WorldWideScience

Sample records for belt restraint reduction

  1. Staff resistance to restraint reduction: identifying & overcoming barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Staci Silver

    2007-05-01

    Professional organizations, regulating agencies, and hospital administrators have taken a strong stance on restraint reduction policies. When implementing a restraint reduction initiative, it is important to identify the barriers to restraint reduction, such as concern for personal safety, lack of knowledge about and practice using alternate de-escalation skills, and fear of disrupting the therapeutic milieu by using a variety of de-escalation methods. Education aimed to reduce the use of restraints needs to do more than simply provide information. It is important to acknowledge the emotional response of the nursing staff and the culture of the current practice. A variety of educational strategies, including role-playing, and case studies will help identify attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors that are congruent with reducing the use of restraints. If the ultimate goal of restraint reduction is philosophical change, it will eventually lead to a new culture of practice.

  2. High levels of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife--an important and under-recognised road safety issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, H; Macdonald, S; Richardson, P

    1997-03-01

    To pilot data collection instruments and to make a preliminary estimate of the level of incorrect use of car seat belts and child restraints in Fife, Scotland. Cross sectional survey of cars containing adults and children at a number of public sites across Fife in 1995 to assess use of car occupant restraints. Trained road safety officers assessed whether seat restraints were appropriate for the age of the passengers and whether restraints were used correctly. These assessments were based on standards published by the Child Accident Prevention Trust. The survey gathered data from 596 occupants in 180 cars: 327 adults and 269 children. Ten per cent of drivers who were approached refused to participate. Car occupant restraint was assessed in 180 drivers, 151 front seat passengers, and 265 rear seat passengers. Three hundred and sixty one occupants wore seat belts, 68 were restrained by a seat belt and booster cushion, 63 in toddler seats, 25 in two way seats, and 18 in rear facing infant carriers. Ninety seven per cent of drivers, 95% of front seat passengers, and 77% of rear seat passengers were restrained. However, in 98 (52%) vehicles at least one passenger was restrained by a device that was used incorrectly. Seven per cent of adults and 28% of children were secured incorrectly. The commonest errors were loose seat belts and restraint devices not adequately secured to the seat. Rates of incorrect use were highest in child seat restraints, reaching 60% with two way seats and 44% with rear facing infant seats. The incorrect use of car occupant restraints is an under-recognised problem, both by health professionals, and the general public. Incorrect use has been shown to reduce the effectiveness of restraints, can itself result in injury, and is likely to be an important factor in child passenger injuries. The correct use of car seat restraints merits greater attention in strategies aiming to reduce road traffic casualties. Areas of intervention that could be

  3. Corrupted cultures in mental health inpatient settings. Is restraint reduction the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paterson, B; McIntosh, I; Wilkinson, D; McComish, S; Smith, I

    2013-04-01

    The early years of the 21st century have seen successful efforts in a number of countries to reduce the use of restraint in services for people with mental health problems. An underlying emphasis on 'cultural change' is characteristic of such initiatives reflecting, it appears, the re-emergence of interest in the therapeutic milieu. Such efforts have though lacked a comprehensive explanation of how organizational culture plays a role in the development of the excessive use of restraint, which seems to respond to such initiatives. This paper seeks to address that deficit and draws in particular on the concepts of corrupted culture, institutional violence, trauma, parallel processing and contemporary research on restraint and seclusion reduction. In doing so it examines whether restraint reduction initiatives represent part of the solution to the problem of corruption, which is intrinsically associated with the legitimatization of coercion. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. Sensory Reduction on the General Milieu of a High-Acuity Inpatient Psychiatric Unit to Prevent Use of Physical Restraints: A Successful Open Quality Improvement Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakov, Svetlana; Birur, Badari; Bearden, Melissa F; Aguilar, Barbara; Ghelani, Kinjal J; Fargason, Rachel E

    Impaired sensory gating in patients with acute mental illness predisposes to overstimulation and behavioral dyscontrol. Explore use of sensory reduction interventions on a high-acuity inpatient milieu to reduce high assault/restraint rates. A multidisciplinary team using failure mode and effect analysis to explore high restraint use between 4:00 p.m. and 7:00 p.m. observed patient/staff overstimulation contributed to behavioral escalations. The team implemented sensory reduction/integration improvements over a 5-month period to prevent excessive restraint use. Restraint rates dropped immediately following light and sound reduction interventions and by 72% at 11 months postimplementation. Mann-Whitney statistics for unpaired 6-month comparisons, 1-year pre- and postintervention showed significant reductions: Assault rates (median pre = 1.37, post = 0.18, U = 4, p = .02); Restraint rates (median pre = 0.50, post = 0.06, U = 0, p = .002). Sensory reduction during a high-stress time period on a high-acuity psychiatric unit was associated with a reduction in assaults and restraints.

  5. Reduction of Restraint of People with Intellectual Disabilities: An Organizational Behavior Management (OBM) Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don E.; Grossett, Deborah L.

    2011-01-01

    We used an organizational behavior management (OBM) approach to increase behavior intervention plans and decrease the use of mechanical restraint. First, recipients were tracked as a member of the priority group if they engaged in frequent self-injurious behavior or physical aggression toward others and/or if they had been placed in mechanical…

  6. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyawu, Rebecca; Quansah, Joseph E.; Fall, Souleymane; Gichuhi, Peter N.; Bovell-Benjamin, Adelia C.

    2015-01-01

    In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs) were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%), restaurants (19.7%), fast food restaurants (16.4%), small supermarkets (8.2%), and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %), respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices. PMID:26844138

  7. Community food environment measures in the Alabama Black Belt: Implications for cancer risk reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Gyawu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In-store measures were utilized to evaluate the availability of healthy food choices and nutrition/health promotion messages for cancer risk reduction in the selected Alabama Black Belt counties/cities. Sixty one retail food outlets (RFOs were audited in 12 Alabama Black Belt cities. Store types included convenience stores (49.2%, restaurants (19.7%, fast food restaurants (16.4%, small supermarkets (8.2%, and large supermarket and farmers' markets (3.3 %, respectively. Although there were low numbers of farmers' markets/street stands and large supermarkets, these had significantly (p < 0.0001 higher health scores than the other store types. A few health promotion messages were highly visible or obscurely positioned in some RFOs. The Alabama Black Belt food environment had limited opportunities for healthy food choices.

  8. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  9. Continuous restraint control systems: safety improvement for various occupants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laan, E. van der; Jager, B. de; Veldpaus, F.; Steinbuch, M.; Nunen, E. van; Willemsen, D.

    2009-01-01

    Occupant safety can be significantly improved by continuous restraint control systems. These restraint systems adjust their configuration during the impact according to the actual operating conditions, such as occupant size, weight, occupant position, belt usage and crash severity. In this study,

  10. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  11. Roadside observation of child passenger restraint use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth Bruce

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite legislation and research evidence supporting the use of childhood vehicle restraints, motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of injury, death and disability among Canadian children. Methods: Working in collaboration with trained car seat specialists and police officers, roadside checks were conducted to observe correct use of child restraints. Results: Of the 1323 child vehicle restraints inspected, 99.6% of the children were restrained, 91% were in the correct seat, and 48% of restraints were correctly installed. The seat/restraint types most used incorrectly used were booster seats (31% and seat belts (53%. The majority of incorrectly installed or fitted seats (55% were forward facing. Common errors in installation and fit included the seat not being secured tightly enough to the vehicle, incorrect tether strap use, the harness not being tight enough, and/or the chest clip being in the wrong place. Conclusions: The greatest proportion of incorrect seat use was among those children who transitioned to a seat belt too soon. The greatest proportion of installation and fit errors were among forward facing seats. Researchers recommend: 1 targeting parents with older children (ages 3 and above regarding transitioning too soon from forward facing seats to booster seats, and from booster seats to seat belts; 2 targeting parents with younger children regarding correct installation of rear facing and forward facing seats; 3 collaborating with police officers to review the most common errors and encourage observation at roadside checks; and 4 creating community awareness by way of roadside checks.

  12. [Effect of shifting sand burial on evaporation reduction and salt restraint under saline water irrigation in extremely arid region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian-Guo; Zhao, Ying; Xu, Xin-Wen; Lei, Jia-Qiang; Li, Sheng-Yu; Wang, Yong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    The Taklimakan Desert Highway Shelterbelt is drip-irrigated with high saline groundwater (2.58-29.70 g x L(-1)), and shifting sand burial and water-salt stress are most common and serious problems in this region. So it is of great importance to study the effect of shifting sand burial on soil moisture evaporation, salt accumulation and their distribution for water saving, salinity restraint, and suitable utilization of local land and water resources. In this study, Micro-Lysimeters (MLS) were used to investigate dynamics of soil moisture and salt under different thicknesses of sand burial (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 cm), and field control experiments of drip-irrigation were also carried out to investigate soil moisture and salt distribution under different thicknesses of shifting sand burial (5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40 cm). The soil daily and cumulative evaporation decreased with the increase of sand burial thickness in MLS, cumulative evaporation decreased by 2.5%-13.7% compared with control. And evaporative inhibiting efficiency increased with sand burial thickness, evaporative inhibiting efficiency of 1-5 cm sand burial was 16.7%-79.0%. Final soil moisture content beneath the interface of sand burial increased with sand burial thickness, and it increased by 2.5%-13.7% than control. The topsoil EC of shifting sand in MLS decreased by 1.19-6.00 mS x cm(-1) with the increasing sand burial thickness, whereas soil salt content beneath the interface in MLS increased and amplitude of the topsoil salt content was higher than that of the subsoil. Under drip-irrigation with saline groundwater, average soil moisture beneath the interface of shifting sand burial increased by 0.4% -2.0% compare with control, and the highest value of EC was 7.77 mS x cm(-1) when the sand burial thickness was 10 cm. The trend of salt accumulation content at shifting sand surface increased firstly, and then decreased with the increasing sand burial thickness. Soil salt contents beneath the

  13. Noise Reduction of Steel Cord Conveyor Belt Defect Electromagnetic Signal by Combined Use of Improved Wavelet and EMD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Wei Ma

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to reduce the noise of a defect electromagnetic signal of the steel cord conveyor belt used in coal mines, a new signal noise reduction method by combined use of the improved threshold wavelet and Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD is proposed. Firstly, the denoising method based on the improved threshold wavelet is applied to reduce the noise of a defect electromagnetic signal obtained by an electromagnetic testing system. Then, the EMD is used to decompose the denoised signal and then the effective Intrinsic Mode Function (IMF is extracted by the dominant eigenvalue strategy. Finally, the signal reconstruction is carried out by utilizing the obtained IMF. In order to verify the proposed noise reduction method, the experiments are carried out in two cases including the defective joint and steel wire rope break. The experimental results show that the proposed method in this paper obtains the higher Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR for the defect electromagnetic signal noise reduction of steel cord conveyor belts.

  14. Mechanical restraint in psychiatry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Zoffmann, Vibeke; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine how potential mechanical restraint preventive factors in hospitals are associated with the frequency of mechanical restraint episodes. DESIGN AND METHODS: This study employed a retrospective association design, and linear regression was used to assess the associations. FINDINGS...

  15. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  16. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  17. A study on the use of car occupant restraint in Selangor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L K

    2002-09-01

    A survey was conducted in December 1995 to study car occupant restraint usage in Selangor. A total of 1082 car occupants were observed in 536 cars. The results of the study shows that only 57.3% of the car occupants observed were protected by any form of restraints. Most of the cars (99.8%) examined had front seat belts but only 44.2% had rear seat belts. Only 0.6% of the cars were found to have child restraints in the cars. 80.2% of drivers used restraints and only 65.4% of front seat passengers used any forms of restraints. In the case of the rear seat passengers, only 0.42% used an available restraint. More people in the urban areas (84.42%) than in the rural areas (66.51%) used seat belts. Usage of seat belts by car drivers influenced the use of seat belts by front seat passengers. Type of seat belts fitted was associated with usage rate. It is sad to note that 21.9% of the drivers used seat belts incorrectly.

  18. Workshop on strategies to increase the use of restraint systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maekinen, T. Hagenzieker, M. Grant, B. Valtonen, J. Lassare, S. Page, Y. Heinrich, H. Broughton, J. & Knaff, R.

    1992-01-01

    At the conference Strategic Highway Research Program and Traffic Safety at two Continents in Gothenburg, Sweden, September 18-20, 1991, a workshop on "Strategies to increase the use of restraint systems" was held. Following an introduction of the background paper, seven national reports on seat belt

  19. Use of restraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... devices References Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold M. Body Safe client environment and restraints. In: Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, Aebersold M, eds. Clinical Nursing Skills: Basic ...

  20. Seat belt misuse among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Joseph; Daniels, Dawn M; Talty, Judith L; Bull, Marilyn J

    2009-05-01

    Observe and report seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey of children transported in motor vehicles between 2006 and 2007. While drivers completed a survey reporting the child's age, weight and gender, and the driver's age, gender, race, income, education, and relationship to the child; a child passenger safety technician recorded vehicle seating location, restraint type, and use of the car safety seat harness or seat belt as appropriate for the child. Twenty-five fast food restaurants and discount department stores throughout Indiana. A convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than 16 years. Seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. Seat belt misuse. Overall, 1446 drivers participated, 2287 children were observed with 564 children in belt-positioning booster seats. At least one seat belt misuse was observed for 64.8% of the children transported. Common misuses were the shoulder belt being placed over the booster seat armrest (35.8%); shoulder belt not at mid-shoulder position (28.5%), seat belt was too loose (24.5%), and the shoulder belt was either behind the child's back (9.1%) or under their arm (10.0%). There is a high frequency of seat belt misuses among children transported in booster seats. Advice to parents on appropriate car seat selection, and encouragement to parents to supervise seat belt use may decrease misuse.

  1. Comparison of Thoracic Injury Risk in Frontal Car Crashes for Occupant Restrained without Belt Load Limiters and Those Restrained with 6 kN and 4 kN Belt Load Limiters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foret-Bruno, J Y; Trosseille, X; Page, Y; Huère, J F; Le Coz, J Y; Bendjellal, F; Diboine, A; Phalempin, T; Villeforceix, D; Baudrit, P; Guillemot, H; Coltat, J C

    2001-11-01

    In France, as in other countries, accident research studies show that a large proportion of restrained occupants who sustain severe or fatal injuries are involved in frontal impacts (65% and 50%, respectively). In severe frontal impacts with restrained occupants and where intrusion is not preponderant, the oldest occupants very often sustain severe thoracic injuries due to the conventional seat belt. As we have been observing over the last years, we will expect in the coming years developments which include more solidly-built cars, as offset crash test procedures are widely used to evaluate the passive safety of production vehicles. The reduction of intrusion for the most severe frontal impacts, through optimization of car deformation, usually translates into an increase in restraint forces and hence thoracic injury risk with a conventional retractor seat belt for a given impact severity. It is, therefore essential to limit the restraint forces exerted by the seat belt on the thorax in order to reduce the number of road casualties. In order to address thoracic injury risk in frontal impact, Renault cars have been equipped with the Programmed Restraint System (PRS) since 1995. The PRS is a restraint system that combines belt load limitation and pyrotechnic belt pretension. In an initial design of the Programmed Restraint System (PRS1), the belt load limiter was a steel component designed to shear at a given shoulder force, namely 6 kN. It was mounted between the retractor and the lower anchorage point of the belt. The design of the PRS was modified in 1998 (PRS2), but the principle of load limitation was maintained. The threshold was decreased to 4 kN and this lower belt belt-force limiter has been combined with a specially designed airbag. This paper reports on 347 real-world frontal accidents where the EES (Equivalent Energy Speed) ranged from 35 to 75 km/h. One hundred and ninety-eight (198) of these accidents involved cars equipped with the 6 kN load limiter

  2. A human body model with active muscles for simulation of pretensioned restraints in autonomous braking interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Jonas; Brolin, Karin; Bråse, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study driver and passenger kinematics in autonomous braking scenarios, with and without pretensioned seat belts, using a whole-body finite element (FE) human body model (HBM) with active muscles. Upper extremity musculature for elbow and shoulder flexion-extension feedback control was added to an HBM that was previously complemented with feedback controlled muscles for the trunk and neck. Controller gains were found using a radial basis function metamodel sampled by making 144 simulations of an 8 ms(-2) volunteer sled test. The HBM kinematics, interaction forces, and muscle activations were validated using a second volunteer data set for the passenger and driver positions, with and without 170 N seat belt pretension, in 11 ms(-2) autonomous braking deceleration. The HBM was then used for a parameter study in which seat belt pretension force and timing were varied from 170 to 570 N and from 0.25 s before to 0.15 s after deceleration onset, in an 11 ms(-2) autonomous braking scenario. The model validation showed that the forward displacements and interaction forces of the HBM correlated with those of corresponding volunteer tests. Muscle activations and head rotation angles were overestimated in the HBM when compared with volunteer data. With a standard seat belt in 11 ms(-2) autonomous braking interventions, the HBM exhibited peak forward head displacements of 153 and 232 mm for the driver and passenger positions. When 570 N seat belt pretension was applied 0.15 s before deceleration onset, a reduction of peak head displacements to 60 and 75 mm was predicted. Driver and passenger responses to autonomous braking with standard and pretensioned restraints were successfully modeled in a whole-body FE HBM with feedback controlled active muscles. Variations of belt pretension force level and timing revealed that belt pretension 0.15 s before deceleration onset had the largest effect in reducing forward head and torso movement caused

  3. The effect of obesity on the restraint of automobile occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, Jason; Lopez-Valdes, Francisco J; Lessley, David; Kindig, Matthew; Kent, Richard; Bostrom, Ola

    2009-10-01

    As obesity rates increase, the protection of obese occupants will become increasingly important in vehicle and restraint design. As a first step in this effort, this study seeks to compare the kinematics, dynamics, and injuries of obese post mortem human surrogates (PMHS) to (approximately) 50(th) percentile adult male PMHS in frontal impact sled tests with a force-limiting, pre-tensioning restraint system. Forty-eight km/h, frontal impact sled tests were performed with a sled buck representing the rear seat occupant compartment of a 2004 mid-sized sedan. The restraint system consisted of a 3-point belt with a pretensioner and a progressive force-limiter at the retractor. The test subjects were either obese PMHS or approximately 50(th) percentile adult male PMHS. Instrumentation included accelerometer packages on the spine. Deformation of the subjects' chests were measured using chestbands placed nominally at the superior-inferior locations of the 4(th) and 8(th) ribs. Tension in the restraint system was measured at the upper shoulder belt, lower shoulder belt, and the lap belt. Motion of the head, shoulder, pelvis, and knee were recorded using high-speed video. Two obese PMHS (average mass 137 kg, average stature 186 cm) and three approximately mid-sized male PMHS (average mass 68 kg, average stature 176 cm) were tested. The obese PMHS exhibited significantly greater forward motion of the head and the pelvis compared to the mid-sized PMHS. The obese PMHS also exhibited backwards torso rotation at the time of maximum forward excursion, whereas the mid-sized PMHS did not. The obese PMHS exhibited average maximum chest compressions of approximately 44% (+/- 9% standard deviation) of their initial chest depths, and exhibited 26 g (+/- 2 g) average 3 ms clip maximum chest resultant acceleration. In comparison, the mid-sized PMHS exhibited averages of 29% (+/- 9%) maximum chest compression and 35 g (+/- 4 g) maximum 3 ms clip chest acceleration. The obese PMHS exhibited

  4. Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Gabriele; Köpke, Sascha; Haastert, Burkhard; Mühlhauser, Ingrid

    2009-04-01

    To investigate (1) the prevalence of physical restraints and psychoactive medication, (2) newly administered physical restraints, frequency of application of the devices and frequency of psychoactive medication on demand during 12-month follow-up and (3) characteristics associated with restraint use in nursing homes. High quality data on restraint use in German nursing homes are lacking so far. Such information is the basis for interventions to achieve a restraint-free care. Cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. Thirty nursing homes with 2367 residents in Hamburg, Germany. External investigators obtained prevalence of physical restraints by direct observation on three occasions on one day, psychoactive drugs were extracted from residents' records and prospective data were documented by nurses. Residents' mean age was 86 years, 81% were female. Prevalence of residents with at least one physical restraint was 26.2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 21.3-31.1]. Centre prevalence ranged from 4.4 to 58.9%. Bedrails were most often used (in 24.5% of residents), fixed tables, belts and other restraints were rare. Prevalence of residents with at least one psychoactive drug was 52.4% (95% CI 48.7-56.1). The proportion of residents with at least one physical restraint after the first observation week of 26.3% (21.3-31.3) cumulated to 39.5% (33.3-45.7) at the end of follow-up (10.4 SD 3.3 months). The relative frequency of observation days with at least one device ranged from 4.9-64.8% between centres. No characteristic was found to explain centre differences. The frequency of physical restraints and psychoactive drugs in German nursing homes is substantial. Pronounced centre variation suggests that standard care is possible without restraints. Effective restraint minimisation approaches are urgently warranted. An evidence-based guideline may overcome centre differences towards a restraint-free nursing home care.

  5. Numerical simulation of a child restraint system in an aircraft crash-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oggero, E; Pipino, M; Deweese, R; Mugnai, A; Aljundi, B; Pagnacco, G

    2000-01-01

    Studies conducted at the FAA Civil Aeromedical Institute have shown that when used in aircraft, automotive child restraint devices do not always provide the level of safety desired. Various factors that contribute to poor performance, such as seat belt anchor location, cushion stiffness, and child restraint device design features, were evaluated by a dynamic impact test program. To efficiently continue the research, a computer model was developed using MADYMO. Results of two of the impact tests were used to validate the model. Both test configurations utilized a typical commercial transport airplane passenger seat and a popular automotive child restraint device. These tests were considered representative of the extremes of child restraint device and occupant kinematics due to variance in seat belt anchor location. Details are presented of the test parameters and geometry, as well as cushion and restraint system properties. Test and modelling results for these two impact conditions are summarized and compared. Parametric studies were then conducted that used the model to investigate the effect of cushion stiffness, belt anchor spacing, and initial belt tension.

  6. A prospective study of children aged injuries are observed predominantly in older children and are associated with restraint misuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjerven-Martinsen, Marianne; Naess, Paal Aksel; Hansen, Trond Boye; Gaarder, Christine; Lereim, Inggard; Stray-Pedersen, Arne

    2014-12-01

    The implementation of the compulsory wearing of seat belts (SBs) for children and improvements in child restraint systems have reduced the number of deaths and severe injuries among children involved in motor vehicle (MV) collisions (MVCs). Establishing the characteristics predictive of such injuries may provide the basis for targeted safety campaigns and lead to a further reduction in mortality and morbidity among children involved in MVCs. This study performed a multidisciplinary investigation among child occupants involved in MVCs to elucidate injury mechanisms, evaluate the safety measures used and determine the characteristics that are predictive of injury. A prospective study was conducted of all child occupants aged children were medically examined. Supplementary information was obtained from witnesses, the crash victims, police reports, medical records and reconstructions. Each case was reviewed by a multidisciplinary team to assess the mechanism of injury. In total, 158 child occupants involved in 100 MVCs were investigated, of which 27 (17%) exhibited Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores of 2+ injuries and 15 (9%) exhibited AIS 3+ injuries. None of the children died. Of those with AIS 2+ injuries (n=27), 89% (n=24) were involved in frontal impact collisions and 11% (3/27) were involved in side impacts. Multivariate analysis revealed that restraint misuse, age, the prevailing lighting conditions and ΔV were all independently correlated with AIS 2+ injuries. Safety errors were found in 74% (20/27) of those with AIS 2+ injuries and 93% (14/15) of those with AIS 3+ injuries. The most common safety error was misuse of restraints, and in particular loose and/or improperly positioned SBs. The risk of injury among child occupants is significantly higher when the child occupants are exposed to safety errors within the interior of the vehicle. Future campaigns should focus on the prevention of restraint misuse and unsecured objects in the passenger compartment or

  7. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-09-17

    Sep 17, 2009 ... history the practice of restraint has been associated with punishment, custodial care ... violence. Ethics of restraints. Many fear the abuse of restraints and possible psychological, physical and emotional consequences. Restraints may involve physical and psychological risks,3 produce negative reactions.

  8. Restraint and seclusion in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudhir K Khandelwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychiatric management in India often includes the practice of restraint and seclusion of violent and difficult to control patients, both in inpatient medical facilities and in places of traditional healing. However, without any informed guidelines and regulation, these practices have flourished from necessary last resort to accepted ways of control. The upcoming draft mental health bill have now provided with a set of basic guidelines for preventing restraint. The scientific literature is also sparse on the subject from India, despite a robust body of evidence being available from the Western literature. This review, summarizes the evidence from India, looks into the causes and outcomes of restraint and seclusion and also discusses methods and stratagems that might be beneficial for reducing restraint and seclusion in the country.

  9. Effectiveness of primary and secondary enforced seat belt laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivara, F P; Thompson, D C; Cummings, P

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the relative efficacy of primary and secondary enforced motor vehicle occupant restraint laws on the outcomes of restraint use, crash-related mortality, and crash-related injuries. We used the Cochrane Collaboration search strategy to search the following electronic databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, National Technical Information Service (NTIS), Psyc-INFO, ERIC, Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), Transportation Research Information Service (TRIS), and EI Compendex. The reference lists from each potentially eligible study were checked, and knowledgeable people in the field were contacted, for additional leads to published reports. Studies had to include a comparison of primary enforcement law to no law, secondary enforcement law to no law, or a primary to a secondary law. Any study design was acceptable. Acceptable outcome measures included observed restraint use, and counts or rates of deaths or serious injuries. Data were collected using a standard abstract reporting from. Relative differences in outcomes and absolute differences were calculated when possible. We identified 48 studies for the review. When places or time periods with primary enforcement laws were compared to those without such laws, the relative prevalence of seat belt use ranged from 1.5 to 4.5; the prevalence differences ranged from 10 to 50 per 100 observed drivers. Secondary laws had smaller effects. Two studies evaluated a change in law from secondary to primary enforcement; this was associated with an increase in belt use 6 months later of 5.3 per 100 observed drivers in Louisiana and 18 per 100 drivers in California. Primary enforcement laws were associated with a relative risk of death in MV crashes of .54 to .97. The reduction in mortality associated with secondary enforcement laws was much more modest, with relative risks estimates of .81 to 1.025. Primary enforcement laws were associated with a relative risk of severe injuries of .20 to .89; the

  10. Community paediatricians' counseling patterns and knowledge of recommendations relating to child restraint use in motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenstein, J; Howard, A; Parkin, P; Khambalia, A; Macarthur, C

    2004-04-01

    Road traffic injury is the leading cause of death among Canadian children and youth. Transport Canada recommends four types of child restraint depending on the size of the child, and recent studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of recommended restraint use. To determine community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles, and to examine paediatricians' counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety. A mailed questionnaire survey of all community paediatricians affiliated with the Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto was conducted. A 16 item questionnaire gathered information on knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use, general counseling patterns in relation to child passenger safety, and demographic information. In total, 60 community paediatricians in active practice were identified. Of these, 48 (80%) responded to the mailed questionnaire. Almost all paediatricians (92%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a forward-facing car seat, whereas fewer paediatricians (63%) correctly identified the recommended weight for transition to a booster seat from a forward-facing car seat, and only one third of paediatricians correctly identified the recommended weight for transition from a booster seat to a seat belt. Community paediatricians' knowledge of Transport Canada recommendations for child restraint use in vehicles is incomplete. There is a need for such recommendations to be better disseminated to paediatricians and parents so that information on child restraint use is delivered in a clear and consistent manner.

  11. STS-102 Onboard Photograph-The Payload Equipment Restraint System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-01-01

    In this Space Shuttle STS-102 mission image, the Payload Equipment Restraint System H-Strap is shown at the left side of the U.S. Laboratory hatch and behind Astronaut James D. Weatherbee, mission specialist. PERS is an integrated modular system of components designed to assist the crew of the International Space Station (ISS) in restraining and carrying necessary payload equipment and tools in a microgravity environment. The Operations Development Group, Flight Projects Directorate at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), while providing operation support to the ISS Materials Science Research Facility (MSRF), recognized the need for an on-orbit restraint system to facilitate control of lose objects, payloads, and tools. The PERS is the offspring of that need and it helps the ISS crew manage tools and rack components that would otherwise float away in the near-zero gravity environment aboard the Space Station. The system combines Kevlar straps, mesh pockets, Velcro and a variety of cornecting devices into a portable, adjustable system. The system includes the Single Strap, the H-Strap, the Belly Pack, the Laptop Restraint Belt, and the Tool Page Case. The Single Strap and the H-Strap were flown on this mission. The PERS concept was developed by industrial design students at Auburn University and the MSFC Flight Projects Directorate.

  12. Mental health inpatients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, C; Rouse, L; Rae, S; Kar Ray, M

    2018-04-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: Restraint has negative psychological, physical and relational consequences for mental health patients and staff. Restraint reduction interventions have been developed (e.g., "Safewards"). Limited qualitative research has explored suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementing interventions) from those directly involved. WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: This paper explores mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint, whilst addressing barriers to implementing these. Findings centred on four themes: improving communication and relationships; staffing factors; environment and space; and activities and distraction. Not all suggestions are addressed by currently available interventions. Barriers to implementation were identified, centring on a lack of time and/or resources; with the provision of more time for staff to spend with patients and implement interventions seen as essential to reducing physical restraint. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: Improving communication and relationships between staff/patients, making staffing-related changes, improving ward environments and providing patient activities are central to restraint reduction in mental healthcare. Fundamental issues related to understaffing, high staff turnover, and lack of time and resources need addressing in order for suggestions to be successfully implemented. Introduction Physical restraint has negative consequences for all involved, and international calls for its reduction have emerged. Some restraint reduction interventions have been developed, but limited qualitative research explores suggestions on how to reduce physical restraint (and feasibility issues with implementation) from those directly involved. Aims To explore mental health patients' and staff members' suggestions for reducing physical restraint. Methods Interviews were conducted with 13 inpatients

  13. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmich, James N; Lambiase, Maya J; Lobarinas, Christina L; Balantekin, Katherine N

    2011-12-01

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy intake and food choices. A total of 40 boys and girls, age 8-12 years, with wide ranges of dietary restraint, adiposity, and stress reactivity were measured for total energy intake and choice of energy dense 'comfort' and lower density 'healthy' foods following reading and speech stressor manipulations. When exploring the interaction of dietary restraint and stress reactivity, lower restraint/lower reactivity and lower restraint/higher reactivity were associated with reductions in energy intake (37-62 kcal) and comfort food (33-89 kcal). Higher restraint/lower reactivity was associated with consuming 86 fewer total kcal and 45 fewer kcal of comfort food. Only higher restraint/higher reactivity predicted increased energy intake (104 kcal) and comfort food (131 kcal). The interaction of dietary restraint and percentage body fat revealed that lower restraint/lower adiposity was associated with consuming 123 fewer kcal after being stressed with the entire reduction due to a decrease in comfort food. Lower restraint/higher adiposity was associated with consuming 116 kcal more after being stressed with 70% (81 kcal) of the increase in the form of comfort foods. Higher restraint/lower adiposity and higher restraint/higher adiposity were associated with smaller changes in total energy intake of 22 kcal and 1 kcal; respectively. Both restraint and adiposity moderated the effect of stress on energy intake and food choice. Children with greater adiposity may be at risk for stress-induced eating to contribute to their obesity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu

    2008-11-01

    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  15. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu

    2017-05-29

    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  17. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor having a reactor vessel, a reactor guard vessel, a thermal insulation shell and a horizontal seismic restraint, a restraint is described comprising: a. a first ring on the wall of the reactor vessel; b. a second ring on the wall of the reactor guard vessel in alignment with the first ring; c. a first block attached to the second ring proximate the first ring so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the first block and the first ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion; d. motion limit means extending through an aperture in the thermal insulation shell in alignment with the second ring and the first block; the e. a second block attached to the motion limit means proximate the second ring and in alignment the first block so as to provide a predetermined clearance between the second block and the second ring which is reduced to zero during thermal expansion

  18. A controlled quality improvement trial to reduce the use of physical restraints in older hospitalized adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enns, Echo; Rhemtulla, Rishma; Ewa, Vivian; Fruetel, Karen; Holroyd-Leduc, Jayna M

    2014-03-01

    To implement and evaluate an evidence-informed multicomponent strategy to reduce physical restraint use in older adults admitted to acute care medical units. Stepped-wedge trial. Four acute care medical units in Calgary, Alberta, over a 4-month time period. Data were collected from individuals aged 65 and older present on the study units during monthly restraint audits. Development of opinion leaders among the nursing leadership, education and training of physicians and unit nurses, and implementation of least restraint rounds. The primary outcome was rate of restraint use as determined from walk-around audits. Secondary outcomes included number of physician orders for physical restraints on the electronic medical record and fall reports. Thirteen percent to 27% of individuals were being restrained on the medical units before the intervention, with the vast majority of restraints being bed rails. This decreased to 7% to 14% after the intervention. The intervention resulted in a statistically significant reduction in restraint use measured in the early mornings (P = .01), and this trend continued after adjusting for unit and month (P = .06). Similarly, the rate of restraint use trended down at all other measured time periods but was not statistically significant. A limited number of individuals had an order for physical restraint within their electronic medical record (3% before, 2% after the intervention). The median number of monthly fall reports did not change (three before, three after; P = .60). A multicomponent team-focused quality improvement intervention has the potential to decrease the use of physical restraints in older hospitalized adults. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  19. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  20. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  1. Vehicle characteristics associated with LATCH use and correct use in real-world child restraint installations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicchino, Jessica B; Jermakian, Jessica S

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if vehicle features associated with LATCH ease-of-use in laboratory studies with volunteers predict LATCH use and misuse in real-world child restraint installations. Vehicle characteristics were extracted from prior surveys of more than 100 top-selling 2010-13 vehicles. Use and correct use of LATCH was determined from records of more than 14,000 child restraint installations in these vehicles that were inspected by child passenger safety technicians at Safe Kids car seat checkup events during 2010-12. Logistic regression was used to examine the association between vehicle features and use and correct use of lower anchors and top tethers, controlling for other relevant installation features. Lower anchors were more likely to be used and correctly used when the clearance angle around them was greater than 54°, the force required to attach them to the lower anchors was less than 178N, and their depth within the seat bight was less than 4cm. Restraints were more likely to be attached correctly when installed with the lower anchors than with the seat belt. After controlling for lower anchor use and other installation features, the likelihood of tether use and correct use in installations of forward-facing restraints was significantly higher when there was no hardware present that could potentially be confused with the tether anchor or when the tether anchor was located on the rear deck, which is typical in sedans. There is converging evidence from laboratory studies with volunteers and real-world child restraint installations that vehicle features are associated with correct LATCH use. Vehicle designs that improve the ease of installing child restraints with LATCH could improve LATCH use rates and reduce child restraint misuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.

  2. Are automobile head restraints used effectively?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, S.; Sehmer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Observation of 992 motor vehicles and their drivers revealed that most drivers do not have their head restraints effectively positioned. Improper positioning was more common with adjustable restraints, in commercial vehicles, and among male drivers. Some head restraints could not be adjusted properly. Improvements in headrest adjustment might help decrease morbidity in motor vehicle accidents. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8053992

  3. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  4. [Therapeutic restraint management in Intensive Care Units: Phenomenological approach to nursing reality].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Nuevo, M; González-Gil, M T; Solís-Muñoz, M; Láiz-Díez, N; Toraño-Olivera, M J; Carrasco-Rodríguez-Rey, L F; García-González, S; Velasco-Sanz, T R; Martínez-Álvarez, A; Martin-Rivera, B E

    2016-01-01

    To identify nursing experience on physical restraint management in Critical Care Units. To analyse similarities and differences in nursing experience on physical restraint management according to the clinical context that they are involved in. A multicentre phenomenological study was carried out including 14 Critical Care Units in Madrid, classified according to physical restraint use: Common/systematic use, lacking/personalised use, and mixed use. Five focus groups (23 participants were selected following purposeful sampling) were convened, concluding in data saturation. Data analysis was focused on thematic content analysis following Colaizzi's method. Six main themes: Physical restraint meaning in Critical Care Units, safety (self-retreat vital devices), contribution factors, feelings, alternatives, and pending issues. Although some themes are common to the 3 Critical Care Unit types, discourse differences are found as regards to indication, feelings, systematic use of pain and sedation measurement tools. In order to achieve real physical restraint reduction in Critical Care Units, it is necessary to have a deep understanding of restraints use in the specific clinical context. As self-retreat vital devices emerge as central concept, some interventions proposed in other settings could not be effective, requiring alternatives for critical care patients. Discourse variations laid out in the different Critical Care Unit types could highlight key items that determine the use and different attitudes towards physical restraint. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEEIUC. All rights reserved.

  5. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  6. 78 FR 9695 - Agency Forms Undergoing Paperwork Reduction Act Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... helmet laws for children, 7. High visibility child restraint/booster or seat belt law enforcement, 8. Motorcycle helmet use laws, 9. Primary enforcement of seat belt laws, 10. Limits on diversion and plea... fatality ratios, and the current laws for each state. 2. Estimated costs associated with motor vehicle...

  7. Quantitative evaluation of experimental NMR restraints.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabuurs, S.B.; Spronk, C.A.E.M.; Krieger, E.; Maassen, Hans; Vriend, G.; Vuister, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    Nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) data are an indispensable source of structural information in biomolecular structure determination by NMR spectroscopy. The number and type of experimental restraints used in the structure calculation and the RMS deviation of the restraints are usually reported. We

  8. Cholinergic Modulation of Restraint Stress Induced Neurobehavioral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The involvement of the cholinergic system in restraint stress induced neurobehavioral alterations was investigated in rodents using the hole board, elevated plus maze, the open field and the light and dark box tests. Restraint stress (3h) reduced significantly (p<0.05) the number of entries and time spent in the open arm, ...

  9. Use of Restraint in the Psychiatric Setting: Knowledge of Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Restraint in the Psychiatric Setting: Knowledge of Medical Staff in a Nigerian Psychiatric Hospital. ... no training in the use of restraint. Conclusion: Respondents' knowledge on some aspects of restraint was poor and this may be due to lack of training. Keywords: restraint, psychiatric ward, knowledge, medical staff ...

  10. Mechanical Restraint - Which Interventions Prevent Episodes of Mechanical Restraint? - A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Jesper; Brandt-Christensen, Anne Mette; Sestoft, Dorte Maria

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE:  To identify interventions preventing mechanical restraints. DESIGN AND METHODS:  Systematic review of international research papers dealing with mechanical restraint. The review combines qualitative and quantitative research in a new way, describing the quality of evidence and the effect...... of intervention. FINDINGS:  Implementation of cognitive milieu therapy, combined interventions, and patient-centered care were the three interventions most likely to reduce the number of mechanical restraints. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS:  There is a lack of high-quality and effective intervention studies. This leaves...... patients and metal health professionals with uncertainty when choosing interventions in an attempt to prevent mechanical restraints....

  11. Children restraint systems for civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Child restraint systems have been developed to provide protection to children involved in automobile crashes. These systems are not yet approved for use in civil aircraft. Six typical systems were exposed to controlled impacts on a test sled to simul...

  12. Child restraint systems for civil aircraft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-03-01

    Child restraint systems have been developed to provide protection to children involved in automobile crashes. These systems are not yet approved for use in civil aircraft. Six typical systems were exposed to controlled impacts on a test sled to simul...

  13. Association between weight and risk of crash-related injuries for children in child restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zonfrillo, Mark R; Elliott, Michael R; Flannagan, Carol A; Durbin, Dennis R

    2011-12-01

    To determine the association between weight and the risk of injury in motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) for children 1 through 8 years of age who were using child restraints. This was a cross-sectional study of children 1 to 8 years of age in MVCs, in which cases from the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System were used. Abbreviated Injury Scale scores of ≥2 indicated clinically significant injuries. The National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System study sample included 650 children 1 to 5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints who weighed 20 to 65 lb and 344 children 3 to 8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats who weighed 30 to 100 lb. With adjustment for seating position, type of vehicle, direction of impact, crash severity, and vehicle model year, there was no association between absolute weight and clinically significant injuries in either age group (odds ratio: 1.17 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.42] for children 1-5 years of age in forward-facing child restraints and 1.22 [95% confidence interval: 0.96-1.55] for children 3-8 years of age in belt-positioning booster seats). The risk of clinically significant injuries was not associated with weight across a broad weight range in this sample of children in MVCs who were using child restraint systems. Parents should continue to restrain their children according to current recommendations from the American Academy of Pediatrics and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.

  14. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  15. International Space Station Crew Restraint Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, M.; Norris, L.; Holden, K.

    2005-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. In 2004, The Usability Testing and Analysis Facility (UTAF) at the NASA Johnson Space Center completed development/evaluation of several design concepts for crew restraints to meet the various needs outlined above. Restraints were designed for general purpose use, for teleoperation (Robonaut) and for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox. All design efforts followed a human factors engineering design lifecycle, beginning with identification of requirements followed by an iterative prototype/test cycle. Anthropometric

  16. Regimented and lifestyle restraint in binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Marney A; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2009-05-01

    This study tested the psychometric properties of two commonly used measures of dietary restraint, the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. Restraint data from 512 overweight/obese participants with binge eating disorder (BED) were subjected to exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Factor analyses of the restraint variables indicated a two-factor solution, interpreted as "Regimented" and "Lifestyle" restraint. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that Regimented restraint was more predictive of eating pathology, whereas Lifestyle restraint appeared to be protective of eating problems. Neither type of restraint was related to binge eating. Cluster analysis of the restraint dimensions yielded three distinct subgroups of patients who differed significantly on several important eating- and weight-related features. Future research is needed to test the significance of these restraint constructs over time in both the development of obesity and binge eating problems as well as their treatment.

  17. National roadside survey of child restraint system use in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, Roynard; Peter, Silverans; Yvan, Casteels; Philippe, Lesire

    2014-01-01

    In September 2011 the Belgian Road Safety Institute (BRSI) conducted its first roadside survey of child restraint system (CRS) use and misuse. The aim of this study was to obtain population-bases estimates of the prevalence of use and misuse of CRS and to identify predictors of misuse on the basis of observations in real traffic conditions. The survey was conducted on randomly selected sites across the country, stratified across various types of journeys. The principal parameters analysed were: the characteristics of the children and the car drivers, type of journey, types of CRS and types of misuse. The sample consisted of 1461 children (under 135cm) for whom the conditions of restraint were observed in detail and the driver was interviewed. At least 50% of the children were not correctly restrained and 10% were not restrained at all. The most significant factors associated with CRS use were the use of a seatbelt by the driver (31% of unrestrained children for unbelted drivers, compared to 7% for belted drivers - only 32% of correctly restrained children for unbelted drivers compared to 54% for belted drivers), whether the CRS was bought in a specialized shop (only 27% of misuse compared to 45% of misuse for CRS both in supermarkets) and the age of the children. The proportion of correctly restrained children (appropriate without misuse, the bottom category in the figure) has a roughly curvilinear relation with age; decreasing from 75% at age 0 to 24% at age 8 and going back up to 63% at age 10. Although the sample of ISOFIX users was small (n=76), it appears that the ISOFIX system reduced misuse significantly. Most of the drivers were ignorant of their own errors concerning the inappropriateness and/or misuse of the CRS or they were remiss and underestimated the risk. The three main reasons given by the drivers to explain or justify the misuse noticed were: low attention level to safety (inattention, time pressure, and short distance), the child's resistance to

  18. Acute Cold / Restraint Stress in Castrated Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farideh Zafari Zangeneh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study aimed to determine whether castration altered osmotically stimulated vasopressin (VP release and urinary volume and what is the role of endocrine-stress axis in this process.Materials and methods: Totally 108 mice were studied in two main groups of castrated (n=78 and control (n=30. Each group was extracted by acute cold stress (4◦C for 2h/day, restraint stress (by syringes 60cc 2h/day and cold/restraint stress. The castrated group was treated in sub groups of testosterone, control (sesame oil as vehicle of testosterone. Propranolol as blocker of sympathetic nervous system was given to both groups of castrated mice and main control.Results: Our results showed that, there is interactions between testosterone and sympathetic nervous system on vasopressin, because urine volume was decreased only in testoctomized mice with cold/restraint and cold stress (P<0.001; propranolol as the antagonist of sympathetic nervous system could block and increase urine volume in castrated mice. This increased volume of urine was due to acute cold stress, not restraint stress (p<0.001. The role of testosterone, noradrenalin (NA and Vasopressin (VP in the acute cold stress is confirmed, because testosterone could return the effect of decreased urine volume in control group (P<0.001. Conclusion: Considering the effect of cold/restraint stress on urinary volume in castrated mice shows that there is interaction between sex hormone (testosterone, vasopressin and adrenergic systems.

