first call (63% vs 49%, respectively) and routine recall (74% vs 64%, respectively). There was less variation between ethnic groups in some screening areas. Breast cancer screening uptake in London varies by specific ethnic group for first and subsequent invitations, with White British women being more likely to attend. The variation in the uptake for women from the same ethnic groups in different geographical areas suggests that collaboration about the successful engagement of services with different communities could improve uptake for all women. Published by the
Joanne McVeigh, Rebecca Meiring
Full Text Available Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03, while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p 0.05 whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001, White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001 and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001. The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05, and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0.05. Additionally, Black children had the highest proportion of overweight participants (30%, and Indian children the most number of underweight children (13%. Regardless of ethnicity, children who
Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F
Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.
Hamed, C T; Bollahi, M A; Abdelhamid, I; Med Mahmoud, M A; Ba, B; Ghaber, S; Habti, N; Houmeida, A
There is no data available on the ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the Mauritanian population. We retrospectively analysed records of a 5-year database that contained ABO/Rh phenotype and ethnic origin of 10 116 volunteers giving blood at the national blood transfusion centre to derive the frequencies of ABO/Rh(D) groups in the Mauritanian population. The two race categories in the country and their sub-ethnic groups: the Moors (whites and black) and the black Africans (Pulhars, Soninkes and Wolof) were included in this study. Globally, group O had the highest frequency (49.10%) followed by A (28.28%), B (18.56%) and AB (4.05%). This order more common in North African populations was found in four of the five ethnic groups composing our population. Allele frequencies were, respectively, 70.20%, 17.74% and 12.04% giving the same order of O > A > B. We observed no significant variation in these frequencies between the different ethnic groups. Rhesus study showed that with a percentage of 94.23% Rh(D) positive is by far the most prevalent, while Rh(D) negative is present only in 5.77% of the total population. This frequency distribution supports the mixed-race composition of the Mauritanian population. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Shane Y. Williamson
Full Text Available The present study examined how familial and institutional factors interact with the academic experiences of a diverse group of Black males enrolled as science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM majors at one university. Ogbu’s (1998 Cultural-Ecological Theory of Minority School Performance, a theoretical framework, posits that the manner by which a group achieves minority status, coupled with community and family educational values, impacts academic achievement. Immigrants, voluntary minorities, perform better academically than involuntary minorities (nonimmigrants because they are more accepting of and more likely to adapt to the White middle-class norms upon which schools in the United States are based (Ogbu, 1994, 2004. While the data overall are positive for the sample, when viewed by ethnic group, it was evident the African and Caribbean students are more academically integrated to campus than African American students. The African students, more so than any other ethnic group, are connecting, interacting, and forming relationships with faculty outside of the classroom; conversely, African American students in this study reported having the least amount of effective connections with faculty. This research study found that for the Black male STEM students in this project (a their families are a pivotal force, (b academic experiences vary across ethnicities, (c faculty mediate student success, and (d there is a lack of interactions between ethnic groups (Black Distance on campus.
S. Pamela K. Shiao
Full Text Available For the personalization of polygenic/omics-based health care, the purpose of this study was to examine the gene–environment interactions and predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC by including five key genes in the one-carbon metabolism pathways. In this proof-of-concept study, we included a total of 54 families and 108 participants, 54 CRC cases and 54 matched family friends representing four major racial ethnic groups in southern California (White, Asian, Hispanics, and Black. We used three phases of data analytics, including exploratory, family-based analyses adjusting for the dependence within the family for sharing genetic heritage, the ensemble method, and generalized regression models for predictive modeling with a machine learning validation procedure to validate the results for enhanced prediction and reproducibility. The results revealed that despite the family members sharing genetic heritage, the CRC group had greater combined gene polymorphism rates than the family controls (p < 0.05, on MTHFR C677T, MTR A2756G, MTRR A66G, and DHFR 19 bp except MTHFR A1298C. Four racial groups presented different polymorphism rates for four genes (all p < 0.05 except MTHFR A1298C. Following the ensemble method, the most influential factors were identified, and the best predictive models were generated by using the generalized regression models, with Akaike’s information criterion and leave-one-out cross validation methods. Body mass index (BMI and gender were consistent predictors of CRC for both models when individual genes versus total polymorphism counts were used, and alcohol use was interactive with BMI status. Body mass index status was also interactive with both gender and MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism, and the exposure to environmental pollutants was an additional predictor. These results point to the important roles of environmental and modifiable factors in relation to gene–environment interactions in the prevention of CRC.
Gill, Paramjit; Haque, M Sayeed; Martin, Una; Mant, Jonathan; Mohammed, Mohammed A; Heer, Gurdip; Johal, Amanpreet; Kaur, Ramandeep; Schwartz, Claire; Wood, Sally; Greenfield, Sheila M; McManus, Richard J
Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and prevalence varies by ethnic group. The diagnosis and management of blood pressure are informed by guidelines largely based on data from white populations. This study addressed whether accuracy of blood pressure measurement in terms of diagnosis of hypertension varies by ethnicity by comparing two measurement modalities (clinic blood pressure and home monitoring) with a reference standard of ambulatory BP monitoring in three ethnic groups. Cross-sectional population study (June 2010 - December 2012) with patients (40-75 years) of white British, South Asian and African Caribbean background with and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension recruited from 28 primary care practices. The study compared the test performance of clinic BP (using various protocols) and home-monitoring (1 week) with a reference standard of mean daytime ambulatory measurements using a threshold of 140/90 mmHg for clinic and 135/85 mmHg for out of office measurement. A total of 551 participants had complete data of whom 246 were white British, 147 South Asian and 158 African Caribbean. No consistent difference in accuracy of methods of blood pressure measurement was observed between ethnic groups with or without a prior diagnosis of hypertension: for people without hypertension, clinic measurement using three different methodologies had high specificity (75-97%) but variable sensitivity (33-65%) whereas home monitoring had sensitivity of 68-88% and specificity of 64-80%. For people with hypertension, detection of a raised blood pressure using clinic measurements had sensitivities of 34-69% with specificity of 73-92% and home monitoring had sensitivity (81-88%) and specificity (55-65%). For people without hypertension, ABPM remains the choice for diagnosing hypertension compared to the other modes of BP measurement regardless of ethnicity. Differences in accuracy of home monitoring and clinic monitoring (higher sensitivity
Smith, M C; Ben-Shlomo, Y; Dieppe, P; Beswick, A D; Adebajo, A O; Wilkinson, J M; Blom, A W
Despite a health care system that is free at the point of delivery, ethnic minorities may not always get care equitable to that of White patients in England. We examined whether ethnic differences exist in joint replacement rates and surgical practice in England. 373,613 hip and 428,936 knee National Joint Registry (NJR) primary replacement patients had coded ethnicity in Hospital Episode Statistics (HES). Age and gender adjusted observed/expected ratios of hip and knee replacements amongst ethnic groups were compared using indirect standardisation. Associations between ethnic group and type of procedure were explored and effects of demographic, clinical and hospital-related factors examined using multivariable logistic regression. Adjusted standardised observed/expected ratios were substantially lower in Blacks and Asians than Whites for hip replacement (Blacks 0.33 [95% CI, 0.31-0.35], Asians 0.20 [CI, 0.19-0.21]) and knee replacement (Blacks 0.64 [CI, 0.61-0.67], Asians 0.86 % [CI, 0.84-0.88]). Blacks were more likely to receive uncemented hip replacements (Blacks 52%, Whites 37%, Asians 44%; P replacements than Whites (men 10% vs 15%, P = 0.001; women 6% vs 14%, P replacement (OR 1.43 [CI, 1.11-1.84]). In England, hip and knee replacement rates and prosthesis type given differ amongst ethnic groups. Whether these reflect differences in clinical need or differential access to treatment requires urgent investigation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Gordijn, Ernestine; Finchilescu, Gillian; Brix, Louise; Wijnants, Nienke; Koomen, Willem
In this research we investigated whether feelings about an imagined potentially negative interaction with a member of another ethnic group was affected more by valence than content of stereotypes, and whether the differential influence of perception and meta-perception was similar for dominant and
Coopmans, Manja; Lubbers, Marcel; Meuleman, Roza
This paper studies to what extent participating in days for national commemoration and celebration is associated with feelings of national belonging, and to what extent this is comparable across generations and ethnic groups. Utilizing data from a national survey (N = 4,505), three major national
Enesco, Ileana; Navarro, Alejandra; Paradela, Isabel; Guerrero, Silvia
96 Spanish and Latin American children from 3 grades in Madrid reported their knowledge of positive and negative stereotypes regarding Spaniards, Gypsies, Latin American and Chinese people. Their personal beliefs about these four ethnic groups were also assessed. Stereotypes about Spaniards were perceived as overwhelmingly positive and least…
Kim, JaHun; Nicodimos, Semret; Kushner, Siri E.; Rhew, Isaac C.; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann
Background: To compare the mental health status of children of immigrant (COI) and non-immigrant (NI) parents and to determine whether differences in mental health status between COI and NI vary across 4 racial/ethnic groups. Methods: We conducted universal mental health screening of 2374 sixth graders in an urban public school district. To…
Schnettler, Berta; Huaiquiñir, Valeska; Mora, Marcos; Miranda, Horacio; Sepúlveda, José; Denegri, Marianela
In order to identify differences in the food consumption and expenditure habits of Mapuches according to their ethnic group as consumers as well as their degree of acculturation, a personal survey was conducted on 400 people stratified by ethnic group in four districts of the Metropolitan Region of Santiago, Chile. The empirical results showed that habits regarding the consumption of food groups included in the Family Budget Survey did not present any significant differences depending on the consumer's ethnic group, although the monthly expenditure on food is lower in Mapuche households. The ethnic origin and degree of acculturation in Mapuches are only significantly associated with the consumption of mate (herbal infusion) and food in restaurants. Mapuches maintain both food practices belonging to their traditional culture as well as foods incorporated more recently, such as mate. The degree of acculturation is significantly associated with the consumption of these foods; bi-cultural Mapuches present a higher probability of consuming a greater range of traditional foods than accultured Mapuches.
Noriah Jamal; Cheung, H.S.
We carried out a prospective study of breast density Full-Field Digital mammograms performed on 668 Malaysian women from three ethnic groups at a voluntary screening mammographic center in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Of these women, 259 were Malays (38.8 %), 298 were Chinese (44.6 %) and 111 were Indians (16.6 %). The Tabar breast density classification (I-V) was used to evaluate breast density. A Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to test for significant difference in breast density for the three ethnic groups. Data was also analyzed using descriptive statistics. We found that Pattern I was seen in 49.4 % Malay, 47.3 % Chinese and 40.5 % Indian women. Predominantly fatty breasts (Pattern II and III) were seen on mammograms of 36.3 % Malay, 11.1 % Chinese and 25.2 % Indian women. Dense type IV and V patterns were seen in 20.8 % Malay, 29.5 % Chinese and 42 % Indian women. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.01) in breast density in the three ethnic groups. The breast density reduces with increasing age in all three ethnic groups. (Author)
Gerritsen, A.A.M.; Devillé, W.L.
Background: To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods: Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000-2002) were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and
Volz, Jennifer L. Resetar; Cook, Clayton R.
This study examines developmental, clinical, gender, and ethnic group differences in preference in residentially placed children and adolescents. In addition, this study considers whether residentially placed youth prefer stimuli currently being used as rewards as part of a campuswide token economy system and whether youth would identify preferred…
Deurenberg-Yap, M.; Li, T.; Tan, W.L.; Staveren, van W.A.; Suok Chai Chew,; Deurenberg, P.
In Singapore. there exists differences in risk factors for coronary heart disease among the three main ethnic groups: Chinese, Malays and Indians. This study aimed to investigate if differences in dietary intakes of fat, types of fat, cholesterol, fruits, vegetables and grain foods could explain the
Hafez, Mahmoud A; Sheikhedrees, Sharafeldin M; Saweeres, Emad S B
We aim to measure the proximal tibia and distal femur of the osteoarthritic knees of Arab patients and to compare these measurements with data on other ethnic groups available in literature and with the dimensions of 6 knee implants. Anteroposterior and mediolateral measurements of tibia and femur were done on 3-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions of 124 osteoarthritic knees undergoing total knee arthroplasty with patient-specific instruments. Average mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the tibia for Arab knees were 74.36 ± 6 mm and 48.94 ± 4.57 mm, respectively, whereas for femur, 72.04 ± 6.6 and 68.1 ± 7.75, respectively. Average aspect ratio for tibial was 152.62 ± 12.66 and for femur 106.37 ± 14.34. The size of Arab knees was generally smaller than Caucasian and larger than Asian. There is significant asymmetry of proximal tibial plateau and femur condyles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre
Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Leonetti, Donna L; Nath, Dilip C; Hemam, Natabar S
Family planning is the usual modern route to producing a small family. Can human behavioral ecology provide a framework for understanding family planning behavior? Hillard S. Kaplan (Yearb. Phys. Anthropol. 39:91-135) has proposed a general theory of human parental investment based on the importance of skills development in children. As modern, skills-based, competitive market economies are established, parental investment strategies would be predicted to become oriented toward producing increasingly competitive offspring in a pattern of coordinated investment in their embodied capital-in other words, skills training along with good health to ensure their long-term productivity. Parental embodied capital and resources are also expected to be associated with motivation to produce competitive offspring. The basic parental investment trade-off between quality and quantity should predict greater investment in fewer children and the adoption of family planning behavior. Data on family planning in two ethnic groups in Northeast India (Khasi and Bengali) currently experiencing early-phase transition into modern market economies from very different social and ecological baselines are examined within this analytical framework. The results show a mixture of strategies in conjunction with family planning that involve decreased as well as increased investment in the embodied capital of children among Bengali and a divergence of investments in education and health among Khasi. These mixtures of strategies provide some insight into the motivations to use family planning in the face of economic transition, given differing local cultural and ecological conditions and the opportunity structures they provide.
Full Text Available A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp., dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, Quercus, Corylus, Castanea, Trapa spp., several green vegetables (e.g. Rumex, Urtica, Humulus, Chenopodiaceae spp., Ranunculus ficaria, bulbs and tubers (Lathyrus tuberosus, Helianthus tuberosus, Chaerophyllum bulbosum, Allium spp. used for food in Europe, are also known to be consumed in Hungary. A characteristic feature of Hungarian plant use was the mass consumption of the underground parts of several marsh (e.g. Typha, Phragmites, Sagittaria, Alisma, Butomus, Bolboschoenus spp., as well as the endemic Armoracia macrocarpa and steppe species (e.g. Crambe tataria, Rumex pseudonatronatus. Consuming wild food plants is still important among Hungarians living in Transylvania: even nowadays more than 40 species are gathered and used at some locations.
Full Text Available Non-communicable diseases (NCDs are showing an increasing trend globally as well as in China. Elderly population are more prone to these NCDs. Situation in China is worse owing to the higher proportion of geriatric population. Burden of NCDs and the role of their socio-demographic and behavioral predictors among these elderly and more so among the ethnic minority groups among them, need to be investigated specifically, owing to their distinct genetic background, lifestyles and behavior.A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1329 randomly selected persons of Uyghur ethnicity, aged 60 years or more in Xinjiang, the largest administrative division in China to measure the burden of NCDs, understand the distribution of socio-demographic, behavioral and life event-related potential correlates of them and to estimate the association of the NCDs with these correlates.Among these participants 54.2% were female, 86.8% were married and more than half had only attended elementary school or less. 41.46% was suffering from at least one NCD. 20.22% had one NCD, 12.11% had two and 8.58% had three or more. 27.3% had hypertension, 4.06% had diabetes, 6.02% had hyperlipidemia, 7.37% had angina, 14.52% had cardiovascular diseases, 11.59% had any kind of cancers and 9.78% had chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases. Rural residents (OR = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.17-1.80, AOR = 2.00, 95% CI: 1.53-2.61 and current smokers had higher odds of having more NCDs (AOR = 1.53, 95% CI: 1.00-2.34. Additionally not being satisfied with current life, not being able to take care of self in daily life, currently not being involved in farm work, less intake of fresh vegetables, fruits and garlic, too less or too much salt intake, not having hobbies were found to be positively associated with having more NCDs.Implementation of effective intervention strategies to promote healthy life styles among the Uyghur elderly population of China seems urgent.
Attridge, Madeleine; Creamer, John; Ramsden, Michael; Cannings-John, Rebecca; Hawthorne, Kamila
Ethnic minority groups in upper-middle-income and high-income countries tend to be socioeconomically disadvantaged and to have a higher prevalence of type 2 diabetes than is seen in the majority population. To assess the effectiveness of culturally appropriate health education for people in ethnic minority groups with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A systematic literature search was performed of the following databases: The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, the Education Resources Information Center (ERIC) and Google Scholar, as well as reference lists of identified articles. The date of the last search was July 2013 for The Cochrane Library and September 2013 for all other databases. We contacted authors in the field and handsearched commonly encountered journals as well. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of culturally appropriate health education for people over 16 years of age with type 2 diabetes mellitus from named ethnic minority groups residing in upper-middle-income or high-income countries. Two review authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. When disagreements arose regarding selection of papers for inclusion, two additional review authors were consulted for discussion. We contacted study authors to ask for additional information when data appeared to be missing or needed clarification. A total of 33 trials (including 11 from the original 2008 review) involving 7453 participants were included in this review, with 28 trials providing suitable data for entry into meta-analysis. Although the interventions provided in these studies were very different from one study to another (participant numbers, duration of intervention, group versus individual intervention, setting), most of the studies were based on recognisable theoretical models, and we tried to be inclusive in considering the wide variety of available culturally appropriate health education.Glycaemic control (as measured by glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c
Brown, Christia Spears; Alabi, Basirat O.; Huynh, Virginia W.; Masten, Carrie L.
The current study examined awareness of gender and ethnic bias and gender and ethnic identity in 350 African American, White/European American, and Latino/Hispanic students (M[subscript age] = 11.21 years, SD = 1.59) from the 4th, 6th, and 8th grades of diverse middle and elementary schools. The study collected (a) qualitative data to best capture…
Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati
Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific prevention
Heuvelman, Hein; Nazroo, James; Rai, Dheeraj
Epidemiological evidence suggests risk for psychosis varies with ethnicity in Western countries. However, there is little evidence to date on the cross-cultural validity of screening instruments used for such comparisons. Combining two existing UK population-based cohorts, we examined risk for reporting psychotic symptoms across White British (n = 3467), White Irish (n = 851), Caribbean (n = 1899), Indian (n = 2590), Pakistani (n = 1956) and Bangladeshi groups (n = 1248). We assessed the psychometric properties of the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire (PSQ) with a multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis, assessing the equivalence of factor loadings, response thresholds and residual variances in an analysis of measurement non-invariance. Compared with prevalence among British Whites (5.4%), the prevalence of self-reported psychotic symptoms was greater in the Caribbean group (12.7%, adjusted OR = 2.38 [95% CI 1.84-3.07]). Prevalence was also increased among Pakistani individuals (8.3%, adjusted OR = 1.36 [1.01-1.84]) although this difference was driven by a greater likelihood of reporting paranoid symptoms. PSQ items for thought interference, strange experience and hallucination were measured in equivalent ways across ethnic groups. However, our measurement models suggested that paranoid symptoms were measured less reliably among ethnic minorities than among British Whites and appeared to exaggerate latent differences between Pakistani and White British groups when measurement non-invariance was not accounted for. Notwithstanding evidence for measurement non-invariance, the greater risk for reporting psychotic symptoms among Caribbean individuals is unlikely to be an artefact of measurement. Greater residual variance in the recording of paranoid symptoms among ethnic minority respondents warrants caution in using this item to investigate ethnic variation in psychosis risk.
Bremond, J.; Da Costa, D.; Calvet, A.; Vieuxmaire, C.
This equipment is devoted to the comparison of signals from two turbines installed in the Cabri experimental loop. The signal is compared to the standard turbine. The characteristics and the performance of the calibration bench are presented. (A.L.B.)
Alcalá, Héctor E
Little research has examined the interactive effect of cancer status and race/ethnicity on mental health. As such, the present study examined the mental health of adults, 18 and over, diagnosed with cancer. This study examined the extent to which a cancer diagnosis is related to poorer mental health because it erodes finances and the extent to which the mental health impact of cancer differs across racial/ethnic groups. Furthermore, this study aimed to test the stress process model, which posits that the proliferation of stress can lead to mental illness and this process can differ across racial/ethnic groups. Data from the 2005 Adult California Health Interview Survey was used (N = 42,879). The Kessler 6, a validated measure of psychological distress, was used to measure mental health, with higher scores suggesting poorer mental health. Scores on the Kessler 6 ranged from 0 to 24. Linear regression models estimating psychological distress tested each aim. The mediating effect of income and the race by cancer interaction were tested. After controlling for gender, age, insurance status, education and race/ethnicity, cancer was associated with higher Kessler 6 scores. About 6% of this effect was mediated by household income (t = 4.547; SE = 0.011; p groups. Future work should explore reasons for these disparities. Efforts to increase access to mental health services among minorities with cancer are needed.
Paganotti, Giacomo M; Babiker, Hamza A; Modiano, David; Sirima, Bienvenu S; Verra, Federica; Konaté, Amadou; Ouedraogo, Andre L; Diarra, Amidou; Mackinnon, Margaret J; Coluzzi, Mario; Walliker, David
We have characterized Plasmodium falciparum genotypes among the Mossi and Fulani sympatric ethnic groups in villages in Burkina Faso during the rainy season. Differences in clinical malaria presentation and in immune responses to malaria occur between the two groups. Asexual parasite rate, density, and gametocyte rate were higher among the Mossi than the Fulani. There was no difference in frequencies of alleles of the P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 1 (msp-1), msp-2, and glutamate-rich protein (glurp) genes among the parasites in each group. However, there were significant differences in the mean number of P. falciparum clones in the two populations, with there being more in the Mossi than in the Fulani. This effect was especially marked in older children. These differences can most probably be attributed to genetic differences in immune responsiveness to malaria between the two ethnic groups.
Chin, Yuee Teng; Lim, Yvonne Ai Lian; Chong, Chun Wie; Teh, Cindy Shuan Ju; Yap, Ivan Kok Seng; Lee, Soo Ching; Tee, Mian Zi; Siow, Vinnie Wei Yin; Chua, Kek Heng
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) among indigenous people have been widely documented in Malaysia, however, the prevalence of these infections remains high. In the past, most studies have focused on specific species of parasites but polyparasitism has received limited attention. In addition, epidemiology studies on indigenous people tend to consider them as a homogenous group, whereas in reality different sub-ethnic groups have different cultural and living practices. Variations in living habits such as personal hygiene practices may predispose different groups to different parasitic infections. To better understand prevalence and risk factors of intestinal parasitism among different sub-ethnic groups, the present study was conducted among two sub-ethnic groups of indigenous people (Temuan and Mah Meri) residing in Selangor state, Malaysia. A cross-sectional study that focused on two distinct sub-ethnic groups was carried out from February to September 2014. Faecal samples were collected from 186 participants and examined using the formalin-ether sedimentation technique. A molecular approach was adopted to conduct a genetic characterisation of the parasites. Additionally, questionnaires were administered to obtain information on the demographics, socio-economic backgrounds and behavioural risks relating to the participants, as well as information about their environments. Statistical analyses (i.e. binary and multivariate logistic regression analyses) were performed to measure risk factors. For Temuan communities, trichuriasis (64.2 %) was the most common infection found, preceding hookworm infection (34 %), ascariasis (7.5 %), giardiasis (14.2 %) and amoebiasis (7.5 %). As for the Mah Meri communities, trichuriasis (77.5 %) prevailed over ascariasis (21.3 %), hookworm (15 %), giardiasis (7.5 %) and amoebiasis (3.8 %). Significant differences in proportions of trichuriasis, ascariasis and hookworm infections were observed between the Temuan and Mah
Tian, Chao; Kosoy, Roman; Nassir, Rami; Lee, Annette; Villoslada, Pablo; Klareskog, Lars; Hammarström, Lennart; Garchon, Henri-Jean; Pulver, Ann E.; Ransom, Michael; Gregersen, Peter K.; Seldin, Michael F.
