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Sample records for belt repair system

  1. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  2. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  4. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  5. Composite Repair System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — GTL has developed an innovative composite repair methodology known as the Composite Repair System (CRS). In this phase I effort, CRS is being developed for the...

  6. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    DNA molecule which makes it ideal for storage and propagation of genetic information. ... of these errors are broadly referred to as DNA repair. DNA can ... changes occur in the human genome per day. ..... nails, frequent physical and mental.

  7. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  8. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  9. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  10. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  11. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  12. DNA Repair Systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Thanks to the pioneering research work of Lindahl, Sancar, Modrich and their colleagues, we now have an holistic awareness of how DNA damage occurs and how the damage is rectified in bacteria as well as in higher organisms including human beings. A comprehensive understanding of DNA repair has proven crucial ...

  13. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, I.T. [Departamento de Matematicas, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Extremadura, Avenida de la Universidad, s/n. 10071 Caceres (Spain)]. E-mail: inmatorres@unex.es; Perez-Ocon, R. [Departamento de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Avenida de Severo Ochoa, s/n. 18071 Granada (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-03-15

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures.

  14. Reward optimization of a repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, I.T.; Perez-Ocon, R.

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes a system subject to repairable and non-repairable failures. Non-repairable failures lead to replacement of the system. Repairable failures, first lead to repair but they lead to replacement after a fixed number of repairs. Operating and repair times follow phase type distributions (PH-distributions) and the pattern of the operating times is modelled by a geometric process. In this context, the problem is to find the optimal number of repairs, which maximizes the long-run average reward per unit time. To this end, the optimal number is determined and it is obtained by efficient numerical procedures

  15. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  16. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  17. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  18. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  19. The development of an electronic system to continually monitor, indicate and control, 'belt slippage' in industrial friction 'V' belt drive transmission systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R E

    2012-01-01

    Belts have been used for centuries as a mechanism to transfer power from some form of drive system to a variety of load systems. Within industry today, many designs of belts but particularly friction, trapezoidal shaped 'V' belts are used and generally transfer power generated by electrical motors to numerous forms of driven load systems. It is suggested that belt systems, through their simplicity are sadly neglected by maintenance functions and generally are left unattended until high degrees of 'belt slippage' through loss of friction or 'belt breakage' provokes maintenance attention. These circumstances are most often identified through the reduced or loss of manufacturing production or the occurrence of catastrophic circumstances such as fire caused through excessive friction/ high belt slippage conditions. Obviously, these situations incur financial losses to companies and in some cases the near loss of the company's main manufacturing plant. Consequently, a satisfactory, viable solution is currently sought by industry to improve on current labour intensive maintenance practices. This paper will present an account of the development of an industrially robust, accurate and repeatable electronic system which continually monitors and indicates the degree of 'slippage' in a 'V' belt drive transmission system and in the circumstance of belt breakage or high belt slippage will enable and control the switching off the drive motor.

  20. Using repair priorities in systems with redundacies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sleptchenko, A.V.; Adan, I.J.B.F.; Van Houtum, G.-J.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present and analyze a mathematical model for the computation of the system availability for a system of parallel machines with redundancies and repair priorities. Using the presented models, we show that the repair priorities have a strong effect on the performance of the system.

  1. Stochastic Modelling Of The Repairable System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzejczak Karol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available All reliability models consisting of random time factors form stochastic processes. In this paper we recall the definitions of the most common point processes which are used for modelling of repairable systems. Particularly this paper presents stochastic processes as examples of reliability systems for the support of the maintenance related decisions. We consider the simplest one-unit system with a negligible repair or replacement time, i.e., the unit is operating and is repaired or replaced at failure, where the time required for repair and replacement is negligible. When the repair or replacement is completed, the unit becomes as good as new and resumes operation. The stochastic modelling of recoverable systems constitutes an excellent method of supporting maintenance related decision-making processes and enables their more rational use.

  2. Occupational exposure to rubber vulcanization products during repair of rubber conveyor belts in a brown coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gromiec, J.P.; Wesolowski, W.; Brzeznicki, S.; Wroblewska-Jakubowska, K.; Kucharska, M. [Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, Lodz (Poland)

    2002-12-01

    This study was carried out to identify chemical substances and measure their air concentrations in the repair shop of a brown coal mine in which damaged rubber conveyor belts were repaired. GC-MS and HPLC analysis of stationary air samples resulted in identification of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons to C{sub 12}, PAHs, alcohols, phenols, ketones, heterocyclic nitrogen and sulfur compounds. Quantitative evaluation of occupational exposure included determination of organic compound vapours collected on charcoal (GC-MSD), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (HPLC), N-nitrosoamines and other amines (GC-NPD) and DNPH derivatives of aldehydes (HPLC) in the breathing zone of workers representing all job titles. The concentrations of investigated compounds were very low. Carcinogenic substances: N-nitrosoamines, benzene, and PAHs were not present in workroom air in concentrations exceeding limits of detection of the analytical methods being applied; concentrations of methylisobutylketone, tetrachloroethylene, naphtha, aromatic hydrocarbons, phthalates and aldehydes were much lower than the respective occupational exposure limit values. The results indicate much lower exposure than that reported in the production of tyres and other fabricated rubber products.

  3. Diverless pipeline repair system for deep water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spinelli, Carlo M. [Eni Gas and Power, Milan (Italy); Fabbri, Sergio; Bachetta, Giuseppe [Saipem/SES, Venice (Italy)

    2009-07-01

    SiRCoS (Sistema Riparazione Condotte Sottomarine) is a diverless pipeline repair system composed of a suite of tools to perform a reliable subsea pipeline repair intervention in deep and ultra deep water which has been on the ground of the long lasting experience of Eni and Saipem in designing, laying and operating deep water pipelines. The key element of SiRCoS is a Connection System comprising two end connectors and a repair spool piece to replace a damaged pipeline section. A Repair Clamp with elastomeric seals is also available for pipe local damages. The Connection System is based on pipe cold forging process, consisting in swaging the pipe inside connectors with suitable profile, by using high pressure seawater. Three swaging operations have to be performed to replace the damaged pipe length. This technology has been developed through extensive theoretical work and laboratory testing, ending in a Type Approval by DNV over pipe sizes ranging from 20 inches to 48 inches OD. A complete SiRCoS system has been realised for the Green Stream pipeline, thoroughly tested in workshop as well as in shallow water and is now ready, in the event of an emergency situation.The key functional requirements for the system are: diverless repair intervention and fully piggability after repair. Eni owns this technology and is now available to other operators under Repair Club arrangement providing stand-by repair services carried out by Saipem Energy Services. The paper gives a description of the main features of the Repair System as well as an insight into the technological developments on pipe cold forging reliability and long term duration evaluation. (author)

  4. Regression Models for Repairable Systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Novák, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 4 (2015), s. 963-972 ISSN 1387-5841 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Reliability analysis * Repair models * Regression Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2015 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2015/SI/novak-0450902.pdf

  5. Systems Maintenance Automated Repair Tasks (SMART)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuh, Joseph; Mitchell, Brent; Locklear, Louis; Belson, Martin A.; Al-Shihabi, Mary Jo Y.; King, Nadean; Norena, Elkin; Hardin, Derek

    2010-01-01

    SMART is a uniform automated discrepancy analysis and repair-authoring platform that improves technical accuracy and timely delivery of repair procedures for a given discrepancy (see figure a). SMART will minimize data errors, create uniform repair processes, and enhance the existing knowledge base of engineering repair processes. This innovation is the first tool developed that links the hardware specification requirements with the actual repair methods, sequences, and required equipment. SMART is flexibly designed to be useable by multiple engineering groups requiring decision analysis, and by any work authorization and disposition platform (see figure b). The organizational logic creates the link between specification requirements of the hardware, and specific procedures required to repair discrepancies. The first segment in the SMART process uses a decision analysis tree to define all the permutations between component/ subcomponent/discrepancy/repair on the hardware. The second segment uses a repair matrix to define what the steps and sequences are for any repair defined in the decision tree. This segment also allows for the selection of specific steps from multivariable steps. SMART will also be able to interface with outside databases and to store information from them to be inserted into the repair-procedure document. Some of the steps will be identified as optional, and would only be used based on the location and the current configuration of the hardware. The output from this analysis would be sent to a work authoring system in the form of a predefined sequence of steps containing required actions, tools, parts, materials, certifications, and specific requirements controlling quality, functional requirements, and limitations.

  6. The chloroplast thylakoid membrane system is a molecular conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Critchley, C

    1988-10-01

    Light drives photosynthesis, but paradoxically light is also the most variable environmental factor influencing photosynthesis both qualitatively and quantitatively. The photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is adaptable in the extreme, as exemplified by its capacity for acclimation to very bright sunny or deeply shaded conditions. It can also respond to rapid changes in light such as sunflecks. In this paper I offer a model that i) explains the thylakoid membrane organisation into grana stacks and stroma lamellae, ii) proposes a role for rapid D1 protein turnover and LHCII phosphorylation, and iii) suggests a mechanism for photoinhibition. I argue that the photosynthetic membrane system is dynamic in three dimensions, so much so that, in the light, it is in constant motion and operates in a manner somewhat analogous to a conveyor belt. D1 protein degradation is proposed to be the motor that drives this system. Photoinhibition is suggested to be due to the arrest of D1 protein turnover.

  7. Research on conditional characteristics vision real-time detection system for conveyor belt longitudinal tear

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiao, Tiezhu; Li, Xinyu; Pang, Y.; Lü, Yuxiang; Wang, Feng; Jin, Baoquan

    2017-01-01

    Conveyor belt longitudinal tear is one of the most serious problems in coal mining. Existing systems cannot realise lossless and real-time detection for longitudinal tear of conveyor belt. Currently, visual detecting systems are proposed by many researchers and are becoming the future trend. A

  8. Systems with randomly failing repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Kiureghian, Armen; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, Junho

    2005-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in time and rep...

  9. Planck intermediate results. XII: Diffuse Galactic components in the Gould Belt System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planck Collaboration,; Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.

    2013-01-01

    We perform an analysis of the diffuse low-frequency Galactic components in the Southern part of the Gould Belt system (130^\\circ\\leq l\\leq 230^\\circ and -50^\\circ\\leq b\\leq -10^\\circ). Strong ultra-violet (UV) flux coming from the Gould Belt super-association is responsible for bright diffuse...

  10. The Main Asteroid Belt: The Crossroads of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick

    2015-08-01

    Orbiting the Sun between Mars and Jupiter, main belt asteroids are leftover planetary building blocks that never accreted enough material to become planets. They are therefore keys to understanding how the Solar System formed and evolved. They may also provide clues to the origin of life, as similar bodies may have delivered organics and water to the early Earth.Strong associations between asteroids and meteorites emerged thanks to multi-technique observations, modeling, in situ and sample return analyses. Spacecraft images revolutionized our knowledge of these small worlds. Asteroids are stunning in their diversity in terms of physical properties. Their gravity varies by more orders of magnitude than its variation among the terrestrial planets, including the Moon. Each rendezvous with an asteroid thus turned our geological understanding on its head as each asteroid is affected in different ways by a variety of processes such as landslides, faulting, and impact cratering. Composition also varies, from ice-rich to lunar-like to chondritic.Nearly every asteroid we see today, whether of primitive or evolved compositions, is the product of a complex history involving accretion and one or more episodes of catastrophic disruption that sometimes resulted in families of smaller asteroids that have distinct and indicative petrogenic relationships. These families provide the best data to study the impact disruption process at scales far larger than those accessible in laboratory. Tens, perhaps hundreds, of early asteroids grew large enough to thermally differentiate. Their traces are scattered pieces of their metal-rich cores and, more rarely, their mantles and crusts.Asteroids represent stages on the rocky road to planet formation. They have great stories to tell about the formation and evolution of our Solar System as well as other planetary systems: asteroid belts seem common around Sun-like stars. We will review our current knowledge on their properties, their link to

  11. Self-repair of cracks in brittle material systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.

    2016-04-01

    One of the most effective uses for self repair is in material systems that crack because the cracks can allow the repair chemical to flow into the crack damage sites in all three dimensions. In order for the repair chemical to stay in the damage site and flow along to all the crack and repair there must be enough chemical to fill the entire crack. The repair chemical must be designed appropriately for the particular crack size and total volume of cracks. In each of the three examples of self repair in crackable brittle systems, the viscosity and chemical makeup and volume of the repair chemicals used is different for each system. Further the chemical delivery system has to be designed for each application also. Test results from self repair of three brittle systems are discussed. In "Self Repair of Concrete Bridges and Infrastructure" two chemicals were used due to different placements in bridges to repair different types of cracks- surface shrinkage and shear cracks, In "Airplane Wings and Fuselage, in Graphite" the composite has very different properties than the concrete bridges. In the graphite for airplane components the chemical also had to survive the high processing temperatures. In this composite the cracks were so definite and deep and thin that the repair chemical could flow easily and repair in all layers of the composite. In "Ceramic/Composite Demonstrating Self Repair" the self repair system not only repaired the broken ceramic but also rebounded the composite to the ceramic layer

  12. A model system for DNA repair studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, C.S.; Perlmutter, E.

    1984-01-01

    The search for the ''lethal lesion:'' which would yield a molecular explanation of biological survival curves led to attempts to correlate unrepaired DNA lesions with loss of reproductive integrity. Such studies have shown the crucial importance of DNA repair systems. The unrepaired DSB has been sought for such correlation, but in such study the DNA was too large, polydisperse, and/or structurally complex to permit precise measurement of break induction and repair. Therefore, an analog of higher order systems but with a genome of readily measurable size, is needed. Bacteriophage T4 is such an analog. Both its biological (PFU) and molecular (DNA) survival curves are exponentials. Its aerobic /sub PFU/D/sub 37///sub DNA/D/sub 37/ ratio, (410 +- 4.5Gy/540 +- 25 Gy) indicates that 76 +- 4% of lethality at low multiplicity infection (moi 1) the survival is greater than can be explained if the assumption of no parental DSB repair were valid. Both T4 and its host have DSB repair systems which can be studied by the infectious center method. Results of such studies are discussed

  13. Analysis of the Reliability of the "Alternator- Alternator Belt" System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Mavrin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Before starting and also during the exploitation of va1ioussystems, it is vety imp011ant to know how the system and itsparts will behave during operation regarding breakdowns, i.e.failures. It is possible to predict the service behaviour of a systemby determining the functions of reliability, as well as frequencyand intensity of failures.The paper considers the theoretical basics of the functionsof reliability, frequency and intensity of failures for the twomain approaches. One includes 6 equal intetvals and the other13 unequal intetvals for the concrete case taken from practice.The reliability of the "alternator- alternator belt" system installedin the buses, has been analysed, according to the empiricaldata on failures.The empitical data on failures provide empirical functionsof reliability and frequency and intensity of failures, that arepresented in tables and graphically. The first analysis perfO!med by dividing the mean time between failures into 6 equaltime intervals has given the forms of empirical functions of fa ilurefrequency and intensity that approximately cotTespond totypical functions. By dividing the failure phase into 13 unequalintetvals with two failures in each interval, these functions indicateexplicit transitions from early failure inte1val into the randomfailure interval, i.e. into the ageing intetval. Functions thusobtained are more accurate and represent a better solution forthe given case.In order to estimate reliability of these systems with greateraccuracy, a greater number of failures needs to be analysed.

  14. A geometric process repair model for a repairable cold standby system with priority in use and repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Wang Guanjun

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. For each component, assume that the successive working times form a decreasing geometric process while the consecutive repair times constitute an increasing geometric process, and component 1 has priority in use and repair. Under these assumptions, we consider a replacement policy N based on the number of repairs of component 1 under which the system is replaced when the number of repairs of component 1 reaches N. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy N* such that the average cost rate (i.e. the long-run average cost per unit time) of the system is minimized. The explicit equation of the average cost rate of the system is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy N* can be determined analytically or numerically. Finally, a numerical example with Weibull distribution is given to illustrate some theoretical results in this paper.

  15. Model predictive control based on reduced order models applied to belt conveyor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Li, Xin

    2016-11-01

    In the paper, a model predictive controller based on reduced order model is proposed to control belt conveyor system, which is an electro-mechanics complex system with long visco-elastic body. Firstly, in order to design low-degree controller, the balanced truncation method is used for belt conveyor model reduction. Secondly, MPC algorithm based on reduced order model for belt conveyor system is presented. Because of the error bound between the full-order model and reduced order model, two Kalman state estimators are applied in the control scheme to achieve better system performance. Finally, the simulation experiments are shown that balanced truncation method can significantly reduce the model order with high-accuracy and model predictive control based on reduced-model performs well in controlling the belt conveyor system. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis for a two-dissimilar-component cold standby repairable system with repair priority

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, Kit Nam Francis; Zhang Yuanlin; Lai, Kin Keung

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a cold standby repairable system consisting of two dissimilar components and one repairman is studied. Assume that working time distributions and repair time distributions of the two components are both exponential, and Component 1 has repair priority when both components are broken down. After repair, Component 1 follows a geometric process repair while Component 2 obeys a perfect repair. Under these assumptions, using the perfect repair model, the geometric process repair model and the supplementary variable technique, we not only study some important reliability indices, but also consider a replacement policy T, under which the system is replaced when the working age of Component 1 reaches T. Our problem is to determine an optimal policy T* such that the long-run average loss per unit time (i.e. average loss rate) of the system is minimized. The explicit expression for the average loss rate of the system is derived, and the corresponding optimal replacement policy T* can be found numerically. Finally, a numerical example for replacement policy T is given to illustrate some theoretical results and the model's applicability. - Highlights: → A two-dissimilar-component cold standby system with repair priority is formulated. → The successive up/repair times of Component 1 form a decreasing/increasing geometric process. → Not only some reliability indices but also a replacement policy are studied.

  17. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-01-01

    During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as ...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  19. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell is difficult to control, the damage can be possibly delayed and controlled by use of a suitable repair material. The lattice fracture model is used in this paper to investigate the performance of strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC in concrete repair systems exposed to ongoing corrosion. Numerical results were verified by experimental tests when SHCC, nonreinforced material (repair mortar, and commercial repair mortar are used as repair materials. In experiments, reinforcement bars (surrounded by a repair material were exposed to accelerated corrosion tests. The influence of the substrate surface preparation, the type of repair material, the interface, and the substrate strength on the resulting damage and failure mode of repair systems are discussed. In general, SHCC repair enables distributed cracking with small crack widths, up to several times smaller compared to repair mortar. Furthermore, more warning signs prior to the final failure are present in the SHCC repair system.

  20. THE ASTEROID BELT AS A RELIC FROM A CHAOTIC EARLY SOLAR SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izidoro, André; Raymond, Sean N.; Pierens, Arnaud [Laboratoire d’astrophysique de Bordeaux, Université de Bordeaux, CNRS, B18N, allée Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac (France); Morbidelli, Alessandro [University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, CNRS, Observatoire de la Côte d’Azur, Laboratoire Lagrange, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France); Winter, Othon C. [UNESP, Univ. Estadual Paulista—Grupo de Dinâmica Orbital and Planetologia, Guaratinguetá, CEP 12.516-410, São Paulo (Brazil); Nesvorny' , David, E-mail: izidoro.costa@gmail.com [Department of Space Studies, Southwest Research Institute, 1050 Walnut St., Suite 300, Boulder, CO 80302 (United States)

    2016-12-10

    The orbital structure of the asteroid belt holds a record of the solar system’s dynamical history. The current belt only contains ∼10{sup −3} Earth masses yet the asteroids’ orbits are dynamically excited, with a large spread in eccentricity and inclination. In the context of models of terrestrial planet formation, the belt may have been excited by Jupiter’s orbital migration. The terrestrial planets can also be reproduced without invoking a migrating Jupiter; however, as it requires a severe mass deficit beyond Earth’s orbit, this model systematically under-excites the asteroid belt. Here we show that the orbits of the asteroids may have been excited to their current state if Jupiter’s and Saturn’s early orbits were chaotic. Stochastic variations in the gas giants’ orbits cause resonances to continually jump across the main belt and excite the asteroids’ orbits on a timescale of tens of millions of years. While hydrodynamical simulations show that the gas giants were likely in mean motion resonance at the end of the gaseous disk phase, small perturbations could have driven them into a chaotic but stable state. The gas giants’ current orbits were achieved later, during an instability in the outer solar system. Although it is well known that the present-day solar system exhibits chaotic behavior, our results suggest that the early solar system may also have been chaotic.

  1. An experimental investigation of microalgal dewatering efficiency of belt filter system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Sandip

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the microalgal dewatering efficiency of a belt filter system for feed concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L. A prototype belt filtration system designed for 50 g dry wt./L microalgal feed concentration was used for this investigation. The highest concentration of microalgal suspension available for testing on the prototype belt filtration system was 6 g dry wt./L obtained from biomass settling tanks at the Lawrence, Kansas domestic wastewater treatment plant. For preparation of feed suspension with concentrations below 10 g dry wt./L, microalgal cultivation was followed by flocculation. A mixed laboratory culture of freshwater species dominated by three eukaryotic green microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris, Scenedesmus sp., and Kirchneriella sp. was cultivated in wastewater effluent. This was followed by flocculation which resulted in a microalgal feed suspension concentration of 4 g dry wt./L. Belt dewatering tests were conducted on microalgal suspensions with feed concentrations of 4 g dry wt./L and 6 g dry wt./L. The maximum microalgal recovery with the belt dewatering system was 46% from the 4 g dry wt./L, and 84% from the 6 g dry wt./L suspensions respectively. The results of this study indicate that microalgal suspension concentrations as low as 6 g dry wt./L can be recovered with a belt filter system improving the overall dewatering efficiency of the system.

  2. Review of Dynamic Modeling and Simulation of Large Scale Belt Conveyor System

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qing; Li, Hong

    Belt conveyor is one of the most important devices to transport bulk-solid material for long distance. Dynamic analysis is the key to decide whether the design is rational in technique, safe and reliable in running, feasible in economy. It is very important to study dynamic properties, improve efficiency and productivity, guarantee conveyor safe, reliable and stable running. The dynamic researches and applications of large scale belt conveyor are discussed. The main research topics, the state-of-the-art of dynamic researches on belt conveyor are analyzed. The main future works focus on dynamic analysis, modeling and simulation of main components and whole system, nonlinear modeling, simulation and vibration analysis of large scale conveyor system.

  3. DNA repair systems as targets of cadmium toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giaginis, Constantinos; Gatzidou, Elisavet; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal and a potent carcinogen implicated in tumor development through occupational and environmental exposure. Recent evidence suggests that proteins participating in the DNA repair systems, especially in excision and mismatch repair, are sensitive targets of Cd toxicity. Cd by interfering and inhibiting these DNA repair processes might contribute to increased risk for tumor formation in humans. In the present review, the information available on the interference of Cd with DNA repair systems and their inhibition is summarized. These actions could possibly explain the indirect contribution of Cd to mutagenic effects and/or carcinogenicity

  4. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Brake Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers theory, operation, and repair of drum brakes, disc brakes, and brake system components. The course is comprised of six units: (1) Fundamentals of Brake Systems, (2) Master Cylinder, (3) Drum Brakes, (4) Disc Brakes, (5) Power Brakes, and (6)…

  5. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  6. Closed-loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  7. Reducing costs of repairable inventory supply systems via dynamic scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiemessen, H.G.H.; Houtum, van G.J.J.A.N.

    2013-01-01

    We study a system consisting of one repair shop and one stockpoint, where spare parts of multiple critical repairables are kept on stock to serve an installed base of technical systems. Part requests are met from stock if possible, and backordered otherwise. The objective is to minimize aggregate

  8. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) System Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.; Vrnak, Daniel R.

    2011-01-01

    This document captures the system architecture for a Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) capability needed for electronics maintenance and repair of the Constellation Program (CxP). CLEAR is intended to improve flight system supportability and reduce the mass of spares required to maintain the electronics of human rated spacecraft on long duration missions. By necessity it allows the crew to make repairs that would otherwise be performed by Earth based repair depots. Because of practical knowledge and skill limitations of small spaceflight crews they must be augmented by Earth based support crews and automated repair equipment. This system architecture covers the complete system from ground-user to flight hardware and flight crew and defines an Earth segment and a Space segment. The Earth Segment involves database management, operational planning, and remote equipment programming and validation processes. The Space Segment involves the automated diagnostic, test and repair equipment required for a complete repair process. This document defines three major subsystems including, tele-operations that links the flight hardware to ground support, highly reconfigurable diagnostics and test instruments, and a CLEAR Repair Apparatus that automates the physical repair process.

  9. Autogenous Metallic Pipe Leak Repair in Potable Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Min; Triantafyllidou, Simoni; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-07-21

    Copper and iron pipes have a remarkable capability for autogenous repair (self-repair) of leaks in potable water systems. Field studies revealed exemplars that metallic pipe leaks caused by nails, rocks, and erosion corrosion autogenously repaired, as confirmed in the laboratory experiments. This work demonstrated that 100% (N = 26) of 150 μm leaks contacting representative bulk potable water in copper pipes sealed autogenously via formation of corrosion precipitates at 20-40 psi, pH 3.0-11.0, and with upward and downward leak orientations. Similar leaks in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 5.5 and 8.5, but two leaks did not self-repair permanently at pH 11.0 suggesting that water chemistry may control the durability of materials that seal the leaks and therefore the permanence of repair. Larger 400 μm holes in copper pipes had much lower (0-33%) success of self-repair at pH 3.0-11.0, whereas all 400 μm holes in carbon steel pipes at 20 psi self-repaired at pH 4.0-11.0. Pressure tests indicated that some of the repairs created at 20-40 psi ambient pressure could withstand more than 100 psi without failure. Autogenous repair has implications for understanding patterns of pipe failures, extending the lifetime of decaying infrastructure, and developing new plumbing materials.

  10. Repairing method for reactor primary system pipeline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Hideyuki; Uetake, Naoto; Hara, Teruo.

    1997-01-01

    Pipelines after decontamination of radioactive nuclides deposited on the pipelines in a nuclear power plant during operation or pipelines to replace pipelines deposited with radioactive nuclide are connected to each system of the nuclear power plant. They are heated in a gas phase containing oxygen to form an oxide film on the surface of the pipelines. The thickness of the oxide film formed in the gas phase is 1nm or greater, preferably 100nm. The concentration of oxygen in the gas phase containing oxygen must be 0.1% or greater. The heating is conducted by circulating a heated gas to the inside of the pipelines or disposing a movable heater such as a high frequency induction heater inside of the pipelines to form the oxide film. Then, redeposition of radioactive nuclide can be suppressed and since the oxide film is formed in the gas phase, a large scaled facilities are not necessary, thereby enabling to repair pipelines of reactor primary system at low cost. (N.H.)

  11. Capacitated two-echelon inventory models for repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avsar, Z.M.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Gershwin, S.B.; Dallery, Y.; Papadopoulos, C.; Smith, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we consider two-echelon maintenance systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location. Each repair facility may be considered to be a job shop and is modeled as a (limited capacity) open queuing network, while any

  12. Powerful conveyer belt real-time online detection system based on x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rong, Feng; Miao, Chang-yun; Meng, Wei

    2009-07-01

    The powerful conveyer belt is widely used in the mine, dock, and so on. After used for a long time, internal steel rope of the conveyor belt may fracture, rust, joints moving, and so on .This would bring potential safety problems. A kind of detection system based on x-ray is designed in this paper. Linear array detector (LDA) is used. LDA cost is low, response fast; technology mature .Output charge of LDA is transformed into differential voltage signal by amplifier. This kind of signal have great ability of anti-noise, is suitable for long-distance transmission. The processor is FPGA. A IP core control 4-channel A/D convertor, achieve parallel output data collection. Soft-core processor MicroBlaze which process tcp/ip protocol is embedded in FPGA. Sampling data are transferred to a computer via Ethernet. In order to improve the image quality, algorithm of getting rid of noise from the measurement result and taking gain normalization for pixel value is studied and designed. Experiments show that this system work well, can real-time online detect conveyor belt of width of 2.0m and speed of 5 m/s, does not affect the production. Image is clear, visual and can easily judge the situation of conveyor belt.

  13. Repair systems for deteriorated bridge piles : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this research project is to develop a durable repair system for deteriorated steel bridge piles that : can be implemented without the need for dewatering. A rigorous survey of the relevant practice nationwide was : conducted to infor...

  14. Dacryoscintigraph evaluation of the repaired lacrimal drainage system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoehn, J.G.; Vitale, P.; Elliott, R.A. Jr.

    1976-01-01

    We have used dacryoscintigraphy to study the efficiency of the lacrimal system following the repair of a divided lower canaliculus in 4 children. This test has been reliable in evaluating lacrimal function and suggests that a canaliculus can be repaired and splinted satisfactorily. Our experience with dacryoscintigraphy confirms that it is a safe comfortable, and reliable method for studying the patency of the lacrimal drainage system

  15. Multidisciplinary design optimization of the belt drive system considering both structure and vibration characteristics based on improved genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongliang; Song, Xueguan; Sun, Wei; Wang, Xiaobang

    2018-05-01

    The dynamic performance of a belt drive system is composed of many factors, such as the efficiency, the vibration, and the optimal parameters. The conventional design only considers the basic performance of the belt drive system, while ignoring its overall performance. To address all these challenges, the study on vibration characteristics and optimization strategies could be a feasible way. This paper proposes a new optimization strategy and takes a belt drive design optimization as a case study based on the multidisciplinary design optimization (MDO). The MDO of the belt drive system is established and the corresponding sub-systems are analyzed. The multidisciplinary optimization is performed by using an improved genetic algorithm. Based on the optimal results obtained from the MDO, the three-dimension (3D) model of the belt drive system is established for dynamics simulation by virtual prototyping. From the comparison of the results with respect to different velocities and loads, the MDO method can effectively reduce the transverse vibration amplitude. The law of the vibration displacement, the vibration frequency, and the influence of velocities on the transverse vibrations has been obtained. Results show that the MDO method is of great help to obtain the optimal structural parameters. Furthermore, the kinematics principle of the belt drive has been obtained. The belt drive design case indicates that the proposed method in this paper can also be used to solve other engineering optimization problems efficiently.

  16. The design of RFID convey or belt gate systems using an antenna control unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chong Ryol; Lee, Seung Joon; Eom, Ki Hwan

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPC)global for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance.

  17. The Design of RFID Conveyor Belt Gate Systems Using an Antenna Control Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ki Hwan Eom

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an efficient management system utilizing a Radio Frequency Identification (RFID antenna control unit which is moving along with the path of boxes of materials on the conveyor belt by manipulating a motor. The proposed antenna control unit, which is driven by a motor and is located on top of the gate, has an array structure of two antennas with parallel connection. The array structure helps improve the directivity of antenna beam pattern and the readable RFID distance due to its configuration. In the experiments, as the control unit follows moving materials, the reading time has been improved by almost three-fold compared to an RFID system employing conventional fixed antennas. The proposed system also has a recognition rate of over 99% without additional antennas for detecting the sides of a box of materials. The recognition rate meets the conditions recommended by the Electronic Product Code glbal network (EPCglobal for commercializing the system, with three antennas at a 20 dBm power of reader and a conveyor belt speed of 3.17 m/s. This will enable a host of new RFID conveyor belt gate systems with increased performance.

  18. New Horizons: The Exploration of the Pluto System and The Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    New Horizons is NASA's mission to explore the Pluto system and the Kuiper Belt (KB). New Horizons launched on 19 January 2006. It made the first exploration of the Pluto system in July 2015 and is now on a five year long extended mission to explore the Kuiper Belt and objects in it. The spacecraft carries a sophisticated payload of imagers, spectrometers, and other scientific instruments that have been used to study Pluto, its five moons, Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), and the heliosphere. The flyby of the Pluto system by New Horizons revealed a complex planet and satellite system. Beyond providing rich geological, compositional, and atmospheric datasets, New Horizons demonstrated that Pluto has been surprisingly geologically and climatologically active throughout 4+ Gyr, and that it exhibits a surprisingly complex range of phenomenology and geologic expression that rivals Mars in its richness. I will describe the mission's objectives, the capabilities of the payload, the flyby of the planet, and some major and some recent scientific discoveries made to date. Chief among the results I will discuss will be the evidence for various kinds of internal/geological/atmospheric/volatile transport activity at Pluto. I will close by briefly also outlining the extended mission flyby of KBO 2014 MU69 on 1 Jan 2019 and the cruise science studies of dozens of KBOs being performed en route to and after that flyby.

  19. Deflection Control in Composite Building by Using Belt Truss and Outriggers Systems

    OpenAIRE

    S. Fawzia; T. Fatima

    2010-01-01

    The design of high-rise building is more often dictated by its serviceability rather than strength. Structural Engineers are always striving to overcome challenge of controlling lateral deflection and storey drifts as well as self weight of structure imposed on foundation. One of the most effective techniques is the use of outrigger and belt truss system in Composite structures that can astutely solve the above two issues in High-rise constructions. This paper investig...

  20. Eccentric Mounting and Adjustment System for Belt Driven Devices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hansen, David N

    2008-01-01

    .... The system includes a housing fixed to the engine, a socket rotatable in pawl-and-ratchet fashion within the housing, and a socket aperture eccentrically disposed relative to the socket's axis...

  1. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-03-08

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  2. Web-ADARE: A Web-Aided Data Repairing System

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin; Li, Zhixu; Yang, Qiang; Xie, Qing; Liu, An; Liu, Guanfeng; Zheng, Kai; Zhang, Xiangliang

    2017-01-01

    Data repairing aims at discovering and correcting erroneous data in databases. In this paper, we develop Web-ADARE, an end-to-end web-aided data repairing system, to provide a feasible way to involve the vast data sources on the Web in data repairing. Our main attention in developing Web-ADARE is paid on the interaction problem between web-aided repairing and rule-based repairing, in order to minimize the Web consultation cost while reaching predefined quality requirements. The same interaction problem also exists in crowd-based methods but this is not yet formally defined and addressed. We first prove in theory that the optimal interaction scheme is not feasible to be achieved, and then propose an algorithm to identify a scheme for efficient interaction by investigating the inconsistencies and the dependencies between values in the repairing process. Extensive experiments on three data collections demonstrate the high repairing precision and recall of Web-ADARE, and the efficiency of the generated interaction scheme over several baseline ones.

  3. A bivariate optimal replacement policy for a multistate repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Yam, Richard C.M.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a deteriorating simple repairable system with k+1 states, including k failure states and one working state, is studied. It is assumed that the system after repair is not 'as good as new' and the deterioration of the system is stochastic. We consider a bivariate replacement policy, denoted by (T,N), in which the system is replaced when its working age has reached T or the number of failures it has experienced has reached N, whichever occurs first. The objective is to determine the optimal replacement policy (T,N)* such that the long-run expected profit per unit time is maximized. The explicit expression of the long-run expected profit per unit time is derived and the corresponding optimal replacement policy can be determined analytically or numerically. We prove that the optimal policy (T,N)* is better than the optimal policy N* for a multistate simple repairable system. We also show that a general monotone process model for a multistate simple repairable system is equivalent to a geometric process model for a two-state simple repairable system in the sense that they have the same structure for the long-run expected profit (or cost) per unit time and the same optimal policy. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results

  4. INFLUENCE CONSTRUCTION OF THE ROLLER ON THE POWER OF THE DRIVE SYSTEM OF THE BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz OPASIAK

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study of new design of rollers. The study focused on the measurement of static and dynamic resistance of rotating rollers and the impact of new construction on the power consumption of the belt conveyor. Rollers have been modified through the use of class C4 bearing seals and labyrinth seal U4Exp 62/65 with a cover 2LU4 of runner construction. Measurements of static and dynamic resistance of rotating rollers were made on a universal rollers stand and power measurements were carried out on a belt conveyor power supply system Gwarek 1200 No. TW in mine KWK Mysłowice–Wesoła.

  5. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  6. A neutron moisture system on nickel mineral transport rubber belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenbao; Su Tongling; Zhang Xiaomin

    2000-01-01

    A method of density-thickness joint compensation was developed to make the on-line measurement of moisture for moving irregular mineral materials. At the same time, the materials' thickness, as a weighted factor, was chosen to modify the prompt moisture in a fixed time and improve the accuracy of measuring moisture. The experimental data show that the measurement accuracy is better than 5% for a thickness of > 2 cm and a moisture of > 6%. The system has been running on the spot for about three months, with a result accorded with that by the stoving-weighing method

  7. ADHESIVE SYSTEM AFFECTS REPAIR BOND STRENGTH OF RESIN COMPOSITE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür IRMAK

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study evaluated the effects of different adhesive systems on repair bond strength of aged resin composites. Materials and Methods: Ninety composite discs were built and half of them were subjected to thermal aging. Aged and non-aged specimens were repaired with resin composite using three different adhesive systems; a two-step self-etch adhesive, a two-step total-etch adhesive and a one-step self-etch adhesive; then they were subjected to shear forces. Data were analyzed statistically. Results: Adhesive type and aging significantly affected the repair bond strengths (p<0.0001. No statistical difference was found in aged composite groups repaired with two-step self- etch or two-step total-etch adhesive. One-step self-etch adhesive showed lower bond strength values in aged composite repair (p<0.0001. Conclusion: In the repair of aged resin composite, two-step self-etch and two-step total-etch adhesives exhibited higher shear bond strength values than that of one-step self-etch adhesive.

  8. New Horizons Reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, C. T

    2009-01-01

    The New Horizons mission provides the first in situ reconnaissance of the Pluto-Charon System and the Kuiper belt, arguably the last frontier of solar system exploration. This book describes the mission, its objectives, expected results, and instruments in articles written by the scientists and engineers most closely involved. The New Horizons mission is expected to return unique observations and discoveries, which will revolutionize our understanding of the formation of the solar system. This volume is aimed at researchers and graduate students active in planetary science and space exploration, and all other potential users of data obtained by the instruments on board the New Horizons mission.

  9. Cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Baoliang Liu; Lirong Cui; Yanqing Wen

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with working vacations and vacation interruption. The repairman’s multiple vacations policy, the working vacations policy and the vacation interruption are considered simultaneously. The lifetime of components fol ows a phase-type (PH) distribution. The repair time in the regular repair period and the working vacation period fol ow other two PH distributions at different rates. For this sys-tem, the vector-valued Markov process governing the system is constructed. We obtain several important performance measures for the system in transient and stationary regimes applying matrix-analytic methods. Final y, a numerical example is given to il ustrate the results obtained.

  10. Designing a system for measuring the flow of material transported on belts using ultrasonic sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihuţ, N. M.

    2015-11-01

    Excavation tailings (scraping) and extracting the useful (lignite) in surface mine pits in Mining Basin Oltenia is achieved with technological lines of excavation - transport - dump of high productivity. A correlation of working capacity of the main components of technological lines (motor rotor, high capacity transport, car dumps) is necessary for economic reasons on electricity consumption. To achieve experience in the process was chosen excavator SRS 1400 from South Jilt career in the CET Turceni. The question of coal excavated volume has a great importance in the mine pits. At the excavation is desired a density estimate for each machine production tracking, cost estimation and tracking product unit profitability of each band on various sections zones. Permanent display size excavated volume snapshots in the excavator's cabin permits to track tape loading, eliminating unproductive times and information management to determine profitability. Another important requirement is closing the loop of the machine drive system of an excavator for a uniform deposition of carbon on the strip, thus achieving automatic control of the loading belt. Such equipment is important for the system dispatching in surface mine pits. Through a system of three ultrasound transducers to determine the smart instant of coal excavated section which, coupled with the tape speed, integrated over time will determine the amount of excavated coal. The basis of the system developed is a device for determining the volume and quantity of coal excavated acting on the march and optimize the system speed excavator working order. The device is designed primarily following the careers of lignite production: rotor excavators, rubber conveyor belts and dump facilities. Newly developed system aims to achieve the following determines: the optimum energy excavation depending on the nature of excavated material - lignite, shale, clay, etc., economic times to use the excavator bucket teeth rotor, energy

  11. Inducible DNA-repair systems in yeast: competition for lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchel, R E; Morrison, D P

    1987-03-01

    DNA lesions may be recognized and repaired by more than one DNA-repair process. If two repair systems with different error frequencies have overlapping lesion specificity and one or both is inducible, the resulting variable competition for the lesions can change the biological consequences of these lesions. This concept was demonstrated by observing mutation in yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) exposed to combinations of mutagens under conditions which influenced the induction of error-free recombinational repair or error-prone repair. Total mutation frequency was reduced in a manner proportional to the dose of 60Co-gamma- or 254 nm UV radiation delivered prior to or subsequent to an MNNG exposure. Suppression was greater per unit radiation dose in cells gamma-irradiated in O2 as compared to N2. A rad3 (excision-repair) mutant gave results similar to wild-type but mutation in a rad52 (rec-) mutant exposed to MNNG was not suppressed by radiation. Protein-synthesis inhibition with heat shock or cycloheximide indicated that it was the mutation due to MNNG and not that due to radiation which had changed. These results indicate that MNNG lesions are recognized by both the recombinational repair system and the inducible error-prone system, but that gamma-radiation induction of error-free recombinational repair resulted in increased competition for the lesions, thereby reducing mutation. Similarly, gamma-radiation exposure resulted in a radiation dose-dependent reduction in mutation due to MNU, EMS, ENU and 8-MOP + UVA, but no reduction in mutation due to MMS. These results suggest that the number of mutational MMS lesions recognizable by the recombinational repair system must be very small relative to those produced by the other agents. MNNG induction of the inducible error-prone systems however, did not alter mutation frequencies due to ENU or MMS exposure but, in contrast to radiation, increased the mutagenic effectiveness of EMS. These experiments demonstrate

  12. Service water system repair/replacement guidelines: Planning and implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederick, G.J.; Gandy, D.W.; Peterson, A.G. Jr.; Findlan, S.J.

    1993-11-01

    Service water system failures have prompted concerns related to extended power plant operating life and plant availability. Selection and procurement of materials for repair or replacement of piping and components may be the most important factors in improving service water system reliability. The authors examined factors that contribute to reduced SWS reliability. The factors include material selection inadequacies, water treatment problems, operational/maintenance practices, fabrication procedures, environmental degradation mechanisms, and coating problems. The authors investigated material selection for replacement and repair, taking into account fabrication practices, environmental concerns, and cost comparisons of materials. They examined specific components such as piping, pumps, valves, and heat exchangers with regard to material selection and fabrication practice. Although proper material selection is essential in upgrading and maintaining the designed functions of a SWS, it is critical to address SWS repair/replacement activities with a systemwide approach. Degradation of materials in SWS applications are plant specific, depending on factors unique to each site such as geographic location, existing materials, operating procedures, and environment. All these characteristics must be addressed in making repair/replacement decisions. Criteria that must be integrated for successful long-term operation of SWS include the following: Materials selection (upgrade or in-kind replacement), Evaluation of root cause or nature of the failure mechanism, Scope of the repair/replacement activities, Material compatibility of the existing materials, Operational and maintenance procedures, Code or jurisdictional requirements, Economic considerations, Water treatment programs, System design improvements or modifications

  13. Balancing flexibility and inventory in repair inventory systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de H.F.M.; Martin, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    In repair inventory systems, failed units are exchanged for serviceable units upon failure. The probability that serviceable units are available to support the exchange process can be used as a measure for the performance of the system. This measure is commonly called the expected fill rate. The

  14. Effective Measurement of Reliability of Repairable USAF Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-01

    ix I. Introduction ...RELIABILITY OF REPAIRABLE USAF SYSTEMS I. Introduction General Issue The United States relies on complex systems to protect and project the national...Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology, and Logistics, Implementing a Lifecycle Mangement Framework, Washington DC, DC: DoD, 2008

  15. Closed loop two-echelon repairable item systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanjers, L.; van Ommeren, Jan C.W.; Zijm, Willem H.M.; Liberopoulos, G.; Papadopoulos, C.T.; Tan, B.; MacGregor Smith, J.; Gershwin, S.B.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider closed loop two-echelon epairable item systems with repair facilities both at a number of local service centers (called bases) and at a central location (the depot). The goal of the system is to maintain a number of production facilities (one at each base) in optimal

  16. Mountain Plains Learning Experience Guide: Automotive Repair. Course: Emission Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, C.; Osland, Walt

    One of twelve individualized courses included in an automotive repair curriculum, this course covers the theory, testing, and servicing of automotive emission control systems. The course is comprised of one unit, Fundamentals of Emission Systems. The unit begins with a Unit Learning Experience Guide that gives directions for unit completion. The…

  17. Dynamic modelling and simulation of complex drive systems of large belt conveyors; Dynamische Modellierung und Simulation komplexer Antriebssysteme von Grossbandanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgwinkel, Paul; Vreydal, Daniel; Eltaliawi, Gamil; Vijayakumar, Nandhakumar [RWTH Aachen (DE). Inst. fuer Maschinentechnik der Rohstoffindustrie (IMR)

    2010-09-15

    For the first time the Co-simulation method was successfully used for full representation of a large belt conveyor for an open cast mine in a simulation model at the Institute for Mechanical Engineering in the Raw Materials Industry at Rhineland-Westphalia Technological University in Aachen. The aim of this project was the development of an electro-mechanical simulation model, which represents all components of a large belt conveyor from the drive motor to the conveyor belt in one simulation model and thus makes the interactions between the individual assemblies verifiable by calculations. With the aid of the developed model it was possible to determine critical operating speeds of the represented large belt conveyor and derive suitable measures to combat undesirable resonance states in the drive assembly. Furthermore it was possible to clarify the advantage of the full numerical representation of an electromechanical drive system. (orig.)

