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  1. Role of mantle dynamics in rebuilding the Tianshan Orogenic Belt in NW China: A seismic tomographic investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Chuansong; Santosh, M.

    2018-05-01

    The Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane are located at the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here, we investigate the velocity structure beneath the Xinjiang region in NW China, which includes the Tarim terrane, Tianshan orogenic belt, Junggar terrane and Altai terrane with a view to evaluate the mantle dynamics based on teleseismic data recorded by 103 seismic stations. Our tomographic results show both high and low velocity perturbations beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt. We suggest that the high velocity perturbations beneath this orogenic belt might represent the northward subducted lithosphere of the Tarim Basin and the southward subducted lithosphere of the Junggar Basin. The low velocity structure beneath the Tianshan orogenic belt might represent asthenosphere upwelling that triggered the extensive magmatism which contributed to rebuilding of the Tianshan orogenic belt.

  2. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

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    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-05-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion-collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu-Pb-Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U-Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U-Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9-213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67-1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and the lithosphere. In contrast, the

  3. Paleozoic magmatism and porphyry Cu-mineralization in an evolving tectonic setting in the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Kun-Feng; Deng, Jun; Taylor, Ryan D.; Song, Kai-Rui; Song, Yao-Hui; Li, Quan-Zhong; Goldfarb, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The NWW-striking North Qilian Orogenic Belt records the Paleozoic accretion–collision processes in NW China, and hosts Paleozoic Cu–Pb–Zn mineralization that was temporally and spatially related to the closure of the Paleo Qilian-Qinling Ocean. The Wangdian Cu deposit is located in the eastern part of the North Qilian Orogenic Belt, NW China. Copper mineralization is spatially associated with an altered early Paleozoic porphyritic granodiorite, which intruded tonalites and volcaniclastic rocks. Alteration zones surrounding the mineralization progress outward from a potassic to a feldspar-destructive phyllic assemblage. Mineralization consists mainly of quartz-sulfide stockworks and disseminated sulfides, with ore minerals chalcopyrite, pyrite, molybdenite, and minor galena and sphalerite. Gangue minerals include quartz, orthoclase, biotite, sericite, and K-feldspar. Zircon LA-ICPMS U–Pb dating of the ore-bearing porphyritic granodiorite yielded a mean 206Pb/238U age of 444.6 ± 7.8 Ma, with a group of inherited zircons yielding a mean U–Pb age of 485 ± 12 Ma, consistent with the emplacement age (485.3 ± 6.2 Ma) of the barren precursor tonalite. Rhenium and osmium analyses of molybdenite grains returned model ages of 442.9 ± 6.8 Ma and 443.3 ± 6.2 Ma, indicating mineralization was coeval with the emplacement of the host porphyritic granodiorite. Rhenium concentrations in molybdenite (208.9–213.2 ppm) suggest a mantle Re source. The tonalities are medium-K calc-alkaline. They are characterized by enrichment of light rare-earth elements (LREEs) and large-ion lithophile elements (LILEs), depletion of heavy rare-earth elements (HREEs) and high-field-strength elements (HFSEs), and minor negative Eu anomalies. They have εHf(t) values in the range of +3.6 to +11.1, with two-stage Hf model ages of 0.67–1.13 Ga, suggesting that the ca. 485 Ma barren tonalites were products of arc magmatism incorporating melts from the mantle wedge and

  4. Source discrimination between Mining blasts and Earthquakes in Tianshan orogenic belt, NW China

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    Tang, L.; Zhang, M.; Wen, L.

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, a large number of quarry blasts have been detonated in Tianshan Mountains of China. It is necessary to discriminate those non-earthquake records from the earthquake catalogs in order to determine the real seismicity of the region. In this study, we have investigated spectral ratios and amplitude ratios as discriminants for regional seismic-event identification using explosions and earthquakes recorded at Xinjiang Seismic Network (XJSN) of China. We used a data set that includes 1071 earthquakes and 2881 non-earthquakes as training data recorded by the XJSN between years of 2009 and 2016, with both types of events in a comparable local magnitude range (1.5 to 2.9). The non-earthquake and earthquake groups were well separated by amplitude ratios of Pg/Sg, with the separation increasing with frequency when averaged over three stations. The 8- to 15-Hz Pg/Sg ratio was proved to be the most precise and accurate discriminant, which works for more than 90% of the events. In contrast, the P spectral ratio performed considerably worse with a significant overlap (about 60% overlap) between the earthquake and explosion populations. The comparison results show amplitude ratios between compressional and shear waves discriminate better than low-frequency to high-frequency spectral ratios for individual phases. In discriminating between explosions and earthquakes, none of two discriminants were able to completely separate the two populations of events. However, a joint discrimination scheme employing simple majority voting reduces misclassifications to 10%. In the region of the study, 44% of the examined seismic events were determined to be non-earthquakes and 55% to be earthquakes. The earthquakes occurring on land are related to small faults, while the blasts are concentrated in large quarries.

  5. The Kalatongke magmatic Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China: product of slab window magmatism?

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    Li, Chusi; Zhang, Mingjie; Fu, Piaoer; Qian, Zhuangzhi; Hu, Peiqing; Ripley, Edward M.

    2012-01-01

    The Permian Kalatongke Ni-Cu deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt are among the most important Ni-Cu deposits in northern Xinjiang, western China. The deposits are hosted by three small mafic intrusions comprising mainly norite and diorite. Its tectonic context, petrogenesis, and ore genesis have been highly contested. In this paper, we present a new model involving slab window magmatism for the Kalatongke intrusions. The origin of the associated sulfide ores is explained in the context of this new model. Minor amounts of olivine in the intrusions have Fo contents varying between 71 and 81.5 mol%, which are similar to the predicted values for olivine crystallizing from coeval basalts in the region. Analytic modeling based on major element concentrations suggests that the parental magma of the Kalatongke intrusions and the coeval basalts represent fractionated liquids produced by ˜15% of olivine crystallization from a primary magma, itself produced by 7-8% partial melting of depleted mantle peridotite. Positive ɛ Nd values (+4 to +10) and significant negative Nb anomalies for both intrusive and extrusive rocks can be explained by the mixing of magma derived from depleted mantle with 6-18% of a partial melt derived from the lower part of a juvenile arc crust with a composition similar to coeval A-type granites in the region, plus up to 10% contamination with the upper continental crust. Our model suggests that a slab window was created due to slab break-off during a transition from oceanic subduction to arc-arc or arc-continent collision in the region in the Early Permian. Decompression melting in the upwelling oceanic asthenosphere produced the primary magma. When this magma ascended to pond in the lower parts of a juvenile arc crust, it underwent olivine crystallization and at the same time triggered partial melting of the arc crust. Mixing between these two magmas followed by contamination with the upper crust after the magma ascended to higher crustal

  6. Accreted seamounts in North Tianshan, NW China: Implications for the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

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    Yang, Gaoxue; Li, Yongjun; Kerr, Andrew C.; Tong, Lili

    2018-03-01

    The Carboniferous Bayingou ophiolitic mélange is exposed in the North Tianshan accretionary complex in the southwestern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The mélange is mainly composed of serpentinised ultramafic rocks (including harzburgite, lherzolite, pyroxenite, dunite and peridotite), pillowed and massive basalts, layered gabbros, radiolarian cherts, pelagic limestones, breccias and tuffs, and displays block-in-matrix structures. The blocks of ultramafic rocks, gabbros, basalts, cherts, and limestones are set in a matrix of serpentinised ultramafic rocks, massive basalts and tuffs. The basaltic rocks in the mélange show significant geochemical heterogeneity, and two compositional groups, one ocean island basalt-like, and the other mid-ocean ridge-like, can be distinguished on the basis of their isotopic compositions and immobile trace element contents (such as light rare earth element enrichment in the former, but depletion in the latter). The more-enriched basaltic rocks are interpreted as remnants/fragments of seamounts, derived from a deep mantle reservoir with low degrees (2-3%) of garnet lherzolite mantle melting. The depleted basalts most likely formed by melting of a shallower spinel lherzolite mantle source with ∼15% partial melting. It is probable that both groups owe their origin to melting of a mixture between plume and depleted MORB mantle. The results from this study, when integrated with previous work, indicate that the Junggar Ocean crust (comprising a significant number of seamounts) was likely to have been subducted southward beneath the Yili-Central Tianshan block in the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous. The seamounts were scraped-off and accreted along with the oceanic crust in an accretionary wedge to form the Bayingou ophiolitic mélange. We present a model for the tectonomagmatic evolution of this portion of the CAOB involving prolonged intra-oceanic subduction with seamount accretion.

  7. Provenance and tectonic setting of siliciclastic rocks associated with the Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF: Implications for the Precambrian crustal evolution of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jun; Wang, He; Wang, Min

    2017-10-01

    The Late Neoproterozoic Dahongliutan BIF is associated with siliciclastic rocks in the Tianshuihai terrane of the Western Kunlun orogenic belt (WKO), NW China. The sedimentary rocks have various weathering indices (e.g., CIA = 57-87, PIA = 61-96 and Th/U = 4.85-12.45), indicative of varying degrees of weathering in the source area. The rocks have trace element ratios, such as Th/Sc = 0.60-1.21 and Co/Th = 0.29-1.67, and light rare earth element (LREE) enriched chondrite-normalized REE patterns, suggesting that they were mainly sourced from intermediate and felsic rocks. Available U-Pb ages of detrital zircon from these rocks reveal that the detrital sources may have been igneous and metamorphic rocks from the WKO and the Tarim Block. Our study suggests that the Dahongliutan BIF and hosting siliciclastic rocks may have deposited in a setting transitional from a passive to active continental margin, probably related to the Late Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian seafloor spreading and subduction of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. U-Pb dating of 163 detrital zircons defines five major age populations at 2561-2329 Ma, 2076-1644 Ma, 1164-899 Ma, 869-722 Ma and 696-593 Ma. These age groups broadly correspond to the major stages of supercontinent assembly and breakup events widely accepted for Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Some zircons have TDM2 model ages of 3.9-1.8 Ga and negative εHf(t) values, suggesting that the Archean to Paleoproterozoic (as old as Eoarchean) crustal materials were episodically reworked and incorporated into the late magmatic process in the WKO. Some Neoproterozoic zircons have TDM2 model ages of 1.47-1.07 Ga and 1.81-1.53 Ga and positive εHf(t) values, indicating juvenile crustal growth during the Mesoproterozoic. Our new results, combined with published data, imply that both the Tianshuihai terrane in the WKO and the Tarim Block share the same Precambrian tectonic evolution history.

  8. Elemental and isotopic (C, O, Sr, Nd) compositions of Late Paleozoic carbonated eclogite and marble from the SW Tianshan UHP belt, NW China: Implications for deep carbon cycle

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    Zhu, Jianjiang; Zhang, Lifei; Lü, Zeng; Bader, Thomas

    2018-03-01

    Subduction zones are important for understanding of the global carbon cycle from the surface to deep part of the mantle. The processes involved the metamorphism of carbonate-bearing rocks largely control the fate of carbon and contribute to local carbon isotopic heterogeneities of the mantle. In this study, we present petrological and geochemical results for marbles and carbonated eclogites in the Southwestern Tianshan UHP belt, NW China. Marbles are interlayered with coesite-bearing pelitic schists, and have Sr-Nd isotopic values (εNd (T=320Ma) = -3.7 to -8.9, 87Sr/86Sr (i) = 0.7084-0.7089), typical of marine carbonates. The marbles have dispersed low δ18OVSMOW values (ranging from 14 to 29‰) and unaffected carbon isotope (δ13CVPDB = -0.2-3.6‰), possibly due to infiltration of external H2O-rich fluids. Recycling of these marbles into mantle may play a key role in the carbon budget and contributed to the mantle carbon isotope heterogeneity. The carbonated eclogites have high Sr isotopic compositions (87Sr/86Sr (i) = 0.7077-0.7082) and positive εNd (T = 320 Ma) values (from 7.6 to 8.2), indicative of strong seafloor alteration of their protolith. The carbonates in the carbonated eclogites are mainly dolomite (Fe# = 12-43, Fe# = Fe2+/(Fe2+ + Mg)) that were added into oceanic basalts during seafloor alteration and experienced calcite - dolomite - magnesite transformation during the subduction metamorphic process. The uniformly low δ18O values (∼11.44‰) of carbonates in the carbontaed eclogites can be explained by closed-system equilibrium between carbonate and silicate minerals. The low δ13C values (from -3.3 to -7.7‰) of the carbonated eclogites most likely reflect contribution from organic carbon. Recycling of these carbonated eclogites with C isotope similar to typical mantle reservoirs into mantle may have little effect on the mantle carbon isotope heterogeneity.

  9. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  10. AN EARLY PERMIAN GARNET-BEATING PERALUMINOUS GRANITIC PLUTON IN THE SOUTH TIANSHAN OROGENIC BELT, NW CHINA: PETROLOGICAL, MINERALOGICAL AND GEOCHEMICAL CONSTRAINTS

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    Qie Qin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Ku’erchu granitic pluton (283±4 Ma was exposed in the eastern part of the South Tianshan Orogenic Belt. The granites from the intrusion are mainly composed of orthoclase (~45 vol. %, plagioclase (~15 vol. %, quartz (~20 vol. %, muscovite (~10 vol. % and biotite (~5 vol. %, with accessory minerals including garnet, zircon and Fe-Ti oxide.

  11. The distribution, geochronology and geochemistry of early Paleozoic granitoid plutons in the North Altun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the petrogenesis and tectonic evolution

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    Meng, Ling-Tong; Chen, Bai-Lin; Zhao, Ni-Na; Wu, Yu; Zhang, Wen-Gao; He, Jiang-Tao; Wang, Bin; Han, Mei-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abundant early Paleozoic granitoid plutons are widely distributed in the North Altun orogenic belt. These rocks provide clues to the tectonic evolution of the North Altun orogenic belt and adjacent areas. In this paper, we report an integrated study of petrological features, U-Pb zircon dating, in situ zircon Hf isotope and whole-rock geochemical compositions for the Abei, 4337 Highland and Kaladawan Plutons from north to south in the North Altun orogenic belt. The dating yielded magma crystallization ages of 514 Ma for the Abei Pluton, 494 Ma for the 4337 Highland Pluton and 480-460 Ma for the Kaladawan Pluton, suggesting that they are all products of oceanic slab subduction because of the age constraint. The Abei monzogranites derived from the recycle of Paleoproterozoic continental crust under low-pressure and high-temperature conditions are products of subduction initiation. The 4337 Highland granodiorites have some adakitic geochemical signatures and are sourced from partial melting of thickened mafic lower continental crust. The Kaladawan quartz diorites are produced by partial melting of mantle wedge according to the positive εHf(t) values, and the Kaladawan monzogranite-syenogranite are derived from partial melting of Neoproterozoic continental crust mixing the juvenile underplated mafic material from the depleted mantle. These results, together with existing data, provide significant information about the evolution history of oceanic crust subduction during the 520-460 Ma. The initiation of subduction occurred during 520-500 Ma with formation of Abei Pluton; subsequent transition from steep-angle to flat-slab subduction at ca.500 Ma due to the arrival of buoyant oceanic plateaus, which induces the formation of 4337 Highland Pluton. With ongoing subduction, the steep-angle subduction system is reestablished to cause the formation of 480-460 Ma Kaladawan Pluton. Meanwhile, it is this model that account for the temporal-spatial distribution of these early

  12. Shoshonitic- and adakitic magmatism of the Early Paleozoic age in the Western Kunlun orogenic belt, NW China: Implications for the early evolution of the northwestern Tibetan plateau

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    Wang, Jian; Hattori, Keiko; Liu, Jianguo; Song, Yue; Gao, Yongbao; Zhang, Han

    2017-08-01

    The Western Kunlun orogenic belt in the northwestern margin of the Tibetan plateau contains two magmatic belts; early Paleozoic belt in the northern part of Western Kunlun Terrane (WKT), and early Mesozoic belt in the southern part of WKT. Both formed from northward subduction of the Paleo-Tethys. The early Paleozoic belt contains large Datong and Qiukesu igneous complexes and many smaller plutons. The Datong complex is mainly composed of dark-colored porphyritic syenite and monzonite with minor light-colored dykes of granite and monzonite. The dark-colored rocks are characterized by moderate SiO2 (58.2-69.3 wt.%), and high Al2O3 (15.3-17.1 wt.%), total alkali (Na2O + K2O = 8.07-10.2 wt.%) and ratios of K2O/Na2O (0.77-1.83). They plot in "shoshonite" field, and show high abundances of LILE including LREE ((La/Yb)n = 15.4-26.2; mean 20.2) with pronounced negative anomalies of Nb-Ta-P-Ti in normalized trace elemental patterns and weak negative anomalies of Eu (δEu = 2Eun/(Smn + Gdn) = 0.68-0.80). The light-colored rocks contain slightly higher concentrations of SiO2 (60.3-72.0 wt.%), similar Al2O3 (14.7-17.6 wt.%), and slightly lower total alkalis (6.57-9.14 wt.%) than dark-colored rocks. They show adakitic geochemical signatures with low Y (5.80-17.2 ppm) and Yb (0.63-1.59 ppm), and high Sr/Y (> 40). U-Pb zircon dating indicates that shoshonitic rocks and adakitic dykes formed at 444 Ma to 443 Ma, and a separate small adakitic plug at 462 Ma. The mean εHf(t) values of zircon range from - 1.6 to - 0.94 (n = 14) with TDM2 of 1.5 Ga for shoshonitic rocks and εHf(t) values from - 1.8 to + 0.72 (n = 12) with TDM2 of 1.4 to 1.5 Ga for adakitic rocks. Shoshonitic rocks show initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) of 0.7092-0.7100 and - 3.9 to - 3.2, respectively, and adakitic rocks yield initial 87Sr/86Sr and εNd(t) of 0.7099-0.7134 and - 3.6 to - 3.1, respectively. Similar Sr, Nd, and Hf isotope compositions for the shoshonitic and adakitic rocks suggest similar ancient rocks

  13. Paleozoic tectonic evolution of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt, Eastern Tianshan: Constraints from the magmatism of the Yuhai porphyry Cu deposit, Xinjiang, NW China

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    Wang, Yunfeng; Chen, Huayong; Han, Jinsheng; Chen, Shoubo; Huang, Baoqiang; Li, Chen; Tian, Qinglei; Wang, Chao; Wu, Jianxin; Chen, Mingxia

    2018-03-01

    The Yuhai intrusions (quartz diorite, granite and pyroxene diorite) are located in the eastern part of the Dananhu-Tousuquan island arc belt of the Eastern Tianshan, and associated with the early Paleozoic porphyry Cu mineralization. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yielded emplacement ages of 443.5 ± 4.1 Ma for the quartz diorite, 325.4 ± 2.5 Ma for the granite, and 291 ± 3.0 Ma for the pyroxene diorite. These rocks are tholeiitic to calc-alkaline and metaluminous, with A/CNK values ranging from 0.66 to 1.10. The Silurian ore-bearing Yuhai quartz diorite is rich in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., K, Ba, Pb and Sr), and depleted in HREEs and HFSEs (e.g., Nb, Ta and Ti). These rocks are MgO-rich (1.90-3.80 wt.%; Mg# = 37-72), with high Sr/Y, La/Yb and Ba/Th ratios, positive εNd(t) (6.31-6.84) and εHf(t) (13.26-16.40), low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7037-0.7039), and low Nb/U and Ta/U ratios. The data suggest that the quartz diorite was generated by the partial melting of subducted juvenile oceanic slab. The oxygen fugacity (ƒO2) of the quartz diorite, calculated by zircon Ce4+/Ce3+ ratios, is higher than that of the granite and pyroxene diorite, implying that the quartz diorite was more favorable to porphyry Cu mineralization. The Carboniferous Yuhai granite reveals similar geochemical features with the quartz diorite, except for the lower Mg# (27-33), and the more elevated Th/U and Th/La ratios. Furthermore, these rocks also show high εNd(t) (5.2-5.8) and εHf(t) (11.03-14.85) values, and low (87Sr/86Sr)i (0.7036-0.7037). These features indicate that the parental magma of the granite was probably derived from a juvenile lower crust with no significant mantle component involvement. Different from the Yuhai quartz diorite and granite, the early Permian Yuhai pyroxene diorite contains low SiO2 (50.76-55.74 wt.%) and high MgO (3.96-4.33 wt.%; Mg# = 40-44). The εNd(t), εHf(t) and (87Sr/86Sr)i values of the pyroxene diorite are 5.77-6.42, 7.99-12.10 and 0.7035-0.7040, respectively. The

  14. Skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites in the Harlik arc at Kalatage, E. Tianshan (NW China): Slab melting in the Devonian-early Carboniferous in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

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    Mao, Qigui; Yu, Mingjie; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Yuechen; Wei, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Jiangjian; Lü, Xiaoqiang

    2018-03-01

    The geodynamic control of mineralization in the accretionary evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) has long been controversial. Here we report new field, geochemical and geochronological data on recently defined porphyry and skarn-type ore deposits (Devonian-Early Carboniferous) in the Kalatage area in the middle of the Harlik-Dananhu arc, Eastern Tianshan, NW China in the southern CAOB, with the aim of better understanding the accretionary tectonics and genesis of porphyry and skarn-type mineralization. The Yudai porphyry Cu-(Au) deposits and the Xierqu skarn Cu-Fe-(Au) deposits are closely associated with Middle Devonian adakitic diorite porphyries (382-390 Ma), which are calc-alkaline and characterized by high Na2O/K2O ratios and Sr contents (310-1020 ppm), strong depletion of HREE (e.g., Yb = 0.80-1.44 ppm) and Y (7.68-14.50 ppm), and all enriched in Rb, Sr, Ba, K and depleted in Nb and Ti. They are characterized by distinctive Eu positive anomalies, high Na2O contents and MORB-like Sr and Nd isotope signatures (high εNd(t) = +6.1 to +7.0 and low (87Sr/86Sr)i = 0.70412-0.70462). These adakites most likely formed by melting of a young/hot subducted oceanic slab, and adakites in general are important carriers of porphyry Cu ± (Au) deposits. Early Carboniferous adakites in the Tuwu area south of Kalatage are known to have similar features. Therefore, skarn-mineralized porphyry adakites get younger from north to south, suggesting southward migration of the Harlik-Dananhu arc from 390 Ma to 322 Ma. These data indicate that partial melting of hot (and/or young) oceanic crustal slabs were an important mechanism of accretionary crustal growth and mineralization in the southern CAOB.