The definition of European population genetic substructure and its application to understanding complex phenotypes is becoming increasingly important. In the current study using over 4000 subjects genotyped for 300 thousand SNPs we provide further insight into relationships among European population groups and identify sets of SNP ancestry informative markers (AIMs) for application in genetic studies. In general, the graphical description of these principal components analyses (PCA) of diverse European subjects showed a strong correspondence to the geographical relationships of specific countries or regions of origin. Clearer separation of different ethnic and regional populations was observed when northern and southern European groups were considered separately and the PCA results were influenced by the inclusion or exclusion of different self-identified population groups including Ashkenazi Jewish, Sardinian and Orcadian ethnic groups. SNP AIM sets were identified that could distinguish the regional and ethnic population groups. Moreover, the studies demonstrated that most allele frequency differences between different European groups could be effectively controlled in analyses using these AIM sets. The European substructure AIMs should be widely applicable to ongoing studies to confirm and delineate specific disease susceptibility candidate regions without the necessity to perform additional genome-wide SNP studies in additional subject sets. PMID:19707526
Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To quantify the proportion of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to maternal obesity. DESIGN: Cross sectional analysis of routine obstetric dataset. SETTING: Guy's and St Thomas's NHS Foundation Trust (GSTFT. POPULATION: 23,668 women who had singleton deliveries at GSTFT between 2004 and 2008. METHODS: Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between BMI and outcome in different ethnic groups. Adjusted odds ratios, and the proportions of obese women, were used to calculate population attributable risk fractions (PAFs. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: (I MATERNAL OUTCOMES: diabetes, type of delivery, post-partum haemorrhage, and preterm delivery. (ii Perinatal outcomes: macrosomia, low birth weight, admission to neonatal intensive care/special care baby unit, and perinatal death. RESULTS: The prevalence of maternal obesity was 14%. Increasing BMI was independently associated with increasing risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcome. At the individual level, the effect of obesity on diabetes was highest in Asian women compared to white women (p for interaction = 0.03. Calculation of population attributable risk fractions demonstrated that one third of diabetes cases and one in six Caesarean sections could be avoided in this population if all obese women were of normal BMI. At the population level, the contribution of obesity to diabetes was highest for Black women (42%, and lowest for oriental women (8%. Seven percent of neonatal macrosomia in all the population, and 13% in Black mothers, were attributable to obesity. CONCLUSIONS: Preventing obesity prior to pregnancy will substantially reduce the burden of obstetric and neonatal morbidity in this population. This reduction will be higher in Black women.
Almiron-Roig, Eva; Aitken, Amanda; Galloway, Catherine; Ellahi, Basma
Dietary assessment in minority ethnic groups is critical for surveillance programs and for implementing effective interventions. A major challenge is the accurate estimation of portion sizes for traditional foods and dishes. The aim of this systematic review was to assess records published up to 2014 describing a portion-size estimation element (PSEE) applicable to the dietary assessment of UK-residing ethnic minorities. Electronic databases, internet sites, and theses repositories were searched, generating 5683 titles, from which 57 eligible full-text records were reviewed. Forty-two publications about minority ethnic groups (n = 20) or autochthonous populations (n = 22) were included. The most common PSEEs (47%) were combination tools (eg, food models and portion-size lists), followed by portion-size lists in questionnaires/guides (19%) and image-based and volumetric tools (17% each). Only 17% of PSEEs had been validated against weighed data. When developing ethnic-specific dietary assessment tools, it is important to consider customary portion sizes by sex and age, traditional household utensil usage, and population literacy levels. Combining multiple PSEEs may increase accuracy, but such methods require validation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.
Rosen-Reynoso, Myra; Alegría, Margarita; Chen, Chih-nan; Laderman, Mara; Roberts, Robert
Epidemiologic studies of obesity have not examined the prevalence and relationship of mental health conditions with obesity for diverse ethnic and racial populations in the United States. (1) To assess whether obesity was associated with diverse psychiatric diagnoses across a representative sample of non-Latino whites, Latinos, Asians, African-Americans, and Afro-Caribbeans; and (2) to test whether physical health status, smoking, sociodemographic characteristics, and psychiatric comorbidities mediate any of the observed associations. Our analyses used pooled data from the NIMH Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Surveys (CPES). Analyses tested the association between obesity and psychiatric disorders in a diverse sample of Americans (N=13,837), while adjusting for factors such as other disorders, age, gender, socioeconomic status, smoking and physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) in different models. The relationship between obesity and last-year psychiatric disorders varied by ethnicity/race. The likelihood of having mood or anxiety disorder was positively associated with obesity for certain racial/ethnic groups, but was moderated by differences in physical health status. Substance-use disorders were associated with decreased odds for obesity in African-Americans. The role of physical health status (as measured by chronic conditions and WHO-DAS scores) dramatically changes the pattern of associations between obesity and psychiatric disorders, suggesting the important role it plays in explaining differential patterns of association across racial and ethnic groups. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Recent research from the United Kingdom (UK) has highlighted some of the differences in breast cancer presentations between women of different ethnic groups. Analysis of a large database showed that Black women of African or Caribbean heritage living in England and Wales are more likely to present with stage 3 or 4 cancer than White British women and less likely to have their cancer detected through screening. In many countries around the world, migrant and cultural minority groups experience social and economic disadvantage and this is reflected in their health outcomes. With world migration at record levels, it is timely to reflect on ethnic disparities and to consider how developed nations can care for their minority groups, which are increasing in number and diversity. These issues and challenges are discussed, using the UK's migrant population and Australia's Indigenous and migrant populations as case studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Adams, Russell L.; And Others
Cross-validated the effectiveness of the Satz-Mogel short form of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale controlling for the influence of age, racial-ethnic group, and IQ range. Results suggest that age and racial-ethnic group do not affect the short-form validity but that IQ range does. (Author)
Stark, Tobias H.; Maes, Michael; Flache, Andreas
Research on the influence of the number of ethnic minority group classmates on majority group students’ interethnic attitudes produced conflicting results. With data from 728 early adolescents, we found that the effect of the ethnic class composition depends on two opposing student-level mechanisms.
The aim of this research is to compare the efficacy of treadmill and step bench exercises in hemiparetic gait rehabilitation. Previous studies have supported the use of treadmill and step bench exercises in gait rehabilitation. Nineteen patients were recruited for an 8-week, 2-group quasi-experimental study which was ...
Ismail, Khadijah I
OBJECTIVE: Given international variation in obstetric practices and outcomes, comparison of labour outcomes in different ethnic groups could provide important information regarding the underlying reasons for rising caesarean delivery rates. Increasing numbers of women from Eastern European countries are now delivering in Irish maternity hospitals. We compared labour outcomes between Irish and Eastern European (EE) women in a large tertiary referral center. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective consecutive cohort study encompassing a single calendar year. The cohort comprised 5550 Irish and 867 EE women delivered in a single institution in 2009. Women who had multiple pregnancies, breech presentation, and elective or pre-labour caesarean sections (CS) were excluded. Data obtained from birth registers included maternal age, nationality, parity, gestation, onset of labour, mode of delivery and birth weight. RESULTS: The overall intrapartum CS rate was 11.4% and was significantly higher in Irish compared to EE women (11.8% vs. 8.8%; p=0.008). The proportion of primiparas was lower in Irish compared to EE women (44.8% vs. 63.6%; p<0.0001). The intrapartum CS rate was almost doubled in Irish compared to EE primiparas (20.7% vs. 11.0%; p<0.0001). Analysis of primiparas according to labour onset revealed a higher intrapartum CS rate in Irish primiparas in both spontaneous (13.5% vs. 7.2%; p<0.0001) and induced labour (29.5% vs. 19.3%; p=0.005). Irish women were older with 19.7% of primiparas aged more than 35, compared to 1.6% of EE women (p<0.0001). The primigravid CS rate in Irish women was significantly higher in women aged 35 years or older compared women aged less than 35 (30.6% vs. 18.3%; p<0.0001) consistent in both spontaneous and induced labour. The primiparous induction rate was 45.4% in Irish women compared to 32% in EE women, and more Irish women were induced before 41 weeks gestation. CONCLUSION: The results highlight that primigravid intrapartum CS rates were
Yazer, Mark H; Vassallo, Ralph; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; van de Watering, Leo; Shaz, Beth H
To meet the needs of a diverse patient population, an adequate supply of red blood cells (RBCs) from ethnic/racial minority donors is essential. We previously described the 10-year changes in minority blood donation in the United States. This study describes donation patterns by donor status, age, and race/ethnicity. Data on the age and the number of unique black/African American, Hispanic/Latino, Asian, and white RBC donors were obtained from eight US blood collectors for 2006, 2009, 2012, and 2015. Donors self-identified their race/ethnicity. First-time (FT) and repeat (R) donors were analyzed separately. Overall, for both FT and R donor groups, whites constituted the majority of unique donors (FT 66.7% and R 82.7%) and also donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (FT 66.6% and R 83.8%). Donors less than 20 years old comprised the greatest proportion of FT donors for all racial/ethnic groups (39.2%) and had the highest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.12) among FT donors. Conversely, R donors less than 20 years old had some of the lowest mean number of RBC donations per donor (1.55) among R donors, whereas R donors at least 60 years old had the highest mean (1.88). Year by year, the percentage of FT donors who were less than 20 years old increased for all race/ethnicities. For R donors, whites were more frequently older, while Hispanics/Latinos and Asians were younger. Greater efforts to convert FT donors less than 20 years into R donors should be undertaken to ensure the continued diversity of the blood supply. © 2017 AABB.
Moilanen, Kristin L.; Leary, Janie M.; Watson, S. Michelle; Ottley, Jason
We investigated how family characteristics and experiences during early adolescence predicted timing of sexual initiation. In addition, we investigated adolescent sex and race/ethnicity as potential moderating factors. As part of the Children of the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth-1979 (CNLSY-79), 799 adolescents aged 12 to 15 years provided…
Denson, Nida; Szelényi, Katalin; Bresonis, Kate
Very few studies have examined issues of work-life balance among faculty of different racial/ethnic backgrounds. Utilizing data from Harvard University's Collaborative on Academic Careers in Higher Education project, this study examined predictors of work-life balance for 2953 faculty members from 69 institutions. The final sample consisted of…
Background: Certain physical characteristics are used as criteria to distinguish between races, sex and ethnicity. Nasal index is one of these characteristics which are important anthropometric parameters that can be used in identifying an unknown individual in cases of mass disaster, war field or from unknown photograph ...
Wheeler, Edwin E.; And Others
A replication of two previous studies, this study examined the effect of both sex and ethnicity on attitudes toward women, self-reported masculinity-femininity, and masculine-feminine stereotypic attitudes. The Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) and the Personal Attributes Questionnaire (PAQ) were administered to 367 college students (112 Anglos,…
Worobey, John; Borrelli, Amanda; Espinosa, Carolina; Worobey, Harriet S.
Objective: Relatively few investigators have explored the role of maternal control in describing the feeding behaviour of nonwhite parents of preschool-age children. The present study was conducted to examine if controlling feeding behaviours (i.e. restriction and pressuring) varied by income (middle vs. low) and race/ethnicity (white vs.…
Background: Plasma insulin levels seem to play significant roles in health and disease; and prevailing plasma insulin levels are modulated by racial and ethnic factors. There has been no previous study of the plasma insulin pattern in any northern Nigerian tribe. Methods: Thirty-six (24 males and 12 females) healthy ...
Wissink, Inge B.; Dekovic, Maja; Meijer, Anne Marie
The cross-ethnic similarity in the pattern of associations among parenting behavior (support and authoritative and restrictive control), the quality of the parent-adolescent relationship (disclosure and positive and negative quality), and several developmental outcomes (aggressive behavior, delinquent behavior, and global self-esteem) was tested.…
Dewi, Z.L.; Halim, M.S.; Derksen, J.J.L.
This study examined attachment in Indonesia, one of the fourth most populous countries in the world. We applied the Indonesian version of the Attachment Style Questionnaire (ASQ) on 1313 Indonesians from three ethnically diverse samples (404 Bataks, 430 Minangkabau, and 479 Javanese). We assessed
Agyemang, Charles; de Munter, Jeroen; van Valkengoed, Irene; van den Born, Bert-Jan; Stronks, Karien
BACKGROUND Studies have consistently shown a lower prevalence of hypertension in women than in men. Obesity is an important risk factor for hypertension, and the rate of obesity is particularly high among ethnic minority women. It is therefore questionable whether the lower prevalence of
Lopez, Janice M S; Bailey, Robert A; Rupnow, Marcia F T; Annunziata, Kathy
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is the most common form of diabetes. Risk factors for its development include older age, obesity, family history of diabetes, history of gestational diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism, physical inactivity, and race/ethnicity. The purpose of this study was to characterize T2DM burden, from a patient perspective, with respect to age and race/ethnicity. Adults aged ≥18 years with T2DM from a large, Internet-based, nationwide survey were retrospectively analyzed. Demographic and clinical characteristics (glycemic control, body mass index [BMI], comorbidities, and diabetes-related complications), hypoglycemic episodes, and medication adherence were used to assess diabetes burden. Degree of burden was compared across age (18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years) and racial/ethnic (white, African American, Hispanic, Asian, and American Indian) groups. An apparent association was found between glycemic control and medication adherence. Hispanics had the lowest percentage of participants with a hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level groups. Conversely, American Indians and whites had the best glycemic control, HbA1c knowledge, and medication adherence. The 18- to 64-year age group had the poorest glycemic control (28.8%), the most with unknown HbA1c levels (46.3%), and the poorest medication adherence of the age groups. Mean BMIs were high (>30 mg/kg(2)) for all racial/ethnic groups other than the Asian group (28.9 mg/kg(2)). Approximately 71% of Asians were obese or overweight compared with ≥90% in the other racial/ethnic groups. Mean BMIs decreased with increasing age group (34.5, 32.6, and 29.8 kg/m(2) for the age groups of 18-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years, respectively). Regarding diabetes-related comorbidities, the Asian group had the lowest percentages of those with hypertension (39.1%) and hypercholesterolemia (46.6%). The Asian group had the lowest mean Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score (score of 1.4); the American Indian group had the highest
Parker, C P; Baltes, B B; Christiansen, N D
Do gender and race-ethnicity moderate people's reactions to perceptions that their organization supports affirmative action/equal opportunity (AA/EO)? This study compared relationships between perceptions of support for AA/EO, distributive and procedural justice, career development opportunities, and work attitudes in 4 groups of federal employees: White men (n = 4,919), White women (n = 1,622), Blacks/Hispanics (n = 492), and Asians (n = 195). Surprisingly, White men did not associate support for AA/EO with a loss in career development opportunities, organizational injustice, or negative work attitudes. For women and racial-ethnic minorities, support for AA/EO was positively linked to perceptions of organizational justice and increased career development opportunities. As predicted, Blacks/Hispanics had more positive reactions than other employee groups. We conclude that support for AA/EO is generally viewed as fair and has positive attitudinal consequences.
Vaeth, Patrice A.C.; Wang-Schweig, Meme; Caetano, Raul
Data from approximately 140 articles and reports published since 2000 on drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), correlates of drinking and AUD, and treatment needs, access and utilization were critically examined and summarized. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates alcohol-related disparities across U.S. racial/ethnic groups. American Indians/Alaska Natives generally drink more and are disproportionately affected by alcohol problems, having some of the highest rates for AUD. In contrast, Asia...
Numan, A. I.; Idris, M. O.; Zirahei, J. V.; Amaza, D. S.; Dalori, M. B.
Aims: The study was carried out to establish standard anthropometric values for stature estimation by using hand length in the three major ethnic groups in Nigeria. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: University of Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria between January - April 2010. Methodology: A total of 407 right hand dominant students (210 males and 197 females) aged 18 – 35 years who were purely of Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba origin by both parents and grandparents, are...
Kevin M Waters
Full Text Available It has been recently hypothesized that many of the signals detected in genome-wide association studies (GWAS to T2D and other diseases, despite being observed to common variants, might in fact result from causal mutations that are rare. One prediction of this hypothesis is that the allelic associations should be population-specific, as the causal mutations arose after the migrations that established different populations around the world. We selected 19 common variants found to be reproducibly associated to T2D risk in European populations and studied them in a large multiethnic case-control study (6,142 cases and 7,403 controls among men and women from 5 racial/ethnic groups (European Americans, African Americans, Latinos, Japanese Americans, and Native Hawaiians. In analysis pooled across ethnic groups, the allelic associations were in the same direction as the original report for all 19 variants, and 14 of the 19 were significantly associated with risk. In summing the number of risk alleles for each individual, the per-allele associations were highly statistically significant (P<10(-4 and similar in all populations (odds ratios 1.09-1.12 except in Japanese Americans the estimated effect per allele was larger than in the other populations (1.20; P(het = 3.8×10(-4. We did not observe ethnic differences in the distribution of risk that would explain the increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes in these groups as compared to European Americans. The consistency of allelic associations in diverse racial/ethnic groups is not predicted under the hypothesis of Goldstein regarding "synthetic associations" of rare mutations in T2D.
Full Text Available Music Vieng, Laos, Vientiane, Lao ethnic group identity. And this is something that represents the cultural and traditional beliefs from the past, which is very important and plays a role in Vientiane, Lao ethnic group. Today This research aims to 1. To study the music of ethnic Lao Wiang Thong, Suphan Buri Province Don Kha 2. To study the musical heritage and preservation of ethnic groups in Laos Vieng Thong, Suphan Buri Province Don Kha. The results showed that the music of ethnic Lao Wiang Thong, Suphan Buri Province Don Kha. Originally a folk music as well as the East. Originally, Canada is the main instrument. Vientiane, Laos ethnic group influenced society. And culture outside to inside. The group of friends and was popular with the younger generation. Lack of support from local organizations People who know less. Make music, ethnic Vieng, Laos began to fade with time. ceremony, a ritual is believed the disease. Similar to the medium by a worship of ancestors. Conservation and musical heritage of ethnic groups in Laos Don Kha Vieng Thong, Suphan Buri. Are passed down from generation to generation through teaching, saying to each other in kinship. There are performances at various events Playing music in various applications And shows for visitors to watch.
Full Text Available Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception.
Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai
Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception.
Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J.; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai
Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person’s ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception. PMID:23762487
Liu, Jue; Zhang, Shikun; Wang, Qiaomei; Shen, Haiping; Zhang, Yiping; Liu, Min
ABO and RhD blood groups are key factors affecting blood transfusion safety. The distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups varies globally, but limited data exist for ethnic distributions of these blood groups in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups among Chinese ethnic groups. A population-based cross-sectional study. Data on ABO groups and ethnicities were obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) with participants from 220 counties of 31 provinces in China PARTICIPANTS: There were 3 832 034 participants aged 21-49 years who took part in the NFPHEP from January 2010 to December 2012 and were included in this study. The proportion of ABO and RhD blood groups among different ethnic groups was calculated. ABO and RhD blood distribution was significantly different among nine ethnic groups (Pgroups, the Yi group had more A phenotypes (34.0%), and the Manchu (33.7%) and Mongolian (33.3%) ethnic groups had more B phenotypes. The Zhuang group had the greatest proportion of O phenotypes (41.8%), followed by the Miao group (37.7%). AB phenotypes were more frequent in the Uygur ethnic group (10.6%) but lower in the Zhuang group (5.5%). Meanwhile, RhD negativity (RhD-) was greater in the Uygur group (3.3%) than in the Mongolian (0.3%) and Manchu ethnic groups (0.4%). O RhD- blood groups were more frequent in the Uygur group (0.8%) than in the other ethnic groups (0.1%-0.4%, Pblood phenotypes vary across different ethnic groups in China. The diversity in the distribution of the ABO and RhD blood groups in different ethnic groups should be considered when developing rational and evidence-based strategies for blood collection and management. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.
Charlton, Karen E; Steyn, Krisela; Levitt, Naomi S; Zulu, Jabulisiwe V; Jonathan, Deborah; Veldman, Frederick J; Nel, Johanna H
We investigated whether habitual intakes of sodium (Na), potassium, magnesium, and calcium differ across South African ethnic groups, assessed the proportion of Na intake, which is discretionary, and identified which food sources were the major contributors to Na intake. This was a cross-sectional study of 325 black, white, and mixed ancestry hypertensive and normotensive subjects. Three repeated 24-h urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary Na, and three corresponding 24-h dietary recalls were administered by trained fieldworkers. Blood pressure and weight were measured at each visit. Secondary analyses were performed on existing dietary databases obtained from four regional surveys undertaken in South African adults. Mean urinary Na excretion values equated to daily salt (NaCl) intakes of 7.8, 8.5, and 9.5 g in black, mixed ancestry, and white subjects, respectively (P low intakes. Urban versus rural differences existed with respect to sources of dietary Na, with greater than 70% of total non-discretionary Na being provided by bread and cereals in rural black South Africans compared with 49% to 54% in urban dwellers. White South Africans have higher habitual intakes of Na, but also higher calcium intakes, than their black and mixed ancestry counterparts. All ethnic groups had Na intakes in excess of 6 g/d of salt, whereas potassium intakes in all groups were below the recommended level of 90 mM/d. Dietary differences may contribute to ethnically related differences in blood pressure.
Foo, Xiang Yi; Alwi, Muhd Najib Mohd; Ismail, Siti Irma Fadhillah; Ibrahim, Normala; Osman, Zubaidah Jamil
The variation in suicide patterns across ethnic groups with different religious background is a puzzling social phenomenon. This study sought to examine the impact of religious commitment and attitudes toward suicide on suicidal behaviors of college students across major ethnic and religious groups in a multicultural society of Malaysia. A total of 139 college students completed Religious Commitment Inventory-10, Attitudes Toward Suicide Scale, and Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised. Findings showed significant discrepancies in attitudes toward suicide, but not suicidal behaviors across ethnic and religious groups. Suicide acceptance significantly affected suicidal behaviors as well. Although religious commitment is not associated with suicidal behaviors, its deviation is reflected in students' acceptance of suicide. Additionally, college students' suicide risk, lifetime, and recent suicide ideation, as well as their likelihood of future suicide attempt can be associated with their acceptance of suicide. The influence of attitudes toward suicide and religion, therefore, should be taken into consideration while implementing suicide prevention programs as it helps shape the norms about suicide among youths.
Devillé Walter L
Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In
Filon, D.; Oron, V.; Krichevski, S.; Shaag, A.; Goldfarb, A.; Aker, M.; Rachmilewitz, E.A.; Rund, D.; Oppenheim, A. (Hebrew Univ. Hadassah-Medical School, Jerusalem (Israel)) (and others)
The authors characterized nearly 500 [beta]-thalassemia genes from the Israeli population representing a variety of ethnic subgroups. They found 28 different mutations in the [beta]-globin gene, including three mutations ([beta][sup S], [beta][sup C], and [beta][sup O-Arab]) causing hemoglobinopathies. Marked genetic heterogeneity was observed in both the Arab (20 mutations) and Jewish (17 mutations) populations. On the other hand, two ethnic isolates - Druze and Samaritans - had a single mutation each. Fifteen of the [beta]-thalassemia alleles are Mediterranean in type, 5 originated in Kurdistan, 2 are of Indian origin, and 2 sporadic alleles came from Europe. Only one mutant allele-nonsense codon 37-appears to be indigenous to Israel. While human habitation in Israel dates back to early prehistory, the present-day spectrum of [beta]-globin mutations can be largely explained by migration events that occurred in the past millennium. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.
Hartz, D T
Ninety-six high school students reported their own behavior and the behavior of their parents in the resolution of conflicts during the previous year, using the Conflict Tactics Scale (Straus, 1979). Parent-teen dyadic aggression levels for Americans of European, Japanese, Polynesian, and Filipino ancestry were compared in a series of orthogonal contrasts. The adolescent children of Polynesian American parents reported significantly higher parent aggression levels than did adolescents with parents of other ethnicity. Parent aggression was the best predictor of teen aggression directed toward parents. Subjects reciprocated with counteraggression toward European American parents significantly more often than toward parents of other ethnicity. Aggression by one parent was highly correlated with aggression by the other parent. Aggression by either parent was more highly correlated with teen aggression toward the mother, than with teen aggression toward the father.
Choi, Yoonsun; Lahey, Benjamin B.
Using data from a large nationally representative sample of adolescents attending school, this study tests the stereotype that youth of Asian Pacific Islander ethnicity (API) are the model minority. The results suggest that, except for substance use, API American youth do not report fewer delinquent behaviors than white youth; in fact, API American youth report slightly higher numbers of aggressive offenses than white youth, and female API American youth report greater numbers of nonaggressiv...
Chou, Tina; Asnaani, Anu; Hofmann, Stefan G.
To examine the association between the perception of racial discrimination and the lifetime prevalence rates of psychological disorders in the three most common ethnic minorities in the U.S., we analyzed data from a sample consisting of 793 Asian Americans, 951 Hispanic Americans, and 2,795 African Americans who received the Composite International Diagnostic Interview through the Collaborative Psychiatric Epidemiology Studies. The perception of racial discrimination was associated with the e...