  19. Applying sensory modulation to mental health inpatient care to reduce seclusion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Charlotte; Kolmos, Anne; Andersen, Kjeld

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical training in managing conflicts and preventing violence seldom contains sensory modulation (SM) as a method to de-escalate and prevent restraint and seclusion. Sensory-based interventions promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion. SM is a complementary approach that i...... a SM approach in mental healthcare facilities has a significant effect on the reduction of restraint and seclusion. As a part of the implementation, staff training and education in SM are crucial.......BACKGROUND: Clinical training in managing conflicts and preventing violence seldom contains sensory modulation (SM) as a method to de-escalate and prevent restraint and seclusion. Sensory-based interventions promote adaptive regulation of arousal and emotion. SM is a complementary approach...... that is associated with reduced rates of seclusion and restraint in mental healthcare, but there is need for more research in this area. AIMS: Using SM to reduce restraint and seclusion in inpatient mental health care. METHODS: The study included two similar psychiatric units where one unit implemented SM and one...

  20. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Elizabeth A; Mcnair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-01-01

    Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. It was hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs. hunger (P = 0.017), desire to eat (P =0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P = 0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (P = 0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (P hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  1. Factors affecting consumer acceptance and use of child restraint systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    The causes of consumer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with child restraint systems were studied, and factors contributing to non-use and misuse were identified. Thirty-two families used several different child restraint models for extended periods, ...

  2. Nurses using physical restraints: Are the accused also the victims? – A study using focus group interviews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lai Claudia KY

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, the literature has provided an abundance of evidence on the adverse outcomes of restraint use on patients. Reportedly, nurses are often the personnel who initiate restraint use and attribute its use to ensuring the safety of the restrained and the others. A clinical trial using staff education and administrative input as the key components of a restraint reduction program was conducted in a rehabilitation setting to examine whether there were any significant differences in the prevalence of restraint use pre- and post-intervention. Subsequent to the implementation of the intervention program, focus group interviews were conducted to determine the perspective of the nursing staff on the use of restraints and their opinions of appropriate means to reduce their use. Method Registered nurses working in units involved in the study were invited to participate in focus group interviews on a voluntary basis. Twenty-two registered nurses (three males [13.6%] and nineteen females [86.4%] attended the four sessions. All interviews were audio taped and transcribed verbatim. Other than the author, another member of the project team validated the findings from the data analysis. Results Four themes were identified. Participants experienced internal conflicts when applying physical restraints and were ambivalent about their use, but they would use restraints nonetheless, mainly to prevent falls and injuries to patients. They felt that nurse staffing was inadequate and that they were doing the best they could. They experienced pressure from the management level and would have liked better support. Communication among the various stakeholders was a problem. Each party may have a different notion about what constitutes a restraint and how it can be safely used, adding further weight to the burden shouldered by staff. Conclusion Studies about restraints and restraint use have mostly focused on nurses' inadequate and often inaccurate

  3. 49 CFR 575.201 - Child restraint performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Recall Enhancement, Accountability, and Documentation Act; Consumer Information § 575.201 Child restraint... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child restraint performance. 575.201 Section 575... performance of child restraints. The agency makes the information developed under this rating program...

  4. Restraint, tendency toward overeating and ice cream consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Strien, T; Cleven, A.H.G.; Schippers, G.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The examination of the prediction of grams of ice cream eaten by preload, restraint, susceptibility toward overeating, and interaction terms. METHOD: A milkshake-ice cream study on 200 females using the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint and disinhibition scales from the Three-Factor

  5. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Minibuses, buses and trucks, as well as motor vehicles with tinted or covered windows, were excluded from the study. The following observations were recorded by the researchers for each child in a motor vehicle: seating position of the child, whether child restraint was used and type of restraint, whether restraint was.

  6. Restraint Stress Impairs Glucose Homeostasis Through Altered ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    Summary: The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the ...

  7. Lateral restraint assembly in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, S.J.; Gorholt, W.

    1977-01-01

    A lateral restraint assembly is described for a reactor of, for example, the high temperature gas-cooled type which commonly includes a reactor core of relatively complex construction supported within a shell or vessel providing a shielded cavity for containing the reactor core. (U.K.)

  8. 77 FR 11625 - Child Restraint Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-27

    ... and will not exceed a 12,000 Newton (N) load on the anchors in a 35 mile per hour (mph) frontal... forces generated by the child and CRS in most crash conditions do not exceed the lower anchors' design... weigh up to 80 lb, including structural integrity, force distribution, installation, child restraint...

  9. 42 CFR 460.114 - Restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE... that restricts freedom of movement or normal access to one's body. (2) A chemical restraint is a medication used to control behavior or to restrict the participant's freedom of movement and is not a...

  10. PDBStat: a universal restraint converter and restraint analysis software package for protein NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero, Roberto; Snyder, David; Mao, Binchen; Aramini, James M.; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2013-01-01

    The heterogeneous array of software tools used in the process of protein NMR structure determination presents organizational challenges in the structure determination and validation processes, and creates a learning curve that limits the broader use of protein NMR in biology. These challenges, including accurate use of data in different data formats required by software carrying out similar tasks, continue to confound the efforts of novices and experts alike. These important issues need to be addressed robustly in order to standardize protein NMR structure determination and validation. PDBStat is a C/C++ computer program originally developed as a universal coordinate and protein NMR restraint converter. Its primary function is to provide a user-friendly tool for interconverting between protein coordinate and protein NMR restraint data formats. It also provides an integrated set of computational methods for protein NMR restraint analysis and structure quality assessment, relabeling of prochiral atoms with correct IUPAC names, as well as multiple methods for analysis of the consistency of atomic positions indicated by their convergence across a protein NMR ensemble. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the PDBStat software, and highlight some of its valuable computational capabilities. As an example, we demonstrate the use of the PDBStat restraint converter for restrained CS-Rosetta structure generation calculations, and compare the resulting protein NMR structure models with those generated from the same NMR restraint data using more traditional structure determination methods. These results demonstrate the value of a universal restraint converter in allowing the use of multiple structure generation methods with the same restraint data for consensus analysis of protein NMR structures and the underlying restraint data

  11. Assessment of elementary school safety restraint programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify elementary school (K-6) safety belt : education programs in use in the United States, to review their development, and : to make administrative and impact assessments of their use in selected States. : Six...

  12. The Idaho cobalt belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstrom, Arthur A.

    2013-01-01

    The Idaho cobalt belt (ICB) is a northwest-trending belt of cobalt (Co) +/- copper (Cu)-bearing deposits and prospects in the Salmon River Mountains of east-central Idaho, U.S.A. The ICB is about 55 km long and 10 km long in its central part, which contains multiple strata-bound ore zones in the Blackbird mine area. The Black Pine and Iron Creek Co-Cu prospects are southeast of Blackbird, and the Tinkers Pride, Bonanza Copper, Elk Creek, and Salmon Canyon Copper prospects are northwest of Blackbird.

  13. Some aspects of fault reduction and increased availability of the large belt conveyor systems at Hambach opencast mine; Einige Aspekte zur Verminderung von Stoerungen und Erhoehung der Verfuegbarkeit der Grossbandanlagen im Tagebau Hambach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, M.

    1995-01-01

    As the youngest opencast mine in the Rhineland brown coal mining area Hambach has the highest level of standardization. All the belt conveyors are equipped with 2800 mm-wide belts, the driving power is provided by 2000 kW slipring induction motors and amounts to up to 12000 kW per conveyor. As a result of the large distances between centres that could thus be achieved, the starting process with the conventional starting control causes longitudinal oscillations in the flexible belt which from time to time lead to slip, above all at the driven tail pulleys. Undesirable attendant phenomena in this case are noise emission, premature wear on lagging and stoppages. In order to prevent these phenomena, an improved starting control was developed with the aid of a simulation model for individual, particularly critical units and was put into service successfully. A new functional starting system which is at present being developed might well replace the old type of starting control on all belt conveyors. The occurrence of considerable power breakdowns at the tail drives could be explained by aquaplaning that was caused partly by rain and partly by water from the spray system to control dust on the belt conveyors. This fault could be eliminated almost completely by improved profiling of the pulley laggings. Furthermore, lagging profiling is also regarded as an important step towards reducing wear caused by the interaction of belt and pulley lagging. To this end, several pulleys in the edge zone were profiled in order to prevent the belt edge tension resulting from the up-and-down troughing of the belt from causing localized sliding on the pulley. In order to determine the optimum profiling for each installed pulley, in addition to these purely empirical tests, it is proposed to develop a suitable computing model by means of which the interaction of belt and pulley lagging can be simulated. (orig.) [Deutsch] Der Tagebau Hambach hat als juengster Tagebau im rheinischen Revier

  14. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  15. Replacement charging belts - A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahner, Klaus [AMS 14C Dating Centre, University of Aarhus (Denmark)

    2008-07-01

    Manufacturing of the original High Voltage Engineering Corp. charging belts has been ceased many years ago, thus leaving users of these accelerators without access to a critical spare part. During the past 6 years we experimented with industrial conveyor belts, supplied by the Forbo Siegling GmbH as replacement charging belts. Our EN accelerator runs routinely on these belts over the past years and performs very well. Furthermore this so called 'Siegling belt' has been adopted by other laboratories, indicating that a viable solution for the charging belt problem in general has been found. This review addresses both the technical aspects of finding a replacement charging belt and our specific experiences with the Siegling belt.

  16. Core restraint contributions to radial expansion reactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moran, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Bowing of core assemblies caused by thermal gradients, swelling gradients, and irradiation creep can cause significant changes in reactivity of an LMFBR during startup, overpower and loss-of-flow without scram transients. This paper summarizes calculations of bowing reactivity effects for both a small homogeneous and a small heterogeneous core design. It includes two core restraint concepts for each core design and concentrates on reactivity changes in the critical power-to-flow range of 1.0 to 2.0

  17. Pipeline dynamics subject to restraints with clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loula, A.F.D.; Guerreiro, J.N.C.

    1980-12-01

    The principle of virtual works at its incremental form, is utilized for the formulation of flat pipeline vibration problems, of elastic-plastic behavior, submitted to restraints with clearance (also with elastic-plastic behavior) and with viscous damping. The possibility of uniform movement of the support, that simulates the seismic action is also considered. The finite element method and an integration time algorithm, are utilized for the problem resolution. Some examples ilustrate the application of the development program. (Author) [pt

  18. Vortex induced vibrations in gapped restrainted pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veloso, P. de A.A.; Loula, A.F.D.

    1984-01-01

    The vortex induced vibration problem of gapped restrained piping is solved numerically. The model proposed by Skop-Griffin is used to describe the pipe-fluid interaction. The variational formulation is obtained modeling the gapped restraints as non-linear elastic springs. The regularized problem is solved using a finite element discretization for the spatial domain. In the time domain a finite difference discretization is used for the lift coefficient equatin and a Newmark discretization for the equation of motion. (Author) [pt

  19. Comparative Performance of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on the CMVSS 213 Bench and Vehicle Seats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylko, Suzanne; Locey, Caitlin M.; Garcia-Espana, J. Felipe; Arbogast, Kristy B.; Maltese, Matthew R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the dynamic response of rear-facing child restraint systems (RFCRS) installed on the CMVSS 213 sled bench and a selection of vehicle seats. Thirty-six sled tests were conducted: three models of rear facing CRS with an anthropomorphic test device (ATD) representing a 12 month old child (CRABI) were affixed via lower anchors (LATCH), 3 point belt without CRS base, and 3 point belt with CRS base to one of three vehicle seats or the CMVSS 213 bench seat. All CRS were subjected to an identical sled acceleration pulse. Two types of matched pair analysis: “bench-to-vehicle” and “method of attachment” were conducted. Statistically significant differences were observed in the kinematic responses of the ATD and the CRS. This is the first study to quantify differences between the regulatory bench and vehicle seats on a system level and evaluate the influence of attachment method. Our results show that the difference in RFCRS forward excursion between 3-point belt with base and LATCH installations was between 1 and 7 percent on the bench and 22 to 76 percent on the vehicle seats. When evaluating the dynamic performance of RFCRS, the use of real vehicle seats from vehicles that commonly carry children may provide valuable insight. The findings would require further confirmation using a broader selection of RFCRS and vehicle seats, before generalizable conclusions can be drawn. PMID:24406967

  20. The Comparative Analysis of Vertical Restraints Regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria E. Agamirova

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparison the way of vertical restraints regulation in the United States, the European Union and the Russian Federation is the subject to certain difficulties arising from their belonging to different types of legal system. The United States legal system belongs to the family of common law, while in the European Union and the Russian Federation operates a family of civil law. Historically, the countries that were colonies of Great Britain (the US, Canada, India, Australia steel continue the tradition of the Anglo-Saxon legal system. The civil law system dominates in Continental Europe and, consequently, in those countries that were formerly colonies of France, Denmark, Germany, Spain and Portugal. Separately to this list should include Russia and Japan. Common and civil law systems differ significantly. The common law system is characterized by a decisive role of precedents. This fact explains that in the United States the judge acts as arbiter. In contrast, the European Union civil law concept implies the existence of detailed system of rules and principles, clearly defining the regulation process for every specific area of law enforcement. Thus, every legal system determines its own peculiarities practice of vertical restraints regulation. Considering the differences of vertical restraints regulation the attention should paid not only the type of the country legal system, but also the interaction between the economic theory and the antitrust law, because the theoretical analysis played a crucial role in the regulation norms evolution.

  1. Loneliness, dysphoria, dietary restraint, and eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotenberg, K J; Flood, D

    1999-01-01

    The study was designed to examine Herman and Polivy's restrained eating theory (Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 84, 666-672, 1975) using two different methods: situational-experimental and dispositional-correlational. Fifty-eight female college students were administered the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory (Short Form), and the Restraint scale. Subsequently, the students were subjected to either a neutral, sad, or loneliness mood induction and then ate cookies under the pretext of participating in a taste test. Consistent with expectation, dieters tended to consume more food in the loneliness than neutral mood condition, whereas nondieters displayed the opposite pattern. A comparable pattern was found in the relation between the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and food consumption with respect to Restraint; the amount of food consumed increased as a function of loneliness for high restrained eaters, whereas the amount of food consumed decreased as a function of loneliness for low restrained eaters. There were no appreciable effects of the sad mood induction, nor prediction by dispositional depression, regarding the amount of food consumed as a function of dietary restraint. The findings were discussed with respect to the motivational role that loneliness may play in inhibiting and disinhibiting food consumption.

  2. Lateral restraint assembly for reactor core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorholt, Wilhelm; Luci, Raymond K.

    1986-01-01

    A restraint assembly for use in restraining lateral movement of a reactor core relative to a reactor vessel wherein a plurality of restraint assemblies are interposed between the reactor core and the reactor vessel in circumferentially spaced relation about the core. Each lateral restraint assembly includes a face plate urged against the outer periphery of the core by a plurality of compression springs which enable radial preloading of outer reflector blocks about the core and resist low-level lateral motion of the core. A fixed radial key member cooperates with each face plate in a manner enabling vertical movement of the face plate relative to the key member but restraining movement of the face plate transverse to the key member in a plane transverse to the center axis of the core. In this manner, the key members which have their axes transverse to or subtending acute angles with the direction of a high energy force tending to move the core laterally relative to the reactor vessel restrain such lateral movement.

  3. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  4. Gold Mine or Minefield: Understanding Russian Law on Vertical Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Rucker

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While the Russian Federation represents a significant opportunity for growth, that opportunity is coupled with serious risks. As it relates to managing product distribution, Russian vertical restraint law remains significantly more restrictive than that of the U.S. and, since unless a company is fully integrated, it must manage its distribution system by way of vertical agreements, presents a large problem for businesses seeking to conduct business in Russia. While Russia has made significant steps in the right direction, the lack of consistent application of economic analysis to evaluation of vertical restraints leaves companies exposed. Further, the sometimes inconsistent application of the laws also makes it hard to predict how any particular vertical agreement would be evaluated. Neither American nor Russian antitrust laws establish a list of possible vertical restraints. Thus, there is no exhaustive guidance regarding how these restraints should be treated. U.S. antitrust laws, however, generally place all vertical restraints into one of two categories, intrabrand restraints and interbrand restraints. Intrabrand restraints are those that restrain the downstream firm’s freedom with regard to the resale of the product at issue (distribution restrictions. Interbrand restraints are those that restrict a downstream or upstream firm’s freedom to deal with competitors of the firm imposing the restraint (interbrand restrictions. It should be noted that Russian law does not make this distinction.

  5. Evaluation of response to restraint stress by salivary corticosterone levels in adult male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    NOHARA, Masakatsu; TOHEI, Atsushi; SATO, Takumi; AMAO, Hiromi

    2016-01-01

    Saliva as a sampling method is a low invasive technique for the detection of physiologically active substances, as opposed to sampling the plasma or serum. In this study, we obtained glucocorticoids transferred from the blood to the saliva from mice treated with 2.0 mg/kg via an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol. Next, to evaluate the effect of restraint stress using mouse saliva—collected under anesthesia by mixed anesthetic agents—we measured plasma and salivary corticosterone levels at 60 min after restraint stress. Moreover, to evaluate salivary corticosterone response to stress in the same individual mouse, an adequate recovery period (1, 3 and 7 days) after anesthesia was examined. The results demonstrate that exogenous cortisol was detected in the saliva and the plasma, in mice treated with cortisol. Restraint stress significantly increased corticosterone levels in both the plasma and saliva (Pmice showed that restraint stress significantly increased salivary corticosterone levels in all three groups (1-, 3- and 7-day recovery). However, the statistical evidence of corticosterone increase is stronger in the 7-day recovery group (Psaliva reflect its levels in the plasma, and salivary corticosterone is a useful, less-invasive biomarker of physical stress in mice. The present study may contribute to concepts of Reduction and Refinement of the three Rs in small animal experiments. PMID:26852731

  6. Parents’ experience with child safety restraint in China

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Li, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Background Child safety restraints are effective measures in protecting children from an injury while traveling in a car. However, the rate of child restraint use is extremely low in Chinese cities. Parent drivers could play an important role in promoting child safety restraint use, but not all of them take active responsibility. Methods This study used a qualitative approach and included 14 in-depth interviews among parents with a child, under the age of 6, living in Shantou City (7 child sa...

  7. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented...... physical restraint may occur in spite of no pre-existing risk factors. Medical guidelines for the prevention of thrombosis following physical restraint are presented. Despite the absence of controlled trials of treatment effectiveness, the catastrophic outcome of DVT and PE warrants early and vigorous...

  8. Deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism following physical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, S B; Jensen, T N; Bolwig, T

    2005-01-01

    . The literature on physical restraint, DVT, and PE was reviewed using a search of Medline and Psychinfo from 1966 to the present. RESULTS: Four other reported cases of DVT and PE were found in association with physically restrained patients. CONCLUSION: Risk of DVT and PE in association with immobilization during......OBJECTIVE: We describe a case of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) following the use of physical restraint in a patient with a diagnosis of acute delusional psychotic disorder. METHOD: A new case report of DVT and PE associated with prolonged physical restraint is presented...... intervention in patients undergoing physical restraint....

  9. Restraint methods for radiography in dogs and cats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scrivani, P.V.; Bednarski, R.M.; Myer, C.W.; Dykes, N.L.

    1996-01-01

    Excellent patient restraint techniques are necessary to produce high-quality diagnostic images during survey and contrast radiography and ultrasonography. Use of non manual physical restraint (i.e., devices to hold the patient in position) helps reduce the exposure of veterinary personnel to radiation. Exposure of personnel to radiation should be kept as low as reasonably achievable. Usually, this involves taking the radiograph when no personnel are present in the room. Some procedures, however, require the presence of the veterinarian. No personnel should ever put any part of their bodies in the path of the x-ray beam. Protective gear must be worn. Physical restraint can be facilitated by chemical restraint, which varies from minimal sedation to general anesthesia. Appropriate chemical restraint for radiography is the minimum amount of sedation required for the efficient and safe completion of the radiographic examination. Chemical restraint techniques vary according to the patient's physical status, the type of examination, and the skill of the examiner in non manual restraint techniques. This article describes techniques for non manual restraint and protocols for chemical restraint for dogs and cats

  10. Emotional ratings of high- and low-calorie food are differentially associated with cognitive restraint and dietary restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, Sarah E

    2018-02-01

    Dietary restraint is a robust risk factor for binge eating and eating disorders, which may partially result from increased reward reactivity to food in individuals who attempt to diet. However, research examining the association between dietary restraint and reactivity to food cues is mixed. Mixed findings may reflect distinct relations between food cue reactivity and different dimensions of dietary behavior; attempts to diet (cognitive restraint) may be associated with increased positive evaluations of food, whereas actual reduction in food intake (dietary restriction) may be achieved through decreased reactivity to food cues. The aim of the current study was to examine whether cognitive restraint and dietary restriction, as assessed via subscales on a recently developed multidimensional measure of eating pathology (i.e., Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory [EPSI]), are differentially associated with emotional evaluations of high- and low-calorie food. Female participants (N = 203) viewed 12 high-calorie (i.e., sweet, savory) and 12 low-calorie (i.e., fruits, vegetables) food images, as well as 36 standard emotional images. Images were rated on the dimensions of valence, arousal, and craving using the Self-Assessment Manikin. Cognitive restraint was correlated with greater pleasure and craving ratings of low-calorie, but not high-calorie, foods. In contrast, dietary restriction was related to reduced pleasure and craving ratings for both high- and low-calorie foods. Findings suggest that cognitive restraint may be associated with a preference for low-calorie foods; whereas dietary restriction may relate to reduced sensitivity to the hedonic and motivational value of food, regardless of caloric content. Results also provide support for the distinction between cognitive restraint and dietary restriction, as assessed via the EPSI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in nursing home residents with dementia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koczy, P; Klie, T; Kron, M; Bredthauer, D; Rissmann, U; Branitzki, S; Guerra, V; Klein, A; Pfundstein, T; Nikolaus, Th; Sander, S; Becker, C

    2005-02-01

    At present, observational studies and expert opinion are the best evidence for the use of physical restraints. Large regional and national disparities are described in acute and long-term care. Epidemiological data demonstrate a prevalence of 3-5% body-fixed or near body restraint devices. The hip fracture rate in Germany are approximately 50 per 1000 resident years. Between 40-50% of the residents in nursing homes are treated with psycho-tropic medication potentially limiting their physical mobility. The presented study protocol was designed to test the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention to reduce physical restraints in long-term care (LTC) residents particularly with cognitive impairment. The intervention consists of an educational and an organizational part to empower staff members to improve their skills and practice in using restraints. Technical devices to reduce fall related injuries are additionally offered to the LTC facilities. The study population includes 200 LTC residents in 54 facilities in three states in Germany. The sample size calculation was based upon a 5% prevalence rate in the control group and an expected reduction of 50% in the intervention group. The protocol is a waiting-list control design. All waiting facilities will be offered to participate after their waiting period. Primary endpoints are the number of restrained residents and resident time (hours) of being restrained. The use of psychotropics, falls, fall-related injuries and the incidence of residents newly being restrained is being monitored. The study starts with a baseline documentation of all facilities followed by randomization and a three month intervention. Change agents will be responsible for the intervention. Technical devices will include a newly developed soft hip protector and sensor mats which notice the intent of leaving the bed. The aim of the study is to develop an evidence-based model for a knowledge transfer project to implement minimum restraint

  12. The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nordgren, L.F.; van Harreveld, F.; van der Pligt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Four studies examined how impulse-control beliefs—beliefs regarding one's ability to regulate visceral impulses, such as hunger, drug craving, and sexual arousal—influence the self-control process. The findings provide evidence for a restraint bias: a tendency for people to overestimate their

  13. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  14. Reducing Restraint With Clozapine in Involuntarily Admitted Patients With Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifteni, Petru; Szalontay, Andreea S; Teodorescu, Andreea

    In the entire world, restraint and seclusion are common interventions in psychiatric inpatient settings because of aggressive behavior. Our objective was to test for the immediate antiaggressive property of clozapine compared with other antipsychotic treatments in an enriched cohort with high rates of restraint during early hospitalization. We present a retrospective chart review in all involuntary admissions with schizophrenia during 2011-2014 in Psychiatry and Neurology Hospital, Brasov, Romania. Timing and number of restraints in addition to clinical, demographic, and treatment characteristics were extracted. Based on our earlier observation of clinical efficacy of early, fast titration of clozapine, we tested the hypothesis that clozapine treatment was associated with reduced use of restraint and with longer restraint-free periods. In 115 consecutive patients with schizophrenia (age = 39.7 ± 11.1 years; male = 59%) involuntarily admitted because of externalized (74.7%) or self-directed violence (25.2%), restraint was used in 89.6%; with a median duration of 3 hours until restraint past admission. Antipsychotics used immediately after hospitalization included haloperidol (70.4%), clozapine (11.3%), olanzapine (10.4%), and other second-generation antipsychotics (7.9%). Comparison of restraint characteristics favored immediate clozapine use with highly reduced rates of restraint (23% vs. 95.6%; P < 0.001) and significantly extended hours until restraint [(118, 24, 426 hours) vs. (3, 0.25, 48 hours); median; 25th, 75th percentile; P < 0.001] relative to the remaining cohort. These effects remained highly significant after controlling for potential moderators of restraint use in multivariate models. These retrospective data suggest an early antiaggressive effect of clozapine during the immediate use of clozapine in highly problematic patients.

  15. Restraint Use in Older Adults Receiving Home Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Milisen, Koen

    2017-08-01

    To determine the prevalence, types, frequency, and duration of restraint use in older adults receiving home nursing care and to determine factors involved in the decision-making process for restraint use and application. Cross-sectional survey of restraint use in older adults receiving home care completed by primary care nurses. Homes of older adults receiving care from a home nursing organization in Belgium. Randomized sample of older adults receiving home care (N = 6,397; mean age 80.6; 66.8% female). For each participant, nurses completed an investigator-constructed and -validated questionnaire collecting information demographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics and aspects of restraint use. A broad definition of restraint was used that includes a range of restrictive actions. Restraints were used in 24.7% of the participants, mostly on a daily basis (85%) and often for a long period (54.5%, 24 h/d). The most common reason for restraint use was safety (50.2%). Other reasons were that the individual wanted to remain at home longer, which necessitated the use of restraints (18.2%) and to provide respite for the informal caregiver (8.6%). The latter played an important role in the decision and application process. The physician was less involved in the process. In 64.5% of cases, there was no evaluation after restraint use was initiated. Use of restraints is common in older adults receiving home care nursing in Belgium. These results contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of use of restraints in home care, a situation that may be even more complex than in nursing homes and acute hospital settings. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. Alcohol, Appetite and Loss of Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caton, Samantha J; Nolan, Laurence J; Hetherington, Marion M

    2015-03-01

    Alcoholic beverages have long been associated with feasts, celebration and marking special events. Today, it is commonplace to consume alcoholic beverages before, with and/or after a meal. Alcohol provides additional pleasure to the meal and enhances appetite. However, consuming an alcoholic beverage with or before a meal is associated with poor short-term energy compensation; energy from alcohol is additive to total energy intake with the added property of stimulating further eating. Limiting alcohol intake is an obvious means to reduce total energy intake for those who wish to lose weight. However, dieters and restrained eaters drink more and report greater binge drinking than unrestrained eaters despite employing cognitive strategies to reduce their intake. Increased intake may be attributable to greater attentional bias to alcohol related cues as well as to food cues, since these are more salient to those limiting intake. Alcohol increases energy intake in dieters, in part due to abandonment of restraint (disinhibition) and consumption of forbidden items including alcohol exacerbates attempts to resist temptation. Paradoxically, links between binge drinking or increased drinking frequency to overweight and obesity may be mediated by dietary restraint. Efforts to limit food and alcohol intake for weight control appear to be unsuccessful and have the net effect of promoting overconsumption. The potential role of restrained eating in the association between alcohol, appetite and obesity has been overlooked by much of the current research and further investigation of this is therefore warranted.

  17. Influence of physical restraint on the onset of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of intermittent repeated physical restraint on the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) was in-vestigated in this study. The study compared the onset of DM in mice dosed with streptozotocin (STZ), a DM-inducing drug, with immediate subsequent exposure to either physical restraint stress or non- exposure to the stress.

  18. The use of restraints in psychiatric patients | Moosa | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Restraints are usually used for the protection of patients and others when medication and verbal therapies are insufficient to control potentially violent patients. Many fear the abuse of restraints as well as their psychological, physical and emotional consequences. In South Africa, according to the Mental Health Care Act No.

  19. The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between restraints of trade and garden leave. ... Potchefstroom Electronic Law Journal/Potchefstroomse Elektroniese Regsblad ... The purpose of the article is to examine the relationship between a so-called "garden leave" clause and a post-termination restraint of trade clause in employment contracts, ...

  20. Restraint use and seating position among children in motor vehicles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A descriptive study was used to assess use of child restraints, seating positions of children, driver restraint and vehicle overloading in Bloemfontein in 2007. Two pairs of observers stood at selected sites recording these findings. The study was done over a period of 1 month. Results. A total of 512 children in 374 vehicles ...

  1. Is Restraint a Model of Binge Eating and Obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R.; And Others

    Restraint theory assumes that restrained eating is functionally equivalent to dieting and that "restraint" accounts for the eating behavior of overweight individuals. This study evaluated both of these assumptions. In the first part of the study, normal weight women were divided into groups of unrestrained nondieters, restrained…

  2. 75 FR 9613 - Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Office of Justice Programs [OJP (NIJ) Docket No. 1512] Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice AGENCY: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, DOJ. ACTION: Notice of Draft NIJ Restraints Standard for Criminal Justice and Certification Program...

  3. Procedural restraint in children's nursing: using clinical benchmarks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bland, Michael; Bridge, Caroline; Cooper, Melanie; Dixon, Deborah; Hay, Lyndsey; Zerbato, Anna

    2002-08-01

    This paper will explore the use of child restraint during common clinical procedures such as venepuncture, cannulation and lumbar puncture. A lack of research, guidelines and protocols on restraining children led a group of student nurses to develop a clinical practice benchmark on procedural restraint for the North West Clinical Practice Benchmarking Group.

  4. Acute restraint stress induces hyperalgesia via non-adrenergic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analgesia or hyperalgesia has been reported to occur in animals under different stress conditions. This study examined the effect of acute restraint stress on nociception in rats. Acute restraint stress produced a time-dependant decrease in pain threshold; this hyperalgesia was not affected by prior administration of ...

  5. 28 CFR 570.44 - Supervision and restraint requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Supervision and restraint requirements... PROGRAMS AND RELEASE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Escorted Trips § 570.44 Supervision and restraint requirements. Inmates under escort will be within the constant and immediate visual supervision of escorting staff at...

  6. Parents' experience with child safety restraint in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojun; Yang, Jingzhen; Peek-Asa, Corinne; Li, Liping

    2014-04-07

    Child safety restraints are effective measures in protecting children from an injury while traveling in a car. However, the rate of child restraint use is extremely low in Chinese cities. Parent drivers could play an important role in promoting child safety restraint use, but not all of them take active responsibility. This study used a qualitative approach and included 14 in-depth interviews among parents with a child, under the age of 6, living in Shantou City (7 child safety restraint users and 7 non-users). Purposive sampling was used to recruit eligible parent drivers who participated in a previous observation study. Interview data were collected from March to April 2013. The audio taped and transcribed data were coded and analyzed to identify key themes. Four key themes on child safety restraint emerged from the in-depth interviews with parents. These included 1) Having a child safety restraint installed in the rear seat with an adult sitting next to the restrained child is ideal, and child safety restraint is seen as an alternative when adult accompaniment is not available; 2) Having effective parental education strategies could help make a difference in child safety restraint use; 3) Inadequate promotion and parents' poor safety awareness contribute to the low rate of child safety restraint in China; 4) Mandatory legislation on child safety restraint use could be an effective approach. Inadequate promotion and low awareness of safe traveling by parents were closely linked to low child safety seat usage under the circumstance of no mandatory legislation. Future intervention efforts need to focus on increasing parents' safe travel awareness combined with CSS product promotion before the laws are enacted.

  7. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  8. Designing and evaluating a persuasive child restraint television commercial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Ioni; Ho, Bonnie; Lennon, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    Relatively high rates of child restraint inappropriate use and misuse and faults in the installation of restraints have suggested a crucial need for public education messages to raise parental awareness of the need to use restraints correctly. This project involved the devising and pilot testing of message concepts, filming of a television advertisement (the TVC), and the evaluation of the TVC. This article focuses specifically upon the evaluation of the TVC. The development and evaluation of the TVC were guided by an extended theory of planned behavior that included the standard constructs of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control as well as the additional constructs of group norms and descriptive norms. The study also explored the extent to which parents with low and high intentions to self-check restraints differed on salient beliefs regarding the behavior. An online survey of parents (N = 384) was conducted where parents were randomly assigned to either the intervention group (n = 161), and therefore viewed the advertisement within the survey, or the control group (n = 223), and therefore did not view the advertisement. Following a one-off exposure to the TVC, the results indicated that, although not a significant difference, parents in the intervention group reported stronger intentions (M = 4.43, SD = 0.74) to self-check restraints than parents in the control group (M = 4.18, SD = 0.86). In addition, parents in the intervention group (M = 4.59, SD = 0.47) reported significantly higher levels of perceived behavioral control than parents in the control group (M = 4.40, SD = 0.73). The regression results revealed that, for parents in the intervention group, attitudes and group norms were significant predictors of parental intentions to self-check their child restraint. Finally, the exploratory analyses of parental beliefs suggested that those parents with low intentions to self-check child restraints were significantly more likely than

  9. Gould Belt Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  10. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1979-01-01

    A lateral restraint and control systemm for a nuclear reactor core provides an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit is composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased by an amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  11. Magnetic nuclear core restraint and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, M.H.

    1978-01-01

    Disclosed is a lateral restraint and control system for a nuclear reactor core adaptable to provide an inherent decrease of core reactivity in response to abnormally high reactor coolant fluid temperatures. An electromagnet is associated with structure for radially compressing the core during normal reactor conditions. A portion of the structures forming a magnetic circuit are composed of ferromagnetic material having a curie temperature corresponding to a selected coolant fluid temperature. Upon a selected signal, or inherently upon a preselected rise in coolant temperature, the magnetic force is decreased a given amount sufficient to relieve the compression force so as to allow core radial expansion. The expanded core configuration provides a decreased reactivity, tending to shut down the nuclear reaction

  12. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  13. Restraints in daily care for people with moderate intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Meulen, Anne Pier S; Hermsen, Maaike A; Embregts, Petri Jcm

    2018-02-01

    Self-determination is an important factor in improving the quality of life of people with moderate intellectual disabilities. A focus on self-determination implies that restraints on the freedom of people with intellectual disabilities should be decreased. In addition, according to the Dutch Care and Coercion bill, regular restraints of freedom, such as restrictions on choice of food or whom to visit, should be discouraged. Such restraints are only allowed if there is the threat of serious harm for the clients or their surroundings. What do support staff consider as restraints on freedom and how do they justify these restraints? In this study, data were collected by semi-structured interviews. Participants and research context: Fifteen support staff working with clients with moderate intellectual disabilities were interviewed. All participants work within the same organisation for people with intellectual disabilities in the Eastern part of the Netherlands. Ethical considerations: The study was conducted according to good scientific inquiry guidelines and ethical approval was obtained from a university ethics committee. Most restraints of freedom were found to be centred around the basic elements in the life of the client, such as eating, drinking and sleeping. In justifying these restraints, support staff said that it was necessary to give clarity in what clients are supposed to do, to structure their life and to keep them from danger. In the justification of restraints of freedom two ethical viewpoints, a principle-guided approach and an ethics of care approach, are opposing one other. Here, the self-determination theory can be helpful, while it combines the autonomy of the client, relatedness to others and the client's competence. Despite the reasonable grounds support staff gave for restraining, it raises the question whether restraints of freedom are always in the interest of the client.

  14. Restraint stress in lactating mice alters the levels of sulfur-containing amino acids in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigawa, Takuma; Nagamachi, Satsuki; Ikeda, Hiromi; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro

    2018-03-30

    It is well known that maternal stress during the gestation and lactation periods induces abnormal behavior in the offspring and causes a lowering of the offspring's body weight. Various causes of maternal stress during the lactation period, relating to, for example, maternal nutritional status and reduced maternal care, have been considered. However, little is known about the effects on milk of maternal stress during the lactation period. The current study aimed to determine whether free amino acids, with special reference to sulfur-containing amino acids in milk, are altered by restraint stress in lactating mice. The dams in the stress group were restrained for 30 min at postnatal days 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12. Restraint stress caused a reduction in the body weight of lactating mice. The concentration of taurine and cystathionine in milk was significantly higher in the stress group, though stress did not alter their concentration in maternal plasma. The ratio of taurine concentration in milk to its concentration in maternal plasma was significantly higher in the stress group, suggesting that stress promoted taurine transportation into milk. Furthermore, taurine concentration in milk was positively correlated with corticosterone levels in plasma. In conclusion, restraint stress in lactating mice caused the changes in the metabolism and in the transportation of sulfur-containing amino acids and resulted in higher taurine concentration in milk. Taurine concentration in milk could also be a good parameter for determining stress status in dams.

  15. Restraint of the Automobile in American Residential Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-04-01

    Two techniques for restraining the use of the automobile have recently become popular in the United States: residential parking permit programs and traffic restraint devices. While both the these approaches are aimed at restraining the use of the aut...

  16. Programming new geometry restraints: parallelity of atomic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Oleg V; Afonine, Pavel V; Adams, Paul D; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definition and calculation of the restraints that can be imposed on planar atomic groups, in particular the angle between such groups, are described. Detailed derivations of the restraint targets and their gradients are provided so that they can be readily implemented in other contexts. Practical implementations of the restraints, and of associated data structures, in the Computational Crystallography Toolbox ( cctbx ) are presented.

  17. The effect of a 3-point harness restraint and car seat in whiplash-type lateral impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shrawan; Ferrari, Robert; Narayan, Yogesh; Jones, Troy

    2006-01-01

    Seventeen healthy volunteers were subjected to right and left lateral impacts 5.0, 6.8, 9.2, and 16.8 m/s acceleration while positioned in a Volvo car seat with lap and shoulder seat belt restraint in laboratory setting. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of using a standard 3-point lap and shoulder seat belt and Volvo car seat on the response of the cervical muscles to increasing low-velocity lateral impacts. A previous study of lateral impacts in a 5-point harness restraint with head and trunk in neutral posture suggests that the burden of impact is borne primarily by the splenius capitis muscle contralateral to the direction of impact. That study, however, used a nonstandard harness for automobiles, and other studies suggest that a lap-and-shoulder seat belt may increase the risk of whiplash injury. Triaxial accelerometers recorded the acceleration of the 1) sled, 2) torso at the shoulder level, and 3) head of the participant, while bilateral electromyograms of the sternocleidomastoids, trapezii, and splenii capitis were also recorded. For participants experiencing a right or left lateral impact, the muscle responses increased with increasing levels of acceleration (P trend to progressively decrease with increasing levels of acceleration. The peak head accelerations relative to the sled ranged from 2.5 to 10.6 m/s. When the impact was a right lateral impact, at the highest sled acceleration, the left splenius capitis generated 47% of its maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and the left trapezius also 46% of its MVC; the left and right sternocleidomastoid, right splenius capitis, and right trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. For the highest level of acceleration in a left lateral impact, the right splenius capitis generated 48% of its MVC and the right trapezius 57% of the MVC, the left and right sternocleidomastoid, left splenius capitis, and left trapezius generated 29% or less of their MVC. In both directions of impact, the

  18. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  19. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Lanthén

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine psychiatric patients’ experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients’ experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable.

  20. Ergonomic Evaluation of the Foot Restraint Equipment Device (FRED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Chmielewski, Cindy; Qazi, A. S.; Mount, Francis

    1999-01-01

    Within the scope of the Microgravity Workstation and Restraint Evaluation project, funded by the NASA Headquarters Life Sciences Division, evaluations were proposed to be conducted in ground, KC-135, and/or Shuttle environments to investigate the human factors engineering (HFE) issues concerning confined/unique workstations, including crew restraint requirements. As part of these evaluations, KC-135 flights were conducted to investigate user/ workstation/ restraint integration for microgravity use of the FRED with the RMS workstation. This evaluation was a pre-cursor to Detailed Supplementary Objective (DSO) - 904 on STS-88. On that mission, a small-statured astronaut will be using the FRED restraint while working at the Aft RMS workstation. The DSO will collect video for later posture analyses, as well as subjective data in the form of an electronic questionnaire. This report describes the current FRED KC-135 evaluations. The primary objectives were to evaluate the usability of the FRED and to verify the DSO in-flight setup. The restraint interface evaluation consisted of four basic areas of restraint use: 1) adjustability; 2) general usability and comfort; 3) usability at the RMS workstation; and 4) assembly and disassembly.

  1. The influence of personal protection equipment, occupant body size, and restraint system on the frontal impact responses of Hybrid III ATDs in tactical vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaseck, Lauren Wood; Orton, Nichole Ritchie; Gruber, Rebekah; Rupp, Jonathan; Scherer, Risa; Reed, Matthew; Hu, Jingwen

    2017-08-18

    Although advanced restraint systems, such as seat belt pretensioners and load limiters, can provide improved occupant protection in crashes, such technologies are currently not utilized in military vehicles. The design and use of military vehicles presents unique challenges to occupant safety-including differences in compartment geometry and occupant clothing and gear-that make direct application of optimal civilian restraint systems to military vehicles inappropriate. For military vehicle environments, finite element (FE) modeling can be used to assess various configurations of restraint systems and determine the optimal configuration that minimizes injury risk to the occupant. The models must, however, be validated against physical tests before implementation. The objective of this study was therefore to provide the data necessary for FE model validation by conducting sled tests using anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs). A secondary objective of this test series was to examine the influence of occupant body size (5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male), military gear (helmet/vest/tactical assault panels), seat belt type (3-point and 5-point), and advanced seat belt technologies (pretensioner and load limiter) on occupant kinematics and injury risk in frontal crashes. In total, 20 frontal sled tests were conducted using a custom sled buck that was reconfigurable to represent both the driver and passenger compartments of a light tactical military vehicle. Tests were performed at a delta-V of 30 mph and a peak acceleration of 25 g. The sled tests used the Hybrid III 5th percentile female, 50th percentile male, and 95th percentile male ATDs outfitted with standard combat boots and advanced combat helmets. In some tests, the ATDs were outfitted with additional military gear, which included an improved outer tactical vest (IOTV), IOTV and squad automatic weapon (SAW) gunner with a tactical assault panel (TAP), or IOTV and rifleman with

  2. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  3. Analysis of stitched arrangements in belt machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasimova M. M.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the article describes the main parameters that determine both the traction ability of the transmission and the life of the belt, which is the magnitude of the belt tension and its correspondence to the actual transfer load. The appendix shows the characteristics of the belts and their elasticity: shortening the belt when stitching or cross stitching for pulling; periodic movement.