  18. Iterative Repair Planning for Spacecraft Operations Using the Aspen System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabideau, G.; Knight, R.; Chien, S.; Fukunaga, A.; Govindjee, A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the Automated Scheduling and Planning Environment (ASPEN). ASPEN encodes complex spacecraft knowledge of operability constraints, flight rules, spacecraft hardware, science experiments and operations procedures to allow for automated generation of low level spacecraft sequences. Using a technique called iterative repair, ASPEN classifies constraint violations (i.e., conflicts) and attempts to repair each by performing a planning or scheduling operation. It must reason about which conflict to resolve first and what repair method to try for the given conflict. ASPEN is currently being utilized in the development of automated planner/scheduler systems for several spacecraft, including the UFO-1 naval communications satellite and the Citizen Explorer (CX1) satellite, as well as for planetary rover operations and antenna ground systems automation. This paper focuses on the algorithm and search strategies employed by ASPEN to resolve spacecraft operations constraints, as well as the data structures for representing these constraints.

  19. Design of Online Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System for Belt Conveyors Based on Wavelet Packet Decomposition and Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyors are the equipment widely used in coal mines and other manufacturing factories, whose main components are a number of idlers. The faults of belt conveyors can directly influence the daily production. In this paper, a fault diagnosis method combining wavelet packet decomposition (WPD and support vector machine (SVM is proposed for monitoring belt conveyors with the focus on the detection of idler faults. Since the number of the idlers could be large, one acceleration sensor is applied to gather the vibration signals of several idlers in order to reduce the number of sensors. The vibration signals are decomposed with WPD, and the energy of each frequency band is extracted as the feature. Then, the features are employed to train an SVM to realize the detection of idler faults. The proposed fault diagnosis method is firstly tested on a testbed, and then an online monitoring and fault diagnosis system is designed for belt conveyors. An experiment is also carried out on a belt conveyor in service, and it is verified that the proposed system can locate the position of the faulty idlers with a limited number of sensors, which is important for operating belt conveyors in practices.

  20. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  1. Repair of uv damaged DNA in systemic lupus erythematosus. [Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beighlie, D J; Teplitz, R L

    1975-06-01

    The NZB NZW hybrid mouse is an animal model of human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Two breeding schemes were devised using NZB, NZW, B/W, and CBA mice, which permit definitive decisions regarding genetic and/or viral origin of the disease. It is proposed that at least two factors must be involved: a genetic abnormality producing hyper-responsiveness to nucleic acid antigens, and a DNA repair defect which results in liberation of DNA and RNA when cells are lethally injured. Evidence is presented for a DNA repair deficit in human SLE lymphocytes following in vitro irradiation with ultraviolet (uv) light. Lymphocytes from adult New Zealand and control mice were found to lack normal amounts of endonuclease necessary for repairing uv damage.

  2. Availability, reliability and downtime of systems with repairable components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiureghian, Armen Der; Ditlevsen, Ove Dalager; Song, J.

    2007-01-01

    Closed-form expressions are derived for the steady-state availability, mean rate of failure, mean duration of downtime and lower bound reliability of a general system with randomly and independently failing repairable components. Component failures are assumed to be homogeneous Poisson events in ...

  3. Release measurement of great amount of waste. Conveyor belt versus wire mesh pallet systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Schultheis, Roland; Langer, Felix [NUKEM Technologies Engineering Services GmbH, Alzenau (Germany)

    2014-08-15

    Great amount of waste has to be measured for release during the decommissioning and rebuilding of nuclear facilities and installation. Since the enclosed storage or decontamination is very expensive it is advisable for economic reasons to separate contaminated material. The necessary measurement is however a time and cost intensive work which has carefully provided. There are two general methods to perform this task: one is a continuously running system on the basis of a conveyor belt system. The other approach is a discontinuously running system using wire mesh pallets. With the knowledge from existing installations this article will discuss the pro's and contra's and show the limits of the systems.

  4. MULTI-OBJECTIVE OPTIMAL NUMBER AND LOCATION FOR STEEL OUTRIGGER-BELT TRUSS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MEHDI BABAEI

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During the past two decades, outrigger-belt truss system has been investigated and used in design of tall buildings. Most of the studies focused on the optimization of the system for minimum displacement and some of them proposed the best locations. In this study, however, multi-objective optimization of tall steel frames with belt trusses is investigated to minimize displacement and weight of the structure. For this purpose, structures with 20, 30, 40, and 50 stories are considered as models, based on the suggestions in the literature. The location and number of trusses and cross section of all structural elements are considered as design variables. After sizing of the structure for a specific topology and shape, weight and displacement of the structure are obtained and plotted in a diagram to illustrate trade-off between two objective functions. The results show the optimal Pareto-front solutions for different stories. Smooth trade-off and optimal number of trusses and their locations obtained.

  5. DNA Damage Repair System in Plants: A Worldwide Research Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Estela; Manzano-Agugliaro, Francisco

    2017-10-30

    Living organisms are usually exposed to various DNA damaging agents so the mechanisms to detect and repair diverse DNA lesions have developed in all organisms with the result of maintaining genome integrity. Defects in DNA repair machinery contribute to cancer, certain diseases, and aging. Therefore, conserving the genomic sequence in organisms is key for the perpetuation of life. The machinery of DNA damage repair (DDR) in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is similar. Plants also share mechanisms for DNA repair with animals, although they differ in other important details. Plants have, surprisingly, been less investigated than other living organisms in this context, despite the fact that numerous lethal mutations in animals are viable in plants. In this manuscript, a worldwide bibliometric analysis of DDR systems and DDR research in plants was made. A comparison between both subjects was accomplished. The bibliometric analyses prove that the first study about DDR systems in plants (1987) was published thirteen years later than that for other living organisms (1975). Despite the increase in the number of papers about DDR mechanisms in plants in recent decades, nowadays the number of articles published each year about DDR systems in plants only represents 10% of the total number of articles about DDR. The DDR research field was done by 74 countries while the number of countries involved in the DDR & Plant field is 44. This indicates the great influence that DDR research in the plant field currently has, worldwide. As expected, the percentage of studies published about DDR systems in plants has increased in the subject area of agricultural and biological sciences and has diminished in medicine with respect to DDR studies in other living organisms. In short, bibliometric results highlight the current interest in DDR research in plants among DDR studies and can open new perspectives in the research field of DNA damage repair.

  6. Simulation Method of Designing and Selecting Tensioning Systems for Mining Belt Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinowski, Piotr

    2014-03-01

    This article deals with a methodology developed to design and select tensioning systems with using simulation studies on a belt conveyor model. It describes the structure of a dynamic model of a belt conveyor with distributed parameters and details of physical models of the applied belt tensioning systems. For proper display and comparison of work described tensioning systems are shown examples of the results of simulations carried out on a discrete model of the mining belt conveyor. Presented methodology has been verified through industrial research and realization of a number of complex projects requiring simulation tests of take-up systems of belt conveyors. W artykule przedstawiono symulacyjną metodę projektowania i doboru układów napinania taśmy, wykorzystującą wyniki badań modelowych, będącą często wymaganym rozszerzeniem stosowanych analitycznych metod obliczeniowych (Kulinowski, 2013b). Z uwagi na zjawiska falowe występujące w taśmie podczas nieustalonych stanów pracy przenośników taśmowych, rozruchu, hamowania i pracy przy zmiennej ilości nadawy, wyniki obliczeń uzyskane z wykorzystaniem standardowych metod obliczeniowych można uznać jedynie za szacunkowe lub wstępne do przeprowadzenia badań symulacyjnych. Charakter rozruchu przenośnika taśmowego zależy od typu zastosowanego urządzenia rozruchowego i napinającego, mas wprowadzanych w ruch oraz od własności sprężystych taśmy. Problemy związane z analizą pracy układów napędowych i urządzeń napinających podczas rozruchu przenośników cięgnowych rozwiązano z wykorzystaniem modelu dyskretnego o parametrach rozłożonych (Dolipski et al., 2012; Kulinowski, 2012) opisanego w pierwszej części publikacji. Badania symulacyjne przeprowadzone na takim modelu umożliwiają ocenę pracy przenośnika taśmowego wykorzystującego taśmę z rdzeniem tkaninowym lub stalowym, dlatego też kolejny rozdział artykułu poświęcono modelom reologicznym taśm przeno

  7. Optimal Inspection and Repair Strategies for Structural Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, A. M.; Nowak, A. S.; Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    1992-01-01

    and a design variable as optimization variables. A model for estimating the total expected costs for structural systems is given including the costs associated with the loss of individual structural members as well as the costs associated with the loss of at least one element of a particular group......A model for reliability-based repair and maintenance strategies of structural systems is described. The total expected costs in the lifetime of the structure are minimized with the number of inspections, the number and positions of the inspected points, the inspection efforts, the repair criteria...... of structural members and the costs associated with the simultaneous loss of all members of a specific group of structural members. The approach is based on the pre-posteriori analysis from the classical decision theory. Special emphasis is given to the problem of selecting the number of points in the structure...

  8. Development of management system for plant repairing work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Makoto

    1999-01-01

    In the fast breeder reactor, ''Monju'', in order to conduct nuclear plant repairing works securely and effectively, development of a computer system to assist management business on plant repairing work was begun on 1993. The system has been applied to about 5,000 times of operational management through past four times of plant inspection and to daily inspections and maintenance, and is daily used at working places of ''Monju'' such as issue/management of about 110,000 times of operational prohibition tag in isolated management. And, by automation of issue/management on working sheets and operational prohibition tag and others conducted hitherto by hand, the management business has been largely rationalized. (G.K.)

  9. Dynamical models to explain observations with SPHERE in planetary systems with double debris belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzoni, C.; Desidera, S.; Marzari, F.; Boccaletti, A.; Langlois, M.; Mesa, D.; Gratton, R.; Kral, Q.; Pawellek, N.; Olofsson, J.; Bonnefoy, M.; Chauvin, G.; Lagrange, A. M.; Vigan, A.; Sissa, E.; Antichi, J.; Avenhaus, H.; Baruffolo, A.; Baudino, J. L.; Bazzon, A.; Beuzit, J. L.; Biller, B.; Bonavita, M.; Brandner, W.; Bruno, P.; Buenzli, E.; Cantalloube, F.; Cascone, E.; Cheetham, A.; Claudi, R. U.; Cudel, M.; Daemgen, S.; De Caprio, V.; Delorme, P.; Fantinel, D.; Farisato, G.; Feldt, M.; Galicher, R.; Ginski, C.; Girard, J.; Giro, E.; Janson, M.; Hagelberg, J.; Henning, T.; Incorvaia, S.; Kasper, M.; Kopytova, T.; LeCoroller, H.; Lessio, L.; Ligi, R.; Maire, A. L.; Ménard, F.; Meyer, M.; Milli, J.; Mouillet, D.; Peretti, S.; Perrot, C.; Rouan, D.; Samland, M.; Salasnich, B.; Salter, G.; Schmidt, T.; Scuderi, S.; Sezestre, E.; Turatto, M.; Udry, S.; Wildi, F.; Zurlo, A.

    2018-03-01

    Context. A large number of systems harboring a debris disk show evidence for a double belt architecture. One hypothesis for explaining the gap between the debris belts in these disks is the presence of one or more planets dynamically carving it. For this reason these disks represent prime targets for searching planets using direct imaging instruments, like the Spectro-Polarimetric High-constrast Exoplanet Research (SPHERE) at the Very Large Telescope. Aim. The goal of this work is to investigate this scenario in systems harboring debris disks divided into two components, placed, respectively, in the inner and outer parts of the system. All the targets in the sample were observed with the SPHERE instrument, which performs high-contrast direct imaging, during the SHINE guaranteed time observations. Positions of the inner and outer belts were estimated by spectral energy distribution fitting of the infrared excesses or, when available, from resolved images of the disk. Very few planets have been observed so far in debris disks gaps and we intended to test if such non-detections depend on the observational limits of the present instruments. This aim is achieved by deriving theoretical predictions of masses, eccentricities, and semi-major axes of planets able to open the observed gaps and comparing such parameters with detection limits obtained with SPHERE. Methods: The relation between the gap and the planet is due to the chaotic zone neighboring the orbit of the planet. The radial extent of this zone depends on the mass ratio between the planet and the star, on the semi-major axis, and on the eccentricity of the planet, and it can be estimated analytically. We first tested the different analytical predictions using a numerical tool for the detection of chaotic behavior and then selected the best formula for estimating a planet's physical and dynamical properties required to open the observed gap. We then apply the formalism to the case of one single planet on a

  10. The study of thickness and density compensation of neutron-measuring moisture system on conveyor belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Wenbao; Su Tongling; Zhang Xiaomin; Xu Zhongfeng

    1999-01-01

    The neutron-measuring transmission moisture system on the conveyer belt is systematically studied. A method of density and thickness compensation has been used to carryout the on-line measurements of the moisture of the unshaped, discontinuous and irregular moving matter. At the same time, the thickness weighed average method is employed to modify the prompt moisture at a fixed time, and to improve the accuracy of measuring the moisture. The experimental data show that the measurement errors are within ±2.5% when the thickness is between 2 cm and 16 cm and the water percentage is between 6% and 16%. The errors can reach 0.2% if thickness weighed average for moving matter lasts for a long time

  11. Study on the reliability of the underground conveyor belt system installed at Vulcan Mine, the Jiu Valley Basin in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomuș Ovidiu-Bogdan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a comprehensive reliability analysis of the conveyor belts belonging to an underground coal mine in the Jiu Valley, Romania. As resulted from the mine management reports, the transportation system is responsible for many downtimes and is a real bottleneck in the constant and adequate production, and the suspicion is the weak state of belt conveyers, which are the spinal column of the extraction process. For this reason, a comprehensive reliability analysis has been decided, in order to deliver a maintenance-upgrading plan.

  12. On some steady-state characteristics of systems with gradual repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkelstein, Maxim; Ludick, Zani

    2014-01-01

    We consider a repairable system with continuous output that alternates between states of operation and repair. The output of the system in the operating state is represented by a continuous, decreasing function of time. We assume that during the repair state, the system can produce output that is modelled by an increasing stochastic process. The repair action gradually restores the output of the system to its initial level and it returns to the operating state. We obtain and analyse expressions for the generalized availability and related characteristics of systems with gradual repair and consider several meaningful examples

  13. Moisture movement in cement-based repair systems monitored by X-ray absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties in the repair material and interface are greatly influenced by the initial moisture content of the concrete (or mortar) substrate. In order to quantify moisture profiles inside the repair system, X-ray absorption was used. Preliminary studies are

  14. The development of a remote repair system for deep water pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazer, Ian; Giles, John [Stolt Offshore MS Ltd., Aberdeen (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The ability to maintain a high level of flexibility within the contingency plans for sub sea pipeline repair is a critical issue normally achieved by basing the repair plans on diver intervention. This allows the pipeline operator flexibility to respond to particular repair situations as they occur, minimize up front planning and optimize the investment in repair equipment and stock. However for deep water pipelines all intervention must be performed by remote methods, which require the development of suitable equipment and more detailed repair procedures. This paper describes the development of a remotely operated pipeline repair system capable of working down to 3000 m and allowing a relatively high level of flexibility with minimum investment in repair stock. The repair system is based upon the Modular Advanced Tie-In System (MATIS) which has been successfully developed for the tie-in of deep water flow lines. The MATIS repair system is based on the use of standard flanges to replace a damaged section of pipe with a spool piece in a similar manner to a hyperbaric welded repair. Various repair scenarios are discussed in the paper together with the equipment and the procedures used to perform the repair. The paper will also discuss the other remote repair options such as hot tapping and friction stitch welding. (author)

  15. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing

    2017-10-01

    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  16. Reliable pipeline repair system for very large pipe size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charalambides, John N.; Sousa, Alexandre Barreto de [Oceaneering International, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The oil and gas industry worldwide has been mainly depending on the long-term reliability of rigid pipelines to ensure the transportation of hydrocarbons, crude oil, gas, fuel, etc. Many other methods are also utilized onshore and offshore (e.g. flexible lines, FPSO's, etc.), but when it comes to the underwater transportation of very high volumes of oil and gas, the industry commonly uses large size rigid pipelines (i.e. steel pipes). Oil and gas operators learned to depend on the long-lasting integrity of these very large pipelines and many times they forget or disregard that even steel pipelines degrade over time and more often that that, they are also susceptible to various forms of damage (minor or major, environmental or external, etc.). Over the recent years the industry had recognized the need of implementing an 'emergency repair plan' to account for such unforeseen events and the oil and gas operators have become 'smarter' by being 'pro-active' in order to ensure 'flow assurance'. When we consider very large diameter steel pipelines such as 42' and 48' nominal pipe size (NPS), the industry worldwide does not provide 'ready-made', 'off-the-shelf' repair hardware that can be easily shipped to the offshore location and effect a major repair within acceptable time frames and avoid substantial profit losses due to 'down-time' in production. The typical time required to establish a solid repair system for large pipe diameters could be as long as six or more months (depending on the availability of raw materials). This paper will present in detail the Emergency Pipeline Repair Systems (EPRS) that Oceaneering successfully designed, manufactured, tested and provided to two major oil and gas operators, located in two different continents (Gulf of Mexico, U.S.A. and Arabian Gulf, U.A.E.), for two different very large pipe sizes (42'' and 48'' Nominal Pipe Sizes

  17. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setlow, R.

    1978-01-01

    Some topics discussed are as follows: difficulty in extrapolating data from E. coli to mammalian systems; mutations caused by UV-induced changes in DNA; mutants deficient in excision repair; other postreplication mechanisms; kinds of excision repair systems; detection of repair by biochemical or biophysical means; human mutants deficient in repair; mutagenic effects of UV on XP cells; and detection of UV-repair defects among XP individuals

  18. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  19. Availability estimation of repairable systems using reliability graph with general gates (RGGG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goh, Gyoung Tae

    2009-02-01

    By performing risk analysis, we may obtain sufficient information about the system to redesign it and lower the probability of the occurrence of an accident or mitigate the ensuing consequences. The concept of reliability is widely used to express risk of systems. The reliability is used for non-repairable systems. But nuclear power plant systems are repairable systems. With repairable systems, repairable components can improve the availability of a system because faults that are generated in components can be recovered. Hence, the availability of the system is more proper concept in case of repairable systems. Reliability graph with general gate (RGGG) is one of the system reliability analysis methods. The RGGG is a very intuitiveness method as compared with other methods. But the RGGG has not been applied to repairable systems yet. The objective of this study is to extend the RGGG in order to enable one to analyze repairable system. Determining the probability table for each node is a critical process to calculate the system availability in the RGGG method. Therefore finding the proper algorithms and making probability tables in various situations are the major a part of this study. The other part is an example of applying RGGG method to a real system. We find the proper algorithms and probability tables for independent repairable systems, dependent series repairable systems, and k-out-of-m (K/M) redundant parallel repairable systems in this study. We can evaluate the availability of real system using these probability tables. An example for a real system is shown in the latter part of this study. For the purpose of this analysis, the charging pumps subsystem of the chemical and volume control system (CVCS) was selected. The RGGG method extended for repairable systems has the same characteristic of intuitiveness as the original RGGG method and we can confirm that the availability analysis result from the repairable RGGG method is exact

  20. Reliability analysis for a circular consecutive-2-out-of-n:F repairable system with priority in repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yuanlin; Zuo, Ming J.; Yam, Richard C.M.

    2000-01-01

    A circular consecutive-2-out-of-n:F repairable system with one repairman is studied in this paper. When there are more than one failed component, priorities are assigned to the failed components. Both the working time and the repair time of each component is assumed to be exponentially distributed. Every component after repair is as good as new. By using the definition of generalized transition probability and the concept of critical component, we derive the state transition probability matrix of the system. Methodologies are then presented for the derivation of system reliability indexes such as availability, rate of occurrence of failure, mean time between failures, reliability, and mean time to first failure

  1. Substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides substantiation of selection method of preferred alternative of belt conveyor drive systems on the basis of the analytic hierarchy process. Conditions for the correct application of the proposed method in the selection process of preferred alternative of technical objects were worked out. The set of criteria of system effectiveness evalua-tion and the corresponding hierarchical structure in accordance with the developed conditions was proposed.

  2. Direct Self-Repairing Control for Quadrotor Helicopter Attitude Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiliao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A quadrotor helicopter with uncertain actuator faults, such as loss of effectiveness and lock-in-place, is studied in this paper. An adaptive fuzzy sliding mode controller based on direct self-repairing control is designed for such nonlinear system to track the desired output signal, when any actuator of this quadrotor helicopter is loss of effectiveness or stuck at some place. Moreover, using the Lyapunov stability theory, the stability of the whole system and the convergence of the tracking error can be guaranteed. Finally, the availability of the proposed method is verified by simulation on 3-DOF hover to ensure that the system performance under faulty conditions can be quickly recovered to its normal level. And this proposed method is also proved to be better than that of LQR through simulation.

  3. Evaluation of Uniform Cost Accounting System to Fully Capture Depot Level Repair Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    RD-RI65 522 EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY i/I CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS (U) NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA D R...8217.LECTE B ,- THESIS EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM 0TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS Jby __jDavid Richmond O’Brien lj,,, December...Include Security Classification) EVALUATION OF UNIFORM COST ACCOUNTING SYSTEM TO FULLY CAPTURE DEPOT LEVEL REPAIR COSTS 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) O’Brien- David

  4. Development of an Emergency Locking Unit for a Belt-In-Seat (BIS System Using a MEMS Acceleration Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Hyun Baek

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an emergency locking unit (ELU for a seat belt retractor which is mounted on the back frame of a vehicle seat. The proposed unit uses a recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor and solenoid mechanism. The seat has an upper frame supported to tilt on a lower frame. The retractor in belt in seat (BIS system is supported by the upper frame. The proposed recliner sensor based on a MEMS acceleration sensor comprises orientation means for maintaining a predetermined orientation of emergency relative to the lower frame independently of the force of gravity when the upper frame tilts on the lower frame. Experimental results show that the developed recliner sensor unit operates effectively with respect to rollover angles. Thus, the developed unit will have a considerable potential to offer a new design concept in BIS system.

  5. Guardians of the mycobacterial genome: A review on DNA repair systems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Amandeep

    2017-12-01

    The genomic integrity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is continuously threatened by the harsh survival conditions inside host macrophages, due to immune and antibiotic stresses. Faithful genome maintenance and repair must be accomplished under stress for the bacillus to survive in the host, necessitating a robust DNA repair system. The importance of DNA repair systems in pathogenesis is well established. Previous examination of the M. tuberculosis genome revealed homologues of almost all the major DNA repair systems, i.e. nucleotide excision repair (NER), base excision repair (BER), homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). However, recent developments in the field have pointed to the presence of novel proteins and pathways in mycobacteria. Homologues of archeal mismatch repair proteins were recently reported in mycobacteria, a pathway previously thought to be absent. RecBCD, the major nuclease-helicase enzymes involved in HR in E. coli, were implicated in the single-strand annealing (SSA) pathway. Novel roles of archeo-eukaryotic primase (AEP) polymerases, previously thought to be exclusive to NHEJ, have been reported in BER. Many new proteins with a probable role in DNA repair have also been discovered. It is now realized that the DNA repair systems in M. tuberculosis are highly evolved and have redundant backup mechanisms to mend the damage. This review is an attempt to summarize our current understanding of the DNA repair systems in M. tuberculosis.

  6. Converter-controlled belt conveyor systems under the difficult conditions; Umrichtergesteuerte Bandanlagen unter schwierigen Bedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horz, Michael-Josef [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Abt. Elektrotechnik unter Tage; Mueller, Uwe [RAG Deutsche Steinkohle, Herne (Germany). Servicebereich Technik- und Logistikdienste

    2010-05-15

    Panel 572 is located at a depth of 1,200 m in the Girondelle seam at the West mine. The panel has a mean thickness of 2.5 m and is designed as a shearer loader face with a length of 460 m. Coal is conveyed to the shaft by six belts with a total length of about 6 km and a total lifting height of 396 m. The main conveyor belt 1 with an installed power of 3 MW links the panel to a bunker. Conveyor belts 2 to 4 each with 500 kW drive power have operated in a stable manner since the start of working of the panel. Due to in-seam drivage with a selective-cut machine of type AM 85 an area with a marked trough was produced in the coal conveyor road. This area is traversed by belt 5. The planning and control of the conveyor belt in this difficult geological environment impose high demands on drive and control technology. To ensure stable operation under different loads a raft of measures was resolved and implemented. The contribution examines the problem and describes the implemented measures in detail. (orig.)

  7. Injectable systems and implantable conduits for peripheral nerve repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Yen-Chih; Marra, Kacey G

    2012-01-01

    Acute sensory problems following peripheral nerve injury include pain and loss of sensation. Approximately 360 000 people in the United States suffer from upper extremity paralytic syndromes every year. Restoration of sufficient functional recovery after long-gap peripheral nerve damage remains a clinical challenge. Potential nerve repair therapies have increased in the past decade as the field of tissue engineering expands. The following review describes the use of biomaterials in nerve tissue engineering. Namely, the use of both synthetic and natural biomaterials, including non-degradable and degradable nerve grafts, is addressed. The enhancement of axonal regeneration can be achieved by further modification of the nerve guides. These approaches include injectable hydrogel fillers, controlled drug delivery systems, and cell incorporation. Hydrogels are a class of liquid–gel biomaterials with high water content. Injectable and gelling hydrogels can serve as growth factor delivery vehicles and cell carriers for tissue engineering applications. While natural hydrogels and polymers are suitable for short gap nerve repair, the use of polymers for relatively long gaps remains a clinical challenge. (paper)

  8. Extending minimal repair models for repairable systems: A comparison of dynamic and heterogeneous extensions of a nonhomogeneous Poisson process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asfaw, Zeytu Gashaw; Lindqvist, Bo Henry

    2015-01-01

    For many applications of repairable systems, the minimal repair assumption, which leads to nonhomogeneous Poisson processes (NHPP), is not adequate. We review and study two extensions of the NHPP, the dynamic NHPP and the heterogeneous NHPP. Both extensions are motivated by specific aspects of potential applications. It has long been known, however, that the two paradigms are essentially indistinguishable in an analysis of failure data. We investigate the connection between the two approaches for extending NHPP models, both theoretically and numerically in a data example and a simulation study. - Highlights: • Review of dynamic extension of a minimal repair model (LEYP), introduced by Le Gat. • Derivation of likelihood function and comparison to NHPP model with heterogeneity. • Likelihood functions and conditional intensities are similar for the models. • ML estimation is considered for both models using a power law baseline. • A simulation study illustrates and confirms findings of the theoretical study

  9. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Perez-Ocon, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs

  10. A deteriorating two-system with two repair modes and sojourn times phase-type distributed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Escuela Politecnica de Linares, Universidad de Jaen, 23700 Linares, Jaen (Spain); Perez-Ocon, Rafael [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)]. E-mail: rperezo@ugr.es

    2006-01-01

    We study a two-unit cold standby system in steady-state. The online unit goes through a finite number of stages of successive degradation preceding the failure. The units are reparable, there is a repairman and two types of maintenance are considered, preventive and corrective. The preventive repair aims to improve the degradation of a unit being operative. The corrective repair is necessary when the unit fails. We will assume that the preventive repair will be interrupted in favour of a corrective repair in order to increase the availability of the system. The random operational and repair times follow phase-type distributions. For this system, the stationary probability vector, the replacement times, and the involved costs are calculated. An optimisation problem is illustrated by a numerical example. In this, the optimal degradation stage for the preventive repair of the online unit is determined by taking into account the system availability and the incurred costs.

  11. Snowmobile Repair. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennessy, Stephen S.; Conrad, Rex

    This teacher's guide contains 14 units on snowmobile repair: (1) introduction to snowmobile repair; (2) skis, front suspension, and steering; (3) drive clutch; (4) drive belts; (5) driven clutch; (6) chain drives; (7) jackshafts and axles; (8) rear suspension; (9) tracks; (10) shock absorbers; (11) brakes; (12) engines; (13) ignition and…

  12. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  13. DNA repair systems and the pathogenesis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis: varying activities at different stages of infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorna, Alina E; Bowater, Richard P; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2010-05-25

    Mycobacteria, including most of all MTB (Mycobacterium tuberculosis), cause pathogenic infections in humans and, during the infectious process, are exposed to a range of environmental insults, including the host's immune response. From the moment MTB is exhaled by infected individuals, through an active and latent phase in the body of the new host, until the time they reach the reactivation stage, MTB is exposed to many types of DNA-damaging agents. Like all cellular organisms, MTB has efficient DNA repair systems, and these are believed to play essential roles in mycobacterial pathogenesis. As different stages of infection have great variation in the conditions in which mycobacteria reside, it is possible that different repair systems are essential for progression to specific phases of infection. MTB possesses homologues of DNA repair systems that are found widely in other species of bacteria, such as nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair and repair by homologous recombination. MTB also possesses a system for non-homologous end-joining of DNA breaks, which appears to be widespread in prokaryotes, although its presence is sporadic within different species within a genus. However, MTB does not possess homologues of the typical mismatch repair system that is found in most bacteria. Recent studies have demonstrated that DNA repair genes are expressed differentially at each stage of infection. In the present review, we focus on different DNA repair systems from mycobacteria and identify questions that remain in our understanding of how these systems have an impact upon the infection processes of these important pathogens.

  14. DNA repair in B. subtilis: an inducible dimer-specific W-reactivation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, P.I.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    The W-reactivation system of Bacillus subtilis can repair pyrimidine dimers in bacteriophage DNA. This inducible repair system can be activated by treatment of the bacteria with uv, alkylating agents, cross-linking agents and gamma irradiation. However, bacteriophage treated with agents other than those that cause pyrimidine dimers to be produced was not repaired by this unique form of W-reactivation. In contrast, the W-reactivation system of Escherichia coli can repair a variety of damages placed in the bacteriophage DNA

  15. Robust control system for belt continuously variable transmission; Robust seigyo wo tekiyoshita mudan hensokuki no hensokuhi servo kei no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, K; Wakahara, T; Shimanaka, S; Yamamoto, M; Oshidari, T [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The continuously variable transmission control system consists of generation of a desired gear ratio and a servo gear ratio system. The servo gear ratio system must provide the desired response at all times without being influenced by external disturbances. These include oil pressure as well as variation in performance due to operating conditions or changes occurring with us. We have developed the servo gear ratio system incorporating a robust model matching method, which enables the belt continuously variable transmission to satisfy this performance requirement. 2 refs., 9 figs.

  16. ARCHER-Advanced System for RPVH Inspection and Repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomasic, Tomislav; Vukovic, Igor; Bakic, Ante

    2014-01-01

    The reactor pressure vessel head (RPVH) is an integral part of the reactor coolant pressure boundary. Its integrity is important for the safe and reliable operation of the nuclear power plant (NPP). After detection of the leakage and cracks in French NPP, followed by another that occurred in NPP in USA, methods and frequency of inspection were defined, and are strictly regulated by the US NRC Order EA-03-009 (substituted lately by ASME Code Case N-791-1) since 2003. Usual scope of inspection from inner side of RPVH comprises of visual inspection of the surface, ultrasonic testing (UT) and eddy current testing (ET) of the penetration nozzle and ET of the J-groove weld and nozzle outside surface below the weld. ARCHER, new INETEC's manipulator, is designed to provide full scope inspection of the RPVH, by use of various test modules and by performing the surface repair action on J-groove weld. It is adjustable to work with different types of penetration nozzles and thermal sleeves on both VVER and PWR type of NPP. Due to complex geometry each module is specially designed for particular type of examination. Modules are exchanged through the docking system without need for personnel to enter under the head region, thus reducing the personnel's exposure to the ionizing radiation. The end effectors are used to determine the surface flaws or cracks on inner diameter surface of penetration nozzle gap. It guides a slim sword-like probe which carries a pair of TOFD transducers for detection and sizing of circumferential and axial cracks, an eddy current cross-wounded coil, and a zero-degree UT probe through a gap between the penetration nozzle and thermal sleeve. In case of a non-sleeved penetration nozzle, an open housing module is used. J-groove module is designed to fit geometry of the J-groove weld of penetration nozzle, vent pipe and funnel guide. The whole weld area (2' mm on shell side and 1/2' on nozzle side) is covered by two specially designed

  17. Repairable system analysis in presence of covariates and random effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giorgio, M.; Guida, M.; Pulcini, G.

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to model the failure pattern of repairable systems in presence of explained and unexplained heterogeneity. The failure pattern of each system is described by a Power Law Process. Part of the heterogeneity among the patterns is explained through the use of a covariate, and the residual unexplained heterogeneity (random effects) is modeled via a joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters. The proposed approach is applied to a real set of failure time data of powertrain systems mounted on 33 buses employed in urban and suburban routes. Moreover, the joint probability distribution on the PLP parameters estimated from the data is used as an informative prior to make Bayesian inference on the future failure process of a generic system belonging to the same population and employed in an urban or suburban route under randomly chosen working conditions. - Highlights: • We describe the failure process of buses powertrain system subject to heterogeneity. • Heterogeneity due to different service types is explained by a covariate. • Random effect is modeled through a joint pdf on failure process parameters. • The powertrain reliability under new future operating conditions is estimated

  18. Computer-Aided design of belt and pulley systems using Visual Basic

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A Visual Basic Code “DriveCad” was developed for analysis and design of flat and V-belt drives. The Code was used to solve design problems and the results compared favorably with data generated by manual computat-ions, with variation of less than 1.6 %. DriveCad was used to generate scaled 2-dimensional drawings ...

  19. The Design of Intelligent Repair Welding Mechanism and Relative Control System of Big Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-Yu LIU

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Effective repair of worn big gear has large influence on ensuring safety production and enhancing economic benefits. A kind of intelligent repair welding method was put forward mainly aimed at the big gear restriction conditions of high production cost, long production cycle and high- intensity artificial repair welding work. Big gear repair welding mechanism was designed in this paper. The work principle and part selection of big gear repair welding mechanism was introduced. The three dimensional mode of big gear repair welding mechanism was constructed by Pro/E three dimensional design software. Three dimensional motions can be realized by motor controlling ball screw. According to involute gear feature, the complicated curve motion on curved gear surface can be transformed to linear motion by orientation. By this way, the repair welding on worn gear area can be realized. In the design of big gear repair welding mechanism control system, Siemens S7-200 series hardware was chosen. Siemens STEP7 programming software was chosen as system design tool. The entire repair welding process was simulated by experiment simulation. It provides a kind of practical and feasible method for the intelligent repair welding of big worn gear.

  20. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  1. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Ye, G.

    2015-01-01

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio

  2. Repair systems with exchangeable items and the longest queue mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravid, R.; Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.

    2013-01-01

    We consider a repair facility consisting of one repairman and two arrival streams of failed items, from bases 1 and 2. The arrival processes are independent Poisson processes, and the repair times are independent and identically exponentially distributed. The item types are exchangeable, and a

  3. Repair systems with exchangeable items and the longest queue mechanism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravid, R.; Boxma, O.J.; Perry, D.

    2011-01-01

    We consider a repair facility consisting of one repairman and two arrival streams of failed items, from bases 1 and 2. The arrival processes are independent Poisson processes, and the repair times are independent and identically exponentially distributed. The item types are exchangeable, and a

  4. Life forms employ different repair strategies of repair single- and double strand DNA breaks caused by different qualities of radiation: criticality of RecA mediated repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharan, R.N.

    2013-01-01

    Different qualities of radiation, either through direct or indirect pathway, induce qualitative different spectrum of damages in DNA, which are also different in in vitro and in vivo systems. The single- and double strand breaks of DNA are of special interest as they lead to serious biological consequences. The implications of such damage to DNA and their processing by various inherent repair pathways together decide the fate of the living form

  5. Variable-speed belt conveyor systems improve economy in operation; Drehzahlgeregelte Bandanlagen verbessern die betriebswirtschaftlichen Kennzahlen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, C.; Neuffer, I.; Weber, D. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). Bereich Anlagenbau und Technische Dienstleistungen (ATD)

    1999-03-01

    Previous large conveyor system solutions were a compromise between mechanical design and electrical drive technology, usually based on slipring motors for cost reasons. Today`s power electronics systems now make it possible to use medium-voltage frequency converters in large conveyor systems. This new technology opens up design solutions with torque control that yield distinctly better behaviour under load fluctuation conditions, thereby reducing wear and tear. Experience gained from completed projects has shown that a higher-level load-dependent conveyor speed control can achieve energy savings of up to 20%, since material flows tend to be stochastic rather than constant. Maximum speed is required for short periods only and can therefore be obtained by means of field weakening, a higher gear ratio and short-time overshooting of the rated motor current. This permits the use of motors with smaller frame sizes. Furthermore, in view of the controlled torque and shorter belt runs, it is conceivable that built-in safety margins could be reduced. The solution presented here shows how a distinct improvement in cost efficiency can be attained. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bisherige Loesungen fuer grosse Bandanlagen sind ein Kompromiss zwischen mechanischer Konstruktion und elektrischer Antriebstechnik, bei der aus Kostengruenden meist Schleifringlaeufermotoren eingesetzt werden. Aufgrund der Moeglichkeiten, die die Leistungselektronik heute bietet, ist ein Einsatz von Mittelspannungsumrichtern auch auf diesem Gebiet realisierbar. Damit sind Loesungen moeglich, die besonders durch ein gefuehrtes Moment ein deutlich verbessertes Verhalten bei Momenten- oder Lastaenderungen herbeifuehren und damit eine materialschonende Betriebsweise ermoeglichen. Ausserdem hat sich bei ausgefuehrten Anlagen gezeigt, dass sich durch eine uebergeordnete foerderleistungsabhaengige Bandgeschwindigkeitsregelung auch Energie bis zu 20% einsparen laesst, da der Materialfluss nicht stetig, sondern eher

  6. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canillas, M.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Central Nervous System (CNS can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as “secondary injury”. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon.Existen diferentes tipos de lesiones o desordenes del Sistema Nervioso Central (SNC que pueden provocar graves secuelas e incluso en algunos casos una discapacidad permanente. Además, el proceso de reparación del SNC tiene algunas complicaciones. El mecanismo natural de reacción a una lesión, el cual consiste en la formación de una cicatriz glial, es desencadenado por un proceso inflamatorio. Las moléculas liberadas durante estos procesos, la inflamación y formación de la cicatriz glial, así como la deficiencia en oxígeno y glucosa debidos a la lesión, crean un ambiente que inhibe la regeneración axonal creando la llamada “lesión secundaria”. Los biomateriales están adquiriendo un papel cada vez más importante en la reparación de SNC. Las

  7. Integrated analysis of mismatch repair system in malignant astrocytomas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rodríguez-Hernández

    Full Text Available Malignant astrocytomas are the most aggressive primary brain tumors with a poor prognosis despite optimal treatment. Dysfunction of mismatch repair (MMR system accelerates the accumulation of mutations throughout the genome causing uncontrolled cell growth. The aim of this study was to characterize the MMR system defects that could be involved in malignant astrocytoma pathogenesis. We analyzed protein expression and promoter methylation of MLH1, MSH2 and MSH6 as well as microsatellite instability (MSI and MMR gene mutations in a set of 96 low- and high-grade astrocytomas. Forty-one astrocytomas failed to express at least one MMR protein. Loss of MSH2 expression was more frequent in low-grade astrocytomas. Loss of MLH1 expression was associated with MLH1 promoter hypermethylation and MLH1-93G>A promoter polymorphism. However, MSI was not related with MMR protein expression and only 5% of tumors were MSI-High. Furthermore, the incidence of tumors carrying germline mutations in MMR genes was low and only one glioblastoma was associated with Lynch syndrome. Interestingly, survival analysis identified that tumors lacking MSH6 expression presented longer overall survival in high-grade astrocytoma patients treated only with radiotherapy while MSH6 expression did not modify the prognosis of those patients treated with both radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Our findings suggest that MMR system alterations are a frequent event in malignant astrocytomas and might help to define a subgroup of patients with different outcome.

  8. A Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena During the Horizontal Single Belt Casting Process Using an Inclined Feeding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2018-06-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system ( x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient ( ∂p total/ ∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.

  9. A Numerical Simulation of Transport Phenomena During the Horizontal Single Belt Casting Process Using an Inclined Feeding System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Mianguang; Isac, Mihaiela; Guthrie, Roderick I. L.

    2018-03-01

    Horizontal single belt casting (HSBC) has great potential to replace current conventional continuous casting (CCC) processes for sheet metal production, by directly casting 3 to 1 mm sheet for the automobile industry. In the present paper, two-dimensional mathematical models were developed to study transport phenomena, for the case of an inclined wall feeding system for a liquid aluminum wrought alloy (AA6111). Based on the commercial software ANSYS FLUENT 14.5 and user-defined functions, a two-layer turbulence model was used to examine the fluid flow emanating from a slot nozzle set above a water-cooled, high-speed, steel belt. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method was used to predict the shape of the melt-air interface. A transformed coordinate system (x', y') was established in order to analyze the fluid flow on the inclined wall of the feeding system. The total pressure gauge gradient (∂p total/∂x) was used to describe the behavior of the melt film inside the slot nozzle of the head box. The modeling results show that during the melt film falling process, the total gauge pressure varies within the slot nozzle, which can decrease the stability of the falling film. The first impingement between the falling film and the inclined refractory wall of the feeding system gives rise to a local oscillation, and this influences the stability of the melt film moving downwards. At the rear meniscus position between the inclined wall and the moving belt, there is a clear vibration of the air-melt interface, together with a recirculation zone. The weak vibration of the air-melt interface could be induced by the periodic variation of the melt-air interface. Moreover, the formation of tiny air pockets is predicted. Finally, on the inclined wall of the feeding system, a suitable length of the transition area is needed to avoid over-acceleration of the melt film due to the force of gravity.

  10. In-Space Repair and Refurbishment of Thermal Protection System Structures for Reusable Launch Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation systems as well as for future launch and crew return vehicles. There is a history of damage to these systems from impact during ground handling or ice during launch. In addition, there exists the potential for in-orbit damage from micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with an adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during reentry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, Integrated Systems for Tile and Leading Edge Repair (InSTALER) have been developed and evaluated under various ArcJet testing conditions. In this presentation, performance of the repair materials as applied to RCC is discussed. Additionally, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges are reviewed.

  11. Analysis of a carbon composite overwrap pipeline repair system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duell, J.M.; Wilson, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK 74104 (United States); Kessler, M.R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)], E-mail: mkessler@iastate.edu

    2008-11-15

    A relatively new method has been developed to stop external corrosion and structurally reinforce steel pipes by external wrapping of damaged sections using fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) materials. Several different defect geometries representing corrosion patches on steel pipe were characterized using finite-element analysis, by changing the circumferential length of the defect. Pipe vessels containing these defects along with the composite structural repairs were modeled and the results were compared to field tests to determine the effectiveness of the repairs. It was found that the defect width around the circumference had little impact on the ultimate rupture pressure of the repaired vessel, but influenced the stress state in the underlying pipe substrate.

  12. The Application of a Piezo-Resistive Cardiorespiratory Sensor System in an Automobile Safety Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Talha Ali; Fernando, Anura

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG) in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied. PMID:25831088

  13. The application of a piezo-resistive cardiorespiratory sensor system in an automobile safety belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdani, Syed Talha Ali; Fernando, Anura

    2015-03-30

    Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG) in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied.

  14. The Application of a Piezo-Resistive Cardiorespiratory Sensor System in an Automobile Safety Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Talha Ali Hamdani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory and heart failure are conditions that can occur with little warning and may also be difficult to predict. Therefore continuous monitoring of these bio-signals is advantageous for ensuring human health. The car safety belt is mainly designed to secure the occupants of the vehicle in the event of an accident. In the current research a prototype safety belt is developed, which is used to acquire respiratory and heart signals, under laboratory conditions. The current safety belt is constructed using a copper ink based nonwoven material, which works based on the piezo-resistive effect due to the pressure exerted on the sensor as a result of expansion of the thorax/abdomen area of the body for respiration and due to the principle of ballistocardiography (BCG in heart signal sensing. In this research, the development of a theoretical model to qualitatively describe the piezo-resistive material is also presented in order to predict the relative change in the resistance of the piezo-resistive material due to the pressure applied.

  15. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  16. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  17. An optimal replacement policy for a repairable system based on its repairman having vacations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Li [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Xu Jian, E-mail: xujian@tongji.edu.c [School of Aerospace Engineering and Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2011-07-15

    This paper studies a cold standby repairable system with two different components and one repairman who can take multiple vacations. If there is a component which fails and the repairman is on vacation, the failed component will wait for repair until the repairman is available. In the system, assume that component 1 has priority in use. After repair, component 1 follows a geometric process repair, while component 2 can be repaired as good as new after failures. Under these assumptions, a replacement policy N based on the failed times of component 1 is studied. The system will be replaced if the failure times of component 1 reach N. The explicit expression of the expected cost rate is given, so that the optimal replacement time N{sup *} is determined. Finally, a numerical example is given to illustrate the theoretical results of the model.