Tengku Shahrul Anuar
Full Text Available Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia.Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150 of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139 of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211 of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi.Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and implementation of specific
Shahrul Anuar, Tengku; M. Al-Mekhlafi, Hesham; Abdul Ghani, Mohamed Kamel; Osman, Emelia; Mohd Yasin, Azlin; Nordin, Anisah; Nor Azreen, Siti; Md Salleh, Fatmah; Ghazali, Nuraffini; Bernadus, Mekadina; Moktar, Norhayati
Background Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar/Entamoeba moshkovskii infection is still prevalent in rural Malaysia especially among Orang Asli communities. Currently, information on prevalence of this infection among different ethnic groups of Orang Asli is unavailable in Malaysia. To contribute to a better comprehension of the epidemiology of this infection, a cross-sectional study aimed at providing the first documented data on the prevalence and risk factors associated with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii infection was carried out among three Orang Asli ethnic groups (Proto-Malay, Negrito, and Senoi) in selected villages in Negeri Sembilan, Perak, and Pahang states, Malaysia. Methods/Findings Faecal samples were examined by formalin-ether sedimentation and trichrome staining techniques. Of 500 individuals, 8.7% (13/150) of Proto-Malay, 29.5% (41/139) of Negrito, and 18.5% (39/211) of Senoi were positive for E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii, respectively. The prevalence of this infection showed an age-dependency relationship, with higher rates observed among those aged less than 15 years in all ethnic groups studied. Multivariate analysis confirmed that not washing hands after playing with soils or gardening and presence of other family members infected with E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii were significant risk factors of infection among all ethnic groups. However, eating with hands, the consumption of raw vegetables, and close contact with domestic animals were identified as significant risk factors in Senoi. Conclusions Essentially, the findings highlighted that E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moshkovskii parasites are still prevalent in Malaysia. Further studies using molecular approaches to distinguish the morphologically identical species of pathogenic, E. histolytica from the non-pathogenic, E. dispar and E. moshkovskii are needed. The establishment of such data will be beneficial for the public health authorities in the planning and
Schwei, Rebecca J; Johnson, Timothy P; Matthews, Alicia K; Jacobs, Elizabeth A
Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health-care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship; and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health-care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African-American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health-care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health-care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor's degree or above (OR: 2.95, 95%CI: 1.01-8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR: 1.84, 95%CI: 1.11-3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR: 3.58, 95%CI: 1.66-7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health-care experience. Of these people, 88% reported 'sometimes/always' changing at least one health-seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health-care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However, those who avoided care due to cost were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative experience more often. Our findings suggest that the
Schwei, Rebecca J.; Johnson, Timothy; Matthews, Alicia K.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.
Objectives Our two study objectives were: (1) to understand the relationship between the perception of a previous negative health care experience and race/ethnicity, and how socio-demographic, access-to-health-care, and self-reported health variables modified this relationship and (2) to assess how many behaviors participants reported changing as a result of experiencing a perceived negative health care experience, which behaviors they changed, and if there were differences in patterns of change across racial/ethnic groups. Design We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of 600 African American, Mexican-Hispanic, and white adults in socioeconomically diverse neighborhoods in Chicago, IL. We used multivariable logistic regression to analyze the relationship between a perceived negative health care experience in the last 5 years and race/ethnicity. We summed and then calculated the percentage of people who changed each of the 10 behaviors and evaluated whether or not there were differences in behavior change across racial/ethnic groups. Principal Findings More than 32% of participants reported a perceived negative health care experience in the past 5 years. Participants who had a bachelor’s degree or above (OR; 2.95,95%CI:1.01–8.63), avoided needed care due to cost (OR:1.84,95%CI:1.11–3.06), or who reported fair/poor health (OR:3.58,95%CI:1.66–7.80) had significantly increased odds of reporting a negative health care experience. Of these people, 88% reported “sometimes/always” changing at least one health seeking behavior. There were no racial/ethnic differences in reporting negative experiences or in patterns of behavior change. Conclusions Race/ethnicity was not related to reporting a perceived negative health care experience or reported patterns of behavior change in response to that experience. However those who avoided care due to cost, were more highly educated, or who indicated poorer health status reported having a negative
Bai, Yeon; Wunderlich, Shahla M; Fly, Alyce D
The purpose of this study was to explore how mothers of different races/ethnicities make decisions to continue exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) for 6 months under the Theory of Planned Behavior. Participants were recruited from hospitals and WIC clinics in Central Indiana and Southern New Jersey from 2008 to 2009. Mothers (N=236: 93 non-Hispanic African American, 72 non-Hispanic white, 71 Hispanic/Latina) completed a self-administered questionnaire that measured theoretical constructs and beliefs related to their intention to practice EBF for 6 months. Intentions to continue EBF for 6 months were similar (P=0.15) across racial/ethnic groups. Significant proportions of the intention (Pwhite mothers, subjective norm for African American mothers, and perceived behavioral control for Latina mothers. Latent beliefs strongly associated with attitude in white mothers were 'bonding with the baby' and 'easy feeding.' Beliefs held by family members and the general public contributed to the subjective norm of African American mothers. Perceived behavioral control in Latina mothers was highly correlated with 'pumping breast milk'. Development of policy and intervention programs that focus on shaping strong predictors and beliefs within racial/ethnic groups could reduce disparities in EBF rates and establish EBF for 6 months as a cultural norm.
Adair, Pauline M; Pine, Cynthia M; Burnside, Girvan; Nicoll, Alison D; Gillett, Angela; Anwar, Shahid; Broukal, Zdenek; Chestnutt, Ivor G; Declerck, Dominique; Ping, Feng Xi; Ferro, Roberto; Freeman, Ruth; Grant-Mills, Donna; Gugushe, Tshepo; Hunsrisakhun, Jaranya; Irigoyen-Camacho, Maria; Lo, Edward C M; Moola, Mohamed Hanif; Naidoo, Sudeshni; Nyandindi, Ursuline; Poulsen, Vibeke Juul; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Razanamihaja, Noëline; Shahid, Swarngit; Skeie, Marit Slåttelid; Skur, O Patricia; Splieth, Christian; Soo, Teo Choo; Whelton, Helen; Young, David W
OBJECTIVE; The aim of this international study was to develop a valid and reliable psychometric measure to examine the extent to which parents' attitudes about engaging in twice-daily tooth brushing and controlling sugar snacking predict these respective behaviours in their children. A supplementary objective was to assess whether ethnic group, culture, level of deprivation or children's caries experience impact upon the relationships between oral health related behaviours, attitudes to these respective behaviours and to dental caries. Nurseries, health centres and dental clinics in 17 countries. 2822 children aged 3 to 4 years and their parents. Dental examination of children and questionnaire to parents. Factor analysis identified 8 coherent attitudes towards toothbrushing, sugar snacking and childhood caries. Attitudes were significantly different in families from deprived and non-deprived backgrounds and in families of children with and without caries. Parents perception of their ability to control their children's toothbrushing and sugar snacking habits were the most significant predictor of whether or not favourable habits were reported. Some differences were found by site and ethnic group. This study supports the hypothesis that parental attitudes significantly impact on the establishment of habits favourable to oral health. An appreciation of the impact of cultural and ethnic diversity is important in understanding how parental attitudes to oral health vary. Further research should examine in a prospective intervention whether enhancing parenting skills is an effective route to preventing childhood caries.
Mathur, Rohini; Badrick, Ellena; Boomla, Kambiz; Bremner, Stephen; Hull, Sally; Robson, John
Differences in drug prescribing for coronary heart disease have previously been identified by age, sex and ethnic group. Set in the UK, our study utilises routinely collected data from 98 general practices serving a socially diverse population in inner East London, to examine differences in prescribing rates among patients aged 35 years and over with coronary heart disease. 10,933 patients aged 35 years or more, with recorded coronary heart disease, from 98 practices in two Primary Care Trusts (PCT) in East London during 2009/2010 were included for this cross-sectional study. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the odds of prescribing for recommended coronary heart disease drugs by age, sex, ethnicity, social deprivation, co-morbidity and recorded reasons for not prescribing. Women are prescribed fewer recommended coronary heart disease drugs than men; Black African/Caribbean patients are prescribed fewer lipid modifying drugs and other cardiovascular drugs than White patients. Patients over age 84 are prescribed fewer lipid modifying drugs and beta blockers than patients aged 45-54. South Asian patients had the highest levels of prescribing and higher prevalence of coronary heart disease and diabetes co-morbidity. No difference in prescribing rates by social deprivation was found. Overall levels of prescribing are high but small differences between sex and ethnic groups remain and prescribing may be inequitable for women, for Black/African Caribbeans and at older ages. These differences were not explained by recorded intolerance, contraindications or declining treatment.
Alarcón, Ana M; Muñoz, Sergio; Kaufman, Jay S; Martínez, Carlos; Riedemann, Pablo; Kaliski, Sonia
The aim of this study was to estimate the contributions of ethnic group and socioeconomic status as social determinants related to disability and disease activity in Chilean Mapuche and non-Mapuche patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Descriptive cross-sectional study with a stratified hospital-based sample of 189 patients in treatment with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. We assessed disability as categorical variable with the Health Assessment Questionnaire, disease activity with the Disease Activity Score instrument, and socioeconomic status with a standard questionnaire used by the Chilean government. Measures of association, stratified analyses and a multiple logistic regression model were used to analyze the data using the Stata 12.1 software package. Low socioeconomic status (annual income below US$ 7,200) is associated with disability (OR 3.87 CI 1.68-9.20) and Mapuche ethnic identity also contributes to disability (OR 2.48, CI 1.09-5.89). Relevant but not statistically significant in multivariable models were variables such as age, gender and place of residence. RA patients with a low socioeconomic status have almost three times the odds of having a moderate to high disability, independent of their ethnic group, gender or place of residence. Therefore, healthcare efforts should be aimed at promoting early diagnosis and prompt treatment among populations with high levels of poverty, which in the region of the Araucanía means primarily indigenous rural areas.
Lequerica, Anthony H; Chiaravalloti, Nancy D; Sander, Angelle M; Pappadis, Monique R; Arango-Lasprilla, Juan Carlos; Hart, Tessa; Baños, James H; Marquez De La Plata, Carlos D; Hammond, Flora M; Sherman, Tanya E
To examine the factor structure and construct validity of the Community Integration Questionnaire, a widely used measure of community participation among individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI), among 3 racial/ethnic groups. Prospective longitudinal cohort study. Enrollment in acute inpatient TBI rehabilitation with follow-up at 1 year after injury. A total of 1756 persons with TBI enrolled in the Traumatic Brain Injury Model Systems (TBIMS) national Database. Community Integration Questionnaire at 1 year after injury. The goodness of fit for the factor structure of the Community Integration Questionnaire, separating items into Home Competency, Social Integration, and Productive Activity, was satisfactory for whites but not for blacks or Hispanics. Clinicians and researchers should take race/ethnicity into account when utilizing measures of community integration.
Lian, Yulong; Xiao, Jing; Zhang, Chen; Guan, Suzhen; Li, Fuye; Ge, Hua; Liu, Jiwen
The present study compared the level of occupational strain and work ability among Han, Hui, Uygur, Hui, and Kazakh teachers, and explored ethnic differences based on the associations of psychosocial factors at work, occupational strain, and work ability. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 2,941 teachers in primary and secondary schools in Xinjiang Province, China. Psychosocial factors, occupational strain, and work ability were measured using the Occupation Stress Inventory-Revised Edition (OSI-R) and Work Ability Index. Han and Hui teachers experienced reduced work ability compared with Uygur and Kazakh teachers, and this finding was caused, in part, by exposure to psychosocial factors at work. The vocational and psychological strains caused by these factors play an important role in reduced work ability among all ethnic teacher groups. The findings indicate the importance of taking action to reduce occupational strain for promoting teachers' work ability in multiethnic workplaces.
Moffat, Joanne; Sass, Bernd; McKenzie, Kwame; Bhui, Kamaldeep
Black and ethnic minorities show different pathways to care services and different routes out of care. These often involve non-statutory sector services. In order to improve access to services, and to develop appropriate and effective interventions, many innovations are described but the knowledge about how to improve pathways to recovery has not been synthesized. Much of this work is not formally published. Hence, this paper addresses this oversight and undertakes a review of the grey literature. The key components of effective pathway interventions include specialist services for ethnic minority groups, collaboration between sectors, facilitating referral routes between services, outreach and facilitating access into care, and supporting access to rehabilitation and moving out of care. Services that support collaboration, referral between services, and improve access seem effective, but warrant further evaluation. Innovative services must ensure that their evaluation frameworks meet minimum quality standards if the knowledge gained from the service is to be generalized, and if it is to inform policy.
Yang, Tse-Chuan; Chen, Danhong
The objective of this study was to answer three questions: (1) Is perceived discrimination adversely related to self-rated stress via the social capital and health care system distrust pathways? (2) Does the relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress vary across race/ethnicity groups? and (3) Do the two pathways differ by one's race/ethnicity background? Using the Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Southeastern Pennsylvania Household Survey, we classified 9831 respondents into 4 race/ethnicity groups: non-Hispanic White (n = 6621), non-Hispanic Black (n = 2359), Hispanic (n = 505), and non-Hispanic other races (n = 346). Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously estimate five sets of equations, including the confirmatory factor analysis for both social capital and health care distrust and both direct and indirect effects from perceived discrimination to self-rated stress. The key findings drawn from the analysis include the following: (1) in general, people who experienced racial discrimination have higher distrust and weaker social capital than those without perceived discrimination and both distrust and social capital are ultimately related to self-rated stress. (2) The direct relationship between perceived discrimination and self-rated stress is found for all race/ethnicity groups (except non-Hispanic other races) and it does not vary across groups. (3) The two pathways can be applied to non-Hispanic White and Black, but for Hispanic and non-Hispanic other races, we found little evidence for the social capital pathway. For non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, and Hispanic, perceived discrimination is negatively related to self-rated stress. This finding highlights the importance of reducing interpersonal discriminatory behavior even for non-Hispanic White. The health care system distrust pathway can be used to address the racial health disparity in stress as it holds true for all four race/ethnicity
Maramba, Dina C.; Museus, Samuel D.
The purpose of this study is to explore how campus climate, ethnic group cohesion and cross cultural interaction influence Filipino American college students' sense of belonging in college. Specifically, we examine the impact of three environmental and behavioral factors on students' sense of belonging: 1) campus racial climate, 2) ethnic group…
A new tool, a better tool? Prevalence and performance of the International Diabetes Federation and the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria for metabolic syndrome in different ethnic groups
Bindraban, N. R.; van Valkengoed, I. G. M.; Mairuhu, G.; Koster, R. W.; Holleman, F.; Hoekstra, J. B. L.; Koopmans, R. P.; Stronks, K.
We used a population based study in the Netherlands of 330 Hindustani Surinamese, 586 African Surinamese, and 486 ethnic Dutch (Dutch) to describe the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) and the association with differences in cardiovascular disease in and between ethnic groups. Fasting blood
Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.
Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…
de Sa, Joia; Bouttasing, Namthipkesone; Sampson, Louise; Perks, Carol; Osrin, David; Prost, Audrey
Chronic malnutrition in children remains highly prevalent in Laos, particularly among ethnic minority groups. There is limited knowledge of specific nutrition practices among these groups. We explored nutritional status, cultural beliefs and practices of Laos' Khmu ethnic group to inform interventions for undernutrition as part of a Primary Health Care (PHC) project. Mixed methods were used. For background, we disaggregated anthropometric and behavioural indicators from Laos' Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. We then conducted eight focus group discussions and 33 semi-structured interviews with Khmu villagers and health care workers, exploring beliefs and practices related to nutrition. The setting was two rural districts in Luang Prabang province, in one of which the PHC project had been established for 3 years. There was a higher prevalence of stunting in the Khmu than in other groups. Disaggregation showed nutrition behaviours were associated with ethnicity, including exclusive breastfeeding. Villagers described strong adherence to post-partum food restrictions for women, while little change was described in intake during pregnancy. Most children were breastfed, although early introduction of pre-lacteal foods was noted in the non-PHC district. There was widespread variation in introduction and diversity of complementary foods. Guidance came predominantly from the community, with some input from health care workers. Interventions to address undernutrition in Khmu communities should deliver clear, consistent messages on optimum nutrition behaviours. Emphasis should be placed on dietary diversity for pregnant and post-partum mothers, encouraging exclusive breastfeeding and timely, appropriate complementary feeding. The impact of wider governmental policies on food security needs to be further assessed. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Drummond, Andreia Maria Araújo; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira; Gomes, Viviane Elisangela; Marcenes, Wagner
The aim of this study was to assess inequality of experience of dental caries, based on race/ethnicity, among Brazilian adolescents aged 15 to 19 years in 2010 and test whether socioeconomic indicators fully explain ethnic differences in dental caries. Data from a National Oral Health Survey conducted in Brazil in 2010 was analysed. Race/ethnicity was self-assigned and modified to White, African descents, East Asian descents, Mixed Race and Indigenous descents. The prevalence of caries experience by race/ethnic group in 2010(n = 5,367) was calculated. Further analysis included conceptual hierarchical modelling and mediation analysis. Caries experience was 76.9% in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians in 2010. While African descents were 32% more likely to have caries experience than Whites, Mixed Race were 69% more likely to have caries experience than Whites. Hierarchical conceptual modelling analysis confirmed the highly significant association between caries and race/ethnicity. Mixed Race and East Asian descents were 1.44 (95% CI 1.24-1.67) and 1.81 (95% CI 1.02-3.20) times more likely to experience caries than Whites after adjusting for age, sex, education and income. The difference in the likelihood of experiencing caries between Whites and African descents was not statistically significant after adjusting for years of education and family income. The results of mediation analysis confirmed that inequality of caries experience between Whites and Mixed Race and East Asian descents was mediated through education and income. The likelihood that Mixed Race and East Asian descents would experience caries compared to Whites was attenuated, by 14.8% and by 9.5% respectively, after adjusting for years of education and income. Data analysis demonstrated that Whites have benefited more from the significant reduction in dental caries experience in 15 to 19 year old Brazilians, as compared to African descents and Mixed Race. Education and income fully explained ethnic
Postmus, Judy L
For women who experience abuse in childhood or adulthood, the assumptions are that surviving includes seeking help. This article presents an exploratory study on the prevalence of victimization in the lives of Caucasian, African American, and Latina women, if and to whom they disclosed their victimization, and where they turned for services and support. The results indicate Caucasian women turn more to traditional, therapeutic sources compared with African American women, who tend to use tangible supports. However, when controlling for a number of key variables, the ethnic differences disappear. Implications for further research and practice conclude this article. © The Author(s) 2015.
Kim, JaHun; Nicodimos, Semret; Kushner, Siri E; Rhew, Isaac C; McCauley, Elizabeth; Vander Stoep, Ann
To compare the mental health status of children of immigrant (COI) and non-immigrant (NI) parents and to determine whether differences in mental health status between COI and NI vary across 4 racial/ethnic groups. We conducted universal mental health screening of 2374 sixth graders in an urban public school district. To screen, we administered well-validated adolescent depression and disruptive behavior problem questionnaires. We evaluated associations between child mental health, parent immigration status, and race/ethnicity using binomial regression. Among Asian American/Pacific Islanders and Latinos, COI had significantly higher depression and disruptive behavior scores compared to NI. For Blacks/African Americans, children of NI parents had significantly higher disruptive behavior scores compared to COI. For European Americans, scores of COI and NI did not differ and were relatively low. Our study suggests that how the emotional health of COI is faring relative to children of NI depends on the child's race/ethnicity. © 2018, American School Health Association.
Peterson, Kim; Anderson, Johanna; Boundy, Erin; Ferguson, Lauren; McCleery, Ellen; Waldrip, Kallie
Continued racial/ethnic health disparities were recently described as "the most serious and shameful health care issue of our time." Although the 2014 US Affordable Care Act-mandated national insurance coverage expansion has led to significant improvements in health care coverage and access, its effects on life expectancy are not yet known. The Veterans Health Administration (VHA), the largest US integrated health care system, has a sustained commitment to health equity that addresses all 3 stages of health disparities research: detection, understanding determinants, and reduction or elimination. Despite this, racial disparities still exist in the VHA across a wide range of clinical areas and service types. To inform the health equity research agenda, we synthesized evidence on racial/ethnic mortality disparities in the VHA. Our research librarian searched MEDLINE and Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials from October 2006 through February 2017 using terms for racial groups and disparities. We included studies if they compared mortality between any racial/ethnic minority and nonminority veteran groups or between different minority groups in the VHA (PROSPERO# CRD42015015974). We made study selection decisions on the basis of prespecified eligibility criteria. They were first made by 1 reviewer and checked by a second and disagreements were resolved by consensus (sequential review). Two reviewers sequentially abstracted data on prespecified population, outcome, setting, and study design characteristics. Two reviewers sequentially graded the strength of evidence using prespecified criteria on the basis of 5 key domains: study limitations (study design and internal validity), consistency, directness, precision of the evidence, and reporting biases. We synthesized the evidence qualitatively by grouping studies first by racial/ethnic minority group and then by clinical area. For areas with multiple studies in the same population and outcome, we pooled their
Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Stafford, Jewel D; McGowan, Lucy D'Agostino; Seo, Joann; Lachance, Christina R; Goodman, Melody S
Few studies have examined how individuals respond to genomic risk information for common, chronic diseases. This randomized study examined differences in responses by type of genomic information (genetic test/family history) and disease condition (diabetes/heart disease), and by race/ethnicity in a medically underserved population. 1,057 English-speaking adults completed a survey containing 1 of 4 vignettes (2-by-2 randomized design). Differences in dependent variables (i.e., interest in receiving genomic assessment, discussing with doctor or family, changing health habits) by experimental condition and race/ethnicity were examined using chi-squared tests and multivariable regression analysis. No significant differences were found in dependent variables by type of genomic information or disease condition. In multivariable models, Hispanics were more interested in receiving a genomic assessment than Whites (OR = 1.93; p literacy had greater interest than those with adequate health literacy. Blacks (OR = 1.78; p = .001) and Hispanics (OR = 1.85; p = .001) had greater interest in discussing information with family than Whites. Non-Hispanic Blacks (OR = 1.45; p = .04) had greater interest in discussing genomic information with a doctor than Whites. Blacks (β = -0.41; p literacy was negatively associated with number of health habits participants intended to change. Findings suggest that race/ethnicity may affect responses to genomic risk information. Additional research could examine how cognitive representations of this information differ across racial/ethnic groups. Health literacy is also critical to consider in developing approaches to communicating genomic information.
Pike, Mindy M; Larson, Nicholas B; Wassel, Christina L; Cohoon, Kevin P; Tsai, Michael Y; Pankow, James S; Hanson, Naomi Q; Decker, Paul A; Berardi, Cecilia; Alexander, Kristine S; Cushman, Mary; Zakai, Neil A; Bielinski, Suzette J
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) affects 8.5 million Americans and thus improving our understanding of PAD is critical to developing strategies to reduce disease burden. The objective of the study was to determine the association of ABO blood type with ankle brachial index (ABI) as well as prevalent and incident PAD in a multi-ethnic cohort. The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis includes non-Hispanic White, African, Hispanic, and Chinese Americans aged 45-84. ABO blood type was estimated using ABO genotypes in 6027 participants who had ABI assessed at the baseline exam. Associations with ABO blood type were evaluated categorically and under an additive genetic model by number of major ABO alleles. After excluding those with ABI>1.4, prevalent PAD was defined as ABI≤0.9 at baseline and incident PAD as ABI≤0.9 for 5137 participants eligible for analysis. There were 222 prevalent cases and 239 incident cases of PAD. In African Americans, each additional copy of the A allele was associated with a 0.02 lower baseline ABI (p=0.006). Each copy of the A allele also corresponded to 1.57-fold greater odds of prevalent PAD (95% CI, 1.17-2.35; p=0.004), but was not associated with incident PAD. No associations were found in other racial/ethnic groups for ABI, prevalent PAD, or incident PAD across all races/ethnicities. Blood type A and the A allele count were significantly associated with baseline ABI and prevalent PAD in African Americans. Further research is needed to confirm and study the mechanisms of this association in African Americans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oginni, Fadekemi O; Asuku, Malachy E; Oladele, Ayodeji O; Obuekwe, Ozoemene N; Nnabuko, Richard E
To determine the knowledge and cultural beliefs about the etiology and management of orofacial clefts in Nigeria's major ethnic groups. Questionnaires designed to elicit respondents' knowledge and cultural beliefs about the etiology and management of orofacial clefts. Northern and southern Nigerian communities where the major ethnic groups reside. Consenting, randomly selected individuals. There were 650 respondents (350 women and 300 men) from 34 of Nigeria's 36 states; 65.5% were aged 21 to 40 years and 52.5% were married. There were Yoruba (33.7%), Igbo/Bini/Urhobo (40.5%), and Hausa/Fulani (25.8%), with most having attained primary and secondary education. Of those responding, 75% had seen an individual with an orofacial cleft. A significant level of ignorance about the cultural beliefs was found. The Hausa/Fulani considered it mostly an act of God; whereas, the Igbo/Bini/Urhobo and Yoruba groups displayed a greater variety of cultural beliefs. The latter groups implicated witchcraft, evil spirit or devil, the mother, and occasionally the child. Of respondents, 40% knew that surgery was a possible solution, and 22% would recommend a visit to the hospital. Respondents with higher educational attainment produced significantly more scientifically related etiologic factors and accurate treatment options. Of respondents, 75% were aware of the existence of orofacial clefts, and a fair knowledge of treatment of orofacial clefts was elicited. Diverse cultural beliefs often may present an obstacle to treatment. Improved awareness about the etiology and management of orofacial clefts is required.
Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R.; Mouton, Charles P.; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G.
Objective To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multi-site, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Design Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Setting Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Patients or Participants Community women from each ethnic group of color. Interventions A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Main Outcome Measures Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. Results We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Conclusions Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus. PMID:19769020
Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Adler, Shelley R; Mouton, Charles E; Ory, Marcia; Underwood, Lynne G
To outline the lessons learned about the use of focus groups for the multisite, multi-ethnic longitudinal Study of Women Across the Nation (SWAN). Focus groups were designed to identify potential cultural differences in the incidence of symptoms and the meaning of transmenopause among women of diverse cultures, and to identify effective recruitment and retention strategies. Inductive and deductive focus groups for a multi-ethnic study. Seven community research sites across the United States conducted focus groups with six ethnic populations: African American, Chinese American, Japanese American, Mexican American, non-Hispanic white, and Puerto Rican. Community women from each ethnic group of color. A set of four/five focus groups in each ethnic group as the formative stage of the deductive, quantitative SWAN survey. Identification of methodological advantages and challenges to the successful implementation of formative focus groups in a multi-ethnic, multi-site population-based epidemiologic study. We provide recommendations from our lessons learned to improve the use of focus groups in future studies with multi-ethnic populations. Mixed methods using inductive and deductive approaches require the scientific integrity of both research paradigms. Adequate resources and time must be budgeted as essential parts of the overall strategy from the outset of study. Inductive cross-cultural researchers should be key team members, beginning with inception through each subsequent design phase to increase the scientific validity, generalizability, and comparability of the results across diverse ethnic groups, to assure the relevance, validity and applicability of the findings to the multicultural population of focus.
Özgür Dirim Özkan
Full Text Available Introduction: Generally, in Balkans, particularly in Bosnia and Herzegovina, football fandom is very much associated with the fact of ethnic tension. Football is often used as a metaphor for warfare, while in turn, during the Yugoslav Wars, ironically football terminology was used to metaphorise the significance of ethnic slaughtering. In fact, it is very commonly uttered that the starting flame of the Yugoslav Wars was sparkled in Zagreb Maksimir Stadium in May 13, 1990 after a match between Red Star Belgrade and Dinamo Zagreb. During the Yugoslav Wars, fan groups acted as recruitment agencies for organizing paramilitary groups who were convicted for organizing war crimes. This was the case in Bosnia as well. Although almost two decades have passed since the war in Bosnia, the effects of ethnic nationalism in football fandom is still inevitable. Recently, national football team of Bosnia succeeded to participate in the 2014 World Cup, which will be organized in Brazil, causing euphoria in the country. However, it is a controversial issue whether if all the ethnic groups, namely Bosnian Croats and Bosnian Serbs respectively did attend the celebrations. In other words, it is a question mark if they perceive Bosnian National Football as their “national” team. In this sense, this paper aims to discuss the perception of this success by different ethnic groups relying on interviews with different fan groups in the country. Methods: The presentation will rely on two basic resources:  An ethnographic study which was conducted in Bosnia in 2007/2008 as a part of PhD dissertation titled Football Fandom as a Factor Behind Formation of Cultural Differences: A Case Study on FK Sarajevo and FK Zeljeznicar Football Fans and ongoing observations of the presenter on Bosnian football since then.  Deep interviews with leading football fan groups of different clubs with different ethnic backgrounds like Velež Mostar, Čelik Zenica, Sloboda Tuzla
Bhatti, F A; Uddin, M; Ahmed, A; Bugert, P
Gene frequencies of human platelet antigens (HPA) determine the magnitude of platelet immunological disorders like neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia, platelet refractoriness and ease of availability of particular HPA-typed platelet donors in a given community. However, the pattern of HPA in Pakistani population is not known. The aim of present study was to determine the gene frequencies of HPA (HPA-1 to -5 and -15) in individuals belonging to major ethnic groups and castes of Pakistani population. HPA genotyping was done in 593 individuals belonging to all ethnic groups of Pakistan, by polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primers with detection on polyacrylamide electrophoresis. The gene frequencies of the 'a' and 'b' alleles of HPA-1 to -5 and -15 in Pakistanis were as follows: HPA-1a/b, 0.885/0.115; HPA-2a/b, 0.92/0.08; HPA-3a/b, 0.69/0.31; HPA-4a/b, 1/0; HPA-5a/b, 0.9/0.1; HPA-15a/b, 0.59/0.41. Except for significant difference regarding gene frequency of HPA-3 between Pathans and Sindhis, there was no significant difference of HPA-1 to -5 and -15 between major ethnic groups of Pakistan. The estimated mismatch probability regarding platelet antigens 1-5 and 15 in Pakistanis, after transfusion of random donor platelets, is from 14 to 37%. The expected incidence of neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia due to anti-HPA-1a in Pakistani pregnant females is a need to establish donor registries typed for HPA in the transfusion centres of the country.
Tzen, Jessica M; Hsu, Hsiu-Jun; Wang, Man-Ning
The hypervariable region I (HVR-I) of the mitochondrial DNA control region described in the literature is variable in its 5'and 3' ends as well as in its length, causing a problem when data from different ethnic groups are to be compared. To redefine HVR-I, which should be highly polymorphic yet relatively short in length, we analyzed 1437 reported sequences distributed among 11 geographic areas in the world. The results showed that the 237-bp (nts 16126-16362) redefined HVR-I (rHVR-I) had a global genetic diversity of 0.9905 and the 154-bp (nts 16209-16362) short HVR-I (sHVR-I) had a global diversity of 0.9735. Being flanked by a stretch of highly conservative sequences, both rHVR-I and sHVR-I can be produced by PCR, even if extracted from badly degraded specimens. Comparing the genetic diversity among 3870 sequences from 25 countries, we found that the genetic diversity of rHVR-I was 0.9869+/-0.0133 in Asian countries, 0.9685+/-0.0193 in African countries, 0.9299+/-0.0664 in European countries, and 0.8477+/-0.1857 in American countries, whereas that of sHVR-I was 0.9689+/-0.0284 in Asian countries, 0.9504+/-0.0334 in African countries, 0.8721+/-0.0911 in European countries, and 0.8230+/-0.1693 in American countries. The difference in genetic diversity among these countries is consistent with the notion that genetic diversity roughly reflects the genetic history of a given ethnic group. Our results indicate that a polymorphic, short, and PCR-producible HVR-I can be defined, making the comparison among various ethnic groups possible.
Vaeth, Patrice A C; Wang-Schweig, Meme; Caetano, Raul
Data from approximately 140 articles and reports published since 2000 on drinking, alcohol use disorder (AUD), correlates of drinking and AUD, and treatment needs, access, and utilization were critically examined and summarized. Epidemiological evidence demonstrates alcohol-related disparities across U.S. racial/ethnic groups. American Indians/Alaska Natives generally drink more and are disproportionately affected by alcohol problems, having some of the highest rates for AUD. In contrast, Asian Americans are less affected. Differences across Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics are more nuanced. The diversity in drinking and problem rates that is observed across groups also exists within groups, particularly among Hispanics, Asian Americans, and American Indians/Alaska Natives. Research findings also suggest that acculturation to the United States and nativity affect drinking. Recent studies on ethnic drinking cultures uncover the possible influence that native countries' cultural norms around consumption still have on immigrants' alcohol use. The reasons for racial/ethnic disparities in drinking and AUD are complex and are associated with historically rooted patterns of racial discrimination and persistent socioeconomic disadvantage. This disadvantage is present at both individual and environmental levels. Finally, these data indicate that admission to alcohol treatment is also complex and is dependent on the presence and severity of alcohol problems but also on a variety of other factors. These include individuals' sociodemographic characteristics, the availability of appropriate services, factors that may trigger coercion into treatment by family, friends, employers, and the legal system, and the overall organization of the treatment system. More research is needed to understand facilitators and barriers to treatment to improve access to services and support. Additional directions for future research are discussed. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on
Hughes, Stephen W.
In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…
Siobhan Marie Talbott
P. Bajer, Scots in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 16th-18th Centuries: The Formation and Disappearance of an Ethnic Group. The Northern World. Leiden: Brill, 2012. Pp. 616. 24 illus. ISBN 9789004212473. €161.
Siobhan Marie Talbott
Full Text Available P. Bajer, Scots in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, 16th-18th Centuries: The Formation and Disappearance of an Ethnic Group. The Northern World. Leiden: Brill, 2012. Pp. 616. 24 illus. ISBN 9789004212473. €161.
Ardila, Carlos M; Posada-López, Adriana; Agudelo-Suárez, Andrés A
Regional contextual factors and dental caries using multilevel modeling related to adults in minority ethnic groups have been scantily explored. The influence of the socioeconomic context on self-reported dental caries (SRDC) in individuals of minority ethnic groups (IEG) in Colombia was studied. Data from the 2007 National Public Health Survey were collected in 34,843 participants of the population. The influence of different factors on SRDC in IEG was investigated with logistic and multilevel regression analyses. A total of 6440 individuals belonged to an ethnic group. Multilevel analysis showed a significant variance in SRDC that was smaller in IEG level than between states. Multilevel multivariate analysis also associated SRDC with increasing age, lower education level, last dental visit >1 year, unmet dental need and low Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Minority ethnic groups were at risk to report higher dental caries, where low GDP was an important variable to be considered.
Londono, Douglas; Kou, Ikuyo; Johnson, Todd A
.31 LBX1 gene (OMIM #604255) was originally identified by a GWAS of Japanese subjects and replicated in additional Asian populations. To extend this result, and to create larger AIS cohorts for the purpose of large-scale meta-analyses in multiple ethnicities, we formed a collaborative group called...... cohorts containing both genders yielded P=1.22×10-43 for rs11190870, and P=2.94×10-48 for females in all nine cohorts. Comparing the regional haplotype structures for three populations, we refined the boundaries of association to a ∼25 kb block encompassing the LBX1 gene. The LBX1 protein, a homeobox...
Bu, De-Yun; Ji, Wen-Wu; Bai, Dan; Zhou, Jian; Li, Hai-Xia; Yang, Hui-Fang
Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of complicated disorders caused by the interactive influencing factors of heredity and environment, which predisposes to many cnacers. RESULTS from epidemic research indicate that stress is tightly related to the pathogenesis of MS and neoplasia. This paper aims to investigate the association between psychological stress and MS with respect to the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) genes in the Han and Hui ethnic groups. All subjects for this case-control study matched strict enrollment criteria (nationality, gender and age) and lived in the city of Wu Zhong of Ningxia Province in China. The enrolled group contained 102 matched pairs of Hui ethnic individuals and 98 matched pairs of Han ethnic individuals. Enrolled subjects completed the general Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). The TNFα-308G/A variant and NPYrs16147 polymorphism were detected in case (81 males, 119 females) and control (81 males, 119 females) groups by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. Nine factors of the SCL-90 were found to be statistically different (pstress has been positively associated with MS. A previous study from our group suggested there were differences in the level of psychological stress between Hui and Han ethnic groups. Furthermore, we found that the stress-related TNFα gene was associated with MS for both Han and Hui ethnic groups. In contrast, NPY may be a possible contributor to MS and associated cancer for the Han ethnic group.
Most papers on the status of indigenous health focus on health problems from the individual perspective in the hope that this will spread from the individual to tribal/ethnic perspectives. For most indigenous people, the 'tribe' is their home and this home has been affected by colonial society, which has changed tribal ethics and influenced the status of indigenous health. Similarly, there are fissures in the links between indigenous people and their tribes, their ancestry, and their land because of the loss of their land, traditional culture, and racial discrimination and prejudice. These result in an imbalance between indigenous people and their environment and have a deeply felt influence on indigenous health. Transitional justice is an approach to coping with these issues that include colonization, capitalism, relationships with production, and promoting indigenous health.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Little is known about the effectiveness of Housing First (HF among ethnic minority groups, despite its growing popularity for homeless adults experiencing mental illness. This randomized controlled trial tests the effectiveness of a HF program using rent supplements and intensive case management, enhanced by anti-racism and anti-oppression practices for homeless adults with mental illness from diverse ethnic minority backgrounds. Methods This unblinded pragmatic field trial was carried out in community settings in Toronto, Canada. Participants were 237 adults from ethnic minority groups experiencing mental illness and homelessness, who met study criteria for moderate needs for mental health services. Participants were randomized to either adapted HF (n = 135 or usual care (n = 102 and followed every 3 months for 24 months. The primary study outcome was housing stability; secondary outcomes included physical and mental health, social functioning, quality of life, arrests and health service use. Intention to treat statistical analyses examined the effectiveness of the intervention compared to usual care. Results During the 24-month study period, HF participants were stably housed a significantly greater proportion of time compared to usual care participants, 75 % (95 % CI 70 to 81 vs. 41 % (95 % CI 35 to 48, respectively, for a difference of 34 %, 95 % CI 25 to 43. HF also led to improvements in community integration over the course of the study: the change in the mean difference between treatment groups from baseline to 24-months was significantly greater among HF participants compared to those in usual care (change in mean difference = 2.2, 95 % CI 0.06 to 4.3. Baseline diagnosis of psychosis was associated with reduced likelihood of being housed ≥ 50 % of the study period (OR = 0.37, 95 % CI 0.18 to 0.72. Conclusion Housing First enhanced with anti-racism and anti-oppression practices can
Kousta, E; Lawrence, N J; Anyaoku, V; Johnston, D G; McCarthy, M I
To assess the prevalence and characteristics of islet cell autoimmunity amongst women with gestational diabetes selected from South Asian and Afro-Caribbean as well as European populations. Cross-sectional retrospective survey of subject cohort. Three hundred and twenty-one women with a recent history of gestational diabetes (173 European, 86 South Asian and 62 Afro-Caribbean), a median (range) of 22 (1-150) months postpartum. Antibodies to Glutamic acid decarboxylase were found in 13 (4%) of these women. There was no difference in the prevalence of anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase positivity between the three ethnic groups (European 4.6%, South Asian 3.5%, Afro-Caribbean 3.2%). Anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase positive women were leaner than anti-glutamic acid decarboxylase negative women (body mass index, median (upper-lower quartile) 23.9 (22.5-26.7) vs 26.6 (23.4-30.5)kg/m2, P = 0.03, P = 0.049 allowing for ethnicity). There was no difference between glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive and glutamic acid decarboxylase-negative women for age, family history of diabetes, waist/hip ratio, prevalence of insulin treatment during pregnancy, postpartum glucose status, lipid profile and indices of insulin action and beta-cell function. Markers of islet cell autoimmunity are found as frequently in gestational diabetes women of South Asian and Afro-Caribbean origin, as they are in European subjects. Identification of future risk of type 1 diabetes is relevant to the planning of clinical management and intervention strategies in women with gestational diabetes of all major ethnic groups.
Midorikawa, Kaoru; Soukaloun, Douangdao; Akkhavong, Kongsap; Southivong, Bouavanh; Rattanavong, Oudayvone; Sengkhygnavong, Vikham; Pyaluanglath, Amphay; Sayasithsena, Saymongkhonh; Nakamura, Satoshi; Midorikawa, Yutaka; Murata, Mariko
Increasing age is associated with elevated risk of non-communicable diseases, including dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a risk factor not only for AD, but also for cognitive decline, depressive symptoms, stroke, hypertension, coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. The Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos) is undergoing development; consequently, life expectancy has risen. To evaluate the future risk of non-communicable diseases, we investigated APOE genotypes and anthropometric characteristics in the Laotian population. Subjects were 455 members of the Lao Loum majority and 354 members of ethnic minorities. APOE genotypes, anthropometric characteristics, blood pressure, and blood glucose were recorded. To compare individual changes, health examination data collected 5 years apart were obtained from a subset of Lao Loum subjects. APOE ε4 allele frequencies were higher among minorities (31.3%) than among Lao Loum (12.6%). In Lao Loum, but not in minorities, mean waist circumference and blood pressure increased significantly across age groups. Comparisons of health conditions between the beginning and end of the 5-year period revealed significant increases in obesity and blood glucose levels in Lao Loum. APOE ε4 carriers exhibited significant increases in resting heart rate in both ethnic groups. A higher ε4 allele frequency was observed in Laotian minorities than in the Laotian majority. Furthermore, higher obesity, blood pressure and blood glucose were observed in the middle-aged ethnic majority. Therefore, given these genetic and non-communicable disease risk factors, it seems likely that as the Laotian population ages, elevated rates of non-communicable aging-related diseases, such as dementia, will also become more prevalent.
Welt, C K; Arason, G; Gudmundsson, J A; Adams, J; Palsdóttir, H; Gudlaugsdóttir, G; Ingadóttir, G; Crowley, W F
The phenotype of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is variable, depending on the ethnic background. The phenotypes of women with PCOS in Iceland and Boston were compared. The study was observational with a parallel design. Subjects were studied in an outpatient setting. Women, aged 18-45 yr, with PCOS defined by hyperandrogenism and fewer than nine menses per year, were examined in Iceland (n = 105) and Boston (n = 262). PCOS subjects underwent a physical exam, fasting blood samples for androgens, gonadotropins, metabolic parameters, and a transvaginal ultrasound. The phenotype of women with PCOS was compared between Caucasian women in Iceland and Boston and among Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian women in Boston. Androstenedione (4.0 +/- 1.3 vs. 3.5 +/- 1.2 ng/ml; P testosterone (54.0 +/- 25.7 vs. 66.2 +/- 35.6 ng/dl; P Caucasian Icelandic compared with Boston women with PCOS. There were no differences in fasting blood glucose, insulin, or homeostasis model assessment in body mass index-matched Caucasian subjects from Iceland or Boston or in different ethnic groups in Boston. Polycystic ovary morphology was demonstrated in 93-100% of women with PCOS in all ethnic groups. The data demonstrate differences in the reproductive features of PCOS without differences in glucose and insulin in body mass index-matched populations. These studies also suggest that measuring androstenedione is important for the documentation of hyperandrogenism in Icelandic women. Finally, polycystic ovary morphology by ultrasound is an almost universal finding in women with PCOS as defined by hyperandrogenism and irregular menses.
Ugochukwu Godfrey Esomonu
Full Text Available Estimating stature by developing linear regression equations which incorporate the features of fragmented body parts or human skeletal remains has been employed by many forensic anthropologists to establish the identity of victims of mass disaster although all formulas are ethnic, age, and gender specific. The study is aimed at using the percutaneous tibia length (PCTL to deriving a specific regression equation formula which could be used to estimate the stature of adult indigenes of Bekwara ethnic group in Cross River State. A total number of 600 subjects within the age range of 21–45 years were recruited randomly for this research (300 males and 300 females. Observed height and PCTL were measured using the standard anthropometric technique, respectively. Stature was estimated from PCTL using simple regression analysis. On analysis of the data, the mean PCTL for male was found to be 43.60 ± 2.31 cm while that of female was 42.55 ± 2.83 cm. The observed height was 165.80 ± 6.88 cm and 156.70 ± 6.06 cm for male and female, respectively. Statistical analysis showed that the male values of the measured parameters were significantly higher than the corresponding female values. The linear regression equations derived for male and female for the estimation of height using the PCTL was found to be 5.289 (PCTL + (−64.78 and 4.230 (TL + (−23.28, respectively. It was concluded that stature can be estimated using the length of an intact mutilated leg. Thus, the data of this study are recommended in anthropological studies for stature estimation among the ethnic group under study.
Bôžiková, Alexandra; Gabriková, Dana; Sovičová, Adriana; Behulová, Regina; Mačeková, Soňa; Boroňová, Iveta; Petrejčíková, Eva; Soták, Miroslav; Bernasovská, Jarmila; Bernasovský, Ivan
Factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A are the two most prevalent causes of inherited thrombophilia. The prevalence of these mutations varies widely in healthy Caucasian population. The aim of our study was to determine the frequency of factor V Leiden and prothrombin G20210A mutations in Slovak and Roma ethnic group from Eastern Slovakia. We analyzed 540 asymptomatic individuals (269 individuals of Slovak ethnicity and 271 individuals of Roma ethnicity) by real-time PCR method. The detected allele frequencies were 2.97 versus 6.64 % for factor V Leiden (p = 0.0049), and 0.74 versus 0.92 % for prothrombin mutation (p = 0.7463) in Slovak and Roma population, respectively. The Roma ethnic group had significantly higher prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation when compared to Slovak ethnic group. The allele frequency of factor V Leiden in ethnic Romanies from Eastern Slovakia was one of the highest in Europe. Our results confirm an uneven geographical and ethnic distribution of factor V Leiden.
Golassa, Lemu; Tsegaye, Arega; Erko, Berhanu; Mamo, Hassen
Knowledge of the distribution of ABO-Rh(D) blood groups in a locality is vital for safe blood services. However, the distribution of these blood systems among Ethiopians in general is little explored. This study was, therefore, designed to determine the ABO-Rh(D) blood group distribution among patients attending Gambella hospital, southwestern Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted between November and December 2013 (N = 449). The patients were grouped into two broad categories. Those who originally moved from different parts of Ethiopia and currently residing in Gambella are named 'highlanders' (n = 211). The other group consisted of natives (Nilotics) to the locality (n = 238). ABO-Rh(D) blood groups were typed by agglutination, open-slide test method, using commercial antisera (Biotech laboratories Ltd, Ipswich, Suffolk, UK). Overall, majority of the participants (41.20%) had blood type 'O' followed by types 'A' (34.96%), 'B' (20.48%) and 'AB' (3.34%). However, blood type 'A' was the most frequent (44.07%) blood group among the 'highlanders' and 50.42% of Nilotic natives had type 'O'. The proportion of participants devoid of the Rh factor was 19.37%. While the ABO blood group distribution is similar to previous reports, the Rh(D) frequency is much higher than what was reported so far for Ethiopia and continental Africa.
Ma, Li-ying; Hong, Kun-xue; Lu, Xiao-zhi; Qin, Guang-ming; Chen, Jian-ping; Chen, Kang-lin; Ruan, Yu-hua; Xing, Hui; Zhu, Jia-hong; Shao, Yi-ming
To investigate the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HIV-1 coreceptor CCR5 gene in Chinese Yi ethnic group and the association between these SNPs and HIV/AIDS. Peripheral blood samples of 102 HIV negative persons of Chinese Yi nationality, 87 males amd 15 females, aged 23 (12-37), and 68 HIV carriers, 61 males and 7 females, aged 27 (17-51). The regulatory and structural regions of the HIV coreceptor CCR5 gene were amplified from the genomic DNA by nested PCR, each of the two regions was divided into three gene fragments which were overlapped. High throughput DHPLC was used for screening of unknown mutations in each gene fragment. The PCR products showing different peak traces from wild types in DHPLC were sequenced by forward and reverse primers respectively. The sequences were analyzed with the help of Sequence Navigator software to search for SNP loci. Statistical analysis by SPSS and PPAP softwares were made to study the association between these SNPs and HIV infection. Five SNPs (A77G, G316A, T532C, C921T, and G668A) and a AGA deletion of the 686-688 nucleotides were discovered in the coding region of this gene in Chinese Yi ethnic group. C921T mutation was a nonsense mutation, and the other SNPs (A77G, G316A, T532C, and G668A) are sense mutation, with the amino acid changes of K26R, G106R, C178R, and R223Q. Only the frequency of R223Q allelic gene was high (0.08) but those of the others were low (less than 0.01). There was no significant difference in the allele frequency between the HIV negative and HIV positive groups (all P > 0.05). Five SNP loci (T58934G, G59029A, T59353C, G59402A, and C59653T) were found in the regulatory region of CCR5 gene with high allelic frequencies of 0.1912-0.2941. Between the HIV negative and HIV positive groups, there were no differences in the SNP loc (all P > 0.05). Statistical analysis of the association between the linkage of mutation loci with HIV infection suggested a significant difference in the haplotype frequency
Yan, Chun-Xia; Chen, Feng; Dang, Yong-Hui; Li, Tao; Zheng, Hai-Bo; Chen, Teng; Li, Sheng-Bin
Venous blood samples from 50 unrelated Oroqen individuals living in Inner Mongolia were collected and their mtDNA HVR I and HVR II sequences were detected by using ABI PRISM377 sequencers. The number of polymorphic loci, haplotype, haplotype frequence, average nucleotide variability and other polymorphic parameters were calculated. Based on Oroqen mtDNA sequence data obtained in our experiments and published data, genetic distance between Oroqen ethnic group and other populations were computered by Nei's measure. Phylogenetic tree was constructed by Neighbor Joining method. Comparing with Anderson sequence, 52 polymorphic loci in HVR I and 24 loci in HVR II were found in Oroqen mtDNA sequence, 38 and 27 haplotypes were defined herewith. Haplotype diversity and average nucleotide variability were 0.964+/-0.018 and 7.379 in HVR I, 0.929+/-0.019 and 2.408 in HVR II respectively. Fst and dA genetic distance between 12 populations were calculated based on HVR I sequence, and their relative coefficients were 0.993(P HVR I and HVR II in Oroqen ethnic group has some specificities compared with that of other populations. These data provide a useful tool in forensic identification, population genetic study and other research fields.