  15. An evolving tectonic environment of Late Carboniferous to Early Permian granitic plutons in the Chinese Altai and Eastern Junggar terranes, Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

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    Zhang, Chen; Liu, Dongdong; Luo, Qun; Liu, Luofu; Zhang, Yunzhao; Zhu, Deyu; Wang, Pengfei; Dai, Quanqi

    2018-06-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) represents one of the most important sites of juvenile crustal growth during the Phanerozoic. Located in the central part of the CAOB, the Chinese Altai and Eastern Junggar terranes record the collisional processes between the peri-Siberian and Kazakhstan orogenic systems. However, the precise timing of collision between the two terranes remains controversial. The Wukuli and Kadelat plutons in the Chinese Altai belt are dated at ∼305 and ∼280 Ma respectively, whereas the Aketas pluton in the Eastern Junggar terrane is dated at ∼308 Ma. Granites from the Wukuli and Kadelat plutons are strongly peraluminous (A/CNK > 1.1), and are characterized by low Al2O3, Na2O, MnO, MgO, CaO and heavy rare earth element (HREE) contents, but with high SiO2, K2O and Rb contents as well as high Rb/Sr ratios. Granites from the Wukuli pluton have low εNd(t) and εHf(t) values of -3.7 to -3.4 and -9.7 to +4.9, whereas those from the Kadelat pluton have values of -3.6 to -3.4 and -8.0 to +2.6. These features suggest S-type affinity for the Wukuli and Kadelat plutons with magma derivation through partial melting of Mesoproterozoic metasediments. The Aketas pluton is composed of weakly peraluminous quartz monzonites that have A/CNK values ranging from 0.92 to 1.08, with high Na2O, Sr, and Sr/Y, and low Y, Yb, Nb, and Ta. These rocks display positive εNd(t) (+4.8 to +6.4) and εHf(t) (+9.7 to +14.6) values, and low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.703357-0.703868), similar to modern adakites, suggesting that the quartz monzonites were derived from the partial melting of lower crustal material. The geochemical characteristics suggest that the Aketas pluton was formed in a subduction-related setting, the Wukuli pluton in a syn-collisional setting, and the Kadelat pluton in the subsequent post-orogenic strike-slip-related setting. In combination with data from other granitoids in these two terranes, the Aketas pluton represents the youngest record of

  16. Mantle contribution and tectonic transition in the Aqishan-Yamansu Belt, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: Insights from geochronology and geochemistry of Early Carboniferous to Early Permian felsic intrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Long; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Yunying; Huang, Zongying; Wang, Xinyu; Yang, Yueheng

    2018-04-01

    Late Paleozoic is a key period for the accretion and collision of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Here, we present new zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for four Late Paleozoic felsic plutons in Eastern Tianshan (or Tienshan in some literatures) in order to constrain the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB. The granodioritic pluton and its dioritic enclaves were synchronously formed in the Early Carboniferous (336 ± 3 Ma and 335 ± 2 Ma, respectively). These rocks are depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti, and enriched in Rb, Ba, Th and U related to the primitive mantle, which show typical features of arc rocks. They both have similar Sr-Nd isotopic ratios to those granitic rocks from the eastern Central Tianshan Block and have the latest Mesoproterozoic two stage Nd model ages (TDM2) (1111-1195 Ma for the granodioritic pluton and 1104-1108 Ma for the enclaves, respectively), indicating that their source magmas may have been derived from the Mesoproterozoic crust. The albitophyric pluton was also emplaced in the Early Carboniferous (333 ± 3 Ma). Rocks of this pluton have similar εNd(t) values (-0.69 to -0.37) and TDM2 ages (1135-1161 Ma) to those of the granodioritic rocks, suggest similar crustal source for both types of rocks. In contrast, the K-feldspar granitic and monzonitic plutons were emplaced in the Early Permian (292 ± 3 Ma and 281 ± 2 Ma, respectively). Samples of the K-feldspar granitic pluton have high K2O + Na2O, FeO/MgO, Ga/Al, HFSE (e.g., Zr and Hf) and low CaO, Sr and Ba, exhibiting characteristics of A2-type granites, which probably emplaced in a post-collisional extension environment. They have higher εNd(t) values (+2.77 to +3.27) and more juvenile TDM2 ages (799-841 Ma) than the Early Carboniferous plutons, suggesting that they were derived from relatively younger crustal sources. The monzonitic granites are metaluminous to weakly peraluminous with A/CNK ranging from 0.93 to 1.05, and have

  17. Elucidating tectonic events and processes from variably tectonized conglomerate clast detrital geochronology: examples from the Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleven, Nathan; Lin, Shoufa; Davis, Donald; Xiao, Wenjiao; Guilmette, Carl

    2017-04-01

    This work expands upon detrital zircon geochronology with a sampling and analysis strategy dating granitoid conglomerate clasts that exhibit differing degrees of internal ductile deformation. As deformation textures within clastic material reflect the variation and history of tectonization in the source region of a deposit, we outline a dating methodology that can provide details of the provenance's tectonomagmatic history from deformation-relative age distributions. The method involves bulk samples of solely granitoid clasts, as they are representative of the magmatic framework within the provenance. The clasts are classified and sorted into three subsets: undeformed, slightly deformed, and deformed. LA-ICPMS U-Pb geochronology is performed on zircon separates of each subset. Our case study, involving the Permian Hongliuhe Formation in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, analyzes each of the three clast subsets, as well as sandstone detrital samples, at three stratigraphic levels to yield a profile of the unroofed provenance. The age spectra of the clast samples exhibit different, wider distributions than sandstone samples, considered an effect of proximity to the respective provenance. Comparisons of clast data to sandstone data, as well as comparisons between stratigraphic levels, yield indications of key tectonic processes, in addition to the typical characteristics provided by detrital geochronology. The clast data indicates a minimal lag time, implying rapid exhumation rates, whereas sandstone data alone would indicate a 90 m.y. lag time. Early Paleozoic arc building episodes appear as Ordovician peaks in sandstone data, and Silurian-Devonian peaks in clast data, indicating a younging of magmatism towards the proximal provenance. A magmatic hiatus starts in the Devonian, correlating with the latest age of deformed clasts, interpreted as timing of collisional tectonics. Provenance interpretation using the correlations seen between the clast and sandstone

  18. Carboniferous - Early Permian magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Xinjiang, NW China): Implications for the Late Paleozoic accretionary tectonics of the SW Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Guzalnur; Wang, Bo; Cluzel, Dominique; Zhong, Linglin

    2018-03-01

    The Late Paleozoic magmatic evolution of the Bogda Range (Chinese North Tianshan) is important for understanding the accretionary history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We investigated the Carboniferous and Lower Permian volcanic and sedimentary sequences of the Daheyan section, southern Bogda Range, and present new zircon U-Pb ages and whole-rock geochemical data for the volcanic rocks. One Carboniferous rhyolite is dated at 298 ± 8 Ma; a Permian basalt yielded many Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts, and its maximum age (∼297 Ma) is constrained by the detrital zircon ages of the sandstone that stratigraphically underlies it. These volcanic rocks belong to calc-alkaline series. We further synthesize previous geochronological, geochemical and isotopic data of magmatic and sedimentary rocks in the Bogda Range. The available data indicate that the magmatism occurred continuously from 350 Ma to 280 Ma. A comprehensive analysis allows us to propose that: (1) the Carboniferous to Early Permian magmatic rocks of the Bogda Range generally show consistent arc-type features; (2) increasing mantle input through time suggests intra-arc extension in a supra-subduction zone; (3) the localized occurrence of Early Permian alkaline pillow basalts and deep water sediments close to the major shear zone advocate a transtensional crustal thinning during the transition from Carboniferous convergence to Early Permian transcurrent tectonics; (4) occurrence of a large number of Proterozoic zircon xenocrysts in the Late Paleozoic magmatic rocks, and Proterozoic detrital zircons in the coeval clastic sediments suggest a continental or transitional basement of the Bogda Arc; (5) subduction in the Bogda area terminated prior to the deposition of Middle Permian terrestrial sediments.

  19. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  20. Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt, NW China: Constraints on the initiation of a magmatic arc in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Long; Long, Xiaoping; Yuan, Chao; Zhang, Yunying; Huang, Zongying; Sun, Min; Zhao, Guochun; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    Early Paleozoic dioritic and granitic plutons in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt (ETOB) have been studied in order to constraint the initiation of a magmatic arc formed in this region. Zircon U-Pb dating indicates that two dioritic plutons in the northern ETOB were generated in the Late Ordovician (452 ± 4 Ma) and the Early Silurian (442 ± 3 Ma), respectively. Diorites from the two plutons are characterized by enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) and highly incompatible elements, with depletions in high field strength elements (HSFE) displaying typical geochemical features of a subduction-related origin. They have positive εNd(t) values (+5.08-+6.58), relatively young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.71-1.08 Ga), with Ta/Yb (0.05-0.09) and Nb/Ta ratios (12.06-15.19) similar to those of depleted mantle, suggesting a juvenile mantle origin. Their high Ba/La (13.3-35.9), low Th/Yb (0.72-2.02), and relatively low Ce/Th (4.57-14.7) and Ba/Th (47.8-235) ratios indicate that these diorites were probably produced by partial melting of a depleted mantle wedge metasomatized by both subducted sediment-derived melts and slab-derived aqueous fluids. Zircon U-Pb dating of a granitic pluton in the northern ETOB yielded a Late Ordovician intrusion age of 447 ± 5 Ma. Granites from this pluton show calc-alkaline compositions with geochemical characteristics of I-type granites. They also show positive εNd(t) values (+6.49-+6.95) and young Nd model ages (TDM = 0.69-0.87 Ga), indicating that the granites were most likely derived from juvenile lower crust. Our new dating results on the dioritic and granitic plutons suggest that arc-type magmatism in the northern ETOB began prior to or at the Late Ordovician (452-442 Ma). In addition, north-dipping subduction of the Kangguertage oceanic lithosphere may account for the arc-type magmatism and the geodynamic process of the ETOB in the Early Paleozoic.

  1. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China: ... The Jiapigou gold belt is located on the northern margin of the North China Craton, and is one of the ... 29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China.

  2. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  3. Episodic melting and magmatic recycling along 50 Ma in the Variscan belt linked to the orogenic evolution in NW Iberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Alonso, G.; López-Carmona, A.; García Acera, G.; Martín Garro, J.; Fernández-Suárez, J.; Gärtner, A.; Hofmann, M.

    2017-12-01

    The advent of a large amount of more precise U-Pb age data on Variscan granitoids from NW Iberia in recent years has provided a more focused picture of the magmatic history of the Western European Variscan belt (WEVB). Based on these data, three main pulses of magmatic activity seem to be well established.

  4. A review of mineral systems and associated tectonic settings of northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Pirajno

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a review of mineral systems in northern Xinjiang, NW China, focussing on the Tianshan, West and East Junggar and Altay orogenic belts, all of which are part of the greater Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB. The CAOB is a complex collage of ancient microcontinents, island arcs, oceanic plateaux and oceanic plates, which were amalgamated and accreted in Early Palaeozoic to Early Permian times. The establishment of the CAOB collage was followed by strike-slip movements and affected by intraplate magmatism, linked to mantle plume activity, best exemplified by the 250 Ma Siberian Traps and the 280 Ma Tarim event. In northern Xinjiang, there are numerous and economically important mineral systems. In this contribution we describe a selection of representative mineral deposits, including subduction-related porphyry and epithermal deposits, volcanogenic massive sulphides and skarn systems. Shear zone-hosted Au lodes may have first formed as intrusion-related and subsequently re-worked during strike-slip deformation. Intraplate magmatism led to the emplacement of concentrically zoned (Alaskan-style mafic–ultramafic intrusions, many of which host orthomagmatic sulphide deposits. A huge belt of pegmatites in the Altay orogen, locally hosts world-class rare metal deposits. Roll-front, sandstone-hosted U mineralisation completes the rich mineral endowment of the northern Xinjiang terranes.

  5. Belt, Road, and Circle: The Arctic and Northern Europe in China's Belt and Road Initiative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørup Sørensen, Camilla Tenna

    2018-01-01

    Sørensen offers a much-needed analysis of the how the development of the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) links to China’s growing interests and ambitions in the Arctic showing how China is using the BRI to further intensify and strengthen relations with the Nordic countries in the Arctic. Conducting...

  6. Metallogenic epoch of the Jiapigou gold belt, Jilin Province, China ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    29, Xueyuan Road, Beijing 100083, People's Republic of China. 2Beijing Research .... terrane, which is separated from the central Asian orogenic belt .... Stage I formed the main body of quartz veins ...... size (20–25 μm) fluid inclusions can be observed, although most ..... Canada and Western Australia (Goldfarb et al. 2001 ...

  7. Timing and Spatial Distribution of Loess in Xinjiang, NW China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Li

    Full Text Available Central Asia is one of the most significant loess regions on Earth, with an important role in understanding Quaternary climate and environmental change. However, in contrast to the widely investigated loess deposits in the Chinese Loess Plateau, the Central Asian loess-paleosol sequences are still insufficiently known and poorly understood. Through field investigation and review of the previous literature, the authors have investigated the distribution, thickness and age of the Xinjiang loess, and analyzed factors that control these parameters in the Xinjiang in northwest China, Central Asia. The loess sediments cover river terraces, low uplands, the margins of deserts and the slopes of the Tianshan Mountains and Kunlun Mountains and are also present in the Ili Basin. The thickness of the Xinjiang loess deposits varies from several meters to 670 m. The variation trend of the sand fraction (>63 μm grain-size contour can indicate the local major wind directions, so we conclude that the NW and NE winds are the main wind directions in the North and South Xinjiang, and the westerly wind mainly transport dust into the Ili basin. We consider persistent drying, adequate regional wind energy and well-developed river terraces to be the main factors controlling the distribution, thickness and formation age of the Xinjiang loess. The well-outcropped loess sections have mainly developed since the middle Pleistocene in Xinjiang, reflecting the appearance of the persistent drying and the present air circulation system. However, the oldest loess deposits are as old as the beginning of the Pliocene in the Tarim Basin, which suggests that earlier aridification occurred in the Tarim Basin rather than in the Ili Basin and the Junggar Basin.

  8. Chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange, Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tian; Zhu, Yongfeng

    2018-06-01

    The Sartohay ophiolitic mélange is located in western Junggar (Xinjiang province, NW China), which is a major component of the core part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Chromian spinels in serpentinite, talc schist, carbonate-talc schist and listwaenite in Sartohay ophiolitic mélange retain primary compositions with Cr# of 0.39-0.65, Mg# = 0.48-0.67, and Fe3+# evolution of chromian spinels in highly altered ultramafic rocks from the Sartohay ophiolitic mélange. Chromian spinels in serpentinite and talc schist were rimmed by Cr-magnetite, which was dissolved completely during transformation from serpentinite/talc schist to listwaenite. Chromian spinels were then transformed into Fe2+-rich chromite in shear zones, which characterized by high fluid/rock ratios. This Fe2+-rich chromite and/or chromian spinels could then be transformed into Fe3+-rich chromite in oxidizing conditions at shallow levels.

  9. LOS INTERESES DE CHINA EN ASIA CENTRAL, BELT AND ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alonso

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available China´s interests in Central Asia were propelled, with the launching of the initiative “One Belt, One Road”, renamed as “The Belt and Road Initiative”, better known as the New Silk Road. Thanks to the infrastructure investment China will become interconnected with other regions of the world, breaking up its secular isolation and will send its products to the global market more easily by land and sea. One principal question in this revolutionary change has to do with China´s hypothetical second intentions of geopolitical influence on the countries affected by the new routes (countries of transit or final destination. The article tries to answer the following questions: Does the People's Republic of China aim only to revive its internal labour market, reduce its industrial overcapacity and boost its exports? Is globalization coming to an end or is it entering a new phase of interconnectivity? How does this affect the relations between Russia and China in the Asian region?

  10. Age and origin of coeval TTG, I- and S-type granites in the Famatinian belt of NW Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapela, C.W.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Located on the Palaeozoic Pacific margin of Gondwana, at the opposite extreme to the Lachlan Fold Belt, the Sierras Pampeanas of central and NW Argentina also constitute a large granitic province displaying the coeval concurrence of I and S-type magmas. The Famatinian magmatic belt consists mostly of granitoids emplaced in Early Ordovician times, after Cambrian accretion of the Pampean terrane and before the Late Ordovician/Silurian accretion of the Precordillera terrane. New SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages, isotope and geochemical data are used to interpret the petrogenesis of this belt. Three types of granitoid are recognized in the Famatinian belt, based on lithology and geochemical data. These are (a) a minor trondhjemite-tonalite-granodiorite (TTG) group, which occurs only in the Pampean foreland, (b) a metaluminous I-type gabbromonzogranite suite, and (c) S-type granites, which occur both as small cordieritic intrusions associated with l-type granodiorites and as large batholithic masses. Twelve new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon ages establish the contemporaneity of all three types in Early Ordovician times (mainly 470-490 Ma ago). Sr- and Nd-isotopic data suggest that, apart from some TTG plutons with asthenospheric characteristics, the remaining magmas were derived from a Proterozoic crust-lithospheric mantle section (Nd model ages of 1500-1700 Ma). Granulite xenoliths in Cretaceous alkalic rocks that have been described by other authors may represent samples of this source region. Trace element modelling suggests that the TTG and I-type gabbros originated by variable melting of a lithospheric gabbroid source at 10-12 kbar and ca. 5 kbar, respectively. The voluminous intermediate and acidic I-types, which show a trend to slightly more evolved isotopic signatures than the inferred source, probably represent hybridization of the most primitive magmas with lower and middle crustal melts. The highly peraluminous S-type granites have similar isotopic and inherited

  11. On the evolution of the Kazaure Schist Belt of NW Nigeria: a re ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Geological Sciences ... Abstract. All previous models of evolution of the Kazaure Schist Belt (KZSB) invoked a simple ensialic mechanism in the context of Pan-African deformation which led to the formation of a marginal back-arc basin floored by continental materials that accepted sediments. The closure ...

  12. on the evolution of the kazaure schist belt of nw nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    2007-05-25

    May 25, 2007 ... ensialic processes, and an evaluation of previous data suggested in previous works is consistent with the new .... Ma ago, led to the formation of a marginal back-arc ..... Turner, D.C., 1983: Upper Proterozoic schist belts in the.

  13. Implications of heterogeneous fracture distribution on reservoir quality; an analogue from the Torridon Group sandstone, Moine Thrust Belt, NW Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Hannah; Healy, David; Bond, Clare E.; Butler, Robert W. H.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding fracture network variation is fundamental in characterising fractured reservoirs. Simple relationships between fractures, stress and strain are commonly assumed in fold-thrust structures, inferring relatively homogeneous fracture patterns. In reality fractures are more complex, commonly appearing as heterogeneous networks at outcrop. We use the Achnashellach Culmination (NW Scotland) as an outcrop analogue to a folded tight sandstone reservoir in a thrust belt. We present fracture data is collected from four fold-thrust structures to determine how fracture connectivity, orientation, permeability anisotropy and fill vary at different structural positions. We use a 3D model of the field area, constructed using field observations and bedding data, and geomechanically restored using Move software, to determine how factors such as fold curvature and strain influence fracture variation. Fracture patterns in the Torridon Group are consistent and predictable in high strain forelimbs, however in low strain backlimbs fracture patterns are inconsistent. Heterogeneities in fracture connectivity and orientation in low strain regions do not correspond to fluctuations in strain or fold curvature. We infer that where strain is low, other factors such as lithology have a greater control on fracture formation. Despite unpredictable fracture attributes in low strain regions, fractured reservoir quality would be highest here because fractures in high strain forelimbs are infilled with quartz. Heterogeneities in fracture attribute data on fold backlimbs mean that fractured reservoir quality and reservoir potential is difficult to predict.

  14. NW-SE Pliocene-Quaternary extension in the Apan-Acoculco region, eastern Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palomo, Armando; Macías, José Luis; Jiménez, Adrián; Tolson, Gustavo; Mena, Manuel; Sánchez-Núñez, Juan Manuel; Arce, José Luis; Layer, Paul W.; Santoyo, Miguel Ángel; Lermo-Samaniego, Javier

    2018-01-01

    The Apan-Acoculco area is located in the eastern portion of the Mexico basin and the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. The area is transected by right-stepping variably dipping NE-SW normal faults. The Apan-Tlaloc Fault System is a major discontinuity that divides the region into two contrasting areas with different structural and volcanic styles. a) The western area is characterized by a horst-graben geometry with widespread Quaternary monogenetic volcanism and scattered outcrops of Miocene and Pliocene rocks. b) The eastern area is dominated by tilted horsts with a domino-like geometry with widespread Miocene and Pliocene rocks, scattered Quaternary monogenetic volcanoes and the Acoculco Caldera. Gravity data suggest that this structural geometry continues into the Mesozoic limestones. Normal faulting was active since the Pliocene with three stages of extension. One of them, an intense dilatational event began during late Pliocene and continues nowadays, contemporaneously with the emplacement of the Apan-Tezontepec Volcanic Field and the Acoculco caldera. Statistical analysis of cone elongation, cone instability, and the kinematic analysis of faults attest for a NW50°SE ± 7° extensional regime in the Apan-Acoculco area. The activity in some portions of the Apan-Tlaloc Fault System continues today as indicated by earthquake swarms recorded in 1992 and 1996, that disrupted late Holocene paleosols, and Holocene volcanism.

  15. Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository and the progress in site characterization at the Beishan potential site in NW China's Gansu province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Zhangru; Chen Weiming; Wang Wenguang

    2000-01-01

    Evaluation of possible host rocks for China's high level radioactive waste repository is summarized in this paper. The distribution and characteristics of granite, tuff, clay stone, salt and loess in China are described, while maps showing the distribution of host rocks are presented. Because of the wide distribution, large scale, good heat conductivity and suitable mechanical properties, granite is considered as the most potential host rock. Some granite bodies distributed in NW China, SW China, South China and Inner Mongolia have been selected as potential areas. Detailed site characterization at Beishan area, Gansu Province NW China is in progress

  16. K-Ar geochronology of the Kulu-Mandi Belt, NW Himalaya, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehta, P.K.; Rex, D.C.

    1977-01-01

    The K-Ar dates of micas and whole rock amphibolites from the Kulu-Mandi Belt define two distinct groups, (1) 20 to 75 m. y., and (2) 277 to 366 m. y. Our data together with the other available K-Ar and Rb-Sr mineral and whole rock data, enable us to confirm three major events in the Himalaya, the Late Precambrian-Cambrian Assyntian (Cadomian) Orogenic cycle, the Late Palaeozoic Hercynian Magmatic-Epeirogenic cycle and the Late Cretaceous-Teritiary Himalayan Orogenic cycle. The mineral dating is significant for delineating different phases of the last i.e. the Himalayan Oregeny. The radiometric data, so far to hand, indicate that the main activity of the young, Himalayan metamorphism was probably around 50 to 70 m. y. (Late Cretaceous-Eocene) and this was followed by a major uplift during the 10 to 25 m. y. (Mid. Miocene) time, which was responsible for thrusting and formation of nappe structures in the Himalaya. (orig.) [de

  17. Intensity of geomorphological processes in NW sector of Pacific rim marginal mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedeva, Ekaterina; Shvarev, Sergey; Gotvansky, Veniamin

    2014-05-01

    Continental marginal mountains, including the mountain belts of Russian Far East, are characterized by supreme terrain contrast, mosaic structure of surface and crust, and rich complex of modern endogenous processes - volcanism, seismicity, and vertical movements. Unstable state of geomorphological systems and activity of relief forming processes here is caused also by deep dissected topography and the type and amount of precipitation. Human activities further stimulate natural processes and increase the risk of local disasters. So these territories have high intensity (or tension) of geomorphological processes. Intensity in the authors' understanding is willingness of geomorphological system to be out of balance, risk of disaster under external and internal agent, both natural and human. Mapping with quantitative accounting of intensity of natural and human potential impact is necessary for indication the areal distribution trends of geomorphological processes intensity and zones of potential risk of disasters. Methods of map drowning up are based on several criteria analyzing: 1) total terrain-form processes and their willingness to be a hazard-like, 2) existence, peculiarity and zoning of external agents which could cause extreme character of base processes within the territory, 3) peculiarity of terrain morphology which could cause hazard way of terrain-form processes. Seismic activity is one of the most important factors causing activation of geomorphological processes and contributing to the risk of dangerous situations. Earthquake even small force can provoke many catastrophic processes: landslides, mudslides, avalanches and mudflows, tsunami and others. Seismic gravitational phenomenons of different scale accompany almost all earthquakes of intensity 7-8 points and above, and some processes, such as avalanches, activated by seismic shocks intensity about 1-3 points. In this regard, we consider it important selection of high intensity seismic zones in

  18. Quantifying Structural and Compositional Changes in Forest Cover in NW Yunnan, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakkenberg, C.

    2012-12-01

    NW Yunnan, China is a region renowned for high levels of biodiversity, endemism and genetically distinct refugial plant populations. It is also a focal area for China's national reforestation efforts like the Natural Forest Protection Program (NFPP), intended to control erosion in the Upper Yangtze watershed. As part of a larger project to investigate the role of reforestation programs in facilitating the emergence of increasingly species-rich forest communities on a previously degraded and depauperate land mosaic in montane SW China, this study uses a series of Landsat TM images to quantify the spatial pattern and rate of structural and compositional change in forests recovering from medium to large-scale disturbances in the area over the past 25 years. Beyond the fundamental need to assess the outcomes of one of the world's largest reforestation programs, this research offers approaches to confronting two critical methodological issues: (1) techniques for characterizing subtle changes in the nature of vegetation cover, and (2) reducing change detection uncertainty due to persistent cloud cover and shadow. To address difficulties in accurately assessing the structure and composition of vegetative regrowth, a biophysical model was parameterized with over 300 ground-truthed canopy cover assessment points to determine pattern and rate of long-term vegetation changes. To combat pervasive shadow and cloud cover, an interactive generalized additive model (GAM) model based on topographic and spatial predictors was used to overcome some of the constraints of satellite image analysis in Himalayan regions characterized by extreme topography and extensive cloud cover during the summer monsoon. The change detection is assessed for accuracy using ground-truthed observations in a variety of forest cover types and topographic positions. Results indicate effectiveness in reducing the areal extent of unclassified regions and increasing total change detection accuracy. In addition

  19. A new species of genus Chorebus Haliday (Hymenoptera, Alysiinae parasitising Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae from NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chorebus (Stiphrocera hexomyzae sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Alysiinae, Dacnusini is described and illustrated. It was reared from twig galls of Hexomyza caraganae Gu (Diptera, Agromyzidae on Caragana korshinskii Kom. f. (Fabaceae in Ningxia and Inner Mongolia (NW China. A partial key to related or similar Chorebus species is provided.