  4. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  5. Presentation of noise during acute restraint stress attenuates expression of immediate early genes and arginine vasopressin in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus but not corticosterone secretion in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Koji; Ohmomo, Hideki; Shutoh, Fumihiro; Nogami, Haruo; Hisano, Setsuji

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of acoustic stimulation on the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in rats submitted to acute restraint stress, through semi-quantitative histochemical analysis of expression of immediate early gene products (c-Fos, JunB and phosphorylated c-Jun) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) hnRNA in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Simultaneous presentation of white or pink noise with restraint resulted in a significant attenuation of stress-induced c-Fos and JunB expression in the dorsal body of dorsal medial parvicellular subdivision (mpdd) of the PVN, as compared with restraint without noise. However, this presentation did not change phosphorylation of c-Jun and the plasma corticosterone level. Moreover, white noise presentation during restraint led to a reduction in the number of c-Fos- or JunB-expressing corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) neurons and the number of neurons expressing AVP hnRNA in the mpdd. Dual-histochemical labeling revealed co-expression of c-Fos and JunB, as well as JunB and AVP hnRNA in mpdd neurons. These data suggest that acoustic stimuli have an attenuation effect on the restraint-induced activation of neuroendocrine CRH neurons, resulting in the reduction in AVP production as an adaptation of HPA axis to repeated stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and the Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Central and Eastern European Countries Focus on the Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GEORGE CORNEL DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt, a strategic priority of the Chinese foreign policy in 2015, draws the attention to the countries of Central and Eastern Europe through the multiple benefits that it displays (investments, economic growth, trade between the countries along its corridors, job creation, infrastructure development, the strategic importance of being part of a grandiose multi-continental project. Among these benefits an important one is represented by the opportunities of Chinese investments in infrastructure, since the EU is suffering from a credit restraint. Also, The Silk Road Economic Belt could lead to a potential increase in the bilateral trade. Analyzing the literature in the field and the various official information available online, this paper aims to depict the Chinese project form the Eastern European perspective, identifying local priorities, conflicting interests, possible infrastructure projects, routes, focusing on two strategic countries in the region: Romania and Serbia, both displaying advantages and disadvantages.

  7. Pilot tests of a seat belt gearshift delay on the belt use of commercial fleet drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    the seat belt was buckled. Participants, commercial drivers from the United States and Canada who did not consistently wear their seat belts, could avoid the delay by fastening their seat belts. Unbelted participants experienced a delay of either a c...

  8. Effects of acupuncture on behavioral, cardiovascular and hormonal responses in restraint-stressed Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guimarães C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is a well-known entity and may be defined as a threat to the homeostasis of a being. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of acupuncture on the physiological responses induced by restraint stress. Acupuncture is an ancient therapeutic technique which is used in the treatment and prevention of diseases. Its proposed mechanisms of action are based on the principle of homeostasis. Adult male Wistar EPM-1 rats were divided into four groups: group I (N = 12, unrestrained rats with cannulas previously implanted into their femoral arteries for blood pressure and heart rate measurements; group II (N = 12, rats that were also cannulated and were submitted to 60-min immobilization; group III (N = 12, same as group II but with acupuncture needles implanted at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 during the immobilization period; group IV (N = 14, same as group III but with needles implanted at points not related to acupuncture (non-acupoints. During the 60-min immobilization period animals were assessed for stress-related behaviors, heart rate, blood pressure and plasma corticosterone, noradrenaline and adrenaline levels. Group III animals showed a significant reduction (60% on average, P<0.02 in restraint-induced behaviors when compared to groups II and IV. Data from cardiovascular and hormonal assessments indicated no differences between group III and group II and IV animals, but tended to be lower (50% reduction on average in group I animals. We hypothesize that acupuncture at points SP6, S36, REN17, P6 and DU20 has an anxiolytic effect on restraint-induced stress that is not due to a sedative action

  9. Energy-saving belt conveyors installed in Polish collieries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy ANTONIAK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An important problem of reducing energy consumption and dioxide emissions in the stage of construction and operation of mine belt conveyors is connected with their broad use in the industry. However, this notion is related to a reduction of electric energy consumption for conveyor drive and for production of conveyor components and assemblies (belts, rollers, load-bearing structure etc.. An essential role is played by an increased life of belt conveyors assemblies and components, principally belts. A reduced electric energy consumption results in a decreased CO2 emissions, e.g. hard coal – fired power station issues 0.28 kg CO2 per production of 1 kWh, in to answer production of 1 t steel accounts for 3.2 t CO2 emissions. The subject-matter presented in the paper concerning energy-saving in the horizontally and inclined mine belt conveyors installed in a Polish colliery – Anna, Jankowice and Marcel, has a big economic significance and it is important from the point of view of environmental protection.

  10. Driver kinematic and muscle responses in braking events with standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints: validation data for human models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osth, Jonas; Olafsdóttir, Jóna Marín; Davidsson, Johan; Brolin, Karin

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study are to generate validation data for human models intended for simulation of occupant kinematics in a pre-crash phase, and to evaluate the effect of an integrated safety system on driver kinematics and muscle responses. Eleven male and nine female volunteers, driving a passenger car on ordinary roads, performed maximum voluntary braking; they were also subjected to autonomous braking events with both standard and reversible pre-tensioned restraints. Kinematic data was acquired through film analysis, and surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded bilaterally for muscles in the neck, the upper extremities, and lumbar region. Maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) were carried out in a driving posture for normalization of the EMG. Seat belt positions, interaction forces, and seat indentions were measured. During normal driving, all muscle activity was below 5% of MVC for females and 9% for males. The range of activity during steady state braking for males and females was 13-44% in the cervical and lumbar extensors, while antagonistic muscles showed a co-contraction of 2.3-19%. Seat belt pre-tension affects both the kinematic and muscle responses of drivers. In autonomous braking with standard restraints, muscle activation occurred in response to the inertial load. With pre-tensioned seat belts, EMG onset occurred earlier; between 71 ms and 176 ms after belt pre-tension. The EMG onset times decreased with repeated trials and were shorter for females than for males. With the results from this study, further improvement and validation of human models that incorporate active musculature will be made possible.

  11. Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitiemwong, N; Hazeleger, W C; Beumer, R R

    2010-08-15

    Survival of Listeria monocytogenes on a conveyor belt material with or without antimicrobial additives, in the absence or presence of food debris from meat, fish and vegetables and at temperatures of 10, 25 and 37 degrees C was investigated. The pathogen survived best at 10 degrees C, and better at 25 degrees C than at 37 degrees C on both conveyor belt materials. The reduction in the numbers of the pathogen on belt material with antimicrobial additives in the first 6h at 10 degrees C was 0.6 log unit, which was significantly higher (Padditives. Reductions were significantly less (Pfood residue. At 37 degrees C and 20% relative humidity, large decreases in the numbers of the pathogen on both conveyor belt materials during the first 6h were observed. Under these conditions, there was no obvious effect of the antimicrobial substances. However, at 25 degrees C and 10 degrees C and high humidity (60-75% rh), a rapid decrease in bacterial numbers on the belt material with antimicrobial substances was observed. Apparently the reduction in numbers of L. monocytogenes on belt material with antimicrobial additives was greater than on belt material without additives only when the surfaces were wet. Moreover, the presence of food debris neutralized the effect of the antimicrobials. The results suggest that the antimicrobial additives in conveyor belt material could help to reduce numbers of microorganisms on belts at low temperatures when food residues are absent and belts are not rapidly dried. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Use of child restraint system and patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsanea, Mohammd; Masuadi, Emad; Hazwani, Tarek

    2018-01-01

    Child restraint system (CRS) is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC). However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS. Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%), with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%). Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%). Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use. The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.

  13. Use of child restraint system and patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Alsanea

    Full Text Available Child restraint system (CRS is designed to protect children from injury during motor vehicle crash (MVC. However, there is no regulation or enforcement of CRS use in Saudi Arabia. This study estimated the prevalence of CRS use and identified patterns of child transportation in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.In this cross-sectional study, a self-administered questionnaire was distributed across Riyadh targeting families who drove with children aged less than 5 years. The questionnaire inquired about CRS availability, patterns of child transportation if a CRS was unavailable, seat belt use by the driver and adult passengers, and the perception of CRS.Of 385 respondents, only 36.6% reported the availability of a CRS (95% CI: 31.8-41.7%, with only half of those reported consistent use 74 (52.2%. Nearly 30% of all children aged less than 5 years were restrained during car journeys. Sitting on the lap of an adult passenger on the front seat was the most common pattern of child transportation (54.5%. Approximately 13.5% of respondents were involved in an MVC while driving with children; 63.5% of these children were unprotected by any safety system. Seat belt use by drivers was low, with only 15.3% reporting constant use.The prevalence of CRS use in Riyadh is low, and safety practices are seldom used by drivers and passengers. In addition to legal enforcement of CRS use, implementation of a child transportation policy with age-appropriate height and weight specifications is imperative.

  14. Development and testing of restraints for nuclear piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, J.M.; Skinner, M.S.

    1980-06-01

    As an alternative to current practice of pipe restraint within nuclear power plants it has been proposed to adopt restraints capable of dissipating energy in the piping system. The specific mode of energy dissipation focused upon in these studies is the plastic yielding of steels utilizing relative movement between the pipe and the base of the restraint, a general mechanism which has been proven as reliable in several allied studies. This report discusses the testing of examples of two energy-absorbing devices, the results of this testing and the conclusions drawn. This study concentrated on the specific relevant performance characteristics of hysteretic behavior and degradation with use. The testing consisted of repetitive continuous loadings well into the plastic ranges of the devices in a sinusoidal or random displacement controlled mode

  15. Service user perspectives on coercion and restraint in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Diana; Perry, Emma; Rae, Sarah; Good, Naomi

    2017-08-01

    Coercion remains a central aspect of many people's mental healthcare. It can include the use of legislation to restrict freedoms, the use of physical restraint, the restriction of freedom of movement and/or association, and the forced or covert administration of medication. There is good evidence that the use of such measures can traumatise service users. This article reports the findings of a survey of service users regarding their experiences of coercion and restraint and embeds this in the wider international and institutional environment.

  16. Motion sickness, body movement, and claustrophobia during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faugloire, Elise; Bonnet, Cédrick T; Riley, Michael A; Bardy, Benoît G; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2007-03-01

    Standing participants were passively restrained and exposed to oscillating visual motion. Thirty-nine percent of participants reported motion sickness. Despite passive restraint, participants exhibited displacements of the center of pressure, and prior to the onset of motion sickness the evolution of these displacements differed between participants who later became sick and those who did not. Claustrophobia occurred during restraint, but only among participants who became motion sick. The results are consistent with the postural instability theory of motion sickness. We discuss the possible relation between claustrophobia symptoms, postural movements and motion sickness incidence.

  17. Making the transition to restraint-free care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakeslee, J A; Goldman, B D; Papougenis, D; Torell, C A

    1991-02-01

    When implementing a change to restraint-free care, education and communication at all levels of the organization are powerful strategies to overcome resistance. Within each facility, there are at least six identifiable groups, with attitudes based on their educational background, life experiences and perceptions that are targets for change. An anonymous attitudinal survey and sensitivity session serve as effective "unfreezing" tools for all levels of staff to express concerns regarding physical restraints and to recognize the need for change. Change requires a slow, methodical system where specific alternatives are gradually introduced. Success with the easier cases encourages staff to continue efforts with more challenging cases.

  18. Relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating; A longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, S.T.P.; Stice, E.; Bekker, M.H.J.; Strien, T. van; Croon, M.A.; Heck, G.L. van

    2006-01-01

    Temporal relations between dietary restraint, depressive symptoms, and binge eating are tested through three competing models that demonstrate the relationship between future binge eating, dietary restraint and depressive symptoms. The pattern of relations and effect sizes suggest that depressive

  19. 2010 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2010 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2010 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the original "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in...

  20. 2009 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2009 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2009 survey continues to document the results after enactment of original "secondary enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  1. 2008 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to establish 2008 safety belt and child safety seat usage rates in Kentucky. The 2008 survey continues to document the results after enactment of the initial "second enforcement" statewide mandatory safety belt law in ...

  2. Seismic restraint means for a nuclear radiation detector mounted in a tubular thimble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, R.H.; Todt, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    Seismic restraint means are provided for mounting an elongated, generally cylindrical nuclear radiation detector within a tubular thimble. The restraint means permits longitudinal movement of the restraint means and the radiation detector into and out of the thimble. The restraint means includes spring bias means and thimble constant means whereby the contact means engage the thimble with a constant predetermined force which minimizes seismic vibration action on the radiation detector

  3. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack of experience of maintenance personnel, the monitoring and operational control of belt conveyors can be automated. This research presents the possibilities to improve belt conveyor performance by me...

  4. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  6. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  7. 49 CFR 579.25 - Reporting requirements for manufacturers of child restraint systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... restraint system do not specify the production year of the system, the manufacturer shall submit information... component of the child restraint system that allegedly contributed to the incident, coded as follows: 51 buckle and restraint harness, 52 seat shell, 53 handle, 54 base, 98 where a system or component not...

  8. A Theoretical Analysis of Potential Extinction Properties of Behavior-Specific Manual Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipani, Ennio; Thomas, Melvin; Martin, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper will examine possible extinction properties of behavior-specific manual restraint. It will analyze the possibility of extinction being produced via restraint with respect to the target behavior's possible environmental functions. The theoretical analysis will involve the analysis of behavioral properties of restraint during two temporal…

  9. Delayed restraint procedure enhances cognitive recovery of spatial function after fimbria-fornix transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Marie Gajhede; Wogensen, Elise; Wörtwein, Gitta; Mogensen, Jesper; Malá, Hana

    2015-01-01

    To i) evaluate the effect of a restraint procedure (7 days, 2 h/day) on place learning after fimbria-fornix transection (FF), ii) investigate effects of early vs. late administration of restraint, and iii) establish effects of the restraint procedure on expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Fifty rats subjected to FF or sham surgery and divided into groups exposed to restraint immediately (early restraint) or 21 days (late restraint) after surgery were trained to acquire an allocentric place learning task. In parallel, 29 animals were subjected to FF or sham surgery and an identical restraint procedure in order to measure concentrations of BDNF and corticosterone. The performance of the sham operated rats was positively affected by the late restraint. In FF-lesioned animals, the late restraint significantly improved task performance compared to the lesioned group with no restraint, while the early restraint was associated with a negative impact on task acquisition. Biochemical analysis after restraint procedure revealed a lesion-induced upregulation of BDNF in FF animals. The improved task performance of lesioned animals suggests a therapeutic effect of this manipulation, independent of BDNF. This effect is sensitive to the temporal administration of treatment.

  10. Food Intake and Success or Failure of Dietary Restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anschutz, D.J.; Strien, T. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: Determination of success and failure of dietary restraint in relation to food intake in 510 females. Methods: Food intake as measured with the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was assessed in low vs. high restrained eaters and overeaters, as measured with the DEBQ (Dutch Eating

  11. The Use of Physical Restraint in Norwegian Adult Psychiatric Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Wynn

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of coercion within the psychiatric services is problematic and raises a range of ethical, legal, and clinical questions. “Physical restraint” is an emergency procedure used in psychiatric hospitals to control patients that pose an imminent physical danger. We wished to review the literature published in scientific peer-reviewed journals describing studies on the use of physical restraint in Norway, in order to identify the current state of knowledge and directions for future research. Design. The databases PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for studies relating to physical restraint (including holding in Norwegian psychiatric hospitals, supplemented with hand searches. Results. 28 studies were included. Most of the studies were on rates of restraint, but there were also some studies on perceptions of patients and staff, case studies, and ethnographic studies. There was only one intervention study. There are differences in use between wards and institutions, which in part may be explained by differences in patient populations. Staff appear to be less negative to the use of restraint than patients. Conclusions. The studies that were identified were primarily concerned with rates of use and with patients’ and staff’s perspectives. More interventional studies are needed to move the field forward.

  12. Internet Sales and the New EU Rules on Vertical Restraints

    OpenAIRE

    Filippo Amato

    2010-01-01

    It is therefore not surprising that the guidance concerning internet sales provided in the Guidelines constitutes the Commission’s most, if not the primary, debated novelty introduced into the law on vertical restraints. Filippo Amato, Jones Day

  13. Restraint stress impairs glucose homeostasis through altered insulin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the potential alteration in the level of insulin and adiponectin, as well as the expression of insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter 4 GLUT-4 in chronic restraint stress rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and stress group in which the rats were ...

  14. Restraints in daily care for people with moderate intellectual disabilities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meulen, A.P.S.; Hermsen, Maaike; Embregts, P.J.C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Self-determination is an important factor in improving the quality of life of people with moderate intellectual disabilities. A focus on self-determination implies that restraints on the freedom of people with intellectual disabilities should be decreased. In addition, according to the

  15. Restraint stress and protection from acoustic injury in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Liberman, M Charles

    2002-03-01

    The phenomenon of 'conditioning', whereby prior exposure to moderate-level non-traumatic sound reduces the permanent injury to subsequent high-level sound exposures, is suggestive of protective effects mediated by stress-induced gene expression in other systems. To test the role of stress pathways in acoustic injury, this study investigated the effect of mild physical restraint, a classic non-acoustic elicitor of stress, on vulnerability to subsequent noise-induced hearing loss. CBA/CaJ mice were divided into groups (control, restraint-only, restraint pre-trauma, and trauma-only), and cochlear sensitivity was assessed via compound action potentials and distortion product otoacoustic emissions. Results showed that two 12-h epochs of mild physical restraint significantly reduced permanent threshold shifts from a subsequent acoustic overexposure, as long as the treatment-trauma interval was short (2 h). Concurrent measures of circulating glucocorticoids showed that the period of protection coincided with the period of elevated corticosterone. Results are consistent with the idea that cochlear protective effects may be mediated by stress pathways and that glucocorticoid levels may be an important upstream regulator of these effects.

  16. Effects of a booster seat education and distribution program in child care centers on child restraint use among children aged 4 to 8 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoreson, Sallie; Myers, Lindsey; Goss, Cynthia; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2009-03-01

    To compare child care center-based booster seat education and distribution with no intervention when implemented immediately after booster seat legislation. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Thirty-nine urban child care centers. Eight hundred fifty-four parents and 1010 children aged 4 to 8 years in vehicles leaving centers. Intervention We trained 168 staff members at 20 centers to give parents and children messages promoting booster seats and supplied lesson plans, children's activities, and free booster seats. Observed booster seat use, "good practice" restraint use, and legal restraint use. Parents at intervention centers were more likely to report receiving restraint information from the center (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 4.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.48-6.67), speaking with staff about booster seats (AOR, 3.95; 95% CI, 2.26-6.88), and using fit to decide when to move children into seat belts (AOR, 3.39; 95% CI, 1.91-5.99). Groups did not differ in proportions using booster seats (44% vs 43%; AOR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.62-1.73), good practice (42% vs 41%; AOR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.70-1.74), or legal restraints (65% vs 65%; AOR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.48-1.31). Results were similar for children aged 4 to 5 and 6 to 8 years. All outcomes were significantly less likely among children riding in pickup trucks or with Hispanic or black drivers. The intervention increased parents' receipt of information from center staff and knowledge about booster seats but not booster seat use. Research is needed to identify methods and messages that will empower center providers to promote booster seats effectively and reach high-risk populations.

  17. Choosing Staff Members Reduces Time in Mechanical Restraint Due to Self-Injurious Behaviour and Requesting Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Craig C.; Lydersen, Tore; Johnson, Paul R.; Weiss, Shannon R.; Marconi, Michael R.; Cleave, Mary L.; Weber, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background: Using mechanical restraints to protect a person who engaged in dangerous self-injury was decreased by manipulation of an establishing operation involving the client choosing the staff person who would work with her. Materials and Methods: The client was a 28-year-old woman diagnosed with autism, bipolar disorder, static cerebral…

  18. Core mechanics and configuration behavior of advanced LMFBR core restraint concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, J.N.; Wei, B.C.

    1978-02-01

    Core restraint systems in LMFBRs maintain control of core mechanics and configuration behavior. Core restraint design is complex due to the close spacing between adjacent components, flux and temperature gradients, and irradiation-induced material property effects. Since the core assemblies interact with each other and transmit loads directly to the core restraint structural members, the core assemblies themselves are an integral part of the core restraint system. This paper presents an assessment of several advanced core restraint system and core assembly concepts relative to the expected performance of currently accepted designs. A recommended order for the development of the advanced concepts is also presented

  19. Dietary restraint: what's the harm? A review of the relationship between dietary restraint, weight trajectory and the development of eating pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaumberg, K; Anderson, D A; Anderson, L M; Reilly, E E; Gorrell, S

    2016-04-01

    Dietary restraint has historically been implicated as a risk factor for the development of eating pathology. Despite existing findings, recent research suggests that many individuals are capable of practicing dietary restraint without negative effects. In order to successfully incorporate the positive aspects of dietary restraint into interventions for healthy weight management, a nuanced examination of the relationship between dietary restraint and resulting eating patterns is necessary. Accordingly, the current review seeks to clarify the existing literature with regard to dietary restraint. First, this review examines the construct of dietary restraint and differentiates dietary restraint from related constructs, such as weight loss dieting. Second, it identifies situations in which dietary restraint has been linked with positive outcomes, such as healthy weight management and prevention of eating pathology. Altogether, it appears that dietary restraint can prove a beneficial strategy for those attempting to control their weight, as it does not relate to increased levels of eating pathology when practiced as part of a well-validated weight management programme. © 2016 World Obesity.

  20. Sensitization of restraint-induced corticosterone secretion after chronic restraint in rats: Involvement of 5-HT7 receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Iglesias, Brenda B.; Mendoza-Garrido, María E.; Gutiérrez-Ospina, Gabriel; Rangel-Barajas, Claudia; Noyola-Díaz, Martha; Terrón, José A.

    2013-01-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to stress. We examined the effect of chronic restraint stress (CRS; 20 min/day) as compared to control (CTRL) conditions for 14 days, on: 1) restraint-induced ACTH and corticosterone (CORT) secretion in rats pretreated with vehicle or SB-656104 (a 5-HT7 receptor antagonist); 2) 5-HT7 receptor-like immunoreactivity (5-HT7-LI) and protein in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and adrenal glands (AG); 3) baseline levels of 5-HT and 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA), and 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio in PVN and AG; and 4) 5-HT-like immunoreactivity (5-HT-LI) in AG and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) protein in PVN and AG. On day 15, animals were subdivided into Treatment and No treatment groups. Treatment animals received an i.p. injection of vehicle or SB-656104; No Treatment animals received no injection. Sixty min later, Treatment animals were either decapitated with no further stress (0 min) or submitted to acute restraint (10, 30, 60 or 120 min); hormone serum levels were measured. No Treatment animals were employed for the rest of measurements. CRS decreased body weight gain and increased adrenal weight. In CTRL animals, acute restraint increased ACTH and CORT secretion in a time of restraint-dependent manner; both responses were inhibited by SB-656104. Exposure to CRS abolished ACTH but magnified CORT responses to restraint as compared to CTRL conditions; SB-656104 had no effect on ACTH levels but significantly inhibited sensitized CORT responses. In CTRL animals, 5-HT7-LI was detected in magnocellular and parvocellular subdivisions of PVN and sparsely in adrenal cortex. Exposure to CRS decreased 5-HT7-LI and protein in the PVN, but increased 5-HT7-LI in the adrenal cortex and protein in whole AG. Higher 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels were detected in PVN and AG from CRS animals but 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio increased in AG only. Finally, whereas 5-HT-LI was sparsely observed in the adrenal cortex

  1. JLigand: a graphical tool for the CCP4 template-restraint library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Andrey A.; Young, Paul; Isupov, Michail N.; Moroz, Olga V.; Vagin, Alexey A.; Murshudov, Garib N.

    2012-01-01

    The CCP4 template-restraint library defines restraints for biopolymers, their modifications and ligands that are used in macromolecular structure refinement. JLigand is a graphical editor for generating descriptions of new ligands and covalent linkages. Biological macromolecules are polymers and therefore the restraints for macromolecular refinement can be subdivided into two sets: restraints that are applied to atoms that all belong to the same monomer and restraints that are associated with the covalent bonds between monomers. The CCP4 template-restraint library contains three types of data entries defining template restraints: descriptions of monomers and their modifications, both used for intramonomer restraints, and descriptions of links for intermonomer restraints. The library provides generic descriptions of modifications and links for protein, DNA and RNA chains, and for some post-translational modifications including glycosylation. Structure-specific template restraints can be defined in a user’s additional restraint library. Here, JLigand, a new CCP4 graphical interface to LibCheck and REFMAC that has been developed to manage the user’s library and generate new monomer entries is described, as well as new entries for links and associated modifications

  2. Restraint use by car occupants: Great Britain, 1982-91.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broughton, J.

    1992-01-01

    One of the major developments in road safety in Great Britain during the last decade has been the increasing use of seat belts by people travelling in cars. This has been achieved by legislation, with supporting publicity.

  3. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  4. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E

    2002-01-01

    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  5. When does behavior follow intent? Relationships between trait level dietary restraint and daily eating behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Holmes, Millicent; Skouteris, Helen; Broadbent, Jaclyn

    2018-01-01

    The relationship between self-report trait level restriction and daily engagement in restriction behaviors is not well understood, and as a result the usefulness of such trait level measures is unclear. The present study aimed both to examine the validity of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors, and to examine the respective relationships among self-reported trait dietary restraint intentions and behaviors and both restrained and disinhibited eating at the daily level. A sample of 109 women (M age  = 24.72, SD = 4.15) completed a self-report trait level measure of dietary restraint before providing EMA data on their daily engagement in dietary restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors, as well as mood, over a period of 7 days. Multilevel hurdle models were used to test the relationship between trait levels of dietary restraint, and daily level reports of restraint and disinhibited eating behaviors. Trait restraint behavior was a consistent predictor of daily presence and frequency of restraint behaviors. In contrast, trait restraint intentions was not a predictor of daily restraint behaviors, however it did predict daily frequency of overeating. In addition, daily negative affect emerged as a predictor of comfort eating, but was not predictive of restraint behaviors. Findings confirm the usefulness of assessments of self-reported trait dietary restraint behaviors as a method of capturing dieting behaviors. In contrast, trait level dietary restraint intentions was a poor predictor of eating outcomes and more research on the way that restraint intentions affect eating behaviors is warranted. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Restraint use in older adults in home care: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Milisen, Koen

    2017-11-23

    To get insight into restraint use in older adults receiving home care and, more specifically, into the definition, prevalence and types of restraint, as well as the reasons for restraint use and the people involved in the decision-making process. Systematic review. Four databases (i.e. Pubmed, CINAHL, Embase, Cochrane Library) were systematically searched from inception to end of April 2017. The study encompassed qualitative and quantitative research on restraint use in older adults receiving home care that reported definitions of restraint, prevalence of use, types of restraint, reasons for use or the people involved. We considered publications written in English, French, Dutch and German. One reviewer performed the search and made the initial selection based on titles and abstracts. The final selection was made by two reviewers working independently; they also assessed study quality. We used an integrated design to synthesise the findings. Eight studies were reviewed (one qualitative, seven quantitative) ranging in quality from moderate to high. The review indicated there was no single, clear definition of restraint. The prevalence of restraint use ranged from 5% to 24.7%, with various types of restraint being used. Families played an important role in the decision-making process and application of restraints; general practitioners were less involved. Specific reasons, other than safety for using restraints in home care were noted (e.g. delay to nursing home admission; to provide respite for an informal caregiver). Contrary to the current socio demographical evolutions resulting in an increasing demand of restraint use in home care, research on this subject is still scarce and recent. The limited evidence however points to the challenging complexity and specificity of home care regarding restraint use. Given these serious challenges for clinical practice, more research about restraint use in home care is urgently needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier

  7. [Cognitive restraint in obesity. History of ideas, clinical description].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apfeldorfer, G; Zermati, J P

    2001-11-03

    AN EXPLANATION OF DISAPPOINTING RESULTS: Handling obesity and moderate overweight with dietary prescriptions or cognitive and behavioral therapies gives unsatisfying results. For some, such treatments even have the drawback of aggravating eating behavioral patterns, not to mention other psychopathological disorders. We believe, on the contrary, that such disappointing results and troubles may be explained by the cognitive restraint theory. COGNITIVE RESTRAINT THEORY: After the radical questioning of a psycho-genic origin to obesity, the efforts made to lose weight have gradually been held responsible for the psychopathological troubles observed in the cases of overweight patients. Herman and Polivy thus consider that slimming diets bring about a state of cognitive restraint, i.e. a way of eating ruled by beliefs of all kinds in the various consequences on the patients' weight of alimentary habits and choices, as opposed to inner criteria of hunger and satiety. DIFFERENT STATES: A person in a state of cognitive restraint can either experience inhibition without loss of control, or a loss both of inhibition and of control. In the former case, one can distinguish: a) a voluntarist stage in which the individual deliberately chooses not to heed his hunger and satiety sensations in order to privilege rules that are supposed to allow him/her to control his/her weight; b) an unconscious stage during which physiological sensations are blurred, and eating habits ruled by unconscious cognitive processes and emotions. The individual thus ends up organising his eating behaviour around his/her fear of lacking, the frustration/guilt doublet and troubles in the comforting pattern. Such a state of inhibition is frequently interspersed with losses of control, described as hyperphagic or bulimic bouts and compulsive eating. Certain authors, facing the necessity to bring down their patients' weight, tend nevertheless to advocate restrictive methods, or seem to consider that in spite

  8. Coping with budget restraint in a Scandinavian welfare state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Annemette Ljungdalh; Holm, Lotte; Lund, Thomas Bøker

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how different types of households react to experiences of food budget restraint in Denmark. The study applied a mixed method design, based on survey data and on qualitative interviews. The qualitative data source consisted of interviews with 30...... institute GfK ConsumerTracking Scandinavia. Using both data sources the study explored how shopping, storing, cooking and eating practices changed as a consequence of experienced restraints on the food budget. The quantitative results revealed how differences in terms of application of various types...... of strategies are related to different levels of food budget restrictions. Strategies applied to storing and cooking food in more efficient manners were widely practiced across all groups. Strategies which affected eating experiences, such as compromising the tastiness of food and giving up social ties involved...

  9. Poor compliance with child safety restraint use while travelling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fallon, R

    2011-02-01

    Road traffic accidents are a leading cause of death of children. It is the law that all children should be appropriately secured when traveling in vehicles. The aim of this study was to evaluate parental conformity with these regulations and to test if advice given at a Paediatric outpatient clinic could improve compliance. Two groups were assigned, an intervention group (parents given an information leaflet and a clear explanation about appropriate restraints for their children) and a non-intervention group (received no information). They were contacted again after 2 months and asked regarding compliance. A total of 394 children from 186 families were initially given the questionnaire. Nearly one third of children (29.2%) were not using any restraint while travelling rising to 35.3% on follow up. This study concluded that once off parental education made negligible difference to an already inconsistent and haphazard approach to compliance with safety regulations.

  10. Restraint stress alters neutrophil and macrophage phenotypes during wound healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tymen, Stéphanie D.; Rojas, Isolde G.; Zhou, Xiaofeng; Fang, Zong Juan; Zhao, Yan; Marucha, Phillip T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies reported that stress delays wound healing, impairs bacterial clearance, and elevates the risk for opportunistic infection. Neutrophils and macrophages are responsible for the removal of bacteria present at the wound site. The appropriate recruitment and functions of these cells are necessary for efficient bacterial clearance. In our current study we found that restraint stress induced an excessive recruitment of neutrophils extending the inflammatory phase of healing, and the gene expression of neutrophil attracting chemokines MIP-2 and KC. However, restraint stress did not affect macrophage infiltration. Stress decreased the phagocytic abilities of phagocytic cells ex vivo, yet it did not affect superoxide production. The cell surface expression of adhesion molecules CD11b and TLR4 were decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in stressed mice. The phenotype of macrophages present at the wound site was also altered. Gene expression of markers of pro-inflammatory classically activated macrophages, CXCL10 and CCL5, were down-regulated; as were markers associated with wound healing macrophages, CCL22, IGF-1, RELMα; and the regulatory macrophage marker, chemokine CCL1. Restraint stress also induced up-regulation of IL10 gene expression. In summary, our study has shown that restraint stress suppresses the phenotype shift of the macrophage population, as compared to the changes observed during normal wound healing, while the number of macrophages remains constant. We also observed a general suppression of chemokine gene expression. Modulation of the macrophage phenotype could provide a new therapeutic approach in the treatment of wounds under stress conditions in the clinical setting. PMID:22884902

  11. Programming new geometry restraints: parallelity of atomic groups

    OpenAIRE

    Sobolev, Oleg V.; Afonine, Pavel V.; Adams, Paul D.; Urzhumtsev, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    © International Union of Crystallography 2015. Improvements in structural biology methods, in particular crystallography and cryo-electron microscopy, have created an increased demand for the refinement of atomic models against low-resolution experimental data. One way to compensate for the lack of high-resolution experimental data is to use a priori information about model geometry that can be utilized in refinement in the form of stereochemical restraints or constraints. Here, the definitio...

  12. [Suicidal fall from height after restraint or accident?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wöllner, Kirsten; Ortmann, Jan; Kernbach-Wighton, Gerhard; Madea, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Restraining patients is common practice in psychiatric hospitals and is permitted by section 1906 BGB (German Civil Code) if there is a risk of suicide or serious self-damage because of a mental disease or mental disability. Permanent monitoring and supervision during restraints should be obligatory not only in psychiatric hospitals. Nevertheless a number of deaths have occurred during restraints, usually due to strangulation. Reports of cases with suicidal actions after self-release from restraint are rare in the literature. We report on the case of a 45-year-old woman who had suffered from schizophrenia for more than 20 years. After admission to a hospital, she had to be restrained since she became more and more aggressive. When the monitor showed no vital signs any more, nurses checked the patient's room and found an empty bed. The woman was detected lying on the ground in a pool of blood under an open window of the hospital. The cause of death was a polytrauma with leading cranio-cerebral injuries. Obviously the woman had freed herself from the restraining device and committed suicide by jumping out of the window on the third floor.

  13. Modulation of Cortical Interhemispheric Interactions by Motor Facilitation or Restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Vidal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cortical interhemispheric interactions in motor control are still poorly understood and it is important to clarify how these depend on inhibitory/facilitatory limb movements and motor expertise, as reflected by limb dominance. Here we addressed this problem using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and a task involving dominant/nondominant limb mobilization in the presence/absence of contralateral limb restraint. In this way we could modulate excitation/deactivation of the contralateral hemisphere. Blocks of arm elevation were alternated with absent/present restraint of the contralateral limb in 17 participants. We found the expected activation of contralateral sensorimotor cortex and ipsilateral cerebellum during arm elevation. In addition, only the dominant arm elevation (hold period was accompanied by deactivation of ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex, irrespective of presence/absence of contralateral restraint, although the latter increased deactivation. In contrast, the nondominant limb yielded absent deactivation and reduced area of contralateral activation upon restriction. Our results provide evidence for a difference in cortical communication during motor control (action facilitation/inhibition, depending on the “expertise” of the hemisphere that controls action (dominant versus nondominant. These results have relevant implications for the development of facilitation/inhibition strategies in neurorehabilitation, namely, in stroke, given that fMRI deactivations have recently been shown to reflect decreases in neural responses.

  14. Construct Validation of the Portuguese Version of the Restraint Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carvalho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AimThe main purpose of this study was to adapt the Restraint Scale (RS to Portuguese and examine its psychometric properties, specifically its construct validity.MethodIn this study, 238 normal-weight adults (82% women; Mean age = 36.6, SD = 15.0 participated in an online survey containing measures of Restraint Scale, Three Factor Eating Questionnaire, Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire, and Body Dissatisfaction and Drive for Thinness scales.ResultsExploratory factor analyses corroborated the two-factors structure found in previous studies, in particular when three items without clear factorial assignment and low correlation were excluded. A final two-factors version of the RS containing seven items presented a very good fit to the measurement model and good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis of the 7-items RS in relation to a three-factor model of overeating, dieting and body dissatisfaction measures revealed that the RS was the only restraint measure loading in all three factors.ConclusionThis suggests that the 7-items Portuguese version of the RS has good psychometric properties and unique features that lend it appropriate to identify and study unsuccessful chronic dieters.

  15. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  16. Association between the seat belt sign and intra-abdominal injuries in children with blunt torso trauma in motor vehicle collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgialli, Dominic A; Ellison, Angela M; Ehrlich, Peter; Bonsu, Bema; Menaker, Jay; Wisner, David H; Atabaki, Shireen; Olsen, Cody S; Sokolove, Peter E; Lillis, Kathy; Kuppermann, Nathan; Holmes, James F

    2014-11-01

    The objective was to determine the association between the abdominal seat belt sign and intra-abdominal injuries (IAIs) in children presenting to emergency departments with blunt torso trauma after motor vehicle collisions (MVCs). This was a planned subgroup analysis of prospective data from a multicenter cohort study of children with blunt torso trauma after MVCs. Patient history and physical examination findings were documented before abdominal computed tomography (CT) or laparotomy. Seat belt sign was defined as a continuous area of erythema, ecchymosis, or abrasion across the abdomen secondary to a seat belt restraint. The relative risk (RR) of IAI with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated for children with seat belt signs compared to those without. The risk of IAI in those patients with seat belt sign who were without abdominal pain or tenderness, and with Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores of 14 or 15, was also calculated. A total of 3,740 children with seat belt sign documentation after blunt torso trauma in MVCs were enrolled; 585 (16%) had seat belt signs. Among the 1,864 children undergoing definitive abdominal testing (CT, laparotomy/laparoscopy, or autopsy), IAIs were more common in patients with seat belt signs than those without (19% vs. 12%; RR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.3 to 2.1). This difference was primarily due to a greater risk of gastrointestinal injuries (hollow viscous or associated mesentery) in those with seat belt signs (11% vs. 1%; RR = 9.4, 95% CI = 5.4 to 16.4). IAI was diagnosed in 11 of 194 patients (5.7%; 95% CI = 2.9% to 9.9%) with seat belt signs who did not have initial complaints of abdominal pain or tenderness and had GCS scores of 14 or 15. Patients with seat belt signs after MVCs are at greater risk of IAI than those without seat belt signs, predominately due to gastrointestinal injuries. Although IAIs are less common in alert patients with seat belt signs who do not have initial complaints of abdominal pain or tenderness, the

  17. Effects of off-centered cracks and restraint of induced bending caused by pressure on the crack-opening-area analysis of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Wilkowski, G.M.; Bonora, N.

    1996-01-01

    Current models for the crack-opening-area analysis of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks are based on various idealizations or assumptions which are often necessary to simplify the mathematical formulation and numerical calculation. This paper focuses on the validity of two such assumptions that involve off-centered cracks and the restraint of induced bending caused by pressure, and quantifies their effects on the crack-opening area analysis of pipes. Finite element and/or simple estimation methods were employed to compute the center-crack-opening displacement and crack-opening shape for a through-wall-cracked pipe, considering off-centered cracks and the restraint of induced bending caused by pressure. The results of the analyses show that, for both cases, the crack-opening area can be reduced significantly. For pipes with off-centered cracks, the crack-opening area can be evaluated from analyses of symmetrically centered cracks and assuming elliptical profile. For pipes with complete restraint of the induced bending caused by pressure, the reduction in crack-opening area depends on the crack size. When the crack size is small, the restraint effects can be ignored. However, when the crack size is large, the restrained crack opening can be significantly smaller than the unrestrained crack opening, depending on the length of pipe involved; hence, it may be important for the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses. (orig.)

  18. Identification of safety belt restraint usage characteristics related to four- to thirteen-year-olds : [technical summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    Even though overall level of safety on United Sates roadways has improved over the last few decades because of significant vehicle and occupant safety regulations and programs, further improvement is needed. In 2009, 33,808 fatalities and another 2.2...

  19. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  1. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  2. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  3. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  4. Dietary restraint in normal weight and overweight children. A cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braet, C; Wydhooge, K

    2000-03-01

    This study investigated the degree to which actual fatness and negative self-esteem might be linked to dietary restraint in childhood. Subjects were 426 boys and 319 girls, aged 10.6 y (+/- 1 y). Forty-nine children were overweight (> 30%) and 149 subjects were in the category 'moderately overweight' (10-30% overweight). Measures of self-esteem and dietary restraint were used in the analyses. Dietary restraint was observable in all weight groups and significantly more in girls. Boys and girls with an existing fatness problem showed more dietary restraint. Weight status, not self-esteem, turned out to be the best predictor of dietary restraint. Because there were good reasons to expect side-effects of the observed dietary restraint in obese children in the long term, valuable alternatives like changes in the life-style and interventions that enhance body image and self-esteem were recommended.

  5. Kinematics and shoulder belt position of child anthropomorphic test devices during steering maneuvers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Isabelle; Bohman, Katarina; Jakobsson, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the kinematics and shoulder belt position of child anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) during emergency steering maneuvers. Furthermore, the ATDs were compared to the results from child volunteers aged 4 to 12 in the same test setup (Bohman, Stockman, et al. 2011). A driving study was conducted on a test track comprising 4 ATDs: the Q6, Q10, and Hybrid III (HIII) 6- and 10-year-old ATDs restrained in the rear seat of a passenger vehicle. The ATDs were exposed to 2 repeated steering maneuvers in each restraint system. The Q6 and HIII 6-year-old were restrained on booster cushions as well as high-back booster seats. The Q10 and HIII 10-year-old were restrained on booster cushions or restrained by 3-point seat belts directly on the seat. Lateral motion of the forehead and upper sternum was determined, as well as shoulder belt movement on shoulder and torso tilting angle. All ATDs began to move approximately at the same point in time corresponding to a vehicle lateral acceleration of just below 0.2 g. In the later phase of the maneuver, Q10 had moved 26 percent less than the children when restrained by seat belt only and 35 percent less when on a booster cushion. Corresponding numbers for the HIII 10-year-old were 43 and 44 percent higher than for children. Compared to children, the Q6 had moved 34 percent less when restrained on a high-back booster seat and 31 percent less when on a booster cushion. Corresponding numbers for HIII 6-year-old were 7 and 28 percent higher than for children. Due to extensive variety of lateral displacements observed in the children, child performance range covers both ATD families for the evaluated sizes of 6- and 10-year-old ATDs. Compared to children, the HIII ATDs were closer with regards to mean values in the initial phase of the maneuver and the Q ATDs were closer in the end of the ramping phase of the lateral acceleration. The question regarding which ATD replicates better the

  6. The effect of precrash velocity reduction on occupant response using a human body finite element model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guleyupoglu, B; Schap, J; Kusano, K D; Gayzik, F S

    2017-07-04

    The objective of this study is to use a validated finite element model of the human body and a certified model of an anthropomorphic test dummy (ATD) to evaluate the effect of simulated precrash braking on driver kinematics, restraint loads, body loads, and computed injury criteria in 4 commonly injured body regions. The Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) 50th percentile male occupant (M50-O) and the Humanetics Hybrid III 50th percentile models were gravity settled in the driver position of a generic interior equipped with an advanced 3-point belt and driver airbag. Fifteen simulations per model (30 total) were conducted, including 4 scenarios at 3 severity levels: median, severe, and the U.S. New Car Assessment Program (U.S.-NCAP) and 3 extra per model with high-intensity braking. The 4 scenarios were no precollision system (no PCS), forward collision warning (FCW), FCW with prebraking assist (FCW+PBA), and FCW and PBA with autonomous precrash braking (FCW + PBA + PB). The baseline ΔV was 17, 34, and 56.4 kph for median, severe, and U.S.-NCAP scenarios, respectively, and were based on crash reconstructions from NASS/CDS. Pulses were then developed based on the assumed precrash systems equipped. Restraint properties and the generic pulse used were based on literature. In median crash severity cases, little to no risk (human body models predictions for both the median, severe, and NCAP cases. Forward excursion for both models decreased across median, severe, and NCAP cases and diverged from each other in cases above 1.0 g of braking intensity. The addition of precrash systems simulated through reduced precrash speeds caused reductions in some injury criteria, whereas others (chest deflection, HIC, and BrIC) increased due to a modified occupant position. The human model and ATD models trended similarly in nearly all cases with greater risk indicated in the human model. These results suggest the need for integrated safety systems that have restraints that

  7. The detrimental effects of physical restraint as a consequence for inappropriate classroom behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, S K; Ellis, J

    2001-01-01

    Functional analyses produced inconclusive results regarding variables that maintained problem behavior for 2 students with developmental disabilities. Procedures were modified to include a contingent physical restraint condition based on in-class observations. Results indicated that tinder conditions in which physical restraint (i.e., basket-hold timeout) was applied contingent on problem behavior, rates of these behaviors increased across sessions for both subjects. Implications for the use of physical restraint in the classroom are discussed.