  18. Modeling imperfectly repaired system data via grey differential equations with unequal-gapped times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Renkuan

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we argue that grey differential equation models are useful in repairable system modeling. The arguments starts with the review on GM(1,1) model with equal- and unequal-spaced stopping time sequence. In terms of two-stage GM(1,1) filtering, system stopping time can be partitioned into system intrinsic function and repair effect. Furthermore, we propose an approach to use grey differential equation to specify a semi-statistical membership function for system intrinsic function times. Also, we engage an effort to use GM(1,N) model to model system stopping times and the associated operating covariates and propose an unequal-gapped GM(1,N) model for such analysis. Finally, we investigate the GM(1,1)-embed systematic grey equation system modeling of imperfectly repaired system operating data. Practical examples are given in step-by-step manner to illustrate the grey differential equation modeling of repairable system data

  19. In-Space Repair of Reinforced Carbon-Carbon Thermal Protection System Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mrityunjay

    2006-01-01

    Advanced repair and refurbishment technologies are critically needed for the thermal protection system of current space transportation system as well as for future Crew Exploration Vehicles (CEV). The damage to these components could be caused by impact during ground handling or due to falling of ice or other objects during launch. In addition, in-orbit damage includes micrometeoroid and orbital debris impact as well as different factors (weather, launch acoustics, shearing, etc.) during launch and re-entry. The GRC developed GRABER (Glenn Refractory Adhesive for Bonding and Exterior Repair) material has shown multiuse capability for repair of small cracks and damage in reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) material. The concept consists of preparing an adhesive paste of desired ceramic with appropriate additives and then applying the paste to the damaged/cracked area of the RCC composites with adhesive delivery system. The adhesive paste cures at 100-120 C and transforms into a high temperature ceramic during simulated entry conditions. A number of plasma torch and ArcJet tests were carried out to evaluate the crack repair capability of GRABER materials for Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) composites. For the large area repair applications, integrated system for tile and leading edge repair (InSTALER) have been developed. In this presentation, critical in-space repair needs and technical challenges as well as various issues and complexities will be discussed along with the plasma performance and post test characterization of repaired RCC materials.

  20. A modelling study of drying shrinkage damage in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2014-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems (Martinola, Sadouki et al. 2001, Beushausen and Alexander 2007). Magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the amount of restraint,

  1. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; Ye, G.; van Breugel, K.

    2016-01-01

    Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions,

  2. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesions into DNA substrates, these complementary biophysical techniques are well suited for investigating protein-DNA interactions that involve target-specific DNA-binding proteins, such as those engaged in a variety of DNA repair pathways. In this chapter, we demonstrate the utility of the platform by applying these techniques in the studies of proteins participating in nucleotide excision repair. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perancangan Prototype Early Warning System pada Kontrol On/Off Belt Conveyor Menggunakan PLC Siemens S7-300

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taufik Taufik

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, automation system become an important aspect of the manufacturing process because could make integration manufacturing process on it more effective and more efficient. PLC or Programmable Logic Controller is one kind of automation system. Many industries use PLC as automation control device in the manufacturing process to control all kind of process. For example at transportation process of coals in generator industry. Coals could be burned because main elements of coals are carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Base on this prototype early warning system design, we get the result if sensor thermocouple detects temperature larger than setpoint temperature (it is 2000C, then PLC will give an order to shut down the output, that is a belt conveyor. The result of this prototype design could use at coals transportation as an early warning system. The design of prototype early warning system could detect and prevent fire because of the consequence of burned coals until spreading of fire could be avoided.

  4. Availability and mean life time prediction of multistage degraded system with partial repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pham, Hoang; Suprasad, A.; Misra, R.B.

    1997-01-01

    In some environments, components might not always fail fully, but can degrade, and there can be multiple stages of degradation. In such cases, the efficiency of the system may decrease. After a certain stage of degradation the efficiency of the system may decrease to an unacceptable limit and can be considered as a total failure. However, the system can fail randomly from any stage. and can be repaired. Further, the repair action cannot bring the system to the good stage, but can make it operational and the failure rate of the system will, therefore, remain the same as before the failure. In this study, we present a model for predicting the reliability, availability, mean life time, and mean time to first failure of multistage degraded systems with partial repairs. In the analysis, state dependent transition rates for the degradation process, as well as repair processes, are considered. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the results

  5. Reliability analysis of repairable safety systems of a reprocessing plant allowing for tolerable system downtimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, H.

    1987-01-01

    GRS has been engaged in safety analysises of the German Reprocessing Plant for several years. The development and verification of appropriate reliability analysis methods, the generation of data as well as the search for an adequate structural presentation of the results to form a basis of recommendations for technical or administrative measures or contributions to risk oriented evaluations have been or are in the process of being established. In contrast to NPP-studies, the reliability assessment of safety systems of a reprocessing plant is applied to repairable and often relatively small systems allowing for tolerable system downtimes. A sketch of the diverse cooling systems of a vessel containing a selfheating solution is given. The interruption of the cooling function for about one day might be tolerable before boiling will be reached. This interval is suitable for transfer of the solution to a spare vessel or for repairing the failed components, thus restoring the cooling function

  6. Targeting DNA repair systems in antitubercular drug development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Alina; Brzostek, Anna; Dziadek, Jaroslaw

    2018-01-28

    Infections with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis, are difficult to treat using currently available chemotherapeutics. Clinicians agree on the urgent need for novel drugs to treat tuberculosis. In this mini review, we summarize data that prompts the consideration of DNA repair-associated proteins as targets for the development of new antitubercular compounds. We discuss data, including gene expression data, that highlight the importance of DNA repair genes during the pathogenic cycle as well as after exposure to antimicrobials currently in use. Specifically, we report experiments on determining the essentiality of DNA repair-related genes. We report the availability of protein crystal structures and summarize discovered protein inhibitors. Further, we describe phenotypes of available gene mutants of M. tuberculosis and model organisms Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium smegmatis. We summarize experiments regarding the role of DNA repair-related proteins in pathogenesis and virulence performed both in vitro and in vivo during the infection of macrophages and animals. We detail the role of DNA repair genes in acquiring mutations, which influence the rate of drug resistance acquisition. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  7. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  8. Reliability analysis of Markov history-dependent repairable systems with neglected failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Shijia; Zeng, Zhiguo; Cui, Lirong; Kang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Markov history-dependent repairable systems refer to the Markov repairable systems in which some states are changeable and dependent on recent evolutional history of the system. In practice, many Markov history-dependent repairable systems are subjected to neglected failures, i.e., some failures do not affect system performances if they can be repaired promptly. In this paper, we develop a model based on the theory of aggregated stochastic processes to describe the history-dependent behavior and the effect of neglected failures on the Markov history-dependent repairable systems. Based on the developed model, instantaneous and steady-state availabilities are derived to characterize the reliability of the system. Four reliability-related time distributions, i.e., distribution for the k th working period, distribution for the k th failure period, distribution for the real working time in an effective working period, distribution for the neglected failure time in an effective working period, are also derived to provide a more comprehensive description of the system's reliability. Thanks to the power of the theory of aggregated stochastic processes, closed-form expressions are obtained for all the reliability indexes and time distributions. Finally, the developed indexes and analysis methods are demonstrated by a numerical example. - Highlights: • Markovian history-dependent repairable systems with neglected failures is modeled. • Aggregated stochastic processes are used to derive reliability indexes and time distributions. • Closed-form expressions are derived for the considered indexes and distributions.

  9. Contribution for geochronological evolution study of the Pianco-Alto Brigida fold belt system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brito Neves, B.B. de; Basei, M.A.S.; Van Schmus, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    The Proterozoic Painco-Alto Fold Belt is situated in the central portion of the Borborema Province and it probably is just a segment of a longer structural development encompassed between the Patos (N) and Pernambuco (S) lineaments. The geochronological study was carried out along a cross section in the central part of the belt (Paraiba State) where biotite-muscovite quartz schists are the predominating rock types, including intercalations of bi-modal volcanics, marbles and quartzites. These rocks were metamorphosed in the amphibolite facies, and they display a complex history of folding. Zircons of the acid volcanics (meta-rhyolytes where analysed through U/Pb method and they plot in a discordia diagram with superior intercept indicating ages around 1100 Ma. Whole rocks Rb/Sr analyses on the same meta-volcanics are indicating isochrons of 950Ma. These data are being respectively interpreted as ages of sedimentation (and volcanism) and regional metamorphism associated to the main (D sub(2)) phase of folding. One of the main purpose of this paper is to stress the importance of the ages around 950Ma, in the central domain of the Borborema Province, as result of regional folding and metamorphism. Some other occurence of ages in the 1000-900Ma range will be discussed as support for this interpretation from now on adopted. (author)

  10. On-Orbit Health Monitoring and Repair Assessment of Thermal Protection Systems, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This SBIR project delivers On-orbit health MoNItoring and repair assessment of THERMal protection systems (OMNI_THERM). OMNI_THERM features impedance-based...

  11. Self-Repairing Flight Control System for Online Health Monitoring and Recovery, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, a reliable self-repairing Flight Control System (FCS) will be developed. To achieve this goal, an artificial Neural Network based Sensor...

  12. Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, M.; van Pelt, M.J.; Dhert, W.J.A.; Creemers, L.B.; Saris, D.B.F.

    2010-01-01

    Osteoarthritis and Cartilage Volume 18, Issue 1, January 2010, Pages 12-23 -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Review Evaluation of histological scoring systems for tissue-engineered, repaired and osteoarthritic cartilage M. Rutgers†, M.J.P. van Pelt†,

  13. Systemic EP4 Inhibition Increases Adhesion Formation in a Murine Model of Flexor Tendon Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael B Geary

    Full Text Available Flexor tendon injuries are a common clinical problem, and repairs are frequently complicated by post-operative adhesions forming between the tendon and surrounding soft tissue. Prostaglandin E2 and the EP4 receptor have been implicated in this process following tendon injury; thus, we hypothesized that inhibiting EP4 after tendon injury would attenuate adhesion formation. A model of flexor tendon laceration and repair was utilized in C57BL/6J female mice to evaluate the effects of EP4 inhibition on adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon repair. Systemic EP4 antagonist or vehicle control was given by intraperitoneal injection during the late proliferative phase of healing, and outcomes were analyzed for range of motion, biomechanics, histology, and genetic changes. Repairs treated with an EP4 antagonist demonstrated significant decreases in range of motion with increased resistance to gliding within the first three weeks after injury, suggesting greater adhesion formation. Histologic analysis of the repair site revealed a more robust granulation zone in the EP4 antagonist treated repairs, with early polarization for type III collagen by picrosirius red staining, findings consistent with functional outcomes. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated accelerated peaks in F4/80 and type III collagen (Col3a1 expression in the antagonist group, along with decreases in type I collagen (Col1a1. Mmp9 expression was significantly increased after discontinuing the antagonist, consistent with its role in mediating adhesion formation. Mmp2, which contributes to repair site remodeling, increases steadily between 10 and 28 days post-repair in the EP4 antagonist group, consistent with the increased matrix and granulation zones requiring remodeling in these repairs. These findings suggest that systemic EP4 antagonism leads to increased adhesion formation and matrix deposition during flexor tendon healing. Counter to our hypothesis that EP4 antagonism

  14. A 3D Lattice Modelling Study of Drying Shrinkage Damage in Concrete Repair Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Luković

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Differential shrinkage between repair material and concrete substrate is considered to be the main cause of premature failure of repair systems. The magnitude of induced stresses depends on many factors, for example the degree of restraint, moisture gradients caused by curing and drying conditions, type of repair material, etc. Numerical simulations combined with experimental observations can be of great use when determining the influence of these parameters on the performance of repair systems. In this work, a lattice type model was used to simulate first the moisture transport inside a repair system and then the resulting damage as a function of time. 3D simulations were performed, and damage patterns were qualitatively verified with experimental results and cracking tendencies in different brittle and ductile materials. The influence of substrate surface preparation, bond strength between the two materials, and thickness of the repair material were investigated. Benefits of using a specially tailored fibre reinforced material, namely strain hardening cementitious composite (SHCC, for controlling the damage development due to drying shrinkage in concrete repairs was also examined.

  15. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  16. Shear Bond Strength of a Novel Porcelain Repair System for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-04

    Apr 4, 2018 ... Each fracture type was examined under a stereomicroscope .... fracture types. Statistical analysis. The normal distribution of data was examined using the Kolmogorov–Smirnov test. Shear bond strength data of repaired CAD/CAM .... adhesives to enamel, dentine, and porcelain surfaces can be compared.

  17. Damage induced by continued corrosion in concrete repair systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luckovic, M.; Savija, B.; Schlangen, E.

    2014-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. After the repair, corrosion of the steel might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion cell depends on many parameters and is difficult to control, the occurrence of

  18. Failure Modes in Concrete Repair Systems due to Ongoing Corrosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukovic, M.; Šavija, B.; Ye, G.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration in reinforced concrete structures. It can result in cracking and spalling of the concrete cover. After the damaged cover is repaired, reinforcement corrosion might continue and even accelerate. While the development of the corrosion

  19. A comprehensive sediment dynamics study of a major mud belt system on the inner shelf along an energetic coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, James T; Hsu, Ray T; Yang, Rick J; Wang, Ya Ping; Wu, Hui; Du, Xiaoqin; Li, Anchun; Chien, Steven C; Lee, Jay; Yang, Shouye; Zhu, Jianrong; Su, Chih-Chieh; Chang, Yi; Huh, Chih-An

    2018-03-09

    Globally mud areas on continental shelves are conduits for the dispersal of fluvial-sourced sediment. We address fundamental issues in sediment dynamics focusing on how mud is retained on the seabed on shallow inner shelves and what are the sources of mud. Through a process-based comprehensive study that integrates dynamics, provenance, and sedimentology, here we show that the key mechanism to keep mud on the seabed is the water-column stratification that forms a dynamic barrier in the vertical that restricts the upward mixing of suspended sediment. We studied the 1000 km-long mud belt that extends from the mouth of the Changjiang (Yangtze) River along the coast of Zhejiang and Fujian Provinces of China and ends on the west coast of Taiwan. This mud belt system is dynamically attached to the fluvial sources, of which the Changjiang River is the primary source. Winter is the constructive phase when active deposition takes place of fine-grained sediment carried mainly by the Changjiang plume driven by Zhe-Min Coastal Currents southwestward along the coast.

  20. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  1. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  2. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamiz, M.L.; Roman, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform

  3. Non-parametric estimation of the availability in a general repairable system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gamiz, M.L. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)], E-mail: mgamiz@ugr.es; Roman, Y. [Departamento de Estadistica e I.O., Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de Granada, Granada 18071 (Spain)

    2008-08-15

    This work deals with repairable systems with unknown failure and repair time distributions. We focus on the estimation of the instantaneous availability, that is, the probability that the system is functioning at a given time, which we consider as the most significant measure for evaluating the effectiveness of a repairable system. The estimation of the availability function is not, in general, an easy task, i.e., analytical techniques are difficult to apply. We propose a smooth estimation of the availability based on kernel estimator of the cumulative distribution functions (CDF) of the failure and repair times, for which the bandwidth parameters are obtained by bootstrap procedures. The consistency properties of the availability estimator are established by using techniques based on the Laplace transform.

  4. Application of Interfacial Propagation and Kinking Crack Concept to ECC/Concrete Overlay Repair System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaw ChiaHwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on the application of ultraductile engineered cementitious composite (ECC as overlay in the repair of deteriorated concrete structures is performed in this paper. Also, interfacial crack kinking and trapping mechanism experimentally observed in ECC/concrete overlay repair system are described by comparison of toughness and energy release rate. The mechanism involves cycles of extension, kinking, and arrest of interfacial crack into the overlay. Experimental testing of overlay repair system reveals significant improvements in load carrying capacity and ductility over conventional concrete overlay. The commonly observed overlay system failure mode of delamination or spalling is eliminated when ECC is applied. These failure modes are suppressed when ECC is used as an ideal and durable candidate overlay repair material.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of the Bond Strength between Ceramic Repair Systems and Ceramic Materials and Evaluation of the Wettability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaağaoğlu, Hasan; Manav, Taha; Albayrak, Haydar

    2017-04-01

    When fracture of an all-ceramic restoration occurs, it can be necessary to repair without removing the restoration. Although there are many studies about the repair of metal-ceramic restorations, there are few about all-ceramic restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the shear bond strength between ceramic repair systems and esthetic core materials and to evaluate the wettability of all-ceramic core materials. Disk-like specimens (N = 90) made of three dental ceramic infrastructure materials (zirconia ceramic, alumina ceramic, glass ceramic) were polished with silicon carbide paper, prepared for bonding (abrasion with 30 μm diamond rotary cutting instrument). Thirty specimens of each infrastructure were obtained. Each infrastructure group was divided into three subgroups; they were bonded using 3 repair systems: Bisco Intraoral Repair Kit, Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System, and Clearfil Repair System. After 1200 thermocycles, shear bond strength was measured in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. In addition, the contact angle values of the infrastructures after surface treatments were examined for wettability. Data were analyzed by using ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests. Although there were no significant differences among the repair systems (p > 0.05) in the glass ceramic and zirconia groups, a significant difference was found among the repair systems in alumina infrastructure (p 0.05); however, a statistically significant difference was found among the repair systems (p < 0.05). No difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems in terms of contact angle values. Cimara & Cimara Zircon Repair System had higher bond strength values than the other repair systems. Although no difference was found among the infrastructures and repair systems, contact wettability angle was decreased by surface treatments compared with polished surfaces. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  6. Control and repair system for radioactive nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shallenberger, J.M.; Hornak, L.P.; Desmarchais, W.E.

    1975-01-01

    Irradiated fuel, especially such containing Pu-239, are put in a shielding container for inspection or repair. This container consists of an inner and outer tube of, for example, stainless steel, between which there is a gap filled with water, mineral oil, or polyethylene. At the upper end of the shielding container a rotating sleeve is positioned, by means of a bearing. It contains, for instance, an access opening and an inspection opening which are shielded by means of plexiglass. The access hole is opened only for repair work. In oder to prevent radiation from escaping to the environment during withdrawal and inspection of the fuel elements a second shielding container or shielding tube may be put over the sleeve. (DG/PB) [de

  7. Spectral Evidence for an Inner Carbon-rich Circumstellar Belt in the Young HD 36546 A-star System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lisse, C. M. [JHU-APL, 11100 Johns Hopkins Road, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Sitko, M. L. [Department of Physics, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0011 and Space Science Institute, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States); Russell, R. W. [The Aerospace Corporation, Los Angeles, CA 90009 (United States); Marengo, M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 12 Physics Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50010 (United States); Currie, T. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Melis, C. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, University of California, San Diego, CA 92093-0424 (United States); Mittal, T. [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, McCone Hall, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Song, I., E-mail: carey.lisse@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: ron.vervack@jhuapl.edu, E-mail: sitkoml@ucmail.uc.edu, E-mail: ray.russell@aero.org, E-mail: mmarengo@iastate.edu, E-mail: currie@naoj.org, E-mail: cmelis@ucsd.edu, E-mail: tmittal2@berkeley.edu, E-mail: song@physast.uga.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-2451 (United States)

    2017-05-10

    Using the NASA/IRTF SpeX and BASS spectrometers we have obtained 0.7–13 μ m observations of the newly imaged 3–10 Myr old HD 36546 disk system. The SpeX spectrum is most consistent with the photospheric emission expected from an L {sub *} ∼ 20 L {sub ⊙}, solar abundance A1.5V star with little to no extinction, and excess emission from circumstellar dust detectable beyond 4.5 μ m. Non-detections of CO emission lines and accretion signatures point to the gas-poor circumstellar environment of a very old transition disk. Combining the SpeX + BASS spectra with archival WISE / AKARI / IRAS / Herschel photometry, we find an outer cold dust belt at ∼135 K and 20–40 au from the primary, likely coincident with the disk imaged by Subaru, and a new second inner belt with a temperature ∼570 K and an unusual, broad SED maximum in the 6–9 μ m region, tracing dust at 1.1–2.2 au. An SED maximum at 6–9 μ m has been reported in just two other A-star systems, HD 131488 and HD 121191, both of ∼10 Myr age. From Spitzer , we have also identified the ∼12 Myr old A7V HD 148657 system as having similar 5–35 μ m excess spectral features. The Spitzer data allows us to rule out water emission and rule in carbonaceous materials—organics, carbonates, SiC—as the source of the 6–9 μ m excess. Assuming a common origin for the four young A-star systems’ disks, we suggest they are experiencing an early era of carbon-rich planetesimal processing.

  8. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  9. An electromyographic and kinematic comparison between an extendable conveyor system and an articulating belt conveyor used for truck loading and unloading tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender, Steven A; Nagavarapu, Shasank; Allread, W Gary

    2017-01-01

    Many retail distribution centers (DCs) manually load and unload boxes into or out of trailers and shipping containers. This study investigated whether an articulating belt conveyor with a height adjustable platform, positioned at the end of an extendable conveyor, significantly reduces shoulder and back muscle loading and the spine kinematics associated with these tasks. Electromyographic and kinematic data were collected from eight volunteer employees as trailers at a shoe DC were unloaded and from nine volunteer employees as trailers at an apparel DC were loaded. Participants in this repeated measures study handled boxes with a conventional powered extendable conveyor system and with the articulating belt conveyor positioned at the end of the extendable conveyor. Bilaterally the normalized activation levels of the erector spinae and anterior deltoid muscles were reduced when loading and unloading boxes with the articulating belt conveyor. Spine movement speeds were also reduced with the articulating conveyor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with maximum repair time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the present paper is to analyze the stochastic behavior of a cold standby system with concept of preventive maintenance, priority and maximum repair time. For this purpose, a stochastic model is developed in which initially one unit is operative and other is kept as cold standby. There is a single server who visits the system immediately as and when required. The server takes the unit under preventive maintenance after a maximum operation time at normal mode if one standby unit is available for operation. If the repair of the failed unit is not possible up to a maximum repair time, failed unit is replaced by new one. The failure time, maximum operation time and maximum repair time distributions of the unit are considered as exponentially distributed while repair and maintenance time distributions are considered as arbitrary. All random variables are statistically independent and repairs are perfect. Various measures of system effectiveness are obtained by using the technique of semi-Markov process and RPT. To highlight the importance of the study numerical results are also obtained for MTSF, availability and profit function.

  11. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  12. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  13. Reliability analysis of a repairable k-out-of-n system with some components being suspended when the system is down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xiaohu; Zuo, Ming J.; Yam, Richard C.M.

    2006-01-01

    A k-out-of-n system with independent exponential components is investigated. It is assumed that some working components are suspended as soon as the system is down, repair starts immediately when a component fails and repair times are independent and exponentially distributed. Formulas for various reliability indices of the system including mean time between failures, mean working time in a failure-repair cycle, and mean down time in a failure-repair cycle are derived

  14. Control of a maintenance system when failure and repair times have phase type distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decassiamenesesrodrigues, Rita

    1990-09-01

    In the model of machine repair discussed there are M + R identical machines, M operating, and R spares. All machines are independent of one another. When an operating machine fails, it is sent to a single server repair station and immediately replaced by a spare machine, if one is available. The server has two available service types to choose from. There are waiting costs, repair costs, lost production costs, and switch-over costs. The following decision problem is treated: to obtain a stationary policy which determines the service type as a function of the state of the system in order to minimize the long-run average cost when failure and repair times have second-order Coxian distribution. This control problem is represented by a semi-Markov decision process. The policy-iteration algorithm and the value-iteration algorithm are used to obtain the optimal policy. Numerical results are given for these two optimization methods.

  15. Reliability analysis of repairable multi-state system with common bus performance sharing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Huan; Yang, Jun; Mo, Huadong

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, an instantaneous availability model for repairable multi-state system (MSS) with common bus performance sharing is proposed. The repairable MSS consists of some multi-state units and a common bus performance redistribution system. Each unit in the system has several performance levels and must satisfy its individual random demand. A unit can transmit the surplus performance to other units in real time through the common bus performance redistribution system, if it has a performance that exceeds its demand. The entire system fails if the demand of any unit is not satisfied. A new method based on the combination of the stochastic process method and the universal generating function technique is suggested to evaluate the instantaneous availability and the mean instantaneous performance deficiency of the proposed repairable MSS. Two examples are given for applications in the end

  16. Optimal preventive maintenance and repair policies for multi-state systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheu, Shey-Huei; Chang, Chin-Chih; Chen, Yen-Luan; George Zhang, Zhe

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the optimal preventive maintenance (PM) policies for multi-state systems. The scheduled PMs can be either imperfect or perfect type. The improved effective age is utilized to model the effect of an imperfect PM. The system is considered as in a failure state (unacceptable state) once its performance level falls below a given customer demand level. If the system fails before a scheduled PM, it is repaired and becomes operational again. We consider three types of major, minimal, and imperfect repair actions, respectively. The deterioration of the system is assumed to follow a non-homogeneous continuous time Markov process (NHCTMP) with finite state space. A recursive approach is proposed to efficiently compute the time-dependent distribution of the multi-state system. For each repair type, we find the optimal PM schedule that minimizes the average cost rate. The main implication of our results is that in determining the optimal scheduled PM, choosing the right repair type will significantly improve the efficiency of the system maintenance. Thus PM and repair decisions must be made jointly to achieve the best performance

  17. A new proved field-tested system for early detection of smouldering fire at conveyor belt equipment; Ein neues betriebsreifes System zur Glimmbrandfrueherkennung an Gurtfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wick, H. [Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, Abt. Bergbau und Energie in NRW, Dortmund (Germany); Misz, Thomas [Zentralstab Kernbereich, RAG Deutsche Steinkohle AG, Herne (Germany)

    2009-11-05

    In underground mining, a CO (carbon oxide)-monitoring is not suitable, to detect a beginning fire in a very early stage and at its place of origin, especially when the ventilation current is very high. By the fibre-optical supervision system GESO, an additional early warning system was developed, which is very safe. It is used especially for belt conveyors in underground roadways. The technology for service temperature measurement, developed and extended for use in explosive atmosphere is state-of-the-art in industries on the surface. (orig.)

  18. Repair system and mitomycin mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuji, N; Murayama, I [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

    1974-03-01

    Ultraviolet light sensitive mutants of E. coli defective at the uvrA, uvrB or uvrC locus showed increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of monofunctional mitomycin, 7-methoxymitosene (7-MMT) or decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DCMTC), as well as mitomycin C (MTC). (1) Treatment of wild type bacteria with these monofunctional mitomycins resulted in the production of single-strand breaks in DNA, which were repaired upon incubation in a growth medium. Such breaks in DNA were not produced in the UvrA and the UvrB mutants. In the UvrC mutant, single-strand breaks were produced by 7-MMT or by DCMTC, but these breaks were not repaired upon incubation. (2) Exposure of E. coli to MTC caused cross-linkage between DNA strands, which converted to a normally denaturable form during further incubation after treatment. This was not occurred in the UvrB strain. In the UvrC mutant, a portion of the cross-links was removed upon incubation. (3) 7-MMT and DCMTC induced mutation in UV sensitive UvrB and UvrC mutants with much higher frequency than in wild type bacteria, while MTC did not induce mutation in these Uvr-strains.

  19. Repair system and mitomycin mutagenesis in Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuji, Nozomu; Murayama, Ichiko

    1974-01-01

    Ultraviolet light sensitive mutants of E. coli defective at the uvrA, uvrB or uvrC locus showed increased sensitivity to the lethal effects of monofunctional mitomycin, 7-methoxymitosene (7-MMT) or decarbamoyl mitomycin C (DCMTC), as well as mitomycin C (MTC). (1) Treatment of wild type bacteria with these monofunctional mitomycins resulted in the production of single-strand breaks in DNA, which were repaired upon incubation in a growth medium. Such breaks in DNA were not produced in the UvrA and the UvrB mutants. In the UvrC mutant, single-strand breaks were produced by 7-MMT or by DCMTC, but these breaks were not repaired upon incubation. (2) Exposure of E. coli to MTC caused cross-linkage between DNA strands, which converted to a normally denaturable form during further incubation after treatment. This was not occurred in the UvrB strain. In the UvrC mutant, a portion of the cross-links was removed upon incubation. (3) 7-MMT and DCMTC induced mutation in UV sensitive UvrB and UvrC mutants with much higher frequency than in wild type bacteria, while MTC did not induce mutation in these Uvr-strains. (author)

  20. Flexible Software Solution for Information System of Maintenance and Repair in Armenian NPP Medzamor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoilova Yordanova, V.; Manchev, B.

    2016-01-01

    Achieving high performance in maintenance and repair activities in nuclear facilities and good results in this area is not possible without proper planning. This includes long-term, medium-term and annual planning. A computerized information maintenance management system is a tool widely used by nuclear operators to achieve safe, reliable, stable and predictable plant operation. Development and implementation of such a system in the Armenian NPP Medzamor (ANPP) was initiated by the European Commission (EC) in August 2013 based on the decision of ANPP management to improve practice in terms of planning and carrying out maintenance and repair of plant structures, systems and components (SSCs). The main purpose for the development and deployment of information maintenance management system in ANPP is creation of a systematic approach to the distribution of tasks between the maintenance personnel as well as the timing and methods of their implementation - on which systems, structures and components, maintenance frequency, while the ultimate goal is to optimize the use of resources for maintenance and to ensure plant safe operation and reliability. In November 2013 a contract between European Commission and consortium Risk Engineering -David Holding was signed, including the following supplies: Hardware for the information system of ANPP (called us Archimed MRO); Specification, design and development of the software of Archimed MRO, installation of the system, data migration, training of ANPP staff operating the system, and 9 months trial operation. In the process of specifying the functionality of the system the main purpose was to provide modern information tools to help improve the work of ANPP personnel in the following areas: Optimization of ANPP maintenance program; Planning of maintenance, repair and overhaul (MRO) activities; Effective management of the processes of MRO; Analysis of the MRO results (trend analysis, recurrence of repairs, quality of the repairs

  1. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  2. Self-repair in a Bidirectionally Coupled Astrocyte-Neuron (AN System based on Retrograde Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eWade

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we demonstrate that retrograde signaling via astrocytes may underpin self-repair in the brain. Faults manifest themselves in silent or near silent neurons caused by low transmission probability synapses; the enhancement of the transmission probability of a healthy neighbouring synapse by retrograde signaling can enhance the transmission probability of the faulty synapse (repair. Our model of self-repair is based on recent research showing that retrograde signaling via astrocytes can increase the probability of neurotransmitter release at damaged or low transmission probability synapses. The model demonstrates that astrocytes are capable of bidirectional communication with neurons which leads to modulation of synaptic activity, and that indirect signaling through retrograde messengers such as endocannabinoids leads to modulation of synaptic transmission probability. Although our model operates at the level of cells, it provides a new research direction on brain-like self-repair which can be extended to networks of astrocytes and neurons. It also provides a biologically inspired basis for developing highly adaptive, distributed computing systems that can, at fine levels of granularity, fault detect, diagnose and self-repair autonomously, without the traditional constraint of a central fault detect/repair unit.

  3. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  4. Performance evaluation of multi-state degraded systems with minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soro, Isaac W.; Nourelfath, Mustapha; Ait-Kadi, Daoud

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a model for evaluating the availability, the production rate and the reliability function of multi-state degraded systems subjected to minimal repairs and imperfect preventive maintenance. The status of the system is considered to degrade with use. These degradations may lead to decrease in the system efficiency. It is assumed that the system can consecutively degrade into several discrete states, which are characterized by different performance rates, ranging from perfect functioning to complete failure. The latter is observed when the degradation level reaches a certain critical threshold such as the system efficiency may decrease to an unacceptable limit. In addition, the system can fail randomly from any operational or acceptable state and can be repaired. This repair action brings the system to its previous operational state without affecting its failure rate (i.e., minimal repair). The used preventive maintenance policy suggests that if the system reaches the last acceptable degraded state, it is brought back to one of the states with higher efficiency. Considering customer demand as constant, the system is modeled as a continuous-time Markov process to assess its instantaneous and stationary performance measures. A numerical example is given to illustrate the proposed model.

  5. Effects of caffeine or maternal repair systems in Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osgood, C.; Zimmering, S.

    1979-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster females were treated with 1% caffeine, mated with X-rayed males and the frequencies of induced sex-chromosome loss, translocations between the major autosomes and between the Y-chromosome and the major autosomes determined. In a reversal of the results obtained previously with 0.2% caffeine by Mendelson and Sobels, treatment of females with 1% caffeine led to a decrease in sex-chromosome loss, confirming preliminary data of Zimmering and Osgood and in increase in autosome-autosome translocations. It is suggested that the higher concentration of caffeine inhibits replication permitting more time available for chromosome-type restitutions by means of caffeine-insensitive repair mechanisms. In contrast with results for autosome-autosome translocation, the fequency of Y-autosome translocations was depressed below controls suggesting an isolation (by any one of several means) of Y-chromosome breaks from those in the autosomes. (Auth.)

  6. Bayesian analysis of repairable systems showing a bounded failure intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guida, Maurizio; Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2006-01-01

    The failure pattern of repairable mechanical equipment subject to deterioration phenomena sometimes shows a finite bound for the increasing failure intensity. A non-homogeneous Poisson process with bounded increasing failure intensity is then illustrated and its characteristics are discussed. A Bayesian procedure, based on prior information on model-free quantities, is developed in order to allow technical information on the failure process to be incorporated into the inferential procedure and to improve the inference accuracy. Posterior estimation of the model-free quantities and of other quantities of interest (such as the optimal replacement interval) is provided, as well as prediction on the waiting time to the next failure and on the number of failures in a future time interval is given. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed inferential procedure

  7. The role of the bacterial mismatch repair system in SOS-induced mutagenesis: a theoretical background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belov, O.V.; Kapralov, M.I.; Chuluunbaatar, O.; Sweilam, N.H.

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical study is performed of the possible role of the methyl-directed mismatch repair system in the ultraviolet-induced mutagenesis of Escherichia coli bacterial cells. For this purpose, a mathematical model of the bacterial mismatch repair system is developed. Within this model, the key pathways of this type of repair are simulated on the basis of modern experimental data related to its mechanisms. Here we have modelled in detail five main pathways of DNA misincorporation removal with different DNA exonucleases. Using our calculations, we have tested the hypothesis that the bacterial mismatch repair system is responsible for the removal of the nucleotides misincorporated by DNA polymerase V (the UmuD' 2 C complex) during ultraviolet-induced SOS response. For the theoretical analysis of the mutation frequency, we have combined the proposed mathematical approach with the model of SOS-induced mutagenesis in the E.coli bacterial cell developed earlier. Our calculations support the hypothesis that methyl-directed mismatch repair influences the mutagenic effect of ultraviolet radiation

  8. Robotics in the nuclear environment-inspection and repairs inside the primary coolant system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillet, J.; Marcel Tortolano

    2005-01-01

    The increase in the lifetime of the power plants and the ageing of materials require the intervention inside the components to carry out controls and possibly repairs in the event of discovered defects. Within this framework, EDF is investigating the feasibility of robotized repairs of the components and pipes of the main primary coolant system of a nuclear power plant. For several years, EDF R and D has engaged projects whose subject of study is the possibility of repairing components such as the main vessel; the pressurizer or the primary coolant pipes with the help of robots and dedicated tools. INTERVENTIONS INSIDE PRIMARY COOLANT PIPES: Studies undertaken by EDF highlighted that certain zones, particularly in pipe connections, can be affected by thermal fatigue which causes crackling defects or crackings. In anticipation of this phenomenon which would affect primary pipes and to avoid their replacements, EDF R and D has been studying the feasibility of examining and repairing these zones using robots. Robotized repair consists in introducing into the pipe while passing by the vessel, a 6 degrees of freedom manipulator mounted on a mobile carrier. This robot implements and carries out the trajectories of the different processes of repair: - Precise localization of the defects, - Elimination (possibly sampling) of the defects by machining, - Control that the defects were eliminated, - Weld metal buildup if the repair cavity is too deep, - Grinding followed by a new control of the surface. These studies and tests were conducted in the laboratory of EDF R and D in Chatou. The sequence of operations included machining by grinding and milling, profilometric control, dye penetrant testing, TIG welding and ultrasonic examinations. The results of the tests, executed on full scale models of components, are satisfactory and show the advantages of robotics compared with classical methods. ROBOTIZED INTERVENTIONS IN THE REACTOR VESSEL: Another difficult issue is the

  9. Hybrid Recurrent Laguerre-Orthogonal-Polynomial NN Control System Applied in V-Belt Continuously Variable Transmission System Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hong Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Because the V-belt continuously variable transmission (CVT system driven by permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM has much unknown nonlinear and time-varying characteristics, the better control performance design for the linear control design is a time consuming procedure. In order to overcome difficulties for design of the linear controllers, the hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial neural network (NN control system which has online learning ability to respond to the system’s nonlinear and time-varying behaviors is proposed to control PMSM servo-driven V-belt CVT system under the occurrence of the lumped nonlinear load disturbances. The hybrid recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control system consists of an inspector control, a recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN control with adaptive law, and a recouped control with estimated law. Moreover, the adaptive law of online parameters in the recurrent Laguerre-orthogonal-polynomial NN is derived using the Lyapunov stability theorem. Furthermore, the optimal learning rate of the parameters by means of modified particle swarm optimization (PSO is proposed to achieve fast convergence. Finally, to show the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme, comparative studies are demonstrated by experimental results.

  10. The bases for optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems to improve the NPP productive efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilej, D.V.; Vasil'chenko, S.V.; Vlasenko, N.I.; Vasil'chenko, V.N.; Skalozubov, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    In the frames of risk-informed approaches the paper proposed the theoretical bases for methods of optimisation of scheduled repairs and tests of safety systems at nuclear power plants. The optimisation criterion is the objective risk function minimising. This function depends on the scheduled repairs/tests periodicity and the allowed time to bring the system channel to a state of non-operability. The main optimisation direct is to reduce the repair time with the purpose of enhancement of productive efficiency

  11. RESTART simulation of non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villen-Altamirano, Jose

    2010-01-01

    The reliability of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is studied. The model analyzed in this paper is more general than those of previous studies given that repair time and component lifetimes are random variables that follow a general distribution. The system has one repair service which adopts a priority repair rule based on system failure risk. Since crude simulation has proved to be inefficient for highly dependable systems, the RESTART method was used for the estimation of steady-state unavailability, MTBF and unreliability. Probabilities up to the order of 10 -16 have been accurately estimated with little computational effort. In this method, a number of simulation retrials are performed when the process enters regions of the state space where the chance of occurrence of a rare event (e.g., a system failure) is higher. The main difficulty for the application of this method is to find a suitable function, called the importance function, to define the regions. Given the simplicity involved in changing some model assumptions with RESTART, the importance function used in this paper could be useful for dependability estimation of many systems.

  12. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  13. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  14. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  15. Contribution of landfalling tropical system rainfall to the hydroclimate of the eastern U.S. Corn Belt 1981–2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia Kellner

    2016-09-01

    Landfalling tropical system rainfall accounts for approximately 20% of the observed monthly rainfall during the tropical storm season (June–November across the eastern U.S. Corn Belt (1981–2012. Correlation between the annual number of landfalling tropical systems and annual yield by state results in no relationship, but correlation of August monthly observed rainfall by climate division to crop reporting district annual yields has a weak to moderate, statistically significant correlation in Ohio districts 30–60 and Indiana CRD 90. ANOVA analysis suggests that landfalling tropical rainfall may actually reduce yields in some state's climate divisions/crop reporting districts while increasing yield in others. Results suggest that there is a balance between landfalling tropical storms providing sufficient rainfall or too much rainfall to be of benefit to crops. Findings aim to provide information to producers, crop advisers, risk managers and commodity groups so that seasonal hurricane forecasts can potentially be utilized in planning for above or below normal precipitation during phenologically important portions of the growing season.

  16. Investigations dealing with variable-speed drives of belt conveyor systems; Untersuchungen an drehzahlstellbaren Antrieben von Gurtbandfoerderanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heuvel, B. van den [RWE Power AG, Technikzentrum Tagebaue/Hauptwerkstatt, Versuchsabteilung, Frechen (Germany)

    2006-04-15

    Safe and faultless operation of belt conveyor systems is a crucial factor in maintaining the availability of interlinked conveying systems employed in mining operations; the use of components with a high efficiency or low energy consumption and energy-conserving plant operation modes allow economic efficiency to be enhanced. With the power increase of single drives to 2500 kW the static design is gaining significance and - with the introduction of variable-speed conveyor drives - particular importance is also to be attached to the proper dynamic design and adjustment of the drive units. Comprehensive measurement and computational studies made of different conveyor drive units in the 900 to 2500 kW power range revealed that excitations of torsional natural frequencies caused by the drives' tooth contact frequencies were the reason for the damage that had occurred; remedial measures were developed the efficacy of which was demonstrated in practice. Moreover, investigations aimed at precautionary damage prevention are described which were performed with newly designed gears prior to the conversion of proven conveyor drives to variable-speed drive units. When designing new gears in the future, we recommend to also investigate them with regard to their dynamic behaviour in the drive train during the design phase by performing appropriate torsional vibration analyses. (orig.)

  17. Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs: Junction and Position in the System of Mobile Belts of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, M. G.; Rybin, A. K.; Batalev, V. Yu.; Matyukov, V. E.; Shchelochkov, G. G.

    2018-01-01

    The position of the Pamirs and the Hissar-Alai mountainous system in the structure of Central Asia and features of their junction are considered. It is shown that their outer contours and tectonic infrastructure are significantly distinct in the planar pattern: latitudinally linear and arched for the Hissar-Alai and the Pamirs, respectively. These structures logically match those of the Central Asian and Alpine-Himalayan belts, respectively. The Pamir orogen is a relatively autonomous structural element of the crust, which is located discordantly relative to the country lithospheric blocks. Most of the Pamirs (at least, the Northern and Central) probably form a giant allochthon on the ancient basement of the Tarim and Afghan-Tajik blocks. The junction zone of these two "hard" crustal segments is reflected in the transverse Transpamir threshold, which is expressed in the relief, deep structure, and seismicity. The specific geological structure of the junction zone of the Pamirs and Hissar-Alai (systems of the Tarim, Alai, and Afghan-Tajik troughs) is shown. It suggested that this zone is a damper, which significantly neutralizes the dynamic influence of the Pamir and the southernmost elements of the Pamir-Punjab syntax on Hissar-Alai structures.

  18. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladena Lukovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c. This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d, the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning. From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  19. Effect of Moisture Exchange on Interface Formation in the Repair System Studied by X-ray Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukovic, Mladena; Ye, Guang

    2015-12-22

    In concrete repair systems, material properties of the repair material and the interface are greatly influenced by the moisture exchange between the repair material and the substrate. If the substrate is dry, it can absorb water from the repair material and reduce its effective water-to-cement ratio (w/c). This further affects the hydration rate of cement based material. In addition to the change in hydration rate, void content at the interface between the two materials is also affected. In this research, the influence of moisture exchange on the void content in the repair system as a function of initial saturation level of the substrate is investigated. Repair systems with varying level of substrate saturation are made. Moisture exchange in these repair systems as a function of time is monitored by the X-ray absorption technique. After a specified curing age (3 d), the internal microstructure of the repair systems was captured by micro-computed X-ray tomography (CT-scanning). From reconstructed images, different phases in the repair system (repair material, substrate, voids) can be distinguished. In order to quantify the void content, voids were thresholded and their percentage was calculated. It was found that significantly more voids form when the substrate is dry prior to application of the repair material. Air, initially filling voids and pores of the dry substrate, is being released due to the moisture exchange. As a result, air voids remain entrapped in the repair material close to the interface. These voids are found to form as a continuation of pre-existing surface voids in the substrate. Knowledge about moisture exchange and its effects provides engineers with the basis for recommendations about substrate preconditioning in practice.

  20. Evaluation of temporary non-code repairs in safety class 3 piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godha, P.C.; Kupinski, M.; Azevedo, N.F.

    1996-01-01

    Temporary non-ASME Code repairs in safety class 3 pipe and piping components are permissible during plant operation in accordance with Nuclear Regulatory Commission Generic Letter 90-05. However, regulatory acceptance of such repairs requires the licensee to undertake several timely actions. Consistent with the requirements of GL 90-05, this paper presents an overview of the detailed evaluation and relief request process. The technical criteria encompasses both ductile and brittle piping materials. It also lists appropriate evaluation methods that a utility engineer can select to perform a structural integrity assessment for design basis loading conditions to support the use of temporary non-Code repair for degraded piping components. Most use of temporary non-code repairs at a nuclear generating station is in the service water system which is an essential safety related system providing the ultimate heat sink for various plant systems. Depending on the plant siting, the service water system may use fresh water or salt water as the cooling medium. Various degradation mechanisms including general corrosion, erosion/corrosion, pitting, microbiological corrosion, galvanic corrosion, under-deposit corrosion or a combination thereof continually challenge the pressure boundary structural integrity. A good source for description of corrosion degradation in cooling water systems is provided in a cited reference

  1. [Studies on the repair of damaged DNA in bacteriophage, bacterial and mammalian systems]: Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedberg, E.C.

    1987-08-01

    This study sought to exploit the use of uv radiation as a source of genomic damage. We explored the molecular mechanism of the repair of DNA damage at a number of different levels of biological organization, by investigating bacteriophage, bacterial, yeast and mammalian cells. Not only have observations obtained in one biological system suggested specific experimental approaches in others, but we have also learned that some biochemical pathways for DNA repair are unique to specific organisms. Our studies are summarized in terms of 4 major areas of research activity that span the past 16 years. 86 refs

  2. Prediction of Repair Work Duration for Gas Transport Systems Based on Small Data Samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesnykh, Valery; Litvin, Yuri; Kozin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of the duration of a repair and maintenance project of a gas transport system is an important part of planning activities. There exist numerous sources of uncertainties that may result in time overruns possibly leading to multiple negative consequences. Our experience in planning...... this work suggests that accepting the stochastic nature of the project duration is a constructive step towards the preparedness to contingencies and defining penalties for repair companies. To support this approach, one needs to construct probability distributions of the durations of the projects...