  20. Petrology, isotopic and fluid inclusion studies of eclogites from Sujiahe, NW Dabie Shan (China), July 1 2002

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fu, B.; Zheng, Y.-F.; Touret, J.L.R.

    2002-01-01

    In addition to the Triassic Hong'an low-T-high-P eclogite and the Xinxian coesite-bearing kyanite-glaucophane eclogite, Silurian coesite-free amphibole eclogites occur in the Sujiahe region, NW Dabie Shan of central China. A comprehensive study of petrology, Nd-Sr, O-H isotopes and fluid inclusions

  1. Geochemical Characteristics on NW of Ladakh Batholith region exposed in the Western part of Leh area around Trans- Himalayan Belt, NW (India)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, A., IV; Ilbeyli, N.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical characteristics (major & trace elements including REE) are studied on the granitic rocks from NW of Ladakh batholith region that emplaced in the western part of Leh area around the Trans- Himalaya of Ladakh district, Jammu & Kashmir (NW India). The major element geochemistry reveals that these granitic rocks display a broad spectrum of SiO2 content (54.50 wt%- 75.80 wt%). The oxide of K2O, Al2O3, MgO & Fe2O3 shows negative correlation with SiO2 probably shows the fractionation of biotite during the process of crystallization. The oxide of CaO & TiO2 shows positive correlation that coupled with their negative correlation with SiO2 most probably reflects the fractionation of Sphene (CaTiSiO5). The fractionation of apatite is also indicated by the positive correlation with CaO & P2O5 and their negative correlation with SiO2. The classified diagram between Molar Al2O3/ (CaO+Na2O+K2O) vs Molar Al2O3/ (Na2O+K2O) shows that all samples covered peraluminous region. The total alkali diagram of (Na2O+K2O) wt% vs SiO2 (wt %) shows that all samples covered the region of granite, quartz diorite & diorite. The samples plot between K2O (wt %) vs SiO2 (wt %) shows high to medium -K (calc-alkaline) series. All these intrusive rock shows enrichment in LILE (K, Rb, Ba, & Th) and LREE (Ce) relative to the HFSE (Ta, Nb, Hf, Zr, Sm, Y, & Yb). The Chondrite- normalized REE patterns for the studied granitic rocks such as LREE & MREE and HREE's are moderately fractionated & have moderate negative Eu anomalies. In the Nb Vs Y and Rb- (Y+Nb) diagrams, all intrusive rocks fall into the VAG (volcanic- arc granite) field in order to characterize tectonic environment for the granitic rocks. The Al2O3/TiO2 vs CaO/Na2O diagram & Rb/Ba vs Rb/Sr plots are used for identifying the source of melts parental to peraluminous granites. The variations that observed in granitoid are not only by partial melting but also depend on various processes like migration of melts, magma mixing

  2. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Roadblock on China's "One Belt - One Road"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zank, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    is not compatible with the OBOR initiative. A free-trade agreement between China and the EEU could make it compatible, but this is not a realistic perspective for the near future. The EEU seems to be an unstable construction, with many basic rules and norms being unclear, and many tensions and conflicts among its...... members. Keywords: China, European-Atlantic Security Community, Eurasian Economic Union, “One Belt One Road” Initiative, Russia’s “Monroe Doctrine”....

  3. Analysis of Oil and Gas Cooperation between China and Russia in the Belt and Road

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the deepening of economic globalization and regional economic integration and the “One Belt and One Road” strategic layout, China and Russia in the field of regional energy cooperation has been expanded to deepen. This paper analyzed the present situation of energy cooperation between China and Russia from the field of oil, coal and natural gas, and concludes that Sino-Russian energy cooperation is the following factors: strong cooperation and strong energy complementarities, and then analyzed the way to the Sino-Russian oil and gas cooperation. However, there are some problems in the energy cooperation between the two countries: the energy infrastructure in China and Russia is not perfect, the difference between Russia and Northeast China is poor, and there are some hidden dangers of energy security. The cultural dilemma hinders the exchange between the two countries. Finally, from the “One Belt and One Road” strategy for the Sino-Russian energy cooperation provides an opportunity to put forward the establishment and strengthening of energy infrastructure, relying on “One Belt and One Road” Orientation to ensure energy security, strengthen cultural cooperation and adhere to the “One Belt and One Road” uphold the principle of mutual benefit and other countermeasures.

  4. Two Belts, One Road? - The role of Africa in Chinas's Belt & Road initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Julia

    2017-01-01

    In the light of the EU-Africa Summit 2017 and of the G20 Summit 2017 with Africa being one of the focus areas, China’s engagement in Africa seems more relevant than ever. China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative (OBOR) or silk road initiative is often referred to as a Eurasian infrastructure network initiative, but it is in fact much more than that. The maritime silk road is supposed to go past the coast of East Africa, where several ports are being built and will be built. Furthermore, ports ...

  5. Organic geochemistry of oil and gas in the Kuqa depression, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Digang Liang; Shuichang Zhang; Jianping Chen [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Research Institute of Petroleum Exploration and Development, PetroChina, Beijing (China); Feiyu Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Peirong Wang [China National Petroleum Corporation, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory for Petroleum Geochemistry; Jianghan Petroleum Institute (China)

    2003-07-01

    The Kuqa depression in the Tarim Basin, NW China contains significant natural gas and condensate resources, with only small amounts of black oil. This study demonstrates that the primary reason for the accumulation of large natural gas reserves in the Kuqa depression is the high maturity level of the Jurassic coal-bearing sequence that is currently at the peak stage of dry gas generation. From the combined stable carbon isotopes and molecular and biomarker data it is possible to identify two separate source rocks for the discovered hydrocarbon fluids: the gases were primarily from the Middle-Lower Jurassic coals and associated clastic rocks, and the oils were from the Upper Triassic lacustrine mudstones. Peak oil generation from the Triassic source rocks occurred during the early Miocene (23-12 Ma b.p.). These oils migrated laterally over relatively long distances ({approx}20-50 km) reaching the outer periphery of the depression. Peak gas generation took place more recently, perhaps during the past 5 Ma. The gases migrated mainly along faults over relatively short lateral distances, resulting in accumulations adjacent to the over-matured source kitchens. Different timings for the trap formation along the north and south margins and a late injection of gas into early oil accumulations provided favorable conditions for the formation of evaporative condensates and the preservation of gas pools in the more down-dip reservoirs and oil pools in the more up-dip locations. (author)

  6. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-01-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road

  7. An Integrated 3S and Historical Materials Analysis of the Keriya Paleoriver, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Cai, Heng

    2014-03-01

    Combining analysis of 3S (RS, GIS and GPS) and historical materials (historical records, ancient map and academic and literary writings) allows mapping of the Keriya Paleoriver of Southern Xinjiang, NW China. Keriya Paleoriver, one of the ancient Four Green Corridors which passes through the Taklimakan Desert from south to north in the Tarim Basin, recorded changes of the climate-environment in the ancient Silk Road of the region. According to the archaeological data, historical materials and paleoclimates information, its eco-environment and climate have had great changes since the 1.09Ma B.P., especially during the last 2,000 years, which has led to many famous ancient cities to be abandoned and the route of the ancient Silk Road to be moved southward. Using RS (optical and radar imagery), GIS (mapping and spatial analysis) and GPS (study area investigation), we mapped a major paleodrainage system of Keriya River, which have linked the Kunlun Mountains to the Tienshan Mountains through the Taklimakan Desert, possibly as far back as the early Pleistocene. This study illustrates the capability of the 3S and historical materials, in mapping the Keriya Paleoriver drainage networks and archaeological study on the ancient Silk Road.

  8. Cracking and thermal maturity of Ordovician oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anlai Ma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The thermal maturity of the Ordovician oils from the Tahe oilfield of Tarim Basin, NW China was assessed through various maturity parameters, such as biomarkers, aromatic parameters, and diamondoid parameters. Both Ts/(Ts+Tm and C29Ts/(C29H+C29Ts values indicate that the maturity of oils has not reached the condensates stage, which is consistent with the maturity obtained by MPI1. However, the diamondoid maturity suggests that the oil maturity ranges 1.1%–1.6% Ro, which is apparently higher than that of the maturity obtained by the biomarker and MPI1. This discrepancy in maturity may indicate that the Ordovician reservoir has multiple filling history. The 4-MD+3-MD concentration of oils disperses and increases slowly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is lower than 0.55. Meanwhile, the value increases rapidly when the Ts/(Ts+Tm value is higher than 0.55. It is proposed that the diamondoid baseline is about 15 μg/goil for marine oils in the Tahe oilfield based on the diamondoid concentration of marine oils from reservoirs of various age. The concentration of 4-MD+3-MD of most Ordovician oils generally ranges from 4.5 to 35 μg/goil, suggesting that the degree of oil-cracking is lower than 50% and the deep Ordovician have potential of oil exploration. The distribution of the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD is characterized by being high in the east and south, low in the west and north, proposing that the two migration pathways exit in the oilfield, which are from east to west and from south to north, respectively. The migration directions are consistent with the results obtained from the oil density and the maturity parameters such as Ts/(Ts+Tm. Thus, suggesting the concentration of 4-MD+3-MD can be used as migration index in oilfield scale.

  9. Mapping groundwater renewability using age data in the Baiyang alluvial fan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe; Li, Jie; Xiang, Yong; Zhao, Zhijiang

    2017-05-01

    Groundwater age has been used to map renewability of water resources within four groups: strong, partial, and rare renewability, and non-renewable. The Baiyang alluvial fan in NW China is a representative area for examining groundwater recharge from river infiltration and for mapping groundwater renewability, and it has been investigated using multiple isotopes and water chemistry. Systematic sampling included 52 samples for 2H and 18O analysis and 32 samples for 3H, 13C and 14C analysis. The δ13C compositions remain nearly constant throughout the basin (median -12.7‰) and indicate that carbonate dissolution does not alter 14C age. The initial 14C activity of 80 pmC, obtained by plotting 3H and 14C activity, was used to correct groundwater 14C age. The results show that areas closer to the river consist of younger groundwater ages; this suggests that river infiltration is the main recharge source to the shallow groundwater system. However, at distances far away from the river, groundwater ages become older, i.e., from modern water (less than 60 year) to pre-modern water (from 60 to 1,000 years) and paleowater (more than 1,000 yeas). The four classifications of groundwater renewability have been associated with different age ranges. The area of shallow groundwater with strong renewability accounts for 74% of the total study area. Because recharge condition (river infiltration) controls overall renewability, a groundwater renewability map is of significant importance to the management of groundwater exploitation of this area as well as other arid groundwater basins.

  10. Carbonate reservoirs modified by magmatic intrusions in the Bachu area, Tarim Basin, NW China

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    Kang Xu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Oil and gas exploration in carbonate rocks was extremely successful in recent years in the Ordovician in Tarim Basin, NW China. Here, we investigate the carbonate reservoirs in the Bachu area of the Tarim Basin through petrological and geochemical studies combined with oil and gas exploration data. Geochemical analysis included the major, trace, and rare earth elements; fluid inclusion thermometry; clay mineral characterization; and carbon and oxygen isotopes of the carbonate rocks. Homogenization temperatures of the fluid inclusions of Well He-3 in the Bachu area indicate three groups, 60–80 °C, 90–130 °C, and 140–170 °C, and suggest that the carbonate rocks experienced modification due to heating events. The porosity in the reservoir is defined by fractures and secondary pores, and there is a notable increase in the porosity of the carbonate reservoirs in proximity to magmatic intrusion, particularly approximately 8–10 m from the intrusive rocks. The development of secondary pores was controlled by lithofacies and corrosion by various fluids. We identify supercritical fluids with high density (138.12–143.97 mg/cm3 in the Bachu area. The negative correlations of δ13C (−2.76‰ to −0.97‰ and δ18O (−7.91‰ to −5.07‰ suggest that the carbonate rocks in the study area were modified by high-salinity hydrothermal fluid. The formation of clay minerals, such as illite and montmorillonite, caused a decrease in porosity. Our study demonstrates the effect of magmatic intrusions in modifying the reservoir characteristics of carbonate rocks and has important implications for oil and gas exploration.

  11. Intermediate sulfidation type base metal mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy, Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt, NW Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouhestani, Hossein; Mokhtari, Mir Ali Asghar; Chang, Zhaoshan; Johnson, Craig A.

    2018-01-01

    The Aliabad-Khanchy epithermal base metal deposit is located in the Tarom-Hashtjin metallogenic belt (THMB) of northwest Iran. The mineralization occurs as Cu-bearing brecciated quartz veins hosted by Eocene volcanic and volcaniclastic rocks of the Karaj Formation. Ore formation can be divided into five stages, with most ore minerals, such as pyrite and chalcopyrite being formed in the early stages. The main wall-rock alteration is silicification, and chlorite, argillic and propylitic alteration. Microthermometric measurements of fluid inclusion assemblages show that the ore-forming fluids have eutectic temperatures between −30 and −52 °C, trapping temperatures of 150–290 °C, and salinities of 6.6–12.4 wt% NaCl equiv. These data demonstrate that the ore-forming fluids were medium- to high-temperature, medium- to low-salinity, and low-density H2O–NaCl–CaCl2 fluids. Calculated δ18O values indicate that ore-forming hydrothermal fluids had δ18Owater ranging from +3.6‰ to +0.8‰, confirming that the ore–fluid system evolved from dominantly magmatic to dominantly meteoric. The calculated 34SH2S values range from −8.1‰ to −5.0‰, consistent with derivation of the sulfur from either magma or possibly from local volcanic wall-rock. Combined, the fluid inclusion and stable isotope data indicate that the Aliabad-Khanchy deposit formed from magmatic-hydrothermal fluids. After rising to a depth of between 790 and 500 m, the fluid boiled and subsequent hydraulic fracturing may have led to inflow and/or mixing of early magmatic fluids with circulating groundwater causing deposition of base metals due to dilution and/or cooling. The Aliabad-Khanchy deposit is interpreted as an intermediate-sulfidation style of epithermal mineralization. Our data suggest that the mineralization at Aliabad-Khanchy and other epithermal deposits of the THMB formed by hydrothermal activity related to shallow late Eocene magmatism. The altered Eocene volcanic and

  12. Mountain pastures of Qilian Shan: plant communities, grazing impact and degradation status (Gansu province, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, Alina; Schickhoff, Udo; Shunli, Wang; Ming, Jin

    2015-04-01

    Qilian Mountains are the water source region for the low arid reaches of HeiHe river basin (Gansu province, NW China). Due to overstocking and overgrazing during the last decades adverse ecological ef¬fects, in particular on soil properties and hydrological cycle, are to be expected in growing land areas. Vegetation cover is very important to prevent erosion process and to sustain stable subsurface runoff and ground water flow. The aim of this research is to identify plant communities, detecting grazing-induced and spatially differentiated changes in vegetation patterns, and to evaluate status of pasture land degradation.The study area is located in the spring/autumn pasture area of South Qilian Mountains between 2600-3600 m a.s.l., covering five main vegetation types: spruce forest, alpine shrubland, shrubby grassland, mountain grassland, degraded mountain grassland. In order to analyze gradual changes in vegetation patterns along altitudinal and grazing gradients and to classify related plant communities, quantitative and qualitative relevé data were collected (coverage, species composition, abundance of unpalatable plants, plant functional types, etc.). Vegetation was classified using hierarchical cluster analyses. Indirect Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) was used to analyze variation in relationships between vegetation, environmental factors, and grazing impact. According to DCA results, distribution of the plant communities was strongly affected by altitude and exposition. Grassland floristic gradients showed greater dependence on grazing impact, which correlated contrarily with soil organic content, soil moisture and pH. Highest numbers of species richness and alpha diversity were detected in alpine shrubland vegetation type. Comparing the monitoring data for the recent nine years, a trend of deterioration, species successions and shift in dominant species becomes obvious. Species indicating degrading site environmental conditions were identified

  13. Ethnoveterinary plant remedies used by Nu people in NW Yunnan of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Shicai

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nu people are the least populous ethnic group in Yunnan Province of China and most are distributed in Gongshan County, NW Yunnan. Animal production plays an important role in Nu livelihoods and the Nu people have abundant traditional knowledge of animal management and ethnoveterinary practices. This study documents the animal diseases, ethnoveterinary plant remedies and related traditional knowledge in three Nu villages of Gongshan County. Methods This study was carried out in three Nu villages of Gongshan County between July 2009 and February 2010. Data was obtained through the use of semi-structured questionnaires, field observation and PRA tools. A total of 60 Nu respondents (34 men and 26 women provided information on animal ailments and ethnoveterinary plant medicines used for Nu livestock production. Information on traditional ethnoveterinary medicine knowledge and choice of treatment providers was also obtained. Results Thirty-five animal conditions were identified in the surveyed area. The major and most common animal diseases among livestock were skin conditions, diarrhea, heat, fevers, colds, and parasites. Most ailments occurred between June and August. The ethnoveterinary medicinal use of 45 plant species was documented. Most medicinal species (86.7% were collected from the wild. The most frequently used plant parts were whole plants (35.6%, followed by roots (22.2%. The most important medicinal plant species were Saussurea costus (Falc. Lipech. (UV = 0.67, Senecio scandens Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don (UV = 0.67, Plantago depressa Willd. (UV = 0.63, Rubus corchorifolius L. f. (UV = 0.62, Bupleurum yunnanense Franch. (UV = 0.60, and Polygonum paleaceum Wall. (UV = 0.60. Animal diseases treated with the highest number of ethnoveterinary plant remedies were diarrhea (16 plant species, heat, fever, colds (11 plant species, retained afterbirth (11 plant species, and skin conditions and sores (11 plant species. Many Nu villagers

  14. Large-scale soil conservation measures contribute to water insecurity in NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lulu; Feger, Karl-Heinz; Schwärzel, Kai

    2014-05-01

    The Loess Plateau of NW China is one of the most degraded environments worldwide with an annual soil loss rate of ~20,000 t/km². To improve the situation, a national policy against erosion has been implemented in this region since 1950s. This policy includes biological (tree and grass plantation) and engineering (terrace and check-dam construction) measures. However, subject to enormous alteration in land cover / form, an undesired drastic reduction of runoff has appeared hampering economic growth, agricultural production and thus threatening social stability. As a consequence, adaptive innovative management strategies are necessary for mitigating water use conflicts and ensuring regional sustainable development. For successful implementation of such strategies, an improved understanding and quantification of hydrological response to land use and climate change across different scales is essential. For this purpose, the hydrological response to different land cover / form and climate change in the past 50 years was analyzed in small and medium-scale catchments using the upstream of Jing River (Gansu province) as a case. It appears that the driving factors of runoff reduction at different scales are different in terms of land use and climate change. Our study gave evidence that in a small catchment (19 km²), land cover / form change and precipitation variability are the major factors reducing runoff. After separating their contribution, we found that land use change was responsible for 74% of runoff decline while decreased precipitation accounted for 26%. Surprisingly, the annual runoff exhibits a good correlation with precipitation and the percentage area of various land use. Notably, with increasing catchment size the impact of land use on runoff attenuates, while the role of climate ascends. In addition to land use and precipitation, energy supply (evaporative demand of the atmosphere) becomes another dominant climatic factor affecting runoff on the larger

  15. Genesis of the Hengling magmatic belt in the North China Craton: Implications for Paleoproterozoic tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Peng; Guo, Jinghui; Zhai, Mingguo; Windley, Brian F.; Li, Tiesheng; Liu, Fu

    2012-09-01

    The 2200-1880 Ma igneous rocks in the central and eastern parts of the North China Craton (NCC) constitute a new Hengling magmatic belt (HMB), which includes the ~ 2147 Ma Hengling mafic sill/dyke swarm, the ~ 2060 Ma Yixingzhai mafic dyke swarm, and the ~ 1973 Ma Xiwangshan mafic dyke swarm. The three swarms are contiguous and have experienced variable degrees of metamorphism from greenschist to low amphibolite facies (Hengling), medium granulite facies (Yixingzhai), and medium/high-pressure granulite facies (Xiwangshan). They are all tholeiitic in composition typically with 47-52 wt.% SiO2 and 4-10 wt.% MgO, and all show light rare earth element enrichments and Nb- and Ta-depletion. Their Nd TDM ages are in the range of 2.5-3.0 Ga. Specifically, the Hengling and Yixingzhai dykes/sills are depleted in Th, U, Zr, Hf and Ti, whereas the Xiwangshan dykes are enriched in U and weakly depleted in other elements. Variable Sr-anomalies indicate significant feldspar accumulation (positive anomalies) or fractionation. The ɛNd(t) values of the three swarms are: - 3.2-+3.0 (Hengling), - 1.7-+ 1.8 (Yixingzhai) and - 1.4-+ 1.0 (Xiwangshan). These mafic representatives of the HMB originated from the > 2.5 Ga sub-continental lithospheric mantle of the NCC, and with A-type granites and other igneous associations in this belt they likely evolved in an intra-continental rift. The progressive changing compositions of the three swarms are interpreted in terms of their source regions at different depths, i.e., shallower and shallower through time. And the decrease in scale and size of the intrusions and their magma volumes indicate the progressive weakening of magmatism in this rift. The rocks in this belt are different chronologically, petrologically and chemically from those in the Xuwujia magmatic belt (XMB). We propose that the two magmatic belts represent two different magmatic systems in different blocks of the NCC, i.e., an eastern block (with the HMB) and a western block

  16. Origin of the volcanic-hosted Yamansu Fe deposit, Eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from pyrite Re-Os isotopes, stable isotopes, and in situ magnetite trace elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Wen; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Beaudoin, Georges; Gao, Jian-Feng; Qi, Liang; Lyu, Chuan

    2018-01-01

    The Yamansu Fe deposit (32 Mt at 51% Fe) in the Eastern Tianshan Orogenic Belt of NW China is hosted in early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary rocks and spatially associated with skarn. The paragenetic sequence includes garnet-diopside (I), magnetite (II), hydrous silicate-sulfide (III), and calcite-quartz (IV) stages. Pyrite associated with magnetite has a Re-Os isochron age of 322 ± 7 Ma, which represents the timing of pyrite and, by inference, magnetite mineralization. Pyrite has δ 34SVCDT values of - 2.2 to + 2.9‰, yielding δ 34SH2S values of - 3.1 to 2‰, indicating the derivation of sulfur from a magmatic source. Calcite from stages II and IV has δ 13CVPDB values from - 2.5 to - 1.2‰, and - 1.1 to 1.1‰, and δ 18OVSMOW values from 11.8 to 12.0‰ and - 7.7 to - 5.2‰, respectively. Calculated δ 13C values of fluid CO2 and water δ 18O values indicate that stage II hydrothermal fluids were derived from magmatic rocks and that meteoric water mixed with the hydrothermal fluids in stage IV. Some ores contain magnetite with obvious chemical zoning composed of dark and light domains in BSE images. Dark domains have higher Mg, Al, Ca, Mn, and Ti but lower Fe and Cr contents than light domains. The chemical zoning resulted from a fluctuating fluid composition and/or physicochemical conditions (oscillatory zoning), or dissolution-precipitation (irregular zoning) via infiltration of magmatic-hydrothermal fluids diluted by late meteoric water. Iron was mainly derived from fluids similar to that in skarn deposits.

  17. Closure Time of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean: Constraints From Late Paleozoic Volcano-Sedimentary Sequences in the Barleik Mountains, West Junggar, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Han, Bao-Fu; Chen, Jia-Fu; Ren, Rong; Zheng, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Zhen; Feng, Li-Xia

    2017-12-01

    The Junggar-Balkhash Ocean was a major branch of the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. The timing of its closure is important for understanding the history of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt. New sedimentological and geochronological data from the Late Paleozoic volcano-sedimentary sequences in the Barleik Mountains of West Junggar, NW China, help to constrain the closure time of the Junggar-Balkhash Ocean. Tielieketi Formation (Fm) is dominated by littoral sediments, but its upper glauconite-bearing sandstone is interpreted to deposit rapidly in a shallow-water shelf setting. By contrast, Heishantou Fm consists chiefly of volcanic rocks, conformably overlying or in fault contact with Tielieketi Fm. Molaoba Fm is composed of parallel-stratified fine sandstone and sandy conglomerate with graded bedding, typical of nonmarine, fluvial deposition. This formation unconformably overlies the Tielieketi and Heishantou formations and is conformably covered by Kalagang Fm characterized by a continental bimodal volcanic association. The youngest U-Pb ages of detrital zircons from sandstones and zircon U-Pb ages from volcanic rocks suggest that the Tielieketi, Heishantou, Molaoba, and Kalagang formations were deposited during the Famennian-Tournaisian, Tournaisian-early Bashkirian, Gzhelian, and Asselian-Sakmarian, respectively. The absence of upper Bashkirian to Kasimovian was likely caused by tectonic uplifting of the West Junggar terrane. This is compatible with the occurrence of coeval stitching plutons in the West Junggar and adjacent areas. The Junggar-Balkhash Ocean should be finally closed before the Gzhelian, slightly later or concurrent with that of other ocean domains of the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean.