  8. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-09-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System are presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented

  9. Evaluation of the influence of seismic restraint characteristics on breeder reactor piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mello, R.M.; Pollono, L.P.

    1979-01-01

    For the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) heat transport system piping within the reactor containment building, dynamic analyses of the piping loops have been performed to study the effect of restraint stiffness on the dynamic behavior of the piping. In addition, analysis and testing of typical CRBRP restraint system components have been performed for the purpose of quantifying and verifying the basic characteristics of the restraints used in the piping system dynamic analysis

  10. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  11. Documenting How States Recently Upgraded to Primary Seat Belt Laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    States with primary seat belt enforcement laws consistently have higher observed daytime belt use rates than : secondary law States. Secondary belt law States, on the other hand, consistently have more occupant fatalities who : were not restrained th...

  12. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  13. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  14. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  15. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  16. 2015 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The use of safety belts and child safety seats has been shown to be an effective means of : reducing injuries to motor-vehicle occupants involved in traffic crashes. There have been various : methods used in efforts to increase safety belt and safety...

  17. Increase in best practice child car restraint use for children aged 2-5 years in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of mandatory child restraint laws.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Keay, Lisa; Hunter, Kate; Bilston, Lynne E; Simpson, Judy M; Ivers, Rebecca

    2013-06-01

    To examine changes in child car restraint practices in low socioeconomic areas following the introduction of mandatory child car restraint legislation in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. Data from two cross-sectional studies of child car restraint use at pre-schools, early childhood centres and primary schools before and after the introduction of legislating mandatory age-appropriate car restraint use for children up to the age of seven years was used in this analysis. All included observations were from local government areas with socioeconomic status in the lowest 30% of urban Sydney. Children aged 2-5 years were observed in their vehicles as they arrived at observation sites (107 pre-legislation, 360 post-legislation). Multilevel logistic regression was used to examine changes in observed age-appropriate and correct use of car restraints. Age-appropriate car restraint use was higher post-legislation than pre-legislation. After controlling for child's age, parental income, language spoken at home and adjusting for clustering, the odds of children being appropriately restrained post-legislation were 2.3 times higher than in the pre-legislation sample, and the odds of them being correctly restrained were 1.6 times greater. Results indicate an improvement in car restraint practices among children aged 2-5 in low socioeconomic areas after introduction of child restraint laws. Implications : Despite improvements observed with enhanced legislation, further efforts are required to increase optimal child car restraint use. © 2013 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2013 Public Health Association of Australia.

  18. Restraint stress-induced morphological changes at the blood-brain barrier in adult rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra eSántha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress is well known to contribute to the development of both neurological and psychiatric diseases. While the role of the blood-brain barrier is increasingly recognised in the development of neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer’s disease, dysfunction of the blood-brain barrier has been linked to stress-related psychiatric diseases only recently. In the present study the effects of restraint stress with different duration (1, 3 and 21 days were investigated on the morphology of the blood-brain barrier in male adult Wistar rats. Frontal cortex and hippocampus sections were immunostained for markers of brain endothelial cells (claudin-5, occludin and glucose transporter-1 and astroglia (GFAP. Staining pattern and intensity were visualized by confocal microscopy and evaluated by several types of image analysis. The ultrastructure of brain capillaries was investigated by electron microscopy. Morphological changes and intensity alterations in brain endothelial tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin were induced by stress. Following restraint stress significant increases in the fluorescence intensity of glucose transporter-1 were detected in brain endothelial cells in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. Significant reductions in GFAP fluorescence intensity were observed in the frontal cortex in all stress groups. As observed by electron microscopy, one-day acute stress induced morphological changes indicating damage in capillary endothelial cells in both brain regions. After 21 days of stress thicker and irregular capillary basal membranes in the hippocampus and edema in astrocytes in both regions were seen. These findings indicate that stress exerts time-dependent changes in the staining pattern of tight junction proteins occludin, claudin-5 and glucose transporter-1 at the level of brain capillaries and in the ultrastructure of brain endothelial cells and astroglial endfeet, which may contribute to neurodegenerative processes

  19. Dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in male university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellana, Ligia; Grunert, Klaus G; Sepúlveda, José; Lobos, Germán; Denegri, Marianela; Miranda, Horacio; Adasme-Berríos, Cristian; Mora, Marcos; Etchebarne, Soledad; Salinas-Oñate, Natalia; Schnettler, Berta

    2016-04-01

    Self-discrepancy describes the distance between an ideal and the actual self. Research suggests that self-discrepancy and dietary restraint are related, causing a significant impact on the person's well-being. However, this relationship has been mostly reported in female and mixed populations. In order to further explore dietary behaviors and their relations to self-discrepancy and well-being-related variables in men, a survey was applied to a non-probabilistic sample of 119 male students from five Chilean state universities (mean age=21.8, SD=2.75). The questionnaire included the Revised Restraint Scale (RRS) with the subscales weight fluctuations (WF) and diet concern (DC), the Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), the Satisfaction with Food-Related Life Scale (SWFL), the Nutrition Interest Scale (NIS), and the Self-discrepancy Index (SDI). Questions were asked about socio-demographic characteristics, eating and drinking habits, and approximate weight and height. A cluster analysis applied to the Z-scores of the RRS classified the following typologies: Group 1 (22.7%), men concerned about weight fluctuations; Group 2 (37.0%), men concerned about diet and weight fluctuations; Group 3 (40.3%), unconcerned about diet and weight fluctuations. The typologies differed in their SDI score, restriction on pastry consumption and reported body mass index (BMI). Students with higher DC and WF scores had a higher BMI, and tended to report high self-discrepancy not only on a physical level, but also on social, emotional, economic and personal levels. This study contributes to the literature on subjective well-being, dietary restraint and self-discrepancy in men from non-clinical samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. An alternate and reversible method for flight restraint of cranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sen Lin; Yang, Shu Hui; Li, Bing; Xu, Yan Chun; Ma, Jian Hua; Xu, Jian Feng; Zhang, Xian Guang

    2011-01-01

    Flight restraint is important for zoos, safaris, and breeding centers for large birds. Currently used techniques for flight restraint include both surgical and non-surgical approaches. Surgical approaches usually cause permanent change to or removal of tendon, patagial membrane, or wing bones, and can cause pain and inflammation. Non-surgical approaches such as clipping or trimming feathers often alter the bird's appearance, and can damage growing blood feathers in fledglings or cause joint stiffness. We observed microstructure of primary feathers of the red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) and found that the width of barbs is a determinative factor influencing vane stiffness and geometric parameters. We hypothesized that partial longitudinal excision of barbs on the ventral surface of the primary feathers would reduce the stiffness of the vane and render the feathers unable to support the crane's body weight during flight. Furthermore, we hypothesized that this modification of barbs would also change the aerodynamic performance of feathers such that they could not generate sufficient lift and thrust during flapping to enable the bird to fly. We tested this hypothesis on a red-crowned crane that had normal flight capability by excising the ventral margin of barbs on all 10 primaries on the left wing. The bird was unable to take off until the modified feathers were replaced by new ones. Removal of barbs proved to be a simple, non-invasive, low-cost and reversible method for flight restraint. It is potentially applicable to other large birds with similar structural characteristics of primary feathers. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Misuse of restraint systems for children in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoon, C.C. Huijskens, C.G. & Heijkamp, A.H.

    1993-01-01

    The Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works commissioned the SWOV Institute for Road Safety Research and TNO Road-Vehicles Research Institute to carry out a research project. The aim is to establish the extent and type of misuse of both child seats and standard seat belts. This paper deals only

  2. Crew Restraint Design for the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Lena; Holden, Kritina; Whitmore, Mihriban

    2006-01-01

    With permanent human presence onboard the International Space Station (ISS), crews will be living and working in microgravity, dealing with the challenges of a weightless environment. In addition, the confined nature of the spacecraft environment results in ergonomic challenges such as limited visibility and access to the activity areas, as well as prolonged periods of unnatural postures. Without optimum restraints, crewmembers may be handicapped for performing some of the on-orbit tasks. Currently, many of the tasks on ISS are performed with the crew restrained merely by hooking their arms or toes around handrails to steady themselves. This is adequate for some tasks, but not all. There have been some reports of discomfort/calluses on the top of the toes. In addition, this type of restraint is simply insufficient for tasks that require a large degree of stability. Glovebox design is a good example of a confined workstation concept requiring stability for successful use. They are widely used in industry, university, and government laboratories, as well as in the space environment, and are known to cause postural limitations and visual restrictions. Although there are numerous guidelines pertaining to ventilation, seals, and glove attachment, most of the data have been gathered in a 1-g environment, or are from studies that were conducted prior to the early 1980 s. Little is known about how best to restrain a crewmember using a glovebox in microgravity. Another ISS task that requires special consideration with respect to restraints is robotic teleoperation. The Robot Systems Technology Branch at the NASA Johnson Space Center is developing a humanoid robot astronaut, or Robonaut. It is being designed to perform extravehicular activities (EVAs) in the hazardous environment of space. An astronaut located inside the ISS will remotely operate Robonaut through a telepresence control system. Essentially, the robot mimics every move the operator makes. This requires the

  3. Design and optimization for the occupant restraint system of vehicle based on a single freedom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junyuan; Ma, Yue; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Yan

    2013-05-01

    Throughout the vehicle crash event, the interactions between vehicle, occupant, restraint system (VOR) are complicated and highly non-linear. CAE and physical tests are the most widely used in vehicle passive safety development, but they can only be done with the detailed 3D model or physical samples. Often some design errors and imperfections are difficult to correct at that time, and a large amount of time will be needed. A restraint system concept design approach which based on single-degree-of-freedom occupant-vehicle model (SDOF) is proposed in this paper. The interactions between the restraint system parameters and the occupant responses in a crash are studied from the view of mechanics and energy. The discrete input and the iterative algorithm method are applied to the SDOF model to get the occupant responses quickly for arbitrary excitations (impact pulse) by MATLAB. By studying the relationships between the ridedown efficiency, the restraint stiffness, and the occupant response, the design principle of the restraint stiffness aiming to reduce occupant injury level during conceptual design is represented. Higher ridedown efficiency means more occupant energy absorbed by the vehicle, but the research result shows that higher ridedown efficiency does not mean lower occupant injury level. A proper restraint system design principle depends on two aspects. On one hand, the restraint system should lead to as high ridedown efficiency as possible, and at the same time, the restraint system should maximize use of the survival space to reduce the occupant deceleration level. As an example, an optimization of a passenger vehicle restraint system is designed by the concept design method above, and the final results are validated by MADYMO, which is the most widely used software in restraint system design, and the sled test. Consequently, a guideline and method for the occupant restraint system concept design is established in this paper.

  4. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements

  5. Evaluation of Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Uplift Restraint for a Seismic Event During Repositioning Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-05-15

    Insertion of the Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) assemblies into the Canister Storage Building (CSB) storage tubes involves the use of the MCO Handling Machine (MHM). During MCO storage tube insertion operations, inadvertent movement of the MHM is prevented by engaging seismic restraints (''active restraints'') located adjacent to both the bridge and trolley wheels. During MHM repositioning operations, the active restraints are not engaged. When the active seismic restraints are not engaged, the only functioning seismic restraints are non-engageable (''passive'') wheel uplift restraints which function only if the wheel uplift is sufficient to close the nominal 0.5-inch gap at the uplift restraint interface. The MHM was designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis reported seismic loads on the MHM uplift restraints and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations to demonstrate structural adequacy of the seismic uplift restraint hardware. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed for a parked MHM with the active seismic restraints engaged, resulting in uplift restraint loading only in the vertical direction. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the active seismic restraints are not engaged. If a seismic event occurs during MHM repositioning operations, a moving contact at a seismic uplift restraint would introduce a friction load on the restraint in the direction of the movement. These potential horizontal friction loads on the uplift restraints were not included in the existing restraint hardware design calculations. One of the purposes of the current evaluation is to address the structural adequacy of the MHM seismic uplift restraints with the addition of the horizontal friction associated with MHM repositioning movements.

  6. Accelerated Comparative Fatigue Strength Testing of Belt Adhesive Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajda, Miroslaw; Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    Belt joints are the weakest link in the serial structure that creates an endless loop of spliced belt segments. This affects not only the lower strength of adhesive joints of textile belts in comparison to vulcanized splices, but also the replacement of traditional glues to more ecological but with other strength parameters. This is reflected in the lowered durability of adhesive joints, which in underground coal mines is nearly twice shorter than the operating time of belts. Vulcanized splices require high precision in performance, they need long time to achieve cross-linking of the friction mixture and, above all, they require specialized equipment (vulcanization press) which is not readily available and often takes much time to be delivered down, which means reduced mining output or even downtime. All this reduces the reliability and durability of adhesive joints. In addition, due to the consolidation on the Polish coal market, mines are joined into large economic units serviced by a smaller number of processing plants. The consequence is to extend the transport routes downstream and increase reliability requirements. The greater number of conveyors in the chain reduces reliability of supply and increases production losses. With high fixed costs of underground mines, the reduction in mining output is reflected in the increase in unit costs, and this at low coal prices on the market can mean substantial losses for mines. The paper describes the comparative study of fatigue strength of shortened samples of adhesive joints conducted to compare many different variants of joints (various adhesives and materials). Shortened samples were exposed to accelerated fatigue in the usually long-lasting dynamic studies, allowing more variants to be tested at the same time. High correlation between the results obtained for shortened (100 mm) and traditional full-length (3×250 mm) samples renders accelerated tests possible.

  7. Feasibility of an anticipatory noncontact precrash restraint actuation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Instrumentation and Controls Div.

    1995-12-31

    The problem of providing an electronic warning of an impending crash to a precrash restraint system a fraction of a second before physical contact differs from more widely explored problems, such as providing several seconds of crash warning to a driver. One approach to precrash restraint sensing is to apply anticipatory system theory. This consists of nested simplified models of the system to be controlled and of the system`s environment. It requires sensory information to describe the ``current state`` of the system and the environment. The models use the sensory data to make a faster-than-real-time prediction about the near future. Anticipation theory is well founded but rarely used. A major problem is to extract real-time current-state information from inexpensive sensors. Providing current-state information to the nested models is the weakest element of the system. Therefore, sensors and real-time processing of sensor signals command the most attention in an assessment of system feasibility. This paper describes problem definition, potential ``showstoppers,`` and ways to overcome them. It includes experiments showing that inexpensive radar is a practical sensing element. It considers fast and inexpensive algorithms to extract information from sensor data.

  8. Plasma cortisol levels in captive wild felines after chemical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nogueira G.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Eight Panthera onca (Po, 13 Felis concolor (Fc, 7 Felis yagouaroundi (Fy, 7 Felis tigrina (Ft and 5 Felis pardalis (Fp specimens from São Paulo State zoos were used. All animals were restrained with darts containing 10 mg/kg ketamine and 1 mg/kg xylazine. Venous blood samples were collected as soon as possible (within 15-20 min and serum was frozen until the time for cortisol quantification. Cortisol was determined using a solid phase radioimmunoassay with an intra-assay coefficient of 8.51%. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test, followed by Dunn's multiple comparisons test, and the one-sample t-test, with the level of significance set at P<0.05. Data are reported as means ± SEM. Cortisol levels differed among the captive felines: Po = 166 ± 33a, Fc = 670 ± 118b, Fy = 480 ± 83b, Ft = 237 ± 42ab, Fp = 97 ± 12a nmol/l (values followed by different superscript letters were significantly different (P<0.001. Since most of the veterinary procedures on these species involve chemical restraint, these results show the necessity of preventive measures in order to minimize the effect of restraint stress on more susceptible species

  9. Comparison of chemical restraint techniques in ostrich (Struthio camelus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Ciboto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Chemical restraint in ostriches is usually required for short-time interventions. Thus, this study established and evaluated intravenous anesthetics formulated from commonly used drugs in order to accomplish total restraint on this species and allow painful procedures to be performed. Thirty male and female ostriches weighing from 40 to 90 kg were randomly distributed into five groups. Animals in Groups I, II and III were given acepromazine (0.25 mg/kg i.m. and those in Groups IV and V were given xylazine (1.0 mg/kg i.m.. The following drugs were administered intravenously 15 to 20 min later: Group I - propofol (4.0 mg/kg, Groups II and IV - ketamine (5.0 mg/kg and diazepam (0.25 mg/kg, Groups III and V - tiletamine-zolazepam (3.0 mg/kg. All protocols have produced satisfactory results regarding total containment, muscular relaxation and maintenance of the evaluated parameters within a normal range.

  10. Robustness Improvement of ARA Kevlar Holddown Restraint Cables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, E.; Koning, J.; Konink, T.

    2013-09-01

    Dutch Space has developed a Hold Down and Release System based on Kevlar Restraint cables and Thermal Knife release in the early nineties of the previous century. The system has been qualified for application in the company's solar array families ARA and FRED for GEO, LEO, MEO and scientific deep space missions comprising solar panel stacks ranging from 2 to 6 panels. Beside solar arrays, derivatives of the HDRS have been used for antenna, cooler and experiment cover hold down and release. Over 500 HDRS units have performed with 100% success in space.Today's missions do not differ much in nominal conditions but more extreme failure modes are specified resulting in more extreme temperatures. The restraint cables, which are exposed directly to these limits of the thermal environment, have been upgraded to cope with the new requirements. An extended life time acceleration test program has been defined and executed to demonstrate their robustness.The qualified upper temperature of the system, the most critical one concerning loads, has been increased from 105°C to 125°C.The paper will describe problems experienced at high temperatures, the new design, supporting engineering tests, the measurement of tension distribution in the cables with Raman spectroscopy, and the accelerated test program and its results.Kevlar cables according to this new design are now baseline for solar arrays of the ESA programs Sentinel- 1, Sentinel-2, Galileo FOC, EarthCARE and Aeolus.

  11. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  12. [Vision on and use of physical restraints and 'smart technology' in nursing homes in Flanders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlassara, V; Lampo, E; Degryse, B; Van Audenhove, C; Spruytte, N

    2017-04-01

    The STAFF-project investigates in what way 'smart technology' can offer an alternative for physical restraints in nursing homes. A survey is realized aimed at gaining more insight into the vision on and the use of physical restraints and 'smart technology'. Two partly overlapping structured questionnaires were developed and sent to nursing home staff in Flanders (Belgium). One hundred fifty six administrators (managers or assistant-managers) and 238 caregiving staff (nurses, nursing aids, paramedical staff and other) completed the online questionnaire. In general there is a low acceptability of physical restraint use, however, a more nuanced picture of acceptability is present depending on the specific motivation for using physical restraints and on the specific means of physical restraints. About half of the administrators say they use smart technology in the nursing home. The two main reasons for not applying (yet) smart technology are 'too high price for smart technology' and 'inadequate infrastructure of the nursing home'. All respondents underscore the importance of multiple strategies to diminish the use of physical restraints in nursing homes. Physical restraint use is a complex theme and needs a nuanced analysis and management. This study shows that there is still room for improvement in diminishing the use of physical restraints and that nursing homes in Flanders are open to use smart technology.

  13. Use of psychotropic medication among inpatients during focused efforts in prevention of coercion and restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Munk-Jørgensen, Povl

    and reduced life expectancy. The aim of this study is therefore to quantify the use of psychotropic medication when implementing interventions to reduce coercion and restraint. Methods: Cohort study on patients in risk of agitation and coercion in a psychiatric ward operating without physical restraint...

  14. Neither restraint nor tendency toward overeating predict food consumption after tension induction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouwens, M.A.; Strien, T. van; Staak, C.P.F. van der

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigates whether the so-called disinhibition effect is better accounted for by tendency toward overeating than by restraint. The rationale was that in mood-induction studies, so far, the disinhibition effect has only been found in studies that applied the Restraint Scale and

  15. Success and failure in the measurement of restraint : notes and data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T

    OBJECTIVE: The clarification of the present confusion about the confounding of success and failure in the measurement of restrained eating. METHOD: Close inspection of results regarding the Restraint Scale (RS) and the restraint scales of homogeneous measures of restrained eating, for example, the

  16. Growth and Predictors of Growth Restraint in Moderately Preterm Children Aged 0 to 4 Years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocca-Tjeertes, I.F.; Kerstjens, J.M.; Reijneveld, S.A.; de Winter, A.F.; Bos, A.F.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe growth in moderately preterm-born children, determine the prevalence of growth restraint at the age of 4, and identify predictors of growth restraint. We hypothesized that growth in moderately preterm-born children differs from growth in term-born children and that growth

  17. Dieting, Dietary Restraint, and Binge Eating Disorder among Overweight Adolescents in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, Murat; Bozan, Nuray; Cigerim, Nevin

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship among dieting, dietary restraint, disinhibition, hunger, and binge eating among overweight adolescent girls. Participants were 743 overweight adolescent girls between 16 and 19 years of age. The mean BMI was 24.9 [+ or -] 0.8 kg/[m[superscript 2] in the low-restraint group and 25.1 [+ or…

  18. Clinical decision making on the use of physical restraint in intensive care units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinqian Li

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Physical restraint is a common nursing intervention in intensive care units and nurses often use it to ensure patients' safety and to prevent unexpected accidents. However, existing literature indicated that the use of physical restraint is a complex one because of inadequate rationales, the negative physical and emotional effects on patients, but the lack of perceived alternatives. This paper is aimed to interpret the clinical decision-making theories related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units in order to facilitate our understanding on the use of physical restraint and to evaluate the quality of decisions made by nurses. By reviewing the literature, intuition and heuristics are the main decision-making strategies related to the use of physical restraint in intensive care units because the rapid and reflexive nature of intuition and heuristics allow nurses to have a rapid response to urgent and emergent cases. However, it is problematic if nurses simply count their decision-making on experience rather than incorporate research evidence into clinical practice because of inadequate evidence to support the use of physical restraint. Besides that, such a rapid response may lead nurses to make decisions without adequate assessment and thinking and therefore biases and errors may be generated. Therefore, despite the importance of intuition and heuristics in decision-making in acute settings on the use of physical restraint, it is recommended that nurses should incorporate research evidence with their experience to make decisions and adequate assessment before implementing physical restraint is also necessary.

  19. Are Dietary Restraint Scales Valid Measures of Acute Dietary Restriction? Unobtrusive Observational Data Suggest Not

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Lowe, Michael R.

    2004-01-01

    The finding that dietary restraint scales predict onset of bulimic pathology has been interpreted as suggesting that dieting causes this eating disturbance, despite the dearth of evidence that these scales are valid measures of dietary restriction. The authors conducted 4 studies that tested whether dietary restraint scales were inversely…

  20. Use of antipsychotics and benzodiazepines in connection to minimising coercion and mechanical restraint in a general psychiatric ward

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Mikkel; Høgh, Lene; Bo Bojesen, Anders

    2018-01-01

    in connection with the implementation of a programme to reduce coercion and restraint. Methods: Observational study in a general psychiatric ward comparing psychopharmacological treatment after implementation of non-pharmacological interventions to reduce coercion and mechanical restraint with a historical...

  1. Implementation and application of helix-helix distance and crossing angle restraint potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jinhyuk; Im, Wonpil

    2007-02-01

    Based on the definition of helix-helix distance and crossing angle introduced by Chothia et al. (J Mol Biol 1981, 145, 215), we have developed the restraint potentials by which the distance and crossing angle of two selected helices can be maintained around target values during molecular dynamics simulations. A series of assessments show that calculated restraint forces are numerically accurate. Since the restraint forces are only exerted on atoms which define the helical principal axes, each helix can rotate along its helical axis, depending on the helix-helix intermolecular interactions. Such a restraint potential enables us to characterize the helix-helix interactions at atomic details by sampling their conformational space around specific distance and crossing angle with (restraint) force-dependent fluctuations. Its efficacy is illustrated by calculating the potential of mean force as a function of helix-helix distance between two transmembrane helical peptides in an implicit membrane model.

  2. Phosphorus export from artificially drained fields across the Eastern corn belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field observations that quantify agricultural phosphorus (P) losses are critical for the development of P reduction strategies across the Eastern Corn Belt region of North America. Within this region, surface water bodies including Lake Erie are sensitive to non-point P loadings. It is therefore imp...

  3. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...

  5. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190km long, detached narrow, linear,. NE–SW to ENE–WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the. Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, ...

  6. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  7. Modeling and evaluating evidence-based continuing education program in nursing home dementia care (MEDCED)--training of care home staff to reduce use of restraint in care home residents with dementia. A cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testad, Ingelin; Mekki, Tone Elin; Førland, Oddvar; Øye, Christine; Tveit, Eva Marie; Jacobsen, Frode; Kirkevold, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored 7-month training intervention "Trust Before Restraint," in reducing use of restraint, agitation, and antipsychotic medications in care home residents with dementia. This is a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial in 24 care homes within the Western Norway Regional Health Authority 2011-2013. From 24 care homes, 274 residents were included in the study, with 118 in the intervention group and 156 in the control group. Use of restraint was significantly reduced in both the intervention group and the control group despite unexpected low baseline, with a tendency to a greater reduction in the control group. There was a significant reduction in Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory score in both the intervention group and the follow-up group with a slightly higher reduction in the control group, although this did not reach significance and a small nonsignificant increase in use of antipsychotics (14.1-17.7%) and antidepressants (35.9-38.4%) in both groups. This study reports on the statistically significant reduction in use of restraint in care homes, both prior and during the 7-month intervention periods, in both intervention and control groups. When interpreted within the context of the current climate of educational initiatives to reduce restraint and a greater focus on the importance of person-centered care, the study also highlights the potential success achieved with national training programs for care staff and should be further evaluated to inform future training initiatives both in Norway and internationally. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  9. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  10. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  11. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  12. RU486 Reverses Emotional Disorders by Influencing Astrocytes and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Chronic Restraint Stress Challenged Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liru Dong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To investigate the effect of RU486 (mifepristone on emotional disorders in chronic restraint stress-induced rats and to explore the mechanisms of that phenomenon. Methods: For this purpose, 80 healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: the normal group (Con group, The Con group members received no treatment, eating and drinking freely, the chronic restraint stress group (CRS group, normal Sprague Dawley rats treated with chronic restraint stress, 6 h/day for 21days, the propylene glycol group (CRS+propylene glycol and the RU486 group (CRS+RU486. RU486 or propylene glycol was administered 30 mins before each CRS procedure. Twenty-four hours after CRS exposure, we investigated the effects of CRS on the anxiety-like behavior using an elevated plus-maze (EPM. To explore the mechanisms of RU486 on anxiety, we measured the expression of glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP and β-subunit of S100 (S100β via immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis. Apoptosis was demonstrated by flow cytometry. In addition, endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers, glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP and Cysteine aspartic acid specific protease-12 (Caspase-12, were detected by western blot analysis. Results: Compared to the control group, rats in the CRS and propylene glycol group showed decreased exploratory behavior on the open arms during EPM testing, and these reductions were accompanied by significantly reduced GFAP and S100β expression, increased apoptosis and GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 expression in the amygdala. However, RU486 increases the exploratory behavior and reverses the changes of GFAP, S100β, GRP78, CHOP, and caspase-12 and protects cells against apoptosis. Conclusions: Taken together, these data suggest that exposure to chronic restraint stress decreases the number of astrocytes and induces apoptosis and ER stress in the amygdala, which are possible causes for psychiatric

  13. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMeo, F. E.; Alexander, C. M. O'D.; Walsh, K. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Binzel, R. P.

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization, with over half a million known asteroids, more than 100,000 of which have some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the main asteroid belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of solar system evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the asteroid belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire solar system?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after solar system formation. This chapter reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of asteroid compositions seen in the main belt today. This chapter also reviews the major outstanding questions relating to asteroid compositions and distributions and summarizes the progress and current state of understanding of these questions to form the big picture of the formation and evolution of asteroids in the main belt. Finally, we briefly review the relevance of asteroids and their compositions in their greater context within our solar system and beyond.

  14. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  15. Positional asphyxia without active restraint following an assault.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Tarini; Byard, Roger W

    2013-11-01

    Deaths due to positional asphyxia are most often accidental, associated with alcohol and/or drug intoxication. A 19-year-old male is reported who was assaulted and placed in a head-down position in the back of a car were he was later found dead. Brush abrasions indicated that he had been dragged to the vehicle. The head and right shoulder were wedged into the foot well with the body uppermost. At autopsy, there was marked congestion of the face, neck, and upper chest with conjunctival ecchymoses, bruising of the face and scalp, focal subarachnoid hemorrhage, minor cerebral contusion, and diffuse cerebral swelling with early hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Toxicology was negative. Death was attributed to HIE resulting from the unusual positioning of the body. Cases of positional asphyxia involving others may not always include restraint, and when encountered should initiate a careful evaluation of the possible events and lethal pathophysiological processes. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Chronic restraint stress upregulates erythropoiesis through glucocorticoid stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey L Voorhees

    Full Text Available In response to elevated glucocorticoid levels, erythroid progenitors rapidly expand to produce large numbers of young erythrocytes. Previous work demonstrates hematopoietic changes in rodents exposed to various physical and psychological stressors, however, the effects of chronic psychological stress on erythropoiesis has not be delineated. We employed laboratory, clinical and genomic analyses of a murine model of chronic restraint stress (RST to examine the influence of psychological stress on erythropoiesis. Mice exposed to RST demonstrated markers of early erythroid expansion involving the glucocorticoid receptor. In addition, these RST-exposed mice had increased numbers of circulating reticulocytes and increased erythropoiesis in primary and secondary erythroid tissues. Mice also showed increases in erythroid progenitor populations and elevated expression of the erythroid transcription factor KLF1 in these cells. Together this work reports some of the first evidence of psychological stress affecting erythroid homeostasis through glucocorticoid stimulation.

  17. The application of viscous dampers as pipe restraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keowen, R.S.; Hueffmann, G.; Mays, B.; Rencher, D.

    1993-01-01

    Dynamic loading of power generation piping systems may result in nonpermissable deflections and stresses. Fatigue failure translate to increased maintenance costs and possible lost revenue. Undesirable loading can occur due to external events such as earthquakes and internal events such as water and steam hammer, two-phase flow and cavitation. Sway braces and snubbers have been employed to reduce the negative effects of piping motion in emergency cases, however, repetitive loading due to internal events has caused premature wear and failure. Visco elastic dampers, however, have proven to be piping response due to slugging, steam hammer and other repetitive loads. Functional and modeling aspects of visco elastic dampers are discussed, experimental evidence of their effectiveness in a steam hammer application is presented and examples of primary coolant loop restraint applications are illustrated

  18. Physical Restraint Use With Elderly Patients: Perceptions of Nurses and Nursing Assistants in Spanish Acute Care Hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fariña-López, Emilio; Estévez-Guerra, Gabriel J; Polo-Luque, M Luz; Hanzeliková Pogrányivá, Alica; Penelo, Eva

    Physical restraint is often used during the hospitalization of elderly people. However, this procedure is associated with adverse outcomes; therefore, it is necessary to be aware of the circumstances that promote restraint use, such as the perceptions of professionals who use it. The purpose of the research was to determine the situations in which nursing staff considered the use of physical restraint as most important and to evaluate the possible associations with the sociodemographic and professional variables. A descriptive cross-sectional multicenter study was carried out in 52 units of eight Spanish acute hospitals. A survey of registered nurses and nursing assistants was used to collect data related to sociodemographic characteristics, experience, training in restraint use, and the Perception of Restraint Use Questionnaire (PRUQ)-which assesses the perceived importance of reasons frequently given for the use of physical restraint. The sample comprised 508 registered nurses and 347 nursing assistants. Almost all (98%) had used physical restraint, and 82% thought their training in the use of physical restraint was insufficient. Nursing assistants scored higher than registered nurses (p important in restraint use. Both registered nurses and nursing assistants considered restraint as most important in the prevention of falls and in the removal of medical devices such as intravenous lines and urinary catheters. Associations between PRUQ total score and other variables (unit type, sociodemographic factors, hospital) were nonsignificant. The professionals considered restraint as very important in preventing safety problems. In order to improve the quality of care, it is essential to identify the factors that can have an effect on the application of physical restraint. Educational programs are of fundamental importance, but to be more effective in reducing the use of physical restraint, they should address commonly held views on rationale for restraint use and be

  19. Can child restraint product information developed using consumer testing sustain correct use 6 months after child restraint purchase? Study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Julie; Elkington, Jane; Hall, Alexandra; Keay, Lisa; Charlton, Judith L; Hunter, Kate; Koppel, Sjaan; Hayen, Andrew; Bilston, Lynne E

    2018-03-07

    With long-standing and widespread high rates of errors in child restraint use, there is a need to identify effective methods to address this problem. Information supplied with products at the point of sale may be a potentially efficient delivery point for such a countermeasure. The aim of this study is to establish whether product materials developed using a consumer-driven approach reduce errors in restraint use among purchasers of new child restraint systems. A cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) will be conducted. Retail stores (n=22) in the greater Sydney area will be randomised into intervention sites (n=11) and control sites (n=11), stratified by geographical and socioeconomic indicators. Participants (n=836) will enter the study on purchase of a restraint. Outcome measures are errors in installation of the restraint as observed by a trained researcher during a 6-month follow-up home assessment, and adjustment checks made by the parent when the child is placed into the restraint (observed using naturalistic methods). Process evaluation measures will also be collected during the home visit. An intention-to-treat approach will be used for all analyses. Correct use and adjustment checks made by the parent will be compared between control and intervention groups using a logistic regression model. The number of installation errors between groups will be compared using Poisson regression. This cRCT will determine the effectiveness of targeted, consumer-driven information on actual error rates in use of restraints. More broadly, it may provide a best practice model for developing safety product information. ACTRN12617001252303p; Pre-results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Free child passenger restraints for patients in an urban pediatric medical home: effects on caregiver behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brixey, Suzanne; Guse, Clare E; Ngui, Emmanuel

    2009-10-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are a leading cause of death in children despite the availability of effective child passenger restraints that reduce morbidity and mortality. Inappropriate restraint is more common in minority and low-income populations. Removing barriers by distributing child passenger restraint systems (CPRS) and providing education has been 1 approach to improve child safety. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of providing no-cost CPRS in combination with targeted education to improve restraint use for low-income, minority, and urban children in a medical home. This prospective, non-randomized, community-based cohort study used a certified car seat technician to provide CPRS and training to the caregivers of 101 children when those caregivers reported not owning the appropriate type of restraint system during the index clinic visit. In the first 3 months of follow-up, caregivers were 2.4 times more likely to report appropriate use of CPRS: relative risk 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7 to 3.5). Reported improvement declined slightly between months 4 and 9. Appropriate restraint significantly improved, yet rates remained suboptimal. Multifactoral approaches are needed to understand why the set of patients studied and other at-risk populations may not use child restraints properly even when given access and information.

  1. Cleaning of conveyor belt materials using ultrasound in a thin layer of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, L; Holck, A; Rud, I; Samah, D; Tierce, P; Favre, M; Kure, C F

    2013-08-01

    Cleaning of conveyor belts in the food industry is imperative for preventing the buildup of microorganisms that can contaminate food. New technologies for decreasing water and energy consumption of cleaning systems are desired. Ultrasound can be used for cleaning a wide range of materials. Most commonly, baths containing fairly large amounts of water are used. One possibility to reduce water consumption is to use ultrasonic cavitation in a thin water film on a flat surface, like a conveyor belt. In order to test this possibility, a model system was set up, consisting of an ultrasound transducer/probe with a 70-mm-diameter flat bottom, operating at 19.8 kHz, and contaminated conveyor belt materials in the form of coupons covered with a thin layer of water or water with detergent. Ultrasound was then applied on the water surface at different power levels (from 46 to 260 W), exposure times (10 and 20 s), and distances (2 to 20 mm). The model was used to test two different belt materials with various contamination types, such as biofilms formed by bacteria in carbohydrate- or protein-fat-based soils, dried microorganisms (bacteria, yeasts, and mold spores), and allergens. Ultrasound treatment increased the reduction of bacteria and yeast by 1 to 2 log CFU under the most favorable conditions compared with water or water-detergent controls. The effect was dependent on the type of belt material, the power applied, the exposure time, and the distance between the probe and the belt coupon. Generally, dried microorganisms were more easily removed than biofilms. The effect on mold spores was variable and appeared to be species and material dependent. Spiked allergens were also efficiently removed by using ultrasound. The results in this study pave the way for new cleaning designs for flat conveyor belts, with possibilities for savings of water, detergent, and energy consumption.

  2. An International Survey of Approaches to Chair Restraint of Nonhuman Primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Jennifer L; Bloomsmith, Mollie A; Prescott, Mark J

    2017-10-01

    Specifically designed restraint chairs are the preferred method of restraint for research studies that require NHP to sit in place for sustained periods of time. In light of increasing emphasis on refinement of restraint to improve animal wellbeing, it is important to have a better understanding of this potentially stressful procedure. Although chair restraint is used internationally, very little published information is available on this subject. We developed a survey to obtain an overview of equipment, procedures, and plans for improvement regarding chair restraint. We received 101 responses from people working in academic, government, contract research, and pharmaceutical laboratories within the Americas, Europe and Asia. Findings indicate that the majority of laboratories using restraint chairs work with macaque species. Restraint chairs are used for a wide range of procedures, including cognitive testing, recording neuronal activity, functional MRI, intravenous infusion, and blood sampling. Approximately 2/3 of laboratories use an enclosed 'box chair,' which the animal is trained to enter and then to extend its head through an opening on the top of the chair; the remaining one third of laboratories use an 'open chair' design, in which manual handling or the pole-and-collar system is used to transfer and secure the animal into the chair. Respondents reported that when selecting the type of chair to use, they considered comfort for the animal, ease of use, and the ability to adjust fit between animals of different sizes. Various training methods and timeframes are used to prepare macaques for restraint chair procedures. Several laboratories are incorporating greater use of positive reinforcement training. The community that uses these restraint procedures needs to work together to define best practice; our survey results can help in that effort.

  3. Restraint use in home care: a qualitative study from a nursing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmans, Kristien; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Paquay, Louis; Van Gansbeke, Hendrik; Boonen, Steven; Milisen, Koen

    2014-02-05

    Despite the growing demand for home care and preliminary evidence suggesting that the use of restraint is common practice in home care, research about restraint use in this setting is scarce. To gain insight into the use of restraints in home care from the perspective of nurses, we conducted a qualitative explorative study. We conducted semi-structured face-to-face interviews of 14 nurses from Wit-Gele Kruis, a home-care organization in Flanders, Belgium. Interview transcripts were analyzed using the Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven. Our findings revealed a lack of clarity among nurses about the concept of restraint in home care. Nurses reported that cognitively impaired older persons, who sometimes lived alone, were restrained or locked up without continuous follow-up. The interviews indicated that the patient's family played a dominant role in the decision to use restraints. Reasons for using restraints included "providing relief to the family" and "keeping the patient at home as long as possible to avoid admission to a nursing home." The nurses stated that general practitioners had no clear role in deciding whether to use restraints. These findings suggest that the issue of restraint use in home care is even more complex than in long-term residential care settings and acute hospital settings. They raise questions about the ethical and legal responsibilities of home-care providers, nurses, and general practitioners. There is an urgent need for further research to carefully document the use of restraints in home care and to better understand it so that appropriate guidance can be provided to healthcare workers.

  4. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  5. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y.; Tomono, K.; Takahashi, H.; Uchida, T. [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  6. Overview of core designs and requirements/criteria for core restraint systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutherland, W.H.

    1984-01-01

    The requirements and lifetime criteria for the design of a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Core Restraint System is presented. A discussion of the three types of core restraint systems used in LMFBR core design is given. Details of the core restraint system selected for FFTF are presented and the reasons for this selection given. Structural analysis procedures being used to manage the FFTF assembly irradiations are discussed. Efforts that are ongoing to validate the calculational methods and lifetime criteria are presented. (author)

  7. CLASSIFICATION OF RESTRAINTS IN THE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEM OF A COLD-FORMED PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Łukowicz

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the restraints in the optimization problem. This is an important and complicated issue because it requires taking into account a vast range of information related to the design and production. In order to describe the relations of a specific optimization problem, it is essential to adopt appropriate criteria and to collect information on all kinds of restraints, i.e. boundary conditions. The following paper verifies the various restraints and defines three subsets: design assumptions, technological limitations and standard conditions. The provided classification was made with reference to the analysis of the construction applicability of the newly patented cold-formed profile.

  8. [Physical and pharmacological restraints in geriatric and gerontology services and centers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Cordero, Primitivo; López Trigo, José Antonio; Maíllo Pedraz, Herminio; Paz Rubio, José María

    2015-01-01

    Physical and pharmacological restraints are a controversial issue in the context of geriatric care due to their moral, ethical, social and legal repercussions and, despite this fact, no specific legislation exists at a national level. The use of restraints is being questioned with growing frequency, as there are studies that demonstrate that restraints do not reduce the number of falls or their consequences, but rather can increase them, cause complications, injuries and potentially fatal accidents. Restraints are not always used rationally, despite compromising a fundamental human right, that is, freedom, protected in the Constitution, as well as values and principles, such as dignity and personal self-esteem. There are centers where restraints are applied to more than 50% of patients, and in some cases without the consent of their legal representatives. On some occasions, restraints are used for attaining organizational or environmental objectives, such as complying with tight schedules, and for reducing or avoiding the supervision of patients who walk erratically and, at times, are used indefinitely. Even greater confusion exists with respect to the emerging concept of chemical or pharmacological restraints, since no conceptual framework exists based on scientific evidence, and with sufficient consensus for guiding healthcare workers. In this context, the Sociedad Española de Geriatría y Gerontología (SEGG--Spanish Geriatrics and Gerontology Society), aware of the significance and transcendence of the issue, and in an attempt to preserve and guarantee maximum freedom, dignity and self-esteem, on the one hand, and to ensure the maximum integrity and legal certainty of the persons cared for in geriatric and gerontology services and centers, on the other, decided to create an "Interdisciplinary Committee on Restraints" made up by members from different disciplines and members of SEGG Working Groups or Committees, external health care workers, groups

  9. Dietary restraint partially mediates the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating only in lean individuals: The importance of accounting for body mass in studies of restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Ashley Coffino

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data that suggests impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI. Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal weight (BMI < 25, 65.8%, n = 333 or overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173 and completed the restrained eating subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the difficulties with impulse control subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but dietary restraint was not. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors.