  3. A new technique for repair of a dislocated sternoclavicular joint using a sternal tension cable system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janson, Jacques T; Rossouw, Gawie J

    2013-02-01

    An unstable anterior or posterior sternoclavicular joint dislocation can cause severe morbidity with poor shoulder movement and strength. These dislocations need to be repaired, which can be challenging. Many different procedures have been described to obtain a stable joint fixation with varying results. We report a new technique for repairing a sternoclavicular joint dislocation by using a figure-of-eight sternal cable system. This procedure is relatively simple and reproducible to create a stable and functional sternoclavicular joint. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Injecting a liquid bacteria-based repair system to make porous network conrete healed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sangadji, S.; Wiktor, V.A.C.; Jonkers, H.M.; Schlangen, H.E.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria induced calcite precipitation has been proven to be effective in making concrete structure self-healing. In Microlab TU Delft, the concept has been enhanced by developing a liquid bacteria-based concrete repair system. The solution contains calcite precipitating bacteria, nutrients and

  5. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  6. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  7. Six types Monte Carlo for estimating the current unavailability of Markov system with dependent repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Li Zhizhong

    2004-01-01

    Based on integral equaiton describing the life-history of Markov system, six types of estimators of the current unavailability of Markov system with dependent repair are propounded. Combining with the biased sampling of state transition time of system, six types of Monte Carlo for estimating the current unavailability are given. Two numerical examples are given to deal with the variances and efficiencies of the six types of Monte Carlo methods. (authors)

  8. An artificial neural network for modeling reliability, availability and maintainability of a repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajpal, P.S.; Shishodia, K.S.; Sekhon, G.S.

    2006-01-01

    The paper explores the application of artificial neural networks to model the behaviour of a complex, repairable system. A composite measure of reliability, availability and maintainability parameters has been proposed for measuring the system performance. The artificial neural network has been trained using past data of a helicopter transportation facility. It is used to simulate behaviour of the facility under various constraints. The insights obtained from results of simulation are useful in formulating strategies for optimal operation of the system

  9. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  10. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  11. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  12. Planning of Maintenance and Repair of Complicated Technical Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. I. Liseychikov

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available It is expedient to use mathematical models for substantiation of operational material consumption at maintenance of complicated technical systems. The appropriate tasks have been considered: minimization of operational material consumption; determination of maximum scope of work to be executed while maintaining one system; optimization of operational material consumption while organizing maintenance of a system group; planning of technical maintenance and determination of a number of systems to be maintained. Formalization and solution of the above problems have been accomplished.

  13. The necessity of a theory of biology for tissue engineering: metabolism-repair systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguli, Suman; Hunt, C Anthony

    2004-01-01

    Since there is no widely accepted global theory of biology, tissue engineering and bioengineering lack a theoretical understanding of the systems being engineered. By default, tissue engineering operates with a "reductionist" theoretical approach, inherited from traditional engineering of non-living materials. Long term, that approach is inadequate, since it ignores essential aspects of biology. Metabolism-repair systems are a theoretical framework which explicitly represents two "functional" aspects of living organisms: self-repair and self-replication. Since repair and replication are central to tissue engineering, we advance metabolism-repair systems as a potential theoretical framework for tissue engineering. We present an overview of the framework, and indicate directions to pursue for extending it to the context of tissue engineering. We focus on biological networks, both metabolic and cellular, as one such direction. The construction of these networks, in turn, depends on biological protocols. Together these concepts may help point the way to a global theory of biology appropriate for tissue engineering.

  14. Motorcycle Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Jim; Bundy, Mike

    This motorcycle repair curriculum guide contains the following ten areas of study: brake systems, clutches, constant mesh transmissions, final drives, suspension, mechanical starting mechanisms, electrical systems, fuel systems, lubrication systems, and overhead camshafts. Each area consists of one or more units of instruction. Each instructional…

  15. Present status of DNA repair mechanisms in uv irradiated yeast taken as a model eukaryotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustacchi, E.; Waters, R.; Heude, M.; Chanet, R.

    1975-01-01

    The repair mechanisms of altered DNA are generally less well understood for eukaryotes than they are for prokaryotes and bacteriophages. For mammalian cell lines cultured in vitro the specific labelling of DNA has allowed the biochemical analysis of some of the steps of the repair processes whereas the determination of their genetic controls is, with a few exceptions, obviously difficult. On the other hand, with fungi and more specifically with yeast taken as a model unicellular eukaryotic system, the genetic approach has been extensively explored: radiosensitive mutants are readily detected and genetically analyzed, double and multiple mutants can be constructed and from their responses to irradiation the number of repair pathways involved can be suggested. The lack of thymidine kinase in these organisms has hampered for a certain time the biochemical analysis of repair. However, the recent isolation of yeast strains capable of taking up and incorporating thymidine 5'-monophosphate into their DNA opens new possibilities for the future. In spite of this difficulty, attempts to measure the induction and removal of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers were performed by several groups during the last three years. The two main repair pathways described for E. coli, i.e., the excision-resynthesis and post-replicative recombinational repair pathways, do exist in yeast. The existence of the former pathway is supported not only by indirect evidence but also by biochemical analysis. The rad 1 and rad 2 mutants for instance have been shown to be blocked in the excision of uv-induced pyrimidine dimers. Other loci are epistatic to rad 1 and rad 2 (rad 3 , rad 4 ) and are likely to act on this excision pathway. The genetic control of the mitochondrial response to a uv treatment involves nuclear genes and mitochondrial determinants

  16. Statistical evaluation of failures and repairs of the V-1 measuring and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurinec, R.; Korec, J.; Mitosinka, J.; Zarnovican, V.

    1984-01-01

    A failure record card system was introduced for evaluating the reliability of the measurement and control equipment of the V-1 nuclear power plant. The SPU-800 microcomputer system is used for recording data on magnetic tape and their transmission to the central data processing department. The data are used for evaluating the reliability of components and circuits and a selection is made of the most failure-prone components, and the causes of failures are evaluated as are failure identification, repair and causes of outages. The system provides monthly, annual and total assessment data since the system was commissioned. The results of the statistical evaluation of failures are used for planning preventive maintenance and for determining optimal repair intervals. (E.S.)

  17. [The correlations between aging of the human body, oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Aleksandra; Krzeszowiak, Jakub; Markiewicz-Górka, Iwona

    2014-12-15

    The article presents an current knowledge overview about the importance of oxidative stress and reduced efficiency of repair processes during the aging process of the human body. Oxidative damage to cellular macromolecules (proteins, lipids, nucleic acids), are formed under the influence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). They are the part of important mechanism which is responsible for the process of aging and the development of many diseases. The most important effects result from DNA damage, due to the mutations formation, which can lead to the development of tumors. However, a well-functioning repair systems (i.a. homologous recombination) remove the damage and prevent harmful changes in the cells. Lipid peroxidation products also cause oxidative modification of nucleic acids (and proteins). Proteins and fats also have repair systems, but much simpler than those responsible for the repair of nucleic acids. Unfortunately, with increasing age, they are more weakened, which contributes to increase numbers of cell damage, and consequently development of diseases specific to old age: cancer, neurodegenerative diseases or atherosclerosis.

  18. Modelling open pit shovel-truck systems using the Machine Repair Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, A.; Musingwini, C. [CBH Resources Ltd., Sydney, NSW (Australia). Endeaver Mine

    2007-08-15

    Shovel-truck systems for loading and hauling material in open pit mines are now routinely analysed using simulation models or off-the-shelf simulation software packages, which can be very expensive for once-off or occasional use. The simulation models invariably produce different estimations of fleet sizes due to their differing estimations of cycle time. No single model or package can accurately estimate the required fleet size because the fleet operating parameters are characteristically random and dynamic. In order to improve confidence in sizing the fleet for a mining project, at least two estimation models should be used. This paper demonstrates that the Machine Repair Model can be modified and used as a model for estimating truck fleet size in an open pit shovel-truck system. The modified Machine Repair Model is first applied to a virtual open pit mine case study. The results compare favourably to output from other estimation models using the same input parameters for the virtual mine. The modified Machine Repair Model is further applied to an existing open pit coal operation, the Kwagga Section of Optimum Colliery as a case study. Again the results confirm those obtained from the virtual mine case study. It is concluded that the Machine Repair Model can be an affordable model compared to off-the-shelf generic software because it is easily modelled in Microsoft Excel, a software platform that most mines already use.

  19. Formal definition of coherency and computation of minimal cut sequences for binary dynamic and repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaux, Pierre-Yves

    2013-01-01

    Preventive risk assessment of a complex system rely on a dynamic models which describe the link between the system failure and the scenarios of failure and repair events from its components. The qualitative analyses of a binary dynamic and repairable system is aiming at computing and analyse the scenarios that lead to the system failure. Since such systems describe a large set of those, only the most representative ones, called Minimal Cut Sequences (MCS), are of interest for the safety engineer. The lack of a formal definition for the MCS has generated multiple definitions either specific to a given model (and thus not generic) or informal. This work proposes i) a formal framework and definition for the MCS while staying independent of the reliability model used, ii) the methodology to compute them using property extracted from their formal definition, iii) an extension of the formal framework for multi-states components in order to perform the qualitative analyses of Boolean logic Driven Markov Processes (BDMP) models. Under the hypothesis that the scenarios implicitly described by any reliability model can always be represented by a finite automaton, this work is defining the coherency for dynamic and repairable systems as the way to give a minimal representation of all scenarios that are leading to the system failure. (author)

  20. RNA damage in biological conflicts and the diversity of responding RNA repair systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burroughs, A. Maxwell; Aravind, L.

    2016-01-01

    RNA is targeted in biological conflicts by enzymatic toxins or effectors. A vast diversity of systems which repair or ‘heal’ this damage has only recently become apparent. Here, we summarize the known effectors, their modes of action, and RNA targets before surveying the diverse systems which counter this damage from a comparative genomics viewpoint. RNA-repair systems show a modular organization with extensive shuffling and displacement of the constituent domains; however, a general ‘syntax’ is strongly maintained whereby systems typically contain: a RNA ligase (either ATP-grasp or RtcB superfamilies), nucleotidyltransferases, enzymes modifying RNA-termini for ligation (phosphatases and kinases) or protection (methylases), and scaffold or cofactor proteins. We highlight poorly-understood or previously-uncharacterized repair systems and components, e.g. potential scaffolding cofactors (Rot/TROVE and SPFH/Band-7 modules) with their respective cognate non-coding RNAs (YRNAs and a novel tRNA-like molecule) and a novel nucleotidyltransferase associating with diverse ligases. These systems have been extensively disseminated by lateral transfer between distant prokaryotic and microbial eukaryotic lineages consistent with intense inter-organismal conflict. Components have also often been ‘institutionalized’ for non-conflict roles, e.g. in RNA-splicing and in RNAi systems (e.g. in kinetoplastids) which combine a distinct family of RNA-acting prim-pol domains with DICER-like proteins. PMID:27536007

  1. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  2. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  3. Generalized renewal process for repairable systems based on finite Weibull mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veber, B.; Nagode, M.; Fajdiga, M.

    2008-01-01

    Repairable systems can be brought to one of possible states following a repair. These states are: 'as good as new', 'as bad as old' and 'better than old but worse than new'. The probabilistic models traditionally used to estimate the expected number of failures account for the first two states, but they do not properly apply to the last one, which is more realistic in practice. In this paper, a probabilistic model that is applicable to all of the three after-repair states, called generalized renewal process (GRP), is applied. Simplistically, GRP addresses the repair assumption by introducing the concept of virtual age into the stochastic point processes to enable them to represent the full spectrum of repair assumptions. The shape of measured or design life distributions of systems can vary considerably, and therefore frequently cannot be approximated by simple distribution functions. The scope of the paper is to prove that a finite Weibull mixture, with positive component weights only, can be used as underlying distribution of the time to first failure (TTFF) of the GRP model, on condition that the unknown parameters can be estimated. To support the main idea, three examples are presented. In order to estimate the unknown parameters of the GRP model with m-fold Weibull mixture, the EM algorithm is applied. The GRP model with m mixture components distributions is compared to the standard GRP model based on two-parameter Weibull distribution by calculating the expected number of failures. It can be concluded that the suggested GRP model with Weibull mixture with an arbitrary but finite number of components is suitable for predicting failures based on the past performance of the system

  4. A decision dependent stochastic process model for repairable systems with applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Zantek

    2015-12-01

    This paper mathematically formalizes the notion of how management actions impact the functioning of a repairable system over time by developing a new stochastic process model for such systems. The proposed model is illustrated using both simulated and real data. The proposed model compares favorably to other models for well-known data on Boeing airplanes. The model is further illustrated and compared to other models on failure time and maintenance data stemming from the South Texas Project nuclear power plant.

  5. Multi-echelon Repair Inventory Systems: Select Issues in Modular Electronic Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Amik Garg; S. G. Deshmukh

    2010-01-01

    Flow of modules/printed circuit boards (PCBs) in a multi-echelon repair inventory system pertaining to modular electronic equipment for large maintenance organisations having large inventory in range and depth, like defence has been critically examined using a case study. Desirable features of the proposed system are identified and a general framework suggested for examining its feasibility and implementation in an organisation. An analytical model with an objective to reduce number of echelo...

  6. Ripple Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    16 July 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows windblown materials that have collected and been shaped into large ripples in a valley in the Auqakuh Vallis system in northeastern Arabia Terra, Mars. Location near: 29.1oN, 299.6oW Image width: 2 km (1.2 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Winter

  7. Optical pulling force and conveyor belt effect in resonator-waveguide system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intaraprasonk, Varat; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-09-01

    We present the theoretical condition and actual numerical design that achieves an optical pulling force in resonator-waveguide systems, where the direction of the force on the resonator is in the opposite direction to the input light in the waveguide. We also show that this pulling force can occur in conjunction with the lateral optical equilibrium effect, such that the resonator is maintained at the fixed distance from the waveguide while experiencing the pulling force.

  8. Kuiper belt analogues in nearby M-type planet-host systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, G. M.; Bryden, G.; Ardila, D.; Eiroa, C.; Lestrade, J.-F.; Marshall, J. P.; Matthews, B. C.; Moro-Martin, A.; Wyatt, M. C.

    2018-06-01

    We present the results of a Herschel survey of 21 late-type stars that host planets discovered by the radial velocity technique. The aims were to discover new discs in these systems and to search for any correlation between planet presence and disc properties. In addition to the known disc around GJ 581, we report the discovery of two new discs, in the GJ 433 and GJ 649 systems. Our sample therefore yields a disc detection rate of 14 per cent, higher than the detection rate of 1.2 per cent among our control sample of DEBRIS M-type stars with 98 per cent confidence. Further analysis however shows that the disc sensitivity in the control sample is about a factor of two lower in fractional luminosity than for our survey, lowering the significance of any correlation between planet presence and disc brightness below 98 per cent. In terms of their specific architectures, the disc around GJ 433 lies at a radius somewhere between 1 and 30 au. The disc around GJ 649 lies somewhere between 6 and 30 au, but is marginally resolved and appears more consistent with an edge-on inclination. In both cases the discs probably lie well beyond where the known planets reside (0.06-1.1 au), but the lack of radial velocity sensitivity at larger separations allows for unseen Saturn-mass planets to orbit out to ˜5 au, and more massive planets beyond 5 au. The layout of these M-type systems appears similar to Sun-like star + disc systems with low-mass planets.

  9. Detailed Pictures of Multiple Asteroid Systems in the Main-Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchis, F.; Emery, J. P.; Enriquez, J. E.; Descamps, P.; Berthier, J.; Vachier, F.; Durech, J.

    2011-12-01

    Since their discovery less than 10 years ago, ~200 known multiple asteroid systems have been studied with a combination of observing techniques, including adaptive optics, lightcurve photometry, and mid-infrared spectrophotometry. Those observations show that ~15 large (D>100km) asteroids that are known to possess km-sized satellite(s) (22 Kalliope, 45 Eugenia, 87 Sylvia, 93 Minerva, 216 Kleopatra, ...) share common orbital characteristics, implying a common formation scenario: e.g. catastrophic disruption or ejection after an oblique impact. More than 70 smaller (10-15km) binary asteroid systems have been detected through anomalies in their lightcurves and are believed to have formed by fission due to the YORP effect. By comparison with meteorite analog densities, mid-IR data reveal that these systems have a significant porosity (larger than 30%) implying a rubble-pile interior. We will review these key results and discuss their implications for the interior of asteroids in the light of recent space mission results. Future explorations using new ground-based facilities and space mission concepts will be also discussed. This work is supported by the NSF grant AAG-0807468 and NASA grant NNX11AD62G

  10. Non-periodic preventive maintenance with reliability thresholds for complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zu-Liang; Huang, Yeu-Shiang; Fang, Chih-Chiang

    2015-01-01

    In general, a non-periodic condition-based PM policy with different condition variables is often more effective than a periodic age-based policy for deteriorating complex repairable systems. In this study, system reliability is estimated and used as the condition variable, and three reliability-based PM models are then developed with consideration of different scenarios which can assist in evaluating the maintenance cost for each scenario. The proposed approach provides the optimal reliability thresholds and PM schedules in advance by which the system availability and quality can be ensured and the organizational resources can be well prepared and managed. The results of the sensitivity anlysis indicate that PM activities performed at a high reliability threshold can not only significantly improve the system availability but also efficiently extend the system lifetime, although such a PM strategy is more costly than that for a low reliabiltiy threshold. The optimal reliability threshold increases along with the number of PM activities to prevent future breakdowns caused by severe deterioration, and thus substantially reduces repair costs. - Highlights: • The PM problems for repairable deteriorating systems are formulated. • The structural properties of the proposed PM models are investigated. • The corresponding algorithms to find the optimal PM strategies are provided. • Imperfect PM activities are allowed to reduce the occurences of breakdowns. • Provide managers with insights about the critical factors in the planning stage

  11. Reliability Analysis of 6-Component Star Markov Repairable System with Spatial Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liying Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Star repairable systems with spatial dependence consist of a center component and several peripheral components. The peripheral components are arranged around the center component, and the performance of each component depends on its spatial “neighbors.” Vector-Markov process is adapted to describe the performance of the system. The state space and transition rate matrix corresponding to the 6-component star Markov repairable system with spatial dependence are presented via probability analysis method. Several reliability indices, such as the availability, the probabilities of visiting the safety, the degradation, the alert, and the failed state sets, are obtained by Laplace transform method and a numerical example is provided to illustrate the results.

  12. Development of laser cladding system to repair wall thinning of 1-inch heat exchanger tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terada, Takaya

    2013-01-01

    We developed a laser cladding system to repair the inner wall wastage of heat exchanger tubes. Our system, which is designed to repair thinning tube walls within 100 mm from the edge of a heat exchanger tube, consists of a fiber laser, a composite-type optical fiberscope, a coupling device, a laser processing head, and a wire-feeding device. All of these components were reconfigured from the technologies of FBR maintenance. The laser processing head, which has a 15-mm outer diameter, was designed to be inserted into a 1-inch heat exchanger tube. We mounted a heatproof broadband mirror for laser cladding and fiberscope observation with visible light inside the laser processing head. The wire-feeding device continuously supplied 0.4-mm wire to the laser irradiation spot with variable feeding speeds from 0.5 to 20 mm/s. We are planning to apply our proposed system to the maintenance of aging industrial plants. (author)

  13. A shock and wear system under environmental conditions subject to internal failures, repair, and replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montoro-Cazorla, Delia; Pérez-Ocón, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    A system in a random environment is considered. The influence of the external conditions is governed by a Markovian arrival process. The internal structure of failure and repair are governed by phase-type distributions. The maintenance is performed by policy N. Under these assumptions, the Markov process governing the system is constructed, and it is studied in transient and stationary regime, calculating the availability and the rate of occurrence of failures. The renewal process due to the replacements of the system is studied, and expressions for the number of replacements and for the number of repairs between replacements are calculated. This paper extends other previously published since it incorporates a shock arrival process with dependence among the interarrival times and the renewal process associated to the replacements. A numerical application illustrates the calculations.

  14. Rare event simulation for highly dependable systems with fast repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    2010-01-01

    Stochastic model checking has been used recently to assess, among others, dependability measures for a variety of systems. However, the employed numerical methods, as, e.g., supported by model checking tools such as PRISM and MRMC, suffer from the state-space explosion problem. The main alternative

  15. Rare event simulation for highly dependable systems with fast repairs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reijsbergen, D.P.; de Boer, Pieter-Tjerk; Scheinhardt, Willem R.W.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    Probabilistic model checking has been used recently to assess, among others, dependability measures for a variety of systems. However, the numerical methods employed, such as those supported by model checking tools such as PRISM and MRMC, suffer from the state-space explosion problem. The main

  16. Automated TIG welding system with visual sensor for repairing nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Katsunori; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kondoh, Yoshihide.

    1986-01-01

    An automated TIG welding system has been developed. This system is to be used for repairing nuclear plants, whose work environment is highly radioactive, so should have the automatic self control function and the remote controllable function. For this purpose, the visual sensor, a TV camera and an image processor, is installed and the image processing technique is applied to the all-position TIG welding system. In this system, all controls are made with microprocessors and every necessary information is displayed on the screen of the remote control unit. The excellent performance was obtained as the application of this system to the practical field. (author)

  17. Uncertain multiobjective redundancy allocation problem of repairable systems based on artificial bee colony algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Jiansheng; Wang Zutong; Zheng Mingfa; Wang Ying

    2014-01-01

    Based on the uncertainty theory, this paper is devoted to the redundancy allocation problem in repairable parallel-series systems with uncertain factors, where the failure rate, repair rate and other relative coefficients involved are considered as uncertain variables. The availability of the system and the corresponding designing cost are considered as two optimization objectives. A crisp multiobjective optimization formulation is presented on the basis of uncertainty theory to solve this resultant problem. For solving this problem efficiently, a new multiobjective artificial bee colony algorithm is proposed to search the Pareto efficient set, which introduces rank value and crowding distance in the greedy selection strategy, applies fast non-dominated sort procedure in the exploitation search and inserts tournament selection in the onlooker bee phase. It shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms NSGA-II greatly and can solve multiobjective redundancy allocation problem efficiently. Finally, a numerical example is provided to illustrate this approach.

  18. Recommendations for optimised repair welding operations in steam systems exposed to creep; Rekommendationer foer optimering av svetsreparationer i kryppaakaenda aangsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storesund, Jan; Samuelson, Aake; Klasen, Bjoern; Jensen, Carsten

    2002-03-01

    Recommendations for optimised repair welding in creep exposed steam systems have been produced on basis of different parts of the project which involve a literature survey, case studies, metallographical investigations and finite element simulations. The separate parts are compiled in the present report where the results also are coupled to each other. Two of the project parts are reported in appendices in the present report and the other ones in three separate work reports. The studies have shown evidence of the complexity associated with repair welding and many alternatives may be offered for a given situation. The importance of the factors which may influence the life time of the repair have been investigated and are described in order to facilitate the decision-making process for the given situation. From the obtained results there are also more general recommendations to be given: Make sure that system stresses not are acting at the repair. Avoid welding methods that could result in strongly creep soft HAZs. Select a weld metal for the repair which is slightly creep hard compared to the remaining aged material. Selection of a wide and 'medium' deep excavation geometry as well as a repair around the whole circumference is to be preferred. Repairs of welds that not include excavation of the whole width of the original weld should be avoided. Replica testing is recommended in addition to the common practice in the quality and condition-monitoring control of the repair.

  19. A systems approach to inventory management of repairables in the Navy

    OpenAIRE

    Apple, Chris Leon

    1985-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis develops an inventory model for repairable items which integrates the shipboard protection level into the wholesale stock level computations. It uses mean supply response time (MSRT) as its measure of effectiveness and provides methods for computing either the required wholesale stock level given a MSRT goal or for minimizing the system MSRT subject to budgetary constraints. Examples are provided which demons...

  20. Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System after Optic Nerve Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Novel Combinatory Approaches to Repair Visual System After Optic Nerve Damage 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...biological functions such as metabolism, growth, cell cycle, and survival ( Cardone et al., 1998; Diehl, Cheng, Roussel, & Sherr, 1998; Hers, Vincent...of injured adult sensory neurons. The Journal of Neuroscience, 21, 7161–7170. Cardone , M. H., Roy, N., Stennicke, H. R., Salvesen, G. S., Franke, T. F

  1. Condition-orientated servicing and maintenance of large belt conveyor systems. Examples from the management of belt conveyors and idler rollers in the Rhenish brown coal district; Zustandsorientierte Wartung und Instandhaltung von Grossbandanlagen. Beispiele aus der Foerdergurt- und Bandtragrollenbewirtschaftung im rheinischen Braunkohlenrevier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansen, Marcus [RWE Power Aktiengesellschaft, Frechen (Germany). Technikzentrum Tagebaue/Maschinentechnik/Foerdergurte

    2009-04-28

    The belt conveyor systems and in particular the products used on them, viz. 'conveyor belts and idler rollers', are highly relevant to the costs of maintenance and strategically important for the system availability in open-cast mines. The measures described show how new technologies and methods are integrated in the open-cast mining processes. Conveyors, machines and tools are optimised and further developed within the framework of a continuous improvement process in order to meet more stringent requirements. Comparable further development and adaptation of new technologies takes place on all defined products. (orig.)

  2. An application of modulated poisson processes to the reliability analysis of repairable systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saldanha, Pedro L.C. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao de Reatores]. E-mail: saldanha@cnen.gov.br; Melo, P.F. Frutuoso e [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: frutuoso@con.ufrj.br; Noriega, Hector C. [Universidad Austral de Chile (UACh), Valdivia (Chile). Faculdad de Ciencias de la Ingeniaria]. E-mail: hnoriega@uach.cl

    2005-07-01

    This paper discusses the application of the modulated power law process (MPLP) model to the rate of occurrence of failures of active repairable systems in reliability engineering. Traditionally, two ways of modeling repairable systems, in what concerns maintenance policies, are: a pessimistic approach (non-homogeneous process - NHPP), and a very optimistic approach (renewal processes - RP). It is important to build a generalized model that might consider characteristics and properties both of the NHPP and of the RP models as particular cases. In practice, by considering the pattern of times between failures, the MPLP appears to be more realistic to represent the occurrence of failures of repairable systems in order to define whether they can be modeled by a homogeneous or a non-homogeneous process. The study has shown that the model can be used to make decisions concerning the evaluation of the qualified life of plant equipment. By controlling and monitoring two of the three parameters of the MPLP model during the equipment operation, it is possible to check whether and how the equipment is following the basis of its qualification process, and so identify how the effects of time, degradation and operation modes are influencing the equipment performance. The discussion is illustrated by an application to the service water pumps of a typical PWR plant. (author)

  3. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  4. Reflectance spectrophotometry (about 0.5-1.0 micron) of oute-belt asteroids - Implications for primitive, organic solar system material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas, F.; Smith, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    The surface compositions of outer-belt asteroids were used to obtain information about the origin of these asteroids. High-resolution CCD reflectance spectra of 21 asteroids, primarily P class, were examined for compositional information. Distinct slope changes are observed that suggest that these asteroids are the remnants of a compositional gradation of planetesimals in the outer solar system, which were retained selectively in location when other material was ejected from the solar system. Other data suggest that this gradation could extend through the orbits of Uranus and Neptune.

  5. Modelling "reality" in tectonics: Simulation of the mechanical evolution of the Jura Mountains-Molasse Basin system, and routes to forward-inverse modelling of fold thrust belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, David; Kley, Jonas

    2016-04-01

    The ultimate validation of any numerical model of any geological process comes when it can accurately forward model a case study from the geological record. However, as the example of the Jura-Molasse fold thrust belt demonstrates, geological information on even the most basic aspects of the present day state of such systems is highly incomplete and usually known only with large uncertainties. Fold thrust-belts are studied and understood by geologists in an iterative process of constructing their subsurface geometries and structures (folds, faults, bedding etc) based on limited subsurface information from boreholes, tunnels or seismic data where available, and surface information on outcrops of different layers and their dips. This data is usually processed through geometric models which involve conservation of line length of different beds over the length of an entire cross section. Constructing such sections is the art of cross section balancing. A balanced cross section can be easily restored to its pre-deformation state, assuming (usually) originally horizontal bedding to remove the effects of folding and faulting. Such a pre-deformation state can then form an initial condition for a forward mechanical model of the section. A mechanical model introduces new parameters into the system such as rock elasticity, cohesion, and frictional properties. However, a forward mechanical model can also potentially show the continuous evolution of a fold thrust belt, including dynamic quantities like stress. Moreover, a forward mechanical model, if correct in most aspects, should match in its final state, the present day geological cross section it is simulating. However, when attempting to achieve a match between geometric and mechanical models, it becomes clear that many more aspects of the geodynamic history of a fold thrust belt have to be taken into account. Erosion of the uppermost layers of an evolving thrust belt is the most obvious one of these. This can potentially

  6. A New Approach for Analyzing the Reliability of the Repair Facility in a Series System with Vacations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renbin Liu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the renewal process theory we develop a decomposition method to analyze the reliability of the repair facility in an n-unit series system with vacations. Using this approach, we study the unavailability and the mean replacement number during (0,t] of the repair facility. The method proposed in this work is novel and concise, which can make us see clearly the structures of the facility indices of a series system with an unreliable repair facility, two convolution relations. Special cases and numerical examples are given to show the validity of our method.

  7. Interactions of radiation repair systems in escherichia colt with antineoplastic anthracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kacinski, B.M.; Rupp, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors have studied the interactions of several anthracylines with the UVR DN*a repair system of E. coli. The authors found that doxorubicin is quite toxic for uvr- but not for uvr+strains. They also found that exposure of cells carrying a multicopy plasmid to this agent yielded plasmid DNA molecules with lesions which were recognized and cleaved by purified E. coli UVRABC DNA repair endonuclease. A derivative of doxorubicin was not measurably toxic for either uvr+ or uvr- strains but nevertheless produced lesions which were substrates for the UVRABC endonuclease. The authors propose that anthracycline toxicity in uvr- E. coli may correlate with clinical toxicity while anthracylcine antineopolastic activity may correlate with their ability to produce UVRABC endonuclease-sensitive DNA damage

  8. Bioactive Molecule-loaded Drug Delivery Systems to Optimize Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Joao Augusto; Sato, Mariana Rillo; Scardueli, Cassio Rocha; Lopes de Oliveira, Guilherme Jose Pimentel; Abucafy, Marina Paiva; Chorilli, Marlus

    2017-01-01

    Bioactive molecules such as peptides and proteins can optimize the repair of bone tissue; however, the results are often unpredictable when administered alone, owing to their short biological half-life and instability. Thus, the development of bioactive molecule-loaded drug delivery systems (DDS) to repair bone tissue has been the subject of intense research. DDS can optimize the repair of bone tissue owing to their physicochemical properties, which improve cellular interactions and enable the incorporation and prolonged release of bioactive molecules. These characteristics are fundamental to favor bone tissue homeostasis, since the biological activity of these factors depends on how accessible they are to the cell. Considering the importance of these DDS, this review aims to present relevant information on DDS when loaded with osteogenic growth peptide and bone morphogenetic protein. These are bioactive molecules that are capable of modulating the differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal cells in bone tissue cells. Moreover, we will present different approaches using these peptide and protein-loaded DDS, such as synthetic membranes and scaffolds for bone regeneration, synthetic grafts, bone cements, liposomes, and micelles, which aim at improving the therapeutic effectiveness, and we will compare their advantages with commercial systems. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. THE WORK SIMULATION OF FLOW RATE FOR CARRIAGES' REPAIR AS A MULTIPHASE, MULTIPLEX AND MULTIDISCIPLINARY SYSTEM OF MASS SERVICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Myamlin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm of computer simulation of the flexible flow for repair of cars as a multiphase polychannel manyobject queuing system is presented. The basic operators of the model are given and their work is described.

  10. Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System Repair Flight Experiment Induced Contamination Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kendall A.; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ron; Schmidl, Danny; Campbell, Colin; Koontz, Steven; Engle, Michael; McCroskey, Doug; Garrett, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    NASA s activities to prepare for Flight LF1 (STS-114) included development of a method to repair the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Orbiter s leading edge should it be damaged during ascent by impacts from foam, ice, etc . Reinforced Carbon-Carbon (RCC) is used for the leading edge TPS. The repair material that was developed is named Non- Oxide Adhesive eXperimental (NOAX). NOAX is an uncured adhesive material that acts as an ablative repair material. NOAX completes curing during the Orbiter s descent. The Thermal Protection System (TPS) Detailed Test Objective 848 (DTO 848) performed on Flight LF1 (STS-114) characterized the working life, porosity void size in a micro-gravity environment, and the on-orbit performance of the repairs to pre-damaged samples. DTO 848 is also scheduled for Flight ULF1.1 (STS-121) for further characterization of NOAX on-orbit performance. Due to the high material outgassing rates of the NOAX material and concerns with contamination impacts to optically sensitive surfaces, ASTM E 1559 outgassing tests were performed to determine NOAX condensable outgassing rates as a function of time and temperature. Sensitive surfaces of concern include the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) visor, cameras, and other sensors in proximity to the experiment during the initial time after application. This paper discusses NOAX outgassing characteristics, how the amount of deposition on optically sensitive surfaces while the NOAX is being manipulated on the pre-damaged RCC samples was determined by analysis, and how flight rules were developed to protect those optically sensitive surfaces from excessive contamination where necessary.

  11. Role of the immune system in cardiac tissue damage and repair following myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saparov, Arman; Ogay, Vyacheslav; Nurgozhin, Talgat; Chen, William C W; Mansurov, Nurlan; Issabekova, Assel; Zhakupova, Jamilya

    2017-09-01

    The immune system plays a crucial role in the initiation, development, and resolution of inflammation following myocardial infarction (MI). The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes the death of cardiomyocytes and leads to the exposure of danger-associated molecular patterns that are recognized by the immune system to initiate inflammation. At the initial stage of post-MI inflammation, the immune system further damages cardiac tissue to clear cell debris. The excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by immune cells and the inability of the anti-oxidant system to neutralize ROS cause oxidative stress that further aggravates inflammation. On the other hand, the cells of both innate and adaptive immune system and their secreted factors are critically instrumental in the very dynamic and complex processes of regulating inflammation and mediating cardiac repair. It is important to decipher the balance between detrimental and beneficial effects of the immune system in MI. This enables us to identify better therapeutic targets for reducing the infarct size, sustaining the cardiac function, and minimizing the likelihood of heart failure. This review discusses the role of both innate and adaptive immune systems in cardiac tissue damage and repair in experimental models of MI.

  12. Molecular mechanism of short-patch repair of radiation-damaged DNA by in vitro reconstituted systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Y.; Kim, K.; Biade, S.

    1995-01-01

    Objective: Short-patch excision repair is the major pathway to correct DNA damage such as modified bases, apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites and single-strand breaks. Recently this repair reaction was demonstrated to proceed by two alternative pathways: DNA polymerase β (pol β)-dependent pathway and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-dependent pathway. In this work, we focused to compare substrate specificity of these two repair pathways and elucidate their roles in cellular responses to radiation damage. Materials and Methods: Three protein fractions, AP endonuclease, pol β, and BE-1B, which are required for the pol β-dependent pathway, and five protein fractions, AP endonuclease, BE-1B (these two are common to the pol β-dependent pathway), PCNA, pol δ, and BE-2, which are essential for the PCNA-dependent pathway were obtained from Xenopus laevis ovaries through column chromatography. The circular DNA containing either one of the following three lesions: a natural AP site, its synthetic analog, 3-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran (tetrahydrofuran), and 5-iododeoxyuridine (IdU), was prepared by in vitro ligation of oligonucleotides to a gapped circular DNA. The IdU-containing DNA was irradiated with 312 nm UV light prior to repair reaction. In addition, DNA carrying a single-strand break was obtained by Cs-137 irradiation. Repair reactions of these substrate DNAs were conducted with either the reconstituted system for the pol β-dependent pathway or the one for the PCNA-dependent pathway. After the reaction, repaired and unrepaired DNAs were separated by gel electrophoresis and quantitated. Results: The pol β-dependent reconstituted system was able to repair natural AP sites but not tetrahydrofuran sites or UV-irradiated IdU. The single-strand breaks generated by γ-irradiation were partially repaired by thepol β-dependent pathway. The PCNA-dependent system was able to repair natural AP sites, tetrahydrofuran sites, and most of the single

  13. Calcium Carbonate Formation in Water Distribution Systems and Autogenous Repair of Leaks by Inert Particle Clogging

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Colin Scott

    2016-01-01

    The formation of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) (i.e. scale) in potable water systems has long been a concern in water treatment and distribution. A literature review reveals that CaCO3 scaling issues are re-emerging due to climate change, temperature increases in hot water systems and lower use of scaling and corrosion inhibitors. Moreover, we have gathered insights that suggest CaCO3 coatings can be beneficial and stop pipeline leaks via self-repair or clogging. Ironically, the actions we are ta...

  14. An Inducible, Isogenic Cancer Cell Line System for Targeting the State of Mismatch Repair Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailis, Julie M.; Gordon, Marcia L.; Gurgel, Jesse L.; Komor, Alexis C.; Barton, Jacqueline K.; Kirsch, Ilan R.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR) maintains genome stability through recognition and repair of single-base mismatches and small insertion-deletion loops. Inactivation of the MMR pathway causes microsatellite instability and the accumulation of genomic mutations that can cause or contribute to cancer. In fact, 10-20% of certain solid and hematologic cancers are MMR-deficient. MMR-deficient cancers do not respond to some standard of care chemotherapeutics because of presumed increased tolerance of DNA damage, highlighting the need for novel therapeutic drugs. Toward this goal, we generated isogenic cancer cell lines for direct comparison of MMR-proficient and MMR-deficient cells. We engineered NCI-H23 lung adenocarcinoma cells to contain a doxycycline-inducible shRNA designed to suppress the expression of the mismatch repair gene MLH1, and compared single cell subclones that were uninduced (MLH1-proficient) versus induced for the MLH1 shRNA (MLH1-deficient). Here we present the characterization of these MMR-inducible cell lines and validate a novel class of rhodium metalloinsertor compounds that differentially inhibit the proliferation of MMR-deficient cancer cells. PMID:24205301

  15. DNA Mismatch Repair System: Repercussions in Cellular Homeostasis and Relationship with Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Cristóbal Conde-Pérezprina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms that concern DNA repair have been studied in the last years due to their consequences in cellular homeostasis. The diverse and damaging stimuli that affect DNA integrity, such as changes in the genetic sequence and modifications in gene expression, can disrupt the steady state of the cell and have serious repercussions to pathways that regulate apoptosis, senescence, and cancer. These altered pathways not only modify cellular and organism longevity, but quality of life (“health-span”. The DNA mismatch repair system (MMR is highly conserved between species; its role is paramount in the preservation of DNA integrity, placing it as a necessary focal point in the study of pathways that prolong lifespan, aging, and disease. Here, we review different insights concerning the malfunction or absence of the DNA-MMR and its impact on cellular homeostasis. In particular, we will focus on DNA-MMR mechanisms regulated by known repair proteins MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, and MHL1, among others.

  16. Rotator cuff repair in the Brazilian Unified Health System: Brazilian trends from 2003 to 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Angeli Malavolta

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE: To assess the historical trend of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil between 2003 and 2015, using the database of the Brazilian Unified Health System's (Sistema Único de Saúde [SUS] Department of Informatics (DataSUS. METHODS: Historical series using DataSUS. Surgeries performed between 2003 and 2015 were included and data relating to cuff tear repair were assessed, including decompression procedures were included. The numerator was the total number of rotator cuff repair and the denominator, the total population of the assessed locality. Population data were based on information from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE. RESULTS: During the period, 50,207 surgeries were performed. The rate was presented as number of procedures per 100,000 inhabitants, and increased from 0.83 to 2.81, a growth of 238%. In 2015, the South region had the highest rate, 6.32, followed by the Southeast, 3.62, while the North had the lowest rate, 0.13. The growing trend can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast. CONCLUSION: The rate of rotator cuff repairs in Brazil performed through the SUS increased from 0.83 to 2.81 between 2003 and 2015, representing a growth of 238%, but remains lower than that of developed countries. A trend of growth can be observed in the Southeast, South, and Midwest, while the rate is stable in the North and Northeast.

  17. Stable Isotope Geochemistry of Extremely Well-Preserved 2.45-Billion-Year-Old Hydrothermal Systems in the Vetreny Belt, Baltic Shield: Insights into Paleohydrosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharov, D. O.; Bindeman, I. N.

    2015-12-01

    The early Paleoproterozoic was an eventful period in the Earth's history. The first portions of free oxygen emerged in the atmosphere, Snowball Earth glaciations happened several times and the first supercontinent broke up due to extensive rifting. These events should have affected the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere. In this study, we use rocks that were altered in underwater hydrothermal systems to investigate the stable isotopic composition of the hydrosphere 2.39-2.45 billion years ago (hereinafter, Ga). Extremely low-δ18O (down to -27.5‰ SMOW) rocks from 2.39 Ga metamorphosed subglacial hydrothermal systems of the Belomorian belt, Baltic Shield formed at near-equatorial latitudes suggesting a Snowball (or Slushball) Earth glaciation. These results motivated us to look at temporally and geographically close hydrothermal systems from the unmetamorhposed 2.45 Ga Vetreny Belt rift. The length of the rift is 250 km and it is composed of high-Mg basalts, mafic-ultramafic intrusions and sedimentary successions. We examined several localities of high-Mg basalt flows that include astonishingly fresh pillow lavas, often with preserved volcanic glass, eruptive breccias, and hydrothermal alteration zones. Collected samples serve a great textural evidence of water-rock interaction that occurred in situ while basalts were cooling. The preliminary results from coexisting quartz and epidote (T, D18O=311°C), and from coexisting calcite and quartz (T, D18O=190°C) yield values of δ18O of involved water between -1.6 and -0.9 ‰. The values of δ13C in calcites vary between -4.0 and -2.3 ‰. It is likely that hydrothermal fluids operated in the Vetreny Belt rift were derived from seawater that is no different from modern oceanic water in terms of δ18O. Apparently, the rift was a Paleoproterozoic analog of the modern Red Sea, filled with oceanic water. The result is important because the Vetreny Belt rift predates the onset of Snowball Earth glaciation at 2

  18. Impact of DNA mismatch repair system alterations on human fertility and related treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Min-hao; Liu, Shu-yuan; Wang, Ning; Wu, Yan; Jin, Fan

    2016-01-01

    DNA mismatch repair (MMR) is one of the biological pathways, which plays a critical role in DNA homeostasis, primarily by repairing base-pair mismatches and insertion/deletion loops that occur during DNA replication. MMR also takes part in other metabolic pathways and regulates cell cycle arrest. Defects in MMR are associated with genomic instability, predisposition to certain types of cancers and resistance to certain therapeutic drugs. Moreover, genetic and epigenetic alterations in the MMR system demonstrate a significant relationship with human fertility and related treatments, which helps us to understand the etiology and susceptibility of human infertility. Alterations in the MMR system may also influence the health of offspring conceived by assisted reproductive technology in humans. However, further studies are needed to explore the specific mechanisms by which the MMR system may affect human infertility. This review addresses the physiological mechanisms of the MMR system and associations between alterations of the MMR system and human fertility and related treatments, and potential effects on the next generation.

  19. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  20. Ability of Bacillus subtilis protoplasts to repair irradiated bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid via acquired and natural enzymatic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasbin, R.E.; Andersen, B.J.; Sutherland, B.M.

    1981-01-01

    A novel form of enzyme therapy was achieved by utilizing protoplasts of Bacillus subtilis. Photoreactivating enzyme of Escherichia coli was successfully inserted into the protoplasts of B. subtilis treated with polyethylene glycol. This enzyme was used to photoreactivate ultraviolet-damaged bacteriophage deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Furthermore, in polyethylene glycol-treated protoplasts, ultraviolet-irradiated transfecting bacteriophage DNA was shown to be a functional substrate for the host DNA excision repair system. Previous results (R.E. Yasbin, J.D. Fernwalt, and P.I. Fields, J. Bacteriol.; 137: 391-396) showed that ultraviolet-irradiated bacteriophage DNA could not be repaired via the excision repair system of competent cells. Therefore, the processing of bacteriophage DNA by protoplasts and by competent cells must be different. This sensitive protoplast assay can be used to identify and to isolate various types of DNA repair enzymes

  1. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  2. Reliability modelling of repairable systems using Petri nets and fuzzy Lambda-Tau methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knezevic, J.; Odoom, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    A methodology is developed which uses Petri nets instead of the fault tree methodology and solves for reliability indices utilising fuzzy Lambda-Tau method. Fuzzy set theory is used for representing the failure rate and repair time instead of the classical (crisp) set theory because fuzzy numbers allow expert opinions, linguistic variables, operating conditions, uncertainty and imprecision in reliability information to be incorporated into the system model. Petri nets are used because unlike the fault tree methodology, the use of Petri nets allows efficient simultaneous generation of minimal cut and path sets

  3. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in cisplatin sensitivity of testicular germ cell tumours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudolph, Christiane; Melau, Cecilie; Nielsen, John E.