  18. Origin of the Bashierxi monzogranite, Qiman Tagh, East Kunlun Orogen, NW China: A magmatic response to the evolution of the Proto-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zhen; Chen, Yan-Jing; Deng, Xiao-Hua; Yue, Su-Wei; Chen, Hong-Jin; Wang, Qing-Fei

    2018-01-01

    The Qiman Tagh of the East Kunlun Orogen, NW China, lies within the Tethysides and hosts a large W-Sn belt associated with the Bashierxi monzogranite. To constrain the origin of the granitic magmatism and its relationship with W-Sn mineralization and the tectonic evolution of the East Kunlun Orogen and the Tethys, we present zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic data, and whole-rock compositional and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data of the Bashierxi monzogranite. The granite comprises quartz, K-feldspar, plagioclase, and minor muscovite, tourmaline, biotite, and garnet. It contains high concentrations of SiO2, K2O, and Al2O3, and low concentrations of TiO2 and MgO, indicating a peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The rocks are enriched in Rb, U, Pb, and light rare earth elements, and relatively depleted in Eu, Ba, Nb, Sr, P, and Ti, and are classified as S-type granites. Twenty zircon grains yield a weighted mean 238U/206Pb age of 432 ± 2.6 Ma (mean square weighted deviation = 1.3), indicating the occurrence of a middle Silurian magmatic event in the region. Magmatic zircons yield εHf(t) values of -6.7 to 0.7 and corresponding two-stage Hf model ages of 1663-1250 Ma, suggesting that the granite was derived from Mesoproterozoic crust, as also indicated by 207Pb/206Pb ages of 1621-1609 Ma obtained from inherited zircon cores. The inherited zircon cores yield εHf(t) values of 8.3-9.6, which indicate the generation of juvenile crust in the late Paleoproterozoic. Samples of the Bashierxi granite yield high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and radiogenic Pb concentrations, and negative εNd(t) values. Isotopic data from the Bashierxi granite indicate that it was derived from partial melting of ancient (early Paleozoic to Mesoproterozoic) sediments, possibly representing recycled Proterozoic juvenile crust. Middle Silurian granitic magmatism resulted from continental collision following closure of the Proto-Tethys Ocean. The Qiman Tagh represents a Caledonian orogenic belt containing

  19. Source characteristics and tectonic setting of mafic-ultramafic intrusions in North Xinjiang, NW China: Insights from the petrology and geochemistry of the Lubei mafic-ultramafic intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao-Yun; Yu, Jin-Jie; Liu, Shuai-Jie

    2018-05-01

    The newly discovered Lubei sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion forms the western extension of the Huangshan-Jin'erquan mafic-ultramafic intrusion belt in East Tianshan, NW China. The Lubei intrusion comprises hornblende peridotite, lherzolite, and harzburgite in its southern portion, gabbro in its middle portion, and hornblende gabbro in its northern portion. Intrusive relationships indicate that three magma pulses were involved in the formation of the intrusion, and that they were likely evolved from a common primitive magma. Estimated compositions of the Lubei primitive magma are similar to those of island arc calc-alkaline basalt except for the low Na2O and CaO contents of the Lubei primitive magma. This paper reports on the mineral compositions, whole-rock major and trace element contents, and Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotopic compositions of the Lubei intrusion, and a zircon LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb age for hornblende gabbro. The Lubei intrusion is characterized by enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements, depletion in high-field-strength elements, and marked negative Nb and Ta anomalies, with enrichment in chondrite-normalized light rare earth elements. It exhibits low (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.70333-0.70636 and low (143Nd/144Nd)i ratios of 0.51214-0.51260, with positive εNd values of +4.01 to +6.33. LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon ages yielded a weighted-mean age of 287.9 ± 1.6 Ma for the Lubei intrusion. Contemporaneous mafic-ultramafic intrusions in different tectonic domains in North Xinjiang show similar geological and geochemical signatures to the Lubei intrusion, suggesting a source region of metasomatized mantle previously modified by hydrous fluids from the slab subducted beneath the North Xinjiang region in the early Permian. Metasomatism of the mantle was dominated by hydrous fluids and was related to subduction of the Paleo-Asian oceanic lithosphere during the Paleozoic. Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions suggest that the mantle source was a mixture of depleted mid

  20. Memory effect in M ≥ 6 earthquakes of South-North Seismic Belt, Mainland China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jeen-Hwa

    2013-07-01

    The M ≥ 6 earthquakes occurred in the South-North Seismic Belt, Mainland China, during 1901-2008 are taken to study the possible existence of memory effect in large earthquakes. The fluctuation analysis technique is applied to analyze the sequences of earthquake magnitude and inter-event time represented in the natural time domain. Calculated results show that the exponents of scaling law of fluctuation versus window length are less than 0.5 for the sequences of earthquake magnitude and inter-event time. The migration of earthquakes in study is taken to discuss the possible correlation between events. The phase portraits of two sequent magnitudes and two sequent inter-event times are also applied to explore if large (or small) earthquakes are followed by large (or small) events. Together with all kinds of given information, we conclude that the earthquakes in study is short-term correlated and thus the short-term memory effect would be operative.

  1. Assessment of Soil Quality of Croplands in the Corn Belt of Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyan Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing global demands for land resource with increasing population have resulted in occurrence of soil degradation in many regions of the world. Assessment of soil quality has become the basic work for agricultural sustainable development and selecting regional indicators effectively has become very important since there are no standard evaluation methods and universal indicators. In this study, taking the Corn Belt of Northeast China as the study area, seven indicators—obstacle horizon thickness, cation exchange capacity, pH, soil organic matter, total nitrogen, total potassium, and available Fe—were selected to constitute the minimum data set from sixteen indictors of the total data set to assess the soil quality. The soil quality of the study area was dominated by moderate grade, increasing from west to east. The soil quality of Yushu, Changchun and Shuangyang had higher values, and that of Nongan was the lowest. We found that the distribution of cation exchange capacity has a good consistency with the assessment result of the soil quality. Black soils were distributed in the middle part of the study region from north to south and accounted for a higher quality, exactly where the areas of rapid urbanization are located. An ANOVA analysis showed that soil quality in the Corn Belt of Northeast China was greatly affected by topographic factors and agricultural management and climate was not the principal factor affecting soil quality. Though the minimum data set slightly reduced the evaluation accuracy, a large sampling density in our study was able to improve the precision loss that resulted from reducing the number of indicators to a certain extent.

  2. Long-term landscape evolution of the South Atlantic passive continental margin along the Kaoko- and Damara Belts, NW-Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Hackspacher, Peter; Schneider, Gabriele; Salomon, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Kaoko Belt in northwestern Namibia originates in the collision of the Rio de la Plata and Kongo Craton during the Pan-African Orogeny in the Neoproterozoic (1) and represents the northern arm of the Damara Orogen. NW-Namibias continental crust mainly consists of the NE-SW striking intracontinental branch of the Pan-African Damara mobile belt, which separates the Congo from the Kalahari craton. The Damara Orogen is divided into several tectonostratigraphic zones that are bounded by steeply dipping, ductile shear zones. These regional lineaments can be traced at least 150 km offshore (2). The lithostratigraphic units consist of Proterozoic and Cambrian metamorphosed rocks (534 (7) Ma - 481 (25) Ma (3) as well as Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks. From Permo-Carboniferous to Mid Jurassic northern Namibia was affected by deep erosion of the Damara Orogen, Permo-Triassic collisional processes along the southern margin of Gondwana and eastern margin of Africa (4), and the deposition of the Nama Group sediments and the Karoo megasequence (5). Between the Otjihorongo and the Omaruru Lineament-Waterberg Thrust early Mesozoic tectonic activity is recorded by coarse clastic sediments deposited within NE trending half-graben structures. The Early Jurassic Karoo flood basalt lavas erupted rapidly at 183±1 Ma (6). The Early Cretaceous Paraná-Etendeka flood basalts (132±1 Ma) and mafic dike swarms mark the rift stage of the opening of the South Atlantic (7). Early Cretaceous alkaline intrusions (137-124 Ma) occur preferentially along Mesozoic half-graben structures and are called the Damaraland Igneous Province (8). Late Cretaceous alkaline intrusions and kimberlite pipes occur in northern Namibia. Post Early Paleocene siliciclastic sedimentation in Namibia was largely restricted to a 150 km wide zone (9) and is represented by the Tsondab Sandstone Formation (~ 300 m thickness). The oldest part has an age of early Paleocene and the upper part span from middle Miocene

  3. Geological characters and petrological characters of metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes in Ludong Orogenic Belt,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    凌贤长; 胡庆立; 王丽霞

    2002-01-01

    Ludong orogenic belt in China is an importantal continent collision orogenic belt in eastern Asia, between Sino-Korean landmass and Yangtze landmass. The host rock of the orogenic belt is metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes, which can be divided into four types, that's, quartz dioritz, granite dioritz, monzonitic granite and undertint monzonitic granite, principal minerals are plagioclases, potassium feldspars and quartzs, minor minerals are hornblendes, biotites, clinopyxenes and garnets, accessory mineral types and assemblages are very similar, specially, various rocks are mainly fine-grained textures. They have the history of regional amphibolite facies metamorphism and deep-middle-shallow structural layer deformation, and are changed into various gneiss and tectonic system. There are many xenolithes of middle Proterozoic eclogite-host rock extrahigh-high pressure metamorphic complexes, a small xenolithes of early Proterozoic layered metamorphite system and granulites, and ultrabasic-basic rocks of various epoches in the metamorphosed medium-acidic intrusive complexes.

  4. HELIUM, PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON and other data from HEIYO, KAIYO and other platforms in the NW Pacific, Philippine Sea and East China Sea from 1939-08-17 to 1988-09-27 (NODC Accession 9000197)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A tape containing part of the annual exchange of chemical data from the Japan Oceanographic Data Center collected from East China Sea (Tung Hai), Philippine Sea, NW...

  5. The Paleozoic metamorphic history of the Central Orogenic Belt of China from 40Ar/39Ar geochronology of eclogite garnet fluid inclusions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, H.N.; Wijbrans, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    The pressure-temperature-time evolution of the UHP eclogites of Dabie-Sulu, in the eastern sector of the Central Orogenic Belt of China shows a complex pattern of predominantly Triassic, and to a lesser extent Early Paleozoic ages.

  6. Carboniferous-Permian tectonic transition envisaged in two magmatic episodes at the Kuruer Cu-Au deposit, Western Tianshan (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Li, Nuo; Qi, Nan; Guo, Jian-Ping; Chen, Yan-Jing

    2018-03-01

    The Western Tianshan in NW China is one of the most important gold provinces in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The recently discovered Kuruer Cu-Au deposit has been interpreted to represent a transition from high-sulfidation epithermal to porphyry mineralization system. In this study, we present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages for the many magmatic rock types at Kuruer, including the Dahalajunshan Formation andesitic tuff (333.2 ± 1.6 Ma), diorite porphyry (269.7 ± 2.0 Ma), slightly-altered (264.4 ± 2.6 Ma) and intensively-altered (270.5 ± 2.5 Ma) albite porphyry. These ages reveal two distinct magmatic episodes: The Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation (wall rocks) andesitic tuff samples contain narrow ranges of SiO2 (60.29-61.28 wt.%), TiO2 (0.96-0.98 wt.%), Al2O3 (16.55-16.57 wt.%) and Fe2O3T (5.36-5.57 wt.%). The tuff is characterized by LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as LREE/HREE enrichment ((La/Yb)N = 8.31-8.76) and negative Eu anomalies (δEu = 0.64-0.76). Zircon εHf (t) values are 5.4-8.2, and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) are 821-1016 Ma, indicating partial melting of a moderately depleted mantle wedge with Precambrian continental crustal input. The ore-forming Middle Permian diorite porphyry and (quartz) albite porphyry have variable major oxide compositions (e.g., SiO2 = 53.09-53.12 wt.% for the diorite porphyry, 70.84-78.03 wt.% for the albite porphyry, and 74.07-75.03 wt.% for the quartz albite porphyry) but similar chondrite-normalized REE and primitive mantle-normalized multi-element patterns. These porphyries display LREE enrichment and HFSE depletion, as well as elevated LREE/HREE enrichment and negative Eu anomalies. The positive zircon εHf(t) values (11.7-15.9 for the diorite porphyry, 8.9-14.9 for the albite porphyry) and young two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) (282-542 Ma for the diorite porphyry, 337-717 Ma for the albite porphyry) indicate a major juvenile continental crustal involvement. We propose that the

  7. Ore-forming adakitic porphyry produced by fractional crystallization of oxidized basaltic magmas in a subcrustal chamber (Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Zhang, Di; Jielili, Reyaniguli; Xiang, Peng; Li, Hao; Wu, Chu; You, Jun; Liu, Jie; Ke, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Adakitic intrusions are supposed to have a close genetic and spatial relationship to porphyry Cu deposits. However, the genesis of adakitic intrusions is still under dispute. Here, we describe newly discovered intrusive complex rocks, which are composed of ore-bearing, layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic and adakitic rocks in Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China. These Jiamate Complex intrusions have diagnostic petrologic, geochronologic and geochemical signatures that indicate they were all generated from the same oxidized precursor magma source. Additionally, these layered rocks underwent the same fractional crystallization process as the ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the adjacent Kalaxiangar Porphyry Cu Belt (KPCB) in an oceanic island arc (OIA) setting. The rocks studied for this paper include layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic intrusive rocks that contain: (1) gradual contact changes between lithological units of mafic and intermediate rocks, (2) geochemical signatures that are the same as those found in oceanic island arc (OIA) rocks, (3) typical adakitic geochemistry, and (4) similar characteristics and apparent fractional crystallization relationships of ultra-basic to basic rocks to those in the nearby Beitashan Formation and to ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the KPCB. They also display similar zircon U-Pb and zircon Hf model ages.The Jiamate Complex intrusions contain intergrowths of magnetite and layered gabbro, and the intermediate-acidic intrusions of the Complex display typical adakitic affinities. Moreover, in conjunction with previously published geochronological and geochemistry data of the mafic rocks in the Beitashan Formation and in the KPCB area, additional data generated for the Jiamate Complex intrusions rocks indicate that they were formed from fractional crystallization processes. The Jiamate Complex intrusions most likely were derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge that was underplated at the root of the Saur oceanic island arc (Saur OIA). The

  8. Ore-forming adakitic porphyry produced by fractional crystallization of oxidized basaltic magmas in a subcrustal chamber (Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen G.; Zhang, Di; Jielili, Reyaniguli; Xiang, Peng; Li, Hao; Wu, Chu; You, Jun; Liu, Jie; Ke, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Adakitic intrusions are supposed to have a close genetic and spatial relationship to porphyry Cu deposits. However, the genesis of adakitic intrusions is still under dispute. Here, we describe newly discovered intrusive complex rocks, which are composed of ore-bearing, layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic and adakitic rocks in Jiamate, East Junggar, NW China. These Jiamate Complex intrusions have diagnostic petrologic, geochronologic and geochemical signatures that indicate they were all generated from the same oxidized precursor magma source. Additionally, these layered rocks underwent the same fractional crystallization process as the ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the adjacent Kalaxiangar Porphyry Cu Belt (KPCB) in an oceanic island arc (OIA) setting. The rocks studied for this paper include layered magnetite-bearing gabbroic intrusive rocks that contain: (1) gradual contact changes between lithological units of mafic and intermediate rocks, (2) geochemical signatures that are the same as those found in oceanic island arc (OIA) rocks, (3) typical adakitic geochemistry, and (4) similar characteristics and apparent fractional crystallization relationships of ultra-basic to basic rocks to those in the nearby Beitashan Formation and to ore-bearing adakitic rocks in the KPCB. They also display similar zircon U-Pb and zircon Hf model ages. The Jiamate Complex intrusions contain intergrowths of magnetite and layered gabbro, and the intermediate-acidic intrusions of the Complex display typical adakitic affinities. Moreover, in conjunction with previously published geochronological and geochemistry data of the mafic rocks in the Beitashan Formation and in the KPCB area, additional data generated for the Jiamate Complex intrusions rocks indicate that they were formed from fractional crystallization processes. The Jiamate Complex intrusions most likely were derived from a metasomatized mantle wedge that was underplated at the root of the Saur oceanic island arc (Saur OIA

  9. Neoarchean granite-greenstone belts and related ore mineralization in the North China Craton: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Tectonic processes involving amalgamations of microblocks along zones of ocean closure represented by granite-greenstone belts (GGB were fundamental in building the Earth's early continents. The crustal growth and cratonization of the North China Craton (NCC are correlated to the amalgamation of microblocks welded by 2.75–2.6 Ga and ∼2.5 Ga GGBs. The lithological assemblages in the GGBs are broadly represented by volcano-sedimentary sequences, subduction-collision related granitoids and bimodal volcanic rocks (basalt and dacite interlayered with minor komatiites and calc-alkalic volcanic rocks (basalt, andesite and felsic rock. The geochemical features of meta-basalts in the major GGBs of the NCC display affinity with N-MORB, E-MORB, OIB and calc-alkaline basalt, suggesting that the microblocks were separated by oceanic realm. The granitoid rocks display arc signature with enrichment of LILE (K, Rb, Sr, Ba and LREE, and depletion of HFSE (Nb, Ta, Th, U, Ti and HREE, and fall in the VAG field. The major mineralization includes Neoarchean BIF-type iron and VMS-type Cu-Zb deposits and these, together with the associated supracrustal rocks possibly formed in back-arc basins or arc-related oceanic slab subduction setting with or without input from mantle plumes. The 2.75–2.60 Ga TTG rocks, komatiites, meta-basalts and metasedimentary rocks in the Yanlingguan GGB are correlated to the upwelling mantle plume with eruption close to the continental margin within an ocean basin. The volcano-sedimentary rocks and granitoid rocks in the late Neoarchean GGBs display formation ages of 2.60–2.48 Ga, followed by metamorphism at 2.52–2.47 Ga, corresponding to a typical modern-style subduction-collision system operating at the dawn of Proterozoic. The late Neoarchean komatiite (Dongwufenzi GGB, sanukitoid (Dongwufenzi GGB and Western Shandong GGB, BIF (Zunhua GGB and VMS deposit (Hongtoushan-Qingyuan-Helong GGB have closer connection to a combined

  10. The trans-regional implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the One Belt and One Road Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Samra Sarfraz

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an analytical examination of the geo-political implications of the China-Pakistan Economic Corridor and the One Belt and One Road Initiative. The paper examines the probable implications of the two mega projects for the regional, as well as, trans-regional actors. The paper debates on the likelihood for the creation of a new kind of relationship among China, Pakistan and Russia. It is also discussed how the prospects of reduced western influence in the region, in the backdrop of CPEC and the B&R Initiative, may result in the escalation of Russian and Chinese dominance on regional and trans-regional affairs.

  11. Efficiency evaluation of China's investment in Africa under the background of constructing "Silk Road Economic Belt": Application of DEA model and Malmquist index method

    OpenAIRE

    Ze, Tian; Yumei, Fan; Chao, Liu

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, with implementation and propulsion of the strategic planning "One Belt and One Road" of China, quality and efficiency of China's foreign direct investment have increasingly become a focused issue. This paper utilizes the DEA model and Malmquist index method to select the data of China's investment in 20 countries of Africa and conducts the empirical research on dynamic evaluation of efficiency of China's direct investment in Africa. The result shows that the general efficienc...

  12. Temporal evolution of granitic magmas in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, east Qinling Orogen, central China: Implications for Mo metallogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Han, Jiangwei; Zhang, Shouting; Yan, Changhai; Cao, Huawen; Song, Yaowu

    2015-11-01

    The Luanchuan metallogenic belt, located within the eastern part of the Qinling Orogen, central China, hosts a number of world-class Mo deposits that are closely related to small late Mesozoic granitic plutons. Zircon U-Pb dating of distinct plutons in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded ages of 153 ± 1, 154 ± 2, 152 ± 2, and 148 ± 1 Ma. Molybdenite Re-Os isotopic compositions of Yuku ore district in the southern part of Luanchuan metallogenic belt has yielded an isochron age of 146 ± 1 Ma, which is consistent with the large-scale mineralization ages in the northern part of the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. A combination of previous studies and new geochronological and isotopic data show a concordant temporal and genetic link between granitic magmatism and Mo mineralization in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt, suggesting that this mineralization episode formed the most extensive Mo mineralization belt in the east Qinling Orogen. Zircon grains from Mo-related granitic plutons show similar trace element distributions. High-precision Multi Collector-Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS) Pb isotope analysis of K-feldspar megacrysts from mineralization-related granites suggest that they were derived from the lower crust. Similarly, the Pb isotopic compositions of pyrite coprecipitated with molybdenite also suggest that the metals were derived form the lower crust, with probably minor mantle contribution. A continuum mineralization model that describes the sourcing of Mo from an evolving granitic magma over successive differentiation events, possibly in separate but connected magma chambers, could explain the remarkable Mo enrichment in the Luanchuan metallogenic belt. The volatile- and Mo-bearing granitic magmas ascended as diapirs from the deep crust, and were emplaced as dikes in the upper crust. Lithological differences between these Mo-bearing granites may relate to different stages in the evolution of individual magmas. Finally, ore

  13. Spatial pattern formation and intraspecific competition of anabasis aphylla l. population in the diluvial fan of junggar basin, nw china

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, M.; Li, Y.Y.; Niu, P.X.

    2015-01-01

    Using conventional nearest neighbour analysis and Ripley's L-function, the goal of this study was to analyze spatial patterns of Anabasis aphylla plants in order to investigate underlying competitive processes that shape the population spatial structure from diluvial fan in Junggar Basin, NW China. We found that the spatial patterns of all growth stages were aggregated in the three study plots, and seedling and juvenile plants were more aggregated than expected by chance. Positive associations among growth stages of A. aphylla population were found at a small scale while negative associations of seedling and juvenile relative to adult plants were shown at a larger scale. The processes such as dispersal, seedling establishment, environmental heterogeneity, plant interactions and disturbance may have acted individually or in concert with other processes to produce the aggregated patterns and competitive relationship. Moreover, these findings suggested that the aggregated distribution and the competitive interaction between A. aphylla plants in the diluvial fan reflected not only in mortality, but also in decreased performance (smaller canopy) that was an important characteristic of drought-enduring plant, thus preventing a regular distribution pattern. (author)

  14. Uranium-Series Disequilibria in the Groundwater of the Shihongtan Sandstone-Hosted Uranium Deposit, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinjian Peng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Uranium (U concentration and the activities of 238U, 234U, and 230Th were determined for groundwaters, spring waters, and lake water collected from the Shihongtan sandstone-hosted U ore district and in the surrounding area, NW China. The results show that the groundwaters from the oxidizing aquifer with high dissolved oxygen concentration (O2 and oxidation-reduction potential (Eh are enriched in U. The high U concentration of groundwaters may be due to the interaction between these oxidizing groundwaters and U ore bodies, which would result in U that is not in secular equilibrium. Uranium is re-precipitated as uraninite on weathered surfaces and organic material, forming localized ore bodies in the sandstone-hosted aquifer. The 234U/238U, 230Th/234U, and 230Th/238U activity ratios (ARs for most water samples show obvious deviations from secular equilibrium (0.27–2.86, indicating the presence of water-rock/ore interactions during the last 1.7 Ma and probably longer. The 234U/238U AR generally increases with decreasing U concentrations in the groundwaters, suggesting that mixing of two water sources may occur in the aquifer. This is consistent with the fact that most of the U ore bodies in the deposit have a tabular shape originati from mixing between a relatively saline fluid and a more rapidly flowing U-bearing meteoric water.