Ayalon, Liat; Gum, Amber M
To evaluate the relationships between perceived exposure to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination, and mental health in three racial/ethnic groups of older adults. The Health and Retirement Study is a nationally representative sample of individuals 50 years and older living in the United States. A total of 6455 Whites, 716 Latinos, and 1214 Blacks were eligible to complete a self-report psychosocial questionnaire in the year 2006. Whereas 30% of the general population reported at least one type of major lifetime discrimination, almost 45% of Black older adults reported such discrimination. Relative to the other two racial/ethnic groups (82% Whites, 82.6% Blacks), Latinos were significantly less likely to report any everyday discrimination (64.2%), whereas Blacks reported the greatest frequency of everyday discrimination. Whites reported the highest levels of life satisfaction and the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. Relative to major lifetime discrimination, everyday discrimination had a somewhat stronger correlation with mental health indicators. The relationships between discrimination and mental health outcomes were stronger for White compared to Black older adults, although everyday discrimination was still significantly associated with outcomes for Black older adults. Black older adults experience the greatest number of discriminative events, but weaker associated mental health outcomes. This could be because they have become accustomed to these experiences, benefit from social or cultural resources that serve as buffers, or selective survival, with the present sample capturing only the most resilient older adults who have learned to cope with the deleterious effects of discrimination.
Patel-Kerai, Geeta; Harcourt, Diana; Rumsey, Nichola; Naqvi, Habib; White, Paul
Very little UK-based research has examined breast cancer-related experiences of Black and Minority Ethnic populations, and we do not know whether the psychosocial impact of diagnosis and treatment in this group is any different to that of White women. Therefore, this study examined similarities and differences amongst Black, South Asian and White breast cancer survivors. A quantitative, cross-sectional survey was conducted; 173 breast cancer survivors (80 White, 53 South Asian and 40 Black) completed a questionnaire, which assessed psychological functioning, social support, body image and beliefs about cancer. Significant differences (p Asian participants: compared with White women, South Asian participants reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, poorer quality of life and held higher levels of internal and fatalistic beliefs pertaining to cancer. Black and South Asian women reported higher levels of body image concerns than White women, and held stronger beliefs that God was in control of their cancer. South Asian women turned to religion as a source of support more than Black and White women. This study enhances current understanding of the experience and impact of breast cancer amongst Black and South Asian women, and demonstrates similarities and differences between the ethnic groups. The findings highlight implications for healthcare professionals, particularly in relation to providing culturally sensitive care and support to their patients. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Full Text Available Background: One of a major health problem in Mamuju Utara is the high number of infant mortality rates which isapproximately 43 cases of 2.598 live birth. It is said that the high rate of infant mortality is related to the high number ofassisted delivery by traditional birth attendant. An ethnographic research was conducted to fi nd the reasons behind theKaili Da’a ethnic group preference towards birth attendants. Methods: The research design is an exploration researchwith participant observation and indepth interviews as two techniques to gain data. Researcher stayed in the Wulai villagefor 60 days. Results: The results shows that factors which infl uence Kaili Da’a ethnic group preference in choosingtraditional birth attendants were a belief that traditional birth method was a natural thing, traditional birth attendant didn’tuse medical equipment, mother feel more comfortable with traditional birth method, health facilities are diffi cult to accessdue to geographical factors, and considerations of cost. Conclusion: Nevertheless, family’s involvement in the deliveryprocess is benefi cial to support the mother during this process. Therefore, family should be given knowledge about thesymptomps of high-risk pregnancy so that they could prevent maternal and infant deaths. In addition, it is necessary tobuild a partnership between midwifes with traditional birth attendant. Recommendation: The role of a fairly large familyduring the birth process can be maximized in a way for assistance from health workers to guide the family in order to makedeliveries in hygienic
Oh, Hans; Yang, Lawrence H; Anglin, Deidre M; DeVylder, Jordan E
The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychotic experiences (PE) using validated measures of discrimination and a racially/ethnically diverse population-level sample. Data were drawn from two population-level surveys (The National Latino and Asian American Survey and The National Survey of American Life), which were analyzed together using survey weights and stratification variables. The analytic sample (N=8990) consisted of Latino, Asian, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean adults living in the United States. Separate unadjusted and adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were used, first to examine the crude bivariate relationship between perceived discrimination and PE, and second to examine the relationship adjusting for demographic variables. Adjusted logistic regression models were also used to examine the relationships between perceived discrimination and specific sub-types of PE (auditory and visual hallucinatory experiences, and delusional ideation). When compared to individuals who did not report any discrimination, those who reported the highest levels of discrimination were significantly more likely to report both 12-month PE (Adjusted OR=4.590, pPerceived discrimination is associated with the increased probability of reporting psychotic experiences in a linear Fashion in the US general population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ullah, S.; Aslam, K.M.
To determine the existence of autosomal recessive deafness loci in different ethnic tribes of the Punjab. Study Design: Descriptive observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Human Genetics and Centre of Excellence in Molecular Biology, University of Health Sciences, Lahore, from July 2009 to March 2012. Methodology: Healthy willing subjects with autosomal recessive deafness loci were studied for selected deafness loci. Those who were unhealthy and gave history of infectious disease were excluded. DNA extraction was carried out using the inorganic method. Fluorescently labeled microsatellite markers were used for amplification of desired regions by PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Automated allele assignment was performed using the ABI PRISM GeneScan Analysis Software Version 3.7 for Windows NT Platform. Two-point LOD scores were calculated using the FASTLINK computer package (Schaffer 1996) and MLINK was used for calculation and 95% CI (confidence intervals) were calculated. Results: One hundred and thirty two individuals of 8 families were analyzed. Three families (SAPun-03, SAPun-10 and SAPun-15) were found linked to DFNB12; two families (SAPun-05 and SAPun-17) were found linked to DFNB8/10, while three families (SAPun-06, SAPun-13 and SAPun-19) were found linked to DFNB29, DFNB36 and DFNB37 respectively. Conclusion: The genotyping results revealed that DFNB12 locus was the most common followed by DFNB8/10 locus, while the Loci DFNB29, DFNB36 and DFNB37 were less common. (author)
Sonecha, Shaneil; Noble, Adam J; Morgan, Myfanwy; Ridsdale, Leone
The National Institute of Clinical Excellence suggested black ethnic minorities with epilepsy have different cultural, communicative and health-care needs. However, little is known about these despite increasing migration of black African and Caribbean people to Europe. This study aims to explore perceptions and experiences of epilepsy among black African and Caribbean people in South London. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with 11 participants, to examine their beliefs and perceptions of living with epilepsy. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, codes generated and thematic analysis undertaken. African participants described supernatural causes for epilepsy and experienced considerable stigma whereas Caribbean participants described epilepsy as a 'normal illness'. However, both African and Caribbean participants experienced social restrictions arising from their epilepsy. The findings of higher levels of perceived stigma and social restriction seen in African participants may be a continuation of beliefs reported in participants' country of origin. There is also evidence that views regarding epilepsy transition through generations vary depending on place of birth. Practical Implications Health-care professionals need to be aware of and engage with the particular beliefs and concerns of black African and Caribbean people to achieve equity in health outcomes.
Several studies provide evidence of group-centric policy attitudes, that is, citizens evaluating policies based on linkages with visible social groups. The existing literature generally points to the role of media imagery, rhetoric and prominent political sponsors in driving group-centric attitudes......-down’ influence on group-centric attitudes by elite actors is complemented by ‘bottom-up’ local processes of experiential learning about group–policy linkages....
Buunk, A.P.; Dijkstra, Pieternella
Given the importance of interethnic intimate relationships for the integration of minority groups, the present study examined attitudes toward marriages and sexual relationships with in-group and out-group members among young second-generation immigrants in the Netherlands compared with the Dutch. A
Mezzich, Juan E; Ruiperez, Maria A; Yoon, Gihyun; Liu, Jason; Zapata-Vega, Maria I
Cultural identity is central to health. Acculturation may be formulated with a bicultural model, assessing in parallel the degree of identification with both the original and the host culture. The Cortes, Rogler and Malgady Bicultural Scale (CRM-BS) is composed of two subscales: "original" culture and "mainstream-United States" (US) culture. It was modified into three ethnic versions: Latino, Korean and Chinese. Validation of the CRM-BS was conducted using health professionals and psychiatric patients from the above three ethnic groups and a control sample of mainstream-US (main-US) health professionals in New York City (n = 394). Mean time of completion was 3.7 min and 73% judged it to be easy to use. Strong test-retest reliability correlation coefficients were found (original culture, 0.78; mainstream-US, 0.82). The internal consistency was documented by high Cronbach's alpha values (original culture, 0.88; mainstream-US, 0.80). Factorial analysis revealed two factors, the first one involving all the items of the original culture and the second all of the mainstream-US items. Concerning its discriminant validity, non-main-US subjects scored significantly higher than main-US subjects on the original culture subscale, and vice versa. Construct validity was assessed comparing intergenerational mean scores on both subscales; as generations become older, mean scores for the original culture decreased, while those for the "host" culture increased. Results for each specific ethnic version are also presented. Cutoff scores were calculated to categorize the involvement with the original culture or the host culture, both of them, or neither.
L V Osadchuk
Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare hormonal, anthropometric and metabolic parameters in men of the komi ethnic group with (n=23, BMI ≥25 kg/м2 or without (n=39, 18.4≤BMI <25 kg/м2 obesity. Totally 62 males living in Komi Republic were included in the study. It has been established that obesity was accompanied by an increase in serum concentrations of cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in comparison with control group indicating metabolic disturbance. The data shows the significant effect of BMI on testosterone and FSH serum concentration, but not on LH, estradiol, thyrotrophic hormone, thyroxin and triiodthyronin levels. Overweight and obese men had lower circulating testosterone and higher FSH level in comparison with the controls. The reproductive hormone changes in overweight and obese men can result in deleterious effects on sexual functions including erectile dysfunction, reduced libido and alteration in spermatogenesis
Moore, D J; Williams, J D; Qualls, W J
This paper examines whether increased consumption of tobacco and alcohol products by minority groups is a function of the target marketing campaigns directed at these groups by marketers, and whether such contributes to the perpetuation of racism. First, a description of the tobacco and alcohol consumption rates of blacks and Hispanics compared to whites is presented, including a comparative analysis of the health effects and mortality rates resulting from the consumption of tobacco and alcohol. Second, the paper examines specific marketing strategies of targeting tobacco and alcohol products to ethnic minority consumers. This is followed by a discussion of whether these practices are a deliberate strategy driven by racism or just the pursuit of profit. A framework for answering the question is provided. Finally, the paper assesses the prospects for change in the future, and analyzes specific needs for future research.
This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants’ attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group (n = 21), a Latin American group (n = 18), a Somali group (n = 6), and an Asian group (n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors’ scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were “not for us.” The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities. PMID:25574059
This paper explores how people from low-income, minority ethnic groups perceive and experience exclusion from informal science education (ISE) institutions, such as museums and science centers. Drawing on qualitative data from four focus groups, 32 interviews, four accompanied visits to ISE institutions, and field notes, this paper presents an analysis of exclusion from science learning opportunities during visits alongside participants' attitudes, expectations, and conclusions about participation in ISE. Participants came from four community groups in central London: a Sierra Leonean group ( n = 21), a Latin American group ( n = 18), a Somali group ( n = 6), and an Asian group ( n = 13). Using a theoretical framework based on the work of Bourdieu, the analysis suggests ISE practices were grounded in expectations about visitors' scientific knowledge, language skills, and finances in ways that were problematic for participants and excluded them from science learning opportunities. It is argued that ISE practices reinforced participants preexisting sense that museums and science centers were "not for us." The paper concludes with a discussion of the findings in relation to previous research on participation in ISE and the potential for developing more inclusive informal science learning opportunities.
Verkuyten, Maykel; Wolf, Angela de
In an experimental questionnaire study among Chinese participants living in the Netherlands, it was found that self-descriptions, acculturation attitudes and ingroup evaluation were affected by the comparative group context. Following self-categorization theory, different predictions were tested and
The Role of Ethnic and National Identifications in Perceived Discrimination for Asian Americans: Toward a Better Understanding of the Buffering Effect of Group Identifications on Psychological Distress
Huynh, Que-Lam; Devos, Thierry; Goldberg, Robyn
A robust relationship between perceived racial discrimination and psychological distress has been established. Yet, mixed evidence exists regarding the extent to which ethnic identification moderates this relationship, and scarce attention has been paid to the moderating role of national identification. We propose that the role of group identifications in the perceived discrimination–psychological distress relationship is best understood by simultaneously and interactively considering ethnic and national identifications. A sample of 259 Asian American students completed measures of perceived discrimination, group identifications (specific ethnic identification stated by respondents and national or “mainstream American” identification), and psychological distress (anxiety and depression symptoms). Regression analyses revealed a significant three-way interaction of perceived discrimination, ethnic identification, and national identification on psychological distress. Simple-slope analyses indicated that dual identification (strong ethnic and national identifications) was linked to a weaker relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological distress compared with other group identification configurations. These findings underscore the need to consider the interconnections between ethnic and national identifications to better understand the circumstances under which group identifications are likely to buffer individuals against the adverse effects of racial discrimination. PMID:25258674
Bleil, Maria E; Gregorich, Steven E; Adler, Nancy E; Sternfeld, Barbara; Rosen, Mitchell P; Cedars, Marcelle I
To determine whether reproductive age, as indexed by a validated marker of ovarian reserve (antimüllerian hormone [AMH]), varies among women of different race/ethnic backgrounds. Cross-sectional study. Community-based sample. Multiethnic sample of 947 (277 white, 237 African American, 220 Latina, and 213 Chinese) healthy and regularly cycling premenopausal women, ages 25-45. None. AMH level. A multivariate model was fit examining race/ethnicity, covariates, nonlinear terms for age (age(2), age(3)), and body mass index (BMI(2), BMI(3)), and two-way interactions between race/ethnicity and each of the other predictor variables in relation to AMH. After backward elimination, significant effects included race/ethnicity (F = 8.45), age (F = 349.94), race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction (F = 4.67), age(2) (F = 31.61), and BMI (F = 10.69). Inspection of the significant race/ethnicity-by-linear age interaction showed AMH levels were consistently lower among Latina women compared with white women across all ages, whereas AMH levels were lower among African American and Chinese women compared with the white women at younger and middle ages, respectively. The AMH levels were higher among African American compared with Latina and Chinese women at older ages. Although the results must be considered preliminary, the findings are twofold: African American women may have lower AMH levels at younger ages but experience less of a reduction in AMH with advancing age, and Latina and Chinese women compared with white women may have lower AMH levels, marking a lower ovarian reserve and a possibly increased risk for earlier menopause. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Molewyk Doornbos, Mary; Zandee, Gail Landheer; DeGroot, Joleen
The United States is ethnically diverse. This diversity presents challenges to nurses, who, without empirical evidence to design culturally congruent interventions, may contribute to mental health care disparities. Using Leininger's theory of culture care diversity and universality, this study documented communication and interaction patterns of ethnically diverse, urban, impoverished, and underserved women. Using a community-based participatory research framework, 61 Black, Hispanic, and White women participated in focus groups around their experiences with anxiety/depression. Researchers recorded verbal communication, nonverbal behavior, and patterns of interaction. The women's communication and interaction patterns gave evidence of three themes that were evident across all focus groups and five subthemes that emerged along ethnic lines. The results suggest cultural universalities and cultural uniquenesses relative to the communication and interaction patterns of urban, ethnically diverse, impoverished, and underserved women that may assist in the design of culturally sensitive mental health care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Wang, Xueqian; Zhang, Qingying; Zhang, Donghong; Shen, Zhongying; Li, Feng; Harris, Curtis C; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang; Tian, Xiuyun; Liu, Fangfang; Zhao, Yiqiang; Sun, Min; Chen, Dafang; Lu, Changdong; Wang, Zhong; Shi, Xiaotian
HPV has been found repeatedly in esophageal carcinoma tissues. However, reported detection rates of HPV DNA in these tumors have varied markedly. Differences in detection methods, sample types, and geographic regions of sample origin have been suggested as potential causes of this discrepancy. HPV L1 DNA and HPV genotypes were evaluated in 435 esophageal carcinoma specimens collected from four geographic regions with different ethnicities including Anyang in north China, Shantou in south China, Xinjiang in west China, and the United States. The HPV L1 fragment was detected using SPF1/GP6+ primers. HPV genotyping was performed using genotype specific PCR. Two hundred and forty four of 435 samples (56.1%) tested positive for HPV L1. Significant differences in detection rate were observed neither among the three areas of China nor between China and the US. HPV6, 16, 18, 26, 45, 56, 57, and 58 were identified in L1 positive samples. HPV16 and 57 were the most common types in all regions, followed by HPV26 and HPV18. HPV infection is common in esophageal carcinoma independent of region and ethnic group of origin. Findings in this study raise the possibility that HPV is involved in esophageal carcinogenesis. Further investigation with a larger sample size over broader geographic areas may be warranted
Comparable Dietary Patterns Describe Dietary Behavior across Ethnic Groups in the Netherlands, but Different Elements in the Diet Are Associated with Glycated Hemoglobin and Fasting Glucose Concentrations.
Dekker, Louise H; van Dam, Rob M; Snijder, Marieke B; Peters, Ron J G; Dekker, Jacqueline M; de Vries, Jeanne H M; de Boer, Evelien J; Schulze, Matthias B; Stronks, Karien; Nicolaou, Mary
Ethnic minority populations in Western societies suffer from a disproportionate burden of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Insight into the role of dietary patterns in T2D may assist public health nutrition efforts in addressing these health disparities. We explored the association between dietary patterns and biomarkers of T2D in 5 ethnic groups living in Amsterdam, Netherlands. A total of 3776 men and women aged 18-70 y of Dutch, South Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, and Moroccan origin from the HELIUS (HEalthy LIfe in an Urban Setting) study were included. Diet was assessed by using a food-frequency questionnaire, and dietary patterns were derived separately per ethnic group. First, food group-based dietary patterns were derived by using principal components analysis and the association with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and plasma fasting glucose was assessed by using multivariable linear regression. Second, biomarker-driven dietary patterns based on HbA1c and fasting glucose concentrations were derived by applying reduced rank regression. Two comparable food group-based dietary patterns were identified in each ethnic group: a "meat and snack" pattern and a "vegetable" pattern. The meat-and-snack pattern derived within the Dutch origin population was significantly associated with HbA1c (β = 0.09; 95% CI: 0.00, 0.19) and fasting glucose (β = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.09, 0.26) concentrations. A biomarker-derived pattern characterized by red and processed meat was observed among Dutch-origin participants; however, among ethnic minority groups, this pattern was characterized by other foods including ethnicity-specific foods (e.g., roti, couscous). Although similar food group dietary patterns were derived within 5 ethnic groups, the association of the meat-and-snack pattern with fasting glucose concentrations differed by ethnicity. Taken together with the finding of ethnic differences in biomarker-driven dietary patterns, our results imply that addressing T2D risk in
Wu, Ke-hua; Guo, Tao; Deng, Chen-hui; Guan, Zheng; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei
Aim: To describe the population pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil acid and to compare the extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups (Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui) of China. Methods: In a multi-center, open-label, single dose clinical trial, 49 healthy volunteers from the 5 ethnic groups received 200 mg of modafinil orally. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation of modafinil and modafinil acid were drawn before and at different time after the administration. Systematic population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling for modafinil acid was conducted, integrating with our previous PopPK model for modafinil. The influence of ethnicity, gender, height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) was estimated. The extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid, expressed as the relative conversion fraction, was estimated and compared among the 5 ethnic groups. Results: When combined with the PopPK model of modafinil, the concentration of modafinil acid versus time profile was best described with a one-compartment model. The typical clearance and volume of distribution for modafinil acid were 4.94 (l/h) and 2.73 (l), respectively. The Korean group had 25% higher clearance, and the Uygur and Hui groups had 12% higher clearance than the Han group. The median for the relative conversion fraction was 0.53 for Koreans, and 0.24 for the other 4 ethnicities. Conclusion: Ethnicity has significant influence on the clearance of modafinil acid. When patients in the 5 ethnic groups are administered drugs or prodrugs catalyzed by esterases and/or amidases, the variability in the extent of drug metabolism should be considered. PMID:23103618
Wu, Ke-hua; Guo, Tao; Deng, Chen-hui; Guan, Zheng; Li, Liang; Zhou, Tian-yan; Lu, Wei
To describe the population pharmacokinetic profile of modafinil acid and to compare the extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid in 5 major ethnic groups (Han, Mongolian, Korean, Uygur, and Hui) of China. In a multi-center, open-label, single dose clinical trial, 49 healthy volunteers from the 5 ethnic groups received 200 mg of modafinil orally. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic evaluation of modafinil and modafinil acid were drawn before and at different time after the administration. Systematic population pharmacokinetic (PopPK) modeling for modafinil acid was conducted, integrating with our previous PopPK model for modafinil. The influence of ethnicity, gender, height, body weight and body mass index (BMI) was estimated. The extent of metabolism of modafinil into modafinil acid, expressed as the relative conversion fraction, was estimated and compared among the 5 ethnic groups. When combined with the PopPK model of modafinil, the concentration of modafinil acid versus time profile was best described with a one-compartment model. The typical clearance and volume of distribution for modafinil acid were 4.94 (l/h) and 2.73 (l), respectively. The Korean group had 25% higher clearance, and the Uygur and Hui groups had 12% higher clearance than the Han group. The median for the relative conversion fraction was 0.53 for Koreans, and 0.24 for the other 4 ethnicities. Ethnicity has significant influence on the clearance of modafinil acid. When patients in the 5 ethnic groups are administered drugs or prodrugs catalyzed by esterases and/or amidases, the variability in the extent of drug metabolism should be considered.
Full Text Available The paper describe a project dedicated to exploitation of natural gas, an important quantity of mechanical clean energy is loosed continuously by not using expansion energy in laminating process gas. A group of helicoidal expander – electrical generator was manufactured and tested. It is designed to produce electric energy for own facilities of a gas station or to supply local networks of gas distribution.
Goth, Ursula Småland; Bergsli, Oddhild; Johanesen, Else Marie
To determine how to enhance integration of minority students in health education, and thereby improve intercultural communication skills and cultural sensitivity in a sample of health teacher students in Norway. After a group-work intervention and for a period of six months afterwards we followed an "action research" approach and observed 47 health teachers-in-training in their first year at the Oslo and Akershus University College during classroom interactions. Data were qualitative and comprised student self-reports and survey results along with observations from three teachers, the authors of the study. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative approach with opinion categorization and an open coding procedure, with separate analyses performed on observations from minority students, majority students, and teachers. Both ethnic majority and minority students experienced an increase in intercultural knowledge and problem-solving ability after the experience of an early intervention in their first academic year of tertiary education. Students reacted favorably to the intervention and noted in class assessments both the challenges and rewards of overcoming cultural barriers. Teacher observation notes confirmed that early intervention led to an increase in interaction and cross-cultural engagement between minority and majority students compared to previous years' classes without the intervention. Early classroom intervention to promote intercultural engagement can prevent clique formation along majority/minority lines. The method used here, tailored group assignments in ethnically diverse working groups at the very beginning of students' tertiary academic career, can be an effective approach to cultivating attitudes and skills fostering intercultural awareness and sensitivity.