    2017-01-01

    in the majority of tumours, although the underlying mechanism largely remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in the cisplatin sensitivity of TGCT. MethodsThe expression pattern of key MMR proteins, including MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2...... proteins, in particular MSH2 and MLH1, which are involved in the recognition of cisplatin adducts and in activation of the DNA damage response pathway to initiate apoptosis....

  4. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  5. Bond strength of the porcelain repair system to all-ceramic copings and porcelain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang J; Cheong, Chan Wook; Wright, Robert F; Chang, Brian M

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the shear bond strength of the porcelain repair system on alumina and zirconia core ceramics, comparing this strength with that of veneering porcelain. Veneering ceramic (n = 12), alumina core (n = 24), and zirconia core (n = 24) blocks measuring 10 × 5 × 5 mm(3) were fabricated. Veneering ceramic blocks were used as the control. Alumina and zirconia core blocks were divided into 2 groups (n = 12 each), and a slot (2 × 2 × 4 mm(3)) filled with veneering ceramics was prepared into one of the alumina and zirconia core groups (n = 12). Followed by surface treatments of micro-abrasion with 30 μm alumina particles, etching with 35% phosphoric acid and silane primer and bond, composite resin blocks (2 × 2 × 2 mm(3)) were built up and light polymerized onto the treated surfaces by 3 configurations: (a) composite blocks bonded onto veneering ceramic surface alone, (b) composite blocks bonded onto alumina core or zirconia core surfaces, (c) a 50% surface area of the composite blocks bonded to veneering ceramics and the other 50% surface area of the composite blocks to alumina core or zirconia core surfaces. The shear bond strength of the composite to each specimen was tested by a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed. The shear bond strength was analyzed by unpaired t-tests for within the configuration groups and ANOVA for among the different configuration groups. When the mean shear bond strength was compared within groups of the same configuration, there were no statistically significant differences. Comparison of the shear bond strength among groups of different configurations revealed statistically significant differences. The mean shear bond strength of composite onto 100% veneering ceramic surface and composite onto 50% veneering 50% all-ceramic cores was statistically higher than that of composite onto 100% all-ceramic cores; however, the differences of the shear bond strength of composite bonded

  6. Repair mechanisms inducible to the DNA in I.M.M.S. biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, J.; Arceo, C.; Cortinas, C.; Rosa, M.E. De la; Olvera, O.; Cruces, M.; Pimentel, E.

    1990-03-01

    Given the characteristics of the MMS and the relative antecedents to the repair mechanisms in eucariontes are sought to determine the effect of the MMS on the genetic material and their repair in Drosophila melanogaster. (Author)

  7. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  8. An Improved Dispatching Method (a-HPDB for Automated Material Handling System with Active Rolling Belt for 450 mm Wafer Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Nan Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The semiconductor industry is facing the transition from 300 mm to 450 mm wafer fabrication. Due to the increased size and weight, 450 mm wafers will pose unprecedented challenges on semiconductor wafer fabrication. To better handle and transport 450 mm wafers, an advanced Automated Material Handling System (AMHS is definitely required. Though conveyor-based AMHS is expected to be suitable for 450 mm wafer fabrication, still it faces two main problems, traffic-jam problem and lot-prioritization. To address the two problems, in this research we have proposed an improved dispatching method, termed Heuristic Preemptive Dispatching Method using Activated Roller Belt (a-HPDB. We have developed some effective rules for the a-HPDB based on Activated Roller Belt (ARB. In addition, we have conducted experiments to investigate its effectiveness. Compared with the HPDB and R-HPD, two dispatching rules proposed in previous studies, our experimental results showed the a-HPDB had a better performance in terms of average lot delivery time (ALDT. For hot lots and normal lots, the a-HPDB had advantages of 4.14% and 8.92% over the HPDB and advantages of 4.89% and 8.52% over R-HPD, respectively.

  9. [The quality of patient care under the German DRG system using as example the inguinal hernia repair].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, C; Schweins, M; Heiss, M M

    2008-02-01

    The DRG system in Germany was introduced to improve and at the same time simplify the reimbursement of costs in German hospitals. Cost effectiveness and economic efficiency were the declared goals. Structural changes and increased competition among different hospitals were the consequences. The effect on the qualitiy of patient care has been discussed with some concern. Furthermore, doubts have been expressed about the correct representation of the various diagnoses and treatments in the coding system and the financial revenue. Inguinal hernia repair serves as an example to illustrate some common problems with the reimbursement in the DRG system. Virtual patients were grouped using a "Web Grouper" and analysed using the cost accounting from the G-DRG-Browser of the InEK. Additionally, the reimbursement for ambulant hernia repair was estimated. The DRG coding did not differentiate the various operative procedures for inguinal hernia repair. They all generated the same revenues. For example, the increased costs for bilateral inguinal hernia repair are not represented in the payment. Furthermore, no difference is made between primary and recurrent inguinal hernia. In the case of a short-term hospital stay, part of the revenue is retained. In the case of ambulatory treatment of inguinal hernia, the reimbursement is by far not a real compensation for the actual costs. The ideal patient in the DRG system suffers from a primary inguinal hernia, undergoes an open hernia repair without mesh, and remains for 2-3 days in hospital. Minimally invasive procedures, repair of bilateral inguinal hernia and ambulant operation are by far less profitable--if at all. The current revenues for inguinal hernia repair require improvement and adjustment to reality in order to accomplish the goals which the DRG system in Germany aims at.

  10. A Mobile Robotic System for the Inspection and Repair of SG Tubes in NPPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Chil Seo

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The reliability and performance of a steam generator (SG is one of the serious concerns in the operation of pressurized water nuclear power plants. Because of high levels of radiation, robotic systems have been used to inspect and repair SG tubes. In this paper, we present a mobile robotic system that positions the inspection and repair tools while hanging down from the tube sheets where the tubes are fixed. All of the driving mechanisms of the mobile robot are actuated by electric motors to start its works, providing that the electric power is prepared without the additional need for an on-site air services. A special tube-holding mechanism with a high holding force has been developed to prevent falling from the tube sheets, even in the case of an electric power failure. We have also developed a quick installation guide device that guides the mobile robot to desired initial positions in the tube sheet exactly and quickly, which helps to reduce the radiation exposure of human workers during the installation work. This paper also provides on-site experimental results and lessons learned.

  11. Enhancing Eco-Efficiency of Agro-Products’ Closed-Loop Supply Chain under the Belt and Road Initiatives: A System Dynamics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This study redesigns the supply chain of agricultural products in southwest China under the Belt and Road Initiative to improve its eco-efficiency by considering the associated agro-wastes flowing into bioenergy enterprise for energy production. Two scenarios are created, in which the first assumes that all waste flows into the enterprise, whereas the second only considers the inflow of agro-waste produced by farmers and the wholesale market. A system dynamics simulation is conducted by using carbon emissions per product as an indicator to obtain the optimal scenario for managerial practice and design an incentivizing mechanism to drive supply chain operations. A case study is provided to demonstrate application of the system dynamics. Finally, the limitations of the study are discussed to lay the foundation for further improvement.

  12. An assessment of composite repair system in offshore platform for corroded circumferential welds in super duplex steel pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio de Barros

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of a composite repair system in severely corroded circumferential welds in super duplex stainless steel pipes as a preventive measure against the premature corrosion damage at the welds. Artificial defects were fabricated on the super duplex steel tube in order to reproduce the localized corrosion damage defects found in real welded joints. Three kinds of through thickness defects were considered: 25%, 50% and 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. The performance of the repaired pipe was assessed by hydrostatic tests as per ISO 24817 standard. The results showed that the composite repair system can sustain the designed failure pressure even for the pipe damaged with through-wall defect up to 96% of the perimeter of the pipe. Hence, the composite repair system can be used as a preliminary tool to protect the unexpected or premature failure at the welds and maintain an adequate level of mechanical strength for a given operating pressure. This composite repair system can assure that the pipe will not leak until a planned maintenance of the line. Nevertheless, further work is still desirable to improve the confidence in the long-term performance of bonded composite

  13. Atucha I nuclear power plant: repair works in QK02W01 moderator system heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivieri, Luis E.; Zanni, Pablo A.

    2000-01-01

    Atucha I nuclear power plant moderator system operates with highly radioactive heavy water, a pressure of 115 Bar and temperatures of about 200 C degrees. In March 2000, an increasing leakage of heavy water to the conventional thermal circuit was detected, conducting the plant to a shut down. The development of a number of actions and measures were taken, in order to plug this leakage. The leakage was found in a heat exchanger, which is located in a place of difficult access, with a high radiological yield and which, according to design, it was not considered to be mechanically repaired. It is a U bend tubes heat exchanger, weighting about 20 tons, and with a heavy water flow of 800 tons/h on the primary circuit, and 950 tons/h of ordinary water on the secondary side. Foreseeing this event, it had been designed and constructed special equipment and procedures, by means of a contract, with the Company INVAP SA. Repair works were carried out within a period of eighty-six (86) days, from which, forty five days were used to repair the component itself. A considerable amount of time was used to prepare simulators and the training of personnel. Due to the high radiological yield and the strict care of radiological standards, it was necessary the participation of 300 persons, integrating a collective dose of 4,86 Sv-m. It was necessary the construction of platforms and auxiliary stairs so as to make the work place accessible, as well as lifting and movement devices for heavy components, since this area does not have such kind of facilities. Welding and cutting machines remote controlled as well as manipulators which operated in front of the exchanger tube sheet were used. The aim was the reduction of dose values as much as possible. Special shielding were developed and in some cases it was necessary the adoption of drastic measures such as the cutting of bolts or pipes. The failure was detected and the tube was plugged. Also were plugged those tubes with wall thickness

  14. A method for the calculation of the cumulative failure probability distribution of complex repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldarola, L.

    1976-01-01

    A method is proposed for the analytical evaluation of the cumulative failure probability distribution of complex repairable systems. The method is based on a set of integral equations each one referring to a specific minimal cut set of the system. Each integral equation links the unavailability of a minimal cut set to its failure probability density distribution and to the probability that the minimal cut set is down at the time t under the condition that it was down at time t'(t'<=t). The limitations for the applicability of the method are also discussed. It has been concluded that the method is applicable if the process describing the failure of a minimal cut set is a 'delayed semi-regenerative process'. (Auth.)

  15. A real-time expert system for self-repairing flight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaither, S. A.; Agarwal, A. K.; Shah, S. C.; Duke, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    An integrated environment for specifying, prototyping, and implementing a self-repairing flight-control (SRFC) strategy is described. At an interactive workstation, the user can select paradigms such as rule-based expert systems, state-transition diagrams, and signal-flow graphs and hierarchically nest them, assign timing and priority attributes, establish blackboard-type communication, and specify concurrent execution on single or multiple processors. High-fidelity nonlinear simulations of aircraft and SRFC systems can be performed off-line, with the possibility of changing SRFC rules, inference strategies, and other heuristics to correct for control deficiencies. Finally, the off-line-generated SRFC can be transformed into highly optimized application-specific real-time C-language code. An application of this environment to the design of aircraft fault detection, isolation, and accommodation algorithms is presented in detail.

  16. Evolution and Adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilms Driven by Mismatch Repair System-Deficient Mutators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luján, Adela M.; Maciá, María D.; Yang, Liang

    2011-01-01

    , which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS)], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic...... infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition...... diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution...

  17. Building an adaptive agent to monitor and repair the electrical power system of an orbital satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tecuci, Gheorghe; Hieb, Michael R.; Dybala, Tomasz

    1995-01-01

    Over several years we have developed a multistrategy apprenticeship learning methodology for building knowledge-based systems. Recently we have developed and applied our methodology to building intelligent agents. This methodology allows a subject matter expert to build an agent in the same way in which the expert would teach a human apprentice. The expert will give the agent specific examples of problems and solutions, explanations of these solutions, or supervise the agent as it solves new problems. During such interactions, the agent learns general rules and concepts, continuously extending and improving its knowledge base. In this paper we present initial results on applying this methodology to build an intelligent adaptive agent for monitoring and repair of the electrical power system of an orbital satellite, stressing the interaction with the expert during apprenticeship learning.

  18. Sensitivity analysis of repairable redundant system with switching failure and geometric reneging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra Shekhar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the performance modeling and reliability analysis of a redundant machining system composed of several functional machines. To analyze the more realistic scenarios, the concepts of switching failure and geometric reneging are included. The time-to-breakdown and repair time of operating and standby machines are assumed to follow the exponential distribution. For the quantitative assessment of the machine interference problem, various performance measures such as mean-time-to-failure, reliability, reneging rate, etc. have been formulated. To show the practicability of the developed model, a numerical illustration has been presented. For the practical justification and validity of the results established, the sensitivity analysis of reliability indices has been presented by varying different system descriptors.

  19. Lethal effects of solar radiation in proficient and deficient bacteria in repair systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousa Neto, A. de.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the lethal action of solar radiation on strains of E.coli K12, proficient or deficient in repair systems, as well as the wild type strain gene products are involved in repair of damage induced by solar radiation. The inactivation of the various bacterial strains (normalized to a dose equivalent to radiation at a wavelength 254 nm) suggests that the more energetic wavelengths of the solar spectrum (290-320 nm) could be responsible for the primary damage that occurs in the DNA. The reduction in the shoulder of the survival curve in wild type strains in indicative of induction of sub-lethal damage in this region of the curve. Analysing solar inactivation curves of the bacterial strains (normalised by spore dosimetry) together with those of the same strains irradiated with UV at 254 nm, it was evident that 254 nm is not the ideal wavelength for comparison. This analysis also indicated that in addition to damage to DNA, other factors are involved in the solar radiation inactivation of wild type strains. (author)

  20. An Injury Paradigm to Investigate Central Nervous System Repair in Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Kentaro; Hidalgo, Alicia

    2013-01-01

    An experimental method has been developed to investigate the cellular responses to central nervous system (CNS) injury using the fruit-fly Drosophila. Understanding repair and regeneration in animals is a key question in biology. The damaged human CNS does not regenerate, and understanding how to promote the regeneration is one of main goals of medical neuroscience. The powerful genetic toolkit of Drosophila can be used to tackle the problem of CNS regeneration. A lesion to the CNS ventral nerve cord (VNC, equivalent to the vertebrate spinal cord) is applied manually with a tungsten needle. The VNC can subsequently be filmed in time-lapse using laser scanning confocal microscopy for up to 24 hr to follow the development of the lesion over time. Alternatively, it can be cultured, then fixed and stained using immunofluorescence to visualize neuron and glial cells with confocal microscopy. Using appropriate markers, changes in cell morphology and cell state as a result of injury can be visualized. With ImageJ and purposely developed plug-ins, quantitative and statistical analyses can be carried out to measure changes in wound size over time and the effects of injury in cell proliferation and cell death. These methods allow the analysis of large sample sizes. They can be combined with the powerful genetics of Drosophila to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying CNS regeneration and repair. PMID:23567253

  1. Space Transportation System (STS)-117 External Tank (ET)-124 Hail Damage Repair Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Timmy R.; Gentz, Steven J.; Barth, Timothy S.; Minute, Stephen A.; Flowers, Cody P.; Hamilton, David A.; Null, Cynthia H.; Schafer, Charles F.

    2009-01-01

    Severe thunderstorms with associated hail and high winds struck the STS-117 stack on February 26, 2007. Peak winds were recorded at 62 knots with hail sizes ranging from 0.3 inch to 0.8 inch in diameter. As a result of the storm, the North Carolina Foam Institute (NCFI) type 24-124 Thermal Protection System (TPS) foam on the liquid oxygen (LO2) ogive acreage incurred significant impact damage. The NCFI on the ET intertank and the liquid hydrogen (LH2) acreage sustained hail damage. The Polymer Development Laboratory (PDL)-1034 foam of the LO2 ice frost ramps (IFRs) and the Super-Lightweight Ablator (SLA) of the LO2 cable tray also suffered minor damage. NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was asked to assess the technical feasibility of repairing the ET TPS, the reasonableness of conducting those repairs with the vehicle in a vertical, integrated configuration at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Vehicle Assemble Building (VAB), and to address attendant human factors considerations including worker fatigue and the potential for error. The outcome of the assessment is recorded in this document.

  2. Availability of K-out-of-N:G systems with non-identical components subject to repair priorities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khatab, A.; Nahas, N.; Nourelfath, M.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, a K-out-of-N:G system with N categories of components is studied. Each component category is characterized by its own failure and repair rates. There are R repair facilities, and repair priorities are specified between the N non-identical components. An algorithm for automatic construction of the system state transition diagram is presented. The stationary availability of each component and that of the system are evaluated by using a multi-dimensional Markov model. We show how this model can be represented as a network of stochastic automata with state-dependent transitions that can be implemented via generalized tensor (or Kronecker) algebra. For the efficiency assessment, an analog Monte Carlo simulation model is developed. Experiments are then conducted and simulation results are compared to those obtained by the proposed approach

  3. Dynamic reliability assessment and prediction for repairable systems with interval-censored data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Yizhen; Wang, Yu; Zi, YanYang; Tsui, Kwok-Leung; Zhang, Chuhua

    2017-01-01

    The ‘Test, Analyze and Fix’ process is widely applied to improve the reliability of a repairable system. In this process, dynamic reliability assessment for the system has been paid a great deal of attention. Due to instrument malfunctions, staff omissions and imperfect inspection strategies, field reliability data are often subject to interval censoring, making dynamic reliability assessment become a difficult task. Most traditional methods assume this kind of data as multiple normal distributed variables or the missing mechanism as missing at random, which may cause a large bias in parameter estimation. This paper proposes a novel method to evaluate and predict the dynamic reliability of a repairable system subject to interval-censored problem. First, a multiple imputation strategy based on the assumption that the reliability growth trend follows a nonhomogeneous Poisson process is developed to derive the distributions of missing data. Second, a new order statistic model that can transfer the dependent variables into independent variables is developed to simplify the imputation procedure. The unknown parameters of the model are iteratively inferred by the Monte Carlo expectation maximization (MCEM) algorithm. Finally, to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, a simulation and a real case study for gas pipeline compressor system are implemented. - Highlights: • A new multiple imputation strategy was developed to derive the PDF of missing data. • A new order statistic model was developed to simplify the imputation procedure. • The parameters of the order statistic model were iteratively inferred by MCEM. • A real cases study was conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  4. Development of a rocking R/C shear wall system implementing repairable structural fuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsafar, Saeed; Moghadam, Abdolreza S.

    2017-09-01

    In the last decades, the concept of earthquake resilient structural systems is becoming popular in which the rocking structure is considered as a viable option for buildings in regions of high seismicity. To this end, a novel wall-base connection based on the " repairable structure" approach is proposed and evaluated. The proposed system is made of several steel plates and high strength bolts act as a friction connection. To achieve the desired rocking motion in the proposed system, short-slotted holes are used in vertical directions for connecting the steel plates to the shear wall (SW). The experimental and numerical studies were performed using a series of displacement control quasi-static cyclic tests on a reference model and four different configurations of the proposed connection installed at the wall corners. The seismic response of the proposed system is compared to the conventional SW in terms of energy dissipation and damage accumulation. In terms of energy dissipation, the proposed system depicted better performance with 95% more energy dissipation capability compared to conventional SW. In terms of damage accumulation, the proposed SW system is nearly undamaged compared to the conventional wall system, which was severely damaged at the wall-base region. Overall, the introduced concept presents a feasible solution for R/C structures when a low-damage design is targeted, which can improve the seismic performance of the structural system significantly.

  5. Joint optimisation of spare part inventory, maintenance frequency and repair capacity for k-out-of-N systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smidt-Destombes, Karin S.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2009-01-01

    To achieve a high system availability at minimal costs, relevant decisions include the choice of preventive maintenance frequency, spare part inventory levels and spare part repair capacity. We develop heuristics for the joint optimisation of these variables for (a) a single k-out-of-N system under

  6. Left cardiac chambers reverse remodeling after percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scandura, Salvatore; Ussia, Gian Paolo; Capranzano, Piera; Caggegi, Anna; Sarkar, Kunal; Cammalleri, Valeria; Mangiafico, Sarah; Chiarandà, Marta; Immè, Sebastiano; Di Pasqua, Fabio; Pistritto, Anna Maria; Millan, Giovanni; Tamburino, Corrado

    2012-10-01

    Successful mitral valve surgical repair, decreasing volume overload, has been shown to provide reverse left ventricular (LV) and/or left atrial remodeling in most patients. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system (Abbott, Abbott Park, IL) has been associated with favorable clinical outcomes in patients with mitral regurgitation at high risk of surgery. However, specific data on left cardiac chambers reverse remodeling after such procedures are limited. This was a prospective observational study of consecutive patients at high risk of surgery, with moderate-to-severe or severe mitral regurgitation undergoing MitraClip system implantation. Follow-up echocardiography was performed at 6 months. The evaluated parameters were the LV end-diastolic and end-systolic volume indexes, LV sphericity index, LV ejection fraction, and left atrial volume index. Reverse LV remodeling was defined as a decrease of 10% in the LV end-diastolic volume index. The study population included 44 patients: 14 with degenerative and 30 with functional mitral regurgitation. At 6 months of follow-up, significant reductions in the median and interquartile range of the sphericity index (from 0.57 [interquartile range 0.54-0.62] to 0.54 [interquartile range 0.50-0.58]; P interquartile range 63.0-102.2] to 60.7 mL/m(2) [50.8-84.4]; P interquartile range 28.2-70.5] to 28.9 mL/m(2) [interquartile range 22.2-55.8]; P interquartile range 30.0-55.0%] to 46.0% [interquartile range 35.0-58.0%]; P < .001) from baseline to 6 months. Minor differences in the left atrial volume index were observed. Reverse remodeling, according to the specified definition, was observed in 77.3% of the patients. The present study reports positive LV reshape effects after mitral valve repair with the MitraClip system, showing significant improvements in LV size and function. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Echocardiography. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Failure mechanism dependence and reliability evaluation of non-repairable system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Ying; Yang, Liu; Ye, Cui; Kang, Rui

    2015-01-01

    Reliability study of electronic system with the physics-of-failure method has been promoted due to the increase knowledge of electronic failure mechanisms. System failure initiates from independent failure mechanisms, have effect on or affect by other failure mechanisms and finally result in system failure. Failure mechanisms in a non-repairable system have many kinds of correlation. One failure mechanism developing to a certain degree will trigger, accelerate or inhibit another or many other failure mechanisms, some kind of failure mechanisms may have the same effect on the failure site, component or system. The destructive effect will be accumulated and result in early failure. This paper presents a reliability evaluation method considering correlativity among failure mechanisms, which includes trigger, acceleration, inhibition, accumulation, and competition. Based on fundamental rule of physics of failure, decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. With a case, reliability of electronic system is evaluated considering failure mechanism dependence. - Highlights: • Five types of failure mechanism correlations are described. • Decoupling methods of these correlations are discussed. • A reliability evaluation method considering mechanism dependence is proposed. • Results are quite different to results under failure independence assumption

  8. Reliability Analysis of a Cold Standby System with Imperfect Repair and under Poisson Shocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutian Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the reliability analysis of a two-component cold standby system with a repairman who may have vacation. The system may fail due to intrinsic factors like aging or deteriorating, or external factors such as Poisson shocks. The arrival time of the shocks follows a Poisson process with the intensity λ>0. Whenever the magnitude of a shock is larger than the prespecified threshold of the operating component, the operating component will fail. The paper assumes that the intrinsic lifetime and the repair time on the component are an extended Poisson process, the magnitude of the shock and the threshold of the operating component are nonnegative random variables, and the vacation time of the repairman obeys the general continuous probability distribution. By using the vector Markov process theory, the supplementary variable method, Laplace transform, and Tauberian theory, the paper derives a number of reliability indices: system availability, system reliability, the rate of occurrence of the system failure, and the mean time to the first failure of the system. Finally, a numerical example is given to validate the derived indices.

  9. Propagated failure analysis for non-repairable systems considering both global and selective effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Chaonan; Xing Liudong; Levitin, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes an algorithm for the reliability analysis of non-repairable binary systems subject to competing failure propagation and failure isolation events with both global and selective failure effects. A propagated failure that originates from a system component causes extensive damage to the rest of the system. Global effect happens when the propagated failure causes the entire system to fail; whereas selective effect happens when the propagated failure causes only failure of a subset of system components. In both cases, the failure propagation that originates from some system components (referred to as dependent components) can be isolated because of functional dependence between the dependent components and a component that prevents the failure propagation (trigger components) when the failure of the trigger component happens before the occurrence of the propagated failure. Most existing studies focus on the analysis of propagated failures with global effect. However, in many cases, propagated failures affect only a subset of system components not the entire system. Existing approaches for analyzing propagated failures with selective effect are limited to series-parallel systems. This paper proposes a combinatorial method for the propagated failure analysis considering both global and selective effects as well as the competition with the failure isolation in the time domain. The proposed method is not limited to series-parallel systems and has no limitation on the type of time-to-failure distributions for the system components. The method is verified using the Markov-based method. An example of computer memory systems is analyzed to demonstrate the application of the proposed method.

  10. The on-line repair, improvement and expansion of a working multicomputer control system for the CERN SPS accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altaber, J.; Beck, F.; Collins, M.; Crowley-Milling, M.C.; Rausch, R.

    1979-01-01

    The 400 GeV proton synchrotron at CERN was first commissioned in 1976. Those of its features which are pertinent to the design of the control system are summarized. The paper then proceeds as follows: changes to the control system (changes to applications programs, equipment handling routines, system software changes); hardware increases and repairs; changes to the character of the system (hardware changes, microprocessors); conclusions. (U.K.)

  11. In vitro Repair of Oxidative DNA Damage by Human Nucleotide Excision Repair System: Possible Explanation for Neurodegeneration in Xeroderma Pigmentosum Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reardon, Joyce T.; Bessho, Tadayoshi; Kung, Hsiang Chuan; Bolton, Philip H.; Sancar, Aziz

    1997-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients fail to remove pyrimidine dimers caused by sunlight and, as a consequence, develop multiple cancers in areas exposed to light. The second most common sign, present in 20-30% of XP patients, is a set of neurological abnormalities caused by neuronal death in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neural tissue is shielded from sunlight-induced DNA damage, so the cause of neurodegeneration in XP patients remains unexplained. In this study, we show that two major oxidative DNA lesions, 8-oxoguanine and thymine glycol, are excised from DNA in vitro by the same enzyme system responsible for removing pyrimidine dimers and other bulky DNA adducts. Our results suggest that XP neurological disease may be caused by defective repair of lesions that are produced in nerve cells by reactive oxygen species generated as by-products of an active oxidative metabolism.

  12. Real-Time Multifault Rush Repairing Strategy Based on Utility Theory and Multiagent System in Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Hao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of multifault rush repair in distribution networks (DNs is a multiobjective dynamic combinatorial problem with topology constraints. The problem consists of archiving an optimal faults’ allocation strategy to squads and an admissible multifault rush repairing strategy with coordinating switch operations. In this article, the utility theory is introduced to solve the first problem and a new discrete bacterial colony chemotaxis (DBCC algorithm is proposed for the second problem to determine the optimal sequence for each squad to repair faults and the corresponding switch operations. The above solution is called the two-stage approach. Additionally, a double mathematical optimization model based on the fault level is proposed in the second stage to minimize the outage loss and total repairing time. The real-time adjustment multiagent system (RA-MAS is proposed to provide facility to achieve online multifault rush repairing strategy in DNs when there are emergencies after natural disasters. The two-stage approach is illustrated with an example from a real urban distribution network and the simulation results show the effectiveness of the two-stage approach.

  13. Overland conveyors. Cable or trough belt for 100 km transport haulage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maton, A.E. [Maton Engineering Pty. Ltd., Orange Grove, WA (Australia)

    2009-07-01

    With the advances in belt conveyor technology today systems of 100 kilometres length are increasingly being considered. This article provides a comparison of two concepts for a 100 kilometre system of five 20 kilometre flights based on trough belt and cable belt technology. (orig.)

  14. On the interaction between maintenance, spare part inventories and repair capacity for a k-out-of-N-system with wear-out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Smidt-Destombes, Karin S.; van der Heijden, Matthijs C.; van Harten, Aart

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a k-out-of-N system with identical, repairable components under a condition-based maintenance policy. Maintenance consists of replacing all failed and/or aged components. Next, the replaced components have to be repaired. The system availability can be controlled by the

  15. On the interaction between maintenance, spare part inventories and repair capacity for a k-out-of-N system with wear-out

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smidt-Destombes, K.S. de; Heijden, M.C. van der; Harten, A. van

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a k-out-of-N system with identical, repairable components under a condition-based maintenance policy. Maintenance consists of replacing all failed and/or aged components. Next, the replaced components have to be repaired. The system availability can be controlled by the

  16. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  17. Participatory Design Research as a Practice for Systemic Repair: Doing Hand-in-Hand Math Research with Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Angela; Goldman, Shelley

    2016-01-01

    Success and failure in formal mathematics education has been used to legitimize stratification. We describe participatory design research as a methodology for systemic repair. The analysis describes epistemic authority--exercising the right or the power to know--as a form of agency in processes of mathematical problem solving and learning. We…

  18. Early passage bone marrow stromal cells express genes involved in nervous system development supporting their relevance for neural repair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nandoe Tewarie, R.D.S.; Bossers, K.; Ritfeld, G.J.; Blits, B.; Grotenhuis, J.A.; Verhaagen, J.; Oudega, M.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: The assessment of the capacity of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSC) to repair the nervous system using gene expression profiling. The evaluation of effects of long-term culturing on the gene expression profile of BMSC. METHODS: Fourty four k whole genome rat microarrays were used to study

  19. Study of the performance of four repairing material systems for hydraulic structures of concrete dams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kormann A. C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Four types of repairing materials are studied as function of either a conventional concrete or a reference-concrete (RefC, these are: polymer-modified cement mortar (PMor, steel fiber concrete (SFco, epoxy mortar (EMor and silica fume mortar (SFmo, to be applied in hydraulic structures surfaces subjected to a high velocity water flow. Besides the mechanical requests and wearing resistance of hydraulic concrete dam structures, especially the spillway surfaces, the high solar radiation, the environmental temperature and wet and dry cycles, contribute significantly to the reduction of their lifespan. RefC and the SFco were developed based on a usual concrete mixture used in slabs of spillways. The average RefC mixture used was 1: 1.61: 2.99: 0.376, with Pozzolan-modified Portland cement consumption of 425 kg/m³. EMor and PMor mixtures followed the information given by the manufacturers and lab experience. Tests on concrete samples were carried out in laboratory simulating normally found environmental situations in order to control the mechanical resistance and the aging imposed conditions, such as solar radiation and humidity. Also, physicochemical characterizing tests were made for all used materials. From the analyzed results, two of them presented a higher performance: the EMor and SFmo. SFco presented good adherence to the RefC and good mechanical performance. However, it also presented apparent metal corrosion in humidity tests, being indicated for use, with caution, as an intermediate layer in underwater repairs. In a general classification, considering all tests, including their field applications, the better performance material systems were EMor- SFmo> SFco> PMor.

  20. MULTI-AGENT APPROACH TO BUILDING AN INTELLIGENT VEHICLE MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Pavlenko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the reliability of the car, early detection and prevention of the occurrence and development of failures is required in order to reduce the costs of maintenance and repair. Multi-agent technologies make it possible to raise the level of technical reliability of cars and minimize the costs of performing repair and maintenance operations.

  1. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  2. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  3. Multipurpose expert-robot system model for control, diagnosis, maintenance, and repairs at the steam generators of the NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popa, I.

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the model concept for a multipurpose expert-robot system for control, diagnosis, forecast, maintenance, and repairs at the steam generators of CANDU type nuclear power plants. The system has two separate parts: the expert system and the robot (manipulator) system. These parts compose a hierarchic structure with the expert system on the upper level. The expert system has a blackboard architecture, to which tree interfaces with the robot system, with the control system of the NPP and with the methods and techniques of control, maintenance and repairs system of the steam generator are added. Due to complex nature of its activities the expert-robot system model combines the deterministic type reasons with probabilistic, fuzzy, and neural-networks type ones. The information that enter the expert system comes from the robot system, from process, from user, and human expert. The information that enter robot system comes from the expert system, from the human operator (when connected) and from process. Control maintenance and repair operations take place by means of the robot system that can be monitored either directly by the expert system or by the human operator who follows its activity. All these activities are performed in parallel with the adequate information of the expert system directly, by the human operator, about the status parameters and, possibly, operating parameters of the steam generator components. The expert-robot system can work independently, but it can be connected and integrated in the control system of NPP, to take over and develop some of its functions. The activities concerning diagnosis and characterization of the state of steam generator components subsequent to control, as well as the forecast of their future behavior, are performed by means of the expert system. Due to these characteristics the expert-robot system can be used successfully in personnel training activities. (Author)

  4. Model System for Live Imaging of Neuronal Responses to Injury and Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Gravel

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Although it has been well established that induction of growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43 during development coincides with axonal outgrowth and early synapse formation, the existence of neuronal plasticity and neurite outgrowth in the adult central nervous system after injuries is more controversial. To visualize the processes of neuronal injury and repair in living animals, we generated reporter mice for bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging bearing the luc (luciferase and gfp (green fluorescent protein reporter genes under the control of the murine GAP-43 promoter. Reporter functionality was first observed during the development of transgenic embryos. Using in vivo bioluminescence and fluorescence imaging, we visualized induction of the GAP-43 signals from live embryos starting at E10.5, as well as neuronal responses to brain and peripheral nerve injuries (the signals peaked at 14 days postinjury. Moreover, three-dimensional analysis of the GAP-43 bioluminescent signal confirmed that it originated from brain structures affected by ischemic injury. The analysis of fluorescence signal at cellular level revealed colocalization between endogenous protein and the GAP-43-driven gfp transgene. Taken together, our results suggest that the GAP-43-luc/gfp reporter mouse represents a valid model system for real-time analysis of neurite outgrowth and the capacity of the adult nervous system to regenerate after injuries.

  5. Single-Molecule Methods for Nucleotide Excision Repair: Building a System to Watch Repair in Real Time

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Muwen; Beckwitt, Emily C.; Springall, Luke; Kad, Neil M.; Van Houten, Bennett

    2017-01-01

    Single-molecule approaches to solving biophysical problems are powerful tools that allow static and dynamic real-time observations of specific molecular interactions of interest in the absence of ensemble-averaging effects. Here, we provide detailed protocols for building an experimental system that employs atomic force microscopy and a single-molecule DNA tightrope assay based on oblique angle illumination fluorescence microscopy. Together with approaches for engineering site-specific lesion...

  6. Production of Copper as a Complex Mining and Metallurgical Processing System in Polish Copper Mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malewski, Jerzy

    2017-12-01

    Geological and technological conditions of Cu production in the Polish copper mines of the Legnica-Glogów Copper Belt are presented. Cu production is recognized as a technological fractal consisting of subsystems for mineral exploration, ore extraction and processing, and metallurgical treatment. Qualitative and quantitative models of these operations have been proposed, including estimation of their costs of process production. Numerical calculations of such a system have been performed, which allow optimize the system parameters according to economic criteria under variable Cu mineralization in the ore deposit. The main objective of the study is to develop forecasting tool for analysis of production efficiency in domestic copper mines based on available sources of information. Such analyses are primarily of social value, allowing for assessment of the efficiency of management of local mineral resources in the light of current technological and market constraints. At the same time, this is a concept of the system analysis method to manage deposit exploitation on operational and strategic level.

  7. The zebrafish as a gerontology model in nervous system aging, disease, and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Houcke, Jessie; De Groef, Lies; Dekeyster, Eline; Moons, Lieve

    2015-11-01

    Considering the increasing number of elderly in the world's population today, developing effective treatments for age-related pathologies is one of the biggest challenges in modern medical research. Age-related neurodegeneration, in particular, significantly impacts important sensory, motor, and cognitive functions, seriously constraining life quality of many patients. Although our understanding of the causal mechanisms of aging has greatly improved in recent years, animal model systems still have much to tell us about this complex process. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) have gained enormous popularity for this research topic over the past decade, since their life span is relatively short but, like humans, they are still subject to gradual aging. In addition, the extensive characterization of its well-conserved molecular and cellular physiology makes the zebrafish an excellent model to unravel the underlying mechanisms of aging, disease, and repair. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the progress made in zebrafish gerontology, with special emphasis on nervous system aging. We review the evidence that classic hallmarks of aging can also be recognized within this small vertebrate, both at the molecular and cellular level. Moreover, we illustrate the high level of similarity with age-associated human pathologies through a survey of the functional deficits that arise as zebrafish age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Genetic defects in DNA repair system and enhancement of intergenote transformation efficiency in Bacillus subtilis Marburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, K.; Takahashi, H.; Saito, H.; Ikeda, Y.

    1978-01-01

    Mechanisms of inefficiency in heterospecies transformation were studied with a transformation system consisting of Bacillus subtilis 168TI (trpC2thy) as recipient and of DNA prepared from partially hybrid strains of B. subtilis which had incorporated trp + DNA of B. amyloliquefaciens 203 (formerly, B. megaterium 203) in the chromosome (termed intergenote). The intergenote transformation was not so efficient as the corresponding homospecies transformation and the efficiency appeared to relate inversely with the length of heterologous portion in the intergenote. When a variety of ultraviolet light (UV) sensitive mutants, deficient in host-cell reactivation capacity, were used as recipients for the intergenote transformation, 2 out of 16 mutants exhibited significantly enhanced transformation efficiency of the trpC marker. Genetic studies by transformation showed that the trait relating to the enhancement of intergenote-transformation efficiency was always associated with the UV sensitivity, suggesting that these two traits are determined by a single gene. The efficiency of intergenote transformation was highly affected also by DNA concentration; the lower the concentration, the less the efficiency. When, however, the UV sensitive mutant was used as recipient, the effect of DNA concentration was largely diminished, suggesting the reduction of DNA-inactivating activity in the UV sensitive recipient. These results were discussed in relation to a possible excision-repair system selectively correcting the mismatched DNA in the course of intergenote transformation. (orig.) [de

  9. Evolution and adaptation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms driven by mismatch repair system-deficient mutators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adela M Luján

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important opportunistic pathogen causing chronic airway infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF patients. The majority of the CF patients acquire P. aeruginosa during early childhood, and most of them develop chronic infections resulting in severe lung disease, which are rarely eradicated despite intensive antibiotic therapy. Current knowledge indicates that three major adaptive strategies, biofilm development, phenotypic diversification, and mutator phenotypes [driven by a defective mismatch repair system (MRS], play important roles in P. aeruginosa chronic infections, but the relationship between these strategies is still poorly understood. We have used the flow-cell biofilm model system to investigate the impact of the mutS associated mutator phenotype on development, dynamics, diversification and adaptation of P. aeruginosa biofilms. Through competition experiments we demonstrate for the first time that P. aeruginosa MRS-deficient mutators had enhanced adaptability over wild-type strains when grown in structured biofilms but not as planktonic cells. This advantage was associated with enhanced micro-colony development and increased rates of phenotypic diversification, evidenced by biofilm architecture features and by a wider range and proportion of morphotypic colony variants, respectively. Additionally, morphotypic variants generated in mutator biofilms showed increased competitiveness, providing further evidence for mutator-driven adaptive evolution in the biofilm mode of growth. This work helps to understand the basis for the specific high proportion and role of mutators in chronic infections, where P. aeruginosa develops in biofilm communities.

  10. NAXE Mutations Disrupt the Cellular NAD(P)HX Repair System and Cause a Lethal Neurometabolic Disorder of Early Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kremer, Laura S; Danhauser, Katharina; Herebian, Diran; Petkovic Ramadža, Danijela; Piekutowska-Abramczuk, Dorota; Seibt, Annette; Müller-Felber, Wolfgang; Haack, Tobias B; Płoski, Rafał; Lohmeier, Klaus; Schneider, Dominik; Klee, Dirk; Rokicki, Dariusz; Mayatepek, Ertan; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Klopstock, Thomas; Pronicka, Ewa; Mayr, Johannes A; Baric, Ivo; Distelmaier, Felix; Prokisch, Holger

    2016-10-06

    To safeguard the cell from the accumulation of potentially harmful metabolic intermediates, specific repair mechanisms have evolved. APOA1BP, now renamed NAXE, encodes an epimerase essential in the cellular metabolite repair for NADHX and NADPHX. The enzyme catalyzes the epimerization of NAD(P)HX, thereby avoiding the accumulation of toxic metabolites. The clinical importance of the NAD(P)HX repair system has been unknown. Exome sequencing revealed pathogenic biallelic mutations in NAXE in children from four families with (sub-) acute-onset ataxia, cerebellar edema, spinal myelopathy, and skin lesions. Lactate was elevated in cerebrospinal fluid of all affected individuals. Disease onset was during the second year of life and clinical signs as well as episodes of deterioration were triggered by febrile infections. Disease course was rapidly progressive, leading to coma, global brain atrophy, and finally to death in all affected individuals. NAXE levels were undetectable in fibroblasts from affected individuals of two families. In these fibroblasts we measured highly elevated concentrations of the toxic metabolite cyclic-NADHX, confirming a deficiency of the mitochondrial NAD(P)HX repair system. Finally, NAD or nicotinic acid (vitamin B3) supplementation might have therapeutic implications for this fatal disorder. Copyright © 2016 American Society of Human Genetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Genetic characterization of cells of homocystinuria patients with disrupted DNA repair system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinel'shchikova, T.A.; L'vova, G.N.; Shoniya, N.N.; Zasukhina, G.D.

    1986-01-01

    Fibroblasts obtained from biopsy material and lymphocytes of patients with homocystinuria were investigated for repair activity according to the following criteria: rejoined DNA breaks, induced by 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide and γ-radiation; indices of reactivation and induced mutagenesis of smallpox vaccine virus treated with these mutagens. In lymphocytes a defect of DNA repair was observed according to all criteria investigated. During passage of fibroblast cultures, inhibition of repair activity of cells was preserved according to γ-type. Increase in the number of spontaneous and γ-induced mutations of virus was noted according to degree of passage of fibroblasts

  12. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  13. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  14. Application of a System-Based Inventory Model to Marine Corps Repairable Parts

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Barnett, Craig

    2001-01-01

    ... isolation of the inventories and because of mathematical flaws in the Marine Corps' sparing methodology The Marine Corps is seeking to centralize the management of secondary repairables and is considering...

  15. The effect of caffeine on repair systems in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Genetic analysis was performed to locate the factors involved in the defective repair mechanism in the oocytes of Ubx e 4 /Payne ca females. The results demonstrate that at least three third-chromosome factors may be involved in the control of maternal repair, the two most effective ones being located on the right arm of the third chromosome, one near the Ubx locus and the other near the ca locus

  16. DNA repair genes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimyo, Mitsuoki

    1995-01-01

    Fission yeast S. pombe is assumed to be a good model for cloning of human DNA repair genes, because human gene is normally expressed in S. pombe and has a very similar protein sequence to yeast protein. We have tried to elucidate the DNA repair mechanisms of S. pombe as a model system for those of mammals. (J.P.N.)

  17. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  18. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  19. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  20. Energy-dissipating and self-repairing SMA-ECC composite material system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xiaopeng; Li, Mo; Song, Gangbing

    2015-01-01

    Structural component ductility and energy dissipation capacity are crucial factors for achieving reinforced concrete structures more resistant to dynamic loading such as earthquakes. Furthermore, limiting post-event residual damage and deformation allows for immediate re-operation or minimal repairs. These desirable characteristics for structural ‘resilience’, however, present significant challenges due to the brittle nature of concrete, its deformation incompatibility with ductile steel, and the plastic yielding of steel reinforcement. Here, we developed a new composite material system that integrates the unique ductile feature of engineered cementitious composites (ECC) with superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA). In contrast to steel reinforced concrete (RC) and SMA reinforced concrete (SMA-RC), the SMA-ECC beams studied in this research exhibited extraordinary energy dissipation capacity, minimal residual deformation, and full self-recovery of damage under cyclic flexural loading. We found that the tensile strain capacity of ECC, tailored up to 5.5% in this study, allows it to work compatibly with superelastic SMA. Furthermore, the distributed microcracking damage mechanism in ECC is critical for sufficient and reliable recovery of damage upon unloading. This research demonstrates the potential of SMA-ECC for improving resilience of concrete structures under extreme hazard events. (paper)

  1. Cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue repair and regeneration in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott Donaghue, Irja; Tam, Roger; Sefton, Michael V; Shoichet, Molly S

    2014-09-28

    Tissue engineering frequently involves cells and scaffolds to replace damaged or diseased tissue. It originated, in part, as a means of effecting the delivery of biomolecules such as insulin or neurotrophic factors, given that cells are constitutive producers of such therapeutic agents. Thus cell delivery is intrinsic to tissue engineering. Controlled release of biomolecules is also an important tool for enabling cell delivery since the biomolecules can enable cell engraftment, modulate inflammatory response or otherwise benefit the behavior of the delivered cells. We describe advances in cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue regeneration, with emphasis on the central nervous system (CNS). In the first section, the focus is on encapsulated cell therapy. In the second section, the focus is on biomolecule delivery in polymeric nano/microspheres and hydrogels for the nerve regeneration and endogenous cell stimulation. In the third section, the focus is on combination strategies of neural stem/progenitor cell or mesenchymal stem cell and biomolecule delivery for tissue regeneration and repair. In each section, the challenges and potential solutions associated with delivery to the CNS are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs.