  10. Dietary Restraint Partially Mediates the Relationship between Impulsivity and Binge Eating Only in Lean Individuals: The Importance of Accounting for Body Mass in Studies of Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffino, Jaime A.; Orloff, Natalia C.; Hormes, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is characteristic of eating and weight-related disorders such as binge eating disorder, bulimia nervosa, and obesity. In light of data suggest impulsivity is associated with overeating specifically in restrained eaters, this study sought to elucidate the exact nature of the associations between these variables, hypothesizing that the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating is mediated by restrained eating. We further hypothesized that the role of dietary restraint as a mediator would be moderated by body mass index (BMI). Study participants (n = 506, 50.6% female) were categorized based on self-reported BMI as under- and normal-weight (BMI overweight and obese (BMI ≥ 25, 34.2%, n = 173) and completed the “restrained eating” subscale of the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire, the “impulse control difficulties” subscale of the Difficulties with Emotion Regulation Scale, and the Binge Eating Scale. Findings provide initial evidence for the hypothesized moderated mediation model, with dietary restraint partially mediating the relationship between impulsivity and binge eating severity only in lean respondents. In respondents with overweight or obesity, impulsivity was significantly correlated with binge eating severity, but not with dietary restraint. Findings inform our conceptualization of dietary restraint as a possible risk factor for binge eating and highlight the importance of accounting for body mass in research on the impact of dietary restraint on eating behaviors. PMID:27757092

  11. Chronic restraint stress inhibits hair growth via substance P mediated by reactive oxygen species in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nan; Wang, Lin-Hui; Guo, Ling-Ling; Wang, Guo-Qing; Zhou, Xi-Ping; Jiang, Yan; Shang, Jing; Murao, Koji; Chen, Jing-Wei; Fu, Wen-Qing; Zhang, Guo-Xing

    2013-01-01

    Solid evidence has demonstrated that psychoemotional stress induced alteration of hair cycle through neuropeptide substance P (SP) mediated immune response, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in brain-skin-axis regulation system remains unknown. The present study aims to investigate possible mechanisms of ROS in regulation of SP-mast cell signal pathway in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a model of chronic psychoemotional stress) which induced abnormal of hair cycle. Our results have demonstrated that CRS actually altered hair cycle by inhibiting hair follicle growth in vivo, prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. Up-regulation of SP protein expression in cutaneous peripheral nerve fibers and activation of mast cell were observed accompanied with increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in CRS mice skin. In addition, SP receptor antagonist (RP67580) reduced mast cell activations and lipid peroxidation levels as well as increased GSH-Px activity and normalized hair cycle. Furthermore, antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger) also restored hair cycle, reduced SP protein expression and mast cell activation. Our study provides the first solid evidence for how ROS play a role in regulation of psychoemotional stress induced SP-Mast cell pathway which may provide a convincing rationale for antioxidant application in clinical treatment with psychological stress induced hair loss.

  12. Chronic restraint stress inhibits hair growth via substance P mediated by reactive oxygen species in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUNDS: Solid evidence has demonstrated that psychoemotional stress induced alteration of hair cycle through neuropeptide substance P (SP mediated immune response, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS in brain-skin-axis regulation system remains unknown. OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to investigate possible mechanisms of ROS in regulation of SP-mast cell signal pathway in chronic restraint stress (CRS, a model of chronic psychoemotional stress which induced abnormal of hair cycle. METHODS AND RESULTS: Our results have demonstrated that CRS actually altered hair cycle by inhibiting hair follicle growth in vivo, prolonging the telogen stage and delaying subsequent anagen and catagen stage. Up-regulation of SP protein expression in cutaneous peripheral nerve fibers and activation of mast cell were observed accompanied with increase of lipid peroxidation levels and reduction of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px in CRS mice skin. In addition, SP receptor antagonist (RP67580 reduced mast cell activations and lipid peroxidation levels as well as increased GSH-Px activity and normalized hair cycle. Furthermore, antioxidant Tempol (a free radical scavenger also restored hair cycle, reduced SP protein expression and mast cell activation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides the first solid evidence for how ROS play a role in regulation of psychoemotional stress induced SP-Mast cell pathway which may provide a convincing rationale for antioxidant application in clinical treatment with psychological stress induced hair loss.

  13. Dietary fish oil does not protect rats exposed to restraint or sleep deprivation stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakonstantinou, Emilia; Ryan, Donna H; Harris, Ruth B S

    2003-04-01

    It has been suggested that fish oil (FO) prevents weight loss caused by physiological stress such as cancer, injury, or cardiovascular disorders. Previously, we observed that a high-fat diet containing corn and coconut oil exaggerated weight loss caused by the mixed physiological and psychological stress of repeated restraint (RR). This experiment tested the effects of a high-fat diet containing FO as the predominant lipid source in rats exposed to the mixed physiological and psychological stress of either RR or sleep deprivation (SD). FO did not prevent stress-induced hypophagia or weight loss in RR or SD rats but exaggerated the negative effects of stress on body weight in SD rats by promoting loss of lean body mass. RR caused a reduction in body fat content irrespective of dietary treatment. In SD rats, both stress and FO independently reduced body fat mass. FO did not have any effect on adrenal and thymus weights during RR or SD and did not influence corticosterone levels after 1 h of RR or after 48 or 96 h of SD. In conclusion, our results suggest that high levels of dietary FO do not improve the response to stress in rats exposed to mixed stressors.

  14. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  15. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  16. Theoretical study of influence of belt tension of intermediate belt conveyor drive on value of zone of relative slip of traction and carrying belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, K. A.; Grishin, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    The issue of the influence of tension of the traction belt of intermediate drive of the multi-drive belt conveyor on the value of zones of relative rest and sliding of the traction and carrying belts is considered. A variety of values of proportional band of tractive effort regulation of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor while it is being controlled by the tensioning device was obtained in percentage terms. Recommendations on the control of the intermediate drive of belt conveyor by means of the tensioning device when starting and productivity changes are provided.

  17. Examination of ethical dilemmas experienced by adult intensive care unit nurses in physical restraint practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yönt, Gülendam Hakverdioğlu; Korhan, Esra Akin; Dizer, Berna; Gümüş, Fatma; Koyuncu, Rukiye

    2014-01-01

    Nurses are more likely to face the dilemma of whether to resort to physical restraints or not and have a hard time making that decision. This is a descriptive study. A total of 55 nurses participated in the research. For data collection, a question form developed by researchers to determine perceptions of ethical dilemmas by nurses in the application of physical restraint was used. A descriptive analysis was made by calculating the mean, standard deviation, and maximum and minimum values. The nurses expressed (36.4%) having difficulty in deciding to use physical restraint. Nurses reported that they experience ethical dilemmas mainly in relation to the ethic principles of nonmaleficence, beneficence, and convenience. We have concluded that majority of nurses working in critical care units apply physical restraint to patients, although they are facing ethical dilemmas concerning harm and benefit principles during the application.

  18. Guidance for compassionate restraint of small children to prevent injuries with epinephrine autoinjectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Martha V

    2018-03-29

    Without securing a child properly, injuries can happen with the use of pediatric epinephrine autoinjectors (EAI), and lacerations and embedded needles have been reported. Health care providers should ensure that instruction is provided to parents on how to hold a child during an injection with an EAI. To demonstrate the compassionate restraint of small children during an allergic emergency to ensure the safe use of an EAI. A patient was used to illustrate a compassionate restraint technique during a mock injection with an EAI. One possible technique was illustrated here to reinforce the need for complete, yet compassionate restraint of small children during the use of an EAI. The exact position intended to be used by parents or caregivers will need to be practiced with their children to ensure a safe injection in the event of an allergic emergency. Reinforcement of proper EAI use and visual guidance that illustrate compassionate restraint can potentially prevent EAI-related injuries.

  19. Vitamin E Prevents Cold Wrap Restraint Stress-Induced Intestinal Fluid Transport Alterations in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Burdick

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress may alter gastrointestinal absorptive function by increasing the quantity of intestinal free radicals or by lowering endogenous intestinal free radical scavenging capacity. Vitamin E has been shown to be a potent endogenous antioxidant and free radical scavenger under both physiological and pathological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine whether cold wrap restraint stress altered in vivo intestinal fluid absorption in rats, and whether vitamin E administration prior to the induction of cold wrap restraint stress could prevent such changes in intestinal secretion. Jejunal, ileal and colonic fluid and electrolyte transport rates were measured in vivo using an isolated loop technique. Cold wrap restraint stress reduced in vivo fluid absorption in the ileum and colon, but not in the jejunum. Administration of vitamin E prior to the cold wrap restraint stress procedure completely prevented this alteration of ileal and colonic fluid absorption.

  20. Misinformation contributing to safety issues in vehicle restraints for children : a rural/urban comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    This study sought to determine current knowledge-levels of health care providers regarding child passenger safety issues and frequency of counseling on this topic. In addition, this study explored the differences in child restraint knowledge levels a...

  1. Fabrication of a small animal restraint for synchrotron biomedical imaging using a rapid prototyper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Ying; Zhang Honglin; McCrea, Richard; Bewer, Brian; Wiebe, Sheldon; Nichol, Helen; Ryan, Christopher; Wysokinski, Tomasz; Chapman, Dean

    2007-01-01

    Biomedical research at synchrotron facilities may involve imaging live animals that must remain motionless for extended periods of time to obtain quality images. Even breathing movements reduce image quality but on the other hand excessive restraint of animals increases morbidity and mortality. We describe a humane animal restraint designed to eliminate head movements while promoting animal survival. This paper describes how an animal restraint that conforms to the shape of an animal's head was fabricated by a 3D prototyper. The method used to translate medical computed tomography (CT) data to a 3D stereolithography format is described and images of its use at the Canadian Light Source (CLS) are shown. This type of restraint holds great promise in improving image quality and repeatability while reducing stress on experimental animals

  2. Effect of Restraint Stress during Gestation on Pentylenetetrazol-Induced Epileptic Behaviors in Rat Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pariya Hashemi

    2013-09-01

    Prenatal restraint stress potentiated PTZ-induced epileptic behavior, age and sex dependently, probably due to alteration of neural and endocrine pathways during developmental process. Male and younger rats were more sensitive to stress than female and older ones.

  3. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  4. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  5. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  6. ANALYSIS OF CRACKING DUE TO SHRINKAGE RESTRAINT ON THE MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE

    OpenAIRE

    Michou , A.; Hilaire , A.; Benboudjema , F.; NAHAS , G; WYNIECKI , P; Berthaud , Y.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Shrinkage may lead to tensile stresses and cracking in reinforced concrete structures due to several mechanisms: gradients of drying shrinkage, restraint of autogeneous and drying shrinkage by reinforcement or concrete members of different thickness or ages etc. This contribution focuses on the effect of drying shrinkage on the behavior of concrete tie members, with a focus on the restraint by reinforcement. It is showed that, if it is not taken into account, numerical...

  7. The evolution of the doctrine of restraint of trade in Australia: a law reform perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, John Wei-Ting

    2017-01-01

    This thesis examines the present state of the common law doctrine of restraint of trade from a law reform perspective. The doctrine was developed in England between the 1600s and mid-1800s and its evolution over the centuries has been a slow and ongoing process. The present state of the doctrine and its application in the Australian jurisdiction presents a challenging set of circumstances due to the difficulties faced by contracting parties when they wish to engage in restraint of trade. ...

  8. Nonconformities in real-world fatal crashes--electronic stability control and seat belt reminders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Many new safety systems are entering the market. Vision Zero is a safety strategy aiming at the elimination of fatalities and impairing injuries by the use of a holistic model for safe traffic to develop a safe system. The aim of this article is to analyze fatalities in modern cars with respect to the Vision Zero model with special respect to electronic stability control (ESC) systems and modern seat belt reminders (SBRs). The model is used to identify and understand cases where cars with ESC systems lost control and where occupants were unbelted in a seat with seat belt reminders under normal driving conditions. The model for safe traffic was used to analyze in-depth studies of fatal crashes with respect to seat belt use and loss of control. Vehicles from 2003 and later in crashes from January 2004 to mid-2010 were analyzed. The data were analyzed case by case. Cars that were equipped with ESC systems and lost control and occupants not using the seat belt in a seat with a seat belt reminder were considered as nonconformities. A total of 138 fatal crashes involving 152 fatally injured occupants were analyzed. Cars with ESC systems had fewer loss-of-control-relevant cases than cars without ESC systems. Thirteen percent of the ESC-equipped vehicles had loss-of-control-relevant crashes and 36 percent of the cars without ESC systems had loss-of-control-relevant crashes. The analysis indicates that only one car of the 9 equipped with ESC that lost control did it on a road surface with relevant friction when driving within the speed restriction of the road. In seats with seat belt reminders that are in accordance with the European New Car Assessment Programme's (Euro NCAP) protocol, 93 percent of the occupants were using a seat belt. In seats without reminders this number was 74 percent. This study shows that ESC systems result in a very significant reduction in fatal crashes, especially under normal driving conditions. Under extreme driving conditions such as speeding

  9. CALCULATION OF TENSION FORCE OF BELT CONVEYOR

    OpenAIRE

    Ismet Ibishi; Ahmet Latifi; Gzim Ibishi; Kadri Sejdiu; Melihate Shala-Galica; Bekim Latifi

    2012-01-01

    In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension ...

  10. Methodology of estimating restraint use in children: roadside observation or parking lot interview survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Rothman, Linda; Slater, Morgan; Kolga, Carol; Hussein, Abdul; Boase, Paul; Howard, Andrew

    2010-11-01

    To compare the differences in Canadian national estimates of correct child restraint use obtained using the standard roadside observation method compared to a detailed parking lot interview. A multi-stage stratified survey design was used to conduct roadside observational and interview data collection at 182 randomly selected sites across Canada. For each site, a roadside intersection location and a parking lot location were used for the roadside observational survey and the interview respectively. Weighted estimates of correct restraint use from both locations were compared. Estimates of correct restraint use were significantly higher for all children under the age of 9 in the parking lot sample. The largest discrepancy between the two samples was in booster seat aged children (ages 4-8) where 29.1% versus 67.8% of children were observed to be correctly restrained using the roadside and the parking lot methodology respectively. There was a 67% participation refusal rate in the parking lot survey. There are specific advantages and limitations to both survey designs. The purpose of the data collection must be considered when selecting the methodology. Parking lot surveys provide richer data regarding restraint use/misuse. Estimates of correct restraint use must be approached with caution due to the effect of consent bias resulting in over inflation of estimates. Roadside observation is adequate and appropriate for providing national estimates of correct restraint use. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Rappertk: a versatile engine for discrete restraint-based conformational sampling of macromolecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmali Anjum M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Macromolecular structures are modeled by conformational optimization within experimental and knowledge-based restraints. Discrete restraint-based sampling generates high-quality structures within these restraints and facilitates further refinement in a continuous all-atom energy landscape. This approach has been used successfully for protein loop modeling, comparative modeling and electron density fitting in X-ray crystallography. Results Here we present a software toolkit (Rappertk which generalizes discrete restraint-based sampling for use in structural biology. Modular design and multi-layered architecture enables Rappertk to sample conformations of any macromolecule at many levels of detail and within a variety of experimental restraints. Performance against a Cα-tracing benchmark shows that the efficiency has not suffered despite the overhead required by this flexibility. We demonstrate the toolkit's capabilities by building high-quality β-sheets and by introducing restraint-driven sampling. RNA sampling is demonstrated by rebuilding a protein-RNA interface. Ability to construct arbitrary ligands is used in sampling protein-ligand interfaces within electron density. Finally, secondary structure and shape information derived from EM are combined to generate multiple conformations of a protein consistent with the observed density. Conclusion Through its modular design and ease of use, Rappertk enables exploration of a wide variety of interesting avenues in structural biology. This toolkit, with illustrative examples, is freely available to academic users from http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/~swanand/mysite/rtk/index.html.

  12. Rappertk: a versatile engine for discrete restraint-based conformational sampling of macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Swanand P; Karmali, Anjum M; Blundell, Tom L

    2007-03-21

    Macromolecular structures are modeled by conformational optimization within experimental and knowledge-based restraints. Discrete restraint-based sampling generates high-quality structures within these restraints and facilitates further refinement in a continuous all-atom energy landscape. This approach has been used successfully for protein loop modeling, comparative modeling and electron density fitting in X-ray crystallography. Here we present a software toolkit (Rappertk) which generalizes discrete restraint-based sampling for use in structural biology. Modular design and multi-layered architecture enables Rappertk to sample conformations of any macromolecule at many levels of detail and within a variety of experimental restraints. Performance against a Calpha-tracing benchmark shows that the efficiency has not suffered despite the overhead required by this flexibility. We demonstrate the toolkit's capabilities by building high-quality beta-sheets and by introducing restraint-driven sampling. RNA sampling is demonstrated by rebuilding a protein-RNA interface. Ability to construct arbitrary ligands is used in sampling protein-ligand interfaces within electron density. Finally, secondary structure and shape information derived from EM are combined to generate multiple conformations of a protein consistent with the observed density. Through its modular design and ease of use, Rappertk enables exploration of a wide variety of interesting avenues in structural biology. This toolkit, with illustrative examples, is freely available to academic users from http://www-cryst.bioc.cam.ac.uk/~swanand/mysite/rtk/index.html.

  13. Effects of chronic restraint stress on body weight, food intake, and hypothalamic gene expressions in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Joo Yeon; Lee, Dong Hoon; Kang, Sang Soo

    2013-12-01

    Stress affects body weight and food intake, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We evaluated the changes in body weight and food intake of ICR male mice subjected to daily 2 hours restraint stress for 15 days. Hypothalamic gene expression profiling was analyzed by cDNA microarray. Daily body weight and food intake measurements revealed that both parameters decreased rapidly after initiating daily restraint stress. Body weights of stressed mice then remained significantly lower than the control body weights, even though food intake slowly recovered to 90% of the control intake at the end of the experiment. cDNA microarray analysis revealed that chronic restraint stress affects the expression of hypothalamic genes possibly related to body weight control. Since decreases of daily food intake and body weight were remarkable in days 1 to 4 of restraint, we examined the expression of food intake-related genes in the hypothalamus. During these periods, the expressions of ghrelin and pro-opiomelanocortin mRNA were significantly changed in mice undergoing restraint stress. Moreover, daily serum corticosterone levels gradually increased, while leptin levels significantly decreased. The present study demonstrates that restraint stress affects body weight and food intake by initially modifying canonical food intake-related genes and then later modifying other genes involved in energy metabolism. These genetic changes appear to be mediated, at least in part, by corticosterone.

  14. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of LATCH versus Available Seatbelt Installation of Rear Facing Child Restraint Systems on Head Injury Criteria for 6 Month Old Infants in Rear End Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jamie R; O'Donel, Carrie A; Leiss, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The Lower Anchor and Tethers for CHildren (LATCH) system was introduced in vehicles made after September 1, 2002 and intended to make installation of rear and forward-facing child safety seats easier. Due to the lack of rear impact testing of RFCRS required per the Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS), the purpose of this study was to explore the effects, if any, of installation method of RFCRS on the performance of commonly purchased makes and models of RFCRS. Specifically, we hypothesize that in a 48 km/h (29.8 MPH) rear-end collision, installation of RFCRS using the LATCH system will result in higher Head Injury Criteria (HIC) values when compared to using the available lap/shoulder seatbelt (Emergency Locking Retractor - ELR or Automatic Locking Retractor - ALR). The test matrix included 36 rear impact sled tests conducted using 3 installation methods on 3 models of RFCRS: the Graco SnugRide® with and without the base, the Britax Chaperone with base-mounted anti-rebound bar, and the Evenflo Tribute®, a model of convertible rearward/forward facing restraint system used in the rearward facing mode. The seats were installed using the LATCH system, ELR lap/shoulder belts, or ALR lap/shoulder belts in seating positions 4 and 6 on a vehicle buck mounted to the sled test base. The infant seat and 6 month old CRABI anthropometric test device (ATD) installation methods were in accordance with standards set forth in the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) FMVSS No. 213, Child Restraint Systems. All tests were conducted on pneumatic controlled acceleration sled (HYGE, Inc., PA, USA) at 48 km/h. Installation of infant seat type RFCRS using the LATCH system resulted in higher HIC15 values when compared to using the available lap/shoulder seatbelt (ELR or ALR). The mean HIC15 values were most severe when infant seat type RFCRS were installed using LATCH (Graco SnugRide® HIC15 = 394 and Britax Chaperone HIC15 = 133) compared to using either

  16. Anticipatory precrash restraint sensor feasibility study: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kercel, S.W.; Dress, W.B.

    1995-08-01

    This report explores feasibility of an anticipatory precrash restraint sensor. The foundation principle is the anticipation mechanism found at a primitive level of biological intelligence and originally formalized by the mathematical biologist Robert Rosen. A system based on formal anticipatory principles should significantly outperform conventional technologies. It offers the prospect of high payoff in prevention of death and injury. Sensors and processes are available to provide a good, fast, and inexpensive description of the present dynamical state of the vehicle to the embedded system model in the anticipation engine. The experimental part of this study found that inexpensive radar in a real-world setting does return useful data on target dynamics. The data produced by a radar system can be converted to target dynamical information by good, fast and inexpensive signal-processing techniques. Not only is the anticipatory sensor feasible, but further development under the sponsorship of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration is necessary and desirable. There are a number of possible lines of follow-on investigation. The level of effort and expected benefits of various alternatives are discussed.

  17. Bioinspired vesicle restraint and mobilization using a biopolymer scaffold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chao; Lee, Jae-Ho; Raghavan, Srinivasa R; Payne, Gregory F

    2006-03-28

    Biology employs vesicles to package molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters) for their targeted delivery in response to specific spatiotemporal stimuli. Biology is also capable of employing localized stimuli to exert an additional control on vesicle trafficking; intact vesicles can be restrained (or mobilized) by association with (or release from) a cytoskeletal scaffold. We mimic these capabilities by tethering vesicles to a biopolymer scaffold that can undergo (i) stimuli-responsive network formation (for vesicle restraint) and (ii) enzyme-catalyzed network cleavage (for vesicle mobilization). Specifically, we use the aminopolysaccharide chitosan as our scaffold and graft a small number of hydrophobic moieties onto its backbone. These grafted hydrophobes can insert into the bilayer to tether vesicles to the scaffold. Under acidic conditions, the vesicles are not restrained by the hydrophobically modified chitosan (hm-chitosan) because this scaffold is soluble. Increasing the pH to neutral or basic conditions allows chitosan to form interpolymer associations that yield a strong, insoluble restraining network. Enzymatic hydrolysis of this scaffold by chitosanase cleaves the network and mobilizes intact vesicles. Potentially, this approach will provide a controllable means to store and liberate vesicle-based reagents/therapeutics for microfluidic/medical applications.

  18. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  19. Evaluation of safety belt education program for employees

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    This research was designed to determine the effectiveness of a nine-month safety belt educational program, utilizing various informational materials developed by NHTSA, in increasing safety belt usage among corporate employees. The materials used inc...

  20. A study on the vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Furu; Yuan Hongyong; Fan Weicheng; Yu Zengliang

    2001-01-01

    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency is generally around several Hz

  1. Effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size distribution in the rim structure of UO2 fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Je-Yong; Koo, Yang-Hyun; Cheon, Jin-Sik; Lee, Byung-Ho; Sohn, Dong-Seong

    2005-01-01

    Generally, the bubble size in the rim structure of UO 2 is not dependent on the fuel burnup and the bubble pressure is higher than that in the equilibrium condition. However it was also observed that if the fuel pellet is not restrained, the size of the bubbles in the rim structure could be larger than that in the restraint condition. Although the wide variety of rim bubble sizes and porosities possibly result from an external restrain effect, the quantitative method to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble distribution in the rim is not available at the moment. In this paper, a method is developed which can be used to analyze the effect of PCMI restraint on the bubble distribution in the rim structure of UO 2 fuel based on the data in the literatures. The total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume could be derived by a summation of the number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble in a unit rim volume. The number of Xe atoms of each rim bubble could be calculated by the Van der Waals equation of state and the pressure expressed by p=σ+C/r, where C is an unknown constant to be determined as a function of the temperature and the burnup. On the other hand, the total number of Xe atoms in the rim bubbles per unit rim volume can also be calculated by Xe depression data. If the fuel pellet is not restrained, the uniform hydrostatic stress, σ is zero. Hence if the data of the fuel disk without a restraint is used, a constant C can be obtained at 823K and a local burnup of 90 GWd/t. Although the local burnup of PCMI restraint case is slightly different from that without PCMI restraint, the value derived above is used for the analysis of PCMI restraint case. The calculated bubble distribution with PCMI restraint was similar to the measured one. Because the effect of PCMI restraint on bubble size increased with the bubble size, the development of a large bubble was suppressed. Hence, the PCMI restraint caused a typical bubble size in the rim and

  2. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  3. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Energetic electrons are trapped in the Earth's radiation belts which occupy a toroidal region between 3 and 7 RE above the Earth's surface. Rapid loss of electrons from the radiation belts is known as dropouts. The source and loss mechanisms regulating the radiation belts population are not yet understood entirely, ...

  4. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  5. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an. 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW--SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  6. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  7. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  8. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  9. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  10. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  11. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  12. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  13. 2014 safety belt usage survey in Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The objective of the survey summarized in this report was to establish a statewide safety belt usage rate in Kentucky for 2014. This rate can be compared to those determined from previous surveys. The 2014 statewide survey continues to document the i...

  14. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  15. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  16. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  17. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  18. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  19. Physical restraint use among nursing home residents: A comparison of two data collection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voyer Philippe

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In view of the issues surrounding physical restraint use, it is important to have a method of measurement as valid and reliable as possible. We determined the sensitivity and specificity of physical restraint use a reported by nursing staff and b reviewed from medical and nursing records in nursing home settings, by comparing these methods with direct observation. Methods We sampled eight care units in skilled nursing homes, seven care units in nursing homes and one long-term care unit in a hospital, from eight facilities which included 28 nurses and 377 residents. Physical restraint use was assessed the day following three periods of direct observation by two different means: interview with one or several members of the regular nursing staff, and review of medical and nursing records. Sensitivity and specificity values were calculated according to 2-by-2 contingency tables. Differences between the methods were assessed using the phi coefficient. Other information collected included: demographic characteristics, disruptive behaviors, body alignment problems, cognitive and functional skills. Results Compared to direct observation (gold standard, reported restraint use by nursing staff yielded a sensitivity of 87.4% at a specificity of 93.7% (phi = 0.84. When data was reviewed from subjects' medical and nursing records, sensitivity was reduced to 74.8%, and specificity to 86.3% (phi = 0.54. Justifications for restraint use including risk for falls, agitation, body alignment problems and aggressiveness were associated with the use of physical restraints. Conclusions The interview of nursing staff and the review of medical and nursing records are both valid and reliable techniques for measuring physical restraint use among nursing home residents. Higher sensitivity and specificity values were achieved when nursing staff was interviewed as compared to reviewing medical records. This study suggests that the interview of nursing

  20. State and trait positive and negative affectivity in relation to restraint intention and binge eating among adults with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathryn E; Mason, Tyler B; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2018-01-01

    Restraint and binge eating are cognitive and behavioral processes that are particularly important in the context of obesity. While extensive research has focused on negative affect (NA) in relation to binge eating, it is unclear whether affective valence (i.e., positive versus negative) and stability (i.e., state versus trait) differentially predict binge eating and restraint among individuals with obesity. Distinguishing between valence and stability helps elucidate under which affective contexts, and among which individuals, restraint and binge eating are likely to occur. Therefore, the present study examined relationships between trait and state levels of NA and positive affect (PA), binge eating, and restraint intention among 50 adults with obesity (BMI ≥ 30). Participants completed baseline assessments followed by a two-week ecological momentary assessment (EMA) protocol. Structural equation modeling assessed a trait model of person-level measures of affect in relation to overall levels of binge eating and restraint intention, while general estimating equations (GEEs) assessed state models examining relationships between momentary affect and subsequent binge eating and restraint. The trait model indicated higher overall NA was related to more binge eating episodes, but was unrelated to overall restraint intention. Higher overall PA was related to higher overall restraint intention, but was unrelated to binge eating. State models indicated momentary NA was associated with a greater likelihood of subsequent binge eating and lower restraint intention. Momentary PA was unrelated to subsequent binge eating or restraint intention. Together, findings demonstrate important distinctions between the valence and stability of affect in relationship to binge eating and restraint intention among individuals with obesity. While NA is a more salient predictor of binge eating than PA, both overall PA and momentary NA are predictors of restraint intention. Published by

  1. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  2. Cardiovascular and hormonal responses of conscious pigs during physical restraint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, C.E.; Bossone, C.A.; Hannon, J.P.; Hunt, M.M.; Rodkey, W.G.

    1986-01-01

    We investigated the effect of physical restraint on cardiovascular function and plasma hormone levels in 20 to 25 kg conscious Duroc pigs. Pigs were placed in a Pavlov sling or remained in a portable holding cage. Blood pressure and heart rate were monitored and blood samples taken at 0, 2.5, 5, 10, 30, 60, 120 and 240 min. Placement into the sling increased heart rate from 106 ''+ or -'' 3 to 151 ''+ or -'' 13 beats/min and mean arterial pressure rose from 95 ''+ or -'' 2 to 115 ''+ or -'' 2 mm Hg. Both heart rate and blood pressure returned to basal values within 10 min. Hematocrit was increased from 26 ''+ or -'' 1 to 32 ''+ or -'' 1%. Heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit were not changed in caged animals. Plasma norepinephrine increased from 179 ''+ or -'' 32 to 461 ''+ or -'' 52 pg/ml returning to basal values within 10 min. Epinephrine showed a similar trend rising from 69 ''+ or -'' 10 to 337 ''+ or -'' 53 pg/ml. Plasma renin activity increased after 5 min in the sling and remained increased from a basal level of 1.0 ''+ or -'' 0.2 to 2.8 ''+ or -'' 0.5 ng AI/ml/hr at four hr. Plasma cortisol (4.5 ''+ or -'' 0.6 to 8.2 ''+ or -'' 1.5 microg/dl), ACTH (45 ''+ or -'' 9 to 169 ''+ or -'' pg/ml) and aldosterone (3.5 ''+ or -'' 0.4 to 11.2 ''+ or -'' 1.1 ng/dl) rose over the four hr period. Pigs in cages showed no change in plasma hormones. Placement of an untrained pig into a sling raises heart rate, blood pressure and hematocrit and produces increases in plasma concentrations of epinephrine, ACTH, cortisol and aldosterone

  3. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  4. Attitudes of nurses towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care: a systematic review of qualitative and quantitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhler, Ralph; Meyer, Gabriele

    2014-02-01

    To examine nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care. Systematic review and synthesis of qualitative and quantitative studies. The following databases were searched: Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, Psyndex, PsychInfo, Social SciSearch, SciSearch, Forum Qualitative Social Research (1/1990 to 8/2013). We performed backward and forward citation tracking to all of the included studies. We included in the present review all qualitative and quantitative studies in English and German that investigated nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care. Two independent reviewers selected the studies for inclusion and assessed the study quality. We performed a thematic synthesis for the qualitative studies and a content analysis of the questionnaires' items as well as a narrative synthesis for the quantitative surveys. We included 31 publications in the review: 20 quantitative surveys, 10 qualitative and 1 mixed-method study. In the qualitative studies, nurses' attitudes towards the use of physical restraints in geriatric care were predominately characterised by negative feelings towards the use of restraints; however, the nurses also described a perceived need for using restraints in clinical practice. This discrepancy led to moral conflicts, and nurses described several strategies for coping with these conflicts when restraints were used. When nurses were in doubt regarding the use of restraints, they decided predominantly in favour of using restraints. The results of the quantitative surveys were inconsistent regarding nurses' feelings towards the use of restraints in geriatric care. Prevention of falls was identified as a primary reason for using restraints. However, the items of the questionnaires focussed primarily on the reasons for the use of restraints rather than on the attitudes of nurses. Despite the lack of evidence regarding the benefits of restraints and the evidence on the adverse effects, nurses often

  5. Reducing seclusion and restraint use in inpatient settings: a phenomenological study of state psychiatric hospital leader and staff experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckshorn, Kevin Ann

    2014-11-01

    The current study explored and described the experiences of individuals who either directed or participated in successfully reducing the use of restraint and seclusion (R/S) in two inpatient public mental health hospitals. A phenomenological methodology was used to capture the lived experiences of 21 study participants, including senior leaders, middle managers, and direct care staff, who were interviewed as key informants. Thirty-two themes were extracted and subsequently synthesized into five "meaning themes." The five meaning themes yielded six significant findings: (a) critical roles of leadership and staff in successful R/S reduction projects; (b) ability of leaders and staff to change their beliefs and behaviors; (c) ability of leaders and staff to build a shared vision that was critical to the reduction of R/S use in in-patient settings; (d) identification and resolution of key challenges staff and leaders experienced in reduction efforts; (e) use of a solid performance improvement lens to direct changes in practices; and (f) important lessons learned. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  6. Effect of chronic restraint stress on immune status of male Sprague Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moazzam, Sadia; Hussain, M Mazhar; Ahmad, Tahir Aziz

    2013-07-01

    To determine the effect of chronic restraint stress on immune status of Sprague Dawley rats by comparing total leukocyte count (TLC), total lymphocyte count and levels of serum immunoglobulins A, E, G and M of the rats exposed to chronic restraint stress with that of healthy control rats. Quasi-experimental study. Centre of Research in Experimental and Applied Medicine (CREAM), Army Medical College, Rawalpindi, in collaboration of National Institute of Health (NIH), Islamabad, from June 2008 to June 2009. Sixty healthy male Sprague Dawley rats were obtained from NIH. Rats were divided into two groups, each having 30 rats. The rats of group-I were not exposed to chronic restraint stress, while rats of group-II were exposed to chronic restraint stress in meshwire restrainer for 6 hours daily for 15 days. Estimation of total lymphocyte count and serum immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM and IgE) was carried out and compared between the groups. TLC, lymphocyte count and serum IgA, IgE, IgG and IgM levels were found significantly lower in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress as compared to the rats which were not exposed to stress (p stress compromises immune status of rats by decreasing the levels of immunoglobulins and lymphocyte count.

  7. Chemical restraint in routine clinical practice: a report from a general hospital psychiatric ward in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichael Georgios

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a dearth of studies regarding chemical restraint in routine clinical psychiatric practice. There may be wide variations between different settings and countries. Methods A retrospective study on chemical restraint was performed in the 11-bed psychiatric ward of the General Hospital of Arta, in northwestern Greece. All admissions over a 2-year-period (from March 2008 to March 2010 were examined. Results Chemical restraint was applied in 33 cases (10.5% of total admissions. From a total of 82 injections, 22 involved a benzodiazepine and/or levomepromazine, whereas 60 injections involved an antipsychotic agent, almost exclusively haloperidol (96.7% of cases, usually in combination with a benzodiazepine (61.7% of cases. In 36.4% of cases the patient was further subjected to restraint or seclusion. Conclusions In our unit, clinicians prefer the combined antipsychotic/benzodiazepine regimen for the management of patients' acute agitation and violent behaviour. Conventional antipsychotics are administrated almost exclusively and in a significant proportion of cases further coercive measures are applied. Studies on the practice of chemical restraint should be regularly performed in clinical settings.

  8. Depressed Affect and Dietary Restraint in Adolescent Boys’ and Girls’ Eating in the Absence of Hunger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R.; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Pickworth, Courtney K.; Grygorenko, Mariya V.; Radin, Rachel M.; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M.; Brady, Sheila M.; Courville, Amber B.; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A.

    2015-01-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls’ propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. PMID:25936291

  9. Depressed affect and dietary restraint in adolescent boys' and girls' eating in the absence of hunger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Nichole R; Shomaker, Lauren B; Pickworth, Courtney K; Grygorenko, Mariya V; Radin, Rachel M; Vannucci, Anna; Shank, Lisa M; Brady, Sheila M; Courville, Amber B; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian; Yanovski, Jack A

    2015-08-01

    Data suggest that depressed affect and dietary restraint are related to disinhibited eating patterns in children and adults. Yet, experimental research has not determined to what extent depressed affect acutely affects eating in the absence of physiological hunger (EAH) in adolescents. In the current between-subjects experimental study, we measured EAH in 182 adolescent (13-17 y) girls (65%) and boys as ad libitum palatable snack food intake after youth ate to satiety from a buffet meal. Just prior to EAH, participants were randomly assigned to view either a sad or neutral film clip. Dietary restraint was measured with the Eating Disorder Examination. Adolescents who viewed the sad film clip reported small but significant increases in state depressed affect relative to adolescents who viewed the neutral film clip (p < .001). Yet, there was no main effect of film condition on EAH (p = .26). Instead, dietary restraint predicted greater EAH among girls, but not boys (p < .001). These findings provide evidence that adolescent girls' propensity to report restrained eating is associated with their greater disinhibited eating in the laboratory. Additional experimental research, perhaps utilizing a more potent laboratory stressor and manipulating both affective state and dietary restraint, is required to elucidate how state affect may interact with dietary restraint to influence EAH during adolescence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. M.E.366-J embodiment design project: Portable foot restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Randall; Meyer, Eikar; Schmidt, Davey; Enders, Kevin

    1994-01-01

    During space shuttle operations, astronauts require support to carry out tasks in the weightless environment. In the past, portable foot restraints (PFR) with orientations adjustable in pitch, roll, and yaw provided this support for payload bay operations. These foot restraints, however, were designed for specific tasks with a load limit of 111.2 Newtons. Since the original design, new applications for foot restraints have been identified. New designs for the foot restraints have been created to boost the operational work load to 444.8 Newtons and decrease setup times. What remains to be designed is an interface between the restraint system and the extravehicular mobility unit (EMU) boots. NASA provided a proposed locking device involving a spring-loaded mechanism. This locking mechanism must withstand loads of 1334.4 Newtons in any direction and weigh less than 222.4 Newtons. This paper develops an embodiment design for the interface between the PFR and the EMU boots. This involves design of the locking mechanism and a removable cleat that allows the boot to interface with this mechanism. The design team used the Paul Beitz engineering methodology to present the systematic development, structural analysis, and production considerations of the embodiment design. This methodology provides a basis for understanding the justification behind the decisions made in the design.

  11. Pasireotide treatment does not modify hyperglycemic and corticosterone acute restraint stress responses in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-Oliveira, Antônio; Schweizer, Junia R O L; Amaral, Pedro H S; Bizzi, Mariana F; Silveira, Warley Cezar da; Espirito-Santo, Daniel T A; Zille, Giancarlo; Soares, Beatriz S; Schmid, Herbert A; Yuen, Kevin C J

    2018-04-17

    Pasireotide is a new-generation somatostatin analog that acts through binding to multiple somatostatin receptor subtypes. Studies have shown that pasireotide induces hyperglycemia, reduces glucocorticoid secretion, alters neurotransmission, and potentially affects stress responses typically manifested as hyperglycemia and increased corticosterone secretion. This study specifically aimed to evaluate whether pasireotide treatment modifies glucose and costicosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Male Holtzman rats of 150-200 g were treated with pasireotide (10 µg/kg/day) twice-daily for two weeks or vehicle for the same period. Blood samples were collected at baseline and after 5, 10, 30, and 60 min of restraint stress. The three experimental groups comprised of vehicle + restraint (VEHR), pasireotide + restraint (PASR), and pasireotide + saline (PASNR). Following pasireotide treatment, no significant differences in baseline glucose and corticosterone levels were observed among the three groups. During restraint, hyperglycemia was observed at 10 min (p stressed groups when compared to the non-stressed PASNR group (p stressed groups at 5 min (p stressed PASNR group (p stress responses, thus preserving acute stress regulation.

  12. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, R. J.; Amis, A. A.; Cobb, J. P.; Jeffers, J. R. T.

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015; 97-B:484–91. PMID:25820886

  13. Dietary restraint and impulsivity modulate neural responses to food in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Johannes; Ardelt-Gattinger, Elisabeth; Paulmichl, Katharina; Weghuber, Daniel; Blechert, Jens

    2015-11-01

    Despite alarming prevalence rates, surprisingly little is known about neural mechanisms underlying eating behavior in juveniles with obesity. To simulate reactivity to modern food environments, event-related potentials (ERP) to appetizing food images (relative to control images) were recorded in adolescents with obesity and healthy adolescents. Thirty-four adolescents with obesity (patients) and 24 matched healthy control adolescents watched and rated standardized food and object images during ERP recording. Personality (impulsivity) and eating styles (trait craving and dietary restraint) were assessed as potential moderators. Food relative to object images triggered larger early (P100) and late (P300) ERPs. More impulsive individuals had considerably larger food-specific P100 amplitudes in both groups. Controls with higher restraint scores showed reduced food-specific P300 amplitudes and subjective palatability ratings whereas patients with higher restraint scores showed increased P300 and palatability ratings. This first ERP study in adolescents with obesity and controls revealed impulsivity as a general risk factor in the current obesogenic environment by increasing food-cue salience. Dietary restraint showed paradoxical effects in patients, making them more vulnerable to visual food-cues. Salutogenic therapeutic approaches that deemphasize strict dietary restraint and foster healthy food choice might reduce such paradoxical effects. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  14. Effect of anthropogenic aerosol emissions on precipitation in warm conveyor belts in the western North Pacific in winter - a model study with ECHAM6-HAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Hanna; Madonna, Erica; Witlox, Kasja; Ferrachat, Sylvaine; Wernli, Heini; Lohmann, Ulrike

    2017-05-01

    While there is a clear impact of aerosol particles on the radiation balance, whether and how aerosol particles influence precipitation is controversial. Here we use the ECHAM6-HAM global climate model coupled to an aerosol module to analyse whether an impact of anthropogenic aerosol particles on the timing and amount of precipitation can be detected in North Pacific warm conveyor belts. Warm conveyor belts are the strongest precipitation-producing airstreams in extratropical cyclones and are identified here with a Lagrangian technique, i.e. by objectively identifying the most strongly ascending trajectories in North Pacific cyclones. These conveyor belts have been identified separately in 10-year ECHAM6-HAM simulations with present-day and pre-industrial aerosol conditions. Then, the evolution of aerosols and cloud properties has been analysed in detail along the identified warm conveyor belt trajectories. The results show that, under present-day conditions, some warm conveyor belt trajectories are strongly polluted (i.e. high concentrations of black carbon and sulfur dioxide) due to horizontal transport from eastern Asia to the oceanic region where warm conveyor belts start their ascent. In these polluted trajectories a weak delay and reduction of precipitation formation occurs compared to clean warm conveyor belt trajectories. However, all warm conveyor belts consist of both polluted and clean trajectories at the time they start their ascent, and the typically more abundant clean trajectories strongly reduce the aerosol impact from the polluted trajectories. The main conclusion then is that the overall amount of precipitation is comparable in pre-industrial conditions, when all warm conveyor belt trajectories are clean, and in present-day conditions, when warm conveyor belts consist of a mixture of clean and polluted trajectories.

  15. Dynamics of a belt-drive system using a linear complementarity problem for the belt pulley contact description

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čepon, Gregor; Boltežar, Miha

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient and realistic numerical model in order to predict the dynamic response of belt drives. The belt was modeled as a planar beam element based on an absolute nodal coordinate formulation. A viscoelastic material was adopted for the belt and the corresponding damping and stiffness matrices were determined. The belt-pulley contact was formulated as a linear complementarity problem together with a penalty method. This made it possible for us to accurately predict the contact forces, including the stick and slip zones between the belt and the pulley. The belt-drive model was verified by comparing it with the available analytical solutions. A good agreement was found. Finally, the applicability of the method was demonstrated by considering non-steady belt-drive operating conditions.