  15. Magmatism and polymetallic mineralization in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xudong; Lu, Jianjun; Wang, Rucheng; Ma, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    As Neoproterozoic suture zone between the Yangtze Block and Cathaysia Block, Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt is one of the 21 key metallogenic belts in China. Intensive multiple-aged felsic magmatism and related polymetallic mineralization take place in this belt. Although Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, Triassic granites and associated deposits have been found in southwestern Qinzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt, Middle-Late Jurassic (150-165 Ma) magmatism and related mineralization is of the most importance. Three major kinds of Middle-Late Jurassic granitoids have been distinguished. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are slightly differentiated, calc-alkaline and metaluminous dioritic to granodioritic rocks. Sn-(W)-bearing granites contain dark microgranular enclaves and have high contents of REE and HFSE, suggesting affinities of aluminous A-type (A2) granites. W-bearing granites are highly differentiated and peraluminous rocks. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids have ɛNd(t) values of -11 ˜ -4 and ɛHf(t) values of -12 ˜ -7, corresponding to TDMC(Nd) from 1.4 to 1.8 Ga and TDMC(Hf) from 1.6 to 2.0 Ga, respectively. The ɛNd(t) values of W-bearing granites vary from -11 to -8 with TDMC(Nd) of 1.6 ˜ 1.9 Ga and ɛHf(t) values change from -16 to -7 with TDMC(Hf) of 1.5 ˜ 2.0 Ga. Compared with (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids and W-bearing granites, the Sn-(W)-bearing granites have higher ɛNd(t) (-8 ˜ -2) and ɛHf(t) (-8 ˜ -2) values and younger TDMC(Nd) (1.1 ˜ 1.6 Ga) and TDMC(Hf) (1.2 ˜ 1.8 Ga) values, showing a more juvenile isotopic character. Sn-(W)-bearing granites originate from partial melting of granulitized lower crust involved with some mantle-derived materials. W-bearing granites are derived from partial melting of crust. (Cu)-Pb-Zn-bearing granitoids are also derived from crust but may be influenced by more mantle-derived materials. For (Cu)-Pb-Zn deposits, skarn and carbonate replacement are the most important mineralization types. Cu ore bodies mainly

  16. Neoproterozoic igneous complex emplaced along major tectonic boundary in the Kaoko Belt (NW Namibia): ion probe and LA-ICP-MS dating of magmatic and metamorphic zircons

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Košler, J.; Tajčmanová, L.; Ulrich, Stanislav; Kitt, S. L.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 165, č. 1 (2008), s. 153-166 ISSN 0016-7649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : boundary igneous complex * Kaoko Belt * zircon Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.797, year: 2008

  17. The onset of flysch sedimentation in the Kaoko Belt (NW Namibia) - Implications for the pre-collisional evolution of the Kaoko-Dom Feliciano-Gariep orogen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Konopásek, J.; Hoffmann, K.-H.; Sláma, Jiří; Košler, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 298, September 2017 (2017), s. 220-234 ISSN 0301-9268 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Gondwana * Rodinia * Sturtian * Marinoan * Kaoko and Dom Feliciano belts * rifting Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 3.843, year: 2016

  18. Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra of different origin quartz from Altay Orogenic belt, Xinjiang, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan Kaixuan; Liu Zehua; Zeng Sheng; Liu Yan; Xie Yanshi; Rieser, Uwe

    2009-01-01

    Three-dimensional thermoluminescence spectra are measured for different types of geological origin quartz from the Altay orogenic belt, northern Xinjiang, China. The results show striking differences which appear to be characteristic of their geological origin. Granitic quartz is dominated by emission bands at 420-430 nm, 550-560 nm, at a temperature of 170 deg. C. Pegmatite quartz is characterized by an intense 480 nm emission band at 170 deg. C. Volcanic quartz has exclusive UV (340-360 nm) and violet (410-430 nm) emission bands. Hydrothermal quartz exhibits very different TL spectral characteristics because of different hydrothermal activity and mineralization. Only one TL peaks at 485 nm/170 deg. C was observed in sedimentary quartz. An intense 730 nm emission band observed at 170 deg. C considered generally to be characteristics of feldspar was observed in quartz from granite and hydrothermal Au-bearing quartz. This TL peak is probably related to the centre of [FeO 4 ] 0 on an Si site. All samples show an intense 990-1000 nm emission band at 330 deg. C. Identical types of quartz formed in different regions or different geological and tectonic settings can also exhibit striking differences in TL spectra.

  19. Study on the regional crust stability of Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Ju; Xu Guoqing; Jin Yuanxin; Chen Weiming; Guo Yonghai; Yang Tianxiao

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes the research results on the crust stability of the Beishan area, Gansu province, NW China-the preselected area for China's high level radioactive waste repository. The studies include regional tectonic structure and its evolution, regional geophysical field, crust structure, regional deep-rooted faults, regional seismological activity, regional neo-tectonics, regional modern stress field and its numerical simulation, geological interpretation of TM satellite and its application in the study of crust stability, and the evaluation on crust stability. The research in the past years indicates that the west part of Gansu province (the area we studied) can be divided into 8 parts with different crust stability: (1) Beishan stable area; (2) East Huahai stable area; (3) Huahai sub-stable area; (4) Yumenzheng sub-unstable area; (5) Yumenshi sub-unstable area; (6) Daxueshan sub-unstable area; (7) Jiayuguan unstable area; and (8) Beiqilian unstable area. Among those parts, the Beishan area possess the best conditions, its crust stability accords with the demands on candidate site for HLW repositories, which are described in the International atomic energy agency's safety series No.111-G-4.1 Guidelines. Therefore, the Beishan area is suitable region for further work. (author)

  20. Isotopic and hydrochemical evidence of groundwater recharge in the Hopq Desert, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian Ge; Tao Wang; Yafei Chen; Jiansheng Chen; Hohai University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province; Lu Ge; Chao Wang

    2016-01-01

    Artesian wells and lakes are found in the hinterland of the Hopq Desert, China. Analysis of soil profiles has revealed that the local vadose zone is always in a state of water deficit because of strong evaporation, and precipitation cannot infiltrate into the groundwater. This research indicated that soil water and surface water are recharged by groundwater and that the groundwater is recharged via an external source. Analyses of the stable isotopes in precipitation and of the water budget suggested that surface water in the Qiangtang Basin on the Tibetan Plateau might correspond to the groundwater in the Hopq Desert. (author)

  1. Element migration of pyrites during ductile deformation of the Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (NW-China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tao; Xu, Xing-Wang; Gao, Jun; Peters, Stephen; Li, Jilei; Cao, Mingjian; Xiang, Peng; Wu, Chu; You, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The strongly deformed Yuleken porphyry Cu deposit (YPCD) occurs in the Kalaxiangar porphyry Cu belt (KPCB), which occupies the central area of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) between the Sawu’er island arc and the Altay Terrane in northern Xinjiang. The YPCD is one of several typical subduction-related deposits in the KPCB, which has undergone syn-collisional and post-collisional metallogenic overprinting. The YPCD is characterized by three pyrite-forming stages, namely a hydrothermal stage A (Py I), a syn-ductile deformation stage B (Py II) characterized by Cu-Au enrichment, and a fracture-filling stage C (Py III). In this study, we conducted systematic petrographic and geochemical studies of pyrites and coexist biotite, which formed during different stages, in order to constrain the physicochemical conditions of the ore formation. Euhedral, fragmented Py I has low Pb and high Te and Se concentration and Ni contents are low with Co/Ni ratios mostly between 1 and 10 (average 9.00). Py I is further characterized by enrichments of Bi, As, Ni, Cu, Te and Se in the core relative to the rim domains. Anhedral round Py II has moderate Co and Ni contents with high Co/Ni ratios >10 (average 95.2), and average contents of 46.5 ppm Pb and 5.80 ppm Te. Py II is further characterized by decreasing Bi, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag, Te, Mo, Sb and Au contents from the rim to the core domains. Annealed Py III has the lowest Co content of all pyrite types with Co/Ni ratios mostly <0.1 (average 1.33). Furthermore, Py III has average contents of 3.31 ppm Pb, 1.33 ppm Te and 94.6 ppm Se. In addition, Fe does not correlate with Cu and S in the Py I and Py III, while Py II displays a negative correlation between Fe and Cu as well as a positive correlation between Fe and S. Therefore, pyrites which formed during different tectonic regimes also have different chemical compositions. Biotite geothermometer and oxygen fugacity estimates display increasing temperatures and oxygen

  2. Palaeozoic polymetamorphism in the North Qinling orogenic belt, Central China: Insights from petrology and in situ titanite and zircon U-Pb geochronology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, H.; Li, Q.L.; Xiang, H.; Zhong, Z.Q.; Brouwer, F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Qinling orogenic belt experienced multiple phases of orogenesis during the Palaeozoic. Unraveling the timing and P- T conditions of these events is the key to understanding the convergence processes between the South China and the North China Blocks. The Songshugou Complex, located in the

  3. Iron speciation and mineral characterization of upper Jurassic reservoir rocks in the Minhe Basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiangxian; Zheng, Guodong, E-mail: gdzhbj@mail.iggcas.ac.cn; Xu, Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Liang, Minliang [Chinese Academy of Geological Sciences, Institute of Geomechanics, Key Lab of Shale Oil and Gas Geological Survey (China); Fan, Qiaohui; Wu, Yingzhong; Ye, Conglin [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources, Gansu Province / Key Laboratory of Petroleum Resources Research, Institute of Geology and Geophysics (China); Shozugawa, Katsumi; Matsuo, Motoyuki [The University of Tokyo, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Six samples from a natural outcrop of reservoir rocks with oil seepage and two control samples from surrounding area in the Minhe Basin, northwestern China were selectively collected and analyzed for mineralogical composition as well as iron speciation using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and Mössbauer spectroscopy, respectively. Iron species revealed that: (1) the oil-bearing reservoir rocks were changed by water-rock-oil interactions; (2) even in the same site, there was a different performance between sandstone and mudstone during the oil and gas infusion to the reservoirs; and (3) this was evidence indicating the selective channels of hydrocarbon migration. In addition, these studies showed that the iron speciation by Mössbauer spectroscopy could be useful for the study of oil and gas reservoirs, especially the processes of the water-rock interactions within petroleum reservoirs.

  4. Hydrogeochemical Characteristics and Evolution of Hot Springs in Eastern Tibetan Plateau Geothermal Belt, Western China: Insight from Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheming Shi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt is one of the important medium-high temperature geothermal belts in China. However, less work has been done on the hydrochemical characteristic and its geological origin. Understanding the chemical characteristics and the hydrochemical evolution processes is important in evaluating the geothermal energy potential in this area. In the present study, we discussed the hydrochemical properties and their origins of 39 hot springs located in the eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (Kangding-Litang-Batang geothermal belt. Cluster analysis and factor analysis are employed to character the hydrochemical properties of hot springs in different fault zones and the possible hydrochemical evolution processes of these hot springs. Our study shows that the hot springs can be divided into three groups based on their locations. The hot springs in the first group mainly originate from the volcanic rock and the springs in the second group originate from the metamorphic rock while the springs in the third group originate from the result of mixture of shallow water. Water-rock interaction, cation exchange, and the water environment are the three dominant factors that control the hydrochemical evolution process in the eastern Tibetan Plateau. These results are also in well agreement with the isotopic and chemical analysis.

  5. Space Archaeology for military-agricultural colonies (tuntian) on the ancient Silk Road, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Wang, Xinyuan; Guo, Huadong; Liu, Chuansheng

    2017-04-01

    The ancient Silk Road, a pioneering work in the history of human civilization, contributed greatly to the cultural exchange between China and the West. It is the precious cultural heritage should be shared by the whole humanity. Although there were countless archaeological sites along the ancient Silk Road, most of the existing researches just focused on the sites, lacking the overall understanding of the relationships between sites and their supporting environment. Space archaeology provides a new viewpoint for investigating, discovering, reconstructing and documenting the archaeological sites under different scales. The tuntian system was a state-promoted system of military-agricultural colonies, which originated in the Western Han dynasty (206 BC-9 AD). All the imperial dynasties in Chinese history adopted the practice of tuntian to cultivate and guard frontier areas as an important state policy for developing border areas and consolidating frontier defence. This study describes the use of Chinese GF-1 imagery, LS-7 ETM+ data and ASTER GDEMV2 products to uncover an ancient irrigated canal-based tuntian system located in Milan oasis adjacent to the ancient Kingdom of Loulan at the southern margin of the Tarim Basin. The GF-1 and LS-7 data were first processed following atmospheric and geometric correction and enhanced by Gram Schmidt pansharpening. The linear archaeological traces of tuntian irrigation canals were extracted from the morphologically enhanced GF-1 PAN imagery using our proposed automatic method which adopts mathematical morphological processing and Canny edge operator. Compared with the manual extractions, the overall detection accuracy was better than 90%. In addition, the functions of the trunk, primary, secondary and tertiary canals were each analyzed and the spatial extent of Milan's tuntian landscape were analyzed with the help of the NDVI derived from the GF-1 multispectral imagery. The effective irrigated tuntian area was estimated to be 2

  6. Neoproterozoic rift basins and their control on the development of hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guang-You; Ren, Rong; Chen, Fei-Ran; Li, Ting-Ting; Chen, Yong-Quan

    2017-12-01

    The Proterozoic is demonstrated to be an important period for global petroleum systems. Few exploration breakthroughs, however, have been obtained on the system in the Tarim Basin, NW China. Outcrop, drilling, and seismic data are integrated in this paper to focus on the Neoproterozoic rift basins and related hydrocarbon source rocks in the Tarim Basin. The basin consists of Cryogenian to Ediacaran rifts showing a distribution of N-S differentiation. Compared to the Cryogenian basins, those of the Ediacaran are characterized by deposits in small thickness and wide distribution. Thus, the rifts have a typical dual structure, namely the Cryogenian rifting and Ediacaran depression phases that reveal distinct structural and sedimentary characteristics. The Cryogenian rifting basins are dominated by a series of grabens or half grabens, which have a wedge-shaped rapid filling structure. The basins evolved into Ediacaran depression when the rifting and magmatic activities diminished, and extensive overlapping sedimentation occurred. The distributions of the source rocks are controlled by the Neoproterozoic rifts as follows. The present outcrops lie mostly at the margins of the Cryogenian rifting basins where the rapid deposition dominates and the argillaceous rocks have low total organic carbon (TOC) contents; however, the source rocks with high TOC contents should develop in the center of the basins. The Ediacaran source rocks formed in deep water environment of the stable depressions evolving from the previous rifting basins, and are thus more widespread in the Tarim Basin. The confirmation of the Cryogenian to Ediacaran source rocks would open up a new field for the deep hydrocarbon exploration in the Tarim Basin.

  7. Revised models for hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation in Jurassic coal measures of the Turpan basin, NW China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Maowen; Stasiuk, L.D. [Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Bao Jianping [Jianghan Petroleum University, Hubei (China); Lin, R. [Petroleum University (Beijing), Changping (China); Yuan Mingsheng [PetroChina Tu-Ha Oilfield Company, Xingjiang (China)

    2001-07-01

    Whether or not the Lower-Middle Jurassic coal measures in the Turpan basin of NW China have generated commercial quantities of liquid petroleums is a problem of considerable importance that remains contentious as it has not yet been resolved unequivocally. This study provides evidence against the Jurassic humic coals as the only major source for the oils discovered in the Taibei depression of this basin and suggests additional significant contributions from the Upper Permian and Middle-Lower Jurassic lacustrine source rocks. The Carboniferous-Permian marine source rocks may have been important also in limited locations along the major basement faults. Molecular and petrographic data indicate that the majority of the Middle Jurassic strata are currently immature or marginally mature with respect to hydrocarbon generation. Within the major depocenters, the Middle-Lower Jurassic coal-bearing strata of the Baodaowan and Xishanyao formations has reached the conventional oil window (i.e. with vitrinite reflectance >0.7 per cent Ro). Pre-Jurassic (Upper Permian in particular) derived hydrocarbons appear to be widespread in extracts of fractured Jurassic coal and fine-grained rocks. Large differences have been observed in the absolute concentrations of biomarker compounds in rock extracts of various source intervals. Thus, 'coaly' biomarker signatures of the oils most likely resulted from mixing and migration contamination when hydrocarbons derived from mature source rocks migrated up through highly fractured coal seams along deep-seated faults. In addition to conventional exploration targets, revised petroleum generation and accumulation models predict that the focus in the Turpan basin should also include deep structures within the Carboniferous-Permian strata and subtle, low magnitude anticlines and stratigraphic traps within thr Triassic-Jurassic sections. (author)

  8. The role of clay minerals in the preservation of organic matter in sediments of Qinghai Lake, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Bingsong; Dong, Hailiang; Jiang, Hongchen; Lv, Guo; Eberl, Dennis D.; Li, Shanying; Kim, Jinwook

    2009-01-01

    The role of saline lake sediments in preserving organic matter has long been recognized. In order to further understand the preservation mechanisms, the role of clay minerals was studied. Three sediment cores, 25, 57, and 500 cm long, were collected from Qinghai Lake, NW China, and dissected into multiple subsamples. Multiple techniques were employed, including density fractionation, X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), total organic carbon (TOC) and carbon compound analyses, and surface area determination. The sediments were oxic near the water-sediment interface, but became anoxic at depth. The clay mineral content was as much as 36.8%, consisting mostly of illite, chlorite, and halloysite. The TEM observations revealed that organic matter occurred primarily as organic matter-clay mineral aggregates. The TOC and clay mineral abundances are greatest in the mid-density fraction, with a positive correlation between the TOC and mineral surface area. The TOC of the bulk sediments ranges from 1 to 3% with the non-hydrocarbon fraction being predominant, followed by bitumen, saturated hydrocarbon, aromatic hydrocarbons, and chloroform-soluble bitumen. The bimodal distribution of carbon compounds of the saturated hydrocarbon fraction suggests that organic matter in the sediments was derived from two sources: terrestrial plants and microorganisms/algae. Depthrelated systematic changes in the distribution patterns of the carbon compounds suggest that the oxidizing conditions and microbial abundance near the water-sediment interface promote degradation of labile organic matter, probably in adsorbed form. The reducing conditions and small microbial biomass deeper in the sediments favor preservation of organic matter, because of the less labile nature of organic matter, probably occurring within clay mineral-organic matter aggregates that are inaccessible to microorganisms. These results have important implications for our

  9. Multivariate statistical analysis of heavy metals in street dust of Baoji, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xinwei; Wang Lijun; Li, Loretta Y.; Lei Kai; Huang Li; Kang Dan

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni, Co and Cr in street dust samples from Baoji in north-west China were measured by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, while As and Hg in street dust samples were determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis, coupled with correlation coefficient analysis, were used to analyze the data and to identify possible sources of these heavy metals. The results indicate that street dust in Baoji has elevated heavy metal concentrations, especially Hg, Pb, Zn and Cu, which are 16-77, 7-92, 6-26 and 4-12 times the background levels in Shaanxi soil, respectively. The mean heavy metal concentrations in street dust divided by the corresponding background values of Shaanxi soil decrease in the order of Hg > Pb > Zn > Cu > Cr > As > Ni > Co > Mn > V. Three main sources of these heavy metals were identified. As, V, Pb and Co originated from nature and traffic. Cu, Zn, Hg and Mn, especially the former two, mainly derive from industry sources, as well as traffic. Cr and Ni mainly originate from soil.

  10. Nature, geochemistry and petrogenesis of the syn-tectonic Amspoort suite (Pan-African Boundary Igneous Complex, Kaoko Belt, NW Namibia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janousek, Vojtech; Konopasek, Jiri; Ulrich, Stanislav

    2010-05-01

    Crucial information on the Neoproterozoic-Cambrian amalgamation of Western Gondwana is provided by studies of the large Pan-African collisional belt in central-northern Namibia. This so-called Damara Orogen (Miller, 1983) can be subdivided into two branches, the SW-NE trending Damara Belt and a roughly perpendicular, NNW-SSE trending Kaoko Belt further north. The Kaoko Belt consists of two principal crustal units. The easterly part has a Congo Craton affinity (a basement built mostly by ≥ 1.5 Ga granitic gneisses with Neoproterozoic metasedimentary cover), whereas the westerly Coastal Terrane consists of Neoproterozoic (c.850-650 Ma) metapsammites and minor metabasic bodies; no exposures of the basement were found. The at least 180 km long, NNW-SSE trending suture between both units was intruded by numerous syn-tectonic magmatic bodies with ages spanning the interval 580-550 Ma (Seth et al., 1998; Kröner et al., 2004) designated as the Boundary Igneous Complex by Konopásek et al. (2008). The most typical representatives of this syn-collision igneous association are c.550 Ma old K-feldspar-phyric, Bt ± Cam granites-granodiorites of the Amspoort suite, with minor Cpx gabbro and rare two-pyroxene dolerite bodies. The petrological character, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotopic signatures of the scarce Opx-Cpx-Bt dolerites indicate an origin from a CHUR-like mantle-derived melts (87Sr/86Sr550 ~ 0.7045, ɛNd550 ~ 0) modified by extensive (?Ol-) Cpx fractionation. The rest of the suite is interpreted as a product of a high-temperature anatexis of a heterogeneous lower crust, built mainly by immature metapsammites - rich in arc-derived detritus - with minor metabasite and intermediate metaigneous bodies. The most likely source appears to be the anatectic Coastal Terrane gneisses. Yet, partial melting of the so far little constrained Congo Craton cover, if formed by immature and youthful detritus unrelated to the basement, cannot be discounted. In any case, the

  11. Coalbed methane accumulation and dissipation patterns: A Case study of the Junggar Basin, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Fu, Xuehai; Yang, Xuesong; Ge, Yanyan; Quan, Fangkai

    2018-07-01

    The Junggar Basin is a potential replacement area of coalbed methane (CBM) development in China. To improve the efficiency of CBM exploration, we investigated CBM accumulation and dissipation patterns of coal profiles located in the northwestern, southern, eastern, and central Junggar Basin based on the following criteria: burial depth, hydrogeological zone, CBM origin, CBM phase, and CBM migration type. We identified four types of CBM accumulation patterns: (1) a self-sourcing CBM pattern containing adsorbed gas of biogenic origin from shallow-depth coal within a weak runoff zone; (2) an endogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed gas of thermogenic origin from the medium and deep coals within a stagnant zone; (3) an exogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed gas of thermogenic origin from deep coal within a stagnant zone; and (4) an exogenic migration pattern containing adsorbed and free gas of thermogenic origin from ultra-deep coal within a stagnant zone. We also identified two types of CBM dissipation patterns: (1) shallow-depth coal within a runoff zone with mixed origin CBM; and (2) shallow and medium-deep coal seams with mixed origin CBM. CBM migration in low-rank coals was more substantial than that adsorbed in high-rank coal. CBM in shallow coal could easily escape, in the absence of closed structures or hydrogeological seals. CBM reservoirs occurred in deep coal where oversaturated gas may accumulate. Future exploration should focus on gas-water sealing structures in shallow coalbeds. CBM that occurred in adsorbed and free phases and other unconventional natural gas dominated by free gas in the coal stratum should be co-explored and co-developed.

  12. The Middle Triassic insect radiation revealed by isotopic age and iconic fossils from NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Daran; Chang, Su-Chin; Wang, He; Fang, Yan; Wang, Jun; Feng, Chongqing; Xie, Guwei; Jarzembowski, Edmund A.; Zhang, Haichun; Wang, Bo

    2017-04-01

    Following the end-Permian mass extinction, the Triassic represented an important period witnessing the recovery and radiation of marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Terrestrial plants and vertebrates have been widely investigated; however the insects, the most diverse organisms on earth, remain enigmatic due to the rarity of Early-Middle Triassic fossils. Here we report new fossils from a Ladinian deposit dated at 238-237 Ma and a Carnian deposit in northwestern China, including the earliest definite caddisfly cases (Trichoptera) and water boatmen (Hemiptera), diverse polyphagan beetles (Coleoptera) and scorpionflies (Mecoptera). Our findings suggest that the Holometabola, comprising the majority of modern-day insect species, experienced an extraordinary diversification in the Middle Triassic and was already been dominant in some Middle and Late Triassic insect faunas, after the extinction of several ecologically dominant, Paleozoic insect groups in the latest Permian and earliest Triassic. This turnover is perhaps related to notable episodes of extreme warming and drying, leading to the eventual demise of coal-swamp ecosystems, evidenced by floral turnover during this interval. The forest revival during the Middle Triassic probably stimulated the rapid radiation and evolution of insects including some key aquatic lineages which built new associations that persist to the present day. Our results provide not only new insights into the early evolution of insect diversity and ecology, but also robust evidence for the view that the Triassic is the "Dawn of the Modern World". Besides, LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating initially gave a late Ladinian age for the Tongchuan entomnfauna after the results: 237.41 ± 0.91 Ma and 238 ± 0.97 Ma. The age is in agreement with that of the marine Ladinian-Carnian boundary, representing a novel age constraint for the terrestrial strata near this boundary. This age can provide a calibration for marine and terrestrial correlation near Ladinian

  13. Early Cretaceous overprinting of the Mesozoic Daqing Shan fold-and-thrust belt by the Hohhot metamorphic core complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory A. Davis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Early Cretaceous Hohhot metamorphic core complex (mcc of the Daqing Shan (Mtns. of central Inner Mongolia is among the best exposed and most spectacular of the spatially isolated mcc’s that developed within the northern edge of the North China “craton”. All of these mcc’s were formed within the basement of a Late Paleozoic Andean-style arc and across older Mesozoic fold-and-thrust belts of variable age and tectonic vergence. The master Hohhot detachment fault roots southwards within the southern margin of the Daqing Shan for an along-strike distance of at least 120 km. Its geometry in the range to the north is complicated by interference patterns between (1 primary, large-scale NW-SE-trending convex and concave fault corrugations and (2 secondary ENE-WSW-trending antiforms and synforms that folded the detachment in its late kinematic history. As in the Whipple Mtns. of California, the Hohhot master detachment is not of the Wernicke (1981 simple rooted type; instead, it was spawned from a mid-crustal shear zone, the top of which is preserved as a mylonitic front within Carboniferous metasedimentary rocks in its exhumed lower plate. 40Ar–39Ar dating of siliceous volcanic rocks in basal sections of now isolated supradetachment basins suggest that crustal extension began at ca. 127 Ma, although lower-plate mylonitic rocks were not exposed to erosion until after ca. 119 Ma. Essentially synchronous cooling of hornblende, biotite, and muscovite in footwall mylonitic gneisses indicates very rapid exhumation and at ca. 122–120 Ma. Contrary to several recent reports, the master detachment clearly cuts across and dismembers older, north-directed thrust sheets of the Daqing Shan foreland fold-and-thrust belt. Folded and thrust-faulted basalts within its foredeep strata are as young as 132.6 ± 2.4 Ma, thus defining within 5–6 Ma the regional tectonic transition between crustal contraction and profound crustal extension.