  3. The development of robotic system for inspecting and repairing NPP primary coolant system of high-level radioactive environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Ho; Kim, Ki Ho; Jung, Seung Ho; Kim, Byung Soo; Hwang, Suk Yeoung; Kim, Chang Hoi; Seo, Yong Chil; Lee, Young Kwang; Lee, Yong Bum; Cho, Jai Wan; Lee, Jae Kyung; Lee, Yong Deok.

    1997-07-01

    This project aims at developing a robotic system to automatically handle inspection and maintenance of NPP safety-related facilities in high-level radioactive environment. This robotic system under development comprises two robots depending on application fields - a mobile robot and multi-functional robot. The mobile robot is designed to be used in the area of primary coolant system during the operation of NPP. This robot enables to overcome obstacles and perform specified tasks in unstructured environment. The multi-functional robot is designed for performing inspection and maintenance tasks of steam generator and nuclear reactor vessel during the overhaul periods of NPP. Nuclear facilities can be inspected and repaired all the time by use of both the mobile robot and the multi-functional robot. Human operator, by teleoperation, monitors the movements of such robots located at remote task environment via video cameras and controls those remotely generating desired commands via master manipulator. We summarize the technology relating to the application of the mobile robot to primary coolant system environment, the applicability of the mobile robot through 3D graphic simulation, the design of the mobile robot, the design of its radiation-hardened controller. We also describe the mechanical design, modeling, and control system of the multi-functional robot. Finally, we present the design of the force-reflecting master and the modeling of virtual task environment for a training simulator. (author). 47 refs., 16 tabs., 43 figs

  4. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  5. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  6. Hydromorphological parameters of natural channel behavior in conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians on the territory of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanová, Kateřina; Matoušková, Milada; Kliment, Zdeněk

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for assessing the current ecological status of streams is the establishment of reference conditions for each stream type that serve as a benchmark. The hydromorphological reference conditions reflect the natural channel behavior, which is extremely variable. Significant parameters of natural channel behavior were determined using a combination of four selected statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, correlation, and regression. Macroscale analyses of data about altitude, stream order, channel slope, valley floor slope, sinuosity, and characteristics of the hydrological regime were conducted for 3197 reaches of major rivers in the Czech Republic with total length of 15,636 km. On the basis of selected significant parameters and their threshold values, channels were classified into groups of river characteristics based on shared behaviors. The channel behavior within these groups was validated using hydromorphological characteristics of natural channels determined during field research at reference sites. Classification of channels into groups confirmed the fundamental differences between channel behavior under conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic and determined a specific group in the flattened high areas of mountains in the Bohemian Massif. Validating confirmed the distinctions between groups of river characteristics and the uniqueness of each one; it also emphasized the benefits of using qualitative data and riparian zone characteristics for describing channel behavior. Channel slope, entrenchment ratio, bed structure, and d50 were determined as quantitative characteristics of natural channel behavior.

  7. Improving the Repair Planning System for Mining Equipment on the Basis of Non-destructive Evaluation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drygin, Michael; Kuryshkin, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    The article tells about forming a new concept of scheduled preventive repair system of the equipment at coal mining enterprises, based on the use of modem non-destructive evaluation methods. The approach to the solution for this task is based on the system-oriented analysis of the regulatory documentation, non-destructive evaluation methods and means, experimental studies with compilation of statistics and subsequent grapho-analytical analysis. The main result of the work is a feasible explanation of using non-destructive evaluation methods within the current scheduled preventive repair system, their high efficiency and the potential of gradual transition to condition-based maintenance. In practice wide use of nondestructive evaluation means w;ill allow to reduce significantly the number of equipment failures and to repair only the nodes in pre-accident condition. Considering the import phase-out policy, the solution for this task will allow to adapt the SPR system to Russian market economy conditions and give the opportunity of commercial move by reducing the expenses for maintenance of Russian-made and imported equipment.

  8. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  9. Dependability estimation for non-Markov consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable systems by fast simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Gang; Li Zhizhong; Li Ting

    2007-01-01

    A model of consecutive-k-out-of-n: F repairable system with non-exponential repair time distribution and (k-1)-step Markov dependence is introduced in this paper along with algorithms of three Monte Carlo methods, i.e. importance sampling, conditional expectation estimation and combination of the two methods, to estimate dependability of the non-Markov model including reliability, transient unavailability, MTTF, and MTBF. A numerical example is presented to demonstrate the efficiencies of above methods. The results show that combinational method has the highest efficiency for estimation of unreliability and unavailability, while conditional expectation estimation is the most efficient method for estimation of MTTF and MTBF. Conditional expectation estimation seems to have overall higher speedups in estimating dependability of such systems

  10. Comparison of the Mismatch Repair System between Primary and Metastatic Colorectal Cancers Using Immunohistochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiyoon Jung

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Colorectal cancer (CRC is one of the most common malignancies worldwide. Approximately 10%–15% of the CRC cases have defective DNA mismatch repair (MMR genes. Although the high level of microsatellite instability status is a predictor of favorable outcome in primary CRC, little is known about its frequency and importance in secondary CRC. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC for MMR proteins (e.g., MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2 has emerged as a useful technique to complement polymerase chain reaction (PCR analyses. Methods In this study, comparison between the MMR system of primary CRCs and paired liver and lung metastatic lesions was done using IHC and the correlation with clinical outcomes was also examined. Results Based on IHC, 7/61 primary tumors (11.4% showed deficient MMR systems, while 13/61 secondary tumors (21.3% showed deficiencies. In total, 44 cases showed proficient expression in both the primary and metastatic lesions. Three cases showed deficiencies in both the primary and paired metastatic lesions. In 10 cases, proficient expression was found only in the primary lesions, and not in the corresponding metastatic lesions. In four cases, proficient expression was detected in the secondary tumor, but not in the primary tumor. Conclusions Although each IHC result and the likely defective genes were not exactly matched between the primary and the metastatic tumors, identical results for primary and metastatic lesions were obtained in 77% of the cases (47/61. These data are in agreement with the previous microsatellite detection studies that used PCR and IHC.

  11. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T., E-mail: markku.kuitunen@jyu.fi

    2014-11-15

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state.

  12. Ranking of small scale proposals for water system repair using the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shakib-Manesh, T.E.; Hirvonen, K.O.; Jalava, K.J.; Ålander, T.; Kuitunen, M.T.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental impacts of small scale projects are often assessed poorly, or not assessed at all. This paper examines the usability of the Rapid Impact Assessment Matrix (RIAM) as a tool to prioritize project proposals for small scale water restoration projects in relation to proposals' potential to improve the environment. The RIAM scoring system was used to assess and rank the proposals based on their environmental impacts, the costs of the projects to repair the harmful impacts, and the size of human population living around the sites. A four-member assessment group (The expert panel) gave the RIAM-scores to the proposals. The assumed impacts of the studied projects at the Eastern Finland water systems were divided into the ecological and social impacts. The more detailed assessment categories of the ecological impacts in this study were impacts on landscape, natural state, and limnology. The social impact categories were impacts to recreational use of the area, fishing, industry, population, and economy. These impacts were scored according to their geographical and social significance, their magnitude of change, their character, permanence, reversibility, and cumulativeness. The RIAM method proved to be an appropriate and recommendable method for the small-scale assessment and prioritizing of project proposals. If the assessments are well documented, the RIAM can be a method for easy assessing and comparison of the various kinds of projects. In the studied project proposals there were no big surprises in the results: the best ranks were received by the projects, which were assumed to return watersheds toward their original state

  13. Selected technological problems of repair of hydraulic drive systems for shearer loaders with the example of A2V-107 pumps and SHT-630W motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusak, E.; Paluch, J.

    1983-07-01

    Major elements of hydraulic drive systems as well as their wear and repair characteristics are described. Types of wear and standardized repair methods are comparatively evaluated. The evaluations are aimed at development of standardized procedures for use in large repair shops. The following stages of repair operations of A2V-107 pumps and SHT-630W motors are analyzed: disassembling hydraulic systems, washing and cleaning, classification of equipment elements (elements for scrapping and for regeneration), regeneration, assembling and final tests. The following regeneration methods are discussed: cutting, burnishing, bushing (e.g. the Heli Coil method), regeneration using copper, tin or zinc dusts and a temperature from 950 to 1,000 K under inert atmosphere, heat treatments. Methods are reviewed for comparative evaluations of repair efficiency and repair quality as well as documents used for recording repair in the shops. Economic aspects of using standardized procedures for repair of hydraulic equipment for shearer loaders are discussed and recommendations are made. (6 refs.)

  14. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-01-01

    Background Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C?>?G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C?>?G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. Findings In...

  15. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  16. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manatt, Robert K; Schulte, Lisa A; Hall, Richard B; Hallam, Arne; Heaton, Emily A; Gunther, Theo; Moore, Ken J

    2013-01-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn–soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn–switchgrass system. A novel triticale–hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops. (letter)

  17. Farm-scale costs and returns for second generation bioenergy cropping systems in the US Corn Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manatt, Robert K.; Hallam, Arne; Schulte, Lisa A.; Heaton, Emily A.; Gunther, Theo; Hall, Richard B.; Moore, Ken J.

    2013-09-01

    While grain crops are meeting much of the initial need for biofuels in the US, cellulosic or second generation (2G) materials are mandated to provide a growing portion of biofuel feedstocks. We sought to inform development of a 2G crop portfolio by assessing the profitability of novel cropping systems that potentially mitigate the negative effects of grain-based biofuel crops on food supply and environmental quality. We analyzed farm-gate costs and returns of five systems from an ongoing experiment in central Iowa, USA. The continuous corn cropping system was most profitable under current market conditions, followed by a corn-soybean rotation that incorporated triticale as a 2G cover crop every third year, and a corn-switchgrass system. A novel triticale-hybrid aspen intercropping system had the highest yields over the long term, but could only surpass the profitability of the continuous corn system when biomass prices exceeded foreseeable market values. A triticale/sorghum double cropping system was deemed unviable. We perceive three ways 2G crops could become more cost competitive with grain crops: by (1) boosting yields through substantially greater investment in research and development, (2) increasing demand through substantially greater and sustained investment in new markets, and (3) developing new schemes to compensate farmers for environmental benefits associated with 2G crops.

  18. Construction of prototype of on-line analyzer detection system for coal on belt conveyor using neutron activation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rony Djokorayono; Agus Cahyono; MP Indarzah; SG Usep; Sukandar

    2015-01-01

    The use of on-line neutron activation technique for coal analysis is proposed as an alternative method for analysis based on sampling technique. Compared to this conventional technique, the on-line neutron activation technique has much shorter time of analysis and more accurate results. The construction of detection system prototype for the on-line analyzer is described in this paper. This on-line analyzer consists of detection system, data acquisition system, and computer console. This detection system comprises several modules, i.e. NaI(Tl) scintillation detector completed with a photomultiplier tube (PMT), pre-amplifier, single channel analyzer (SCA), and analog signal transmitter and pulse counter processor. The construction processes of these four modules include the development of configuration block, lay out, and selection of electronic components. The modules have been integrated and tested. This detection system was tested using radioactive element Zn-65 having energy of 1115.5 keV and activity of 1 μCi. The test results show that the prototype of the on-line analyzer detection system has functioned as expected. (author)

  19. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks by a cell-free system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seki, Shuji; Ikeda, Shogo; Tsutui, Ken; Teraoka, Hirobumi

    1990-01-01

    Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks of DNA was studied in vitro using an exonuclease purified from mouse ascites sarcoma (SR-C3H/He) cells. X-ray-dose-dependent unscheduled DNA synthesis was primed by the exonuclease. Repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in pUC19 plasmid DNA was demonstrated by agarose gel electrophoresis after incubating the damaged DNA with the exonuclease, DNA polymerase (Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I or DNA polymerase β purified from SR-C3H/He cells), four deoxynucleoside triphosphates, ATP and DNA ligase (T4 DNA ligase or DNA ligase I purified from calf thymus). The present results suggested that the exonuclease is involved in the initiation of repair of X-ray-induced single-strand breaks in removing 3' ends of X-ray-damaged DNA. (author)

  20. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C

    2015-05-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect.

  1. Numerical modeling of water spray suppression of conveyor belt fires in a large-scale tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Liming; Smith, Alex C.

    2015-01-01

    Conveyor belt fires in an underground mine pose a serious life threat to miners. Water sprinkler systems are usually used to extinguish underground conveyor belt fires, but because of the complex interaction between conveyor belt fires and mine ventilation airflow, more effective engineering designs are needed for the installation of water sprinkler systems. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model was developed to simulate the interaction between the ventilation airflow, the belt flame spread, and the water spray system in a mine entry. The CFD model was calibrated using test results from a large-scale conveyor belt fire suppression experiment. Simulations were conducted using the calibrated CFD model to investigate the effects of sprinkler location, water flow rate, and sprinkler activation temperature on the suppression of conveyor belt fires. The sprinkler location and the activation temperature were found to have a major effect on the suppression of the belt fire, while the water flow rate had a minor effect. PMID:26190905

  2. Outcomes of Endovascular Aneurysm Repair using the Ovation Stent Graft System in Adverse Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaves, Nicholas S; Moore, Aiden; Seriki, Dare; Ghosh, Jonathan

    2018-04-01

    The aim was the evaluation of mid-term efficacy and safety outcome measures for the Ovation (Endologix, Santa Rosa, CA, USA) stent graft system in the management of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysms (iAAA) with adverse anatomy. A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing elective iAAA repair was carried out from 2012 to 2017 using Ovation Prime or iX stent grafts with a minimum of 3 months follow-up at a single UK vascular centre. Post-operative surveillance involved computed tomography scans at 3 months and 1 year, with duplex ultrasound yearly thereafter. Outcome measures were established with retrospective analysis of pre- and post-operative imaging, and included peri-operative mortality, major adverse events, limb complications, aneurysm diameter change, and endoleak rates. All patients were within Ovation instructions for use (IFU), and assessment was made to determine whether aneurysms had anatomical features considered adverse for other commonly used stent graft platforms. Ovation stent grafts were implanted in 52 patients (79% male, mean age 75.7 years) with a mean aneurysm diameter of 62.5 mm (range 55-107 mm). There was 100% technical deployment success. The 30 day mortality was 0% and there was no aneurysm related mortality during follow-up (median 24 months, range 3-48 months). There were no type I or III endoleaks, but 19% developed type II endoleaks with one patient requiring re-intervention. No iliac limb occlusions were identified but one case required relining for limb kinking. All 52 cases were within the IFU for Ovation but only 12% met the IFU criteria for the Cook and Medtronic devices. The mid-term experience with Ovation demonstrates safe, durable treatment of iAAAs, including those with unfavourable anatomy, frequently off IFU for other commonly used devices. Copyright © 2017 European Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of caffeine on repair systems in oocytes of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelson, D.

    1976-01-01

    Irradiated males were mated to females that had received treatment with caffeine or honey (by feeding), and the frequencies of sex-chromosome losses and chromosome rearrangements induced in mature spermatozoa of the males were compared. Caffeine treatment led to an enhancement of the frequencies of sex-chromosome loss and a decrease in those of rearrangements. These findings can be interpreted on the assumption that caffeine inhibits repair and misrepair processes that are active in the oocytes. Caffeine treatment administered to one of the female stocks used in these studies was without any effect, presumably because of the absence of a caffeine-sensitive repair mechanism in the oocytes

  4. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  5. Simulation based analysis and an application to an offshore oil and gas production system of the Natvig measures of component importance in repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natvig, Bent; Eide, Kristina A.; Gasemyr, Jorund; Huseby, Arne B.; Isaksen, Stefan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper the Natvig measures of component importance for repairable systems, and its extended version are analyzed for two three-component systems and a bridge system. The measures are also applied to an offshore oil and gas production system. According to the extended version of the Natvig measure a component is important if both by failing it strongly reduces the expected system uptime and by being repaired it strongly reduces the expected system downtime. The results include a study of how different distributions affect the ranking of the components. All numerical results are computed using discrete event simulation. In a companion paper [Huseby AB, Eide KA, Isaksen SL, Natvig B, Gasemyr, J. Advanced discrete event simulation methods with application to importance measure estimation. 2009, submitted for publication] the advanced simulation methods needed in these calculations are described.

  6. DNA repair protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergbæk, Lotte

    In its 3rd edition, this Methods in Molecular Biology(TM) book covers the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including advanced protocols and standard techniques in the field of DNA repair. Offers expert guidance for DNA repair, recombination, and replication. Current knowledge of the mechanisms...... that regulate DNA repair has grown significantly over the past years with technology advances such as RNA interference, advanced proteomics and microscopy as well as high throughput screens. The third edition of DNA Repair Protocols covers various aspects of the eukaryotic response to genomic insult including...... recent advanced protocols as well as standard techniques used in the field of DNA repair. Both mammalian and non-mammalian model organisms are covered in the book, and many of the techniques can be applied with only minor modifications to other systems than the one described. Written in the highly...

  7. Effects of the belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation system on lower extremity skeletal muscle activity: Evaluation using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numata, Hitoaki; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Oshima, Takeshi; Takata, Yasushi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Lower-extremity muscle weakness in athletes after lower limb trauma or surgery can hinder their return to sports, and the associated muscle atrophy may lead to deterioration in performance after returning to sports. Recently, belt electrode skeletal muscle electrical stimulation (B-SES) which can contract all the lower limb skeletal muscles simultaneously was developed. However, no study has evaluated skeletal muscle activity with B-SES. Since only superficial muscles as well as a limited number of muscles can be investigated using electromyography, we investigated whether positron emission tomography (PET) can evaluate the activity of all the skeletal muscles in the body simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the B-SES system using PET. Twelve healthy males (mean age, 24.3 years) were divided into two groups. The subjects in the control group remained in a sitting position for 10 min, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was intravenously injected. In the exercise group, subjects exercised using the B-SES system for 20 min daily for three consecutive days as a pre-test exercise. On the measurement day, they exercised for 10 min, received an injection of FDG, and exercised for another 10 min. PET-computed tomography images were obtained in each group 60 min after the FDG injection. Regions of interest were drawn in each lower-extremity muscle. We compared each skeletal muscle metabolism using the standardized uptake value. In the exercise group, FDG accumulation in the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, quadriceps femoris, sartorius, and hamstrings was significantly higher than the muscles in the control (P skeletal muscle activity of the gluteal muscles as well as the most lower-extremity muscles simultaneously. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. PMS2 gene mutation results in DNA mismatch repair system failure in a case of adult granulosa cell tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Lee, Ya-Ting; Lai, Yen-Chein

    2017-03-27

    Granulosa cell tumors are rare ovarian malignancies. Their characteristics include unpredictable indolent growth with malignant potential and late recurrence. Approximately 95% are of adult type. Recent molecular studies have characterized the FOXL2 402C > G mutation in adult granulosa cell tumor. Our previous case report showed that unique FOXL2 402C > G mutation and defective DNA mismatch repair system are associated with the development of adult granulosa cell tumor. In this study, the DNA sequences of four genes, MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, and PMS2, in the DNA mismatch repair system were determined via direct sequencing to elucidate the exact mechanism for the development of this granulosa cell tumor. The results showed that two missense germline mutations, T485K and N775L, inactivate the PMS2 gene. The results of this case study indicated that although FOXL2 402C > G mutation determines the development of granulosa cell tumor, PMS2 mutation may be the initial driver of carcinogenesis. Immunohistochemistry-based tumor testing for mismatch repair gene expression may be necessary for granulosa cell tumors to determine their malignant potential or if they are part of Lynch syndrome.

  9. Endoscopic augmentation of the lower esophageal sphincter for the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Multicenter study of the gatekeeper reflux repair system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fockens, P.; Bruno, M. J.; Gabbrielli, A.; Odegaard, S.; Hatlebakk, J.; Allescher, H. D.; Rösch, T.; Rhodes, M.; Bastid, C.; Rey, J.; Boyer, J.; Muehldorffer, S.; van den Hombergh, U.; Costamagna, G.

    2004-01-01

    Background and Study Aims: The safety and effectiveness of the Gatekeeper Reflux Repair System (Medtronic Europe, Tolochenaz, Switzerland) in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) was evaluated. This new, reversible treatment modality involves the endoscopic introduction of

  10. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  11. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  12. Clustered DNA lesions containing 5-formyluracil and AP site: repair via the BER system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina A Belousova

    Full Text Available Lesions in the DNA arise under ionizing irradiation conditions or various chemical oxidants as a single damage or as part of a multiply damaged site within 1-2 helical turns (clustered lesion. Here, we explored the repair opportunity of the apurinic/apyrimidinic site (AP site composed of the clustered lesion with 5-formyluracil (5-foU by the base excision repair (BER proteins. We found, that if the AP site is shifted relative to the 5-foU of the opposite strand, it could be repaired primarily via the short-patch BER pathway. In this case, the cleavage efficiency of the AP site-containing DNA strand catalyzed by human apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1 (hAPE1 decreased under AP site excursion to the 3'-side relative to the lesion in the other DNA strand. DNA synthesis catalyzed by DNA polymerase lambda was more accurate in comparison to the one catalyzed by DNA polymerase beta. If the AP site was located exactly opposite 5-foU it was expected to switch the repair to the long-patch BER pathway. In this situation, human processivity factor hPCNA stimulates the process.

  13. Complex catalysts from self-repairing ensembles to highly reactive air-based oxidation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig L. Hill; Laurent Delannoy; Dean C. Duncan; Ira A. Weinstock; Roman F. Renneke; Richard S. Reiner; Rajai H. Atalla; Jong Woo Han; Daniel A. Hillesheim; Rui Cao; Travis M. Anderson; Nelya M. Okun; Djamaladdin G. Musaev; Yurii V. Geletii

    2007-01-01

    Progress in four interrelated catalysis research efforts in our laboratory are summarized: (1) catalytic photochemical functionalization of unactivated CeH bonds by polyoxometalates (POMs); (2) self-repairing catalysts; (3) catalysts for air-based oxidations under ambient conditions; and (4) terminal oxo complexes of the late-transition metal elements and their...

  14. The development of remote repairing system, decontamination and in-cell remote inspection equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishibashi, Yuzo; Toyoda, Osamu; Haginoya, Isao; Yamamoto, Ryuichi; Tanaka, Yasumasa

    1993-01-01

    PNC has been developing remote repair and inspection technologies for in-cell components in reprocessing Plants. In this report, several remote technologies such as remote dismantling and removal, decontamination, remote pipe maintenance and remote in-cell inspection equipment are described. (author)

  15. DNA repair in human cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regan, J.D.; Carrier, W.L.; Kusano, I.; Furuno-Fukushi, I.; Dunn, W.C. Jr.; Francis, A.A.; Lee, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Our primary objective is to elucidate the molecular events in human cells when cellular macromolecules such as DNA are damaged by radiation or chemical agents. We study and characterize (i) the sequence of DNA repair events, (ii) the various modalities of repair, (iii) the genetic inhibition of repair due to mutation, (iv) the physiological inhibition of repair due to mutation, (v) the physiological inhibition of repair due to biochemical inhibitors, and (vi) the genetic basis of repair. Our ultimate goals are to (i) isolate and analyze the repair component of the mutagenic and/or carcinogenic event in human cells, and (ii) elucidate the magnitude and significance of this repair component as it impinges on the practical problems of human irradiation or exposure to actual or potential chemical mutagens and carcinogens. The significance of these studies lies in (i) the ubiquitousness of repair (most organisms, including man, have several complex repair systems), (ii) the belief that mutagenic and carcinogenic events may arise only from residual (nonrepaired) lesions or that error-prone repair systems may be the major induction mechanisms of the mutagenic or carcinogenic event, and (iii) the clear association of repair defects and highly carcinogenic disease states in man [xeroderma pigmentosum (XP)

  16. Involvement of the DNA mismatch repair system in cisplatin sensitivity of testicular germ cell tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Christiane; Melau, Cecilie; Nielsen, John E; Vile Jensen, Kristina; Liu, Dekang; Pena-Diaz, Javier; Rajpert-De Meyts, Ewa; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Jørgensen, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) are highly sensitive to cisplatin-based chemotherapy, but patients with tumours containing differentiated teratoma components are less responsive to this treatment. The cisplatin sensitivity in TGCT has previously been linked to the embryonic phenotype in the majority of tumours, although the underlying mechanism largely remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) system in the cisplatin sensitivity of TGCT. The expression pattern of key MMR proteins, including MSH2, MSH6, MLH1 and PMS2, were investigated during testis development and in the pathogenesis of TGCT, including germ cell neoplasia in situ (GCNIS). The TGCT-derived cell line NTera2 was differentiated using retinoic acid (10 μM, 6 days) after which MMR protein expression and activity, as well as cisplatin sensitivity, were investigated in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells. Finally, the expression of MSH2 was knocked down by siRNA in NTera2 cells after which the effect on cisplatin sensitivity was examined. MMR proteins were expressed in proliferating cells in the testes, while in malignant germ cells MMR protein expression was found to coincide with the expression of the pluripotency factor OCT4, with no or low expression in the more differentiated yolk sac tumours, choriocarcinomas and teratomas. In differentiated NTera2 cells we found a significantly (p cisplatin sensitivity, compared to undifferentiated NTera2 cells. Also, we found that partial knockdown of MSH2 expression in undifferentiated NTera2 cells resulted in a significantly (p cisplatin sensitivity. This study reports, for the first time, expression of the MMR system in fetal gonocytes, from which GCNIS cells are derived. Our findings in primary TGCT specimens and TGCT-derived cells suggest that a reduced sensitivity to cisplatin in differentiated TGCT components could result from a reduced expression of MMR proteins, in

  17. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    .5-8.5) and εHf(t) (10.2-16.8) values, as well as young isotopic model ages. These Devonian-Carboniferous intermediate-felsic volcanics are interpreted as the products of partial melting of a juvenile lower crust with some contributions from mantle components in an evolved island arc setting from immature to mature island arc. The basin filling pattern and the distribution of arc volcanics and their zircon Hf model ages with the eruptive time suggest that the Wulungu Depression represents an island arc-basin system with the development of a Carboniferous retro-arc basin. In combination with previous work, we propose that the northern Junggar area comprises three arc-basin belts from south to north: the Darbut-Luliang-Karamaili, Wulungu-Yemaquan, and Saur-Fuhai-Dulate. Such tectonic subdivisions are consistent with the regional gravity and magnetic anomaly data. The recognition of the Wulungu arc-basin system demonstrates that the Junggar Basin is likely underlain by juvenile continental crust rather than ancient Precambrian basement, and also implies that the CAOB was built by amalgamation of multiple linear arcs and accretionary complexes.

  18. Development and applications of Bacillus subtilis test systems for mutagens, involving DNA-repair deficiency and suppressible auxotrophic mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanooka, H.

    1977-01-01

    A mutagen-tester of Bacillus subtilis was constructed and tested with known carcinogens. The parental strain HA101 of Okubo and Yanagida carrying suppressible nonsense mutations in his and met genes was transformed to carry an excision-repair deficiency mutation. The constructed strain TKJ5211 showed a 20-30-fold higher sensitivity for His + reversion than the parental strain when treated with UV and UV-mimetic chemicals but unchanged mutation frequency with X-rays and methyl methanesulfonate. The tester strain was used in a spot test of 30 selected chemicals and also for testing with liver homogenate activation. The results showed an almost equivalent but somewhat broader detection spectrum than the Salmonella typhimurium TA100 system. Another test method used a pair of B. subtilis strains differing in their DNA-repair capacity, i.e. the most UV-sensitive mutant HJ-15 and a wild-type strain, to detect repair-dependent DNA damage produced by chemicals. Spores could be used in either test

  19. The Influence of Hepatitis C Virus Therapy on the DNA Base Excision Repair System of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarny, Piotr; Merecz-Sadowska, Anna; Majchrzak, Kinga; Jabłkowski, Maciej; Szemraj, Janusz; Śliwiński, Tomasz; Karwowski, Bolesław

    2017-07-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) can infect extrahepatic tissues, including lymphocytes, creating reservoir of the virus. Moreover, HCV proteins can interact with DNA damage response proteins of infected cells. In this article we investigated the influence of the virus infection and a new ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir ± dasabuvir ± ribavirin (OBV/PTV/r ± DSV ± RBV) anti-HCV therapy on the PBMCs (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, mainly lymphocytes) DNA base excision repair (BER) system. BER protein activity was analyzed in the nuclear and mitochondrial extracts (NE and ME) of PBMC isolated from patients before and after therapy, and from subjects without HCV, using modeled double-strand DNA, with 2'-deoxyuridine substitution as the DNA damage. The NE and ME obtained from patients before therapy demonstrated lower efficacy of 2'-deoxyuridine removal and DNA repair polymerization than those of the control group or patients after therapy. Moreover, the extracts from the patients after therapy had similar activity to those from the control group. However, the efficacy of apurinic/apyrimidinic site excision in NE did not differ between the studied groups. We postulate that infection of lymphocytes by the HCV can lead to a decrease in the activity of BER enzymes. However, the use of novel therapy results in the improvement of glycosylase activity as well as the regeneration of endonuclease and other crucial repair enzymes.

  20. Discrete event simulation methods applied to advanced importance measures of repairable components in multistate network flow systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huseby, Arne B.; Natvig, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Discrete event models are frequently used in simulation studies to model and analyze pure jump processes. A discrete event model can be viewed as a system consisting of a collection of stochastic processes, where the states of the individual processes change as results of various kinds of events occurring at random points of time. We always assume that each event only affects one of the processes. Between these events the states of the processes are considered to be constant. In the present paper we use discrete event simulation in order to analyze a multistate network flow system of repairable components. In order to study how the different components contribute to the system, it is necessary to describe the often complicated interaction between component processes and processes at the system level. While analytical considerations may throw some light on this, a simulation study often allows the analyst to explore more details. By producing stable curve estimates for the development of the various processes, one gets a much better insight in how such systems develop over time. These methods are particulary useful in the study of advanced importancez measures of repairable components. Such measures can be very complicated, and thus impossible to calculate analytically. By using discrete event simulations, however, this can be done in a very natural and intuitive way. In particular significant differences between the Barlow–Proschan measure and the Natvig measure in multistate network flow systems can be explored

  1. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  2. Multiobjective optimization of availability and cost in repairable systems design via genetic algorithms and discrete event simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isis Didier Lins

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to provide a more realistic approach to the characterization of system reliability when handling redundancy allocation problems: it considers repairable series-parallel systems comprised of components subjected to corrective maintenance actions with failure-repair cycles modeled by renewal processes. A multiobjective optimization approach is applied since increasing the number of redundancies not only enlarges system reliability but also its associated costs. Then a multiobjective genetic algorithm is coupled with discrete event simulation and its solutions present the compromise between system reliability and cost. Two examples are provided. In the first one, the proposed algorithm is validated by comparison with results obtained from a system devised as to allow for analytical solutions of the objective functions. The second case analyzes a repairable system subjected to perfect repairs. Results from both examples show that the proposed method can be a valuable tool for the decision maker when choosing the system design.Esse artigo utiliza uma abordagem mais realista para a caracterização da confiabilidade de sistemas em problemas de alocação de redundâncias: são considerados sistemas série-paralelo formados por componentes sujeitos a ações de manutenção corretiva com ciclos de falha-reparo modelados por processos de renovação. É aplicada uma abordagem de otimização multiobjetivo, pois o aumento de redundâncias eleva a confiabilidade do sistema e também os seus custos. Assim, um algoritmo genético multiobjetivo é integrado com simulação discreta de eventos e suas soluções apresentam o compromisso entre confiabilidade e custo do sistema. Dois exemplos são fornecidos. No primeiro, o algoritmo proposto é validado através da comparação com resultados obtidos de um sistema criado de forma a permitir soluções analíticas das funções-objetivo. No segundo, analisa-se um sistema reparável sujeito a

  3. THE HUBBLE WIDE FIELD CAMERA 3 TEST OF SURFACES IN THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM: SPECTRAL VARIATION ON KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.; Glass, Florian

    2015-01-01

    Here, we present additional photometry of targets observed as part of the Hubble Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) Test of Surfaces in the Outer Solar System. Twelve targets were re-observed with the WFC3 in the optical and NIR wavebands designed to complement those used during the first visit. Additionally, all of the observations originally presented by Fraser and Brown were reanalyzed through the same updated photometry pipeline. A re-analysis of the optical and NIR color distribution reveals a bifurcated optical color distribution and only two identifiable spectral classes, each of which occupies a broad range of colors and has correlated optical and NIR colors, in agreement with our previous findings. We report the detection of significant spectral variations on five targets which cannot be attributed to photometry errors, cosmic rays, point-spread function or sensitivity variations, or other image artifacts capable of explaining the magnitude of the variation. The spectrally variable objects are found to have a broad range of dynamical classes and absolute magnitudes, exhibit a broad range of apparent magnitude variations, and are found in both compositional classes. The spectrally variable objects with sufficiently accurate colors for spectral classification maintain their membership, belonging to the same class at both epochs. 2005 TV189 exhibits a sufficiently broad difference in color at the two epochs that span the full range of colors of the neutral class. This strongly argues that the neutral class is one single class with a broad range of colors, rather than the combination of multiple overlapping classes

  4. P-T composition and evolution of paleofluids in the Paleoproterozoic Mag Hill IOCG system, Contact Lake belt, Northwest Territories, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somarin, A. Karimzadeh; Mumin, A. Hamid

    2014-02-01

    The Echo Bay stratovolcano complex and Contact Lake Belt of the Great Bear Magmatic Zone, Northwest Territories, host a series of coalescing Paleoproterozoic hydrothermal systems that affected an area of several hundred square kilometers. They were caused by intrusion of synvolcanic diorite-monzodioritic plutons into andesitic host rocks, producing several characteristic hydrothermal assemblages. They include early and proximal albite, magnetite-actinolite-apatite, and potassic (K-feldspar) alteration, followed by more distal hematite, phyllic (quartz-sericite-pyrite), and propylitic (chlorite-epidote-carbonate±sericite±albite±quartz) alteration, and finally by late-stage polymetallic epithermal veins. These alteration types are characteristic of iron oxide copper-gold deposits, however, with distal and lower-temperature assemblages similar to porphyry Cu systems. Magnetite-actinolite-apatite alteration formed from high temperature (up to 560 °C) fluids with average salinity of 12.8 wt% NaCl equivalent. The prograde propylitic and phyllic alteration stages are associated with fluids with temperatures varying from 80 to 430 °C and a wide salinity range (0.5-45.6 wt% NaCl equivalent). Similarly, wide fluid temperature (104-450 °C) and salinity (4.2-46.1 wt% NaCl equivalent) ranges are recorded for the phyllic alteration. This was followed by Cu-Ag-U-Zn-Co-Pb sulfarsenide mineralization in late-stage epithermal veins formed at shallow depths and temperatures from 270 °C to as low as 105 °C. The polymetallic veins precipitated from high salinity (mean 30 wt% NaCl equivalent) dense fluids (1.14 g/cm3) with a vapor pressure of 3.8 bars, typical of epithermal conditions. Fluid inclusion evidence indicates that mixed fluids with evolving physicochemical properties were responsible for the formation of the alteration assemblages and mineralization at Mag Hill. An early high temperature, moderate salinity, and magmatic fluid was subsequently modified variably by

  5. Effects of interaction between ultramafic tectonite and mafic magma on Nd-Pb-Sr isotopic systems in the Neoproterozoic Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amelin, Yuri V.; Ritsk, Eugeni Yu.; Neymark, Leonid A.

    1997-04-01

    Sm-Nd, Rb-Sr and U-Pb isotopic systems have been studied in minerals and whole rocks of harzburgites and mafic cumulates from the Chaya Massif, Baikal-Muya ophiolite belt, eastern Siberia, in order to determine the relationship between mantle ultramafic and crustal mafic sections. Geological relations in the Chaya Massif indicate that the mafic magmas were emplaced into, and interacted with older solid peridotite. Hand picked, acid-leached, primary rock-forming and accessory minerals (olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and plagioclase) from the two harzburgite samples show coherent behavior and yield 147Sm/ 144Nd- 143Nd/ 144Nd and 238U/ 204Pb- 206Pb/ 204Pb mineral isochrons, corresponding to ages of 640 ± 58 Ma (95% confidence level) and 620 ± 71 Ma, respectively. These values are indistinguishable from the crystallization age of the Chaya mafic units of 627 ± 25 Ma (a weighted average of internal isochron Sm-Nd ages of four mafic cumulates). The Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic systems in the harzburgite whole-rock samples were disturbed by hydrothermal alteration. These alteration-related isotopic shifts mimic the trend of variations in primary isotopic compositions in the mafic sequence, thus emphasizing that isotopic data for ultramafic rocks should be interpreted with great caution. On the basis of initial Sr and Nd values, ultramafic and mafic rocks of the Chaya Massif can be divided into two groups: (1) harzburgites and the lower mafic unit gabbronorites withɛ Nd = +6.6 to +7.1 andɛ Sr = -11 to -16; and (2) websterite of the lower unit and gabbronorites of the upper mafic unit:ɛ Nd = +4.6 to +6.1 andɛ Sr = -8 to -9. Initial Pb isotopic ratios are identical in all rocks studied, with mean values of 206Pb/ 204Pb= 16.994 ± 0.023 and 207Pb/ 204Pb= 15.363 ± 0.015. The similarity of ages and initial isotopic ratios within the first group indicates that the isotopic systems in the pre-existing depleted peridotite were reset by extensive interaction with

  6. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  7. Molecular dialogues between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: Dualistic roles in injury and repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A.; Leak, Rehana K.; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialogue between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. PMID:24374228

  8. Molecular dialogs between the ischemic brain and the peripheral immune system: dualistic roles in injury and repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Chengrui; Shi, Yejie; Li, Peiying; Hu, Xiaoming; Gan, Yu; Stetler, Ruth A; Leak, Rehana K; Gao, Yanqin; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zheng, Ping; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    Immune and inflammatory responses actively modulate the pathophysiological processes of acute brain injuries such as stroke. Soon after the onset of stroke, signals such as brain-derived antigens, danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), cytokines, and chemokines are released from the injured brain into the systemic circulation. The injured brain also communicates with peripheral organs through the parasympathetic and sympathetic branches of the autonomic nervous system. Many of these diverse signals not only activate resident immune cells in the brain, but also trigger robust immune responses in the periphery. Peripheral immune cells then migrate toward the site of injury and release additional cytokines, chemokines, and other molecules, causing further disruptive or protective effects in the ischemic brain. Bidirectional communication between the injured brain and the peripheral immune system is now known to regulate the progression of stroke pathology as well as tissue repair. In the end, this exquisitely coordinated crosstalk helps determine the fate of animals after stroke. This article reviews the literature on ischemic brain-derived signals through which peripheral immune responses are triggered, and the potential impact of these peripheral responses on brain injury and repair. Pharmacological strategies and cell-based therapies that target the dialog between the brain and peripheral immune system show promise as potential novel treatments for stroke. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Clinical Outcomes and Complications of Percutaneous Achilles Repair System Versus Open Technique for Acute Achilles Tendon Ruptures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Andrew R; Jones, Carroll P; Cohen, Bruce E; Davis, W Hodges; Ellington, J Kent; Anderson, Robert B

    2015-11-01

    Limited incision techniques for acute Achilles tendon ruptures have been developed in recent years to improve recovery and reduce postoperative complications compared with traditional open repair. The purpose of this retrospective cohort study was to analyze the clinical outcomes and postoperative complications between acute Achilles tendon ruptures treated using a percutaneous Achilles repair system (PARS [Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL]) versus open repair and evaluate the overall outcomes for operatively treated Achilles ruptures. Between 2005 and 2014, 270 consecutive cases of operatively treated acute Achilles tendon ruptures were reviewed (101 PARS, 169 open). Patients with Achilles tendinopathy, insertional ruptures, chronic tears, or less than 3-month follow-up were excluded. Operative treatment consisted of a percutaneous technique (PARS) using a 2-cm transverse incision with FiberWire (Arthrex, Inc, Naples, FL) sutures or open repair using a 5- to 8-cm posteromedial incision with FiberWire in a Krackow fashion reinforced with absorbable sutures. Patient demographics were recorded along with medical comorbidities, activity at injury, time from injury to surgery, length of follow-up, return to baseline activities by 5 months, and postoperative complications. The most common activity during injury for both groups was basketball (PARS: 39%, open: 47%). A greater number of patients treated with PARS were able to return to baseline physical activities by 5 months compared with the open group (PARS: 98%, open: 82%; P = .0001). There were no significant differences (P > .05) between groups in rates of rerupture (P = 1.0), sural neuritis (P = .16), wound dehiscence (P = .74), superficial (P = .29) and/or deep infection (P = .29), or reoperation (P = .13). There were no deep vein thromboses (DVTs) or reruptures in either group. In the PARS group, there were no cases of sural neuritis, 3 cases (3%) of superficial wound dehiscence, and 2 reoperations (2%) for superficial

  10. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  11. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  12. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  13. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  14. THE TAOS PROJECT: UPPER BOUNDS ON THE POPULATION OF SMALL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS AND TESTS OF MODELS OF FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE OUTER SOLAR SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bianco, F. B.; Zhang, Z.-W.; King, S.-K.; Wang, J.-H.; Lee, T.; Lin, H.-C.; Lehner, M. J.; Mondal, S.; Giammarco, J.; Holman, M. J.; Alcock, C.; Coehlo, N. K.; Axelrod, T.; Byun, Y.-I.; Kim, D.-W.; Chen, W. P.; Cook, K. H.; Dave, R.; De Pater, I.; Lissauer, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    We have analyzed the first 3.75 years of data from the Taiwanese American Occultation Survey (TAOS). TAOS monitors bright stars to search for occultations by Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This data set comprises 5 x 10 5 star hours of multi-telescope photometric data taken at 4 or 5 Hz. No events consistent with KBO occultations were found in this data set. We compute the number of events expected for the Kuiper Belt formation and evolution models of Pan and Sari, Kenyon and Bromley, Benavidez and Campo Bagatin, and Fraser. A comparison with the upper limits we derive from our data constrains the parameter space of these models. This is the first detailed comparison of models of the KBO size distribution with data from an occultation survey. Our results suggest that the KBO population is composed of objects with low internal strength and that planetary migration played a role in the shaping of the size distribution.

  15. Application of Rapid Prototyping Technique and Intraoperative Navigation System for the Repair and Reconstruction of Orbital Wall Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Jong Hyun; Lee, Yong Hae; Ruy, Wan Chul; Roe, Young; Moon, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Background Restoring the orbital cavity in large blow out fractures is a challenge for surgeons due to the anatomical complexity. This study evaluated the clinical outcomes and orbital volume after orbital wall fracture repair using a rapid prototyping (RP) technique and intraoperative navigation system. Methods This prospective study was conducted on the medical records and radiology records of 12 patients who had undergone a unilateral blow out fracture reconstruction using a RP technique and an intraoperative navigation system from November 2014 to March 2015. The surgical results were assessed by an ophthalmic examination and a comparison of the preoperative and postoperative orbital volume ratio (OVR) values. Results All patients had a successful treatment outcome without complications. Volumetric analysis revealed a significant decrease in the mean OVR from 1.0952±0.0662 (ranging from 0.9917 to 1.2509) preoperatively to 0.9942±0.0427 (ranging from 0.9394 to 1.0680) postoperatively. Conclusion The application of a RP technique for the repair of orbital wall fractures is a useful tool that may help improve the clinical outcomes by understanding the individual anatomy, determining the operability, and restoring the orbital cavity volume through optimal implant positioning along with an intraoperative navigation system. PMID:28913272

  16. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  17. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  18. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  19. Study on the application of permanent magnet synchronous motors in underground belt conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    This paper analyzes and compares the advantages and disadvantages of several kinds of drive devices of belt conveyors from the angle of energy saving, and summarizes the application advantages and using problems of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system in belt conveyors. An example is given to demonstrate the energy saving effect of this system compared with other driving methods. This paper points out the application prospect of permanent magnet motor variable frequency drive system on belt conveyors and other large mining machines in coal mine. This paper is aimed to provide the design direction for the designer and the choice basis for the user on belt conveyor.

  20. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  1. Meningocele repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is surgery to repair birth defects of the spine and spinal membranes. Meningocele and myelomeningocele ... is covered by a sterile dressing. Your child may then be transferred to a neonatal intensive ...

  2. Incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems under random conditions: The effect on the maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulcini, Gianpaolo

    2015-01-01

    This note investigates the effect of the incorrect modeling of the failure process of minimally repaired systems that operates under random environmental conditions on the costs of a periodic replacement maintenance. The motivation of this paper is given by a recently published paper, where a wrong formulation of the expected cost for unit time under a periodic replacement policy is obtained. This wrong formulation is due to the incorrect assumption that the intensity function of minimally repaired systems that operate under random conditions has the same functional form as the failure rate of the first failure time. This produced an incorrect optimization of the replacement maintenance. Thus, in this note the conceptual differences between the intensity function and the failure rate of the first failure time are first highlighted. Then, the correct expressions of the expected cost and of the optimal replacement period are provided. Finally, a real application is used to measure how severe can be the economical consequences caused by the incorrect modeling of the failure process.