  16. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  17. Geometrically Nonlinear Transient Response of Laminated Plates with Nonlinear Elastic Restraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaochong Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the dynamic behavior of laminated plates with nonlinear elastic restraints, a varied constraint force model and a systematic numerical procedure are presented in this work. Several kinds of typical relationships of force-displacement for spring are established to simulate the nonlinear elastic restraints. In addition, considering the restraining moments of flexible pads, the pads are modeled by translational and rotational springs. The displacement- dependent constraint forces are added to the right-hand side of equations of motion and treated as additional applied loads. These loads can be explicitly defined, via an independent set of nonlinear load functions. The time histories of transverse displacements at typical points of the laminated plate are obtained through the transient analysis. Numerical examples show that the present method can effectively treat the geometrically nonlinear transient response of plates with nonlinear elastic restraints.

  18. Physical restraint and the protection of the human rights of immigration detainees in hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickles, Hilary; Norton, Emma; Ginn, Emma; Schleicher, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Immigration detainees, like prisoners, are entitled to the same standard of healthcare as non-detained patients. When hospital attendance or admission is required, the priority for custodial staff (who for purposes of this article we refer to as 'escorts') is to prevent absconding. For that reason, they may wish to use physical restraints, such as handcuffs, and remain with the detainee at all times. This can be degrading for the patient and breach their human rights. Clinicians have professional obligations to all their patients and must object to any restraint methods that risk damaging the patient's right to confidentiality, treatment, health or the therapeutic relationship itself. The starting presumption is that restraints ought not to be used during treatment and only in the most exceptional cases ought escorts to be present during clinical examination or treatment. © Royal College of Physicians 2015. All rights reserved.

  19. Ethical considerations for evaluating the issue of physical restraint in psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrini, Carlo

    2013-01-01

    This article examines some of the ethical issues associated with the use of physical restraint in psychiatry and neurology. It offers no specific answers to individual operational problems, but a methodological matrix is proposed as an aid to experts in the various settings in which decisions are taken. The subject is addressed mainly by considering two sources: reference documents published by eminent organisations, and the theoretical framework of ethical values (or principles). A number of analytical criteria arising from these sources are then identified and proposed. The proposed criteria can be applied in cases for which the legitimate use of restraint may be an option, bearing in mind that restraint is an extremely serious affront to human dignity and is widely held to be of no therapeutic value. Its abuse is illegitimate in both ethical and legal terms.

  20. A smart base restraint for wind turbines to mitigate undesired effects due to structural vibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caterino, N.; Georgakis, Christos T.; Spizzuoco, M.

    2016-01-01

    to control tower forces. The application of a semi-active (SA) control system is herein proposed and discussed. Its aim is to limit bending moment demand at the base of a wind turbine by relaxing the base restraint of the turbine's tower, without increasing the top displacement. This is done thanks...... to the sharp increase of the dissipated energy in selected intervals of time and an adaptive change in tower dynamic properties. This SA control system reproduces a variable restraint at the base that changes in real time its mechanical properties according to the instantaneous response of the turbine's tower....... This smart restraint is made of a central smooth hinge, elastic springs and SA magnetorheological dampers driven by a control algorithm properly designed for the specific application. A commercial 105 m tall wind turbine has been assumed as a case study. Several numerical simulations have been performed...

  1. How Farm Animals React and Perceive Stressful Situations Such As Handling, Restraint, and Transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temple Grandin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available An animal that has been carefully acclimated to handling may willingly re-enter a restrainer. Another animal may have an intense agitated behavioral reaction or refuse to re-enter the handling facility. Physiological measures of stress such as cortisol may be very low in the animal that re-enters willingly and higher in animals that actively resist restraint. Carefully acclimating young animals to handling and restraint can help improve both productivity and welfare by reducing fear stress. Some of the topics covered in this review are: How an animal perceives handling and restraint, the detrimental effects of a sudden novel event, descriptions of temperament and aversion tests and the importance of good stockmanship.

  2. Numerical simulation of the gould belt dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilkova, O. O.

    2014-01-01

    The results of numerical simulations of the Gould Belt motion for the 2D (a ring in the Galactic plane) and 3D (a spherical shell outside the Galactic plane) cases are presented. Particles of the expanding shell interact with each other within the framework of the N-body problem. The Galactic potential has been borrowed from Flynn et al. (1996). The total mass of the shell is 1.5 × 106 M⊙ in accordance with the estimate from Bobylev (2006). The initial mutual distances and velocities of the shell components are chosen in such a way that the shell reaches the present-day sizes of the Gould Belt in 30-60 Myr. In the 2D case, the ring is shown to be stretched with time into a rotating ellipse, which is consistent with the results from Blaauw (1952) obtained by other methods. In the 3D case, the projections of the initially spherical shell onto the Galactic plane are also rotating ellipses. A vertical oscillation of the Gould Belt components relative to the Galactic plane, a flattening of the spherical shell, and its inclination to the Galactic plane after a certain time interval have been revealed.

  3. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staley, Mark [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario (Canada)], E-mail: staleymd@gmail.com

    2010-05-15

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2{pi} rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4{pi} rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  4. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  5. Improving Working Conditions for Astronauts: An Electronic Personal Restraint System for Use in Microgravity Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin Tait

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available While in microgravity, astronauts are preoccupied with physical restraint, which takes attention away from the maintenance task or scientific experiment at hand. This may directly lead to safety concerns and increased time for extravehicular activity, as well as potentially inhibit or corrupt data collection. A primary concern is the time it takes to manipulate the current restraint system. The portable foot restraint currently in use by NASA employs a series of pins in order to engage the system or release in an emergency. This requires considerable time for the user to detach, and there is an increased risk of entanglement. If restraint operating time could be reduced by 50%, the astronaut’s assigned experiment time could be increased an average of 100 minutes per mission. Another problem identified by NASA included the inability of the current system to release the user upon failure. Research and design was conducted following the Six-Sigma DMEDI project architecture, and a new form of restraint to replace the existing system was proposed. The research team first studied the customer requirements and relevant standards set by NASA, and with this information they began drafting designs for a solution. This project utilized electromagnetism to restrain a user in microgravity. The proposed system was capable of being manipulated quickly, failing in a manner that released the user, and being electronically controlled. This active electronic control was a new concept in restraint systems, as it enabled an astronaut to effectively “walk” along a surface while remaining restrained to it. With the design prototype and a limited budget, a rudimentary test assembly was built by the team, and most of NASA’s specifications were met. With recommendations from NASA, the research team concluded by developing potential material and design solutions that can be explored in the future by Purdue University or other parties.

  6. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  7. Cracking Assessment of Concrete Slab Frame Bridges Exposed to Thermally Induced Restraint Forces

    OpenAIRE

    Ledin, Jonatan; Oskar, Christensen

    2015-01-01

    The usage of linear 3D FEA is widespread within the bridge design community, and although this tool provides substantial benefits in the design process, there are certain practical issues related to the application of this analysis tool. A situation in which such an issue prevails is when linear 3D FEA is used to analyze restraint forces due to thermal shrinkage or expansion in concrete slab frame bridges. Effects related to restraint forces in concrete are difficult to model and predict as these...

  8. Swine models for cardiovascular research: a low stress transport and restraint system for large swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lighty, G W; Spear, R S; Karatay, M C; Hare, C L; Carlson, R J

    1992-04-01

    A restraint and transport system was developed for handling large swine during cardiovascular research studies. The major design criteria provided for comfortable, low stress restraint of the swine, safety for laboratory personnel and ability to perform a wide variety of hemodynamic and echocardiographic measurements in the standing, supported standing and sedated, or in Panepinto sling positions. A head gate is provided for venipuncture procedures, and an auxiliary feeding and watering front panel can replace the head gate for use of the system as a post-operative "recovery room". Using this system animals weighing 22 to 150 kg can be easily managed.

  9. Compatibility or restraint? The effects of sexual timing on marriage relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Dean M; Carroll, Jason S; Willoughby, Brian J

    2010-12-01

    Very little is known about the influence of sexual timing on relationship outcomes. Is it better to test sexual compatibility as early as possible or show sexual restraint so that other areas of the relationship can develop? In this study, we explore this question with a sample of 2035 married individuals by examining how soon they became sexually involved as a couple and how this timing is related to their current sexual quality, relationship communication, and relationship satisfaction and perceived stability. Both structural equation and group comparison analyses demonstrated that sexual restraint was associated with better relationship outcomes, even when controlling for education, the number of sexual partners, religiosity, and relationship length.

  10. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  11. Dietary restraint in college women : Fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, Simon E.; Toffanin, Paolo; Pollet, Thomas V.

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the

  12. "A Very Fine Line": Parents' Experiences of Using Restraint with Their Adult Son/Daughter with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elford, Helen; Beail, Nigel; Clarke, Zara

    2010-01-01

    Background: Restraint is sometimes used on people with intellectual disabilities who display challenging behaviours, and may be justifiable as a last resort to prevent harm. A substantial proportion of such people are cared for within the family home. The aim of this paper is to explore parents' experiences of using restraint with their…

  13. The concept of restraints in nursing home practice: a mixed method study in nursing homes for people with dementia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwijsen, S.A.; Depla, M.F.I.A.; Niemeijer, A.R.; Francke, A.L.; Hertogh, C.M.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Although in most developed countries the use of restraints is regulated and restricted by law, the concept of restraint in nursing home care remains ambiguous. This study aims to explore how care professionals and family members of nursing home residents with dementia in the

  14. Exploring perspectives on restraint during medical procedures in paediatric care: a qualitative interview study with nurses and physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svendsen, Edel Jannecke; Pedersen, Reidar; Moen, Anne; Bjørk, Ida Torunn

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to explore nurses' and physicians' perspectives on and reasoning about the use of restraint during medical procedures on newly admitted preschoolers in somatic hospital care. We analysed qualitative data from individual interviews with a video recall session at the end with seven physicians and eight nurses. They had earlier participated in video recorded peripheral vein cannulations on preschool children. The data were collected between May 2012 and May 2013 at a paediatric hospital unit in Norway. The analysis resulted in three main themes: (1) disparate views on the concept of restraint and restraint use (2), ways to limit the use of physical restraint and its negative consequences, and (3) experience with the role of parents and their influence on restraint. Perspectives from both healthcare professions were represented in all the main themes and had many similarities. The results of this study may facilitate more informed and reflective discussions of restraint and contribute to higher awareness of restraint in clinical practice. Lack of guidance and scientific attention to restraint combined with conflicting interests and values among healthcare providers may result in insecurity, individual dogmatism, and a lack of shared discussions, language, and terminology.

  15. Dietary restraint in college women: Fear of an imperfect fat self is stronger than hope of a perfect thin self

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalley, S.E.; Toffanin, P.; Pollet, T.V.

    2012-01-01

    We predicted that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a hoped-for thin self would mediate perfectionistic strivings on dietary restraint, and that the perceived likelihood of acquiring a feared fat self would mediate perfectionistic concerns on dietary restraint. We also predicted that the

  16. The concurrent validity of a classification of dieters with low versus high susceptibility toward failure of restraint

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Strien, T

    1997-01-01

    It has been experimentally shown that the population of high restrained eaters consists of two subpopulations, i.e., those with a low and those with a high susceptibility toward failure of restraint. Only those who combined high restraint with high scores on the disinhibition scale of the TFEQ

  17. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  18. Knowledge and application of correct car seat head restraint usage among chiropractic college interns: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John Am; Burke, Jeanmarie; Gavencak, John; Panwar, Pervinder

    2005-03-01

    Cervical spine injuries sustained in rear-end crashes cost at least $7 billion in insurance claims annually in the United States alone. When positioned correctly, head restraint systems have been proven effective in reducing the risk of whiplash associated disorders. Chiropractors should be knowledgeable about the correct use of head restraint systems to educate their patients and thereby prevent or minimize such injuries. The primary objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of correct positioning of car seat head restraints among the interns at our institution. The secondary objective was to determine the same chiropractic interns' knowledge of the correct positioning of car seat head restraints. It was hypothesized that 100 percent of interns would have their head restraint correctly positioned within an acceptable range and that all interns would possess the knowledge to instruct patients in the correct positioning of head restraints. Cross-sectional study of a convenient sample of 30 chiropractic interns from one institution. Interns driving into the parking lot of our health center were asked to volunteer to have measurements taken and to complete a survey. Vertical and horizontal positions of the head restraint were measured using a beam compass. A survey was administered to determine knowledge of correct head restraint position. The results were recorded, entered into a spreadsheet, and analyzed. 13.3 percent of subjects knew the recommended vertical distance and only 20 percent of subjects knew the recommended horizontal distance. Chi Square analyses substantiated that the majority of subjects were unaware of guidelines set forth by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the correct positioning of the head restraint (chi(2) (vertical) = 16.13, chi(2) (horizontal) = 10.80, p .05). Interestingly, the 13.3 percent of the subjects who were aware of the vertical plane recommendations did not correctly position their own

  19. Effects of off-centered crack and restraint of induced bending due to pressure on the crack-opening-area analysis of pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Ghadiali, N.; Wilkowski, G.; Bonora, N.

    1995-01-01

    Estimation of leak rate is an important element in developing leak-before-break (LBB) methodology for piping integrity and safety analysis of nuclear power plants. Here, current models for the crack-opening-area analysis of pipes with circumferential through-wall cracks are based on various idealizations or assumption which are often necessary to simplify the mathematical formulation and numerical calculation. This paper focuses on the validity of two such assumptions involving off-centered cracks and restraint of induced bending due to pressure and quantifies their effects on the crack-opening analysis of pipes. Both finite element and/or simple estimation methods were employed to compute the center-crack-opening displacement and crack-opening shape for a through-wall-cracked pipe considering off-centered cracks and restrain of induced bending due to pressure. The results of analyses show that for both cases the crack-opening area can be reduced significantly. For pipes with off-centered cracks, the crack-opening area can be evaluated from analyses of symmetrically centered cracks and assuming elliptical profile. For pipes with complete restraint of induced bending due to pressure, the reduction of crack-opening area depends on the crack size. When the crack size is small, the restraint effects can be ignored. However, when the crack size is larger, the restrained crack-opening can be significantly smaller than the unrestrained crack-opening depending on the length of pipe involved, and hence, may be important for the crack-opening-area and leak-rate analyses

  20. Unlocking patients with mental disorders who were in restraints at home: a national follow-up study of China's new public mental health initiatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Lili; Liu, Jin; Wu, Xia Min; Chen, Dafang; Wang, Xun; Ma, Ning; Wang, Yan; Good, Byron; Ma, Hong; Yu, Xin; Good, Mary-Jo

    2015-01-01

    In 2005, China implemented a demonstration program known as "686" to scale-up nation-wide basic mental health services designed to improve access to evidence-based care and to promote human rights for people with severe mental disorders. As part of the 686 Program, teams "unlocked" and provided continuous mental health care to people with severe mental disorders who were found in restraints and largely untreated in their family homes. We implemented a nation-wide two-stage follow-up study to measure the effectiveness and sustainability of the "unlocking and treatment" intervention and its impact on the well-being of patients' families. 266 patients unlocked from 2005 in "686" demonstration sites across China were recruited in Stage One of the study in 2009. In 2012, 230 of the 266 cases were re-interviewed (the Stage Two study). Outcome measures included the patient medication adherence and social functioning, family burden ratings, and relocking rate. We utilized pre-post tests to analyze the changes over time following the unlocking efforts. 96% of patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Prior to unlocking, their total time locked ranged from two weeks to 28 years, with 32% having been locked multiple times. The number of persons regularly taking medicines increased from one person at the time of unlocking to 74% in 2009 and 76% in 2012. Pre-post tests showed sustained improvement in patient social functioning and significant reductions in family burden. Over 92% of patients remained free of restraints in 2012. Practice-based evidence from our study suggests an important model for protecting the human rights of people with mental disorders and keeping them free of restraints can be achieved by providing accessible, community based mental health services with continuity of care. China's "686" Program can inform similar efforts in low-resource settings where community locking of patients is practiced.

  1. Random Deterioration Process of Conveyor Belt Evaluated by Statistical Analysis of Core Failures Detected Along Belt Axis and Elapsed Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek; Kirjanów, Agata; Kozlowski, Tomasz

    2017-12-01

    Magnetic diagnostic methods are used for steel cord belt condition evaluation since the beginning of 1970s. Initially they generated an analogue signal for several tens of centimetres of conveyor belts scanned sequentially with one measuring head in several cycles or the whole width of the belt at one time thanks to the installation of many measuring heads across the entire cross section. This did not allow identification of single centimetre failures, but rather an aggregate assessment of the state of quite wide waist. Modern diagnostic devices, thanks to miniaturization, allow up to 200 heads per belt width to identify damage of individual cords. Instead of analogue signals, they generate a zero-one digital signal corresponding to a change in the magnetic field sign, which can illustrate damage on 2D images. This makes it easier to identify the location and size of the damage in the belt image. Statistical analysis of digital signals summed up for consecutive sections along the belt axis allows to present both the source signal and its aggregation for band of a given width to form aggregate measures of belt damage such as the damage density per 1 meter of belt. Observation of changes in these measurements at different times allows on evaluation of its rate of change over time, which can be used to forecast future belt condition and to select the proper moment of preventive belt replacement to another one to avoid emergency downtimes (egg in underground mines) or to recondition of belts (egg. in lignite surface mines). The paper presents the results of investigations of the damage condition of a core of a single belt segment working in one of the copper ore underground mines. Scanning of the belt condition was performed few times at intervals of several months. The paper presents the results of the analysis of the changes in core condition, showing the random character of the damage process along the axis and its change over time.

  2. Seat-belt wearing and driving behavior: an instrumented-vehicle study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, W

    1994-04-01

    Less-than-expected fatality reductions after seat-belt legislation has been introduced in a jurisdiction may be explained in terms of selective recruitment of parts of the driving population and/or behavioral adaptation by beginning belt users. The present investigation has compared the relative merits of these two hypotheses at the level of individual driver behavior. In the initial study the driving behavior of groups of habitual wearers and nonwearers of the belt was compared. Nonwearers made two trips, one with the belt on and one without the belt. Habitual wearers drove belted only. The main part of the experiment was a 105 km freeway route. Two additional tasks of a somewhat more critical nature, a double lane-change manoeuvre and the performance of a braking manoeuvre in front of a fixed obstacle, were performed after the freeway trips. Factor analysis on 39 variables describing driving behavior on the road and during the additional tasks resulted in five factors. One of these, the factor describing the distribution of driving speed on the freeway, differentiated between nonwearers and wearers (thus yielding support for the selective recruitment hypothesis) as well as between wearing and not wearing the belt by the same drivers (thus yielding support for the behavioral adaptation hypothesis). In the follow-up study the original wearers and nonwearers were assigned to one of four experimental treatments: (i) the promise by the experimenter of a considerable incentive for not having a culpable motor vehicle accident over a period of a year. Half the habitual wearer subjects were assigned to this condition. The expectation was that this group would become more careful in their driving; (ii) a control group, consisting of the remaining habitual wearers; (iii) the agreement between the experimenter and the subject that the latter would buckle up in everyday driving for the year to come--half the habitual nonwearer subjects were assigned to this condition; (iv) a

  3. Biomechanical evaluation of a corporectomy in porcine lumbar specimens using flexible polymer belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán-Fernández, J. A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Ruiz-Muñoz, E.; González-Rebattú, A.; Rodríguez-Cañizo, R. G.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Hernández-Moreno, H.

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the experimental results of a biomechanical evaluation in lumbar porcine specimens (L2-L4), instrumented with flexible polymer belts, under fatigue and tensile loading. The clinical effect called facetary arthrosis is evaluated. An experimental analysis was carried on 3 lumbar porcine specimens. In two of them, polyamide belts are fixed on the interspinous ligament from L2 to L4. Specimens are taken from pigs which are 6 month old. For the present work, the stiffness reduction of the spine and the biomechanical behaviour of the belts in conjunction with the interspinous ligament are evaluated. The purpose is to determine the failure conditions for the elements of the specimen (vertebral disk, supra and intraspinous ligament and vertebral body). Under static loading, which is the base line case, the elements of the specimen failed as a typical healthy structure. While in the fatigue combined with static loading, the element failed in different order. Additionally, the stiffness changed in accordance with the fatigue loading conditions. Because of the simplicity of this alternative technique, a high level of the structural integrity is preserved, as no holes are made on the spinous process in order to insert the fixation screws. Furthermore, there is a cost reduction.

  4. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  5. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    BEBIC, M. Z.; RISTIC, L. B.

    2018-01-01

    The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of...

  6. Nondestructive testing of belt-cable conveyor quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochenin, V.I.

    1984-01-01

    The express technique for testing belt-cable conveyors, widely used in mining metallurgy and machine industry is suggested in the paper. The technique consists in irradiation of the surface layer of belt-cable medium by low-energy gamma radiation of 109 Cd radioisotope and registening characteristic K-series of iron in reflection geometry. Industrial tests of presented technique showed that it enables to reveal defects rather accurately and prevent rapture of transport belts

  7. Car safety belts: a study of two models adapted for people with arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arie, E

    1986-05-01

    People with arthritis find car seat belts difficult to use. Sixteen arthritic patients and 19 healthy volunteers completed a comparative study of one standard inertia-reel belt and two adapted inertia-reel belts with reduced retraction forces. Those with arthritis were strong enough to use the standard belt but both adapted belts had features making them easier to use.

  8. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  9. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  10. Evaluation of the effectiveness of toe board energy-absorbing material for foot, ankle, and lower leg injury reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalak, John P; Stitzel, Joel D

    2018-02-17

    Since 2000, numerous improvements have been made to the National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing, Incorporated (NASCAR®) driver restraint system, resulting in improved crash protection for motorsports drivers. Advancements have included seats, head and neck restraints (HNRs), seat belt restraint systems, driver helmets, and others. These enhancements have increased protection for drivers from severe crash loading. Extending protection to the driver's extremities remains challenging. Though the drivers' legs are well contained for lateral and vertical crashes, they remain largely unrestrained in frontal and frontal oblique crashes. Sled testing was conducted for the evaluation of an energy-absorbing (EA) toe board material to be used as a countermeasure for leg and foot injuries. Testing included baseline rigid toe boards, tests with EA material-covered toe boards, and pretest positioning of the 50th percentile male frontal Hybrid III anthropomorphic test device (ATD) lower extremities. ATD leg and foot instrumentation included foot acceleration and tibia forces and moments. The sled test data were evaluated using established injury criteria for tibial plateau fractures, leg shaft fractures, and calcaneus, talus, ankle, and midfoot fractures. A polyurethane EA foam was found to be effective in limiting axial tibia force and foot accelerations when subjected to frontal impacts using the NASCAR motorsport restraint system.

  11. Effects of the chronic restraint stress induced depression on reward-related learning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Pan; Wang, Kezhu; Lu, Cong; Dong, Liming; Chen, Yixi; Wang, Qiong; Shi, Zhe; Yang, Yanyan; Chen, Shanguang; Liu, Xinmin

    2017-03-15

    Chronic mild or unpredictability stress produces a persistent depressive-like state. The main symptoms of depression include weight loss, despair, anhedonia, diminished motivation and mild cognition impairment, which could influence the ability of reward-related learning. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the effects of chronic restraint stress on the performance of reward-related learning of rats. We used the exposure of repeated restraint stress (6h/day, for 28days) to induce depression-like behavior in rats. Then designed tasks including Pavlovian conditioning (magazine head entries), acquisition and maintenance of instrumental conditioning (lever pressing) and goal directed learning (higher fixed ratio schedule of reinforcement) to study the effects of chronic restraint stress. The results indicated that chronic restraint stress influenced rats in those aspects including the acquisition of a Pavlovian stimulus-outcome (S-O) association, the formation and maintenance of action-outcome (A-O) causal relation and the ability of learning in higher fixed ratio schedule. In conclusion, depression could influence the performances in reward-related learning obviously and the series of instrumental learning tasks may have potential as a method to evaluate cognitive changes in depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. [Injuries caused by traffic accidents: passive safety and restraint systems in automobiles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuppichini, F; Orlandi, E; Genna, M; Rodella, L; Ricci, G; Arienzo, A; Dorrucci, V; Inaspettato, G

    1986-10-01

    In this article are considered the multiple instruments today employed in cars, in order to prevent or ameliorate the lesions caused to the occupants in case of road accident. The acquisitions in the differentiated structure of the car, in the windshield, in the components of the passenger cell are described, and the peculiar importance of the restraint systems is evidenced.

  13. Program Fidelity Measures Associated With an Effective Child Restraint Program: Buckle-Up Safely

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keay, Lisa; Simpson, Judy M.; Brown, Julie; Bilston, Lynne E.; Fegan, Maureen; Cosgrove, Louise; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca Q.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to identify the program fidelity factors associated with successful implementation of the Buckle-Up Safely program, targeting correct use of age-appropriate child car restraints. Methods. In 2010, we conducted a cluster randomized controlled trial of 830 families with children attending preschools and long day care centers in South West Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Families received the Buckle-Up Safely program in the intervention arm of the study (13 services). Independent observers assessed the type of restraint and whether it was used correctly. Results. This detailed process evaluation showed that the multifaceted program was implemented with high fidelity. Program protocols were adhered to and messaging was consistently delivered. Results from multilevel and logistic regression analyses show that age-appropriate restraint use was associated with attendance at a parent information session hosted at the center (adjusted odd ratio [AOR] = 3.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.61, 8.29) and adversely affected by the child being aged 2 to 3 years (AOR = 0.14; 95% CI = 0.07, 0.30) or being from a family with more than 2 children (AOR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.17, 0.67). Conclusions. Findings highlight the importance of parents receiving hands-on education regarding the proper use of age-appropriate child restraints. PMID:25602901

  14. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Immink, Rogier Vincent; Truijen, Jasper; Secher, Niels Henry; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2009-01-01

    Immink RV, Truijen J, Secher NH, Van Lieshout JJ. Transient influence of end-tidal carbon dioxide tension on the postural restraint in cerebral perfusion. J Appl Physiol 107: 816-823, 2009. First published July 2, 2009; doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.91198.2008.-In the upright position, cerebral blood

  15. 28 CFR 552.26 - Medical attention in use of force and application of restraints incidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of force situations, staff shall seek the assistance of mental health or qualified health personnel... identify physical or mental problems. When mental health staff or qualified health personnel determine that... application of restraints incidents. 552.26 Section 552.26 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS...

  16. 28 CFR 552.24 - Use of four-point restraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... beyond eight hours requires the supervision of qualified health personnel. Mental health and qualified... Section 552.24 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT...-point restraints, qualified health personnel shall initially assess the inmate to ensure appropriate...

  17. Nuclear reactor support and seismic restraint with in-vessel core retention cooling features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Tyler A.; Edwards, Michael J.

    2018-01-23

    A nuclear reactor including a lateral seismic restraint with a vertically oriented pin attached to the lower vessel head and a mating pin socket attached to the floor. Thermally insulating materials are disposed alongside the exterior surface of a lower portion of the reactor pressure vessel including at least the lower vessel head.

  18. Console video games, postural activity, and motion sickness during passive restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Hui; Pan, Wu-Wen; Chen, Fu-Chen; Stoffregen, Thomas A

    2013-08-01

    We examined the influence of passive restraint on postural activity and motion sickness in individuals who actively controlled a potentially nauseogenic visual motion stimulus (a driving video game). Twenty-four adults (20.09 ± 1.56 years; 167.80 ± 7.94 cm; 59.02 ± 9.18 kg) were recruited as participants. Using elastic bands, standing participants were passively restrained at the head, shoulders, hips, and knees. During restraint, participants played (i.e., controlled) a driving video game (a motorcycle race), for 50 min. During game play, we recorded the movement of the head and torso, using a magnetic tracking system. Following game play, participants answered a forced choice, yes/no question about whether they were motion sick, and were assigned to sick and well groups on this basis. In addition, before and after game play, participants completed the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire, which provided numerical ratings of the severity of individual symptoms. Five of 24 participants (20.83 %) reported motion sickness. Participants moved despite being passively restrained. Both the magnitude and the temporal dynamics of movement differed between the sick and well groups. The results show that passive restraint of the body can reduce motion sickness when the nauseogenic visual stimulus is under participants' active control and confirm that motion sickness is preceded by distinct patterns of postural activity even during passive restraint.

  19. 78 FR 55629 - Special Conditions: Cirrus Design Corporation, Model SF50; Inflatable Three-Point Restraint...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... some protection to the head of the occupant. The restraint will rely on sensors to activate the... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-19478), as well as at http://DocketsInfo.dot.gov . Docket: Background... the occupant's head and the structure within the airplane. This will reduce the potential for head and...

  20. Long-lasting delayed hyperalgesia after chronic restraint stress in rats-effect of morphine administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Torres, Iraci Lucena; Cucco, Simone N S; Bassani, Marcio; Duarte, Marcelo S; Silveira, Patricia P; Vasconcellos, Ana Paula; Tabajara, Angela Sampaio; Dantas, Giovana; Fontella, Fernanda U; Dalmaz, Carla; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz C

    2003-03-01

    Different effects upon the nociceptive response have been observed with exposure to acute and chronic stress in rats. In the present study we repeatedly submitted rats to restraint for 40 days, inducing hyperalgesia using the tail-flick test. A new session of acute stress was applied at the end of 40 days period, and the chronically-stressed animals demonstrated analgesia after forced swimming, but not after restraint. The effect of stress interruption for 14 or 28 days on the nociceptive threshold was then investigated. The basal tail-flick latency remained decreased for at least 28 days (hyperalgesic effect). Following the periods of suspension, the animals were submitted to new session of acute restraint, and stress-induced analgesia was observed only after 28 days of stress interruption. Thus, the mechanisms involved in the long-lasting hyperalgesia presented in this study are not exactly the same as those responsible for the analgesia induced by acute stressors. After 40 days of chronic stress treatment, morphine was injected i.p. (1.0, 5.0 mg/kg or saline). The repeatedly stressed rats displayed decreased morphine effects on nociception compared to unstressed controls. The tolerance of the response to morphine agrees with previous studies suggesting that chronic restraint stress could modify the activity of opioid systems.

  1. All tied up: the fine art of balancing regulatory restraint compliance and excellent patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybel, Barbara-Ann

    2016-10-01

    This article presents examples of different resources that can be implemented to help manage a patient in crisis. It discusses challenges and solutions in regard to the ED boarding of behavioral health patients and reviews various restraint types and definitions (violent, non-violent, forensic). It stresses the importance of teamwork between security police and clinicians.

  2. EFFECT OF PHYSICAL RESTRAINT ON THE LIMITS OF THERMOREGULATION IN TELEMETERED RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical restraint of rodents is needed for nose-only exposure to airborne toxicants and is also used as a means ofpsychological stress. Hyperthermia is often observed in restrained rats, presumably as a result of impairments in heat dissipation. However, such a hyperthermic resp...

  3. Self-Injurious Behavior, Self-Restraint, and Compulsive Behaviors in Cornelia de Lange Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyman, Philippa; Oliver, Chris; Hall, Scott

    2002-01-01

    Analysis of questionnaires completed by caregivers of 77 individuals with Cornelia de Lange syndrome in the United Kingdom found a significant association between self-injurious behaviors and self-restraint, and those displaying both behaviors displayed significantly more compulsions than did those not exhibiting them. Findings extend the…

  4. Body image and cognitive restraint are risk factors for obesity in French adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megalakaki, Olga; Mouveaux, Marie; Hubin-Gayte, Mylène; Wypych, Laurent

    2013-09-01

    The present study explored the links between cognitive restraint and body image in obese adolescents when compared with normal-weight adolescents according to sex. Body image was measured on the Body Esteem Scale and cognitive restraint by means of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire Revised 18-item version (TFEQ-R18). Although the results did not reveal any significant correlation between overall scores on these two measures, subscale scores showed that the obese adolescents used cognitive restraint more than the normal-weight adolescents did as a strategy for regulating their diet and were less satisfied with their body image. The normal-weight adolescents' use of cognitive restraint was correlated with body-weight dissatisfaction. Despite these differences, the two populations shared several characteristics. All the adolescents were dissatisfied with the way they thought that others saw them. The loss of control was one of their major concerns, although in the obese adolescents, it went hand in hand with major emotional investment. The results suggest that these are the variables responsible for adolescents' eating habits, regardless of their weight. The most discriminating variable when crossed with weight was sex, with girls being less satisfied with their body image, especially when they were obese.

  5. Pasung: Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill in the community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diatri Hervita

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical restraint and confinement (pasung by families of people with mental illness is known to occur in many parts of the world but has attracted limited investigation. This preliminary observational study was carried out on Samosir Island in Sumatra, Indonesia, to investigate the nature of such restraint and confinement, the clinical characteristics of people restrained, and the reasons given by families and communities for applying such restraint. Methods The research method was cross-sectional observational research in a natural setting, carried out during a six-month period of working as the only psychiatrist in a remote district. Results Fifteen cases of pasung, approximately even numbers of males and females and almost all with a diagnosis of schizophrenia were identified. Duration of restraint ranged from two to 21 years. Discussion and Conclusion The provision of basic community mental health services, where there were none before, enabled the majority of the people who had been restrained to receive psychiatric treatment and to be released from pasung.

  6. Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant's Educational Paradox between Freedom and Restraint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffar, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Ever since Kant asked: "How am I to develop the sense of freedom in spite of the restraint?" in his lecture on education, the tension between necessary educational influence and unacceptable restriction of the child's individual development and freedom has been considered an educational paradox. Many have suggested solutions to the…

  7. 28 CFR 97.17 - Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting violent prisoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... transporting violent prisoners. 97.17 Section 97.17 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR PRIVATE ENTITIES PROVIDING PRISONER OR DETAINEE SERVICES § 97.17 Mandatory restraints to be used while transporting violent prisoners. Companies covered under this part must, at a minimum...

  8. The Pattern of Physical Restraints applied to the Mentally-ill in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diagnostic groups found among the patients included Bipolar Affective Disorder current episode manic with psychotic symptoms (30%), Delirium (25%), Schizophrenia (20%), Acute polymorphic psychotic disorder without symptoms of schizophrenia (20%) and Dementia (5%). The reason for the use of restraints was ...

  9. Issues to Consider in the Use of Physical Restraint and Time-Out Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Carl R.

    The author discusses the legal and administrative concerns, best professional practices concerns, and political concerns related to the use of physical restraint and time out procedures with seriously behaviorally disordered children. Among the points made are that the courts may consider such approaches to be cruel and unusual; that direct…

  10. Depositional belts in Nevada during the Famennian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coles, K.S. (Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States))

    1991-02-01

    Deformed upper Famennian strata near the base of the Roberts Mountains allochthon in Nevada add detail to the paleogeography of the region at the time it was undergoing the transition from the shelf-slope setting of the early Paleozoic to the foreland basin and highland of the Antler orogeny. The uppermost Devonian part of the Pinecone sequence and correlative rocks in central and northeastern Nevada consists of black chert and argillite, commonly with nodular phosphate. Deposition took place in a detritus-starved, oxygen-poor slope or foredeep setting east of the advancing, but still submerged, Roberts Mountains allochthon. The Pinecone is less far-traveled than much of the allochthon as the time interval from deposition to the end of thrust movement and deformation was shorter. The late Famennian saw at least three contrasting belts of deposition in the vicinity of Nevada. First, black shale and micrite of the Leatham member of the Pilot Shale in eastern Nevada and western Utah formed in the deep subtidal/dysaerobic belt described by Sandberg and coworkers. Second, a bathyal belt, in central Nevada to the west of the Pilot, contained black chert and phosphate in a zone of high surface productivity. Also present, but rare, were beds of carbonate detritus with a probable provenance to the east, and olistoliths( ) of quartz sandstone like that known in the approaching Roberts Mountains allochthon to the west. Third, greenstones and chert of the Schoonover sequence, described by E. Miller and co-workers, were being deposited somewhere beyond the allochthon in an oxygenated, oceanic setting.

  11. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  12. Real time control of restraint systems in frontal crashes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griotto, G.; Lemmen, P.P.M.; Eijnden, E.A.C. van den; Leijsen, A.C.P. van; Schie, C. van; Cooper, J.

    2007-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the targets for fatality reduction in car accidents set by Governments in Europe, USA and Japan can only be met by using advanced technologies that will include a broad range of sensors to monitor the crash likelihood and severity, vehicle condition, occupant type and

  13. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  14. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  15. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  16. Protecting children: a survey of caregivers’ knowledge of Georgia’s child restraint laws

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheryl Strasser

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sheryl Strasser1, Laurie Whorton2, Amanda J Walpole3, Sarah Beddington11Institute of Public Health, Partnership for Urban Health Research, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 2WellStar Corporate and Community Health, Marietta, GA, USA; 3Cobb and Douglas Public Health, Marietta, GA, USAIntroduction: The leading cause of injury and death among children in the United States is motor vehicle crashes. Even though restraint laws are in place and public awareness campaigns and educational interventions have increased, many children are still improperly restrained or not restrained at all. When correctly used, child restraints significantly reduce risk of injury or death.Methods: The purpose of the study was to elicit caregiver baseline knowledge of car seat installation and regulation before receiving car seat education from certified technicians at Inspection Station events. Inspection Station is a program whereby staff assists parents in correctly positioning car seats in participants’ vehicles. Over an 8-week period, Safe Kids Cobb County Car Seat Technicians distributed a 16-item survey, with 10 knowledge-based questions and six demographic questions to Inspection Station participants. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were conducted to assess relationships between participant age, ethnicity, and gender with overall knowledge scores. Regression analysis was run to determine the association between participant education level and total child restraint knowledge.Results: One hundred sixty-nine surveys were completed. Participant knowledge of vehicular child restraint ranged from 0% to 90% on all items. Only 29.6% of caregivers understood the proper tightness of the harness system. Less than half of the caregivers (43.8% were aware of the Georgia law requiring children aged 6 years and younger to be in some type of child restraint. Only 43.2% of caregivers surveyed knew that children need to ride in a rear-facing child restraint until 1

  17. Numerical modeling of fold-and-thrust belts: Applications to Kuqa foreland fold belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, H.; Morgan, J. K.; Zhang, J.; Wang, Z.

    2009-12-01

    We constructed discrete element models to simulate the evolution of fold-and-thrust belts. The impact of rock competence and decollement strength on the geometric pattern and deformation mechanics of fold-and-thrust belts has been investigated. The models reproduced some characteristic features of fold-and-thrust belts, such as faulted detachment folds, pop-ups, far-traveled thrust sheets, passive-roof duplexes, and back thrusts. In general, deformation propagates farther above a weak decollement than above a strong decollement. Our model results confirm that fold-and-thrust belts with strong frictional decollements develop relatively steep and narrow wedges formed by closely spaced imbricate thrust slices, whereas fold belts with weak decollements form wide low-taper wedges composed of faulted detachment folds, pop-ups, and back thrusts. Far-traveled thrust sheets and passive-roof duplexes are observed in the model with a strong lower decollement and a weak upper detachment. Model results also indicate that the thickness of the weak layer is critical. If it is thick enough, it acts as a ductile layer that is able to flow under differential stress, which helps to partition deformation above and below it. The discrete element modeling results were used to interpret the evolution of Kuqa Cenozoic fold-and-thrust belt along northern Tarim basin, China. Seismic and well data show that the widely distributed Paleogene rock salt has a significant impact on the deformation in this area. Structures beneath salt are closely spaced imbricate thrust and passive-roof duplex systems. Deformation above salt propagates much farther than below the salt. Faults above salt are relatively wide spaced. A huge controversy over the Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt is whether it is thin-skinned or thick-skinned. With the insights from DEM results, we suggest that Kuqa structures are mostly thin-skinned with Paleogene salt as decollement, except for the rear part near the backstop, where the

  18. Pine needle extract prevents hippocampal memory impairment in acute restraint stress mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyeong-Geug; Lee, Hye-Won; Kim, Won-Yong; Ahn, Yo-Chan; Son, Chang-Gue

    2017-07-31

    The Pinus densiflora leaf has been traditionally used to treat mental health disorders as a traditional Chinese medicine. Here we examined the ethnopharmacological relevance of pine needle on memory impairment caused by stress. To elucidate the possible modulatory actions of 30% ethanolic pine needle extract (PNE) on stress-induced hippocampal excitotoxicity, we adopted an acute restraint stress mouse model. Mice were orally administered with PNE (25, 50, or 100mg/kg) or ascorbic acid (100mg/kg) for 9 days, and were then subjected to restraint stress (6h/day) for 3 days (from experimental day 7-9). To evaluate spatial cognitive and memory function, the Morris water maze was performed during experimental days 5-9. Restraint stress induced the memory impairment (the prolonged escape latency and cumulative path-length, and reduced time spent in the target quadrant), and these effects were significantly prevented by PNE treatment. The levels of corticosterone and its receptor in the sera/hippocampus were increased by restraint stress, which was normalized by PNE treatment. Restraint stress elicited the hippocampal excitotoxicity, the inflammatory response and oxidative injury as demonstrated by the increased glutamate levels, altered levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and imbalanced oxidant-antioxidant balance biomarkers. Two immunohistochemistry activities against glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive astrocytes and neuronal nuclei (NeuN)-positive neurons supported the finding of excitotoxicity especially in the cornu ammonis (CA)3 region of the hippocampus. Those alterations were notably attenuated by administration of PNE. The above findings showed that PNE has pharmacological properties that modulate the hippocampal excitotoxicity-derived memory impairment under severe stress conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Greater physiological and behavioral effects of interrupted stress pattern compared to daily restraint stress in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    Full Text Available Repeated stress can trigger a range of psychiatric disorders, including anxiety. The propensity to develop abnormal behaviors after repeated stress is related to the severity, frequency and number of stressors. However, the pattern of stress exposure may contribute to the impact of stress. In addition, the anxiogenic nature of repeated stress exposure can be moderated by the degree of coping that occurs, and can be reflected in homotypic habituation to the repeated stress. However, expectations are not clear when a pattern of stress presentation is utilized that diminishes habituation. The purpose of these experiments is to test whether interrupted stress exposure decreases homotypic habituation and leads to greater effects on anxiety-like behavior in adult male rats. We found that repeated interrupted restraint stress resulted in less overall homotypic habituation compared to repeated daily restraint stress. This was demonstrated by greater production of fecal boli and greater corticosterone response to restraint. Furthermore, interrupted restraint stress resulted in a lower body weight and greater adrenal gland weight than daily restraint stress, and greater anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze. Control experiments demonstrated that these effects of the interrupted pattern could not be explained by differences in the total number of stress exposures, differences in the total number of days that the stress periods encompased, nor could it be explained as a result of only the stress exposures after an interruption from stress. These experiments demonstrate that the pattern of stress exposure is a significant determinant of the effects of repeated stress, and that interrupted stress exposure that decreases habituation can have larger effects than a greater number of daily stress exposures. Differences in the pattern of stress exposure are therefore an important factor to consider when predicting the severity of the effects of repeated

  20. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  1. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  2. The relationship between dietary intake and energy availability, eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the relationship of total energy and macronutrient intake, energy balance and energy availability to eating attitudes and cognitive restraint in students enrolled in undergraduate nutrition degrees. Energy and micronutrient intake was assessed in 63 students (n = 50 nutrition, and n = 13 occupation therapy degrees; n = 51 females, n = 12 males) using three 24-h dietary recalls. Energy requirements were calculated based on measured resting metabolic rate, estimated exercise energy expenditure, and dietary induced thermogenesis. Body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were measured using previously validated tools. Eighteen percent of nutrition students were classified as having low energy availability (Eating attitudes and cognitive restraint were not associated with total energy or macronutrient intake. However, female nutrition students with high cognitive restraint had greater exercise energy expenditure and thus lower energy availability than those with low cognitive restraint (371 (302) kcal d -1 compared to 145 (206) kcal d -1 , P disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint negatively correlated with energy availability (r s  = -0.37, P = 0.02 and r s  = -0.51, P disordered eating attitudes and cognitive restraint may be controlling their energy balance through exercise, as opposed to restricting food intake. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Contributions of mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint to BMI, disordered eating, and meal consumption in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Lisa M; Reilly, Erin E; Schaumberg, Katherine; Dmochowski, Sasha; Anderson, Drew A

    2016-03-01

    Mindful eating and intuitive eating are promoted as means to circumvent potentially maladaptive dietary restraint while maintaining a healthy weight. Although theoretically related, no studies have examined the correlations between intuitive eating, mindful eating, and restraint in the same sample. This study sought to examine these constructs and their correlations with body mass index (BMI), eating-disordered behaviors, and meal consumption in a college sample. Participants (N = 125) completed a laboratory taste-test meal and measures of each eating-related construct using the EDDS, IES, MEQ, and TFEQ-Restraint Subscale. Mindful eating, intuitive eating, and restraint were not strongly correlated. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that restraint and intuitive eating accounted for significant variance in disordered eating and BMI. Elevated restraint was associated with increased BMI and disordered eating; elevated intuitive eating was associated with decreased BMI and disordered eating. Mindful eating did not correlate with any outcome variables. Follow-up analyses suggested that specific intuitive eating subscales accounted for unique variance in the relation between intuitive eating and disordered eating. Intuitive eating was the only construct that was significantly associated with meal consumption. Intuitive eating and restraint appear to be only weakly correlated, and each is differentially associated with meal consumption. Mindful eating does not appear to relate to outcome variables.