  14. Geothermal regime of Tarim basin, NW China: insights from borehole temperature logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S.; Lei, X.

    2013-12-01

    Geothermal regime of sedimentary basin is vital for understanding basin (de)formation process, hydrocarbon generation status and assessing the resource potential. Located at the Precambrian craton block, the Tarim basin is the largest intermountain basin in China, which is also the ongoing target of oil and gas exploration. Previous knowledge of thermal regime of this basin is from limited oil exploration borehole testing temperature, the inherent deficiency of data of this type makes accurate understanding of its thermal regime impossible. Here we reported our latest steady temperature logging results in this basin and analyze its thermal regime as well. In this study, 10 temperature loggings are conducted in the northern Tarim basin where the major oil and gas fields are discovered. All the boreholes for temperature logging are non-production wells and are shut in at least more than 2~3 years, ensuring the temperature equilibrium after drilling. The derived geothermal gradient varies from 20.2 to 26.1 degree/km, with a mean of 22.0 degree/km. However, some previous reported gradients in this area are obviously lower than our results; for example, the previous gradient of THN2 well is 13.2 degree/km but 23.2 degree/km in this study, and not enough equilibrium time in previous logging accounts for this discrepancy. More important, it is found that high gradients usually occur in the gas field and the gradients of the gas fields are larger than those in other oil fields, indicating higher thermal regime in gas field. The cause of this phenomenon is unclear, and the upward migration of hot fluid along fault conduit is speculated as the possible mechanism for this high geothermal anomaly in the oil and gas fields. Combined with measured thermal conductivity data, 10 new heat flow values are also achieved, and the heat flow of the Tarim basin is between 38mW/m2 and 52mW/m2, with a mean of 43 mW/m2. This relatively low heat flow is coincident with that of typical

  15. Petrogenesis of Karamaili alkaline A-type granites from East Junggar, Xinjiang (NW China) and their relationship with tin mineralization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yuping; Tang Hongfeng; Liu Congqiang; Hou Guangshun; Cong Feng; Sylvester, Paul J.; Qu Wenjun

    2007-01-01

    Several types of granites including alkaline granites and alkali feldspar granites are distributed in the Karamaili tectonic belt of East Junggar, Xinjiang, China. Some medium-small tin deposits are located within or near the contact zones of the granitic intrusions. The alkaline granites share all the features commonly observed in peralkaline A-type granites. They contain alkalic mafic minerals such as riebeckite and aegirine; have high contents of SiO 2 , alkalis, Rb, Th, Zr, Hf, REE (except Eu), and high ratios of FeO/MgO and Ga/Al; and show strong depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu in the spidergrams. Laser ablation-ICPMS U-Pb zircon geochronology indicates a crystallization age of ca. 305 Ma for the granites; TIMS analyses of the granites found high ε Nd (T) values of +5.9 to +6.5. Considering their geochemical features, alkaline granites most likely formed by fractional crystallization of graodioritic magmas, which were probably produced by partial melting of lower crustal basaltic to andesitic rocks formed from oceanic crustal materials that were deeply buried during late Palezoic subduction and accretion. Six molybdenite samples from the Sareshike tin deposit in East Junggar yielded an isochron age of 307±11 Ma (2σ) and a weighted mean model age of 306.5±3.4 Ma, consistent with zircon U-Pb ages of the alkaline granites. Low Re contents (0.323-0.961 ppm) in the molybdenite suggest that they originated from crustal sources related to the alkaline granites. Considering their identical ages, close spatial distribution, and similar sources, we argue that the A-type granites have a genetic relationship with the tin mineralization, and that the same association may be important elsewhere. (author)

  16. Genesis of the Permian Kemozibayi sulfide-bearing mafic-ultramafic intrusion in Altay, NW China: Evidence from zircon geochronology, Hf and O isotopes and mineral chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Dongmei; Qin, Kezhang; Xue, Shengchao; Mao, Yajing; Evans, Noreen J.; Niu, Yanjie; Chen, Junlu

    2017-11-01

    The recently discovered Kemozibayi mafic-ultramafic intrusion and its associated magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits are located at the southern margin of the Chinese Altai Mountain, Central Asian Orogenic Belt in north Xinjiang, NW China. The intrusion is composed of olivine websterite, norite, gabbro and diorite. Disseminated and net-textured Ni-Cu sulfide ores are hosted in the center of the gabbro. In this work, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic and sulfide S isotopic data, and whole rock and mineral chemical analyses are combined in order to elucidate the characteristics of the mantle source, nature of subduction processes, degree of crustal contamination, geodynamic setting of bimodal magmatism in the region, and the metallogenic potential of economic Cu-Ni sulfide deposit at depth. SIMS zircon U-Pb dating of the gabbro yields Permian ages (278.3 ± 1.9 Ma), coeval with the Kalatongke Cu-Ni deposit and with Cu-Ni deposits in the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan areas. Several lines of evidence (positive εHf(t) from + 7.1 to + 13.3, Al2O3, TiO2 and SiO2 contents in clinopyroxene from olivine websterite, high whole rock TiO2 contents) suggest that the primary magma of the Kemozibayi intrusion was a calc-alkaline basaltic magma derived from depleted mantle, and that the degree of partial melting in the magma source was high. The evolution of the Kemozibayi mafic-ultramafic complex was strongly controlled by fractional crystallization and the crystallization sequence was olivine websterite, norite, and then gabbro. This is evidenced by whole rock Fe2O3 contents that are positively correlated with MgO and negatively correlated with Al2O3, CaO and Na2O, similar LREE enrichment and negative Nb, Ta, Hf anomalies in chondrite and primitive mantle-normalized patterns, and a decrease in total REE and trace elements contents and magnetite content from gabbro through to norite and olivine websterite. Varied and low εHf(t) (+ 7.1 to + 13.3) and high δ18O values (+ 6.4‰ to

  17. Depositional environments and cyclicity of the Early Ordovician carbonate ramp in the western Tarim Basin (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chuan; Chen, Daizhao; Song, Yafang; Zhou, Xiqiang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Gongjing

    2018-06-01

    During the Early Ordovician, the Tarim Basin (NW China) was mainly occupied by an extensive shallow-water carbonate platform, on which a carbonate ramp system was developed in the Bachu-Keping area of the western part of the basin. Three well-exposed typical outcrop sections of the Lower Ordovician Penglaiba Formation were investigated in order to identify the depositional facies and to clarify origins of meter-scale cycles and depositional sequences, thereby the platform evolution. Thirteen lithofacies are identified and further grouped into three depositional facies (associations): peritidal, restricted and open-marine subtidal facies. These lithofacies are vertically stacked into meter-scale, shallowing-upward peritidal and subtidal cycles. The peritidal cycles are mainly distributed in the lower and uppermost parts of the Penglaiba Formation deposited in the inner-middle ramp, and commonly start with shallow subtidal to intertidal facies followed by inter- to supratidal facies. In contrast, the subtidal cycles occur throughout the formation mostly in the middle-outer ramp and are dominated by shallow to relatively deep (i.e., intermediate) subtidal facies. The dominance of asymmetrical and incomplete cycles suggests a dominant control of Earth's orbital forcing on the cyclic deposition on the platform. On the basis of vertical facies and cycle stacking patterns, and accommodation changes illustrated by the Fischer plots from all studied sections, five third-order depositional sequences are recognized in the Penglaiba Formation. Individual sequences comprise a lower transgressive part and an upper regressive one. In shallow-water depositional environments, the transgressive packages are dominated by thicker-than-average subtidal cycles, indicating an increase in accommodation space, whereas regressive parts are mainly represented by thinner-than-average peritidal and subtidal cycles, denoting a decrease in accommodation space. In contrast, in intermediate to

  18. Kinetics of oil-cracking for different types of marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anlai Ma

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The C1–C5 gas and carbon isotope ratios generated during the cracking of heavy, normal and high-waxy marine oils from Tahe Oilfield, Tarim Basin, NW China, using a closed-gold tube system under high pressure were presented. The three types of oil tested resulted in a similar gas-generation process. The C2–C5 range initially increased its yield with the application of pyrolysis temperature and thereafter decreased, while the C1 yield increased with the same application. High-waxy oil had the highest C1–C5 yield of 510 mg/goil, whereas heavy oil had the lowest C1–C5 yield of 316 mg/goil. The δ13C1 value was low at first, but gradually became higher as the pyrolysis temperature increased. However, the δ13C2 and δ13C3 values gradually became higher when the temperature was greater than 420 °C. The kinetic parameters of the C1–C5 gas generation for the different types of marine oils were then calculated using KINETIC software. This calculation resulted in a frequency factor of about 1.78 × 1014 s−1, while the distribution of the activation energy of the C1–C5 gas mass generated was relatively narrow with a range from 56 to 66 kcal/mol. Among the three types of oil tested, heavy oil had the widest activation energy distribution and the lowest major frequency of activation energy. The maximum temperature at which oil could be preserved as a separate oil phase varied from about 178 °C at a slow geological heating rate to 206 °C at a fast geological heating rate. This result is based on the kinetic parameters determined and in combination with the fractional conversion (C of oil to gas. Testing conducted at the volatile Middle Cambrian reservoir of well Zhongshen 1 in the Tazhong Uplift strongly supported this conclusion.

  19. Tectono-thermal evolution in a region with thin-skinned tectonics: the western nappes in the Cantabrian Zone (Variscan belt of NW Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastida, F.; Brime, C.; García-López, S.; Sarmiento, G. N.

    The palaeotemperature distribution in the transition from diagenesis to metamorphism in the western nappes of the Cantabrian Zone (Somiedo, La Sobia and Aramo Units) are analysed by conodont colour alteration index (CAI) and illite crystallinity (IC). Structural and stratigraphic control in distribution of CAI and IC values is observed. Both CAI and IC value distributions show that anchizonal conditions are reached in the lower part of the Somiedo Unit. A disruption of the thermal trend by basal thrusts is evidenced by CAI and IC values. There is an apparent discrepancy between the IC and CAI values in Carboniferous rocks of the Aramo Unit; the IC has mainly anchizonal values, whereas the CAI has diagenetic values. Discrepant IC values are explained as a feature inherited from the source area. In the Carboniferous rocks of the La Sobia Unit, both IC and CAI indicate diagenetic conditions. The anchimetamorphism predated completion of emplacement of the major nappes; it probably developed previously and/or during the early stages of motion of the units. Temperature probably decreased when the metamorphosed zones of the sheets rose along ramps and were intensely eroded. In the context of the Iberian Variscan belt, influence of tectonic factors on the metamorphism is greater in the internal parts, where the strain and cleavage are always present, than in the external parts (Cantabrian Zone), where brittle deformation and rock translation are dominant, with an increasing role of the burial on the metamorphism.

  20. Kanfenggou UHP Metamorphic Fragment in Eastern Qinling Orogen and Its Relationship to Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP Metamorphic Belts, Central China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suo Shutian; Zhong Zengqiu; Zhou Hanwen; You Zhendong

    2003-01-01

    In the Central Orogenic Belt, China, two UHP metamorphic belts are discriminated mainly based on a detailed structural analysis of the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment exposed in the eastern Qinling orogen, and together with previous regional structural, petrological and geochronological data at the scale of the orogenic domain. The first one corresponds to the South Altun-North QaidamNorth Qinling UHP metamorphic belt. The other is the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts. The two UHP metamorphic belts are separated by a series of tectonic slices composed by the Qinling rock group, Danfeng rock group and Liuling or Foziling rock group etc. respectively, and are different in age of the peak UHP metamorphism and geodynamic implications for continental deep subduction and collision. Regional field and petrological relationships suggest that the Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment that contains a large volume of the coesite- and microdiamond-bearing eclogite lenses is compatible with the structures recognized in the South Altun and North Qaidam UHP metamorphic fragments exposed in the western part of China, thereby forming a large UHP metamorphic belt up to 1 000 km long along the orogen strike. This UHP metamorphic belt represents an intercontinental deep subduction and collision belt between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons, occurred during the Paleozoic. On the other hand, the well-constrained Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts occurred mainly during Triassic time (250-220 Ma), and were produced by the intrucontinental deep subduction and collision within the Yangtze craton. The Kanfenggou UHP metamorphic fragment does not appear to link with the Dabie-Sulu UHP and HP metamorphic belts along the orogen. There is no reason to assume the two UHP metamorphic belts us a single giant deep subduction and collision zone in the Central Orogenic Belt situated between the Yangtze and Sino-Korean cratons. Therefore, any dynamic model for the orogen must account

  1. The Outlook of China-Russia Energy Cooperation in The Light of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongwei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In September 2013, Chinese President Xi Jinping initially proposed the building of the Strategic Framework of The Silk Road Economic Belt. Against this background, the involved countries will achieve joint development and co-prosperity by carrying out all-round regional cooperation. As close neighbors, both China and Russia have very important political and economic positions in the world; meanwhile, energy cooperation is one of most significant and influential fields in the China-Russia relationship. This paper tries to analyze some concrete issues in the process of the China-Russia energy cooperation, illustrate the outlook of the cooperation between the two countries in terms of the Silk Road Economic Belt, and finally raise policy references to deepen the China-Russia energy cooperation in the future.

  2. Linking Late Cretaceous to Eocene Tectonostratigraphy of the San Jacinto Fold Belt of NW Colombia With Caribbean Plateau Collision and Flat Subduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora, J. Alejandro; Oncken, Onno; Le Breton, Eline; Ibánez-Mejia, Mauricio; Faccenna, Claudio; Veloza, Gabriel; Vélez, Vickye; de Freitas, Mario; Mesa, Andrés.

    2017-11-01

    Collision with and subduction of an oceanic plateau is a rare and transient process that usually leaves an indirect imprint only. Through a tectonostratigraphic analysis of pre-Oligocene sequences in the San Jacinto fold belt of northern Colombia, we show the Late Cretaceous to Eocene tectonic evolution of northwestern South America upon collision and ongoing subduction with the Caribbean Plate. We linked the deposition of four fore-arc basin sequences to specific collision/subduction stages and related their bounding unconformities to major tectonic episodes. The Upper Cretaceous Cansona sequence was deposited in a marine fore-arc setting in which the Caribbean Plate was being subducted beneath northwestern South America, producing contemporaneous magmatism in the present-day Lower Magdalena Valley basin. Coeval strike-slip faulting by the Romeral wrench fault system accommodated right-lateral displacement due to oblique convergence. In latest Cretaceous times, the Caribbean Plateau collided with South America marking a change to more terrestrially influenced marine environments characteristic of the upper Paleocene to lower Eocene San Cayetano sequence, also deposited in a fore-arc setting with an active volcanic arc. A lower to middle Eocene angular unconformity at the top of the San Cayetano sequence, the termination of the activity of the Romeral Fault System, and the cessation of arc magmatism are interpreted to indicate the onset of low-angle subduction of the thick and buoyant Caribbean Plateau beneath South America, which occurred between 56 and 43 Ma. Flat subduction of the plateau has continued to the present and would be the main cause of amagmatic post-Eocene deposition.

  3. Devonian alkaline magmatic belt along the northern margin of the North China Block: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi-Qi; Zhang, Shuan-Hong; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Jian-Min

    2018-03-01

    Some Devonian magmatic rocks have been identified from the northern margin of the North China Block (NCB) in recent years. However, their petrogenesis and tectonic setting are still highly controversial. Here we present new geochronological, Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic and whole-rock chemical data on several newly identified and previously reported Devonian alkaline complexes, including mafic-ultramafic rocks (pyroxenites and gabbros), alkaline rocks (syenites, monzonites) and alkaline granites in the northern NCB. We firstly identified some mafic-ultramafic rocks coeval with monzonite and quartz monzonite in the Sandaogou and Wulanhada alkaline intrusions. New zircon U-Pb dating of 16 samples from the Baicaigou, Gaojiacun, Sandaogou, Wulanhada and Chifeng alkaline intrusions combined with previous geochronological results indicate that the Devonian alkaline rocks emplaced during the early-middle Devonian at around 400-380 Ma and constitute an E-W-trending alkaline magmatic belt that extend ca. 900 km long along the northern margin of the NCB. Whole-rock geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic data reveal that the Devonian alkaline rocks were mainly originated from partial melting of a variably enriched lithospheric mantle with different involvement of ancient lower crustal component and fractional crystallization. The Devonian alkaline magmatic belt rocks in the northern NCB are characterized by very weak or no deformations and were most likely related to post-collision extension after arc-continent collision between the Bainaimiao island arc and the northern margin of North China Craton during the latest Silurian. Partial melting of subcontinental lithospheric mantle to produce the Devonian alkaline magmatic rocks suggests that the northern North China Craton has an inhomogeneous, variably enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle and was characterized by significant vertical crustal growth during the Devonian period.

  4. A middle Permian ophiolite fragment in Late Triassic greenschist- to blueschist-facies rocks in NW Turkey: An earlier pulse of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation in the Tethyan belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Gültekin; Okay, Aral I.; Schwarz, Winfried H.; Sunal, Gürsel; Altherr, Rainer; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2018-02-01

    The Eastern Mediterranean region within the Tethyan belt is characterised by two main pulses of suprasubduction-zone ophiolite formation during the Early-Middle Jurassic and Late Cretaceous. Despite vast exposures of the Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes, related suprasubduction-zone ophiolites and the timing of subduction initiation leading to the formation of Permo-Triassic accretionary complexes are unknown so far. Here we report on a 40 km long and 0.3 to 1.8 km wide metaophiolite fragment within transitional greenschist- to blueschist-facies oceanic rocks from NW Turkey. The metaophiolite fragment is made up mainly of serpentinite and minor dykes or stocks of strongly sheared metagabbro with mineral assemblages involving actinolite/winchite, chlorite, epidote, albite, titanite and phengite. The metagabbro displays (i) variable CaO and MgO contents, (ii) anomalously high Mg# (= 100 ∗ molar MgO/(MgO + FeOtot)) of 75-88, and (iii) positive Eu anomalies, together with low contents of incompatible elements such as Ti, P and Zr, suggesting derivation from former plagioclase cumulates. The serpentinites comprise serpentine, ± chlorite, ± talc, ± calcite and relict Cr-Al spinel surrounded by ferrichromite to magnetite. Relict Cr-Al spinels are characterised by (i) Cr/(Cr + Al) ratios of 0.45-0.56 and Mg/(Mg + Fe2 +) ratio of 0.76-0.22, (ii) variable contents of ZnO and MnO, and (iii) extremely low TiO2 contents. Zn and Mn contents are probably introduced into Cr-Al spinels during greenschist- to blueschist metamorphism. Compositional features of the serpentinite such as (i) Ca- and Al-depleted bulk compositions, (ii) concave U-shaped, chondrite-normalised rare earth element patterns (REE) with enrichment of light and heavy REEs, imply that serpentinites were probably derived from depleted peridotites which were refertilised by light rare earth element enriched melts in a suprasubduction-zone mantle wedge. U-Pb dating on igneous zircons from three metagabbro

  5. [Roadside observation on the use of safety belt in Guangzhou and Nanning cites of China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-ping; Stevenson, Mark; Ivers, Rebecca; Zhou, Ying

    2006-08-01

    To determine the rates of correct use of safety belt (CUSB) among drivers and front seat passengers in Guangzhou and Nanning through roadside observation and to provide scientific evidence for the development of intervention plan and to strengthen road safety law enforcement. Observational sites were randomly selected from three road types (Highway, Main Street and Subordinate Street). Targeted automobiles were observed at each site at four different times and uniformed checklists were used to record safety belt use during observations. Within each vehicle, belt use by drivers of different sex, road type, workday/weekend, day/night and seating position were calculated. Data was analyzed, using Chi-square tests to compare the statistic significance. (1)The rate of CUSB and non-use rate among drivers were higher in Nanning than in Guangzhou (P= 0.00) but the rate of incorrect use was on the contrarary. (2) The rate of CUSB by front seat passengers in Guangzhou was higher than that in Nanning (P = 0.04); as well as the rate of (P = 0.00) incorrect use while the non-use rate was on the contrarary. (3)In general, the rate of CUSB was higher on highways than on local streets (P = 0.00). (4) The CUSB rate of drivers and front seat passengers was higher at daytime than at night (P = 0.00), and the rate of incorrect use was higher at working days than weekends (P = 0.00). (5) The CUSB rate was higher for female drivers than for males in Guangzhou (P = 0.00), but there no statistical significance was found in Nanning (P = 0.21). Results suggested that intervention actions should be undertaken to raise the awareness of the importance of safety belt use. Effective public information and education programs, law enforcement and mandatory safety belt use, prioritizing programs on people neglegent to the importance are necessary to increase the safety belt use and to decrease the mortality and injuries caused by traffic accidents.

  6. Pollen and phytoliths from fired ancient potsherds as potential indicators for deciphering past vegetation and climate in Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yi-Feng; Li, Xiao; Jiang, Hong-En; Ferguson, David K; Hueber, Francis; Ghosh, Ruby; Bera, Subir; Li, Cheng-Sen

    2012-01-01

    It is demonstrated that palynomorphs can occur in fired ancient potsherds when the firing temperature was under 350°C. Pollen and phytoliths recovered from incompletely fired and fully fired potsherds (ca. 2700 yrs BP) from the Yanghai Tombs, Turpan, Xinjiang, NW China can be used as potential indicators for reconstructing past vegetation and corresponding climate in the area. The results show a higher rate of recovery of pollen and phytoliths from incompletely fired potsherds than from fully fired ones. Charred phytoliths recovered from both fully fired and incompletely fired potsherds prove that degree and condition of firing result in a permanent change in phytolith color. The palynological data, together with previous data of macrobotanical remains from the Yanghai Tombs, suggest that temperate vegetation and arid climatic conditions dominated in the area ca. 2700 yrs BP.

  7. Trading Natural Riparian Forests for Urban Shelterbelt Plantations—A Sustainability Assessment of the Kökyar Protection Forest in NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siegmund Missall

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities at the fringe of the Taklimakan desert in NW China are prone to dust and sand storms with serious consequences for human well-being. The Kökyar Protection Forest was established in the 1980s as an ecological engineering project with the intent of protecting the city of Aksu, NW China, from these impacts. It is designed as a combination of poplar shelterbelts and orchards, irrigated by river water from the Aksu River, the main tributary of the Tarim River. Prevalent literature describes it as an afforestation project for combatting desertification with manifold positive effects for the economic, social, and environmental dimension of sustainable development. This paper sets out to challenge these claims by a sustainability assessment in which the plantation is examined from a broader perspective, embedding it to the wider context of social and environmental problems in South Xinjiang. Methods comprise evapotranspiration calculations, interviews, a socioeconomic household survey, stakeholder dialogues, and literature research. Results affirm its economic sustainability, but see a mixed record for the social sphere. From the nature conservation point of view, it has to be classified as unsustainable because its high irrigation water consumption results in the downstream desiccation and desertification of natural riparian forests along the Tarim River, causing a forest loss in the downstream area twice the size of the forest gain in the upstream area. There is a trade-off between artificial shelterbelt plantations for urban ecosystem services on the one hand side, and natural riparian forests and their biodiversity on the other hand side. The paper recommends restricting agricultural extension, and using locally adapted less water consuming agroforestry schemes to protect urban dwellers from dust stress.