  3. Seat belt use to save face: impact on drivers' body region and nature of injury in motor vehicle crashes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Guang-Ming; Newmyer, Ashley; Qu, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Seat belt use is the single most effective way to save lives and reduce injuries in motor vehicle crashes. However, some case reports described seat belt use as a double-edged sword because some injuries are related to seat belt use in motor vehicle crashes. To comprehensively understand the effects of seat belt use, we systemically investigated the association between seat belt use and injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes. The injury information was obtained by linking crash reports with hospital discharge data and categorized by using the diagnosis codes based on the Barell injury diagnosis matrix. A total of 10,479 drivers (≥15 years) in passenger vehicles involved in motor vehicle crashes from 2006 to 2011 were included in this study. Seat belt use significantly reduced the proportions of traumatic brain injury (10.4% non-seat belt; 4.1% seat belt) and other head, face, and neck injury (29.3% non-seat belt; 16.6% seat belt) but increased the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury (17.9% non-seat belt; 35.5% seat belt). Although the proportion of spine: thoracic to coccyx injury was increased in drivers with seat belt use, the severity of injury was decreased, such as fracture (4.2% with seat belt use; 22.0% without seat belt use). Furthermore, the total medical charges decreased due to the change of injury profiles in drivers with seat belt use from a higher percentage of fractures (average cost for per case $26,352) to a higher percentage of sprains and/or strains ($1,897) with spine: thoracic to coccyx injury. This study provide a comprehensive picture for understanding the protective effect of seat belt use on injuries based on anatomic body region and type of injury in drivers involved in motor vehicle crashes.

  4. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  5. Endovascular repair of arterial iliac vessel wall lesions with a self-expandable nitinol stent graft system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Birger Mensel

    Full Text Available To assess the therapeutic outcome after endovascular repair of iliac arterial lesions (IALs using a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft system.Between July 2006 and March 2013, 16 patients (13 males, mean age: 68 years with a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft. A total of 19 lesions were treated: nine true aneurysms, two anastomotic aneurysms, two dissections, one arteriovenous fistula, two type 1B endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair, one pseudoaneurysm, and two perforations after angioplasty. Pre-, intra-, and postinterventional imaging studies and the medical records were analyzed for technical and clinical success and postinterventional complications.The primary technical and clinical success rate was 81.3% (13/16 patients and 75.0% (12/16, respectively. Two patients had technical failure due to persistent type 1A endoleak and another patient due to acute stent graft thrombosis. One patient showed severe stent graft kinking on the first postinterventional day. In two patients, a second intervention was performed. The secondary technical and clinical success rate was 87.5% (14/16 and 93.8% (15/16. The minor complication rate was 6.3% (patient with painful hematoma at the access site. The major complication rate was 6.3% (patient with ipsilateral deep vein thrombosis. During median follow-up of 22.4 months, an infection of the aneurysm sac in one patient and a stent graft thrombosis in another patient were observed.Endovascular repair of various IALs with a self-expandable Nitinol stent graft is safe and effective.

  6. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  7. Clamp wins pipe repair prize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-04-01

    This paper describes the permanent pipeline repair system, developed by Tekmar, which is powered by seawater hydraulics and is easily installed and tested by any workclass remotely operated vehicle (rov). Details are given of the two main components of the system, namely, the diverless high pressure split repair clamp and the rov-operated tool to install it.

  8. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  9. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  10. Monitoring Agricultural Drought Using Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing on the Primary Corn and Soybean Belt in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shomrany, Adel

    The study aims to evaluate various remote sensing drought indices to assess those most fitting for monitoring agricultural drought. The objectives are (1) to assess and study the impact of drought effect on (corn and soybean) crop production by crop mapping information and GIS technology; (2) to use Geographical Weighted Regression (GWR) as a technical approach to evaluate the spatial relationships between precipitation vs. irrigated and non-irrigated corn and soybean yield, using a Nebraska county-level case study; (3) to assess agricultural drought indices derived from remote sensing (NDVI, NMDI, NDWI, and NDII6); (4) to develop an optimal approach for agricultural drought detection based on remote sensing measurements to determine the relationship between US county-level yields versus relatively common variables collected. Extreme drought creates low corn and soybean production where irrigation systems are not implemented. This results in a lack of moisture in soil leading to dry land and stale crop yields. When precipitation and moisture is found across all states, corn and soybean production flourishes. For Kansas, Nebraska, and South Dakota, irrigation management methods assist in strong crop yields throughout SPI monthly averages. The data gathered on irrigation consisted of using drought indices gathered by the national agricultural statistics service website. For the SPI levels ranging between one-month and nine-months, Kansas and Nebraska performed the best out of all 12-states contained in the Midwestern primary Corn and Soybean Belt. The reasoning behind Kansas and Nebraska's results was due to a more efficient and sustainable irrigation system, where upon South Dakota lacked. South Dakota was leveled by strong correlations throughout all SPI periods for corn only. Kansas showed its strongest correlations for the two-month and three-month averages, for both corn and soybean. Precipitation regression with irrigated and non-irrigated maize (corn) and

  11. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, A.A.

    1984-01-01

    In this chapter a series of DNA repair pathways are discussed which are available to the cell to cope with the problem of DNA damaged by chemical or physical agents. In the case of microorganisms our knowledge about the precise mechanism of each DNA repair pathway and the regulation of it has been improved considerably when mutants deficient in these repair mechanisms became available. In the case of mammalian cells in culture, until recently there were very little repair deficient mutants available, because in almost all mammalian cells in culture at least the diploid number of chromosomes is present. Therefore the frequency of repair deficient mutants in such populations is very low. Nevertheless because replica plating techniques are improving some mutants from Chinese hamsters ovary cells and L5178Y mouse lymphoma cells are now available. In the case of human cells, cultures obtained from patients with certain genetic diseases are available. A number of cells appear to be sensitive to some chemical or physical mutagens. These include cells from patients suffering from xeroderma pigmentosum, Ataxia telangiectasia, Fanconi's anemia, Cockayne's syndrome. However, only in the case of xeroderma pigmentosum cells, has the sensitivity to ultraviolet light been clearly correlated with a deficiency in excision repair of pyrimidine dimers. Furthermore the work with strains obtained from biopsies from man is difficult because these cells generally have low cloning efficiencies and also have a limited lifespan in vitro. It is therefore very important that more repair deficient mutants will become available from established cell lines from human or animal origin

  12. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc B.; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Ouellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2007-12-18

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  13. Design structure for in-system redundant array repair in integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A.; Crumley, Paul G.; Dombrowa, Marc; Douskey, Steven M.; Haring, Rudolf A.; Oakland, Steven F.; Quellette, Michael R.; Strissel, Scott A.

    2008-11-25

    A design structure for repairing an integrated circuit during operation of the integrated circuit. The integrated circuit comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The design structure provides the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The design structure further passes the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  14. Method and apparatus for in-system redundant array repair on integrated circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bright, Arthur A [Croton-on-Hudson, NY; Crumley, Paul G [Yorktown Heights, NY; Dombrowa, Marc B [Bronx, NY; Douskey, Steven M [Rochester, MN; Haring, Rudolf A [Cortlandt Manor, NY; Oakland, Steven F [Colchester, VT; Ouellette, Michael R [Westford, VT; Strissel, Scott A [Byron, MN

    2008-07-29

    Disclosed is a method of repairing an integrated circuit of the type comprising of a multitude of memory arrays and a fuse box holding control data for controlling redundancy logic of the arrays. The method comprises the steps of providing the integrated circuit with a control data selector for passing the control data from the fuse box to the memory arrays; providing a source of alternate control data, external of the integrated circuit; and connecting the source of alternate control data to the control data selector. The method comprises the further step of, at a given time, passing the alternate control data from the source thereof, through the control data selector and to the memory arrays to control the redundancy logic of the memory arrays.

  15. A systems-based investigation into vitamin D and skeletal muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Daniel J; Sharples, Adam P; Polydorou, Ioanna; Alwan, Nura; Donovan, Timothy; Tang, Jonathan; Fraser, William D; Cooper, Robert G; Morton, James P; Stewart, Claire; Close, Graeme L

    2015-12-15

    Skeletal muscle is a direct target for vitamin D. Observational studies suggest that low 25[OH]D correlates with functional recovery of skeletal muscle following eccentric contractions in humans and crush injury in rats. However, a definitive association is yet to be established. To address this gap in knowledge in relation to damage repair, a randomised, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 20 males with insufficient concentrations of serum 25(OH)D (45 ± 25 nmol/l). Prior to and following 6 wk of supplemental vitamin D3 (4,000 IU/day) or placebo (50 mg of cellulose), participants performed 20 × 10 damaging eccentric contractions of the knee extensors, with peak torque measured over the following 7 days of recovery. Parallel experimentation using isolated human skeletal muscle-derived myoblast cells from biopsies of 14 males with low serum 25(OH)D (37 ± 11 nmol/l) were subjected to mechanical wound injury, which enabled corresponding in vitro studies of muscle repair, regeneration, and hypertrophy in the presence and absence of 10 or 100 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3. Supplemental vitamin D3 increased serum 25(OH)D and improved recovery of peak torque at 48 h and 7 days postexercise. In vitro, 10 nmol 1α,25(OH)2D3 improved muscle cell migration dynamics and resulted in improved myotube fusion/differentiation at the biochemical, morphological, and molecular level together with increased myotube hypertrophy at 7 and 10 days postdamage. Together, these preliminary data are the first to characterize a role for vitamin D in human skeletal muscle regeneration and suggest that maintaining serum 25(OH)D may be beneficial for enhancing reparative processes and potentially for facilitating subsequent hypertrophy. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. [Direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis using a pedicle screw-laminar hook system by paramedian approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Tang, Yong-hua; Tang, Hong-chao; Jin, Cai-yi

    2011-08-01

    To discuss the indication and clinical effect of direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis by screw-laminar hook system. From August 2003 to December 2008, 28 patients (13 males and 15 females,ranging in age from 15 and 26 years, averaged 21.6 years) with lumbar spondylolysis were treated with isthmic bone grafting and internal fixation with a pedicle screw-laminar hook system. Three patients had spondylolysis at L3, L4; 5 patients had spondylolysis at L4, L5; 8 patients had spondylolysis at L4; and 12 patients had spondylolysis at L5. All the patients had low back pain and lasted over 6 months. According to preoperative and postoperative plain radiograph, CT scan and Macnab criteria, the fusion rate and clinical effect of this technique were evaluated. All the patients were followed up with a mean period of 14.9 months, ranging from 9 to 24 months. All the patients had bony union according to the X-rays and CT scan. According to the calculation results of Macnab criteria, 22 patients got an excellent result, 5 good and 1 fair. The direct repair of adolescent lumbar spondylolysis with pedicle screw-laminar hook system can shorten length of operation,decrease blood loss, preserve more posterior structures of spine and avoid iatrogenic instability of spine. The postoperative immediate stability of vertebral segment is acquired and the mobility of adjacent intervertebral discs is reserved. The screw-laminar hook system for the treatment of adolescent spondylolisthesis can get satisfactory clinical results.

  17. Quantitative control of belt weighing feeder quick loading system%定量控制皮带称重式给料机快速装车系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣轩

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces a kind of belt weighing feeder quantitative control technology, which realizes the bulk material rapid loading design and widely used in coal metallurgy, chemical industry, building materials industry.%本文介绍了一种对皮带称重式给料机进行定量控制技术,实现散状物料快速装车的设计方案,广泛适用于煤炭、冶金、化工和建材等行业。

  18. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation. (TEM)

  19. International congress on DNA damage and repair: Book of abstracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This document contains the abstracts of 105 papers presented at the Congress. Topics covered include the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair system, DNA repair in malignant transformations, defective DNA repair, and gene regulation

  20. Study on Fuzzy Comprehensive Evaluation Model for the Safety of Mine Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Xiaoyan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the situation of the frequent failures of mine belt conveyor during operation, a model was used to evaluate the safety of mine belt conveyor. Based on the foundation of collecting and analyzing a large quantity of fault information of belt conveyor in the nationwide coal mine, the fault tree model of belt conveyor has been built, then the safety evaluation index system was established by analyzing and removing some secondary indicators. Furthermore, the weighted value of safety evaluation indexs was determined by analytic hierarchy process(AHP, and the single factor fuzzy evaluation matrix was constructed by experts grading method. Additionally, the model was applied in evaluating the security of belt conveyor in Nanliang coal mine. The results shows the security level is recognized to the “general”, which means that this model can be adopted widely in evaluating the safety of mine belt conveyor.

  1. Start-up of belt conveyors used for haulage of large lumps under difficult climatic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drobny, J

    1979-01-01

    Investigations are discussed carried out by the Research and Development Center for Brown Coal in Most, Czechoslovakia into effects of climate, weather and mass of coal lumps on reliability of belt conveyors in surface mines. Dirt buildup on the driving drums reduces friction and increases belt sliding hazards. Belt wear increases. Driving drum diameter, increased by the buildup, negatively influences load distribution among the electric motors of the drive system. In extreme cases belt wear and irregular load distribution cause belt failures. Methods for buildup removal used in Czechoslovakia and methods for protection of the return side of a conveyor are described. Effects of large mass of coal lumps and ice buildup on large lumps on the risk of belt damage (cuts, punctures etc,) are discussed. Recommendations for design of coal transfer points are made. 2 refs.

  2. The food-borne pathogen Campylobacter jejuni depends on the AddAB DNA repair system to defend against bile in the intestinal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Christopher R; Negretti, Nicholas M; Konkel, Michael E

    2017-10-31

    Accurate repair of DNA damage is crucial to ensure genome stability and cell survival of all organisms. Bile functions as a defensive barrier against intestinal colonization by pathogenic microbes. Campylobacter jejuni, a leading bacterial cause of foodborne illness, possess strategies to mitigate the toxic components of bile. We recently found that growth of C. jejuni in medium with deoxycholate, a component of bile, caused DNA damage consistent with the exposure to reactive oxygen species. We hypothesized that C. jejuni must repair DNA damage caused by reactive oxygen species to restore chromosomal integrity. Our efforts focused on determining the importance of the putative AddAB DNA repair proteins. A C. jejuni addAB mutant demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to deoxycholate and was impaired in DNA double strand break repair. Complementation of the addAB mutant restored resistance to deoxycholate, as well as function of the DNA double strand break repair system. The importance of these findings translated to the natural host, where the AddAB system was found to be required for efficient C. jejuni colonization of the chicken intestine. This research provides new insight into the molecular mechanism utilized by C. jejuni, and possibly other intestinal pathogens, to survive in the presence of bile.

  3. Minimal access direct spondylolysis repair using a pedicle screw-rod system: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohi Eldin Mohamed

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Symptomatic spondylolysis is always challenging to treat because the pars defect causing the instability needs to be stabilized while segmental fusion needs to be avoided. Direct repair of the pars defect is ideal in cases of spondylolysis in which posterior decompression is not necessary. We report clinical results using segmental pedicle-screw-rod fixation with bone grafting in patients with symptomatic spondylolysis, a modification of a technique first reported by Tokuhashi and Matsuzaki in 1996. We also describe the surgical technique, assess the fusion and analyze the outcomes of patients. Case presentation At Cairo University Hospital, eight out of twelve Egyptian patients’ acute pars fractures healed after conservative management. Of those, two young male patients underwent an operative procedure for chronic low back pain secondary to pars defect. Case one was a 25-year-old Egyptian man who presented with a one-year history of axial low back pain, not radiating to the lower limbs, after falling from height. Case two was a 29-year-old Egyptian man who presented with a one-year history of axial low back pain and a one-year history of mild claudication and infrequent radiation to the leg, never below the knee. Utilizing a standardized mini-access fluoroscopically-guided surgical protocol, fixation was established with two titanium pedicle screws place into both pedicles, at the same level as the pars defect, without violating the facet joint. The cleaned pars defect was grafted; a curved titanium rod was then passed under the base of the spinous process of the affected vertebra, bridging the loose fragment, and attached to the pedicle screw heads, to uplift the spinal process, followed by compression of the defect. The patients were discharged three days after the procedure, with successful fusion at one-year follow-up. No rod breakage or implant-related complications were reported. Conclusions Where there is no

  4. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    , annihilation, and nuclear interactions with the ambient matter. We have found that the Earth's antiproton belt possesses about 6-60 times larger antiproton fluxes compared to the galactic fluxes in interplanetary space during minimum and maximum solar activity at all energies in confinement zone. The radiation belt antiproton fluxes are spread into a wider L-shell range than its generation location around L=1.2. This is due to diffusion processes, and it demonstrates that radial diffusion as a relatively significant process for antimatter, even in the inner magnetosphere. Antimatter accumulated in the magnetospheres of solar system bodies may be of significance for space travel. It could be used as a propulsion for space missions to the outer planets and beyond. Antimatter has an energy density more than ten orders of magnitude higher than the best chemical propellants currently used in rocket systems. References: Basilova, R. N., A.A. Gusev, G.I. Pugacheva , Geom. and Aeronom. V. 22, p. 671-673, 1982.Chen, J., T. Dementyev, A.V., Sobolevsky, N.M. Radiation Measurements, 30, 553, 1999.

  5. Some areas of reliability technique which have been neglected to some extent - maintainability - human reliability - mechanical reliability - repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akersten, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The present thesis consists of four papers, three of which are of a expositary nature and one more theoretical. The first two papers have a natural coupling to the man-machine interface. The first paper is devoted to the concept of maintainability and the role of man as maintenance technician. The second paper discusses aspects of human reliability, mainly studying man as operator. However, maintenance tasks can be studied in the same manner. The third paper concerns reliability prediction for mechanical components. This is an area of vital importance for the reliability practitioner, who needs realistic and easy-to-use mathematical models for different failure modes. The fourth paper discusses mathematical models for repairable systems, especially the problem of testing whether a constant event intensity model is adequate or not. (author)

  6. Repair process and a repaired component

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, III, Herbert Chidsey; Simpson, Stanley F.

    2018-02-20

    Matrix composite component repair processes are disclosed. The matrix composite repair process includes applying a repair material to a matrix composite component, securing the repair material to the matrix composite component with an external securing mechanism and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component during the securing by the external securing mechanism. The matrix composite component is selected from the group consisting of a ceramic matrix composite, a polymer matrix composite, and a metal matrix composite. In another embodiment, the repair process includes applying a partially-cured repair material to a matrix composite component, and curing the repair material to bond the repair material to the matrix composite component, an external securing mechanism securing the repair material throughout a curing period, In another embodiment, the external securing mechanism is consumed or decomposed during the repair process.

  7. Repair of segmental bone defect using Totally Vitalized tissue engineered bone graft by a combined perfusion seeding and culture system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The basic strategy to construct tissue engineered bone graft (TEBG is to combine osteoblastic cells with three dimensional (3D scaffold. Based on this strategy, we proposed the "Totally Vitalized TEBG" (TV-TEBG which was characterized by abundant and homogenously distributed cells with enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation and further investigated its biological performance in repairing segmental bone defect. METHODS: In this study, we constructed the TV-TEBG with the combination of customized flow perfusion seeding/culture system and β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP scaffold fabricated by Rapid Prototyping (RP technique. We systemically compared three kinds of TEBG constructed by perfusion seeding and perfusion culture (PSPC method, static seeding and perfusion culture (SSPC method, and static seeding and static culture (SSSC method for their in vitro performance and bone defect healing efficacy with a rabbit model. RESULTS: Our study has demonstrated that TEBG constructed by PSPC method exhibited better biological properties with higher daily D-glucose consumption, increased cell proliferation and differentiation, and better cell distribution, indicating the successful construction of TV-TEBG. After implanted into rabbit radius defects for 12 weeks, PSPC group exerted higher X-ray score close to autograft, much greater mechanical property evidenced by the biomechanical testing and significantly higher new bone formation as shown by histological analysis compared with the other two groups, and eventually obtained favorable healing efficacy of the segmental bone defect that was the closest to autograft transplantation. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated the feasibility of TV-TEBG construction with combination of perfusion seeding, perfusion culture and RP technique which exerted excellent biological properties. The application of TV-TEBG may become a preferred candidate for segmental bone defect repair in orthopedic and

  8. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    The so-called Tintina Gold Belt extends for more than 1000 km along the length of the northern North American Cordillera. Middle to Late Cretaceous Au deposits within the belt have various similar characteristics, among which are a spatial and temporal association with magmatism; Bi-W-Te signatures in deposits hosted by granitod stocks and As-Sb signatures where hosted by sedimentary rocks and dyke systems; and δ180 values consistently > 12 per mil for Au-bearing quartz. Nevertheless significant differences in structural styles, levels of deposit emplacement, ore-fluid chemistry, and Au grades suggest that the characteristics represent a broad range of deposit types. Many of these are best classified as orogenic Au deposits in the Yukon-Tanana terrane, as epithermal and porphyry-style Au deposits in the Kuskokwim region, and as Au-bearing, granite-related veins and stockworks, replacements, and skarns, as well as associated polymetallic lodes, in central Yukon. The diverse types of Au deposits and associated plutons of the Tintina Gold Belt collectively define a 45-m.y.-long period of arc magmatism that migrated northwesterly, for about 1000 km, across the active collisional margin of Cretaceous northwestern North America. The initiation of fluid flow and plutonism in Albian time seems to correlate with the onset of oblique subduction and dextral strike-slip on the Denali-Farewell, Tintina-Kaltag, and related fault systems. Initial Au-vein formation and subduction-related magmatism at about 115-110 Ma (e.g., including the Goodpaster and Fortymile districts), within the seaward side of the Yukon-Tanana terrane, correlate with the arrival of the Wrangellia superterrane off the continental margin. Dextral translation of the allochthonous Wrangellia block was associated with the migration of the thermal pulse to the northwest at about 95-90 Ma. Orogenic (or so­ called mesotherrnal) and granitoid-related Au deposits formed across the width of the Yukon

  9. Turbine repair process, repaired coating, and repaired turbine component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rupak; Delvaux, John McConnell; Garcia-Crespo, Andres Jose

    2015-11-03

    A turbine repair process, a repaired coating, and a repaired turbine component are disclosed. The turbine repair process includes providing a turbine component having a higher-pressure region and a lower-pressure region, introducing particles into the higher-pressure region, and at least partially repairing an opening between the higher-pressure region and the lower-pressure region with at least one of the particles to form a repaired turbine component. The repaired coating includes a silicon material, a ceramic matrix composite material, and a repaired region having the silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material. The repaired turbine component a ceramic matrix composite layer and a repaired region having silicon material deposited on and surrounded by the ceramic matrix composite material.

  10. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  11. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  12. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  14. The role of the HCR system in the repair of lethal lesions of Bacillus subtilis phages and their transfecting DNA damaged by radiation and alkylating agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vizdalova, M.; Janovska, E.; Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1980-01-01

    The role of the HCR system in the repair of prelethal lesions induced by UV light, γ radiation and alkylating agents was studied in the Bacillus subtilis SPP1 phage, its heat sensitive mutants (N3, N73 nad ts 1 ) and corresponding infectious DNA. The survival of phages and their transfecting DNA after treatment with UV light is substantially higher in hcr + cells than in hcr cells, the differences being more striking in intact phages than in their transfecting DNA's. Repair inhibitors reduce survival in hcr + cells: caffeine lowers the survival of UV-irradiated phage SPP1 in exponentially growing hcr + cells but has no effect on its survival in competent hcr + cells; acriflavin and ethidium bromide decrease the survival of the UV-irradiated SPP1 phage in both exponentially growing and competent hcr + cells to the level of survival observed in hcr cells; moreover, ethidium bromide lowers the number of infective centres in hcr + cells of the UV-irradiated DNA of the SPP1 phage. Repair inhibitors do not lower the survival of the UV-irradiated phages or their DNA in hcr cells. The repair mechanism under study also effectively repairs lesions induced by polyfunctional alkylating agents in the transfecting DNA's of B. subtilis phages but is not functional with lesions induced by these agents in free phages and lesions caused in the phages and their DNA by ethyl methanesulphonate or γ radiation. (author)

  15. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine E.; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J.; Goellner, Eva M.; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5′ nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3′ nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg2+ and Mn2+ for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. PMID:26170454

  16. Activation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mlh1-Pms1 Endonuclease in a Reconstituted Mismatch Repair System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Catherine E; Bowen, Nikki; Graham, William J; Goellner, Eva M; Srivatsan, Anjana; Kolodner, Richard D

    2015-08-28

    Previous studies reported the reconstitution of an Mlh1-Pms1-independent 5' nick-directed mismatch repair (MMR) reaction using Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins. Here we describe the reconstitution of a mispair-dependent Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease activation reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), and replication factor C (RFC) and a reconstituted Mlh1-Pms1-dependent 3' nick-directed MMR reaction requiring Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), exonuclease 1 (Exo1), replication protein A (RPA), RFC, PCNA, and DNA polymerase δ. Both reactions required Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) for optimal activity. The MMR reaction also required two reaction stages in which the first stage required incubation of Mlh1-Pms1 with substrate DNA, with or without Msh2-Msh6 (or Msh2-Msh3), PCNA, and RFC but did not require nicking of the substrate, followed by a second stage in which other proteins were added. Analysis of different mutant proteins demonstrated that both reactions required a functional Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease active site, as well as mispair recognition and Mlh1-Pms1 recruitment by Msh2-Msh6 but not sliding clamp formation. Mutant Mlh1-Pms1 and PCNA proteins that were defective for Exo1-independent but not Exo1-dependent MMR in vivo were partially defective in the Mlh1-Pms1 endonuclease and MMR reactions, suggesting that both reactions reflect the activation of Mlh1-Pms1 seen in Exo1-independent MMR in vivo. The availability of this reconstituted MMR reaction should now make it possible to better study both Exo1-independent and Exo1-dependent MMR. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. The role of the DNA repair system in increasing the viability of E.coli cells under the action of small UV doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzin, A.M.; Vilenchik, M.M.; Isakov, B.K.; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Botaniki)

    1976-01-01

    The authors studied the action of the ultraviolet light (UV) on the colony-forming ability of E.coli K12-HCR + cultured in a meat infusion broth in the presence of glucose. An unusual shape of the curve indicates that the number of viable cells increases under the action of low UV doses. The experiment was repeated seven times, and each time the phenomenon was fully asserted (p 0.01). So it was suggested that low UV doses (about 140 erg/mm 2 ) activate the system of dark DNA repair (induction of the synthesis of repair enzymes) which repairs 'spontaneous' DNA defects and increases the number of colony-forming cells. (orig.) [de

  18. Role of the DNA repair system in increasing the viability of E. coli cells under the action of small UV doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzin, A M; Vilenchik, M M; Isakov, B K [AN SSSR, Pushchino-na-Oke. Inst. Biologicheskoj Fiziki; AN Kazakhskoj SSR, Alma-Ata. Inst. Botaniki)

    1976-12-01

    The authors studied the action of the ultraviolet light (UV) on the colony-forming ability of E.coli K12-HCR/sup +/ cultured in a meat infusion broth in the presence of glucose. An unusual shape of the curve indicates that the number of viable cells increases under the action of low UV doses. The experiment was repeated seven times, and each time the phenomenon was fully asserted (p 0.01). So it was suggested that low UV doses (about 140 erg/mm/sup 2/) activate the system of dark DNA repair (induction of the synthesis of repair enzymes) which repairs 'spontaneous' DNA defects and increases the number of colony-forming cells.

  19. Development of an auto-welding system for CRD nozzle repair welds using a 3D laser vision sensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, K.; Kim, Y.; Byeon, J.; Sung, K.; Yeom, C.; Rhee, S.

    2007-01-01

    A control rod device (CRD) nozzle attaches to the hemispherical surface of a reactor head with J-groove welding. Primary water stress corrosion cracking (PWSCC) causes degradation in these welds, which requires that these defect areas be repaired. To perform this repair welding automatically on a complicated weld groove shape, an auto-welding system was developed incorporating a laser vision sensor that measures the 3-dimensional (3D) shape of the groove and a weld-path creation program that calculates the weld-path parameters. Welding trials with a J-groove workpiece were performed to establish a basis for developing this auto-welding system. Because the reactor head is placed on a lay down support, the outer-most region of the CRD nozzle has restricted access. Due to this tight space, several parameters of the design, such as size, weight and movement of the auto-welding system, had to be carefully considered. The cross section of the J-groove weld is basically an oval shape where the included angle of the J-groove ranges from 0 to 57 degrees. To measure the complex shape, we used double lasers coupled to a single charge coupled device (CCD) camera. We then developed a program to generate the weld-path parameters using the measured 3D shape as a basis. The program has the ability to determine the first and final welding positions and to calculate all weld-path parameters. An optimized image-processing algorithm was applied to resolve noise interference and diffused reflection of the joint surfaces. The auto-welding system is composed of a 4-axis manipulator, gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) power supply, an optimized designed and manufactured GTAW torch and a 3D laser vision sensor. Through welding trials with 0 and 38-degree included-angle workpieces with both J-groove and U-groove weld, the performance of this auto-welding system was qualified for field application

  20. The INNOVATION Trial: four-year safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System for endovascular repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratesi, Giovanni; Pratesi, Carlo; Chiesa, Roberto; Coppi, Gioacchino; Scheinert, Dierk; Brunkwall, Jan S; van der Meulen, Stefaan; Torsello, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    This paper reports the 4-year safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System (Cordis Corp., Milpitas, CA, USA), an ultra-low-profile device for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. The INNOVATION Trial is the prospective, first-in-human, multicenter trial to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of the INCRAFT® System. Patients underwent annual clinical and computed tomography angiography examination as part of the study protocol. The INCRAFT® AAA Stent-Graft System is a customizable tri-modular design, with an ultra-low profile (14-Fr) delivery system. Patient were treated under approved protocol, the prescribed clinical and imaging follow-up at annually through 5 years. Results analyzed and adjudicated by a clinical events committee, independent core laboratory, and a data safety and monitoring board. This manuscript reports results through 4 years of follow-up. A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the trial, all of whom were successfully treated. Follow-up rates at 1 and 4 years were 93% (56/60) and 85% (51/60), respectively. All-cause mortality at 4 years was 17.6% and no death was AAA-, device-, or procedure-related. The secondary reintervention rate at 1 year was 4.6%, primarily the result of stent thrombosis. In total, 10 patients required 13 post-procedure interventions within 4-years of follow-up (2 to repair a type I endoleak, 4 to repair a type II endoleak, 1 for stent thrombosis, 1 for renal stenosis, 1 for aneurysm enlargement, 2 for limb migration and 2 for prosthesis stenosis or occlusion). There were 4 cases (10%) of aneurysm enlargement reported at the 4 year follow-up. At 4 years, 38 out of 39 patients were free from type I and III endoleaks. There were no proximal type I or type III endoleaks at 4-year follow-up. Core laboratory evaluation of the postoperative imaging studies indicated absence of endograft migration while a single fracture was demonstrated without any clinical sequelae. The INCRAFT® AAA Stent

  1. Energy optimization of conveyor belts at RWE Power AG; Energetische Optimierung von Foerdergurten bei der RWE Power AG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Manfred [RWE Power International RE GmbH, Koeln (Germany). Gewinnungs- und Foerdertechnik

    2009-11-15

    Influencing horizontal resistance to motion has the greatest leverage effect in terms of reducing the power requirements of belt conveyors. The selection of a suitable conveyor belt with optimized running resistance enables substantial cost savings, both with regard to current energy consumption and with regard to the drive power to be installed. Measurements carried out on standard conveyor belts used by RWE Power show differences of up to 30 % in the principal resistance. A method to reliably predict the energy properties of a conveyor belt by means of small specimens was developed. In addition, the requirements to be met in terms of mechanical endurance of a belt depending on conveyor configuration, which set limits to the development of energy-saving belts suitable for operation, will be outlined. To resolve this conflict of aims, conveyor engineers are given concrete tips on the design of belt conveyor systems. (orig.)

  2. Mitek Anchor System: a new technique for tenodesis and ligamentous repair of the foot and ankle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, B; Tesoro, D; Wertheimer, S J; Coraci, M

    1991-01-01

    The authors present an alternative method for securing tendon and ligaments to bone, utilizing the Mitek Anchor System. The description of the Mitek system and technique of application is presented. Technical simplicity and ease of adaptability within the foot and ankle are distinct advantages of this System.

  3. On Birnbaum importance assessment for aging multi-state system under minimal repair by using the Lz-transform method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisnianski, Anatoly; Frenkel, Ilia; Khvatskin, Lev

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a reliability importance evaluation for components in an aging multi-state system. In practical reliability engineering a “curse of dimensionality” (the large number of states that should be analyzed for a multi-state system model) is a main obstacle for importance assessment. In order to challenge the problem, this paper proposes a new method that is based on an L Z -transform of the discrete-state continuous-time Markov process and on Ushakov's Universal Generating Operator. The paper shows that the proposed method can drastically reduce a computational burden. In order to illustrate the method, a solution of a real world problem is presented as a numerical example. - Highlights: • Aging multi-state system under minimal repair is studied. • A new method for Birnbaum importance assessment is developed. • The method is based on the L Z -transform. • The proposed method provides a drastic reduction of computation burden. • Numerical example is presented in order to illustrate the method

  4. Reliability measures of a computer system with priority to PM over the H/W repair activities subject to MOT and MRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrates on the evaluation of reliability measures of a computer system of two-identical units having independent failure of h/w and s/w components. Initially one unit is operative and the other is kept as spare in cold standby. There is a single server visiting the system immediately whenever needed. The server conducts preventive maintenance of the unit after a maximum operation time. If server is unable to repair the h/w components in maximum repair time, then components in the unit are replaced immediately by new one. However, only replacement of the s/w components has been made at their failure. The priority is given to the preventive maintenance over repair activities of the h/w. The time to failure of the components follows negative exponential distribution whereas the distribution of preventive maintenance, repair and replacement time are taken as arbitrary. The expressions for some important reliability measures of system effectiveness have been derived using semi-Markov process and regenerative point technique. The graphical behavior of the results has also been shown for a particular case.

  5. A Robotic System for Inspection and Repair of Small Diameter Pipelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Vorotnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the construction and control system of miniature robotic system that is designed to move and make inspection inside small diameter pipelines. It gives an overview of ways to move a microsize robotic system inside the small diameter pipe. The proposed design consists of information module and three traction modules, including modules for fixing, linear moving and angular positioning. This paper describes the design and operation of a robotic system and its different modules. Also are shown the structure of the robot control system, the basic calculations of construct and some simulation results of the individual modules of the robot.

  6. Discrete time analysis of a repairable machine

    OpenAIRE

    Alfa, Attahiru Sule; Castro, I. T.

    2002-01-01

    We consider, in discrete time, a single machine system that operates for a period of time represented by a general distribution. This machine is subject to failures during operations and the occurrence of these failures depends on how many times the machine has previously failed. Some failures are repairable and the repair times may or may not depend on the number of times the machine was previously repaired. Repair times also have a general distribution. The operating times...

  7. Molecular biological mechanisms I. DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedl, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    Cells of all living systems possess a variety of mechanisms that allow to repair spontaneous and exogeneously induced DNA damage. DNA repair deficiencies may invoke enhanced sensitivity towards DNA-damaging agents such as ionizing radiation. They may also enhance the risk of cancer development, both spontaneously or after induction. This article reviews several DNA repair mechanisms, especially those dealing with DNA double-strand breaks, and describes hereditary diseases associated with DNA repair defects. (orig.) [de

  8. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I.; Balasis, G.; Bourdarie, S.; Horne, R.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Mann, I.; Santolik, O.; Turner, D.; Anastasiadis, A.; Georgiou, M.; Giannakis, O.; Papadimitriou, C.; Ropokis, G.; Sandberg, I.; Angelopoulos, V.; Glauert, S.; Grison, B., Kersten T.; Kolmasova, I.; Lazaro, D.; Mella, M.; Ozeke, L.; Usanova, M.

    2013-09-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. The MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Energization and Loss) collaborative research project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE-2011-1) under grant agreement no. 284520.

  9. Conceptual design of novel IP-conveyor-belt Weissenberg-mode data-collection system with multi-readers for macromolecular crystallography. A comparison between Galaxy and Super Galaxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakabe, N; Sakabe, K; Sasaki, K

    2004-01-01

    Galaxy is a Weissenberg-type high-speed high-resolution and highly accurate fully automatic data-collection system using two cylindrical IP-cassettes each with a radius of 400 mm and a width of 450 mm. It was originally developed for static three-dimensional analysis using X-ray diffraction and was installed on bending-magnet beamline BL6C at the Photon Factory. It was found, however, that Galaxy was also very useful for time-resolved protein crystallography on a time scale of minutes. This has prompted us to design a new IP-conveyor-belt Weissenberg-mode data-collection system called Super Galaxy for time-resolved crystallography with improved time and crystallographic resolution over that achievable with Galaxy. Super Galaxy was designed with a half-cylinder-shaped cassette with a radius of 420 mm and a width of 690 mm. Using 1.0 A incident X-rays, these dimensions correspond to a maximum resolutions of 0.71 A in the vertical direction and 1.58 A in the horizontal. Upper and lower screens can be used to set the frame size of the recorded image. This function is useful not only to reduce the frame exchange time but also to save disk space on the data server. The use of an IP-conveyor-belt and many IP-readers make Super Galaxy well suited for time-resolved, monochromatic X-ray crystallography at a very intense third-generation SR beamline. Here, Galaxy and a conceptual design for Super Galaxy are described, and their suitability for use as data-collection systems for macromolecular time-resolved monochromatic X-ray crystallography are compared.

  10. Meniscal repair devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, F A; Herbert, M A

    2000-09-01

    Meniscal repair devices not requiring accessory incisions are attractive. Many factors contribute to their clinical effectiveness including their biomechanical characteristics. This study compared several new meniscal repair devices with standard meniscal suture techniques. Using a porcine model, axis-of-insertion loads were applied to various meniscal sutures and repair devices. A single device or stitch was placed in a created meniscal tear and a load applied. Both loads and modes of failure were recorded. The load-to-failure data show stratification into 4 distinct statistical groups. Group A, 113 N for a double vertical stitch; group B, 80 N for a single vertical stitch; group C, 57 N for the BioStinger, 56 N for a horizontal mattress stitch, and 50 N for the T-Fix stitch; and group D, 33 N for the Meniscus Arrow (inserted by hand or gun), 32 N for the Clearfix screw, 31 N for the SDsorb staple, 30 N for the Mitek meniscal repair system, and 27 N for the Biomet staple. The failure mechanism varied. Sutures broke away from the knot. The Meniscus Arrow and BioStinger pulled through the inner rim with the crossbar intact. The Clearfix screw failed by multiple mechanisms, whereas 1 leg of the SDsorb staple always pulled out of the outer rim. The Mitek device usually failed by pullout from the inner rim. The Biomet staple always broke at the crosshead or just below it. Although the surgeon should be aware of the material properties of the repair technique chosen for a meniscal repair, this information is only an indication of device performance and may not correlate with clinical healing results.

  11. Quantitative MRI comparison of systemic hemodynamics in Mustard/Senning repaired patients and healthy volunteers at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laffon, Eric; Jimenez, Maria; Choussat, Alain; Latrabe, Valerie; Ducassou, Dominique; Marthan, Roger; Laurent, Francois

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to non-invasively compare ascending aortic blood flow and cross-sectional area (CSA) variations vs time in Mustard or Senning repaired (MSR) patients against those of healthy volunteers at rest. Velocity-encoded MR imaging was performed in 10 male patients (age range 18-24 years, median age 20.5 years) late after a Mustard or Senning correction, and in 10 male healthy volunteers (age range 21-25 years, median age 22.5 years), at the upper part of the ascending aorta. Both aortic cross-sectional area (CSA) and blood-flow variations were recorded over a complete cardiac cycle, with a 30-ms time of resolution. The body-surface area (BSA), the mean CSA over the systolic phase, and the BSA-normalized systemic ventricle power and work were significantly lower in the patient series compared with those of the volunteer series. The BSA-normalized right ventricle (RV) power and work of MSR patients were equal to 87 and 83% on average of those of the left ventricle (LV) of healthy volunteers. We conclude that, at rest, the mechanical performance of the systemic RV in MSR patients is significantly lower than that of the LV in healthy volunteers. Furthermore, the significantly lower aortic CSA found in MSR patients than in healthy volunteers may reveal an increase in the vasomotor tone. (orig.)

  12. Procedures for maintenance and repairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickel, E.

    1981-01-01

    After a general review of the operation experience in the history of more than 12 operating years, the organization in the plant will be shown with special aspect to quality assurance, capacity of the workshops and connected groups as radiation protection, chemical laboratories etc. The number, time intervals and manpower effort for the repeating tests will be discussed. Reasons and examples for back-fitting activities in the plant are given. Besides special repair and maintenance procedures as repair of the steam generators, in-service inspection of the reactor pressure vessel, repair of a feed-water pipe and repair of the core structure in the pressure vessel, the general system to handle maintenance and repair-work in the KWO-plant will be shown. This includes also the detailed planning of the annual refueling and revision of the plant. (orig./RW)

  13. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  14. Inspection, maintenance, and repair of large pumps and piping systems using advanced robotic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, R.K.; Radigan, T.M.

    1998-01-01

    Operating and maintaining large pumps and piping systems can be an expensive proposition. Proper inspections and monitoring can reduce costs. This was difficult in the past, since detailed pump inspections could only be performed by disassembly and many portions of piping systems are buried or covered with insulation. Once these components were disassembled, a majority of the cost was already incurred. At that point, expensive part replacement usually took place whether it was needed or not. With the completion of the Pipe Walkertrademark/LIP System and the planned development of the Submersible Walkertrademark, this situation is due to change. The specifications for these inspection and maintenance robots will ensure that. Their ability to traverse both horizontal and vertical, forward and backward, make them unique tools. They will open the door for some innovative approaches to inspection and maintenance of large pumps and piping systems

  15. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...

  16. Elastic deformation behaviour of Palaeogene clay from Fehmarn Belt area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awadalkarim, Ahmed; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2014-01-01

    Palaeogene clay samples were obtained by high quality boring and sampling techniques (Geobore S-system), during the extensive site investigations for building a bridge in the Fehmarn Belt area to link between Rødbyhavn in Denmark and Puttgarden in Germany. The Palaeogene clay is rich in smectite...

  17. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; Dijk, W.M. van; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  18. The charge transport in an electrostatic belt generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, A.; Strasters, B.A.

    1975-01-01

    The fluctuations in the charge transport system of an EN Tandem Van de Graaff accelerator have been investigated by means of a frequency spectrum analyser. Frequency spectra of the terminal ripple, the short-circuit current and the voltage at the belt charge screen have been measured. Also the

  19. Emissies uit een vleesvarkensstal voorzien van een V-vormige mestband voor het gescheiden afvoeren van mest en urine = Emissions from a housing system for fattening pigs with a V-shaped manure belt for separated removal of faeces and urine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellen, H.H.; Hol, J.M.G.; Mosquera, J.; Aarnink, A.J.A.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports the emissions of ammonia, odour, fine dust (PM10 and PM2.5), methane and nitrous oxide from an animal house for fattening pigs provided with V-shaped manure belts for separated removal of faeces and urine (the Kempfarm system).

  20. An Analysis of the Reflector Cooling System Repair Status after the Initial Operation of HANARO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Young Chul; Seo, Kyoung Woo; Chi, Dae Young; Yoon, Hyun Gi [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jung Geun [Safety Evaluation Department, System D and D Co., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    HANARO, an open-tank-in-pool type multi-purpose research reactor of 30 MWth power in Korea, has been operating normally since its initial criticality in February, 1995. During the last operation period of HANARO, when a trouble occurred, the trouble was fixed on site. As preventive maintenance can reduce the corrective maintenance, the reasons of the occurred troubles are reviewed to prepare preventive maintenance. About twelve hundred cases of work requests and nonconformance reports (NCRs) have been issued since the initial criticality of HANARO. The cases are analyzed according to the trouble status, the trouble equipment function and the cause of the major trouble for reflector cooling system (RCS, hereinafter) including cover gas system and leakage monitoring and collection system

  1. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  2. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  3. Comparison between state graphs and fault trees for sequential and repairable systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soussan, D.; Saignes, P.

    1996-01-01

    In French PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment) 1300 for the 1300 Mwe PWR plants carried out by EDF, sequential and reparable systems are modeled with state graphs. This method is particularly convenient for modeling dynamic systems with long-term missions but induces a bad traceability and understandability of models. In the objective of providing elements for rewriting PSA 1300 with only boolean models, EDF has asked CEA to participate to a methodological study. The aim is to carry out a feasibility study of transposition of state graphs models into fault trees on Component Cooling System and Essential Service Water System (CCS/ESWS) and to draw a methodological guide for transposition. The study realized on CCS/ESWS involves two main axes: quantification of cold source loss (as an accident sequence initiating event, called H1); quantification of the CCS/ESWS missions in accident sequences. The subject of this article is to show that this transformation is applicable with minimum distortions of the results and to determine the hypotheses, the conditions and the limits of application of this conversion. (authors). 2 refs

  4. Nuclear power plant steam pipes repairing with TIRANT 3 robot system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto Tomas, Marcelo; Curiel Nieva, Marceliano; Monzo Blasco, Enrique; Rodriguez, Salvador Pineda; Vaquer Perez, Juan I.