  4. Orbital Alignment of Main-belt Comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoonyoung; JeongAhn, Youngmin; Hsieh, Henry H.

    2018-03-01

    We examine the orbital element distribution of main-belt comets (MBCs), which are objects that exhibit cometary activity yet orbit in the main asteroid belt and may be potentially useful as tracers of ice in the inner solar system. We find that the currently known and currently active MBCs have remarkably similar longitudes of perihelion, which are also aligned with that of Jupiter. The clustered objects have significantly higher current osculating eccentricities relative to their proper eccentricities, consistent with their orbits being currently, though only temporarily, secularly excited in osculating eccentricity due to Jupiter’s influence. At the moment, most MBCs seem to have current osculating elements that may be particularly favorable for the object becoming active (e.g., maybe because of higher perihelion temperatures or higher impact velocities causing an effective increase in the size of the potential triggering impactor population). At other times, other icy asteroids will have those favorable conditions and might become MBCs at those times as well.

  5. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  6. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  7. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  8. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  9. Promising restraint : the Carter administration's arms transfer policy

    OpenAIRE

    Langvandslien, Martin

    2004-01-01

    When Jimmy Carter became president in January 1977, he took office with the stated objective of making both US domestic and foreign policy more humane and morale. The ambitious foreign policy objectives would be reached through addressing global issues such as human rights, economic development in third world countries, environmental problems and reduction of world-wide transfers of conventional weapons. During the presidential campaign and his first year in office, Carter committed himself t...

  10. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F

    2015-04-02

    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  12. Anorthosite belts, continental drift, and the anorthosite event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herz, N

    1969-05-23

    Most anorthosites lie in two principal belts when plotted on a predrift continental reconstruction. Anorthosite ages in the belts cluster around 1300 +/- 200 million years and range from 1100 to 1700 million years. This suggests that anorthosites are the product of a unique cataclysmic event or a thermal event that was normal only during the earth's early history.

  13. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  14. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  15. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Abraão; Faria, Allbens

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  16. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  17. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  18. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada

  19. A comparison of outer electron radiation belt dropouts during solar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    O Ogunjobi

    2017-06-06

    Jun 6, 2017 ... during solar wind stream interface and magnetic cloud driven storms. O Ogunjobi1,2,* ... Keywords. Stream interfaces; magnetic clouds; magnetosphere; Earth's radiation belts; L-shell. 1. Introduction. The Earth's ...... storage ring embedded in earth's outer Van Allen belt;. Science 340 186–190. Behera J K ...

  20. Loss Prevention through Safety Belt Use: A Handbook for Managers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This handbook is designed to help managers address safety belt usage issues through a cost-effective and direct approach--establishing an employee safety belt program. The handbook offers a hands-on guide for conducting the program and provides for implementation at all levels. The handbook contains cost information, a program overview, policy and…

  1. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-. SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is ... the schist belt is a major thrust contact marked by a strong mylonitic zone believed to .... for the chlorite phyllite schists and gold bearing quartz veins in the Hutti-Muski schist belt area.

  2. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation... areas where mechanized mining equipment is being installed or removed. (1) The belt air course must be... mechanized mining equipment is being installed or removed, shall be permitted only when evaluated and...

  3. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  4. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  5. 49 CFR 571.225 - Standard No. 225; Child restraint anchorage systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... A steel cable is connected to the X point through which the test force is applied. S8.1Apply the... tightened to a tension of not less than 53.5 N and not more than 67 N on the webbing portion of the belt.... While maintaining the force, tighten the vehicle seat belt to a tension of not less than 53.5 N and not...

  6. Effect of a weightlifting belt on spinal shrinkage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, N D; Reilly, T

    1991-01-01

    Spinal loading during weightlifting results in a loss of stature which has been attributed to a decrease in height of the intervertebral discs--so-called 'spinal shrinkage'. Belts are often used during the lifting of heavy weights, purportedly to support, stabilize and thereby attenuate the load on the spine. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a standard weightlifting belt in attenuating spinal shrinkage. Eight male subjects with a mean age of 24.8 years performed two sequences of circuit weight-training, one without a belt and on a separate occasion with a belt. The circuit training regimen consisted of six common weight-training exercises. These were performed in three sets of ten with a change of exercise after each set of ten repetitions. A stadiometer sensitive to within 0.01 mm was used to record alterations in stature. Measurements of stature were taken before and after completion of the circuit. The absolute visual analogue scale (AVAS) was used to measure the discomfort and pain intensity resulting from each of the two conditions. The circuit weight-training caused stature losses of 3.59mm without the belt and 2.87 mm with the belt (P greater than 0.05). The subjects complained of significantly less discomfort when the belt was worn (P less than 0.05). The degree of shrinkage was significantly correlated (r = 0.752, P less than 0.05) with perceived discomfort but only when the belt was not worn. These results suggest the potential benefits of wearing a weightlifting belt and support the hypothesis that the belt can help in stabilizing the trunk. Images Figure 1 PMID:1810615

  7. The Ocean-Atmosphere Hydrothermohaline Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Döös, Kristofer; Kjellsson, Joakim; Zika, Jan; Laliberté, Frédéric; Brodeau, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    The ocean thermohaline circulation is linked to the hydrothermal circulation of the atmosphere. The ocean thermohaline circulation is expressed in potential temperature-salinity space and comprises a tropical upper-ocean circulation, a global conveyor belt cell and an Antarctic Bottom Water cell. The atmospheric hydrothermal circulation in a potential temperature-specific humidity space unifies the tropical Hadley and Walker cells as well as the midlatitude eddies into a single, global circulation. Superimposed, these thermohaline and hydrothermal stream functions reveal the possibility of a close connection between some parts of the water and air mass conversions. The exchange of heat and fresh water through the sea surface (precipiation-evaporation) and incoming solar radiation act to make near-surface air warm and moist while making surface water warmer and saltier as both air and water travel towards the Equator. In the tropics, air masses can undergo moist convection releasing latent heat by forming precipitation, thus acting to make warm surface water fresher. We propose that the Clausius-Clapeyron relationship for moist near-surface air acts like a lower bound for the atmospheric hydrothermal cell and an upper bound for the ocean thermohaline Conveyor-Belt cell. The analysis is made by combining and merging the overturning circulation of the ocean and atmosphere by relating the salinity of the ocean to the humidity of the atmosphere, where we set the heat and freshwater transports equal in the two stream functions By using simulations integrated with our Climate-Earth system model EC-Earth, we intend to produce the "hydrothermohaline" stream function of the coupled ocean-atmosphere overturning circulation in one single picture. We explore how the oceanic thermohaline Conveyor Belt can be linked to the global atmospheric hydrothermal circulation and if the water and air mass conversions in humidity-temperature-salinity space can be related and linked to each

  8. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  9. Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results From the PROGRESS Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balikhin, M. A.; Arber, T. D.; Ganushkina, N. Y.; Walker, S. N.

    2017-12-01

    Forecasting of Radiation Belts: Results from the PROGRESS Project. The overall goal of the PROGRESS project, funded in frame of EU Horizon2020 programme, is to combine first principles based models with the systems science methodologies to achieve reliable forecasts of the geo-space particle radiation environment.The PROGRESS incorporates three themes : The propagation of the solar wind to L1, Forecast of geomagnetic indices, and forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons within the magnetosphere. One of the important aspects of the PROGRESS project is the development of statistical wave models for magnetospheric waves that affect the dynamics of energetic electrons such as lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise. The error reduction ratio (ERR) concept has been used to optimise the set of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters for organisation of statistical wave models for these emissions. The resulting sets of parameters and statistical wave models will be presented and discussed. However the ERR analysis also indicates that the combination of solar wind and geomagnetic parameters accounts for only part of the variance of the emissions under investigation (lower band chorus, hiss and equatorial noise). In addition, advances in the forecast of fluxes of energetic electrons, exploiting empirical models and the first principles IMPTAM model achieved by the PROGRESS project is presented.

  10. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drabek-Maunder, E.; Hatchell, J.; Buckle, J. V.; Di Francesco, J.; Richer, J.

    2016-03-01

    Using James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (JCMT) Gould Belt Survey data from CO J = 3 → 2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  11. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  12. Interactive effects of dietary restraint and adiposity on stress-induced eating and the food choice of children

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Individual Differences Model posits that individual differences in physiological and psychological factors explain eating behaviors in response to stress. The purpose was to determine the effects of individual differences in adiposity, dietary restraint and stress reactivity on children's energy...

  13. Forensic mental health clinician's experiences with and assessment of alliance regarding the patient's readiness to be released from mechanical restraint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lea Deichmann; Gildberg, Frederik Alkier; Bech, Per

    2018-01-01

    of parameters of alliance regarding the patient's readiness to be released from restraint. We used a qualitative, descriptive approach and conducted focus group interviews with nurses, nurse assistants and social and healthcare assistants. The results show that a pre-established personal clinician......One of the main reasons for prolonged duration of mechanical restraint is patient behaviour in relation to the clinician-patient alliance. This article reports on the forensic mental health clinicians experiences of the clinician-patient alliance during mechanical restraint, and their assessment......-patient alliance formed the basis for entering into, and weighing the quality of, the alliance during mechanical restraint. In consideration of the patient's psychiatric condition, the clinicians observed and assessed two quality parameters for the alliance: 'the patient's insight into or understanding of present...

  14. Allometric scaling of chemical restraint associated with inhalant anesthesia in giant anteaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carregaro, Adriano Bonfim; Gerardi, Patrícia Molina; Honsho, Daniel Kan

    2009-04-01

    This study describes the use of allometric scaling in five giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) submitted for osteosynthesis, gastrostomy, or treatment of burns. Chemical restraint was performed by allometric scaling using the dog as a reference; acepromazine (0.06 mg/kg), diazepam (0.3 mg/kg), ketamine (8.8 mg/kg), and buprenorphine (5.9 microg/kg) were combined, and the animals were maintained under isoflurane anesthesia. Heart rate, respiratory rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, temperature, and anesthetic depth were measured. Postoperative treatment consisted of ketoprofen, buprenorphine, and ceftiofur. Anesthetic induction was obtained in 10-15 min, achieving muscle relaxation and absence of excitement. Physiologic parameters were stable during the procedures, and postoperative treatment was effective. Allometric scaling was effective for chemical restraint and postoperative treatment.

  15. Electroconvulsive Stimulation, but not Chronic Restraint Stress, Causes Structural Alterations in Adult Rat Hippocampus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mikkel V.; Wörtwein, Gitta; Pakkenberg, Bente

    2015-01-01

    The neurobiological mechanisms underlying depression are not fully understood. Only a few previous studies have used validated stereological methods to test how stress and animal paradigms of depression affect adult hippocampal neurogenesis and whether antidepressant therapy can counteract possible...... changes in an animal model. Thus, in this study we applied methods that are state of the art in regard to stereological cell counting methods. Using a validated rat model of depression in combination with a clinically relevant schedule of electroconvulsive stimulation, we estimated the total number...... of newly formed neurons in the hippocampal subgranular zone. Also estimated were the total number of neurons and the volume of the granule cell layer in adult rats subjected to chronic restraint stress and electroconvulsive stimulation either alone or in combination. We found that chronic restraint stress...

  16. Mediation of Weight Loss and Weight Loss Maintenance through Dietary Disinhibition and Restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    JaKa, Meghan M; Sherwood, Nancy E; Flatt, Shirley W; Pacanowski, Carly R; Pakiz, Bilgé; Thomson, Cynthia A; Rock, Cheryl L

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the degree to which eating behaviors, such as disinhibition and restraint, are associated with weight loss and weight loss maintenance could contribute to further refinement of effective weight management intervention strategies. The purpose of this analysis was to examine if these factors mediate weight loss or weight loss maintenance using data from a randomized controlled trial testing a commercial weight loss program that delivered behavioral counseling and structured meal plans including prepackaged foods. Mediation analyses were used to examine whether changes in disinhibition and restraint mediated the relationship between intervention and weight change during initial weight loss (0-6 months), continued weight loss (6-12 months), or weight loss maintenance (12-24 months) phases. Only decreases in disinhibition between baseline and 6 months mediated the intervention effect on initial weight loss. Our results suggest the mediation effects of these eating behaviors are modest and other factors contribute to a larger, more complex long-term weight loss prognosis.

  17. Oscillations control of a transmission belt by Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.

  18. Numerical analysis of the influence of end restraints on the fire resistance of continuous reinforced concrete beams and slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Limin

    2015-01-01

    Fire resistance research of underground structures and structures above ground shows that the underground structures are always subjected to more severe fire disasters. Fire accidents in underground structures experience higher and longer temperature histories. From the structural side of view, the most obvious difference between the underground ones and the ones above ground is the restraint system at the boundaries. Underground structures are subjected to restraint forces which primarily re...

  19. Noise in Load Cell Signal in an Automatic Weighing System Based on a Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoo Nam Choi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise in load cell signal in an automatic weighing system based on a belt conveyor has been examined experimentally in time and frequency domains to enhance signal quality. The noise frequency spectrum showed nonlinearly increasing multiple resonance peaks as speed increased. The noise reduction process using noise reduction algorithm, by sharply rejecting peak noise frequency component and afterward forming optimum pulse width ratio through filter slope control using selective switching of 6 LPF stages, was used for enhanced accuracy. The effectiveness of proposed method, controlling both cutoff frequency and slope of LPF, was evaluated by feeding 50 g test mass, and this noise reduction process showed better noise filtering with enhanced accuracy than fixed cutoff frequency control method. The ratio of top to bottom pulse width showed that LPF cutoff frequency above 5 Hz had the ratio above 50% up to 80 m/min speed range.

  20. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  1. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  2. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  3. Stigma and Management on People with Severe Mental Disorders with “Pasung” (Physical restraint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weny Lestari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available background: Mental disorders remain serious mental health problems in Indonesia. In 2007 there were 0,46 percent of the total population in Indonesia had high risk of schizophrenia. There are many people with severe mental disorders who do not receive medical treatment or dropped out from medical treatment and then put in physical restraint. Methods:The analysis was based on previous study on the elimination program for physical restraints in 2011. The methods were by collecting news, research results and reviews about stigma and management on people with severe mental disorders. results showed that suspect mental disorders people who had physical restraints by their families was the last alternative of mental disorders management after all medical treatment seek by the families. But the families and communities unknowing early detection and post-treatment management at the Mental Health Hospital causes the patient did not treated properly. People with mental disorders frequently also stigmatized on their neighbourhood. The stigma attached to the patient them selves and their families. Health and socio-cultural’s consequences of stigma in people with mental disorders were as not treated optimally, dropout from the treatment, had physical restraint and incorrect understanding about people with mental disorders. conclutions:The conclusions are that it needs to socialize about early detection of mental disorders sympton to community to prevent delays on early phase treatment that could be cured. Besides empowering people is needed to improve knowledge about mental disorders and emotional disturbance at certain levels in order to avoid the stigma against people with mental disorders.

  4. Child Passenger Restraint System Misuse in Rural Versus Urban Children: A Multisite Case-Control Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafner, John W; Kok, Stephanie J; Wang, Huaping; Wren, Dale L; Aitken, Mary E; Miller, Beverly K; Anderson, Byron L; Monroe, Kathy W

    2017-10-01

    Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of childhood fatality, making use of properly installed child passenger restraint system (CRS) a public health priority. Motor vehicle crashes in rural environments are associated with increased injuries and fatalities, and overall CRS use tends to be lower compared with urban populations. However, it remains unclear if proper installation of car seats is lower in a rural population compared with a similar matched urban population. A multisite (Alabama, Arkansas, Illinois), observational, case-control study was performed using data from community child passenger safety checkup events in rural (economically and population-controlled) and urban locations. Data were matched to the primary child assessed in a vehicle, and stratified by age, site, and year with urban unscheduled CRS check data. All CRS checks were performed using nationally certified CRS technicians who used the best practice standards of the American Academy of Pediatrics and collected subject demographics, car seat misuse patterns, and interventions using identical definitions. Four hundred eighty-four CRS checks (242 rural and 242 urban) involving 603 total children from 3 states (Alabama, 43 [7%]; Arkansas, 442 [73%]; Illinois, 118 [20%]) were examined; of which, 86% had at least 1 documented CRS misuse. Child passenger restraint system misuse was more common in rural than urban locations (90.5% vs 82.6%; P = 0.01). Child passenger restraint system misuse was more common in rural children aged 4 to 8 years (90.3% vs 80.6%; P = 0.02). In this multisite study, rural location was associated with higher CRS misuse. Child passenger restraint system education and resources that target rural populations specifically appear to be justified.

  5. Corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in emperor and Adelie penguins in Antarctica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockrem, John F; Potter, Murray A; Barrett, D Paul; Candy, E Jane

    2008-03-01

    Birds respond to capture, handling and restraint with increased secretion of corticosterone, a glucocorticoid hormone that helps birds adjust to stressful situations. Hoods are reported to calm birds, but possible effects of hoods on corticosterone responses have not been reported for any bird. Corticosterone responses to restraint in Adelie penguins held by their legs with their head covered by a hood were markedly lower than responses of penguins restrained in a mesh bag inside a cardboard box (corticosterone at 30 min 15.69+/-1.72 cf. 28.32+/-2.75 ng/ml). The birds restrained by the two methods were sampled at the same location but in different years, so the differences in corticosterone responses cannot unequivocally be ascribed to an effect of hoods to reduce corticosterone responses. Corticosterone responses have been measured in some penguins, but not in the largest, the emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). The relationship between body mass and corticosterone responses to capture and restraint in penguins was examined in emperor penguins captured on sea ice in McMurdo Sound and Adelie penguins (Pygoscelis adeliae) captured at Cape Bird, Ross Island, Antarctica. Total integrated corticosterone responses were higher in the emperor than the Adelie penguins, but corrected integrated corticosterone responses, which represent the increase in corticosterone from initial concentrations and hence the corticosterone response to restraint, were the same. The results for the emperor and Adelie penguins, together with data from other penguin species, suggest that there is no relationship between the size of corticosterone responses and body mass in penguins.

  6. Synthetic Decapeptide Enhances Bacterial Clearance and Accelerates Healing in the Wounds of Restraint-Stressed Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    showed that KSL, at concen trations up to 1 mg/ml, did not induce cell death or compromise the membrane integrity of human gingival fibroblasts...cationic antimicrobial peptide in excisional wounds. 2. Materials and methods 2.1. Animal selection For all animal experiments in this study, we selected...and psychological stress response (Padgett et al., 1998). Each mouse subjected to restraint was placed in a separate well ventilated 50 ml centrifuge

  7. The promising future of ventricular restraint therapy for the management of end-stage heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Mohammad, Imran Shair; Xue, Li; Khan, Sara; Gang, Wang; Cao, Yanfang; Cheng, Yijie; Cui, Xingxing; DingDing, Chen; Feng, Yu; Zhijie, Wang; Xiaohui, Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Complicated pathophysiological syndrome associated with irregular functioning of the heart leading to insufficient blood supply to the organs is linked to congestive heart failure (CHF) which is the leading cause of death in developed countries. Numerous factors can add to heart failure (HF) pathogenesis, including myocardial infarction (MI), genetic factors, coronary artery disease (CAD), ischemia or hypertension. Presently, most of the therapies against CHF cause modest symptom relief but incapable of giving significant recovery for long-term survival outcomes. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment of HF except cardiac transplantation but genetic variations, tissue mismatch, differences in certain immune response and socioeconomic crisis are some major concern with cardiac transplantation, suggested an alternate bridge to transplant (BTT) or destination therapies (DT). Ventricular restraint therapy (VRT) is a promising, non-transplant surgical treatment wherein the overall goal is to wrap the dilated heart with prosthetic material to mechanically restrain the heart at end-diastole, stop extra remodeling, and thereby ultimately improve patient symptoms, ventricular function and survival. Ventricular restraint devices (VRDs) are developed to treat end-stage HF and BTT, including the CorCap cardiac support device (CSD) (CSD; Acorn Cardiovascular Inc, St Paul, Minn), Paracor HeartNet (Paracor Medical, Sunnyvale, Calif), QVR (Polyzen Inc, Apex, NC) and ASD (ASD, X. Zhou). An overview of 4 restraint devices, with their precise advantages and disadvantages, will be presented. The accessible peer-reviewed literature summarized with an important considerations on the mechanism of restraint therapy and how this acquaintance can be accustomed to optimize and improve its effectiveness. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Environmental Enrichment Blunts Ethanol Consumption after Restraint Stress in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Marianno

    Full Text Available Elevated alcohol intake after abstinence is a key feature of the addiction process. Some studies have shown that environmental enrichment (EE affects ethanol intake and other reinforcing effects. However, different EE protocols may vary in their ability to influence alcohol consumption and stress-induced intake. The present study evaluated whether short (3 h or continuous (24 h EE protocols affect ethanol consumption after periods of withdrawal. Mice were challenged with stressful stimuli (24 h isolation and restraint stress to evaluate the effects of stress on drinking. Male C57BL/6 mice were subjected to a two-bottle choice drinking-in-the-dark paradigm for 15 days (20% ethanol and water, 2 h/day, acquisition phase. Control mice were housed under standard conditions (SC. In the first experiment, one group of mice was housed under EE conditions 24 h/day (EE24h. In the second experiment, the exposure to EE was reduced to 3 h/day (EE3h. After the acquisition phase, the animals were deprived of ethanol for 6 days, followed by 2 h ethanol access once a week. Animals were tested in the elevated plus maze (EPM during ethanol withdrawal. During the last 2 weeks, the mice were exposed to 24 h ethanol access. A 1-h restraint stress test was performed immediately before the last ethanol exposure. EE24h but not EE3h increased anxiety-like behavior during withdrawal compared to controls. Neither EE24h nor EE3h affected ethanol consumption during the 2 h weekly exposure periods. However, EE24h and EE3h mice that were exposed to acute restraint stress consumed less ethanol than controls during a 24 h ethanol access. These results showed that EE reduces alcohol intake after an acute restraint stress.

  9. High Sucrose Intake Ameliorates the Accumulation of Hepatic Triacylglycerol Promoted by Restraint Stress in Young Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona-Pérez, Adriana; Díaz-Muñoz, Mauricio; Rodríguez, Ida Soto; Cuevas, Estela; Martínez-Gómez, Margarita; Castelán, Francisco; Rodríguez-Antolín, Jorge; Nicolás-Toledo, Leticia

    2015-11-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disorder. Stress promotes the onset of the NAFLD with a concomitant increment in the activity of the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD-1). However, the interaction between the stress and a carbohydrate-enriched diet for the development of NAFLD in young animals is unknown. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of chronic stress on the hepatic triacylglycerol level of young rats fed or not with a high sucrose-diet. For doing this, 21-day old male Wistar rats were allocated into 4 groups: control (C), chronic restraint stress (St), high-sucrose diet (S30), and chronic restraint stress plus a 30 % sucrose diet (St + S30). Chronic restraint stress consisted of 1-hour daily session, 5 days per week and for 4 weeks. Rats were fed with a standard chow and tap water (C group) or 30 % sucrose diluted in water (S30 group). The St + S30 groups consumed less solid food but had an elevated visceral fat accumulation in comparison with the St group. The St group showed a high level of serum corticosterone and a high activity of the hepatic 11β-HSD-1 concomitantly to the augmentation of hepatic steatosis signs, a high hepatic triacylglycerol content, and hepatic oxidative stress. Conversely, the high-sucrose intake in stressed rats (St + S30 group) reduced the hepatic 11β-HSD-1 activity, the level of serum corticosterone, and the hepatic triacylglycerol content. Present findings show that a high-sucrose diet ameliorates the triacylglycerol accumulation in liver promoted by the restraint stress in young male rats.

  10. Housing in Pyramid Counteracts Neuroendocrine and Oxidative Stress Caused by Chronic Restraint in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Surekha Bhat

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The space within the great pyramid and its smaller replicas is believed to have an antistress effect. Research has shown that the energy field within the pyramid can protect the hippocampal neurons of mice from stress-induced atrophy and also reduce neuroendocrine stress, oxidative stress and increase antioxidant defence in rats. In this study, we have, for the first time, attempted to study the antistress effects of pyramid exposure on the status of cortisol level, oxidative damage and antioxidant status in rats during chronic restraint stress. Adult female Wistar rats were divided into four groups as follows: normal controls (NC housed in home cage and left in the laboratory; restrained rats (with three subgroups subject to chronic restraint stress by placing in a wire mesh restrainer for 6 h per day for 14 days, the restrained controls (RC having their restrainers kept in the laboratory; restrained pyramid rats (RP being kept in the pyramid; and restrained square box rats (RS in the square box during the period of restraint stress everyday. Erythrocyte malondialdehyde (MDA and plasma cortisol levels were significantly increased and erythrocyte-reduced glutathione (GSH levels, erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px and superoxide dismutase (SOD activities were significantly decreased in RC and RS rats as compared to NC. However, these parameters were maintained to near normal levels in RP rats which showed significantly decreased erythrocyte MDA and plasma cortisol and significantly increased erythrocyte GSH levels, erythrocyte GSH-Px and SOD activities when compared with RS rats. The results showed that housing in pyramid counteracts neuroendocrine and oxidative stress caused by chronic restraint in rats.

  11. Variation in Behavioral Reactivity Is Associated with Cooperative Restraint Training Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Moadab, Gilda

    2016-01-01

    Training techniques that prepare laboratory animals to participate in testing via cooperation are useful tools that have the potential to benefit animal wellbeing. Understanding how animals systematically vary in their cooperative training trajectories will help trainers to design effective and efficient training programs. In the present report we document an updated method for training rhesus monkeys to cooperatively participate in restraint in a ‘primate chair.’ We trained 14 adult male mac...

  12. Intrinsic brain subsystem associated with dietary restraint, disinhibition and hunger: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jizheng; Li, Mintong; Zhang, Yi; Song, Huaibo; von Deneen, Karen M; Shi, Yinggang; Liu, Yijun; He, Dongjian

    2017-02-01

    Eating behaviors are closely related to body weight, and eating traits are depicted in three dimensions: dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger. The current study aims to explore whether these aspects of eating behaviors are related to intrinsic brain activation, and to further investigate the relationship between the brain activation relating to these eating traits and body weight, as well as the link between function connectivity (FC) of the correlative brain regions and body weight. Our results demonstrated positive associations between dietary restraint and baseline activation of the frontal and the temporal regions (i.e., food reward encoding) and the limbic regions (i.e., homeostatic control, including the hypothalamus). Disinhibition was positively associated with the activation of the frontal motivational system (i.e., OFC) and the premotor cortex. Hunger was positively related to extensive activations in the prefrontal, temporal, and limbic, as well as in the cerebellum. Within the brain regions relating to dietary restraint, weight status was negatively correlated with FC of the left middle temporal gyrus and left inferior temporal gyrus, and was positively associated with the FC of regions in the anterior temporal gyrus and fusiform visual cortex. Weight status was positively associated with the FC within regions in the prefrontal motor cortex and the right ACC serving inhibition, and was negatively related with the FC of regions in the frontal cortical-basal ganglia-thalamic circuits responding to hunger control. Our data depicted an association between intrinsic brain activation and dietary restraint, disinhibition, and hunger, and presented the links of their activations and FCs with weight status.

  13. Influence of omega-3 fatty acid status on the way rats adapt to chronic restraint stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Hennebelle

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids are important for several neuronal and cognitive functions. Altered omega-3 fatty acid status has been implicated in reduced resistance to stress and mood disorders. We therefore evaluated the effects of repeated restraint stress (6 h/day for 21 days on adult rats fed omega-3 deficient, control or omega-3 enriched diets from conception. We measured body weight, plasma corticosterone and hippocampus glucocorticoid receptors and correlated these data with emotional and depression-like behaviour assessed by their open-field (OF activity, anxiety in the elevated-plus maze (EPM, the sucrose preference test and the startle response. We also determined their plasma and brain membrane lipid profiles by gas chromatography. Repeated restraint stress caused rats fed a control diet to lose weight. Their plasma corticosterone increased and they showed moderate behavioural changes, with increases only in grooming (OF test and entries into the open arms (EPM. Rats fed the omega-3 enriched diet had a lower stress-induced weight loss and plasma corticosterone peak, and reduced grooming. Rats chronically lacking omega-3 fatty acid exhibited an increased startle response, a stress-induced decrease in locomotor activity and exaggerated grooming. The brain omega-3 fatty acids increased as the dietary omega-3 fatty acids increased; diets containing preformed long-chain omega-3 fatty acid were better than diets containing the precursor alpha-linolenic acid. However, the restraint stress reduced the amounts of omega-3 incorporated. These data showed that the response to chronic restraint stress was modulated by the omega-3 fatty acid supply, a dietary deficiency was deleterious while enrichment protecting against stress.

  14. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres

    OpenAIRE

    van Arkel, RJ; Amis, AA; Cobb, JP; Jeffers, JRT

    2015-01-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral l...

  15. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  16. Review of GEM Radiation Belt Dropout and Buildup Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Li, Wen; Morley, Steve; Albert, Jay

    2017-04-01

    In Summer 2015 the US NSF GEM (Geospace Environment Modeling) focus group named "Quantitative Assessment of Radiation Belt Modeling" started the "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges, focused on quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts. This is a community effort which includes selecting challenge events, gathering model inputs that are required to model the radiation belt dynamics during these events (e.g., various magnetospheric waves, plasmapause and density models, electron phase space density data), simulating the challenge events using different types of radiation belt models, and validating the model results by comparison to in situ observations of radiation belt electrons (from Van Allen Probes, THEMIS, GOES, LANL/GEO, etc). The goal is to quantitatively assess the relative importance of various acceleration, transport, and loss processes in the observed radiation belt dropouts and buildups. Since 2015, the community has selected four "challenge" events under four different categories: "storm-time enhancements", "non-storm enhancements", "storm-time dropouts", and "non-storm dropouts". Model inputs and data for each selected event have been coordinated and shared within the community to establish a common basis for simulations and testing. Modelers within and outside US with different types of radiation belt models (diffusion-type, diffusion-convection-type, test particle codes, etc.) have participated in our challenge and shared their simulation results and comparison with spacecraft measurements. Significant progress has been made in quantitative modeling of the radiation belt buildups and dropouts as well as accessing the modeling with new measures of model performance. In this presentation, I will review the activities from our "RB dropout" and "RB buildup" challenges and the progresses achieved in understanding radiation belt physics and improving model validation and verification.

  17. Nursing staff members' intentions to use physical restraints with older people: testing the theory of reasoned action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, P; Mendelsson, G

    2001-09-01

    To examine nursing staff members' attitudes, subjective norms, moral obligations and intentions to use physical restraints, using the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA). During the last two decades an extensive body of research has examined nurses' attitudes as one of the main factors affecting the decision to use or not to use physical restraints with older persons. However, no studies have examined empirically the antecedents to nurses' intentions to use physical restraints within a theoretically based framework. A correlational design was used with 303 nursing staff members from an 800-bed elder care hospital in central Israel. Participants completed a questionnaire including questions based on the TRA as well as socio-demographic and professional characteristics. Regression analyses found attitudes, subjective norms and moral considerations to be significantly associated to intention to use physical restraints with older people. The TRA explained 48% of the variance in nurses' intentions. The TRA proved to be a useful framework for examining nurses' intentions to use physical restraints. Nurses' attitudes, beliefs and expectations of significant others should be examined before implementing educational programmes regarding the use of physical restraints.

  18. Effects of repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal exposure on behavior and oxidative stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Othman, Haifa; Ammari, Mohamed; Sakly, Mohsen; Abdelmelek, Hafedh

    2017-10-01

    Today, due to technology development and aversive events of daily life, Human exposure to both radiofrequency and stress is unavoidable. This study investigated the co-exposure to repeated restraint stress and WiFi signal on cognitive function and oxidative stress in brain of male rats. Animals were divided into four groups: Control, WiFi-exposed, restrained and both WiFi-exposed and restrained groups. Each of WiFi exposure and restraint stress occurred 2 h (h)/day during 20 days. Subsequently, various tests were carried out for each group, such as anxiety in elevated plus maze, spatial learning abilities in the water maze, cerebral oxidative stress response and cholinesterase activity in brain and serum. Results showed that WiFi exposure and restraint stress, alone and especially if combined, induced an anxiety-like behavior without impairing spatial learning and memory abilities in rats. At cerebral level, we found an oxidative stress response triggered by WiFi and restraint, per se and especially when combined as well as WiFi-induced increase in acetylcholinesterase activity. Our results reveal that there is an impact of WiFi signal and restraint stress on the brain and cognitive processes especially in elevated plus maze task. In contrast, there are no synergistic effects between WiFi signal and restraint stress on the brain.

  19. Social Appearance Anxiety and Dietary Restraint as Mediators between Perfectionism and Binge Eating: A Six Month Three Wave Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosof, Leigh C.; Levinson, Cheri A.

    2016-01-01

    Binge eating is related to perfectionism and restrained eating. However, the mechanisms underlying these relationships are not well understood. It is possible that social anxiety, specifically social appearance anxiety (i.e., the fear of overall appearance evaluation), influences the relationship between binge eating, perfectionism, and dietary restraint. In the current study (N = 300 women), we tested the relationship between dietary restraint, social appearance anxiety, concern over mistakes (a component of perfectionism), and binge eating in prospective data (three time points: at baseline, at two month, and at six month follow up). We found that social appearance anxiety, dietary restraint, and concern over mistakes each predicted binge eating at baseline. Only social appearance anxiety prospectively predicted binge eating when accounting for all variables. Further, in the tested model, social appearance anxiety mediated the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating across six months. On the contrary, dietary restraint did not mediate the relationship between concern over mistakes and binge eating in the tested model. The finding that social appearance anxiety served as a mediator between concern over mistakes and binge eating, but that dietary restraint did not, implies that social appearance anxiety may be a more salient prospective predictor of binge eating than dietary restraint. Intervening on social appearance anxiety may be important in the treatment and prevention of binge eating. PMID:27742237

  20. Emotional eating and routine restraint scores are associated with activity in brain regions involved in urge and self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Samantha M W; Schembre, Susan M; He, Qinghua; Engelmann, Jeffrey M; Ames, Susan L; Bechara, Antoine

    2016-10-15

    Researchers have proposed a variety of behavioral traits that may lead to weight gain and obesity; however, little is known about the neurocognitive mechanisms underlying these weight-related eating behaviors. In this study, we measured activation of reward circuitry during a task requiring response and inhibition to food stimuli. We assessed participants' emotional eating, external eating, and two subscales of dietary restraint-routine restraint and compensatory restraint-using the Weight-Related Eating Questionnaire. For routine restraint, we found positive associations with activation in the insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and ventromedial prefrontal cortex in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. For emotional eating, we found positive associations with insula and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to high-calorie versus low-calorie foods. We also found positive associations between emotional eating and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activation in response to approach versus inhibition towards high-calorie foods. Thus, our results demonstrate an increase in activation across brain regions related to self-control and urges in response to high-calorie food associated with both emotional eating and routine restraint. Overall, these results support the construct validity of both emotional eating and routine restraint and provide preliminary evidence that these subscales have similar neural correlates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and Multi-Purpose Crew Restraint Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, Mihriban

    2005-01-01

    Within the scope of the Multi-purpose Crew Restraints for Long Duration Spaceflights project, funded by Code U, it was proposed to conduct a series of evaluations on the ground and on the KC-135 to investigate the human factors issues concerning confined/unique workstations, such as the design of crew restraints. The usability of multiple crew restraints was evaluated for use with the Life Sciences Glovebox (LSG) and for performing general purpose tasks. The purpose of the KC-135 microgravity evaluation was to: (1) to investigate the usability and effectiveness of the concepts developed, (2) to gather recommendations for further development of the concepts, and (3) to verify the validity of the existing requirements. Some designs had already been tested during a March KC-135 evaluation, and testing revealed the need for modifications/enhancements. This flight was designed to test the new iterations, as well as some new concepts. This flight also involved higher fidelity tasks in the LSG, and the addition of load cells on the gloveports.

  2. Subtyping dietary restraint and negative affect in a longitudinal community sample of girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Eunice Y; McCloskey, Michael S; Keenan, Kathryn E

    2009-04-01

    This study tests the validity of the "dietary-depressive" subtype (typified by greater negative affect) and a "dietary" subtype (typified by dietary restraint only) using a diverse longitudinal community sample. Girls at ages 10, 12, and 14 completed the Child Eating Attitudes Test, the Child Symptom Inventory-4, and Body Image Measure. Body Mass Index was assessed at each age. Unlike previous studies, cluster analysis revealed an at-risk "dietary-depressive" (R+) subtype (18.7%,100/534) and a not at-risk (R-) subtype, distinguished by few depressive symptoms and little dietary restraint (81.3%,434/534), but no "dietary" subtype. When compared with the R- subtype, the R+ subtype had significantly greater eating disordered behavior and attitudes. The R+ subtype at age 10 was a risk factor for binge-eating but not obesity at ages 12 and 14. Dietary restraint and depressive symptoms combined predict binge-eating longitudinally in a diverse community sample of girls. (c) 2009 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis in vivo--role of the sympathetic nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stämpfli, Simon F; Camici, Giovanni G; Keller, Stephan; Rozenberg, Izabela; Arras, Margarete; Schuler, Beat; Gassmann, Max; Garcia, Irene; Lüscher, Thomas F; Tanner, Felix C

    2014-01-01

    Stress is known to correlate with the incidence of acute myocardial infarction. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this correlation are not known. This study was designed to assess the effect of experimental stress on arterial thrombus formation, the key event in acute myocardial infarction. Mice exposed to 20 h of restraint stress displayed an increased arterial prothrombotic potential as assessed by photochemical injury-induced time to thrombotic occlusion. This increase was prevented by chemical sympathectomy performed through 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Blood-born tissue factor (TF) activity was enhanced by stress and this increase could be prevented by 6-OHDA treatment. Vessel wall TF, platelet count, platelet aggregation, coagulation times (PT, aPTT), fibrinolytic system (t-PA and PAI-1) and tail bleeding time remained unaltered. Telemetric analysis revealed only minor hemodynamic changes throughout the stress protocol. Plasma catecholamines remained unaffected after restraint stress. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) plasma levels were unchanged and inhibition of TNF-α had no effect on stress-enhanced thrombosis. These results indicate that restraint stress enhances arterial thrombosis via the sympathetic nervous system. Blood-borne TF contributes, at least in part, to the observed effect whereas vessel wall TF, platelets, circulating coagulation factors, fibrinolysis and inflammation do not appear to play a role. These findings shed new light on the understanding of stress-induced cardiovascular events.

  4. Compression-Loaded Composite Panels With Elastic Edge Restraints and Initial Prestress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilburger, Mark W.; Nemeth, Michael P.; Riddick, Jaret C.; Thornburgh, Robert P.

    2005-01-01

    A parametric study of the effects of test-fixture-induced initial prestress and elastic edge restraints on the prebuckling and buckling responses of a compression-loaded, quasi-isotropic curved panel is presented. The numerical results were obtained by using a geometrically nonlinear finite element analysis code with high-fidelity models. The results presented show that a wide range of prebuckling and buckling behavior can be obtained by varying parameters that represent circumferential loaded-edge restraint and rotational unloaded-edge restraint provided by a test fixture and that represent the mismatch in specimen and test-fixture radii of curvature. For a certain range of parameters, the panels exhibit substantial nonlinear prebuckling deformations that yield buckling loads nearly twice the corresponding buckling load predicted by a traditional linear bifurcation buckling analysis for shallow curved panels. In contrast, the results show another range of parameters exist for which the nonlinear prebuckling deformations either do not exist or are relatively benign, and the panels exhibit buckling loads that are nearly equal to the corresponding linear bifurcation buckling load. Overall, the results should be of particular interest to scientists, engineers, and designers involved in simulating flight-hardware boundary conditions in structural verification and certification tests, involved in validating structural analysis tools, and interested in tailoring buckling performance.

  5. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  6. Effect of one-way clutch on the nonlinear vibration of belt-drive systems with a continuous belt model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Zu, Jean W.

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the nonlinear steady-state response of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch. A dynamic model is established to describe the rotations of the driving pulley, the driven pulley, and the accessory shaft. Moreover, the model considers the transverse vibration of the translating belt spans for the first time in belt-drive systems coupled with a one-way clutch. The excitation of the belt-drive system is derived from periodic fluctuation of the driving pulley. In automotive systems, this kind of fluctuation is induced by the engine firing harmonic pulsations. The derived coupled discrete-continuous nonlinear equations consist of integro-partial-differential equations and piece-wise ordinary differential equations. Using the Galerkin truncation, a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained from the integro-partial-differential equations. Applying the Runge-Kutta time discretization, the time histories of the dynamic response are numerically solved for the driven pulley and the accessory shaft and the translating belt spans. The resonance areas of the coupled belt-drive system are determined using the frequency sweep. The effects of the one-way clutch on the belt-drive system are studied by comparing the frequency-response curves of the translating belt with and without one-way clutch device. Furthermore, the results of 2-term and 4-term Galerkin truncation are compared to determine the numerical convergence. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to understand the effects of the system parameters on the nonlinear steady-state response. It is concluded that one-way clutch not only decreases the resonance amplitude of the driven pulley and shaft's rotational vibration, but also reduces the resonance region of the belt's transverse vibration.