Liu, Jj; Davidson, E; Bhopal, Rs; White, M; Johnson, Mrd; Netto, G; Deverill, M; Sheikh, A
There is now a considerable body of evidence revealing that a number of ethnic minority groups in the UK and other economically developed countries experience disproportionate levels of morbidity and mortality compared with the majority white European-origin population. Across these countries, health-promoting approaches are increasingly viewed as the long-term strategies most likely to prove clinically effective and cost-effective for preventing disease and improving health outcomes in those with established disease. To identify, appraise and interpret research on the approaches employed to maximise the cross-cultural appropriateness and effectiveness of health promotion interventions for smoking cessation, increasing physical activity and improving healthy eating for African-, Chinese- and South Asian-origin populations. Two national conferences; seven databases of UK guidelines and international systematic reviews of health promotion interventions aimed at the general population, including the Clinical Evidence, National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence and Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network databases (1950-2009); 11 databases of research on adapted health promotion interventions for ethnic minority populations, including BIOSIS, EMBASE and MEDLINE (1950-2009); and in-depth qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of researchers and health promoters. Theoretically based, mixed-methods, phased programme of research that involved user engagement, systematic reviews and qualitative interviews, which were integrated through a realist synthesis. Following a launch conference, two reviewers independently identified and extracted data from guidelines and systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions for the general population and any guidance offered in relation to how to interpret this evidence for ethnic minority populations. Data were thematically analysed. Reviewers then independently identified and critically appraised studies
Fang, Yating; Guo, Yuxin; Xie, Tong; Jin, Xiaoye; Lan, Qiong; Zhou, Yongsong; Zhu, Bofeng
In present study, the genetic polymorphisms of 22 autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) loci were analyzed in 496 unrelated Chinese Xinjiang Hui individuals. These autosomal STR loci were multiplex amplified and genotyped based on a novel STR panel. There were 246 observed alleles with the allele frequencies ranging from 0.0010 to 0.3609. All polymorphic information content values were higher than 0.7. The combined power of discrimination and the combined probability of exclusion were 0.999999999999999999999999999426766 and 0.999999999860491, respectively. Based on analysis of molecular variance method, genetic differentiation analysis between the Xinjiang Hui and other reported groups were conducted at these 22 loci. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in statistics between Hui group and Northern Han group (including Han groups from Hebei, Henan, Shaanxi provinces), and significant deviations with Southern Han group (including those from Guangdong, Guangxi provinces) at 7 loci, and Uygur group at 10 loci. To sum up, these 22 autosomal STR loci were high genetic polymorphic in Xinjiang Hui group.
The study examined differences in the characteristics of intimate femicide among various groups in Israeli society between 1995 and 2007. The findings show that Israeli-born Jews and Arabs were underrepresented among intimate femicide offenders. By contrast, the proportion of Ethiopian immigrants was 21 times higher than their proportion in the total population, and immigrants from the former USSR were overrepresented by 142.1%. Ethiopian immigrants differed significantly from the other groups with regard to femicide followed by suicide: Among Ethiopian immigrants, the percentage of femicide followed by suicide was almost twice as high as the percentage found among the other groups. In addition, immigrants from the former USSR differed significantly from the other groups with regard to femicide under the influence of alcohol.
María Mercedes Arias-Valencia
Full Text Available Objetivo. Caracterizar el calendario, la intensidad y el ritmo reproductivos en dos etnias: los Embera en los subgrupos Eyabida, Dobida y Chamibida, y los Zenúes. Material y métodos. Es un estudio sociodemográfico comparativo con la técnica de historia reproductiva. En una muestra no aleatoria, estratificada por etnia, se hacen comparaciones intra e interétnicas entre 1996 y 1997, en el Departamento de Antioquia, Colombia. Las pruebas estadísticas aplicadas para muestras independientes, utilizando el procesador Epi-Info fueron t de Student para la diferencia de promedios y ji cuadrada para diferencia de proporciones. Resultados. El comportamiento reproductivo se caracteriza por una entrada a la unión entre los 14.6 y los 15.8 años; con intervalos de 1 a 1.3 años antes de la primera gestación, seguida por intervalos intergenésicos cortos entre 48% y 73.3% con presión reproductiva mayor de 50% durante la edad fértil y ritmo acelerado entre los 30 y los 34 años con tasas de fecundidad hasta 10.5 hijos, excepto las chamibida con 3.9. Conclusiones. Las políticas sobre salud reproductiva actuales están lejos de ser apropiadas, en tanto desconocen la especificidad de estos grupos étnicos. El texto completo en inglés de este artículo está disponible en: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.htmlObjective. To identify the reproductive timing, intensity, and rhythm of the Embera, (Eyabida, Dobida, and Chamibida subgroups and Zenues ethnic groups. Material and Methods. A sociodemographic study was conducted during 1996-1997 in Antioquia, Colombia, on a non-random population sample, stratified by ethnic group, to compare reproductive behaviors within and between these ethnic groups. Statistical analysis for independent samples was conducted using the software program Epi-Info. Analysis included the Student's t test for difference of means, and the chi-squared test for difference of proportions. Results. Reproductive behavior was characterized
Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt-Jepsen, D.; Faerch, K.
Little is known about the pathophysiology of diabetes in Africans. Thus, we assessed whether insulin resistance and beta-cell function differed by ethnicity in Kenya and whether differences were modified by abdominal fat distribution. A cross-sectional study in 1,087 rural Luo (n = 361), Kamba (n...... beta-cell function compared to the Luo and Kamba. These differences were primarily explained by abdominal fat distribution....... to the Luo and Kamba, respectively. Adjustments of SAT (range 0.1–7.1 cm) and VAT (range 1.5–14.2 cm) largely explained these inter-group differences with the Maasai having the highest combined abdominal fat accumulation. The Maasai had the highest insulin resistance and secretion, but the lowest relative...
Niwa, Erika Y.; Boxer, Paul; Dubow, Eric; Huesmann, L. Rowell; Shikaki, Khalil; Landau, Simha; Gvirsman, Shira Dvir
Ethno-political violence impacts thousands of youth and is associated with numerous negative outcomes. Yet little research examines adaptation to ethno-political violence over time or across multiple outcomes simultaneously. The present study examines longitudinal patterns of aggressive behavior and emotional distress as they co-occur among Palestinian (n=600) youth exposed to ethno-political violence over 3 years in 3 age cohorts (starting ages: 8, 11, 14). Findings indicate distinct profiles of aggressive behavior and emotional distress, and unique joint patterns. Further, youth among key joint profiles (e.g., high aggression-emotional desensitization) are more likely to endorse normative beliefs about aggression toward ethnic out-groups. This study offers a dynamic perspective on emotional and behavioral adaptation to ethno-political violence and the implications of those processes. PMID:27684400
Ulloa, Alvaro Emilio; Chen, Jiayu; Vergara, Victor Manuel; Calhoun, Vince; Liu, Jingyu
Background Copy number variations (CNVs) are structural genetic mutations consisting of segmental gains or losses in DNA sequence. Although CNVs contribute substantially to genomic variation, few genetic and imaging studies report association of CNVs with alcohol dependence (AD). Our purpose is to find evidence of this association across ethnic populations and genders. This work is the first AD-CNV study across ethnic groups and the first to include the African American population. Methods This study considers two CNV datasets, one for discovery (2,345 samples) and the other for validation (239 samples), both including subjects with AD and healthy controls of European and African ancestry. Our analysis assesses the association between AD and CNV losses across ethnic groups and gender by examining the effect of overall losses across the whole genome, collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands and specific losses in CNV regions. Results Results from the discovery dataset showed an association between CNV losses within 16q12.2 and AD diagnosis (p = 4.53x10−3). An overlapping CNV region from the validation dataset exhibited the same direction of effect with respect to AD (p = 0.051). This CNV region affects the genes CES1p1 and CES1, which are members of the carboxylesterase (CES) family. The enzyme encoded by CES1 is a major liver enzyme that typically catalyzes the decomposition of ester into alcohol and carboxylic acid and is involved in drug or xenobiotics, fatty acid and cholesterol metabolisms. In addition, the most significantly associated CNV region was located at 9p21.2 (p = 1.9×10−3) in our discovery dataset. Although not observed in the validation dataset, probably due to small sample size, this result might hold potential connection to AD given its connection with neuronal death. In contrast, we did not find any association between AD and the overall total losses or the collective losses within individual cytogenetic bands. Conclusions
Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the sexual dimorphism in length and other anthropometric parameters. To also generate formulae for height estimation using anthropometric measurements of some length parameters among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna State, Nigeria. A cross sectional study was conducted and a total of 500 subjects participated in this study which was mainly secondary school students between the age ranges of 16-27 years, anthropometric measurements were obtained using standard protocols. It was observed that there was significant sexual dimorphism in all the parameters except for body mass index. In all the parameters males tend to have significantly (P < 0.05 higher mean values except biaxillary distances. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length, followed by knee height, thigh length, sitting height, hand length, foot length, humeral length, forearm length and weight respectively. There were weak and positive correlations between height and neck length as well as biaxillary length. The demi span length showed the strongest correlation coefficient and low standard error of estimate indicating the strong estimation ability than other parameters. The combination of two parameters tends to give better estimations and low standard error of estimates, so also combining the three parameters gives better estimations with a lower standard error of estimates. The better correlation coefficient was also observed with the double and triple parameters respectively. Male Hausa tend to have larger body proportion compared to female. Height showed positive and strongest correlations with demispan length. Body length anthropometric proved to be useful in estimation of stature among Hausa ethnic group of Kaduna state Nigeria.
Ghosh, Sankar Kumar; Singh, Anil Seram; Mondal, Rosy; Kapfo, Wetetsho; Khamo, V; Singh, Y Indibor
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare cancer worldwide, but in India, NPC is uncommon in its subcontinent except in the north-eastern part of the country. NPC is thought to be caused by the combined effects of environmental carcinogens, genetic susceptibility and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). This is the first study that aimed to examine the selected risk factors, mostly dietary, viral environmental, metabolic gene polymorphisms, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number variation and their risk, in subjects who are highly prone to NPC in the ethnic groups of Northeast India, which has included cases, first-degree relatives and controls. The cases and controls were selected from three ethnic groups (Manipuri, Naga and Mizo) of Northeast India with high prevalence of NPC. This case-control family study includes 64 NPC patients, 88 first-degree relatives and 100 controls having no history of cancer. PCR-based detection was done for EBV-latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) gene and glutathione S-transferase Mu 1 (GSTM1)-glutathione S-transferase theta 1 (GSTT1) polymorphism. A comparative ΔCt method was used for the determination of mtDNA content. An increased risk of 2.00-6.06-folds to NPC was observed with those who intake smoked meat and fish, salted fish and fermented fish; betel nut chewers; tobacco smokers; alcohol drinkers; and those who have kitchen inside the living room, glutathione S-transferase null genotype and EBV infection. The risk of NPC increased in cases with decreased mtDNA copy number (P trend = 0.007). A significant difference between GST null genotypes and EBV infection with mtDNA content was found in the cases (P < 0.0001). The understandings of environment-genetic risk factors and their role in the etiology of NPC are helpful as preventive measures and screening.
Given the significant impact of computing on society, it is important that all cultures, especially underrepresented cultures, are fully engaged in the field of computing to ensure that everyone benefits from the advances in computing. This proposal is focused on the field of high performance computing. The lack of cultural diversity in computing, in particular high performance computing, is especially evident with respect to the following ethnic groups – African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans – as well as People with Disabilities. The goal of this proposal is to organize and coordinate a National Laboratory Career Development Workshop focused on underrepresented cultures (ethnic cultures and disability cultures) in high performance computing. It is expected that the proposed workshop will increase the engagement of underrepresented cultures in HPC through increased exposure to the excellent work at the national laboratories. The National Laboratory Workshops are focused on the recruitment of senior graduate students and the retention of junior lab staff through the various panels and discussions at the workshop. Further, the workshop will include a community building component that extends beyond the workshop. The workshop was held was held at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory campus in Livermore, CA. from June 14 - 15, 2012. The grant provided funding for 25 participants from underrepresented groups. The workshop also included another 25 local participants in the summer programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Below are some key results from the assessment of the workshops: 86% of the participants indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I am more likely to consider/continue a career at a national laboratory as a result of participating in this workshop." 77% indicated strongly agree or agree to the statement "I plan to pursue a summer internship at a national laboratory." 100% of the participants indicated strongly
Im, Eun-Ok; Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik
The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms in different racial/ethnic groups of midlife women. This secondary analysis was conducted with the data from 980 midlife women that were collected from 2005 to 2013 using the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the data. The model had the highest fit indices for Non-Hispanic (NH) White midlife women, and prominent racial/ethnic differences were observed in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms. In all racial/ethnic groups (except in Hispanic women), perceived health status was significantly associated positively with menopausal symptoms (β = -0.149 for NH African American; β = -0.207 for NH Asians; β = -0.162 for NH Whites). Body mass index was significantly positively associated with menopausal symptoms only in NH Asians (β = 0.118) and Hispanics (β = 0.210). The racial/ethnic differences in the relationships of multiple factors to menopausal symptoms could have resulted from the different cultural contexts in which women undergo during their menopausal transitions. Further cultural studies on the associations of racial/ethnic-specific factors with menopausal symptoms would help in understanding possible causes for racial/ethnic differences in the factors significantly associated with menopausal symptoms.
Kong, Tingting; Chen, Yahao; Guo, Yuxin; Wei, Yuanyuan; Jin, Xiaoye; Xie, Tong; Mu, Yuling; Dong, Qian; Wen, Shaoqing; Zhou, Boyan; Zhang, Li; Shen, Chunmei; Zhu, Bofeng
In the present study, we assessed the genetic diversities of the Chinese Kazak ethnic group on the basis of 30 well-chosen autosomal insertion and deletion loci and explored the genetic relationships between Kazak and 23 reference groups. We detected the level of the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.3605 at HLD39 locus to 0.5000 at HLD136 locus and the observed heterozygosity ranging from 0.3548 at HLD39 locus to 0.5283 at HLD136 locus. The combined power of discrimination and the combined power of exclusion for all 30 loci in the studied Kazak group were 0.999999999999128 and 0.9945, respectively. The dataset generated in this study indicated the panel of 30 InDels was highly efficient in forensic individual identifcation but may not have enough power in paternity cases. The results of the interpopulation differentiations, PCA plots, phylogenetic trees and STRUCTURE analyses showed a close genetic affiliation between the Kazak and Uigur group. PMID:28915619
Buunk, Abraham P.
This study examined the opposition against out-group mating and the attitude towards parental influence on mate choice among 107 Dutch, 69 Moroccan, and 69 Turkish participants aged between 15 and 25. The level of preferred parental influence on mate choice was considerably higher among the Turks
Cooper, James G.
The self-images of 407 Anglo American, 157 American Indian, 300 Mexican American, and 52 Negro rural high school students in New Mexico and Texas were compared in this study. Data from an 11-item semantic differential test were grouped in terms of 3 subsets: perceptions of self, feelings about school, and social variables. Although it had been…
Schuitema, Jaap; Veugelers, Wiel
One important aim of citizenship education is learning to deal with cultural diversity. To this end, schools organise exchange projects to bring students into contact with different social and cultural groups. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intergroup contact in educational settings and to understand what the most…
de Jong-Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale.
de Jong Gierveld, J.; van der Pas, S.; Keating, N.
This study aimed to explore the loneliness of several groups of older immigrants in Canada compared to native-born older adults. Data from the Canadian General Social Survey, Cycle 22 (N older adults = 3,692) were used. The dependent variable is the 6 item De Jong Gierveld loneliness scale.
Nimbalkar, Smita; Oh, Yih Y; Mok, Reei Y; Tioh, Jing Y; Yew, Kai J; Patil, Pravinkumar G
Buccal corridor space and its variations greatly influence smile attractiveness. Facial types are different for different ethnic populations, and so is smile attractiveness. The subjective perception of smile attractiveness of different populations may vary in regard to different buccal corridor spaces and facial patterns. The purpose of this study was to determine esthetic perceptions of the Malaysian population regarding the width of buccal corridor spaces and their effect on smile esthetics in individuals with short, normal, and long faces. The image of a smiling individual with a mesofacial face was modified to create 2 different facial types (brachyfacial and dolicofacial). Each face form was further modified into 5 different buccal corridors (2%, 10%, 15%, 22%, and 28%). The images were submitted to 3 different ethnic groups of evaluators (Chinese, Malay, Indian; 100 each), ranging between 17 and 21 years of age. A visual analog scale (50 mm in length) was used for assessment. The scores given to each image were compared with the Kruskal-Wallis test, and pairwise comparison was performed using the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). All 3 groups of evaluators could distinguish gradations of dark spaces in the buccal corridor at 2%, 10%, and 28%. Statistically significant differences were observed among 3 groups of evaluators in esthetic perception when pairwise comparisons were performed. A 15% buccal corridor was found to score esthetically equally within 3 face types by all 3 groups of evaluators. The Indian population was more critical in evaluation than the Chinese or Malay populations. In a pairwise comparison, more significant differences were found between long and short faces and the normal face; the normal face was compared with long and short faces separately. The width of the buccal corridor space influences smile attractiveness in different facial types. A medium buccal corridor (15%) is the esthetic characteristic preferred by all groups of evaluators
Lisa R. Roberts DrPH, MSN, FNP-BC
Full Text Available Objective: To explore how older adults from three prominent ethnoracial groups experience cognitive decline and aging. Method: Semistructured key informant interviews (KIIs and focus groups (FGs were conducted with caregivers, experts, and older adults. Results: ( N = 75. Fifteen KIIs regarding cognitive aging issues were conducted among health care professionals and community-based agencies serving older adults. Eight FGs included family caregivers and physicians, and six FGs with Latino, African American, and White older adult community members. Major themes included (a personal expectations about aging, (b societal value of older adults, (c model of care preferred, and (d community concerns. An overarching theme was a sense of loss associated with aging; however, how this loss was experienced and dealt with varied. Discussion: Distinct patterns of concerns and views are important to understand for the development of programs aimed at meeting the needs of diverse older adult community members to improve health outcomes.
Warren, John J; Fontana, Margherita; Blanchette, Derek R; Dawson, Deborah V; Drake, David R; Levy, Steven M; Kolker, Justine L; Phipps, Kathy R
To compare timing of tooth emergence among groups of American Indian (AI), Black and White children in the United States at 12 months of age. Data were from two sources - a longitudinal study of a Northern Plains tribal community and a study with sites in Indiana, Iowa and North Carolina. For the Northern Plains study, all children (n = 223) were American Indian, while for the multisite study, children (n = 320) were from diverse racial groups. Analyses were limited to data from examinations conducted within 30 days of the child's first birthday. AI children had significantly more teeth present (Mean: 7.8, Median: 8.0) than did Whites (4.4, 4.0, P Tooth emergence occurs at a younger age for AI children than it does for contemporary White or Black children in the United States. © 2016 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Siburian Marlinang D
Full Text Available Abstract Background The Minangkabau is one of the major ethnic groups in Indonesia. Previous studies with a limited number of samples have shown a different prevalence of HBV/C in the Minangkabau compared to the Indonesian population in general. The aim of this study was to assess the HBV genotype distribution pattern and the prevalence of pre-S, T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations among the Minangkabau HBV carriers. The samples were collected from Padang, West Sumatera and from western Java. Mixed primers for specific genotypes were used to determine the HBV genotype. Pre-S or S genes were amplified, sequenced and aligned with reference sequences from GenBank to derive a phylogenetic tree for subgenotyping. Pre-S genes were also analyzed for mutations. The basal core promoter (BCP region was amplified and directly sequenced to analyze T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations. Results The predominant HBV genotype among the Minangkabau HBV carriers (n=117 was C (72.6% followed by B (24.8% and co-infection with B and C (2.6%. The prevalence of pre-S mutations, including both the pre-S deletion and pre-S2 start codon mutation, was 41.0%, and the T1753V and A1762T/G1764A mutations were found in 51.9% and 71.2% respectively. HBV/C1 was the predominant HBV subgenotype in the Minangkabau HBV carriers, and was found in 66.2%, followed by B3, B7, C8, B2, B9, C2, and C10 (18.3%, 7.0%, 2.8%, 1.4%, 1.4%, 1.4%, and 1.4% respectively. From samples that were found to be co-infected with HBV B and C, two samples were successfully cloned and subgenotyped, including one with mixed subgenotypes of B3 and C1, and another one with mixed subgenotypes of B7, C1, putative intergenotypic of B/A, and C/A. Furthermore, three samples from donors of non-Minangkabau ethnicity from Padang were found to be infected with an intragenotypic recombination form, including a putative recombinant of B8/B3 and B9/B7. Conclusion HBV/C with subgenotype C1 was the predominant HBV genotype among
Timsuksai, Pijika; Rambo, A Terry
Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese) live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking) live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.
Full Text Available Different ethnic groups have evolved distinctive cultural models which guide their interactions with the environment, including their agroecosystems. Although it is probable that variations in the structures of homegardens among separate ethnic groups reflect differences in the cultural models of the farmers, empirical support for this assumption is limited. In this paper the modal horizontal structural patterns of the homegardens of 8 ethnic groups in Northeast Thailand and Vietnam are described. Six of these groups (5 speaking Tai languages and 1 speaking Vietnamese live in close proximity to each other in separate villages in Northeast Thailand, and 2 of the groups (one Tai-speaking and one Vietnamese-speaking live in different parts of Vietnam. Detailed information on the horizontal structure of homegardens was collected from samples of households belonging to each group. Although each ethnic group has a somewhat distinctive modal structure, the groups cluster into 2 different types. The Tai speaking Cao Lan, Kalaeng, Lao, Nyaw, and Yoy make up Type I while both of the Vietnamese groups, along with the Tai speaking Phu Thai, belong to Type II. Type I gardens have predominantly organic shapes, indeterminate boundaries, polycentric planting patterns, and multi-species composition within planting areas. Type II homegardens have geometric shapes, sharp boundaries, lineal planting patterns, and mono-species composition of planting areas. That the homegardens of most of the Tai ethnic groups share a relatively similar horizontal structural pattern that is quite different from the pattern shared by both of the Vietnamese groups suggests that the spatial layout of homegardens is strongly influenced by their different cultural models.
Sabri, Bushra; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Dabby, Firoza Chic
This study explored differences in intimate partner homicides (IPHs) among Asian Americans. Data from newspapers and femicide reports by different state coalitions on 125 intimate partner killings occurring between 2000 and 2005 were analyzed. Men were the perpetrators in nearly 9 out of 10 cases of Asian IPHs. Gender differences were found in ages of victims and perpetrators, types of relationship between partners, and methods of killing. Most homicides occurred among South-east Asians, and East Asians had the highest within-group proportion of suicides. The findings call for culturally competent risk assessment and intervention strategies to prevent IPHs among at-risk Asian Americans. © The Author(s) 2015.
Santangelo, Roberta; González-Andrade, Fabricio; Børsting, Claus; Torroni, Antonio; Pereira, Vania; Morling, Niels
Ancestry inference is traditionally done using autosomal SNPs that present great allele frequency differences among populations from different geographic regions. These ancestry informative markers (AIMs) are useful for determining the most likely biogeographic ancestry or population of origin of an individual. Due to the growing interest in AIMs and their applicability in different fields, commercial companies have started to develop AIM multiplexes targeted for Massive Parallel Sequencing platforms. This project focused on the study of three main ethnic groups from Ecuador (Kichwa, Mestizo, and Afro-Ecuadorian) using the Precision ID Ancestry panel (Thermo Fisher Scientific). In total, 162 Ecuadorian individuals were investigated. The Afro-Ecuadorian and Mestizo showed higher average genetic diversities compared to the Kichwa. These results are consistent with the highly admixed nature of the first two groups. The Kichwa showed the highest proportion of Native Amerindian (NAM) ancestry relative to the other two groups. The Mestizo had an admixed ancestry of NAM and European with a larger European component, whereas the Afro-Ecuadorian were highly admixed presenting proportions of African, Native Amerindian, and European ancestries. The comparison of our results with previous studies based on uniparental markers (i.e. Y chromosome and mtDNA) highlighted the sex-biased admixture process in the Ecuadorian Mestizo. Overall, the data generated in this work represent one important step to assess the application of ancestry inference in admixed populations in a forensic context. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Manuel S Ortiz
Full Text Available We sought to determine the contribution of psychological variables to risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS among Latinos enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA, and to investigate whether social support moderates these associations, and whether inflammatory markers mediate the association between psychological variables and MetS.Cross-sectional analyses at study baseline were conducted with a national Latino cohort (n = 1,388 that included Mexican Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans and Central/South Americans. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the effects of psychosocial variables (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and social support on MetS. In addition, separate subgroup-specific models, controlling for nationality, age, gender, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, exercise, smoking and drinking status, and testing for the effects of chronic stress, depressive symptoms and inflammation (IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen in predicting risk for MetS were conducted.In the overall sample, high chronic stress independently predicted risk for MetS, however this association was found to be significant only in Mexican Americans and Puerto Rican Americans. Social support did not moderate the associations between chronic stress and MetS for any group. Chronic stress was not associated with inflammatory markers in either the overall sample or in each group.Our results suggest a differential contribution of chronic stress to the prevalence of MetS by national groups.