    2011-01-01

    A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in coal-fired power station and nuclear power plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the postural position (usually kneeling) in small diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and quality assurance. For all these reasons, Grupo Dominguis has developed the TIRANT 3 robot, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. TIRANT 3 robot is teleoperated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, TIRANT 3 system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity, and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant depending on required type and thickness of wire. TIRANT 3 system has successfully worked in 2010 during the stops refueling of the Units I and II of Laguna Verde nuclear power plant in Mexico. (author)

  5. Incorporating Flexibility in the Design of Repairable Systems - Design of Microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    MICROGRIDS Vijitashwa Pandey1 Annette Skowronska1,2...optimization of complex systems such as a microgrid is however, computationally intensive. The problem is exacerbated if we must incorporate...flexibility in terms of allowing the microgrid architecture and its running protocol to change with time. To reduce the computational effort, this paper

  6. Expert system for assisting the repair operations on the control racks of the control rods assembly in a 900 MW PWR type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monnier, B.; Doutre, J.L.; Franco, A.

    1990-01-01

    The expert system presented was developed for assisting the repair operations on the control equipment of the control rod assembly in a PWR type reactor. The expert system allows the representation of expert knowledge and diagnostic reasoning. The objective of the expert system is to achieve the most precise diagnostic and localizing of the breakdown elements, by processing the data acquired during breakdown. The development steps, the structure and the applications of the expert system are summarized. The expert system operates in an IBM PC equipped with a AMAIA 8 Mo card. A time schedule of 18 months is predicted [fr

  7. 36. Anesthesia for high risk patients undergoing percutaneous mitral valve repair with the mitraclip system in the catheterization laboratory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Soliman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available MitraClip system implantation is used inhigh-risk patients with severe mitral regurgitation.anesthetic management for mitral clip implantation. The study included 34patients scheduled for MitraClip implantations in the catheterization laboratory. An arterial line and central venous line were inserted under local anesthesia before induction. Epinephrine was started before induction and milrinone infusion was started after induction. The anesthetic technique for induction and maintenance was the same for all patients. All patients were hemodynamically stable intra- and postoperatively. The intervention was successful in 33 cases and aborted in one case because of severe posteromedial leaflet tethering. The epinephrine and milrinone were weaned and all patients were extubated, except, one case mortality happened within the first 8 hours postoperatively. Percutaneous mitral valve repair with MitraClip implantation is a successful alternative in high-risk patients with symptomatic severe mitral regurgitation. Starting epinephrine before anesthetic induction and milrinone infusion induction resulted in decreased pulmonary artery pressure, increased ejection fraction and maintained arterial blood pressure during procedure inspite of worse preoperative conditions.

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Steam Pipes repairing with Tirant 3R Robot System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Martinez, Jose-Tomas; Soto-Tomas, Marcelo; Curiel-Nieva, Marceliano; Monzo-Blasco, Enrique; Pineda-Rodriguez, Salvador; Vaquer-Perez, Juan-Ignacio

    2012-09-01

    The metallization arc spray process is based on the projection of molten metal, supplied by means of different stainless alloys wire, over a surface of carbon steel usually, with the object of serving as protection against flow assisted corrosion (FAC), increasing resistance to abrasion and deteriorations. A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in Coal-fired power station and Nuclear Power Plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against flow assisted corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the worker's postural position (usually kneeling) in 32' diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and Quality Assurance. An increase in the uniformity of the projected coating, increase the resistance and give a better surface protection. For all these reasons, Lainsa has developed the TIRANT 3 R system, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. TIRANT 3 R system is tele-operated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, TIRANT 3 R system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant (forward speed, rotation speed and inner surface distance) depending on required type and

  9. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  10. Aircraft Propeller Hub Repair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muth, Thomas R [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL

    2015-02-13

    The team performed a literature review, conducted residual stress measurements, performed failure analysis, and demonstrated a solid state additive manufacturing repair technique on samples removed from a scrapped propeller hub. The team evaluated multiple options for hub repair that included existing metal buildup technologies that the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has already embraced, such as cold spray, high velocity oxy-fuel deposition (HVOF), and plasma spray. In addition the team helped Piedmont Propulsion Systems, LLC (PPS) evaluate three potential solutions that could be deployed at different stages in the life cycle of aluminum alloy hubs, in addition to the conventional spray coating method for repair. For new hubs, a machining practice to prevent fretting with the steel drive shaft was recommended. For hubs that were refurbished with some material remaining above the minimal material condition (MMC), a silver interface applied by an electromagnetic pulse additive manufacturing method was recommended. For hubs that were at or below the MMC, a solid state additive manufacturing technique using ultrasonic welding (UW) of thin layers of 7075 aluminum to the hub interface was recommended. A cladding demonstration using the UW technique achieved mechanical bonding of the layers showing promise as a viable repair method.

  11. Failure analysis of a repairable system: The case study of a cam-driven reciprocating pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudenhoeffer, Donald D.

    1994-09-01

    This thesis supplies a statistical and economic tool for analysis of the failure characteristics of one typical piece of equipment under evaluation: a cam-driven reciprocating pump used in the submarine's distillation system. Comprehensive statistical techniques and parametric modeling are employed to identify and quantify pump failure characteristics. Specific areas of attention include: the derivation of an optimal maximum replacement interval based on costs, an evaluation of the mission reliability for the pump as a function of pump age, and a calculation of the expected times between failures. The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate current maintenance practices of time-based replacement and examine the consequences of different replacement intervals in terms of costs and mission reliability. Tradeoffs exist between cost savings and system reliability that must be fully understood prior to making any policy decisions.

  12. Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System Failures in Repair of Grade V Acromioclavicular Joint Dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin K.-H. Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ligament Augmentation and Reconstruction System® (LARS® represents a popular synthetic anatomical reduction method for acromioclavicular joint dislocation by means of coracoclavicular ligament reconstruction. To our knowledge, no early failure has been documented in the literature. We present two unusual cases of LARS failure, one at four months after implant and the other at three weeks, without obvious causes, requiring re-do reconstruction, and discuss potential contributory factors.

  13. Pelvic organ prolapse repair using the Uphold (TM) Vaginal Support System

    OpenAIRE

    Altman, Daniel; Mikkola, Tomi S.; Bek, Karl Moller; Rahkola-Soisalo, Paivi; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Engh, Marie Ellstrom; Falconer, Christian; Nordic TVM Grp

    2016-01-01

    The objective was to assess safety and clinical outcomes in women operated on using the Uphold (TM) Lite Vaginal Support System. We carried out a 1-year, multicenter, prospective, single cohort study of 207 women with symptomatic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage aeyen2 apical pelvic organ prolapse, with or without concomitant anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Safety data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anatomical outcome was assessed by the POP-Q and subject...

  14. THE HARMONIZATION AND OPTIMIZATION OF DIAGNOSTIC METHODS FOR A BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František HELEBRANT

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The final aim of the project MPO FR‐T11/537 called “The Complex Diagnostic System for the Belt Transport” is a single part custom manufacturing and sale of complex diagnostic system for belt transportation and related services. The output of the project is a prototype of a diagnostic system on a model belt conveyor with prepared and certified diagnostic services and methods including their measurements and other supportive tools. The article will introduce the present state of the solution for the given grant project, especially in the field of suggested work on the diagnostic and supportive methods and other measurements.

  15. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  16. Cenozoic sedimentation and exhumation of the foreland basin system preserved in the Precordillera thrust belt (31-32°S), southern central Andes, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levina, Mariya; Horton, Brian K.; Fuentes, Facundo; Stockli, Daniel F.

    2014-09-01

    Andean retroarc compression associated with subduction and shallowing of the oceanic Nazca plate resulted in thin-skinned thrusting that partitioned and uplifted Cenozoic foreland basin fill in the Precordillera of west-central Argentina. Evolution of the central segment of the Precordillera fold-thrust belt is informed by new analyses of clastic nonmarine deposits now preserved in three intermontane regions between major east directed thrust faults. We focus on uppermost Oligocene-Miocene basin fill in the axial to frontal Precordillera at 31-32°S along the Río San Juan (Albarracín and Pachaco sections) and the flank of one of the leading thrust structures (Talacasto section). The three successions record hinterland construction of the Frontal Cordillera, regional arc volcanism, and initial exhumation of Precordillera thrust sheets. Provenance changes recorded by detrital zircon U-Pb age populations suggest that initial shortening in the Frontal Cordillera coincided with an early Miocene shift from eolian to fluvial accumulation in the adjacent foreland basin. Upward coarsening of fluvial deposits and increased proportions of Paleozoic clasts reflect cratonward (eastward) advance of deformation into the Precordillera and resultant structural fragmentation of the foreland basin into isolated intermontane segments. Apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry of basin fill constrains to 12-9 Ma the most probable age of uplift-induced exhumation and cooling of Precordillera thrust sheets. This apparent pulse of exhumation is evident in each succession, suggestive of rapid, large-scale exhumation by synchronous thrusting above a single décollement linking major structures of the Precordillera.

  17. Nuclear power plant steam pipes repairing with Tirant 3 Robot system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, M.; Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Lazaro, F. [Revestimientos Anticorrosivos Industriales, S. L. U., Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.soto@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    The metallization arc spray process is based on the projection of molten metal, supplied by means of different stainless alloys wire, over a surface of carbon steel usually, with the object of serving as protection against erosion-corrosion, increasing resistance to abrasion and detrition. A typical application functions covering the steam pipes inner surface in coal-fired power station and nuclear power plants. The results of this process are spectacular in terms of protection against corrosion and abrasion, but its application has conditioning factors, such as: Severe application conditions for workers. Due to the worker's postural position (usually kneeling) in 32 diameter pipes and working with fireproof clothing and masks with outdoor air supplying, due to fumes, sparks and molten metal particles, radiological contamination, confined space, poor lighting, ... Coating uniformity. As metallization is a manual process, the carried out measurements show small variations in the thickness of the coating, always within the tolerance limits established by the applicable regulations and quality assurance. An increase in the uniformity of the projected coating, increase the resistance and give a better surface protection. For all these reasons, Lainsa has developed the Tirant 3 robot, a worldwide innovative system, for metallization of steam pipes inner surface. Tirant 3 robot is tele operated from outside of the pipe, so that human intervention is reduced to the operations of robot positioning and change of metallization wire. As it is an independent system of the human factor, metallization process performance is significantly increased by reducing rest periods due only to the robot maintenance. Likewise, Tirant 3 system permits to increase resulting coating uniformity and thus its resistance, keeping selected parameters constant (forward speed, rotation speed and inner surface distance) depending on required type and thickness of wire. (Author)

  18. Availability allocation to repairable systems with genetic algorithms: a multi-objective formulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elegbede, Charles; Adjallah, Kondo

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a methodology based on genetic algorithms (GA) and experiments plan to optimize the availability and the cost of reparable parallel-series systems. It is a NP-hard problem of multi-objective combinatorial optimization, modeled with continuous and discrete variables. By using the weighting technique, the problem is transformed into a single-objective optimization problem whose constraints are then relaxed by the exterior penalty technique. We then propose a search of solution through GA, whose parameters are adjusted using experiments plan technique. A numerical example is used to assess the method

  19. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  20. Sensors Systems for the Automation of Operations in the Ship Repair Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Pedro Javier; Muro, Juan Suardíaz; Alcover, Pedro María; Fernández-Isla, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    Hull cleaning before repainting is a key operation in the maintenance of ships. For years, a method to improve such operation has been sought by means of the robotization of techniques such as grit blasting and ultra high pressure water jetting. Despite this, it continues to be standard practice in shipyards that this process is carried out manually because the developed robotized systems are too expensive to be widely accepted by shipyards. We have chosen to apply a more conservative and realistic approach to this problem, which has resulted in the development of several solutions that have been designed with different automation and operation range degrees. These solutions are fitted with most of the elements already available in many shipyards, so the installation of additional machinery in the workplace would not be necessary. This paper describes the evolutionary development of sensor systems for the automation of the preparation process of ship hull surfaces before the painting process is performed. Such evolution has given rise to the development of new technologies for coating removal. PMID:24064601

  1. Drug-Loadable Calcium Alginate Hydrogel System for Use in Oral Bone Tissue Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luyuan; Shen, Renze; Komasa, Satoshi; Xue, Yanxiang; Jin, Bingyu; Hou, Yepo; Okazaki, Joji; Gao, Jie

    2017-05-06

    This study developed a drug-loadable hydrogel system with high plasticity and favorable biological properties to enhance oral bone tissue regeneration. Hydrogels of different calcium alginate concentrations were prepared. Their swelling ratio, degradation time, and bovine serum albumin (BSA) release rate were measured. Human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) were cultured with both calcium alginate hydrogels and polylactic acid (PLA), and then we examined the proliferation of cells. Inflammatory-related factor gene expressions of hPDLCs and osteogenesis-related gene expressions of BMSCs were observed. Materials were implanted into the subcutaneous tissue of rabbits to determine the biosecurity properties of the materials. The materials were also implanted in mandibular bone defects and then scanned using micro-CT. The calcium alginate hydrogels caused less inflammation than the PLA. The number of mineralized nodules and the expression of osteoblast-related genes were significantly higher in the hydrogel group compared with the control group. When the materials were implanted in subcutaneous tissue, materials showed favorable biocompatibility. The calcium alginate hydrogels had superior osteoinductive bone ability to the PLA. The drug-loadable calcium alginate hydrogel system is a potential bone defect reparation material for clinical dental application.

  2. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  3. Brain aneurysm repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... aneurysm repair; Dissecting aneurysm repair; Endovascular aneurysm repair - brain; Subarachnoid hemorrhage - aneurysm ... Your scalp, skull, and the coverings of the brain are opened. A metal clip is placed at ...

  4. Repairing Canada’s Mining-Tax System to Be Less Distorting and Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duanjie Chen

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The province of Ontario ended its most recent fiscal year with a $12 billion deficit and the Fraser Institute has calculated that the province is in worse financial shape than even the fiscally appalling state of California. One would think that a province so financially debilitated would want to avoid giving unnecessary and wasteful tax breaks to resource companies. Yet, a review of the mining-tax regimes across the country finds that Ontario’s system — specifically its provincial resource allowance, which duplicates the allowances provided by Ottawa that shield miners from risk — is redundant, expensive and wasteful. Ontario is not the only province requiring a modernization of its mining-tax regime. In every province except Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, mining firms enjoy a lower marginal rate for taxes and royalties than for non-resource companies. The inevitable result has been a distortion of investment toward mining projects that might otherwise be economically inefficient. That means that in major oil-producing provinces, such as Alberta, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland, mining investment benefits from larger tax incentives than oil and gas investment. The reasons for favouring the mining of metal over oil are at least unclear and certainly economically unjustifiable. The federal government has already begun making several changes to its tax policies to scale back preferential and irrational inducements for mining investment, including, most recently, reducing accelerated depreciation allowances for certain mining assets and phasing out the corporate Mineral Exploration Tax Credit and the Atlantic Investment Tax Credit for resources. But Ottawa’s efforts to modernize Canada’s mining-tax structure can only go so far, when provinces continue to rely on what are often overly complex tax systems that have a distortionary effect on economic decisions being made by investors. The next step in modernizing Canada’s mining-tax system

  5. GLI1 interferes with the DNA mismatch repair system in pancreatic cancer through BHLHE41-mediated suppression of MLH1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaguma, Shingo; Riku, Miho; Hashimoto, Mitsuyoshi; Murakami, Hideki; Saga, Shinsuke; Ikeda, Hiroshi; Kasai, Kenji

    2013-12-15

    The mismatch repair (MMR) system is indispensable for the fidelity of DNA replication, the impairment of which predisposes to the development and progression of many types of cancers. To date, GLI1 transcription factor, a key molecule of the Hedgehog signaling pathway, has been shown to regulate the expression of several genes crucial for a variety of cancer cell properties in many types of cancers, including pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but whether GLI1 could control the MMR system was not known. Here, we showed that GLI1 and GLI2 indirectly suppressed the expression of MLH1 in PDAC cells. Through GLI1 target gene screening, we found that GLI1 and GLI2 activated the expression of a basic helix-loop-helix type suppressor BHLHE41/DEC2/SHARP1 through a GLI-binding site in the promoter. Consistent with a previous report that BHLHE41 suppresses the MLH1 promoter activity, we found that the activation of GLI1 led to the BHLHE41-dependent suppression of MLH1, and a double knockdown of GLI1 and GLI2 conversely increased the MLH1 protein in PDAC cells. Using TALEN-based modification of the MLH1 gene, we further showed that GLI1 expression was indeed associated with an increased tolerance to a methylating agent, methylnitrosourea cooperatively with a lower copy number status of MLH1. Finally, GLI1 expression was immunohistochemically related positively with BHLHE41 and inversely with MLH1 in PDAC cells and precancerous lesions of the pancreas. On the basis of these results, we propose that GLI1 depresses the MMR activity and might contribute to the development and progression of PDAC. ©2013 AACR.

  6. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  7. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  8. Nanowired Drug Delivery Across the Blood-Brain Barrier in Central Nervous System Injury and Repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Aruna; Menon, Preeti; Muresanu, Dafin F; Ozkizilcik, Asya; Tian, Z Ryan; Lafuente, José V; Sharma, Hari S

    2016-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physiological regulator of transport of essential items from blood to brain for the maintenance of homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) within narrow limits. The BBB is also responsible for export of harmful or metabolic products from brain to blood to keep the CNS fluid microenvironment healthy. However, noxious insults to the brain caused by trauma, ischemia or environmental/chemical toxins alter the BBB function to small as well as large molecules e.g., proteins. When proteins enter the CNS fluid microenvironment, development of brain edema occurs due to altered osmotic balance between blood and brain. On the other hand, almost all neurodegenerative diseases and traumatic insults to the CNS and subsequent BBB dysfunction lead to edema formation and cell injury. To treat these brain disorders suitable drug therapy reaching their brain targets is needed. However, due to edema formation or only a focal disruption of the BBB e.g., around brain tumors, many drugs are unable to reach their CNS targets in sufficient quantity. This results in poor therapeutic outcome. Thus, new technology such as nanodelivery is needed for drugs to reach their CNS targets and be effective. In this review, use of nanowires as a possible novel tool to enhance drug delivery into the CNS in various disease models is discussed based on our investigations. These data show that nanowired delivery of drugs may have superior neuroprotective ability to treat several CNS diseases effectively indicating their role in future therapeutic strategies.

  9. Pelvic organ prolapse repair using the Uphold™ Vaginal Support System: a 1-year multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altman, Daniel; Mikkola, Tomi S; Bek, Karl Möller; Rahkola-Soisalo, Päivi; Gunnarsson, Jonas; Engh, Marie Ellström; Falconer, Christian

    2016-09-01

    The objective was to assess safety and clinical outcomes in women operated on using the Uphold™ Lite Vaginal Support System. We carried out a 1-year, multicenter, prospective, single cohort study of 207 women with symptomatic Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) stage ≥2 apical pelvic organ prolapse, with or without concomitant anterior vaginal wall prolapse. Safety data were collected using a standardized questionnaire. Anatomical outcome was assessed by the POP-Q and subjective outcomes by the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory after 2 months and 1 year using a one-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog scale. The overall rate of serious complications was 4.3 % (9 out of 207 patients), including 3 patients with bladder perforations, 1 with bleeding >1,000 ml, 2 who had undergone re-operations with complete mesh removal because of pain, and 3 surgical interventions during follow-up because of mesh exposure. POP-Q stage ≤1 after 1 year was 94 % and subjective symptom relief was reported by 91 % of patients (p transvaginal mesh kits.

  10. Extracellular Matrix (ECM) Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang-Hyug; Kim, Moon Suk; Kim, Young Jick; Choi, Byung Hyune; Lee, Chun Tek; Park, So Ra; Min, Byoung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3) is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM) membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS) are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) using western blot and circular dichroism (CD) analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+) rhTGF-β3 EMLDS) in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair. PMID:27258120

  11. Extracellular Matrix (ECM Multilayer Membrane as a Sustained Releasing Growth Factor Delivery System for rhTGF-β3 in Articular Cartilage Repair.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soon Sim Yang

    Full Text Available Recombinant human transforming growth factor beta-3 (rhTGF-β3 is a key regulator of chondrogenesis in stem cells and cartilage formation. We have developed a novel drug delivery system that continuously releases rhTGF-β3 using a multilayered extracellular matrix (ECM membrane. We hypothesize that the sustained release of rhTGF-β3 could activate stem cells and result in enhanced repair of cartilage defects. The properties and efficacy of the ECM multilayer-based delivery system (EMLDS are investigated using rhTGF-β3 as a candidate drug. The bioactivity of the released rhTGF-ß3 was evaluated through chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs using western blot and circular dichroism (CD analyses in vitro. The cartilage reparability was evaluated through implanting EMLDS with endogenous and exogenous MSC in both in vivo and ex vivo models, respectively. In the results, the sustained release of rhTGF-ß3 was clearly observed over a prolonged period of time in vitro and the released rhTGF-β3 maintained its structural stability and biological activity. Successful cartilage repair was also demonstrated when rabbit MSCs were treated with rhTGF-β3-loaded EMLDS ((+ rhTGF-β3 EMLDS in an in vivo model and when rabbit chondrocytes and MSCs were treated in ex vivo models. Therefore, the multilayer ECM membrane could be a useful drug delivery system for cartilage repair.

  12. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  13. DNA repair , cell repair and radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhestyanikov, V.D.

    1983-01-01

    Data obtained in laboratory of radiation cytology and literature data testifying to a considerable role of DNA repair in cell sensitivity to radiation and chemical DNA-tropic agents have been considered. Data pointing to the probability of contribution of inducible repair of DNA into plant cells sensitivity to X-rays are obtained. Certain violations of DNA repair do not result in the increase of radiosensitivity. It is assumed that in the cases unknown mechanisms of DNA repair operate

  14. Efficacy and safety of Elevate® system on apical and anterior compartment prolapse repair with personal technique modification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Castellani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness and safety of Anterior Elevate® mesh kit system (AES in woman with symptomatic stage 3 or 4 anterior and/or apical pelvic organ prolapse (POP. Materials and Methods: This retrospective, monocentric, single surgeon study enrolled between May 2010 and January 2013 fifty-six woman experiencing symptomatic anterior vaginal prolapse with or without apical descent (POP-Q stage 3 or 4. All women received a AES and 7 (12.5% received a concomitant transvaginal hysterectomy. Primary endpoint was anatomic correction of prolapse; success was defined as POP-Q stage ≤ 1 or asymptomatic stage 2. Secondary endpoints were quality-of-life (QOL results and patients' safety outcomes, which were assessed by 3 validated self-reporting questionnaires at baseline and annually: ICIQ-UI short form, ICIQ-VS and P-QOL. All patients completed 2-years and 28 women 3-years of follow-up. Surgical approach was modified in women with uterus, moving the two-propylene strips anteriorly around the cervix itself crossing one another, so the left will take place in the right side and the right on the opposite. This modification was made in order to better support the uterus. Results: Vaginal mesh exposure was present in 3 (5,3% patients. Very good anatomical outcomes were seen, with one (1,8% failure at 6-months, 4 (7,1% at 1-year, 6 at 2-years (10,7%. Statistically significant improvements were seen in the ICIQ-VS and P-QOL questionnaires throughout follow-up. Conclusion: Our data suggest that AES is a minimally-invasive transvaginal procedure to repair anterior and apical POP, with good evidence related to mid-term safety and efficacy.

  15. Design and preliminary validation of a mobile application-based expert system to facilitate repair of medical equipment in resource-limited health settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong AL

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Alison L Wong,1,2 Kelly M Lacob,1 Madeline G Wilson,1 Stacie M Zwolski,1 Soumyadipta Acharya1 1Center for Bioengineering, Innovation and Design, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Division of Plastic Surgery, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada Background: One of the greatest barriers to safe surgery is the availability of functional biomedical equipment. Biomedical technicians play a major role in ensuring that equipment is functional. Following in-field observations and an online survey, a mobile application was developed to aid technicians in troubleshooting biomedical equipment. It was hypothesized that this application could be used to aid technicians in equipment repair, as modeled by repair of a pulse oximeter.Methods: To identify specific barriers to equipment repair and maintenance for biomedical technicians, an online survey was conducted to determine current practices and challenges. These findings were used to guide the development of a mobile application system that guides technicians through maintenance and repair tasks. A convenience sample of technicians in Ethiopia tested the application using a broken pulse oximeter task and following this completed usability and content validity surveys.Results: Fifty-three technicians from 13 countries responded to the initial survey. The results of the survey showed that technicians find equipment manuals most useful, but these are not easily accessible. Many do not know how to or are uncomfortable reaching out to human resources. Thirty-three technicians completed the broken pulse oximeter task using the application. All were able to appropriately identify and repair the equipment, and post-task surveys of usability and content validity demonstrated highly positive scores (Agree to Strongly Agree on both scales.Discussion: This research demonstrates the need for improved access to resources for technicians and shows that a mobile application can be used to address a gap in

  16. Repair of potentially lethal damage following irradiation with x rays or cyclotron neutrons: response of the EMT-6/UW tumor system treated under various growth conditions in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasey, J.S.; Nelson, N.J.

    1981-01-01

    Postirradiation potentially lethal damage (PLD) repair was examined in the EMT-6/UW tumor system under a variety of in vitro and in vivo growth conditions. Following x irradiation, surviving fraction increased in fed and unfed plateau cultures if subculture and plating were delayed; in exponentially growing cultures if they were covered with depleted medium for the first 6 h postirradiation; and in tumors in vivo if excision for preparation of a cell suspension was delayed. Following irradiation with 21.5 meV (d + → Be) neutrons, PLD repair was measurable only in unfed plateau cultures when subculture was delayed and in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted culture medium immediately after irradiation. In x-irradiated EMT-6/UW cells, the greatest repair capacity and the highest surviving fraction ratios were measured in unfed plateau cultures; the least repair was observed in exponentially growing cells exposed to depleted medium. Thus post-neutron repair was not limited to situations where the amount of repair of photon PLD is large. The demonstration of PLD repair in tumors irradiated in vivo with X rays and the absence of such repair after neutrons could have important implications in radiotherapy if this is a general phenomenon

  17. On a Batch Arrival Queuing System Equipped with a Stand-by Server during Vacation Periods or the Repairs Times of the Main Server

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehab F. Khalaf

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We study a queuing system which is equipped with a stand-by server in addition to the main server. The stand-by server provides service to customers only during the period of absence of the main server when either the main server is on a vacation or it is in the state of repairs due to a sudden failure from time to time. The service times, vacation times, and repair times are assumed to follow general arbitrary distributions while the stand-by service times follow exponential distribution. Supplementary variables technique has been used to obtain steady state results in explicit and closed form in terms of the probability generating functions for the number of customers in the queue, the average number of customers, and the average waiting time in the queue while the MathCad software has been used to illustrate the numerical results in this work.

  18. Protective Effect of Diphlorethohydroxycarmalol against Ultraviolet B Radiation-Induced DNA Damage by Inducing the Nucleotide Excision Repair System in HaCaT Human Keratinocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Jing Piao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the protective properties of diphlorethohydroxycarmalol (DPHC, a phlorotannin, against ultraviolet B (UVB radiation-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs in HaCaT human keratinocytes. The nucleotide excision repair (NER system is the pathway by which cells identify and repair bulky, helix-distorting DNA lesions such as ultraviolet (UV radiation-induced CPDs and 6-4 photoproducts. CPDs levels were elevated in UVB-exposed cells; however, this increase was reduced by DPHC. Expression levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group C (XPC and excision repair cross-complementing 1 (ERCC1, which are essential components of the NER pathway, were induced in DPHC-treated cells. Expression of XPC and ERCC1 were reduced following UVB exposure, whereas DPHC treatment partially restored the levels of both proteins. DPHC also increased expression of transcription factor specificity protein 1 (SP1 and sirtuin 1, an up-regulator of XPC, in UVB-exposed cells. DPHC restored binding of the SP1 to the XPC promoter, which is reduced in UVB-exposed cells. These results indicate that DPHC can protect cells against UVB-induced DNA damage by inducing the NER system.

  19. Resolving the planetesimal belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, Mark; Jordán, Andrés; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S.; Dent, William R. F.; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fitted by a broad ring between 145^{+12}_{-12} au and 429^{+37}_{-32} au at an inclination of 40^{+5}_{-6}° and a position angle of 51^{+8}_{-8}°. A disc edge at ˜145 au is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orbit of planet b.

  20. Does unbelted safety requirement affect protection for belted occupants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jingwen; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Flannagan, Carol A C; Narayanaswamy, Prabha; Reed, Matthew P; Andreen, Margaret; Neal, Mark; Lin, Chin-Hsu

    2017-05-29

    Federal regulations in the United States require vehicles to meet occupant performance requirements with unbelted test dummies. Removing the test requirements with unbelted occupants might encourage the deployment of seat belt interlocks and allow restraint optimization to focus on belted occupants. The objective of this study is to compare the performance of restraint systems optimized for belted-only occupants with those optimized for both belted and unbelted occupants using computer simulations and field crash data analyses. In this study, 2 validated finite element (FE) vehicle/occupant models (a midsize sedan and a midsize SUV) were selected. Restraint design optimizations under standardized crash conditions (U.S.-NCAP and FMVSS 208) with and without unbelted requirements were conducted using Hybrid III (HIII) small female and midsize male anthropomorphic test devices (ATDs) in both vehicles on both driver and right front passenger positions. A total of 10 to 12 design parameters were varied in each optimization using a combination of response surface method (RSM) and genetic algorithm. To evaluate the field performance of restraints optimized with and without unbelted requirements, 55 frontal crash conditions covering a greater variety of crash types than those in the standardized crashes were selected. A total of 1,760 FE simulations were conducted for the field performance evaluation. Frontal crashes in the NASS-CDS database from 2002 to 2012 were used to develop injury risk curves and to provide the baseline performance of current restraint system and estimate the injury risk change by removing the unbelted requirement. Unbelted requirements do not affect the optimal seat belt and airbag design parameters in 3 out of 4 vehicle/occupant position conditions, except for the SUV passenger side. Overall, compared to the optimal designs with unbelted requirements, optimal designs without unbelted requirements generated the same or lower total injury risks for

  1. Flexible electrode belt for EIT using nanofiber web dry electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Tong In; Kim, Tae Eui; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Kap Jin; Woo, Eung Je; Sadleir, Rosalind J

    2012-10-01

    Efficient connection of multiple electrodes to the body for impedance measurement and voltage monitoring applications is of critical importance to measurement quality and practicality. Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) experiments have generally required a cumbersome procedure to attach the multiple electrodes needed in EIT. Once placed, these electrodes must then maintain good contact with the skin during measurements that may last several hours. There is usually also the need to manage the wires that run between the electrodes and the EIT system. These problems become more severe as the number of electrodes increases, and may limit the practicality and portability of this imaging method. There have been several trials describing human-electrode interfaces using configurations such as electrode belts, helmets or rings. In this paper, we describe an electrode belt we developed for long-term EIT monitoring of human lung ventilation. The belt included 16 embossed electrodes that were designed to make good contact with the skin. The electrodes were fabricated using an Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web and metallic threads. A large contact area and padding were used behind each electrode to improve subject comfort and reduce contact impedances. The electrodes were incorporated, equally spaced, into an elasticated fabric belt. We tested the electrode belt in conjunction with the KHU Mark1 multi-frequency EIT system, and demonstrate time-difference images of phantoms and human subjects during normal breathing and running. We found that the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were suitable for long-term measurement because of their flexibility and durability. Moreover, the contact impedance and stability of the Ag-plated PVDF nanofiber web electrodes were found to be comparable to similarly tested Ag/AgCl electrodes.

  2. DNA repair in Mycobacterium tuberculosis revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Vultos, Tiago; Mestre, Olga; Tonjum, Tone; Gicquel, Brigitte

    2009-05-01

    Our understanding of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms is still poor compared with that of other bacterial organisms. However, the publication of the first complete M. tuberculosis genome sequence 10 years ago boosted the study of DNA repair systems in this organism. A first step in the elucidation of M. tuberculosis DNA repair mechanisms was taken by Mizrahi and Andersen, who identified homologs of genes involved in the reversal or repair of DNA damage in Escherichia coli and related organisms. Genes required for nucleotide excision repair, base excision repair, recombination, and SOS repair and mutagenesis were identified. Notably, no homologs of genes involved in mismatch repair were identified. Novel characteristics of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair machinery have been found over the last decade, such as nonhomologous end joining, the presence of Mpg, ERCC3 and Hlr - proteins previously presumed to be produced exclusively in mammalian cells - and the recently discovered bifunctional dCTP deaminase:dUTPase. The study of these systems is important to develop therapeutic agents that can counteract M. tuberculosis evolutionary changes and to prevent adaptive events resulting in antibiotic resistance. This review summarizes our current understanding of the M. tuberculosis DNA repair system.

  3. High levels of BRC4 induced by a Tet-On 3G system suppress DNA repair and impair cell proliferation in vertebrate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takuya; Branzei, Dana

    2014-10-01

    Transient induction or suppression of target genes is useful to study the function of toxic or essential genes in cells. Here we apply a Tet-On 3G system to DT40 lymphoma B cell lines, validating it for three different genes. Using this tool, we then show that overexpression of the chicken BRC4 repeat of the tumor suppressor BRCA2 impairs cell proliferation and induces chromosomal breaks. Mechanistically, high levels of BRC4 suppress double strand break-induced homologous recombination, inhibit the formation of RAD51 recombination repair foci, reduce cellular resistance to DNA damaging agents and induce a G2 damage checkpoint-mediated cell-cycle arrest. The above phenotypes are mediated by BRC4 capability to bind and inhibit RAD51. The toxicity associated with BRC4 overexpression is exacerbated by chemotherapeutic agents and reversed by RAD51 overexpression, but it is neither aggravated nor suppressed by a deficit in the non-homologous end-joining pathway of double strand break repair. We further find that the endogenous BRCA2 mediates the cytotoxicity associated with BRC4 induction, thus underscoring the possibility that BRC4 or other domains of BRCA2 cooperate with ectopic BRC4 in regulating repair activities or mitotic cell division. In all, the results demonstrate the utility of the Tet-On 3G system in DT40 research and underpin a model in which BRC4 role on cell proliferation and chromosome repair arises primarily from its suppressive role on RAD51 functions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  5. Development of diagnosis and repair system for steelmaking refractories; Seikoyo taikabutsu no shindan hoshu gijutsu no kakuritsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aso, S.; Harada, S.; Tsutsui, Y. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-06-01

    The latest measurement equipment and repair method were introduced into the work area of all refractories in the process of torpedo cars, hot metal preliminary treatment, hot metal pans, secondary refining, and cast pans so as to improve the cost of the newest advanced steelmaking refractories. As a result, the refractory cost could be reduced by 10%. This paper introduces the improvement in RH refractories and refractories for hot metal preliminary treatment. As for basic items, in addition to the visual observation, the thickness of refractories was quantified using equipment (laser profile meter, thermotracer, and NS sensor) for the furnace stop in the minimum remaining length. An ITV was also installed in the facilities where the visual check is difficult to carry out. Repair is mainly done by spraying. A thermal spraying repair method with high durability was used for the repair. A method that relieves a thermal shock was used for preheating. Moreover, measures that make the temperature gradient in the thickness direction uniform by using newly developed microwave drying equipment were taken for drying of unburned refractories. 4 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Design of dual energy x-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yue; Miao, Changyun; Rong, Feng

    2009-07-01

    A dual energy X-ray detector for conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is researched in the paper. Conveyor belt with steel wire ropes is one of primary transfer equipments in modern production. The traditional test methods like electromagnetic induction principle could not display inner image of steel wire ropes directly. So X-ray detection technology has used to detect the conveyor belt. However the image was not so clear by the interference of the rubber belt. Therefore, the dualenergy X-ray detection technology with subtraction method is developed to numerically remove the rubber belt from radiograph, thus improving the definition of the ropes image. The purpose of this research is to design a dual energy Xray detector that could make the operator easier to found the faulty of the belt. This detection system is composed of Xray source, detector controlled by FPGA chip, PC for running image processing system and so on. With the result of the simulating, this design really improved the capability of the staff to test the conveyor belt.

  7. 皮带定量给料机在配料系统中的设计实例%The design examples of belt constant tonnage feeder in ingredients system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严荣涛

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduces the design examples of belt constant tonnage feeder in cement production process of ingredients system, which can be used in chemical industry or other ingredients system. According to the different needs of users, experienced designers can scheme out much better design scheme optimally, and improve the design quality constantly, promote the progress of technology of ingredients.%本文介绍了皮带定量给料机在水泥生产过程的配料系统设计的一个实例,这种实用设计模式也可用于化工行业或其他配料系统。作为设计中经验丰富的设计人员会根据用户的不同需求,优化设计出更多更好的设计方案,不断提高设计质量,推动配料技术的进步。

  8. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Application of nonhomogeneous Poisson process to reliability analysis of repairable systems of a nuclear power plant with rates of occurrence of failures time-dependent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saldanha, Pedro L.C.; Simone, Elaine A. de; Melo, Paulo Fernando F.F. e

    1996-01-01

    Aging is used to mean the continuous process which physical characteristics of a system, a structure or an equipment changes with time or use. Their effects are increases in failure probabilities of a system, a structure or an equipment, and their are calculated using time-dependent failure rate models. The purpose of this paper is to present an application of the nonhomogeneous Poisson process as a model to study rates of occurrence of failures when they are time-dependent. To this application, an analysis of reliability of service water pumps of a typical nuclear power plant is made, as long as the pumps are effectively repaired components. (author)

  10. Strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-REE deposits of the Idaho Cobalt Belt: Multistage hydrothermal mineralization in a magmatic-related iron oxide copper-gold system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slack, John F.

    2012-01-01

    Mineralogical and geochemical studies of strata-bound Fe-Co-Cu-Au-Bi-Y-rare-earth element (REE) deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt in east-central Idaho provide evidence of multistage epigenetic mineralization by magmatic-hydrothermal processes in an iron oxide copper-gold (IOCG) system. Deposits of the Idaho cobalt belt comprise three types: (1) strata-bound sulfide lenses in the Blackbird district, which are cobaltite and, less commonly, chalcopyrite rich with locally abundant gold, native bismuth, bismuthinite, xenotime, allanite, monazite, and the Be-rich silicate gadolinite-(Y), with sparse uraninite, stannite, and Bi tellurides, in a gangue of quartz, chlorite, biotite, muscovite, garnet, tourmaline, chloritoid, and/or siderite, with locally abundant fluorapatite or magnetite; (2) discordant tourmalinized breccias in the Blackbird district that in places have concentrations of cobaltite, chalcopyrite, gold, and xenotime; and (3) strata-bound magnetite-rich lenses in the Iron Creek area, which contain cobaltiferous pyrite and locally sparse chalcopyrite or xenotime. Most sulfide-rich deposits in the Blackbird district are enclosed by strata-bound lenses composed mainly of Cl-rich Fe biotite; some deposits have quartz-rich envelopes.Whole-rock analyses of 48 Co- and/or Cu-rich samples show high concentrations of Au (up to 26.8 ppm), Bi (up to 9.16 wt %), Y (up to 0.83 wt %), ∑REEs (up to 2.56 wt %), Ni (up to 6,780 ppm), and Be (up to 1,180 ppm), with locally elevated U (up to 124 ppm) and Sn (up to 133 ppm); Zn and Pb contents are uniformly low (≤821 and ≤61 ppm, respectively). Varimax factor analysis of bulk compositions of these samples reveals geochemically distinct element groupings that reflect statistical associations of monazite, allanite, and xenotime; biotite and gold; detrital minerals; chalcopyrite and sparse stannite; quartz; and cobaltite with sparse selenides and tellurides. Significantly, Cu is statistically separate from Co and As

  11. The experience from operation of electronic personal dosimetry system at Dukovany, Temelin and Mochovce NPPs after repair of Siemens dosemeters eliminating false doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malysak, J.; Kocvara, S.; Jurochova, B.; Zelenka, Z.; Schacherl, M.; Zrubec, M.; Kaiser, H.

    2003-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the operational experience of the Electronic Personal Dosimetry Systems installed at Dukovany, Temelin and Mochovce NPPs. The system consists of three basic parts: Electronic personal dosemeters (EPD); Physical layer (HW); Logical layer (SW). Number of false doses before and after correction is presented. This presentation has demonstrated the possibilities of SEOD system and the possibility of easy dose comparison between the individual NPPs after introducing this electronic dosimetry system. Basically, the results of film and electronic dosimetry systems are according to our findings nearly identical. Electronic dosemeter sensitivity to interfering electromagnetic fields is a problem which is easily re-movable. In addition, if we know this problem, these false doses in the SEOD system can be easily revealed (e.g. by investigation of histograms) and repaired

  12. Underwater coating repair cuts nuclear maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuart, C.O.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses the cleaning and recoating/repair of condensate tanks or other vessels in a nuclear power plant. The topics of the article include the safety and regulatory need for this system of repair, a description of the work done on the Brown's Ferry MK-1 suppression chamber, coating failure mechanisms, qualitative inspection, quantitative inspection, quantitative inspection results, spot repairs, and economic considerations

  13. On the weakly nonlinear, transversal vibrations of a conveyor belt with a low and time-varying velocity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suweken, G.; van Horssen, W.T.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the weakly nonlinear, transversal vibrations of a conveyor belt will be considered. The belt is assumed to move with a low and time-varying speed. Using Kirchhoff's approach a single equation of motion will be derived from a coupled system of partial differential equations describing

  14. Diagnostics of Technical Condition of Gear Units of Belt Conveyors for the Aggregate of Methods of Nondestructive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzin, Evgeny G.; Gerike, Boris L.; Drozdenko, Yuriy V.; Lupiy, Michael G.; Grigoryeva, Natalya V.

    2017-10-01

    The article reviews the issues of complex use of methods of technical diagnostics of gearboxes for belt conveyors, with the aim of creating an effective system of maintenance. The article is showing the results of the evaluation of the technical condition of the drives of belt conveyors based on vibration monitoring and thermal parameters, and analysis of lubricating oil.

  15. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  16. Dynamical Classifications of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) contains a plethora of observational data on thousands of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Understanding their orbital properties refines our understanding of the formation of the solar system. My analysis pipeline, BUNSHIN, uses Bayesian methods to take the MPC observations and generate 30 statistically weighted orbital clones for each KBO that are propagated backwards along their orbits until the beginning of the solar system. These orbital integrations are saved as REBOUND SimulationArchive files (Rein & Tamayo 2017) which we will make publicly available, allowing many others to perform statistically-robust dynamical classification or complex dynamical investigations of outer solar system small bodies.This database has been used to expand the known collisional family members of the dwarf planet Haumea. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). Our preliminary results have already ~tripled the number of known Haumea family members, allowing us to show that the Haumea family can be identified purely through dynamical clustering.We will discuss the methods associated with BUNSHIN and the database it generates, the refinement of the updated Haumea family, a brief search for other possible clusterings in the outer solar system, and the potential of our research to aid other dynamicists.

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  18. New Quality Standards of Testing Idlers for Highly Effective Belt Conveyors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Król, Robert; Gladysiewicz, Lech; Kaszuba, Damian; Kisielewski, Waldemar

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents result of research and analyses carried out into the belt conveyors idlers’ rotational resistance which is one of the key factor indicating the quality of idlers. Moreover, idlers’ rotational resistance is important factor in total resistance to motion of belt conveyor. The evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers is carried out in accordance with actual national and international standards which determine the methodology of measurements and acceptable values of measured idlers’ parameters. Requirements defined by the standards, which determine the suitability of idlers to a specific application, despite the development of knowledge on idlers and quality of presently manufactured idlers maintain the same level of parameters values over long periods of time. Nowadays the need to implement new, efficient and economically justified solution for belt conveyor transportation systems characterized by long routes and energy-efficiency is often discussed as one of goals in belt conveyors’ future. One of the basic conditions for achieving this goal is to use only carefully selected idlers with low rotational resistance under the full range of operational loads and high durability. Due to this it is necessary to develop new guidelines for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in accordance with actual standards and perfecting of existing and development of new methods of idlers testing. The changes in particular should concern updating of values of parameters used for evaluation of the technical condition of belt conveyor idlers in relation to belt conveyors’ operational challenges and growing demands in terms of belt conveyors’ energy efficiency.

  19. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization.

  20. Sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 by a novel hybrid hydrogel system to stimulate endogenous cardiac repair in myocardial infarcted rat hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Rui; Qiao, Shupei; Liu, Yi; Meng, Qingyuan; Chen, Xiongbiao; Song, Bing; Hou, Xiaolu; Tian, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Dedifferentiation and proliferation of endogenous cardiomyocytes in situ can effectively improve cardiac repair following myocardial infarction (MI). 6-Bromoindirubin-3-oxime (BIO) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are two potent factors that promote cardiomyocyte survival and proliferation. However, their delivery for sustained release in MI-affected areas has proved to be challenging. In the current research, we present a study on the sustained co-delivery of BIO and IGF-1 in a hybrid hydrogel system to simulate endogenous cardiac repair in an MI rat model. Both BIO and IGF-1 were efficiently encapsulated in gelatin nanoparticles, which were later cross-linked with the oxidized alginate to form a novel hybrid hydrogel system. The in vivo results indicated that the hybrid system could enhance the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in situ and could promote revascularization around the MI sites, allowing improved cardiac function. Taken together, we concluded that the hybrid hydrogel system can co-deliver BIO and IGF-1 to areas of MI and thus improve cardiac function by promoting the proliferation of cardiomyocytes and revascularization. PMID:26251592