  7. Acute and delayed restraint stress-induced changes in nitric oxide producing neurons in limbic regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echeverry, M B; Guimarães, F S; Del Bel, E A

    2004-01-01

    Microinjection into the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus of N(omega)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (l-NAME), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, induces antinociceptive effect 5 days after a single restraint episode. The mechanisms of this stress-antinociceptive modulatory effect have not been investigated but may involve plastic changes in the hippocampal formation (HF). The objective of the present study was to investigate possible mechanisms of the stress-modulating effect on antinociception induced by NOS inhibition in the hippocampus. We analyzed the effects of restraint stress on neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase histochemical activity (NADPH-d) in the HF and related brain regions. Male Wistar rats (n=6-11/group) were submitted to a single (acute stress) or repeated (5 days) episodes of 2-h restraint. Control animals remained in their home cages being all animals daily handled during this period. In the fifth day, animals received unilateral microinjection of l-NAME (150 nmol/0.2 microl) or saline (control) into the dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus (DG). Immediately before and after drug microinjection tail-flick reflex latency or hotplate licking reaction was measured. Animals were killed i. immediately; ii. 5 days after acute stress; or iii. after repeated stress. NADPH-d and nNOS expression were quantified in the HF, caudate-putamen, secondary somatosensorial, entorhinal and piriform cortices and amygdaloid complex. Five days after one or five restraint episodes l-NAME microinjection into the DG elicited antinociceptive effect (analysis of variance [ANOVA], Psomatosensorial cortex. The results confirm that the dorsal hippocampus participates in the modulation of stress consequences. They also show that a single stress episode causes acute changes in nitric oxide system in the amygdala complex and delayed modifications in the HF. The delayed (5 days) antinociceptive effect of

  8. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  9. Evolution of Hutti-Maski greenstone belt of the Eastern Dharwar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    53

    evolution of the Hutti greenstone belt and the gold mineralization in it. 77. 78. 2. Geological setting. 79. The Hutti-Maski greenstone belt is a 74 km long N-S trending volcano-sedimentary. 80 belt with metamorphosed mafic volcanic rocks being the predominant lithology (Fig.1). 81. Towards the northern part, the belt takes an ...

  10. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  11. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  12. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  13. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Guam, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Guam in the...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the drive pulley. A person shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  15. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  16. Calculated limits for particle fluxes in Jupiter's Van Allen belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haffner, J.

    1972-01-01

    Electron and proton fluxes in Jupiter's radiation belts are calculated, along with the envelopes of dose rates. The following assumptions are made: the particles in the Jupiter belts are influenced only by the magnetic field of the planet; the particles act correspondingly to the particles in the Earth's belts and the Earth's belts can be used as a model; the magnetic field of Jupiter is essentially a dipole; the radiation of a decimetric nature received from Jupiter is synchrotron radiation due to the electrons, and to a first approximation it is emitted isotropically; and the strength of the emission in the decimetric wavelength range gives an upper bound considering how strong the field can be and how many electrons there are. The point dose rates for tissue and 0.1 gram/cm aluminum shielding at about 3 Jupiter radii are 10000 rads/hr for electrons and 1000 rads/hr for protons.

  17. Tsunami vulnerability assessment in the western coastal belt in Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranagalage, M. M.

    2017-12-01

    26th December 2004 tsunami disaster has caused massive loss of life, damage to coastal infrastructures and disruption to economic activities in the coastal belt of Sri Lanka. Tsunami vulnerability assessment is a requirement for disaster risk and vulnerability reduction. It plays a major role in identifying the extent and level of vulnerabilities to disasters within the communities. There is a need for a clearer understanding of the disaster risk patterns and factors contributing to it in different parts of the coastal belt. The main objective of this study is to investigate tsunami vulnerability assessment of Moratuwa Municipal council area in Sri Lanka. We have selected Moratuwa area due to considering urbanization pattern and Tsunami hazards of the country. Different data sets such as one-meter resolution LiDAR data, orthophoto, population, housing data and road layer were employed in this study. We employed tsunami vulnerability model for 1796 housing units located there, for a tsunami scenario with a maximum run-up 8 meters. 86% of the total land area affected by the tsunami in 8 meters scenarios. Additionally, building population has been used to estimate population in different vulnerability levels. The result shows that 32% of the buildings have extremely critical vulnerability level, 46% have critical vulnerability level, 22% have high vulnerability level, and 1% have a moderate vulnerability. According to the population estimation model results, 18% reside building with extremely critical vulnerability, 43% with critical vulnerability, 36% with high vulnerability and 3% belong to moderate vulnerability level. The results of the study provide a clear picture of tsunami vulnerability. Outcomes of this analysis can use as a valuable tool for urban planners to assess the risk and extent of disaster risk reduction which could be achieved via suitable mitigation measures to manage the coastal belt in Sri Lanka.

  18. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  19. Ovarian hormones and emotional eating associations across the menstrual cycle: an examination of the potential moderating effects of body mass index and dietary restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klump, Kelly L; Keel, Pamela K; Burt, S Alexandra; Racine, Sarah E; Neale, Michael C; Sisk, Cheryl L; Boker, Steven

    2013-04-01

    Associations between within-person changes in ovarian hormones and dysregulated eating (binge eating, emotional eating) have been observed across the menstrual cycle. However, studies have not examined moderators that may contribute to differential associations between individuals. We investigated body-weight regulation variables [body mass index (BMI), dietary restraint] that have theoretical relevance by virtue of their associations with both phenotypes. Women (N = 196) provided emotional eating ratings and saliva samples for 45 days. BMI and restraint were assessed at three time points and averaged. Results showed significant estradiol × progesterone interactions in the prediction of within-subject changes in emotional eating. Neither BMI nor restraint moderated these relationships, although a trend-level dietary restraint × estradiol interaction was observed where estradiol's effects were enhanced in high restraint scorers. Findings confirm a role for hormones in changes in emotional eating and suggest that restraint might enhance hormone effects in severegroups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Observer-based fault diagnosis for trucks belt tensioner

    OpenAIRE

    Dubuc , Donatien; Sename , Olivier; Bresch-Pietri , Delphine; Gauthier , Christophe

    2017-01-01

    International audience; This paper deals with the monitoring of a serpentine belt tensioner performance, a critical automotive engine component guaranteeing the cooling system efficiency. A belt tensioner fault will affect the transmission, deteriorate the water pump efficiency, and eventually, lead the engine to stall. Monitoring this component is thus a key to design predictive or corrective maintenance. In this paper, we propose to estimate a parameter which is shown to be characteristic o...

  1. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  2. Dynamical Classifications of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) contains a plethora of observational data on thousands of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Understanding their orbital properties refines our understanding of the formation of the solar system. My analysis pipeline, BUNSHIN, uses Bayesian methods to take the MPC observations and generate 30 statistically weighted orbital clones for each KBO that are propagated backwards along their orbits until the beginning of the solar system. These orbital integrations are saved as REBOUND SimulationArchive files (Rein & Tamayo 2017) which we will make publicly available, allowing many others to perform statistically-robust dynamical classification or complex dynamical investigations of outer solar system small bodies.This database has been used to expand the known collisional family members of the dwarf planet Haumea. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). Our preliminary results have already ~tripled the number of known Haumea family members, allowing us to show that the Haumea family can be identified purely through dynamical clustering.We will discuss the methods associated with BUNSHIN and the database it generates, the refinement of the updated Haumea family, a brief search for other possible clusterings in the outer solar system, and the potential of our research to aid other dynamicists.

  3. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  4. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  5. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  6. Zero-relative-velocity belt skimmer. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayres, R.R.; Bickham, K.L.; Fraser, J.P.; Titus, P.E.

    1975-04-01

    In the approach to high speed (4 to 10 knots) oil recovery discussed here, oil is collected from the water's surface due to a zero relative velocity (ZRV) between a moving belt and the oil layer. A loosely tensioned sorbent belt floats like a blanket on the water imbibing oil for a 40-foot contact length before the belt is withdrawn and oil is squeezed out. The composite belt of Astroturf and Fuetron felt readily sorbs oils having viscosities ranging from light diesel oil to No. 6 fuel oil. Full scale simulations of the belt and wringer show maximum oil recovery rates between 1016 gpm and 2152 gpm for an eight-foot-wide belt at a speed of 6.8 knots. An 11 mm slick of Navy Special fuel oil (270 cs vicosity at 75 F) can be collected at 1296 gpm with only 10% additional water. At 10 knots we project oil recovery rates from 840 gpm for No. 6 fuel oil (2300 cs at 75F) to 2080 gpm and 1680 gpm for diesel oil (4.8 cs at 75F) and Navy Special oil respectively. The analytical and experimental feasibility studies indicate that further development of the hardware is warranted by the projected oil collection performance. (Author) (GRA)

  7. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  8. Evaluation Model for Restraint Effect of Pressure Induced Bending on the Plastic Crack Opening of Circumferential Through-Wall-Crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin-Weon

    2006-01-01

    Most of the pipe crack evaluation procedures, including leak-before-break (LBB) analysis, assume that the cracked pipe subjected to remote bending or internal pressure is free to rotate. In this case, the pressure induced bending (PIB) enhances crack opening of a through-wall-crack (TWC) in a pipe. In a real piping system, however, the PIB will be restrained because the ends of the pipe are constrained by the rest of the piping system. Hence, the amount of restraint affects the crack opening of a TWC in a pipe, and the restraint effect on crack opening directly affects the results of LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the restraint effect of PIB on crack opening displacement (COD) to quantify the uncertainties in current analysis procedures and to ensure the application of LBB concepts to nuclear piping systems. Recently, several researches were conducted to investigate the restraint effect of PIB on COD, and they proposed a simplified model to evaluate COD under restrained conditions. However, these results are quite limited because the restraint effect was evaluated only in terms of linear-elastic crack opening. In practice, the TWC in a pipe behaves plastically under normal operating loads, and the current LBB analysis methodologies require elastic-plastic crack opening evaluation. Therefore, this study evaluates the restraint effect of PIB on the plastic crack opening of a TWC in a pipe using finite element analysis under various influencing parameters. Based on these results, a closed-from model to be able to estimate the restraint effect of PIB on plastic crack opening is proposed

  9. Educational intervention on physical restraint use in long-term care facilities – Systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Huan Lan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available “Physical restraint” formerly used as a measure of protection for psychiatric patients is now widely used. However, existing studies showed that physical restraint not only has inadequate effect of protection but also has negative effects on residents. To analyzes the impact of educational program on the physical restraint use in long-term care facilities. Design: A systematic review with meta-analysis and meta-regression. Eight databases, including Cochrane Library, ProQuest, PubMed, EMBASE, EBSCO, Web of Science, Ovid Medline and Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro, were searched up to January 2017. Eligible studies were classified by intervention and accessed for quality using the Quality Assessment Tool for quantitative studies. Sixteen research articles were eligible in the final review; 10 randomize control trail studies were included in the analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that the use of physical restraint was significantly less often in the experimental (education group (OR = 0.55, 95% CI: 0.39 to 0.78, p < 0.001 compared to the control group. Meta-regression revealed the period of post education would have decreased the effect of the restraint educational program (β: 0.08, p = 0.002; instead, the longer education period and more times of education would have a stronger effect of reducing the use of physical restraint (β: −0.07, p < 0.001; β: −0.04, p = 0.056. The educational program had an effect on the reduced use of physical restraint. The results of meta-regression suggest that long-term care facilities should provide a continuous education program of physical restraint for caregivers.

  10. Chronic restraint stress exacerbates nociception and inflammatory response induced by bee venom in rats: the role of the P2X7 receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Qiu; Li, Man; Zhou, Zhong-He; Liu, Bao-Jun; Chen, Hui-Sheng

    2016-02-01

    Chronic restraint stress exacerbates pain and inflammation. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of chronic restraint stress on inflammatory pain induced by subcutaneous injection of bee venom (BV). First, we investigated: (1) the effect of two-week restraint stress with daily 2 or 8 h on the baseline paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT), paw withdrawal thermal latency (PWTL) and paw circumference (PC); (2) the effect of chronic stress on the spontaneous paw-flinching reflex (SPFR), decrease in PWM, PWTL and increase in PC of the injected paw induced by BV. The results showed that (1) chronic restraint decreased significantly the PWMT and inhibited significantly the increase in PC, but had no effect on PWTL, compared with control group; (2) chronic restraint enhanced significantly BV-induced SPFR and inflammatory swelling of the injected paw. In a second series of experiments, the role of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress was determined. Systemic pretreatment with P2X7R antagonist completely reversed the decrease in PWMT produced by chronic restraint, inhibited significantly the enhancement of BV-induced inflammatory pain produced by chronic restraint stress. Taken together, our data indicate that chronic restraint stress-enhanced nociception and inflammation in the BV pain model, possibly involving the P2X7R.

  11. Effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum treatment on restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alteration in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Atish K

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A stressful stimulus is a crucial determinant of health and disease. Antidepressants are used to manage stress and their related effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum in restraint stress-induced behavioral and biochemical alterations in mice. Methods Animals were immobilized for a period of 6 hr. St. John's Wort (50 and 100 mg/kg was administered 30 minutes before the animals were subjecting to acute immobilized stress. Various behavioral tests parameters for anxiety, locomotor activity and nociceptive threshold were assessed followed by biochemical assessments (malondialdehyde level, glutathione, catalase, nitrite and protein subsequently. Results 6-hr acute restraint stress caused severe anxiety like behavior, antinociception and impaired locomotor activity as compared to unstressed animals. Biochemical analyses revealed an increase in malondialdehyde, nitrites concentration, depletion of reduced glutathione and catalase activity as compared to unstressed animal brain. Five days St. John's Wort treatment in a dose of 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg significantly attenuated restraint stress-induced behavioral (improved locomotor activity, reduced tail flick latency and antianxiety like effect and oxidative damage as compared to control (restraint stress. Conclusion Present study highlights the modest activity of St. John's Wort against acute restraint stress induced modification.

  12. Behavioral and neuroendocrine effects of the exposure to chronic restraint or variable stress in early adolescent rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Fábio C; Marin, Marcelo T; Leão, Rodrigo M; Planeta, Cleopatra S

    2012-02-01

    Stress events during adolescence may contribute to the expression or exacerbation of physical and behavioral disorders. However, little attention has been given to the physiological and behavioral changes promoted by stress during this period of ontogeny. In the present study we investigated, in adolescent male rats, the effects of repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress on: (a) locomotor activity and corticosterone levels after exposure to a novel environment; (b) corticosterone levels in response to the exposure to restraint stress; and (c) changes in body, thymus and adrenal weights. The results demonstrated that repeated exposure to restraint or variable stress reduced the locomotor response, but did not affect corticosterone secretion, in response to a novel environment. Moreover, both chronic stress procedures did not change corticosterone secretion in response to acute restraint stress. Furthermore, our results showed that repeated restraint, but not variable stress, produced a decrease in body weight along the stress exposure. Finally, we observed that the exposure to variable stress reduced the thymus relative weight. Taken together our results suggest that behavioral and physiological changes induced by exposure to chronic stress during adolescence depend on the stress regimen. Copyright © 2011 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effective applied moment in circumferential through-wall cracked pipes for leak-before-break evaluation considering pipe restraint effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeji; Hwang, Il-Soon [Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Young-Jin, E-mail: yjoh2@kepco-enc.com [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Co. Inc., Gimcheon 39660 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Effective applied moment at pipe cracked section considering the pipe restraint effect. • Verification of the proposed evaluation methods using finite element analyses. • Applicability for distributed external load of the proposed methods. - Abstract: In the leak-before-break (LBB) design of nuclear power plants, crack opening displacement (COD) is an essential element for determining the length of the leakage size crack. Recent researches regarding the evaluation of COD have indicated that the current practice of the LBB evaluation without consideration of the pressure induced bending (PIB) restraint overestimates COD, which in turn gives non-conservative results. Under a free-ended boundary condition, however, the applied moment at cracked section also can be overestimated, which has conservative effects on LBB evaluation. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate pipe restraint effects on the applied moment as well as on COD to keep the constancy. In this paper, an evaluation method for the effect of the PIB restraint on COD and an effective applied moment (=crack driving force) at cracked section was developed. Both the linear elastic and elastic–plastic behaviors of the crack were considered. By comparing the behaviors with 3-D finite element analysis results from earlier studies, it was confirmed that the proposed methods make accurate estimations of the PIB restraint effect on COD. Next, the applicability of the proposed method to other types of external loading conditions was examined.

  14. Sedation and physiologic response to manual restraint after intranasal administration of midazolam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mans, Christoph; Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Lahner, Lesanna L; Paul-Murphy, Joanne; Sladky, Kurt K

    2012-09-01

    Administration of intranasal midazolam (2 mg/kg) was evaluated for sedation and effects on cloacal temperature, respiratory rate, and heart rate in manually restrained Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Adult parrots (n=9) were administered either midazolam (2 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution intranasally before a 15-minute manual restraint in a complete crossover study. Respiratory rate and sedation scores were recorded before and during capture and during and after 15 minutes of manual restraint. Heart rate and cloacal temperature were recorded during manual restraint. After restraint, the parrots received intranasal flumazenil (0.05 mg/kg) or an equal volume of saline solution, and the recovery time was recorded. In those birds that received midazolam, sedation was observed within 3 minutes of administration, and vocalization, flight, and defense responses were significantly reduced during capture. During manual restraint, the mean rate of cloacal temperature increase was significantly slower and remained significantly lower in birds that received midazolam compared with controls. Mean respiratory rates were significantly lower for up to 12 minutes in parrots that received midazolam compared with those receiving saline solution. Flumazenil antagonized the effects of midazolam within 10 minutes. No overt clinical adverse effects to intranasal midazolam and flumazenil administration were observed. Further studies on the safety of intranasal midazolam and flumazenil in this species are warranted.

  15. The capsular ligaments provide more hip rotational restraint than the acetabular labrum and the ligamentum teres : an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Arkel, R J; Amis, A A; Cobb, J P; Jeffers, J R T

    2015-04-01

    In this in vitro study of the hip joint we examined which soft tissues act as primary and secondary passive rotational restraints when the hip joint is functionally loaded. A total of nine cadaveric left hips were mounted in a testing rig that allowed the application of forces, torques and rotations in all six degrees of freedom. The hip was rotated throughout a complete range of movement (ROM) and the contributions of the iliofemoral (medial and lateral arms), pubofemoral and ischiofemoral ligaments and the ligamentum teres to rotational restraint was determined by resecting a ligament and measuring the reduced torque required to achieve the same angular position as before resection. The contribution from the acetabular labrum was also measured. Each of the capsular ligaments acted as the primary hip rotation restraint somewhere within the complete ROM, and the ligamentum teres acted as a secondary restraint in high flexion, adduction and external rotation. The iliofemoral lateral arm and the ischiofemoral ligaments were primary restraints in two-thirds of the positions tested. Appreciation of the importance of these structures in preventing excessive hip rotation and subsequent impingement/instability may be relevant for surgeons undertaking both hip joint preserving surgery and hip arthroplasty. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  16. Preliminary behavioral assessment of cagemates living with conspecifics submitted to chronic restraint stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro de Oliveira, P E; Zaniboni, Caroline R; Carmona, Isabela M; Fonseca, Aura R; Canto-de-Souza, Azair

    2017-09-14

    The capacity of rodents to recognize and respond to emotional signs from a conspecific is a valuable adaptive behavior, which provides essential skills for species survival. However, repeated exposure to aversive situations may elicit maladaptive behavioral responses in subjects that experience noxious episodes and their colony members. Previous findings by our group demonstrated that living with a subject in neuropathic pain induces anxiogenic-like behaviors and hypernociception in mice. Whereas chronic pain may be considered a stressful stimulus, we extended our findings on stress-induced emotional transfer. For this purpose, we investigated whether cohabitation with a partner subjected to chronic restraint stress was able to promote alterations in anxiety-like behaviors, pain sensibility and defensive responses. Male Swiss mice were housed in pairs for 14days and then separated into control, stress, and cagemate groups. The stress group was subjected to 14days of restraint stress (1h/day) in the presence of the cagemates, while the pair-housed control group was left undisturbed. A day after last stress session control, stress, and cagemate groups were evaluated using elevated plus maze test, writhing test, and rat exposure test. Results demonstrated that chronic stress attenuated weight gain in the stress group. Moreover, cohabitation with mice subjected to chronic restraint stress induced anxiogenic-like behaviors, pain hypernociception, and alterations in defensive responses in both cagemate and stress groups. These preliminary findings suggest that chronic exposure to aversive stimulus may induce behavioral alterations even in observers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Aged rats are hypo-responsive to acute restraint: implications for psychosocial stress in aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather M Buechel

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cognitive processes associated with prefrontal cortex and hippocampus decline with age and are vulnerable to disruption by stress. The stress/ stress hormone/ allostatic load hypotheses of brain aging posit that brain aging, at least in part, is the manifestation of life-long stress exposure. In addition, as humans age, there is a profound increase in the incidence of new onset stressors, many of which are psychosocial (e.g., loss of job, death of spouse, social isolation, and aged humans are well-understood to be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of such new-onset chronic psychosocial stress events. However, the mechanistic underpinnings of this age-related shift in chronic psychosocial stress response, or the initial acute phase of that chronic response, have been less well-studied. Here, we separated young (3 mo. and aged (21 mo. male F344 rats into control and acute restraint (an animal model of psychosocial stress groups (n = 9-12/ group. We then assessed hippocampus-associated behavioral, electrophysiological, and transcriptional outcomes, as well as blood glucocorticoid and sleep architecture changes. Aged rats showed characteristic water maze, deep sleep, transcriptome, and synaptic sensitivity changes compared to young. Young and aged rats showed similar levels of distress during the three hour restraint, as well as highly significant increases in blood glucocorticoid levels 21 hours after restraint. However, young, but not aged, animals responded to stress exposure with water maze deficits, loss of deep sleep and hyperthermia. These results demonstrate that aged subjects are hypo-responsive to new-onset acute psychosocial stress, which may have negative consequences for long-term stress adaptation and suggest that age itself may act as a stressor occluding the influence of new onset stressors.

  18. Nurses' ethical reasoning in cases of physical restraint in acute elderly care: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethals, Sabine; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Gastmans, Chris

    2013-11-01

    In their practice, nurses make daily decisions that are ethically informed. An ethical decision is the result of a complex reasoning process based on knowledge and experience and driven by ethical values. Especially in acute elderly care and more specifically decisions concerning the use of physical restraint require a thoughtful deliberation of the different values at stake. Qualitative evidence concerning nurses' decision-making in cases of physical restraint provided important insights in the complexity of decision-making as a trajectory. However a nuanced and refined understanding of the reasoning process in terms of ethical values is still lacking. A qualitative interview design, inspired by the Grounded Theory approach, was carried out to explore nurses' reasoning process in terms of ethical values. We interviewed 21 acute geriatric nurses from 12 hospitals in different regions in Flanders, Belgium in the period October 2009-April 2011. The Qualitative Analysis Guide of Leuven was used to analyse interview data. Nurses' decision-making is characterized as an ethical deliberation process where different values are identified and where the process of balancing these values forms the essence of ethical deliberation. Ethical decision-making in cases of physical restraint implies that nurses have to choose which values receive priority in the process, which entails that not all values can be respected to the same degree. As a result, decision making can be experienced as difficult, even as a dilemma. Driven by the overwhelming goal of protecting physical integrity, nurses took into account the values of dignity and justice more implicitly and less dominantly.

  19. Interaction between repeated restraint stress and concomitant midazolam administration on sweet food ingestion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silveira P.P.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Emotional changes can influence feeding behavior. Previous studies have shown that chronically stressed animals present increased ingestion of sweet food, an effect reversed by a single dose of diazepam administered before testing the animals. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the response of animals chronically treated with midazolam and/or submitted to repeated restraint stress upon the ingestion of sweet food. Male adult Wistar rats were divided into two groups: controls and exposed to restraint 1 h/day, 5 days/week for 40 days. Both groups were subdivided into two other groups treated or not with midazolam (0.06 mg/ml in their drinking water during the 40-day treatment. The animals were placed in a lighted area in the presence of 10 pellets of sweet food (Froot loops®. The number of ingested pellets was measured during a period of 3 min, in the presence or absence of fasting. The group chronically treated with midazolam alone presented increased ingestion when compared to control animals (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and midazolam group: 3.60 ± 0.57 pellets. The group submitted to restraint stress presented an increased ingestion compared to controls (control group: 2.0 ± 0.44 pellets and stressed group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets. Chronically administered midazolam reduced the ingestion in stressed animals (stressed/water group: 4.18 ± 0.58 pellets; stressed/midazolam group: 3.2 ± 0.49 pellets. Thus, repeated stress increases appetite for sweet food independently of hunger and chronic administration of midazolam can decrease this behavioral effect.

  20. Striving for balance between caring and restraint: young adults' experiences with parental multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Julie Y; Larsen, Dorte; Brødsgaard, Anne

    2017-05-01

    To explore and describe how young adults between 18-25 years of age experienced growing up with a parent with multiple sclerosis and how these experiences continue to influence their daily lives. Chronic parental illness is occurring in about 10% of families worldwide, but little is known about how the children experience growing up with a parent with multiple sclerosis during their childhood and into young adulthood. We chose a qualitative design using a phenomenological approach based on Giorgi. Exploratory and open-ended interviews with 14 young adults were conducted. The essence of the phenomenon of having a parent with multiple sclerosis was synthesized into 'Striving for balance between caring and restraint' from two themes 'caring' and 'restraint' and eight subthemes. Participants' experiences of caring for parents with multiple sclerosis continued influencing their other close relationships, in which they tended to assume responsibility while concealing some of their feelings and desires. Most participants showed restraint among parents with and without multiple sclerosis, friends and partners. It seems that one of the greatest challenges of having a parent with multiple sclerosis is achieving a balance between caring for others and asserting one's own desires. Healthcare professionals can support the family by encouraging family members to participate in consultations and to assist the parents in providing information about multiple sclerosis and its symptoms to the children. Parents might need assistance in applying for help with domestic chores or referrals to support groups for their children or other family members. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Identification and Analysis of Factors Contributing to the Reduction in Seclusion and Restraint for a Population with Intellectual Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Caroline; Goulet, Marie-Hélène; Prevost, Marie-Josée; Dumais, Alexandre; Bellavance, Jacques

    2018-01-01

    Background: A cohort of 11 patients with an intellectual disability and a psychiatric diagnosis present severe behavioural disorders in psychiatric hospital of Quebec in 2009. Control-measure use for this clientele has now been reduced. How do management personnel, families and care teams explain the changes? What clinical interventions did…

  2. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  3. Reputational concerns, not altruism, motivate restraint when gambling with other people's money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kodi B. Arfer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available People may behave prosocially not only because they value the welfare of others, but also to protect their own reputation. We examined the separate roles of altruism and reputational concerns in moral-hazard gambling tasks, which allowed subjects to gamble with a partner's money. In Study 1, subjects who were told that their partner would see their choices were more prosocial. In Study 2, subjects were more prosocial to a single partner when their choices were transparent than when their choices were attributed to a third party. We conclude that reputational concerns are a key restraint on selfish exploitation under moral hazard.

  4. PRESENTDAY STRESS STATE OF THE SHANXI TECTONIC BELT

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    Wang Kaiying

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The Shanxi tectonic belt is a historically earthquakeabundant area. For the majority of strong earthquakes in this area, the distribution of earthquake foci was controlled by the N–S oriented local structures on the tectonic belt. Studies of the present stress state of the Shanxi tectonic belt can contribute to the understanding of the relationship between strong earthquakes’ occurrence and their structural distribution and also facilitate assessments of regional seismic danger and determination of the regions wherein strong earthquakes may occur in future. Using the Cataclastic Analysis Method (CAM, we performed stress inversion based on the focal mechanism data of earthquakes which took place in the Shanxi tectonic belt from 1967 to 2010. Our results show that orientations of the maximum principal compressive stress axis of the Shanxi tectonic belt might have been variable before and after the 2001 Kunlun MS=8.1 strong earthquake, with two different superior trends of the NW–SE and NE–SW orientation in different periods. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is oriented in the NE–SW direction, the pattern of the space distribution of the seismic events in the Shanxi tectonic belt shows a trend of their concentration in the N–S oriented tectonic segments. At the same time, the stress state is registered as horizontal shearing and horizontal extension in the N–S and NE–SW oriented local segments in turn. When the maximum principal compressive stress axis is NW–SE oriented, the stress state of the N–S and NE–SW oriented tectonic segments is primarily registered as horizontal shearing. Estimations of plunges of stress axes show that seismicity in the Shanxi belt  corresponds primarily to the activity of lowangle faults, and highangle stress sites are located in the NE–SW oriented extensional tectonic segments of the Shanxi belt. This indicates that the stress change of the Shanxi belt is

  5. Restraint and eating concern in North European and East Asian women with and without eating disorders in Australia and Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soh, Nerissa Li-Wey; Touyz, Stephen; Dobbins, Timothy A; Surgenor, Lois J; Clarke, Simon; Kohn, Michael R; Lee, Ee Lian; Leow, Vincent; Rieger, Elizabeth; Ung, Ken Eng Khean; Walter, Garry

    2007-06-01

    To investigate eating disorder psychopathology, restraint and eating concern in young women with and without an eating disorder from two different ethnic groups in Australia and Singapore. The relationship of Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Global, Restraint and Eating Concern scores to cultural orientation and sociocultural factors was analysed in 154 women with and without an eating disorder. Participants were from the following backgrounds: North European Australian, East Asian Australian, Singaporean Chinese and North European expatriates in Singapore. Women with eating disorders had similar psychopathology across the cultural groups. Among controls, Singaporean Chinese reported significantly greater overall eating disorder psychopathology than other cultural groups and greater restraint than North European Australians/expatriates. Eating concern was not associated with cultural group overall or acculturation to Western culture. Dissatisfaction with family functioning, socioeconomic status and education level were not significantly associated with any of the eating disorder measures. In eating disorder psychopathology, the specific symptom of eating concern may transcend cultural influences.

  6. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

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    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  7. VALIDATION OF MOVEMENT OVER A BELT CONVEYOR DRUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Rozbroj

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the use of new modern methods for the research of movement of material on a belt conveyor. One of the innovative methods is Particle Image Velocimetry (“PIV”, which was used to scan and assess the two-dimensional vector field of speed of particles on the belt conveyor. Outputs from PIV were compared to simulations of the same transport process. These simulations were performed using the Discrete Element Method (“DEM”. Four transport speeds of material were assessed for a real and simulative belt conveyor model. Software tracking of particle movement was used to determine and compare the trajectories of paths of particles leaving the belt conveyor drum. Validation of the DEM simulation of material movement over a belt conveyor drum using PIV provided acceptable results in the area of particle speed fields. Comparison of the particle path trajectory corresponds to the preliminary hypothesis which leads to calibration of the DEM simulation. The results and assessment of this paper were created based on validation.

  8. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  9. The Mid-plane of the Main Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambioni, Saverio; Malhotra, Renu

    2018-03-01

    We measure the mid-plane of the main asteroid belt by using the observational data of a nearly complete and unbiased sample of asteroids and find that it has inclination \\bar{I}=0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 93+/- 0\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 04 and longitude of ascending node \\bar{{{Ω }}}=87\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6+/- 2\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6 (in J2000 ecliptic-equinox coordinate system). This plane differs significantly from previously published measurements, and it is also distinctly different than the solar system’s invariable plane as well as Jupiter’s orbit plane. The mid-plane of the asteroid belt is theoretically expected to be a slightly warped sheet whose local normal is controlled by the gravity of the major planets. Specifically, its inclination and longitude of ascending node varies with semimajor axis and time (on secular timescales) and is defined by the forced solution of secular perturbation theory; the ν 16 nodal secular resonance is predicted to cause a significant warp of the mid-plane in the inner asteroid belt. We test the secular theory by measuring the current location of the asteroids’ mid-plane in finer semimajor axis bins. We find that the measured mid-plane in the middle and outer asteroid belt is consistent, within the 3σ confidence level, with the prediction of secular perturbation theory, but a notable discrepancy is present in the inner asteroid belt near ∼2 au.

  10. On static contact of belt and different pulleys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Eliseev, V. V.; Irschik, H.; Oborin, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    The fitting of a looped belt on two pulleys with different radii is considered. A geometrically nonlinear model with account for tension and transverse shear is applied for modeling the belt. The pulleys are considered rigid bodies, and the belt-pulley contact is assumed frictionless. The problem has an axis of symmetry, therefore the boundary value problem is formulated and solved for a half of the belt. The considered part consists of three segments, two contact segments and a free span segment between them. The introduction of a dimensionless material coordinate at all segments leads to a system of ordinary differential equations of fifteenth order. The nonlinear boundary value problem for this system and boundary conditions is solved numerically with the shooting method and the finite difference method. As a result, the belt shape including the rotation angle, the forces, moments and contact pressure are determined. The contact pressure increases near the end point of contact areas, however no concentrated contact forces occur.

  11. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt 1) , which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness 2, 3) , which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference 4-9) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model 10) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  12. Modeling radiation belt electron dynamics during GEM challenge intervals with the DREAM3D diffusion model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Weichao; Cunningham, G. S.; Chen, Y.; Henderson, M. G.; Camporeale, E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2013-10-01

    a response to the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) "Global Radiation Belt Modeling Challenge," a 3D diffusion model is used to simulate the radiation belt electron dynamics during two intervals of the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES) mission, 15 August to 15 October 1990 and 1 February to 31 July 1991. The 3D diffusion model, developed as part of the Dynamic Radiation Environment Assimilation Model (DREAM) project, includes radial, pitch angle, and momentum diffusion and mixed pitch angle-momentum diffusion, which are driven by dynamic wave databases from the statistical CRRES wave data, including plasmaspheric hiss, lower-band, and upper-band chorus. By comparing the DREAM3D model outputs to the CRRES electron phase space density (PSD) data, we find that, with a data-driven boundary condition at Lmax = 5.5, the electron enhancements can generally be explained by radial diffusion, though additional local heating from chorus waves is required. Because the PSD reductions are included in the boundary condition at Lmax = 5.5, our model captures the fast electron dropouts over a large L range, producing better model performance compared to previous published results. Plasmaspheric hiss produces electron losses inside the plasmasphere, but the model still sometimes overestimates the PSD there. Test simulations using reduced radial diffusion coefficients or increased pitch angle diffusion coefficients inside the plasmasphere suggest that better wave models and more realistic radial diffusion coefficients, both inside and outside the plasmasphere, are needed to improve the model performance. Statistically, the results show that, with the data-driven outer boundary condition, including radial diffusion and plasmaspheric hiss is sufficient to model the electrons during geomagnetically quiet times, but to best capture the radiation belt variations during active times, pitch angle and momentum diffusion from chorus waves are required.

  13. Effects of increasing child restraint use in reducing occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakahara, Shinji; Ichikawa, Masao; Nakajima, Yukari

    2015-01-01

    In Japan, child restraint use among preschool children started to increase before compulsory child restraint use for children aged 0-5 years was introduced by legislation in April 2000. This study determined the effects of increased child restraint use in reducing motor vehicle occupant injuries among children aged 0-5 years. We obtained monthly police data of child vehicle occupant injuries from 1990 to 2009. We calculated monthly ratios of morbidity rates per population of children aged 0-5 years to those of children aged 6-9 years. Time trends of the morbidity rate ratios were analyzed using a joinpoint regression model to determine whether there were trend changes in child occupant injuries and when they occurred if there were trend changes. The morbidity rate ratios showed a slightly increasing trend of 0.03% per month (95% confidence interval [CI], -0.02% to 0.09%) until the change-point in December 1997 (95% CI, July 1996 to January 1999), which then changed to a decreasing trend of -0.14% per month (95% CI, -0.16 to -0.11), with an overall trend change of -0.17% (95% CI, -0.23 to -0.11). No change-point was identified in or around April 2000 when compulsory restraint use was introduced. The present study used comparative indicators relative to age groups that were not covered by the legislation and showed that a decreasing trend of occupant morbidity among children aged 0-5 years started before the introduction of compulsory restraint use. This change probably reflects the prelegislative voluntary increase in child restraint use.

  14. Dorsal and ventral hippocampus modulate autonomic responses but not behavioral consequences associated to acute restraint stress in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scopinho, América A; Lisboa, Sabrina F S; Guimarães, Francisco S; Corrêa, Fernando M A; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Joca, Sâmia R L

    2013-01-01

    Recent evidence has suggested that the dorsal (DH) and the ventral (VH) poles of the hippocampus are structurally, molecularly and functionally different regions. While the DH is preferentially involved in the modulation of spatial learning and memory, the VH modulates defensive behaviors related to anxiety. Acute restraint is an unavoidable stress situation that evokes marked and sustained autonomic changes, which are characterized by elevated blood pressure (BP), intense heart rate (HR) increases, skeletal muscle vasodilatation and cutaneous vasoconstriction, which are accompanied by a rapid skin temperature drop followed by body temperature increases. In addition to those autonomic responses, animals submitted to restraint also present behavioral changes, such as reduced exploration of the open arms of an elevated plus-maze (EPM), an anxiogenic-like effect. In the present work, we report a comparison between the effects of pharmacological inhibition of DH and VH neurotransmission on autonomic and behavioral responses evoked by acute restraint stress in rats. Bilateral microinjection of the unspecific synaptic blocker cobalt chloride (CoCl2, 1mM) into the DH or VH attenuated BP and HR responses, as well as the decrease in the skin temperature, elicited by restraint stress exposure. Moreover, DH or VH inhibition before restraint did not change the delayed increased anxiety behavior observed 24 h later in the EPM. The present results demonstrate for the first time that both DH and VH mediate stress-induced autonomic responses to restraint but they are not involved in the modulation of the delayed emotional consequences elicited by such stress.

  15. Do emotion regulation difficulties when upset influence the association between dietary restraint and weight gain among college students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Tyler K; Forbush, Kelsie T; Hagan, Kelsey E; Chapa, Danielle A N

    2017-07-01

    Obesity is a significant public health concern that affects more than one-fifth of adolescents aged 12-19 in the United States. Theoretical models suggest that prolonged dietary restraint leads to binge-eating behaviors, which in turn increases individuals' risk for weight gain or obesity. Results from the literature indicate a potential role for negative urgency (the tendency to act rashly when distressed) as a mediating variable that explains the link between dietary restraint and binge-eating episodes. The current study tested short-term, prospective longitudinal associations among dietary restraint, binge eating, negative urgency, and weight gain among college students - a population at increased risk for the development of overweight and obesity. We hypothesized that dietary restraint and weight gain would be mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. College students (N = 227) completed the Eating Pathology Symptoms Inventory, UPPS-P Impulsivity Scale, and self-reported weight and height to calculate body mass index. Results showed that the association between dietary restraint and weight gain was mediated by negative urgency and binge eating, but only among participants with overweight and obesity. Our findings indicated that negative urgency might represent a mechanism that explains why dietary restraint leads to future binge-eating episodes and weight gain among college students with overweight and obesity. Results suggest that future treatment and prevention programs for overweight and obesity may benefit from incorporating strategies to improve emotion regulation as a way to reduce binge eating and to prevent additional weight gain among 'at-risk' populations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exposure of pregnant rats to uranium and restraint stress: Effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Domenec J.; Belles, Montserrat; Albina, Maria L.; Gomez, Mercedes; Linares, Victoria; Domingo, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    The effects on postnatal development and behavior were assessed in the offspring of female rats concurrently exposed to uranium (U) and restraint stress. Adult female rats were administered uranyl acetate dihydrate (UAD) in the drinking water at doses of 0, 40 and 80 mg/(kg day) for 4 weeks before mating with untreated males, as well as during pregnancy and lactation. One-half of female rats in each group were concurrently subjected to restraint (2 h/day). On gestation day 14, one-half of restrained and unrestrained rats were sacrificed in order to evaluate maternal toxicity and gestational parameters. Pups were evaluated for physical development, neuromotor maturation, and behavior. Uranium concentrations were also determined in various tissues of dams and fetuses. In all uranium-treated groups, the highest concentrations of this element were found in kidney and bone, being considerably higher than those in brain. Uranium levels in tissues of dam or fetuses were not significantly affected by restraint. No significant interactions between uranium and restraint could be observed in maternal toxicity. Moreover, no relevant effects of uranium, maternal restraint, or their combination were noted on developmental landmarks in the offspring. In the passive avoidance test, at 40 and 80 mg UAD/(kg day) restraint significantly modified passive avoidance acquisition (T1) and retention time (T2) 24 h later. However, no significant differences were observed on the Morris water maze test. The results of the present study indicate that, in general terms, exposure of female rats to UAD before mating with untreated males, as well as during gestation and lactation, did not cause relevant dose-related adverse effects on postnatal development and behavior of the offspring. The influence of stress was very limited

  17. The effectiveness of task-oriented intervention and trunk restraint on upper limb movement quality in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneiberg, Sheila; McKinley, Patricia A; Sveistrup, Heidi; Gisel, Erika; Mayo, Nancy E; Levin, Mindy F

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to contribute evidence towards the effectiveness of task-oriented training with and without restriction of trunk movement (trunk restraint) on the quality of upper limb movement in children with cerebral palsy (CP). We used a prospective, single-subject research design in 12 children (three males, nine females; aged 6-11 y; median 9 y) with di-, hemi-, or quadriplegia. Movements of the most affected arm were assessed five times: three times before training, immediately after training, and 3 months after training. The main outcome measures were the Melbourne Assessment of Unilateral Upper Limb Function (Melbourne) and upper limb movement kinematics during a functional reaching task. Children were randomly allocated to one of two groups: task-oriented training with or without trunk restraint. Treatment consisted of three 1-hour sessions per week for 5 weeks (total training duration 15 h). Treatment effects were determined using single-subject research design analysis--regression through baseline data and standard mean differences. Although the Melbourne scores were largely unchanged after training, some children in each group improved arm trajectory smoothness (effect size 0.55-1.87), and most children improved elbow extension range (effect size 0.55-4.79). However, more children in the trunk restraint group than in the no restraint group demonstrated reduced trunk displacement (effect size 0.94-2.25) and longer-term improvements in elbow extension and trunk use. Among the group who underwent training without trunk restraint, trunk displacement was unchanged or increased, and fewer carry-over effects were apparent at follow-up. This proof-of-principle study showed that greater improvement in the quality of upper limb movement in children with CP, including less compensatory trunk use and better carry-over effects, was achieved by training with trunk restraint. © The Authors. Journal compilation © Mac Keith Press 2010.

  18. Breast reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007405.htm Breast reduction To use the sharing features on this page, please enable ... discharge Images Mammoplasty References Fisher J, Higdon KK. Reduction mammaplasty. In: Neligan PC, ed. Plastic Surgery . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013: ...

  19. Rich Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niebuhr, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    evidence on articulatory prosodies and the involvement of reduction in conveying communication functions both suggest the next steps along the line of argument opened up by Lindblom. Specifically, we need to supplement Lindblom's explanatory framework and revise the speaker-listener conflict that lies...... corresponding to the time domain of the reduction variation....

  20. The central effect of biological Amines on immunosuppressive effect of restraint stress in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeraati F

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The effects of some histaminergic agents were evaluated on stress- induced immunosuppression in immunized nale rats. In rat immunized with sheep red blood cells ( SRBCs. Restraint stress (RS prevented the booster-induced rise in anti-SRBC antibody titre and cell immunity response. Intracerebroventicular (I.C>V injection of histamine (150 µg/rat induced a similar effect with RS. Pretreatment with chlorpheniramine (50 µg/rat reduced the inhibitory effect of Ras on immune function. Also histamine could inhibit the effect of RS on immune function. Also histamine could inhibitory the effect of chlorpheniramine when injected simultaneously. Pretreatment with ranidine (10 µg/rat had not a significant effect. Serotonin (3 µg/rat and dopamine (0.2 µg/rat could reverse the effects of chlorpheniromine when injected with chlorpheniramine (P<0.05. Epinephrine (0.2 µg/rat had not a significant effect. The results indicate that histamine mediates the immunosuppression of restraint stress by influencing the histamine H1 receptor in the brain and this effects of histamine may be modulated by serotoninergic and dopaminergic system.