Ortiz, Manuel S; Myers, Hector F; Dunkel Schetter, Christine; Rodriguez, Carlos J; Seeman, Teresa E
We sought to determine the contribution of psychological variables to risk for metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Latinos enrolled in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), and to investigate whether social support moderates these associations, and whether inflammatory markers mediate the association between psychological variables and MetS. Cross-sectional analyses at study baseline were conducted with a national Latino cohort (n = 1,388) that included Mexican Americans, Dominican Americans, Puerto Rican Americans and Central/South Americans. Hierarchical logistic regression analyses were conducted to test the effects of psychosocial variables (chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and social support) on MetS. In addition, separate subgroup-specific models, controlling for nationality, age, gender, socioeconomic position, language spoken at home, exercise, smoking and drinking status, and testing for the effects of chronic stress, depressive symptoms and inflammation (IL-6, CRP, fibrinogen) in predicting risk for MetS were conducted. In the overall sample, high chronic stress independently predicted risk for MetS, however this association was found to be significant only in Mexican Americans and Puerto Rican Americans. Social support did not moderate the associations between chronic stress and MetS for any group. Chronic stress was not associated with inflammatory markers in either the overall sample or in each group. Our results suggest a differential contribution of chronic stress to the prevalence of MetS by national groups.
Lee, F N; Kong, V Y; Lee, G P; Ho, K H; Choon, S C; Hoh, H B
A total of 114 patients (48 Chinese, 34 Malay and 32 Indian) undergoing extracapsular cataract extraction (ECCE) with intraocular lens implantation, were enrolled. All were given 3 ml of local anaesthetic (combination of equal amounts of lignocaine 2% and bupivacaine 0.5%) using retrobulbar technique. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured at different time intervals; before, immediately after and 5 minutes after injection with Honan balloon compression. Mean IOP increased by 5.0 mmHg immediately after injection (p age groups, Chinese patients demonstrated the highest IOP rise following retrobulbar anaesthesia. This is the first study to demonstrate the influence of race in the IOP response with Chinese subjects having the highest IOP rise.
J. L. Schutte
Full Text Available The literature on the biographical backgrounds of entrepreneurs seems to contain many contradictory findings. This situation can partly be due to the assumption that samples of entrepreneurs were homogeneous rather than heterogeneous. It appears as if female entrepreneurs have been less well researched than their male counterparts. Differences in the biographical backgrounds and business situation of, respectively, the white and the black entrepreneurs in South Africa have been assumed but little empirical evidence exists in this respect. Black en-trepreneurs, and female entrepreneurs are in most developed societies' minority groups and have not specifically been studied in depth - hence the present study. The biographical and business backgrounds of 569 South African entrepreneurs (106 Black and 463 White; 136 female and 433 male were studied. One-way Analyses of Variance and Chi-squared followed by Discriminant analyses were carried out to determine whether, respectively, black and white entrepreneurs and male and female entrepreneurs differed in terms of the variables studied. Significant differences between the total group of male and female subjects were found on only five variables. White and black entrepreneurs differed statistically significantly on 16 of the 30 variables studied. Opsomming Die literatuur oor die biografiese agtergronde van entrepreneurs skyn baie teenstrydige bevindinge te bevat. Hierdie kan moontlik deels toegeskryf word aan die aanname dat steekproewe van entrepreneurs eerder homogeen eerder as heterogeen is. Dit skyn asof minder navorsing oor vroulike as oor manlike entrepreneurs gedoen is. Ten spyte van aannames in die verband, bestaan min empiriese gegewens oor die biografiese agtergronde en sake-situasie van respektiewelik wit en swart Suid-Afrikaanse entrepreneurs. Swart en vroulike entrepreneurs is in meeste gemeenskappe minderheidsgroepe en is nog nie in diepte bestudeer nie, daarom die huidige studie. Die
Antonio Cynthia M
Full Text Available Abstract Background Data from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS indicate that levels and temporal trends in colorectal cancer (CRC screening prevalence vary among Asian American groups; however, the reasons for these differences have not been fully investigated. Methods Using CHIS 2001, 2003 and 2005 data, we conducted hierarchical regression analyses progressively controlling for demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care in an attempt to identify factors explaining differences in screening prevalence and trends among Chinese, Filipino, Vietnamese, Korean and Japanese Americans (N = 4,188. Results After controlling for differences in gender and age, all Asian subgroups had significantly lower odds of having ever received screening in 2001 than the reference group of Japanese Americans. In addition, Korean Americans were the only subgroup that had a statistically significant decline in screening prevalence from 2001 to 2005 compared to the trend among Japanese Americans. After controlling for differences in education, marital status, employment status and federal poverty level, Korean Americans were the only group that had significantly lower screening prevalence than Japanese Americans in 2001, and their trend to 2005 remained significantly depressed. After controlling for differences in English proficiency and access to care, screening prevalences in 2001 were no longer significantly different among the Asian subgroups, but the trend among Korean Americans from 2001 to 2005 remained significantly depressed. Korean and Vietnamese Americans were less likely than other groups to report a recent doctor recommendation for screening and more likely to cite a lack of health problems as a reason for not obtaining screening. Conclusions Differences in CRC screening trends among Asian ethnic groups are not entirely explained by differences in demographic characteristics, English proficiency and access to care. A
Nataliia O. Khazieva
Full Text Available The history of the World Culture is a demonstration of the "war" between the two opposites: on the one hand, we see a trend towards unification of all aspects of life on a global scale, and on the other, there is a clear confrontation between different groups of mankind. Of the many causes of the disunity of the people, the authors' focus at the opposition "friend – foe" as a metaphysical principle of formation of social space wasn't chosen by accident. The fact is that any culture, in principle, is dichotomous, and the opposition "friend – foe" is the fullest incarnation of this dichotomy. As a universal principle of the formation and functioning of the cultures, it originally manifests itself in every one of them. And, as the authors of the study suggest: this opposition could either "work" in general on the cross-cultural cooperation and unity or be one of the confrontation sources. The main result of the study is that history has prepared and put forward the Tartars for carrying out a special mission, to unite peoples and cultures. But the revolutionary social upheavals that take place in the modern world pose a threat (in the circumstances of forced migration of peoples, the growth of national consciousness of the former Soviet Union space, and especially in the face of Islamic fundamentalism on fulfilling this function.
van der Kooi, Anne-Lotte L. F.; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J. G.; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.
We investigated whether ethnic differences in handgrip strength, a marker of poor muscle strength and quality, is a potential cause of ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We included 2086 Dutch, 2216 South Asian Surinamese, 2084 African Surinamese, 1786 Ghanaian, 2223 Turkish and 2199
Van Der Kooi, Anne Lotte L F; Snijder, Marieke B.; Peters, Ron J G; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M
We investigated whether ethnic differences in handgrip strength, a marker of poor muscle strength and quality, is a potential cause of ethnic disparities in type 2 diabetes mellitus. We included 2086 Dutch, 2216 South Asian Surinamese, 2084 African Surinamese, 1786 Ghanaian, 2223 Turkish and 2199
Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul
The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.
Pignataro, Ana Genoveva; Levy Tacher, Samuel Israel; Aguirre Rivera, Juan Rogelio; Nahed Toral, José; González Espinosa, Mario; Rendón Carmona, Nelson
Silvopastoral systems combine trees and/or shrubs with grazing cattle. In the municipality of Salto de Agua, Chiapas, Mexico, some indigenous communities have developed silvopastoral systems based on their traditional knowledge regarding use of local natural resources. Through analysis of classification based on the composition of tree vegetation, two groups of grazing units were identified in the study area. Different attributes of tree and herbaceous vegetation, as well as of agricultural management and production, were compared between the two groups. Results indicate that at least two strategies of silvopastoral management exist. The first - LTD - is characterized by an average density of 22 adult trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 22.4 ha. The second - HTD - has an average of 54.4 trees ha(-1) in grazing units with an average surface area of 12.2 ha. Average richness per grazing unit for the LTD strategy was 7.2 species, and for HTD strategy it was 12.7 species. Average basal area for LTD was 1.7 m2 ha(-1), and for HTD 3.8 m2 ha(-1). Finally, the average level of fixed carbon for LTD was 2.12 mg ha(-1), and for HTD 4.89 mg ha(-1). For all variables, there was a significant difference between the two strategies. In addition, both strategies differ in prairie management. In the HTD strategy, growers spare their preferred spontaneously growing tree species by clearing around them. Many of these species, particularly those harvested for timber, belong to the original vegetation. In these prairies, average coverage of native grasses (60.8 ± 7.85) was significantly greater than in the LTD strategy (38.4 ± 11.32), and neither fertilizers nor fire are used to maintain or improve the pastures; by contrast, in HTD prairies, introduced grasses, principally Cynodon plectostachyus, have a higher average coverage (43.4 ± 13.75) than in the LTD prairies (17.08 ± 9.02). Regardless of the differences in composition of tree and
I Wayan Wirata
Full Text Available This research is entitled “The Hegemony Imposed by the Government and theResistance of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group at Bayan District, North Lombok”.The interaction between the government and the Wetu Telu Sasaknese community atBayan District has resulted in differences in views, ideas, and behaviors leading tofriction and refusal or opposition from the community.This research is focused on 1 how has the hegemony imposed by thegovernment upon the Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency taken place? 2 what has been done by the people of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group residing at Bayan Distrik, North Lombok to resist to thehegemony imposed by the government upon them? and 3 what are the effects andmeanings of the hegemony imposed by the government and the resistance of the WetuTelu Sasaknese Ethnic Group on the multicultural community life at Bayan District,North Lombok Regency?The data needed were collected by interview, observation, and documentationand were descriptively, qualitatively and interpretatively analyzed. The theories used togive answers to the problems formulated above are the theory of hegemony (Gramsci,the theory of deconstruction (Jacques Derrida, and the theory of discourse (Foucault.The results show that the hegemony imposed by the government has taken placein a number of particular aspects such as the religious aspect, socio political aspect,cultural aspect and educational aspect. Being marginalized and being not free indeveloping their tradition and culture, the people of Wetu Telu Sasaknese Ethnic Groupresiding at Bayan District, North Lombok Regency, have been responsible for theirresistance to the government and the followers Islam Waktu Lima. The resistance hasbeen shown by avoiding, refusing and even opposing what is considered not inaccordance with their tradition and culture.One of the effects of the hegemony imposed by the government and theresistance made by the
Hosper, Karen; Deutekom, Marije; Stronks, Karien
Lack of physical activity is an important risk factor for overweight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease and other chronic conditions. In the Netherlands, ethnic minority groups are generally less physically active and rate their own health poorer compared to ethnic Dutch. This applies in particular to women. For this reason women from ethnic minority groups are an important target group for interventions to promote physical activity.In the Netherlands, an exercise referral program ("Exercise on Prescription") seems successful in reaching women from ethnic minority groups, in particular because of referral by the general practitioner and because the program fits well with the needs of these women. However, the effect of the intervention on the level of physical activity and related health outcomes has not been formally evaluated within this population. This paper describes the study design for the evaluation of the effect of "Exercise on Prescription" on level of physical activity and related health outcomes. The randomized controlled trial will include 360 inactive women from ethnic minority groups, with the majority having a non-Western background, aged between 18 and 65 years old, with regular visits to their general practitioner. Participants will be recruited at healthcare centres within a deprived neighbourhood in the city of The Hague, the Netherlands. An intervention group of 180 women will participate in an exercise program with weekly exercise sessions during 20 weeks. The control group (n = 180) will be offered care as usual. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 6 and 12 months. Main outcome measure is minutes of self reported physical activity per week. Secondary outcomes are the mediating motivational factors regarding physical activity, subjective and objective health outcomes (including wellbeing, perceived health, fitness and body size) and use of (primary) health care. Attendance and attrition during the program will be determined
Che Lah Salasiah
Full Text Available Malaysia provides ethnic tourism which is related to the more popularly known as nature or eco-tourism where an indigenous or traditional group of people who live in this environment will interact with and provide services to the tourists who would like to experience ethnic tourism. Ethnic tourism refers to travel motivated by the search for the first hand, authentic and sometimes intimate contact with people whose ethnic and/or cultural background is different from the tourists. Tourists are also driven by the desire to see some of the threatened cultures that may soon disappear through assimilation into the nation’s majority. This paper aims to explore ethnic tourism as a preservation strategy for language and culture in a selected community of Bateq Orang Asli group in Peninsular Malaysia in relation the language and cultural preservation of this community. An in-depth interview, a qualitative research technique, was selected as a method of data collection. The multimedia data was also collected including the recordings of the indigenous languages, still pictures and videotapes of the indigenous and cultural activities. The findings of this study show that the Bateq Orang Asli groups have preferences of their languages even though there is a pattern that a high number of lexical items have been borrowed from Malay. Language shift among younger speakers is also becoming a trend. In terms of the preservation of cultural heritage, the Bateq Orang Asli are still very positive about keeping their practices and lifestyles. The involvement of Bateq Orang Asli in promoting ethnic tourism in the surrounding areas near their settlements has contributed to their language and cultural preservation.
Ramos, Suzanna J.; Puccio, Gerard J.
This article explores the extent of influence of culture on implicit theories of creativity among laypeople from the United States and Singapore, as well as the ethnic groups in Singapore. Adaptive and innovative styles of creativity were examined, as well as their own conceptions of creativity. Laypersons from the United States and Singapore were…
Hawker, Jeremy I; Olowokure, Babatunde; Wood, Annette L; Wilson, Richard C; Johnson, Richard
We examined MMR vaccine uptake among ethnic groups in Birmingham, UK between 1994 and 2000, a period incorporating adverse MMR vaccine publicity. From 1994 to 2000 overall uptake: (1) fell significantly from 91.1% in 1994 to 89.8% (chi(2) for trend pvaccine uptake and differential response to adverse vaccine publicity.
Alegria, A A; Petry, N M; Hasin, D S; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, B F; Blanco, C
Prior research suggests that racial minority groups in the United States are more vulnerable to develop a gambling disorder than whites. However, no national survey on gambling disorders exists that has focused on ethnic differences. Analyses of this study were based on the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large (N=43,093) nationally representative survey of the adult (> or =18 years of age) population residing in households during 2001-2002 period. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition-Text Revision diagnoses of pathological gambling, mood, anxiety, drug use, and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV Version. Prevalence rates of disordered gambling among blacks (2.2%) and Native/Asian Americans (2.3%) were higher than that of whites (1.2%). Demographic characteristics and psychiatric comorbidity differed among Hispanic, black, and white disordered gamblers. However, all racial and ethnic groups evidenced similarities with respect to symptom patterns, time course, and treatment seeking for pathological gambling. The prevalence of disordered gambling, but not its onset or course of symptoms, varies by racial and ethnic group. These varying prevalence rates may reflect, at least in part, cultural differences in gambling and its acceptability and accessibility. These data may inform the need for targeted prevention strategies for high-risk racial and ethnic groups.
Buunk, Abraham P.; Hoben, Ashley D.
Little is known about current attitudes towards cousin marriages. Using data from a rural population in the Mexican state of Oaxaca, the present research examined how life history was related to attitudes towards cousin marriages in various ethnic groups. Participants were 205 parents from three
Agyemang, C.; Kunst, A.; Bhopal, R.; Zaninotto, P.; Nazroo, J.; Nicolaou, M.; Unwin, N.; van Valkengoed, I.; Redekop, K.; Stronks, K.
Ethnic minority groups in Western European countries tend to have higher levels of overweight than the majority populations for reasons that are poorly understood. Investigating relative differences between countries could enable an investigation of the importance of national context in determining
Xu, J J; Tan, Q A; Zhao, X X; Du, R F
The genetic polymorphism of red cell acid phosphatase (AcP), Esterase D (EsD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) and Glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) in eleven ethnic groups of China was studied by starch gel electrophoresis. The results of 2272 tested showed that the gene frequencies of AcPB1 in Dong, Hui, Bai, Tujia, Miao, Yi, Tibetan, Man, Yao, Hani, Buyi, etc. were 0.7835, 0.7958, 0.8137, 0.7750, 0.7624, 0.8038, 0.8075, 0.8035, 0.7725, 0.6488, 0.6896, EsD1 gene frequencies were 0.6418, 0.7315, 0.6005, 0.6025, 0.6411, 0.6411, 0.6558, 0.6305, 0.6020, 0.6023, 0.6368. 6-PGDA gene frequencies 0.9279, 0.9381, 0.9387, 0.9150, 0.9356, 0.9014, 0.7764, 0.8818, 0.9851, 0.9233, 0.9410. GPT1 gene frequencies 0.4075, 0.5367, 0.5049, 0.4824, 0.5322, 0.6106, 0.6313, 0.6400, 0.3985, 0.4930, 0.3976, respectively. In addition, some rare variants were found.
Tay, Chin Yen; Mitchell, Hazel; Dong, Quanjiang; Goh, Khean-Lee; Dawes, Ian W; Lan, Ruiting
Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.
Nobari, Tabashir Z; Wang, May-Choo; Whaley, Shannon E
While mother's perception of child's weight is important for the success of early childhood obesity prevention programs, few studies have examined that of Asian Americans. Our study examined their perception and compared it to that of mothers of other racial/ethnic groups. Cross-sectional study of 2,051 randomly selected mothers of children aged 2-5 years living in Los Angeles County who were enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women Infants and Children (WIC). The primary outcome was mother's perception of child's weight. We found that Asian American mothers were 2.12 (95% CI: 1.27-3.54) times as likely as Hispanic mothers to accurately perceive their children's weight, adjusting for child's age, sex and birthweight, and mother's age and education. However, this relationship disappeared after adjusting for mother's BMI. We did not find differences in perception of child's weight among non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic mothers. It appears that Asian American mothers' increased accurate perception of child's weight status can be partially explained by their lower prevalence of obesity. Our findings suggest that early childhood obesity prevention programs should consider the weight status of mothers.
Bui, Huong Mai; Tuyen, Le Dahn; Do, Tran Thanh
risk factors for AF’s and FB contamination. Based on daily food consumption data, the estimated average exposure dose of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) from rice was 21.7 ng/kg bw/day for adults and 33.7 ng/kg bw/day for children. For FB, the rice based average exposure amounted to 536 ng/kg bw/day for adults...... and 1019 ng/kg bw/day for children. The calculated excess risk of liver cancer incidence by ingestion of cereals containing AFB1 was 1.5 per 100,000 adults and 2.3 per 100,000 children per year. The average intake of FB was calculated to be lower than the tolerable diet intake (TDI). Our findings highlight...... that rice and maize are contaminated with mycotoxins at levels representing actual health hazards for the ethnic minority groups consuming these stable cereals. Proper drying and storage conditions in households are likely to reduce the mycotoxin contamination....
Dawes Ian W
Full Text Available Abstract Background Helicobacter pylori is a major gastric bacterial pathogen. This pathogen has been shown to follow the routes of human migration by their geographical origin and currently the global H. pylori population has been divided into six ancestral populations, three from Africa, two from Asia and one from Europe. Malaysia is made up of three major ethnic populations, Malay, Chinese and Indian, providing a good population for studying recent H. pylori migration and admixture. Results Seventy eight H. pylori isolates, including 27 Chinese, 35 Indian and 16 Malay isolates from Malaysia were analysed by multilocus sequence typing (MLST of seven housekeeping genes and compared with the global MLST data. STRUCTURE analysis assigned the isolates to previously identified H. pylori ancestral populations, hpEastAsia, hpAsia2 and hpEurope, and revealed a new subpopulation, hspIndia, within hpAsia2. Statistical analysis allowed us to identify population segregation sites that divide the H. pylori populations and the subpopulations. The majority of Malay isolates were found to be grouped together with Indian isolates. Conclusion The majority of the Malay and Indian H. pylori isolates share the same origin while the Malaysian Chinese H. pylori is distinctive. The Malay population, known to have a low infection rate of H. pylori, was likely to be initially H. pylori free and gained the pathogen only recently from cross infection from other populations.
Fernández de la Cruz, Lorena; Kolvenbach, Sarah; Vidal-Ribas, Pablo; Jassi, Amita; Llorens, Marta; Patel, Natasha; Weinman, John; Hatch, Stephani L; Bhugra, Dinesh; Mataix-Cols, David
Despite similar prevalence rates across ethnicities, ethnic minorities with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are under-represented in research and clinical settings. The reasons for this disproportion have been sparsely studied. We explored potential differences in illness perception, help-seeking attitudes, illness knowledge, and causal attributions that could help explain the lower uptake of treatment for OCD amongst ethnic minorities. Two-hundred and ninety-three parents (139 White British, 61 Black African, 46 Black Caribbean, and 47 Indian) were recruited from the general population in South-East London, UK. Using a text vignette methodology, participants completed a survey including questions on illness perception, help-seeking attitudes, OCD knowledge, and causal attributions. The groups did not differ in socio-demographic characteristics and family history of OCD. White British parents perceived that the OCD difficulties would have more negative impact on their children and that treatment would be more helpful, compared to the ethnic minorities; the largest differences were observed between White British and Indian parents. Ethnic minorities were more prone to say that would seek help from their religious communities. Black African parents were more in favor of not seeking help for the described difficulties and, in general, perceived more treatment barriers. White British parents seemed to be better informed about OCD than ethnic minority parents. The results offer some plausible explanations for the large inequalities in access to services amongst ethnic minorities with OCD. Clinicians and policy-makers need to be aware of these socio-cultural factors when designing strategies to encourage help-seeking behaviors in these populations.
Full Text Available Along with the ethnographic natives, the attention of the Village Museum in Bucharest was focused, from the outset, on minority representation in the Romanian space, with their traits of life and the evolution of their material culture, spiritual experiences and last, but not least, with links regarding mutual cultural connections with the native population and other inhabitant minorities. Although a modest share and a hard custom culture, Guzuls’ ethnicity is real from a historical and folkloric point of view that could not be ignored by specialized museums and research institutes in history. The motivation for this research has been undertaken in Northern Moldavia, an area where the minority has been most present, the results of this research can be pursued today in exhibitions open in our museum and in specialized publications.
Vilkin, Alex; Niv, Yaron; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Morgenstern, Sarah; Levi, Zohar; Fireman, Zvi; Fuerst, Florentine; Goel, Ajay; Boland, C Richard
The molecular mechanisms that underlie colorectal cancer (CRC) include microsatellite instability (MSI), chromosomal instability, and the CpG island methylator phenotype. There is evidence to suggest that CRC incidence varies among different ethnic populations worldwide. The authors of this report hypothesized that environmental factors and lifestyle differences among various ethnic groups may differentially influence the epigenetic regulation of tumor suppressor genes in CRC. In the current study, microdissection and DNA extraction were performed on 128 samples of CRC from Israeli patients (85 Jews and 43 Arabs). MSI analysis, mutL homolog 1 (MLH1) and mutS homolog 2 (MSH2) protein expression levels, and MLH1 promoter methylation were investigated by combined bisulfite restriction analysis. The v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) valine-to-glutamic acid mutation at residue 600 was investigated by direct DNA sequencing. High MSI (MSI-H), MLH1 methylation, and BRAF mutations were observed in 11.6%, 9.4%, and 23.5% of Jews, respectively, and in 16.2%, 17.6%, and 20.9% of Arabs, respectively (P value nonsignificant). MLH1 promoter methylation was observed in 22.6% of microsatellite-stable (MSS) tumors and in 53.8% of MSI-H tumors (P < .015). Extensive methylation (covering both 5' and 3' promoter regions) was present in all MSI-H tumors with loss of MLH1 expression. BRAF mutation was observed in 15.6% and 46.1% of MSS tumors and MSI-H tumors, respectively (P < .007). BRAF mutation was observed in 66%, 22.2%, and 14.7% of patients who had tumors with extensive MLH1 promoter methylation, methylation of the 5' region alone, or without methylation, respectively (P < .006). There was no difference in molecular signatures examined between Jewish and Arab patients with CRC in Israel. Extensive promoter methylation was associated with MLH1 inactivation, MSI, and BRAF mutation. (c) 2009 American Cancer Society.
This article presents ethnographic material from a London-based group of gene therapists who received the opportunity to trial a device that, its makers claimed, would expedite and improve their cell work. The Vanguard cell processor elicits both enthusiasm and ambivalence from group members, which...