  8. Northward subduction-related orogenesis of the southern Altaids: Constraints from structural and metamorphic analysis of the HP/UHP accretionary complex in Chinese southwestern Tianshan, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Scheltens

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Chinese Tianshan belt of the southern Altaids has undergone a complicated geological evolution. Different theories have been proposed to explain its evolution and these are still hotly debated. The major subduction polarity and the way of accretion are the main problems. Southward, northward subduction and multiple subduction models have been proposed. This study focuses on the structural geology of two of the main faults in the region, the South Tianshan Fault and the Nikolaev Line. The dip direction in the Muzhaerte valley is southward and lineations all point towards the NW. Two shear sense motions have been observed within both of these fault zones, a sinistral one, and a dextral one, the latter with an age of 236–251 Ma. Structural analyses on the fault zones show that subduction has been northward rather than southward. The two shear sense directions indicate that the Yili block was first dragged along towards the east due to the clockwise rotation of the Tarim block. After the Tarim block stopped rotating, the Yili block still kept going eastward, inducing the dextral shear senses within the fault zones.

  9. Mules needed to install belt conveyor. Beumer executes major order in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2008-07-01

    Asia Cement Group, a major building material manufacturer headquartered in Taipeh (Taiwan), has built a new plant in the vicinity of Chengdu, the capital of Sichuan. Currently, a kiln with a capacity of 4200 tons per day is installed there. For moving the limestone from the quarry to the factory, located 30 km away, the Asia Cement Group has commissioned BEUMER with constructing a curved belt conveyor. The major order with a total volume of EUR 5 million includes design and installation of a 12.5-kilometre long system through rough mountainous terrain. (orig.)

  10. The Sanfengshan copper deposit and early Carboniferous volcanogenic massive sulfide mineralization in the Beishan orogenic belt, Northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jialin; Gu, Xuexiang; Zhang, Yongmei; Zhou, Chao; He, Ge; Liu, Ruiping

    2018-03-01

    The Sanfengshan copper deposit, located in the Beishan orogenic belt, Northwestern China, is hosted in the lower member of the Hongliuyuan Formation, an early Carboniferous metavolcanic-sedimentary sequence. Mineralization occurs as stratiform, stratiform-like and lenticular orebodies, and comprises of laminated, brecciated, banded, massive, and disseminated ores. The mineralogy is dominated by pyrite, chalcopyrite and sphalerite. Fe-Mn chert is widely distributed and generally occurs as massive, laminated, bands or lenses, which are consistent with the orebody. Alteration at Sanfengshan displays a clear concentric zoning pattern and the footwall alteration is more intense and somewhat thicker than the hanging-wall alteration. Systematic geochemical investigation on the volcanic rocks in this area shows that the basalts of the Hongliuyuan Formation (HLY) are predominantly tholeiites with nearly flat rare earth element (REE) pattern, insignificant negative anomalies of high field strength elements (HFSEs), and low Ti/V and Th/Nb ratios. They were most likely derived from partial melting of depleted asthenospheric mantle and formed in a fore-arc setting during initiation of the southward subduction of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The basalts of the Maotoushan Formation (MTS) display a calc-alkaline nature and are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and depleted in HFSEs, suggesting an active continental margin setting. Sulfur isotope (δ34S) values of the sulfide and sulfate minerals vary between 0‰ and 5.4‰, which are consistent with sulfur derivation from leaching of the host volcanic rocks, although a direct magmatic contribution cannot be ruled out. The Re-Os isotope data of pyrite yield an isochron age of 353 ± 35 Ma, consistent with the age of the host HLY basalts. Thus, a syngenetic (volcanogenic massive sulfide) model is proposed and it is concluded that the Sanfengshan copper deposit is a typical Cyprus-type VMS deposit that formed in an early

  11. The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt, western China: Geology, geophysics, genesis, and hydrothermal system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xianchun; Zhang, Jian; Pang, Zhonghe; Hu, Shengbiao; Tian, Jiao; Bao, Shujing

    2017-10-01

    The eastern Tibetan Plateau geothermal belt (ETGB), which is located in 98-102°E, 28-32°N, belongs to the eastern part of the Mediterranean-Himalayan geothermal belt. Recently, about 248 natural hot springs have been found in the ETGB. > 60% of these springs have temperatures of > 40 °C, and 11 springs have temperature above the local water boiling point. Using the helium isotopic data, gravity, magnetic and seismic data, we analyzed the thermal structure and the relationship between hydrothermal activity and geothermal dynamics of the ETGB. Results show that: (1) the 248 springs can be divided into three geothermal fields: Kangding-Luhuo geothermal field (KGF), Litang-Ganzi geothermal field (LGF) and Batang-Xiangcheng geothermal field (BGF). The BGF and LGF have hot crust and warm mantle, and are characterized by the higher heat flux (66.26 mW/m2), and higher ratios of crust-derived heat flux to total flux (47.46-60.62%). The KGF has cool crust and hot mantle, and is characterized by the higher heat flux and lower Qc/Qm; (2) there is a relatively 4-6 m higher gravimetric geoid anomaly dome which is corresponding with the ETGB. And in hydrothermal activity areas of the BGF and LGF, there is a northwest - southeast-trending tensile stress area and the upper-middle crust uplift area; (3) an abnormal layer exists in the middle-lower crust at a depth of 13-30 km beneath the ETGB, and this layer is 8-10 km thick and is characterized by lower velocity (Vp 2.5), high conductivity ( 10 Ω·m) and high temperature (850-1000 °C). Finally, based on the heat source and geological and geophysical background, we propose Kangding-type and Batang-type hydrothermal system models in the ETGB.

  12. Tectonic Divisions Based on Gravity Data and Earthquake Distribution Characteristics in the North South Seismic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, T.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, W.

    2017-12-01

    The North South Seismic Belt is located in the middle of China, and this seismic belt can be divided into 12 tectonic zones, including the South West Yunnan (I), the Sichuan Yunnan (II), the Qiang Tang (III), the Bayan Har (IV), the East Kunlun Qaidam (V), the Qi Lian Mountain (VI), the Tarim(VII), the East Alashan (VIII), the East Sichuan (IX), the Ordos(X), the Middle Yangtze River (XI) and the Edge of Qinghai Tibet Block (XII) zone. Based on the Bouguer Gravity data calculated from the EGM2008 model, the Euler deconvolution was used to obtain the edge of tectonic zone to amend the traditional tectonic divisions. In every tectonic zone and the whole research area, the logarithm of the total energy of seismic was calculated. The Time Series Analysis (TSA) for all tectonic zones and the whole area were progressed in R, and 12 equal divisions were made (A1-3, B1-3, C1-3, D1-3) by latitude and longitude as a control group. A simple linear trend fitting of time was used, and the QQ figure was used to show the residual distribution features. Among the zones according to Gravity anomalies, I, II and XII show similar statistical characteristic, with no earthquake free year (on which year there was no earthquake in the zone), and it shows that the more seismic activity area is more similar in statistical characteristic as the large area, no matter how large the zone is or how many earthquakes are in the zone. Zone IV, V, IX, III, VII and VIII show one or several seismic free year during 1970s (IV, V and IX) and 1980s (III, VII and VIII), which may implicate the earthquake activity were low decades ago or the earthquake catalogue were not complete in these zones, or both. Zone VI, X and XI show many earthquake free years even in this decade, which means in these zones the earthquake activity were very low even if the catalogue were not complete. In the control group, the earthquake free year zone appeared random and independent of the seismic density, and in all equal

  13. Gravity anomaly and crustal structure characteristics in North-South Seismic Belt of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chongyang; Xuan, Songtbai; Yang, Guangliang; Wu, Guiju

    2017-04-01

    The North-South Seismic Belt (NSSB) is the binary system boundary what is formed by the western Indian plate subduction pushing and the eastern west Pacific asthenosphere rising, and it is one of the three major seismic belts (Tianshan, Taiwan and NSSB) and mainly located between E102°and E107°. And it is mainly composed of topographic gradient zones, faults, cenozoic basins and strong earthquake zones, which form two distinct parts of tectonic and physical features in the west and east. The research results of geophysical and deep tectonic setting in the NSSB show that it is not only a gravity anomaly gradient zone, it is but also a belt of crustal thickness increasing sharply westward of abrupt change. Seismic tomography results show that the anomaly zone is deeper than hundreds of kilometers in the NSSB, and the composition and structure of the crust are more complex. We deployed multiple Gravity and GNSS synchronous detection profiles in the NSSB, and these profiles crossed the mainly faults structure and got thousands of points data. In the research, source analysis, density structure inversion, residual gravity related imaging and normalized full gradient methods were used, and analyzed gravity field, density and their structure features in different positions, finally obtained the crustal density structure section characteristics and depth structure differences. The research results showed that the gravity Bouguer anomaly is similar to the existing large scale result. The Bouguer anomaly is rising significantly from west to east, its trend variation coincides well with the trend change of Moho depth, which is agreeing with the material flows to the peripheral situation of the Tibetan plateau. The obvious difference changes of the residual anomaly is relative to the boundary of structure or main tectonics, it's also connected with the stop degree of the eurasian plate when the material migrates around. The density structure of the gravity profiles mainly

  14. Crustal structure across Tancheng-Lujiang fault belt in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongjie; Xu, Tao; Tian, Xiaobo; Teng, Jiwen; Bai, Zhiming

    2013-04-01

    Tancheng-Lujiang (T-L) fault extends more than 3,000km in the eastern China continent. T-L fault is closely related to strong earthquake occurrences such as Ms 7.8 Tangshan earthquake in 1976, basin development with rich oil/gas reserves and mineral resource concentration. The mechanism to form this fault is still in dispute. The proposed models include: post-collisional offset model (Okay and Sengor, 1992); indenter model (Yin and Nie, 1994); thrust model (Li, 1994); North China Craton penetration into South China model (Yokoyama et al., 2001) and Scissor collision model (Zhang et al., 2002, 2006). T-L fault is characterized with its segmentation, while the south segment is favored to understand the deep continental subduction and ultra-high pressure rocks extrusion from the collision between the convergence between Yangtze and North China Craton. In order to provide constraints on the evaluation of the proposed tectonic models, we carried out a 400-km-long wide-angle seismic profiling across the southern segment of the T-L fault. Here we present seismic P-wave data and the interpretation results. Seismic events of reflection and refraction from Moho discontinuity and other intracrustal reflections are remarkably observed with high signal/noise ratio. Crustal P-wave velocity model was reconstructed with forward modelling inversion, and T-L fault penetrates the whole crust, with gentle penetration angle in the upper crust, but very steep angle in the lower crust, which are probably seismic indicators of two phases of lateral escaping to accommodate the collision and extrusion of continental crust of the Yangtze block.

  15. The Crustal Structure of the North-South Earthquake Belt in China Revealed from Deep Seismic Soundings and Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yang; Guo, Lianghui; Shi, Lei; Li, Yonghua

    2018-01-01

    The North-South earthquake belt (NSEB) is one of the major earthquake regions in China. The studies of crustal structure play a great role in understanding tectonic evolution and in evaluating earthquake hazards in this region. However, some fundamental crustal parameters, especially crustal interface structure, are not clear in this region. In this paper, we reconstructed the crustal interface structure around the NSEB based on both the deep seismic sounding (DSS) data and the gravity data. We firstly reconstructed the crustal structure of crystalline basement (interface G), interface between upper and lower crusts (interface C) and Moho in the study area by compiling the results of 38 DSS profiles published previously. Then, we forwardly calculated the gravity anomalies caused by the interfaces G and C, and then subtracted them from the complete Bouguer gravity anomalies, yielding the regional gravity anomalies mainly due to the Moho interface. We then utilized a lateral-variable density interface inversion technique with constraints of the DSS data to invert the regional anomalies for the Moho depth model in the study area. The reliability of our Moho depth model was evaluated by comparing with other Moho depth models derived from other gravity inversion technique and receiver function analysis. Based on our Moho depth model, we mapped the crustal apparent density distribution in the study area for better understanding the geodynamics around the NSEB.

  16. Distribution, Microfabric, and Geochemical Characteristics of Siliceous Rocks in Central Orogenic Belt, China: Implications for a Hydrothermal Sedimentation Model

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    Hongzhong Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine siliceous rocks are widely distributed in the central orogenic belt (COB of China and have a close connection to the geological evolution and metallogenesis. They display periodic distributions from Mesoproterozoic to Jurassic with positive peaks in the Mesoproterozoic, Cambrian—Ordovician, and Carboniferous—Permian and their deposition is enhanced by the tensional geological settings. The compressional regimes during the Jinning, Caledonian, Hercynian, Indosinian, and Yanshanian orogenies resulted in sudden descent in their distribution. The siliceous rocks of the Bafangshan-Erlihe ore deposit include authigenic quartz, syn-depositional metal sulphides, and scattered carbonate minerals. Their SiO2 content (71.08–95.30%, Ba (42.45–503.0 ppm, and ΣREE (3.28–19.75 ppm suggest a hydrothermal sedimentation origin. As evidenced by the Al/(Al + Fe + Mn, Sc/Th, (La/YbN, and (La/CeN ratios and δCe values, the studied siliceous rocks were deposited in a marginal sea basin of a limited ocean. We suggest that the Bafangshan-Erlihe area experienced high- and low-temperature stages of hydrothermal activities. The hydrothermal sediments of the former stage include metal sulphides and silica, while the latter was mainly composed of silica. Despite the hydrothermal sedimentation of the siliceous rocks, minor terrigenous input, magmatism, and biological activity partly contributed to geochemical features deviating from the typical hydrothermal characteristics.

  17. Metallogenesis of Precambrian gold deposits in the Wutai greenstone belt: Constrains on the tectonic evolution of the North China Craton

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    Ju-Quan Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The Wutai greenstone belt in central North China Craton (NCC hosts a number of Precambrian gold deposits and ore occurrences. Based on the host rock association, these can be divided into Banded Iron Formation (BIF, meta-volcano-sedimentary and meta-conglomerate types. The two former types formed during ∼2.5–2.3 Ga and the third one at ∼1.85 Ga. The characteristics of these Precambrian gold deposits are broadly similar with those of the orogenic gold deposits. Based on available geochronological data, here we reconstruct the major tectonic events and their relationship with gold mineralization in the Wutai-Hengshan-Fuping region during Neoarchean to Paleoproterozoic as follows. (1 ∼2.6–2.5 Ga: widespread intrusion of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG magmas in the Hengshan terrane and Fuping continental arc, formation of the Wutai volcanic arc in the southern margin of Hengshan terrane with granitoids emplacement, and the Hengshan-Wutai intra-oceanic arc accretion to the Fuping arc at the end of Neoarchean. (2 ∼2.5–2.3 Ga: the subduction of Hengshan arc from north leading to persistent magmatism and orogenic gold mineralization. (3 ∼2.2–2.1 Ga: extension leading to the formation of graben structure in the Wutai and Fuping region, deposition of the Hutuo and Wanzi Group sediments, formation of placer gold through erosion of the orogenic gold deposits. (4 ∼2.2–2.0 Ga: widespread magmatism in the Wutai-Hengshan-Fuping region. (5 ∼1.95–1.8 Ga: regional metamorphism associated with collision of the Western and Eastern Blocks of the NCC and associated orogenic gold deposits. The multiple subduction-accretion-collision history and subsequent deep erosion has significantly affected most of the Precambrian gold deposits in the Wutai greenstone belt.

  18. Origins of two types of serpentinites from the Qinling orogenic belt, central China and associated fluid/melt-rock interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Ding, Xing; Ling, Ming-Xing; Sun, Wei-dong; Zhang, Li-Peng; Hu, Yong-Bin; Huang, Rui-Fang

    2018-03-01

    Serpentinites are important volatile and fluid mobile element repositories in oceanic lithosphere and subduction zones, and thus provide significant constraints on global geochemical cycles and tectonic evolution at convergent margins. In this contribution, two types of serpentinites from the Mianlue suture zone in the Qinling orogenic belt, central China, are identified on the basis of detailed mineralogical and geochemical study. Serpentinites from the Jianchaling region (Group 1) are composed of lizardite/chrysotile + magnesite + magnetite. Most of these serpentinites (Group 1a), consist of pseudomorphic orthopyroxene and olivine, and are characterized by low Al2O3/SiO2, high MgO/SiO2 and Ir-type PGEs to Pt ratios, suggesting a residual mantle origin. Meanwhile, the U-shape REE pattern and positive Eu, Sr and Ba anomalies of these serpentinites indicate that serpentinization fluids have interacted with gabbroic cumulates at moderately high temperatures or associate with the chlorinity and redox conditions of the fluid. Considering the limited mobility of U in the hydrating fluids for the Group 1a serpentinites, hydrating fluids for these serpentinites are most likely derived from the dehydrated slab, and have been in equilibrium with subducting sediments. There are also some serpentinites with low-grade metamorphic recrystallization from the Jianchaling region (Group 1b), represented by recrystallized serpentine minerals (antigorite). The trace element compositions of these Group 1b serpentinites suggest that partial dehydration of serpentinites associated with the transformation from lizardite to antigorite in subduction zone is also likely to affect the geochemistry of serpentinites. Serpentinites from the Liangyazi region (Group 2) are composed of antigorite + dolomite + spinel + magnetite. The high Cr number (0.65-0.80) and low Ti concentrations of spinels in Group 2 serpentinites indicate a refractory mantle wedge origin. Fertile major element compositions

  19. Peat δ13Ccelluose-recorded wetting trend during the past 8000 years in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongliang; Feng, Zhaodong; Yang, Yunpeng; Lan, Bo; Ran, Min; Mu, Guijin

    2018-05-01

    There have been large discrepancies in the proposed mechanisms accounting for the wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. To validate or invalidate the widely reported wetting trend, we obtained a carbon isotope of cellulose (δ13Ccelluose)-recorded warm-season moisture history from a Narenxia (NRX) peat core in the southern Altai Mountains, northern Xinjiang, NW China. The δ13Ccelluose-recorded warm-season moisture reconstruction of the NRX peat core provides a strong support to the widely-reported proposition that the climate was generally dry before ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP and was changed to a wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years in the Altai Mountains and the surrounding areas. The wetting trend since ∼8.0 cal. kyr BP well resembles the increasing trend of the reconnaissance drought index (RDI) that was calculated on the basis of pollen-inferred temperature and precipitation data from the same core. The resemblance implies that the wetting trend during the past ∼8000 years resulted from the combined effect of temperature and precipitation.

  20. Moisture availability over the past five centuries indicated by carbon isotopes of Tamarix taklamakanensis leaves in a nebkha profile in the Central Taklimakan Desert, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Lili; Wang, Xunming; Hua, Ting; Zhang, Caixia

    2013-12-01

    We inferred moisture availability changes from 1555 to 2010 in the Central Taklimakan Desert (NW China) using Chinese tamarisk (Tamarix taklamakanensis) litter deposited within a nebkha that developed in this region. The litter δ13C trends revealed fluctuations of moisture availability: From 1555 to 1785, moisture availability was higher than the long-term average, but from 1555 to 1570, 1585 to 1620, 1640 to 1660, 1675 to 1700, and 1730 to 1755, this region experienced periods with lower than average moisture availability. From 1785 to 1850, significant moisture availability changes occurred, and the region experienced the lowest moisture availability since 1555. From 1850 to the present, the δ13C trends suggested that moisture availability increased. Our results also showed that although moisture availability in this region is controlled by precipitation and evaporation in the Central Taklimakan Desert, temperature variations in the adjacent Kunlun Mountains (whose glacier and snowmelt runoff are dominant water sources for the study area) were potentially more important. Water from these mountains plays an important role in moisture availability due the region’s extremely low precipitation. In addition, although previous studies suggested that the Tarim Basin and its adjacent areas experienced a wet climate for the past several centuries, this suggestion was inconsistent with the reconstructed moisture availability changes in the Central Taklimakan Desert. The moisture availability in the Central Taklimakan was more closely related to temperature variations in the adjacent mountain regions.

  1. Stable isotope (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb, δ18Ocarb distribution along a Cambrian outcrop section in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China and its geochemical significance

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    Hu Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the geochemical features of the lower Paleozoic strata of Yaerdang Mountain outcrop along with the core samples from well TD2∈ in the eastern Tarim Basin, NW China. The total organic carbon abundance, hydrocarbon-generating precursor biospecies, and stable isotope ratios of organics and carbonate (δ13Cker, δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb were comprehensively studied for their possible correlative constraints during sedimentary evolution. The results revealed that the δ13Cker (VPDB of Cambrian kerogens along the outcrop section varied from −34.6‰ to −28.4‰, indicating an increasing tendency from the lower Cambrian to the upper Cambrian. This was on the whole accompanied by the variation in the δ13Ccarb and δ18Ocarb along the profile, which might be associated with the changes in the sea level and also in the compositional variation of benthic and planktonic biomass. The large variation in the stable carbon isotope ratios up to 6‰ along the outcrop section reflected the heterogeneity of the Cambrian source rocks from the eastern Tarim Basin. Hence, the 13C-enriched crude oils from well TD2∈ might have been derived from a localized stratum of Cambrian source rocks. The results from this study showed the possibility of multiple source kitchens in the Cambrian–lower Ordovician portion of Tarim Basin.

  2. New evidence for the catastrophic demise of a prehistoric settlement (the Lajia Ruins) in the Guanting Basin, upper Yellow River, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hui; Huang, Chun Chang; Zheng, Zixing; Hu, Ying; Zhang, Yuzhu; Guo, Yongqiang; Zhou, Qiang

    2017-09-01

    The Lajia Ruins in the Guanting Basin, NW China, are a product of the prehistoric Qijia Culture. Like Pompeii, they are a rare example of an archaeological site preserved by a natural disaster and are therefore important in archaeology, anthropology and geology. However, the nature of the disaster(s) responsible for the destruction of the site remains controversial. Most studies have focused on an earthquake and a red clay layer directly overlying the site and a detailed stratigraphic study of the mid-Holocene sedimentary strata combined with other intervals of red clay deposition (hence possible disasters) is lacking. We identified a mid-Holocene paleosol sequence (the Shanglajia section) at the site which contains two layers of red clay, dated to 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, intercalated within the mid-Holocene paleosol (S0). Subsequent multi-proxy analysis indicated that the characteristics of the two red clay layers resemble those of typical Tertiary red clay deposits and the modern gully deposit at the foot of the Great Red Hills, but are distinctly different from those of the slackwater deposits of the Yellow River and the mid-Holocene paleosol. Our results suggest that, at 3950 a BP and 3500 a BP, two large-scale rainstorm-induced mudflow events, originating from the gullies to the north, flooded the Lajia area on the second terrace of the Yellow River, devastating and burying the human settlements. We infer that the intensified erosion and mass wasting were caused by human activity; in addition, natural factors such as rainstorms and earthquakes, may also have played an important role in triggering catastrophic mudflow events in the Tertiary Red Clay deposits. Overall, our results provide further insights into prehistoric man-land relationships in this environmentally sensitive region which may have implications for modern land use in this region of China and elsewhere.

  3. 国家图书馆在“一带一路”建设中的信息保障作用 = The Role of the National Library of China for the "One Belt, One Road" Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Ben

    2015-01-01

    This is the presentation of the author at the The "One Belt, One Road" International Periodical Publishing Forum during the China Wuhan Periodicals Fair. The author talks about the collection development policy of the National Library of China, and hopes to solve some difficulties in acquiring foreign languages books published in neighboring countries.