Swindle, Taren M; Ward, Wendy L; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne; Bokony, Patti; Pettit, Dawn
To examine demographic differences in frequency of use of technologies and interest in receiving nutrition information via technology by low-income parents and caregivers. Descriptive, cross-sectional study. Head Start and state-funded child care programs. A total of 806 parents and caregivers from low-income families. A 20-item survey assessed frequency of use and interest in technologies (dependent variables) and collected participant age and ethnicity (independent variables). Multivariate ANOVA analysis investigated whether age, ethnicity, and their interactions were related to frequency of use and interest in technology types. Daily rates of usage for Internet, text messaging, and cell phone use were over 60%. However, Twitter and blogs were accessed daily by interaction of ethnicity and age was nonsignificant. However, main effects for ethnicity (Wilks' λ = .85; F = 3.13; P use of the Internet, Facebook, and e-mail as well as less interest in e-mail. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zonana-Nacach, A; Roseman, J M; McGwin, G; Friedman, A W; Baethge, B A; Reveille, J D; Alarcón, G S
To determine the frequency, degree and associated features of fatigue among Hispanic (H), African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) patients with recent onset (NAture vs Nurture) cohort were studied. Fatigue [Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS)] was defined as present if FSS score > or = 3.0. Variables from functional, clinical, sociodemographic, health behaviors, behavioral and psychological and immunogenetics domains were ascertained at study entry. Associations were examined using regression models. Eighty-six percent (85.7%) of patients reported having fatigue (82.6% H; 85.5% AA; 88.7% C); median FSS score, 5.3. Factors from the psychological and clinical domains were primarily associated with FSS; immunogenetic (HLA Class II phenotypes) features were not. Increased fatigue was strongly associated with decreasing function, both physical and mental. Variables associated with significantly greater degree of fatigue at baseline in the multivariable stepwise model in order of decreasing additional partial R2 explained included: abnormal illness-related behaviors, older age, higher self-reported pain, greater degree of helplessness, greater disease activity, Caucasian race, and lacking health insurance (model R2 = 37%). Fatigue is one of the most prevalent clinical manifestations of SLE across all ethnic groups. The perception of fatigue severity in SLE may be multifactorial in origin, including psychosocial factors and disease activity. If these prove causal, knowledge of their contribution may suggest therapeutic and/or behavioral interventions, which could ameliorate this pervasive and often incapacitating symptom of SLE.
Ljubov V. Rychkova
Full Text Available Background. Obesity develops as a result of interaction of genetic and environmental factors. The impact of environmental factors on the risk of obesity in children can be determined by socially conditioned causes.Objective. Our aim was to identify the risk factors associated with overweight/obesity in children of different ethnic groups living in rural areas of the Republic of Buryatia.Methods. The cross-sectional study included adolescents aged 11– 17 years. Overweight was considered to be the body mass index (BMI values exceeding the 85th percentile of distribution for a given sex and age, obesity was considered to be the BMI the 95th percentile. We assessed the anthropometric measures of adolescents and their parents, socio-demographic characteristics, features of early history, eating behaviour, and lifestyle.Results. The study included 151 adolescents of the indigenous Asian (girls — 39.7% and 118 Slavic (girls — 42.4% ethnic groups. Overweight and obesity were detected in 53 (35% and 36 (31% adolescents, respectively. Independent risk factors for overweight/obesity in adolescents of both ethnic groups were BMI in their mothers — odds ratio (OR 1.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1–1.3 and 1.3 (95% CI 1.1–1.4, respectively; in adolescents of indigenous Asian ethnic groups, infrequent food intake — OR 4.2 (95% CI 1.1–16.1, living in an incomplete family — OR 4.4 (95% CI 1.3–14.1, and motherhousewife — OR 3.6 (95% CI 1.3–9.7; in adolescents of the Slavic ethnic groups — eating at night [OR 17.3 (95% CI 1.8–163.0].Conclusion. The risk factors for overweight/obesity in rural adolescents, regardless of their ethnicity, are overweight in mothers and irregular food intake of children. The risk factors for adolescents of indigenous Asian ethnic groups include social (family- related characteristics such as living in single-parent families and families with non-working mothers.
BACKGROUND: There is concern about the level of satisfaction with mental healthcare among minority ethnic patients in the UK, particularly as black patients have more compulsory admissions to hospital. AIMS: To determine and compare levels of satisfaction with mental healthcare between patients from different ethnic groups in a three-centre study of first-onset psychosis. METHOD: Data were collected from 216 patients with first-episode psychosis and 101 caregivers from South London, Nottingham and Bristol, using the Acute Services Study Questionnaire (Patient and Relative Version) and measures of sociodemographic variables and insight. RESULTS: No differences were found between ethnic groups in most domains of satisfaction tested individually, including items relating to treatment by ward staff and number of domains rated as satisfactory. However, logistic regression modelling (adjusting for age, gender, social class, diagnostic category and compulsion) showed that black Caribbean patients did not believe that they were receiving the right treatment and were less satisfied with medication than white patients. Black African patients were less satisfied with non-pharmacological treatments than white patients. These findings were not explained by lack of insight or compulsory treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The study found that black patients were less satisfied with specific aspects of treatment, particularly medication, but were equally satisfied with nursing and social care. Understanding the reasons behind this may improve the acceptability of psychiatric care to black minority ethnic groups.
Full Text Available the article contains a justification of the research approach to the detection of subjective content of historical memory among groups of respondents from different ethnic background; presents the results of a study of two groups of respondents, who are descendants of the Volga Germans and the representatives of the titular nation (Russian; establishes the main cultural and historical events of life of the peoples that make up the historical memory.
Full Text Available Hemoglobin E (HbE is one of the most common hemoglobin variants caused by a mutation in the β-globin gene, and found at high frequencies in various Southeast Asian groups. We surveyed HbE prevalence among 8 ethnic groups residing in 5 villages selected for their high period malaria endemicity, and 5 for low endemicity in northern Thailand, in order to uncover factors which may affect genetic persistence of HbE in these groups. We found the overall HbE prevalence 6.7%, with differing frequencies from 0% in the Pwo Karen, the Lawa, and the Skaw Karen to 24% in the Mon. All HbE genes were heterozygous (AE. Differences in HbE prevalence among the studied ethnic groups indirectly documents that ancestries and evolutionary forces, such as drift and admixture, are the important factors in the persistence of HbE distribution in northern Thailand. Furthermore, the presence of HbE in groups of northern Thailand had no effect on the in vitro infectivity and proliferation of Plasmodium falciparum, nor the production of hemozoin, a heme crystal produced by malaria parasites, when compared to normal red-blood-cell controls. Our data may contribute to a better understanding on the persistence of HbE among ethnic groups and its association with malaria.
Tan, Jin Ai Mary Anne; Chin, Pui See; Wong, Yean Ching; Tan, Kim Lian; Chan, Lee Lee; George, Elizabeth
In Malaysia, about 4.5% of the Malay and Chinese populations are heterozygous carriers of beta-thalassaemia. The initial identification of rare beta-globin gene mutations by genomic sequencing will allow the development of simpler and cost-effective PCR-based techniques to complement the existing amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) and gap-PCR used for the identification of beta-thalassaemia mutations. DNA from 173 beta-thalassaemia carriers and five beta-thalassaemia major patients from the Malay, Chinese and Indian ethnic groups were first analysed by ARMS and gap-PCR. Ninety-five per cent (174/183) of the 183 beta-globin genes studied were characterised using these two techiques. The remaining nine uncharacterised beta-globin genes (4.9%) were analysed using genomic sequencing of a 904 bp amplified PCR product consisting of the promoter region, exon 1, intervening sequence (IVS) 1, exon 2 and the 5' IVS2 regions of the beta-globin gene. The rare beta-globin mutations detected in the Chinese patients were CD27/28 (+C) and CD43 (GAG-TAG), and -88 (C-T) in an Indian patient. Beta-globin mutations at CD16 (-C), IVS1-1 (G-A), IVS2-1 (G-A), -86 (C-G) and Haemoglobin South Florida (CD1, GTG-ATG) were confirmed in the Malay patients. The seven rare beta-globin mutations and a rare haemoglobin variant confirmed in this study have been described in other populations but have not been previously described in Malaysian beta-thalassemia patients.
Kalita, Abhijit; Baruah, Ronica
Definite clinico-cytological criterion is outlined for thyroid lesions. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) makes it easier to segregate cases of thyroiditis (Chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis/Hashimoto's thyroiditis-CLT/HT, and subacute thyroiditis-SAT) from other benign and malignant lesions of thyroid. The study was done for a period of 5½ years at a diagnostic centre in Guwahati. Patients underwent FNAC and smears were studied for cytomorphology. A correlation with clinical features and thyroid function, including antithyroid antibody estimation, was done, wherever possible. 792 thyroid lesions were encountered during the study, of which 213 (26.89 %) were cases of thyroiditis (70.43 % CLT/HT, 24.9 % SAT and 3.76 % having overlapping features of CLT/HT and SAT); 2 cases (0.9 %) of CLT showed suspicion of Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (NHL), which was confirmed on histopathology. 24 cases (11.26 %) belonged to different ethnic tribal groups of Northeast India. CLT/HT presented predominantly with diffuse thyroid enlargement, but 12 cases (8 % of CLT/HT cases) had nodular enlargement. Patients presented with predominantly hypothyroidism; however occasional hyperthyroid cases were also seen. SAT showed signs of inflammation and presented with hyperthyroidism. Overlap cases of CLT/HT and SAT showed combined clinico-cytomorphological features of both lesions. 37.5 % cases with overlapping features belonged to tribal communities. A rise in incidence of thyroiditis, particularly CLT/HT, was seen. Overlap features of CLT/HT and SAT was noticed in significant percentage. No bias was noticed amongst any specific tribal community. FNAC, coupled with clinico-serological study, helps to diagnose thyroiditis at early stage.
Sharma, Jagannath Dev; Kalita, Manoj; Barbhuiya, Jamil Ahmed; Lahon, Ranjan; Sharma, Arpita; Barman, Debanjana; Kataki, Amal Chandra; Roy, Barsha Deka
The global burden of cancer is continuously increasing. According to recent report of the National Cancer Registry Programme (NCRP) on time trends it is estimated that future burden of cancer cases for India in 2020 will be 1,320,928. It is well known that knowledge of the incidence of cancer is a fundamental requirement of rational planning and monitoring of cancer control programs. It would help health planners to formulate public health policy if relevant ethnic groups were considered. North East-India alone contains over 160 Scheduled Tribes and 400 other sub-tribal communities and groups, whose cancer incidence rates are high compared to mainland India. As since no previous study was done focusing on ethnicity, the present investigation was performed. In this paper PBCR-Guwahati data on all cancer registrations from January 2009 to December 2011 for residents of the Kamrup Urban District, comprising an area of 261.8 sq. km with a total population of 900,518, including individual records with information on sex, age, ethnicity and cancer site are provided. Descriptive statistics including age adjusted rates (AARs) were taken as provided by NCRP. For comparison of proportional incidence ratios (PIR) the Student's t test was used, with ppolicy makers to formulate different strategies to control the level of burden as well as for treatment planning. This study also suggests that age is an important factor of cancer among different ethnic populations as well as for overall population of Kamrup District of Assam.
Markham, Christine M.; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R.; Addy, Robert C.; Tortolero, Susan R.
Objectives. We examined whether It’s Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. Methods. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Results. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. Conclusions. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior. PMID:24922162
Peskin, Melissa F; Markham, Christine M; Shegog, Ross; Baumler, Elizabeth R; Addy, Robert C; Tortolero, Susan R
We examined whether It's Your Game . . . Keep It Real (IYG) reduced dating violence among ethnic-minority middle school youths, a population at high risk for dating violence. We analyzed data from 766 predominantly ethnic-minority students from 10 middle schools in southeast Texas in 2004 for a group randomized trial of IYG. We estimated logistic regression models, and the primary outcome was emotional and physical dating violence perpetration and victimization by ninth grade. Control students had significantly higher odds of physical dating violence victimization (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.20, 1.92), emotional dating violence victimization (AOR = 1.74; 95% CI = 1.36, 2.24), and emotional dating violence perpetration (AOR = 1.58; 95% CI = 1.11, 2.26) than did intervention students. The odds of physical dating violence perpetration were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Program effects varied by gender and race/ethnicity. IYG significantly reduced 3 of 4 dating violence outcomes among ethnic-minority middle school youths. Although further study is warranted to determine if IYG should be widely disseminated to prevent dating violence, it is one of only a handful of school-based programs that are effective in reducing adolescent dating violence behavior.
Langøien, Lars Jørun; Terragni, Laura; Rugseth, Gro; Nicolaou, Mary; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Lien, Nanna; Roos, Gun
Physical activity and sedentary behaviour are associated with health and wellbeing. Studies indicate that ethnic minority groups are both less active and more sedentary than the majority population and that factors influencing these behaviours may differ. Mapping the factors influencing physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe can help to identify determinants of physical activity and sedentary behaviour, research gaps and guide future research. A systematic mapping review was conducted to map the factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe (protocol PROSPERO ID = CRD42014014575). Six databases were searched for quantitative and qualitative research published between 1999 and 2014. In synthesizing the findings, all factors were sorted and structured into clusters following a data driven approach and concept mapping. Sixty-three articles were identified out of 7794 returned by the systematic search. These included 41 quantitative and 22 qualitative studies. Of these 58 focused on physical activity, 5 on both physical activity and sedentary behaviour and none focused on sedentary behaviour. The factors associated with physical activity and sedentary behaviour were grouped into eight clusters. Social & cultural environment (n = 55) and Psychosocial (39) were the clusters containing most factors, followed by Physical environment & accessibility (33), Migration context (15), Institutional environment (14), Social & material resources (12), Health and health communication (12), Political environment (3). An important finding was that cultural and religious issues, in particular those related to gender issues, were recurring factors across the clusters. Physical activity and sedentary behaviour among ethnic minority groups living in Europe are influenced by a wide variety of factors, especially informed by qualitative studies. More comparative studies are
Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Jayasuriya, Rohan; Jayasuriya, Dinuk; Silove, Derrick
The Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (HTQ) remains the most widely used screening measure for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in the refugee and post-conflict field. The present study is the first to test the factorial structure and measurement invariance of the HTQ according to DSM-5 criteria across gender and ethnic groups in the ethnically diverse society of post-conflict Sri Lanka. The survey sample included 5136 participants (86% response rate) followed up 12 months after a baseline nationally representative survey undertaken in Sri Lanka in 2014. Exposure to conflict-related traumatic experiences (TEs) generating a trauma count (TC), and symptoms of PTSD were assessed using a modified version of the HTQ adapted to the local context. The final analytic sample included 4260 participants after excluding records with missing data on key variables. We conducted Multigroup Confirmatory Factor Analysis (MG-CFA) to test the four-factor (DSM-5 consistent) and three-factor (DSM-IV-TR) models of PTSD, then assessing measurement invariance of the four factor model by gender and ethnic groups. The three-factor and four-factor DSM-5 model each produced a good fit across the sample as a whole. In addition, there was configural, metric, and scalar invariance for the four-factor model both by gender and ethnicity. The trauma count was directly associated with each of the symptom domains of the four factor model. Our findings provide support for the capacity of the modified HTQ to measure the DSM5 construct of PTSD across gender and key ethnic groupings in Sri Lanka. Confirmation of our findings in other cultures will be important. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zemore, Sarah E; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Mulia, Nina; Kerr, William C; Ehlers, Cindy L; Cook, Won Kim; Martinez, Priscilla; Lui, Camillia; Greenfield, Thomas K
Research suggests striking disparities in alcohol use, problems, and treatment across racial/ethnic groups in the United States. However, research on alcohol-related disparities affecting racial/ethnic minorities remains in its developmental stages. The current article aims to support future research in this growing field by highlighting some of the most important findings, questions, and approaches, focusing on psychosocial research. This article advances seven research needs (i.e., questions and topics meriting attention) that we believe are of crucial importance to the field. We draw on the existing literature to illuminate under-explored areas that are highly relevant to health intervention and that complement the field's existing focus. Identified research needs include research that (a) better describes disparities in alcohol-related health conditions and their drivers, (b) identifies appropriate screening and brief intervention methods for racial/ethnic minorities, (c) investigates disparities in access to and use of alcohol treatment and support services, (d) examines the comparative efficacy of existing alcohol interventions and develops tailored interventions, (e) explores the impacts of specific alcohol policies across and within racial/ethnic groups, and (f) describes the full spectrum of alcohol-related harms and how and why these may vary across racial/ethnic groups. We also call for (g) continuing research to monitor disparities over time. This article points to specific strategies for describing, explaining, intervening on, and monitoring some of the most substantial alcohol-related disparities. Conclusions outline methods and processes that may be advantageous in addressing these priorities, including the use of longitudinal designs; consideration of life course changes; attention to nontraditional intervention settings; and inclusion of disadvantaged populations in all aspects of research.
Nguyen, KH; Pasick, RJ; Stewart, SL; Kerlikowske, K; Karliner, LS
Background Delays in abnormal mammogram follow-up contribute to poor outcomes. We examined abnormal screening mammogram follow-up differences for non-Hispanic Whites (NHW) and Asian women. Methods Prospective cohort of NHW and Asian women with a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System abnormal result of 0 or 3+ in the San Francisco Mammography Registry between 2000–2010. We performed Kaplan-Meier estimation for median-days to follow-up with a diagnostic radiologic test, and compared proportion with follow-up at 30, 60 and 90 days, and no follow-up at one-year for Asians overall (and Asian ethnic groups) and NHWs. We additionally assessed the relationship between race/ethnicity and time-to-follow-up with adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. Results Among Asian women, Vietnamese and Filipinas had the longest, and Japanese the shortest, median follow-up time (32, 28, 19 days, respectively) compared to NHWs (15 days). The proportion of women receiving follow-up at 30 days was lower for Asians vs NHWs (57% vs 77%, pAsian ethnic groups except Japanese. Asians had a reduced hazard of follow-up compared with NHWs (aHR 0.70, 95% CI 0.69–0.72). Asians also had a higher rate than NHWs of no follow-up (15% vs 10%; pAsian ethnic groups, Filipinas had the highest percentage of women with no follow-up (18.1%). Conclusion Asian, particularly Filipina and Vietnamese, women were less likely than NHWs to receive timely follow-up after an abnormal screening mammogram. Research should disaggregate Asian ethnicity to better understand and address barriers to effective cancer prevention. PMID:28603859
Sharma, Sangita; Sheehy, Tony; Kolonel, Laurence N
Background To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Methods Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects aged 45–75 years at baseline (1993–1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American (JpAm), Native Hawaiian (NH) and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the USDA recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B-12, iron, and zinc were determined. Results Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3–14.3%), except for NH and JpAm men, and JpAm women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1–29.3%) and vitamin B-12 (19.7–40%), and to a lesser extent for iron (4.3–14.2%). Conclusions This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the U.S. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption to improve dietary quality among these groups. PMID:23398393
Sharma, S; Sheehy, T; Kolonel, L N
To describe the sources of meat and their contributions to vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc in five ethnic groups in the USA. Dietary data for the Multiethnic Cohort, established in Hawaii and Los Angeles, were collected using a quantitative food frequency questionnaire from more than 215,000 subjects, aged 45-75 years at baseline (1993-1996). Participants included African American, Latino, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian and Caucasian men and women. Servings of meat items were calculated based on the US Department of Agriculture recommendations and their contributions to intakes of total meat, red meat, vitamin B₁₂, iron and zinc were determined. Of all types of meat, poultry contributed the most to meat consumption, followed by red meat and fish among all ethnicities, except for Latino (born in Mexico and Central/South America) men who consumed more beef. Lean beef was the most commonly consumed red meat for all ethnic-sex groups (9.3-14.3%), except for Native Hawaiian and Japanese American men, and Japanese American women whose top contributor was stew/curry with beef/lamb and stir-fried beef/pork with vegetables, respectively. The contribution of meat was most substantial for zinc (11.1-29.3%) and vitamin B₁₂ (19.7-40%) and, to a lesser extent, for iron (4.3-14.2%). This is the first large multiethnic cohort study to describe meat sources and their contributions to selected nutrients among ethnic minorities in the USA. These findings may be used to develop ethnic-specific recommendations for meat consumption aiming to improve dietary quality among these groups. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Ehrhart, Karen Holcombe; Roesch, Scott C; Ehrhart, Mark G; Kilian, Britta
Personality is frequently assessed in research and applied settings, in part due to evidence that scores on measures of the Five-factor model (FFM) of personality show predictive validity for a variety of outcomes. Although researchers are increasingly using the International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999; International Personality Item Pool, 2007b) FFM measures, investigations of the psychometric properties of these measures are unfortunately sparse. The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure equivalence of the 50-item IPIP FFM measure across gender and ethnic groups (i.e., Whites, Latinos, Asian Americans) using multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. Results from a sample of 1,727 college students generally support the invariance of the factor structure across groups, although there was some evidence of differences across gender and ethnic groups for model parameters. We discuss these findings and their implications.
Batista Ferrer, Harriet; Trotter, Caroline L; Hickman, Matthew; Audrey, Suzanne
To identify the barriers and facilitators to uptake of the HPV vaccine in an ethnically diverse group of young women in the south west of England. Three school-based vaccination sessions were observed. Twenty-three young women aged 12 to 13 years, and six key informants, were interviewed between October 2012 and July 2013. Data were analysed using thematic analysis and the Framework method for data management. The priority given to preventing cervical cancer in this age group influenced whether young women received the HPV vaccine. Access could be affected by differing levels of commitment by school staff, school nurses, parents and young women to ensure parental consent forms were returned. Beliefs and values, particularly relevant to minority ethnic groups, in relation to adolescent sexual activity may affect uptake. Literacy and language difficulties undermine informed consent and may prevent vaccination. The school-based HPV vaccination programme successfully reaches the majority of young women. However, responsibility for key aspects remain unresolved which can affect delivery and prevent uptake for some groups. A multi-faceted approach, targeting appropriate levels of the socio-ecological model, is required to address procedures for consent and cultural and literacy barriers faced by minority ethnic groups, increase uptake and reduce inequalities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.
Boise, Linda; Hinton, Ladson; Rosen, Howard J; Ruhl, Mary
Studying the brain through autopsy is an essential component of Alzheimer's disease research. Racial and ethnic minorities are underrepresented in Alzheimer's research generally and, in particular, in the number of completed brain autopsies. We explored beliefs about and attitudes toward brain donation among African American, Chinese, Caucasian, and Latino research subjects and their family members through focus groups at 4 NIH-funded Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Eighteen focus groups were conducted with 61 research subjects and 34 family members. Because the primary purpose of the focus groups was to identify the range of considerations that may influence the decision to participate in brain donation, data from focus groups were pooled and then analyzed. We found that many of the concerns, attitudes, and beliefs about brain donation were similar across the 4 ethnic groups. Concerns and attitudes fell into 3 categories: (a) concerns and misconceptions about brain research and the process of brain removal, (b) religious beliefs, and (c) the role of the family. Our findings suggest that interventions to enhance enrollment in brain donation that target factors identified in this study are likely to be relevant to people from a broad range of backgrounds and ethnicities. Nonetheless, we observed some potential differences among racial/ethnic groups that may affect how research volunteers and their families approach a decision about donating their brain for research. Further study is warranted to explore these and other possible culturally distinct attitudes and beliefs about brain donation. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Agyemang, C; Kunst, A; Bhopal, R; Zaninotto, P; Nazroo, J; Nicolaou, M; Unwin, N; van Valkengoed, I; Redekop, K; Stronks, K
Ethnic minority groups in Western European countries tend to have higher levels of overweight than the majority populations for reasons that are poorly understood. Investigating relative differences between countries could enable an investigation of the importance of national context in determining these inequalities. To explore: (1) whether Indian and African origin populations in England and the Netherlands are similarly disadvantaged compared with the White populations in terms of the prevalence of overweight and central obesity; (2) whether the previously known Dutch advantage of relatively low overweight prevalence is also observed in Dutch ethnic minority groups and (3) the contribution of health behaviour and socio-economic position to the differences observed. Secondary analyses of population-based studies of 16 406 participants from England and the Netherlands. Prevalence ratios were estimated using regression models. Except for African men, ethnic minority groups in both countries had higher rates of overweight and central obesity than their White counterparts. However, the Dutch minority groups were relatively more disadvantaged than English minority groups as compared with the majority populations. The Dutch advantage of the low prevalence of obesity was only seen in White men and women and African men. In contrast, English-Indian (prevalence ratio=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81-0.93) and English-Caribbean (prevalence ratio=0.82, 95% CI: 0.76-0.89) women were less centrally obese than their Dutch equivalents. The Dutch-Indian men were very similar to the English-Indian men. The contribution of he