  4. Melting of subducted continental crust: Geochemical evidence from Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt, east-central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zi-Fu; Liu, Zhi-Bin; Chen, Qi

    2017-09-01

    Syn-collisional and postcollisional granitoids are common in collisional orogens, and they were primarily produced by partial melting of subducted continental crust. This is exemplified by Mesozoic granitoids from the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in east-central China. These granitoids were emplaced in small volumes in the Late Triassic (200-206 Ma) and the Late Jurassic (146-167 Ma) but massively in the Early Cretaceous (111-143 Ma). Nevertheless, all of them exhibit arc-like trace element distribution patterns and are enriched in Sr-Nd-Hf isotope compositions, indicating their origination from the ancient continental crust. They commonly contain relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages, respectively, consistent with the protolith and metamorphic ages for ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metaigneous rocks in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt. Some granitoids show low zircon δ18O values, and SIMS in-situ O isotope analysis reveals that the relict zircons with Neoproterozoic and Triassic U-Pb ages also commonly exhibit low δ18O values. Neoproterozoic U-Pb ages and low δ18O values are the two diagnostic features that distinguish the subducted South China Block from the obducted North China Block. Thus, the magma source of these Mesozoic granitoids has a genetic link to the subducted continental crust of the South China Block. On the other hand, these granitoids contain relict zircons with Paleoproterozoic and Archean U-Pb ages, which are present in both the South and North China Blocks. Taken together, the Mesozoic granitoids in the Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt and its hanging wall have their magma sources that are predominated by the continental crust of the South China Block with minor contributions from the continental crust of the North China Block. The Triassic continental collision between the South and North China Blocks brought the continental crust into the thickened orogen, where they underwent the three episodes of partial melting in the Late Triassic, Late

  5. A synthesis of mineralization styles and geodynamic settings of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fuquan; Geng, Xinxia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Xuji

    2018-06-01

    The Altay Mountains within the Xinjiang region of northwestern China hosts major metallic ore deposits. Here we review the geological characteristics, metallogenic features and tectonic settings of these deposits. The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains occur mainly within four regions: North Altay, Central Altay, South Altay and Erqis. We recognize seven types of metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains: VMS, submarine volcanogenic iron, magmatic, skarn, pegmatite, hydrothermal vein (Cu-Zn, Fe) and orogenic gold. Among these types, the VMS, pegmatite, orogenic gold and skarn deposits are the most common. Most of the rare metal pegmatite deposits are distributed in Central Altay, with only a few in South Altay. The VMS, submarine volcanogenic type iron and skarn-type deposits are distributed in South Altay, whereas the orogenic-type gold deposits are distributed in the Erqis Fault belt. The hydrothermal vein-type deposits occur in the Erqis Fault belt and Chonghu'er Basin in South Altay. Magmatic-type deposits are mostly in the Erqis Fault belt and Central Altay. Based on isotopic age data, the VMS, submarine volcanogenic-type Fe and skarn-type Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe mineralization occurred during Early-Middle Devonian (∼410-377 Ma), orogenic-type Au, magmatic-type Cu-Ni, and a small number of skarn-type Fe, hydrothermal vein-type Cu-Zn, pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Early-Middle Permian (293-261 Ma), pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits, few skarn-type Fe deposit in Early-Middle Triassic (248-232 Ma), and dominantly represented by pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic (223-180 Ma). The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains formed in various tectonic settings, such as the Early-Middle Devonian continental arc and oceanic island arc, Early-Middle Permian post-collisional extensional setting, and Triassic-Early Jurassic intracontinental setting.

  6. Carboniferous rifted arcs leading to an archipelago of multiple arcs in the Beishan-Tianshan orogenic collages (NW China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Ji'en; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Dongfang

    2017-10-01

    The Beishan and East Tianshan Orogenic Collages in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) record the final stages of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These collages and their constituent arcs have an important significance for resolving current controversies regarding their tectonic setting and age, consequent accretionary history of the southern CAOB, and the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In this paper, we present our work on the southern Mazongshan arc and the northern Hongyanjing Basin in the Beishan Orogenic Collage (BOC), and our comparison with the Bogda arc and associated basins in the East Tianshan Orogenic Collage. Field relationships indicate that the Pochengshan fault defines the boundary between the arc and basin in the BOC. Volcanic rocks including basalts and rhyolites in the Mazongshan arc have bimodal calc-alkaline characteristics, an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Ba, and Pb and depletion in high field-strength elements (e.g., Nb and Ta), which were probably developed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. We suggest that these bimodal calc-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in rifted arcs instead of post-orogenic rifts with mantle plume inputs. By making detailed geochemical comparisons between the Mazongshan arc and the Bogda arc to the west, we further propose that they are similar and both formed in arc rifts, and helped generate a Carboniferous archipelago of multiple arcs in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. These data and ideas enable us to postulate a new model for the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB.

  7. Geochemistry and tectonic implications of the Early Carboniferous Keketuobie intrusion in the West Junggar foldbelt, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Yu-Feng; Yuan, Feng; Zhou, Taofa; Hollings, Pete; Zhang, Dayu

    2018-06-01

    The Keketuobie intrusion is situated in the northern part of the West Junggar foldbelt at the southern margin of the Central Asian Orogeic Belt. The intrusion consists of medium- to coarse-grained gabbro, fine-grained gabbro and diorite. Igneous zircons from the medium- to coarse-grained gabbro yielded a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 320.8 ± 5.7 Ma, indicating that the intrusion was emplaced in the Early Carboniferous. The intrusive contact between the medium- to coarse-grained gabbro and the fine-grained gabbro indicates they formed from distinct magma pulses. Magnetite crystals from the fine-grained gabbro have lower V2O3 but higher TiO2 and Al2O3 contents than those of the medium- to coarse-grained gabbro, suggesting that the fine-grained gabbro crystallized in a relatively higher fO2 and temperature magma than the medium- to coarse-grained gabbro. The Keketuobie intrusive rocks are characterized by enriched large ion lithophile elements and depleted high field strength elements relative to N-MORB with restricted (87Sr/86Sr)t ratios (0.70370-0.70400) and εNd(t) values (+5.85 to +6.97). The petrography and geochemistry are comparable to those of subduction-related volcanic rocks. The trace elements and isotopic compositions of the mafic intrusive rocks suggest that the primary magmas were derived from mixing of metasomatized lithospheric mantle and depleted asthenospheric melts, perhaps triggered by slab break-off. The Keketuobie intrusion is younger than adjacent ophiolite sequences, island arc volcanic rocks and porphyry deposits, but predates the post-collisional A-type granites and bimodal volcanic rocks in the district, suggesting that the Keketuobie intrusion likely formed in a syn-collisional setting.

  8. Ecosystem services trade-offs and determinants in China's Yangtze River Economic Belt from 2000 to 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xibao; Yang, Guishan; Tan, Yan; Liu, Jingping; Hu, Huizhi

    2018-09-01

    Ecosystem services (ES) play an important role in sustaining ecological security, sustainable development and human well-being. This study investigates spatio-temporal changes in five key ES in the Yangtze River Economic Belt of China in 2000-2015-water conservation (WC), soil retention (SR), carbon sequestration (CS), biodiversity conservation (BC) and food supply (FS), by applying three ecological models (InVEST, RUSLE, CASA). Employing scenario simulations, the study quantifies distinct effects of significant factors on ES changes. Using spatial overlapping and Spearman's rank correlation respectively, the study distinguishes spatial patterns of synergies and trade-offs between five ES at the grid and city-scales. The results show that CS, FS, WC and SR presented an overall upward trend, increasing by 22.7%, 16.9%, 6.4% and 4.7%, respectively, while BC remained steady with a marginal degradation. Change in these five ES exhibited dramatic spatial heterogeneity. Across 131 cities, 98.5% of which increased in CS, 87.7% in WC, 68.5% in FS, and 53.1% in SR, while more than half experienced slight degradation in BC. There is high heterogeneity and a great diversity among spatial distributions of ES synergies and trade-offs, which is largely dependent on ES pairs and spatial patterns of land use. Land use/land cover change was the dominant force driving changes in SR, BC and CS, while meteorological factors exhibited a greater effect on WS change than land use/land cover change. The paper examines the synergies between WC-SR, CS-BC and BC-FS on the city level, while WC-BC exhibits significant trade-offs, and no significant relationships for other ES pairs. It is imperative that ES trade-offs at different scales are incorporated to strengthen ecological protection and management policies in project implementation, maintaining ES within vital regions in China. More sophisticated methods and more ES indicators need to be incorporated to enhance the robustness and

  9. Provenance discrimination of sediments in the Zhejiang-Fujian mud belt, East China Sea: Implications for the development of the mud depocenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiting; Li, Anchun; Dong, Jiang; Lu, Jian; Huang, Jie; Wan, Shiming

    2018-01-01

    In the past decade, the 800 km elongated mud belt off Zhejiang-Fujian coast, East China Sea (ECS), has been extensively studied for understanding the source to sink processes on the East Asian continental margin in the context of the Asian monsoon. However, to better understand the sediment source and dispersal pattern, the existing mineralogical and geochemical data of adjacent river systems, including the Changjiang River (CJR) and local rivers in Zhejiang, Fujian and Taiwan, need to be systematically reviewed. Therefore, various indicators from published literatures for the provenance discrimination in the mud belt have been summarised in this article. The results show that high diversity of clay mineral assemblages in fluvial sediments being supplied into the mud belt, e.g., dominant illite and chlorite in the CJR, absence of smectite in Taiwan rivers, similar amounts of the four clay mineral species in Zhejiang rivers, and dominant kaolinite in Fujian rivers. On heavy mineralogy, the CJR is dominated by dolomite, hornblende, and flaky minerals; and among of them, dolomite is distinctive for the CJR. For geochemical approaches, elemental compositions, combined with strontium and neodymium isotopes, reflect strong provenance control. However, geochemical and mineralogical compositions are found to vary with grain size, and thus extra caution should be taken when using these parameters as provenance indicator to discriminate the marine sediments with variety of grain-size fractions. In addition, pyrrhotite, occurred in fluvial sediments from western Taiwan, has not been found in sediments derived from mainland China, indicating that magnetic parameters could be used to discriminate sediment provenance. The mud belt formed during sea-level highstand, when modern current system in the ECS has been established, resulting in sediments derived from the CJR have been transported southward since 8 ka. In addition, sediment provenances have not been constant since

  10. Provenance and tectonic setting of the supra-crustal succession of the Qinling Complex: Implications for the tectonic affinity of the North Qinling Belt, Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Huang, Qianwen; Liu, Xijun; Krapež, Bryan; Yu, Jinhai; Bai, Zhian

    2018-06-01

    The Qinling Complex lies in the Qinling orogenic belt of Central China and holds the key to understanding the evolution of this feature. The Qinling Complex comprises a basement complex composed of amphibolite and ecologite, overlain by a supra-crustal succession that has been metamorphosed to the upper greenschist facies at approximately 516-509 Ma. The protoliths of the meta-sedimentary rocks are graywackes, which are divided into lower, middle and upper units. Detrital zircons from nine samples of the supra-crustal succession have ages ranging from 1182 to 1158 Ma for the lower unit, 957 to 955 Ma for the middle unit and 917 to 840 Ma for the upper unit. The lower unit is intruded by a ca. 960 Ma pluton. The bulk compositions of these meta-sedimentary rocks and their detrital zircon ages clearly indicate derivation from Meso- and Neo-proterozoic granites. Thus, we suggest that the sedimentary succession was derived from an arc-related tectonic setting and that none of the detritus was sourced from the southern margin of the North China Block or from the northern and western margins of the South China Block. We conclude that the North Qinling Belt was an independent micro-continental block during the Meso- to Neo-proterozoic.

  11. Structural characteristics and implication on tectonic evolution of the Daerbute strike-slip fault in West Junggar area, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kongyou; Pei, Yangwen; Li, Tianran; Wang, Xulong; Liu, Yin; Liu, Bo; Ma, Chao; Hong, Mei

    2018-03-01

    The Daerbute fault zone, located in the northwestern margin of the Junggar basin, in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, is a regional strike-slip fault with a length of 400 km. The NE-SW trending Daerbute fault zone presents a distinct linear trend in plain view, cutting through both the Zair Mountain and the Hala'alate Mountain. Because of the intense contraction and shearing, the rocks within the fault zone experienced high degree of cataclasis, schistosity, and mylonization, resulting in rocks that are easily eroded to form a valley with a width of 300-500 m and a depth of 50-100 m after weathering and erosion. The well-exposed outcrops along the Daerbute fault zone present sub-horizontal striations and sub-vertical fault steps, indicating sub-horizontal shearing along the observed fault planes. Flower structures and horizontal drag folds are also observed in both the well-exposed outcrops and high-resolution satellite images. The distribution of accommodating strike-slip splay faults, e.g., the 973-pluton fault and the Great Jurassic Trough fault, are in accordance with the Riedel model of simple shear. The seismic and time-frequency electromagnetic (TFEM) sections also demonstrate the typical strike-slip characteristics of the Daerbute fault zone. Based on detailed field observations of well-exposed outcrops and seismic sections, the Daerbute fault can be subdivided into two segments: the western segment presents multiple fault cores and damage zones, whereas the eastern segment only presents a single fault core, in which the rocks experienced a higher degree of rock cataclasis, schistosity, and mylonization. In the central overlapping portion between the two segments, the sediments within the fault zone are primarily reddish sandstones, conglomerates, and some mudstones, of which the palynological tests suggest middle Permian as the timing of deposition. The deformation timing of the Daerbute fault was estimated by integrating the depocenters' basinward

  12. The lithosphere structure and deep processes of the Mesozoic metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from passive and active seismic methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Q.; Shi, D.; Jiang, G.; Yan, J.

    2013-12-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe-03 has conducted a Transect exploration across middle and lower Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMT) in Eastern China. Broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey were carried out along the Transect. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, deep processes and deformation history of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and financial support by National Natural

  13. The lithosphere architecture and geodynamic of the Middle and Lower Yangtze metallogenic belt in eastern China: constraints from integrated geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lü, Qingtian; Shi, Danian; Jiang, Guoming; Dong, Shuwen

    2014-05-01

    The lithosphere structure and deep processes are keys to understanding mineral system and ore-forming processes. Lithosphere-scale process could create big footprints or signatures which can be observed by geophysics methods. SinoProbe has conducted an integrated deep exploration across middle and lower reaches of Yangtze Metallogenic Belt (YMB) in Eastern China, these included broadband seismic, reflection seismic, wide-angle reflection and magnetotellurics survey. Seismic reflection profiles and MT survey were also performed in Luzong, Tongling and Ningwu ore districts to construct 3D geological model. The resulting geophysical data provides new information which help to better understanding the lithosphere structure, geodynamic, deformation and heat and mass transportation that lead to the formation of the Metallogenic Belt. The major results are: (1) Lower velocity body at the top of upper mantle and a SE dipping high velocity body were imaged by teleseismic tomography beneath YMB; (2) Shear wave splitting results show NE parallel fast-wave polarization direction which parallel with tectonic lineament; (3) The reflection seismic data support the crustal-detachment model, the lower and upper crust was detached during contraction deformation near Tanlu fault and Ningwu volcanic basin; (4) Broadband and reflection seismic confirm the shallow Moho beneath YMB; (5) Strong correlation of lower crust reflectivity with magmatism; (6) The lower crust below Luzong Volcanics shows obvious reflective anisotropy both at the crust-mantle transition and the brittle-ductile transition in the crust. All these features suggest that introcontinental subduction, lithosphere delamination, mantle sources magmatic underplating, and MASH process are responsible for the formation of this Mesozoic metallogenic belt. Acknowledgment: We acknowledge the financial support of SinoProbe by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Land and Resources, P. R. China, under Grant sinoprobe-03, and

  14. South China provenance of the lower-grade Penglai Group north of the Sulu UHP orogenic belt, eastern China. Evidence from detrital zircon ages and Nd-Hf isotopic composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Xianghui; Chen Fukun; Guo Jinghui; Xie Liewen; Siebel, Wolfgang

    2007-01-01

    The Dabie-Sulu ultrahigh-pressure orogenic belt resulted from the early Mesozoic collision of the North China block and South China block (comprising the Yangtze and the Cathaysia) and subsequent exhumation of the subducted South China continental slabs. This belt consists of tectonically juxtaposed rock units of different metamorphic grade. Provenance of the low-grade metamorphic terranes exposed along the northern part of the belt can offer useful information about the location of the boundary between these two continental blocks. This study reports detrital zircon ages and Nd-Hf isotopic composition of sedimentary rocks of the low-grade Penglai Group, situated north of the Sulu UHP terrane. Results show that detrital zircon grains mostly crystallized during Mesoproterozoic time, clustering at 1.7 Ga to 1.6 Ga and 1.2 Ga. Nd isotopic composition (T DM value) of the Penglai Group suggests that sedimentary sources are similar to average crustal material of the Yangtze block and mostly formed in Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic. Late Mesoproterozoic detrital zircons probably demonstrate the sedimentary material was derived from the boundary of the Yangtze and Cathaysia blocks, which was formed by the late Mesoproterozoic convergence. Absence of Neoproterozoic detrital zircons from the Penglai sediments probably suggests a late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic deposition age (about 1.1 Ga to 0.8 Ga). The age and isotopic evidence implies that the Penglai Group originated from the South China block and probably was thrust onto the basement of the North China block during the early Mesozoic continental collision. (author)

  15. Occurrence and mineral chemistry of chromite and related silicates from the Hongshishan mafic-ultramafic complex, NW China with petrogenetic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Banxiao; Yu, Yingmin; Lv, Xinbiao; Feng, Jing; Wei, Wei; Wu, Chunming; Wang, Heng

    2017-10-01

    The Hongshishan mafic-ultramafic complex is located in the western Beishan Terrane, NW China, and hosts an economic Ni-Cu deposit. Chromite as accessory mineral from the complex is divided into three types based on its occurrence and morphology. Quantitative electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) have been conducted on the different types of chromites. Type 1 chromite occurs as inclusions within silicate minerals and has relatively homogeneous composition. Type 2 chromite occurs among serpentine, as interstitial phase. Type 3 chromite is zoned and exhibits a sudden change in compositions from core to rim. Type 1 chromite occurs in olivine gabbro and troctolite showing homogeneous composition. This chromite is more likely primary. Interstitial type 2 and zoned type 3 chromite has compositional variation from core to rim and is more likely modified. Abundant inclusions of orthopyroxene, phlogopite and hornblende occur within type 2 and type 3 chromites. The parental melt of type 1 chromite has an estimated composition of 14.5 wt% MgO, 12.3 wt% Al2O3 and 1.9 wt% TiO2 and is characterized by high temperature, picritic affinity, hydrous nature and high Mg and Ti contents. Compositions of chromite and clinopyroxene are distinct from those of Alaskan-type complexes and imply that the subduction-related environment is not reasonable. Post orogenic extension and the early Permian mantle plume are responsible for the emplacement of mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Beishan Terrane. The cores of zoned chromites are classified as ferrous chromite and the rims as ferrian chromite. The formation of ferrian rim involves reaction of ferrous chromite, forsterite and magnetite to produce ferrian chromite and chlorite, or alternaively, the rim can be simply envisioned as the result of external addition of magnetite in solution to the already formed ferrous chromite.

  16. Nonmarine time-stratigraphy in a rift setting: An example from the Mid-Permian lower Quanzijie low-order cycle Bogda Mountains, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Obrist-Farner

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedimentological and stratigraphic studies of seven stratigraphic sections of Permian Hongyanchi (HYC and Quanzijie (QZJ low-order cycles (LCs in the Tarlong-Taodonggou half graben and Dalongkou area in Bogda Mountains, NW China, demonstrate effective approaches and methodology in cyclo- and time-stratigraphic analyses of complex fluvial-lacustrine deposits in an intracontinental rift setting. A new synchronous stratigraphic unit, the lower QZJ LC is defined. The lower and upper boundaries of this cycle include a regionally correlative disconformity, erosional unconformity, and conformity, across which significant and abrupt changes in palaeoenvironments and tectonic and climatic conditions occurred. The lower boundary is an erosional unconformity and disconformity with a high-relief topography that juxtaposes lacustrine deposits of the underlying HYC LC with the overlying meandering stream deposits of the lower QZJ LC, and was caused by a regional tectonic uplift. The upper boundary is a disconformity and local erosional unconformity and conformity, juxtaposing stacked paleosols developed on fluvial sediments with overlying fluvial and loessial deposits of the upper QZJ LC. The paleosols indicate landscape stability and a prolonged period of subaerial exposure and minimal deposition and suggest that climatic conditions were semi-arid with strong precipitation seasonality in the Tarlong-Taodonggou half graben and subhumid in the Dalongkou area. The fluvial-loessial deposits indicate a renewed tectonic uplift and a change in the atmospheric circulation pattern. The newly-defined lower QZJ LC facilitates accurate palaeogeographic reconstruction in the study area during a period of major tectonic and climatic changes. The interpreted tectonic and climatic conditions provide a critical data point in the mid-latitude east coast of NE Pangea during the Mid-Permian icehouse-hothouse transition. The results demonstrate that a process-response approach

  17. The role of deuterium excess in determining the water salinisation mechanism: A case study of the arid Tarim River Basin, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Tianming; Pang, Zhonghe

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the water salinisation mechanism is the basis for regional salt management. Mineral dissolution, evaporation and transpiration are the main factors controlling natural water salinity in arid inland basins; however, the two are difficult to differentiate. Because deuterium excess decreases during evaporation and is unrelated to the isotopic composition of the initial water, it is a potential tool for determining the contribution of the evapoconcentration of a given water body using the relationship between deuterium excess and salinity rather than between δ 18 O (or δ 2 H) and salinity. In this paper, the relationship between the residual water fraction and deuterium excess was derived from the Rayleigh distillation equation. The contribution of evapoconcentration and mineral dissolution and/or transpiration for a given water body can be determined by comparing the residual water fraction and salinity between the initial water and the evapoconcentrated water. The extremely arid Tarim River Basin in NW China is taken as an example to demonstrate deuterium excess and salinity evolution from the source stream to river water, lake/reservoir water and groundwater. The results show that mineral dissolution contributes most of the salinity (67–77%) for Boston Lake and the Kongque and Tarim rivers relative to the source stream. Mineral dissolution and/or transpiration contribute greater salinity (73–99.6%) to the groundwater recharged by the river water in the middle and lower reaches of the Tarim River. The study provides a method for determining the salinisation mechanism and is important for salt movement and management.

  18. Holocene moisture variations over the arid central Asia revealed by a comprehensive sand-dune record from the central Tian Shan, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Hao; Shen, Ji; Chen, Jianhui; Tsukamoto, Sumiko; Yang, Linhai; Cheng, Hongyi; Frechen, Manfred

    2017-10-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the largest arid (desert) areas in the world, and its climate is dominated by the westerlies. In this study, we examined sand dune evolution from the Bayanbulak Basin in the Tian Shan (Xinjiang, NW China), aiming to infer the Holocene moisture history of the ACA. Combined with stratigraphic observation and environmental proxies analysis (grain size, magnetic susceptibility and total organic content), large numbers of luminescence ages from multiple sites (eight sections, 79 samples) were applied to reconstruct the evolution of the sand dune accumulation in the study basin. The overall results imply very dry conditions characterized by sand dune accumulation at ∼12-6.5 ka, a wet interval between ∼6.5 and 0.8 ka when soil formation occurred, and decreased moisture during the last 0.8 ka. This moisture variation pattern is generally consistent with that inferred from many lacustrine records in the core zone of ACA, suggesting a widespread dry period in the early-to-middle Holocene and relatively wet middle-to-late Holocene. Thus, the moisture history derived from the current sand dune system contrasts with that in Asian monsoon areas, which are characterized by a strong monsoon (high precipitation) in the early and mid-Holocene and a weak monsoon (low precipitation and dry climate) during the late Holocene. Our results strongly suggest that the winter solar insolation and the external boundary conditions such as atmospheric CO2 concentration, ice sheets, and meltwater fluxes, have been major influential factors triggering the Holocene moisture evolution in the core zone of ACA.

  19. An Early Permian epithermal gold system in the Tulasu Basin in North Xinjiang, NW China: Constraints from in situ oxygen-sulfur isotopes and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Leilei; Wan, Bo; Deng, Chen; Cai, Keda; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand gold deposits, being the largest gold deposits in the Chinese North Tianshan, NW China, are located ca. l0 km apart in the Tulasu Basin, and are hosted by the Late Devonian - Early Carboniferous Dahalajunshan Formation. In situ LA-ICP-MS titanium analyses on quartz from the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are broadly identical. Accordingly, the calculated ore-forming temperatures by Ti-in-quartz thermometer give average temperatures of 279 °C and 294 °C, respectively. Results of in situ SIMS analyses of oxygen and sulfur isotopes on quartz and pyrite from these two deposits are similar. Temperature-corrected fluids of the Axi deposit have δ18O values of 2.6-8.1‰ and δ34S values of 0.8-2.4‰, whereas the fluids of the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit have δ18O of 6.4-8.9‰ and δ34S of -0.4 to 4.0‰. The oxygen and sulfur isotopes from the two deposits indicate a magmatic origin. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages of Aqialehe Formation sandstone provided a lower limit for the mineralization timing of the Axi deposit (288 Ma). In situ SIMS U-Pb analyses on entrapped zircon (297 Ma) and newly recognized 284.5 Ma columnar rhyolite implies that the Jingxi-Yelmand deposit formed in the Early Permian. Based on the magmatic affinity of the ore fluids, similar age and ore-formation temperatures, we propose that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits comprise an epithermal gold system, which was driven by the same Permian magma in the Tulasu Basin. The ore geological features together with our new results indicate that the Axi and Jingxi-Yelmand deposits are intermediate and high sulfidation type epithermal deposits, respectively.

  20. Study of the Human-Driven Mechanism of LUCC in the Shenfu Mining Area, NW of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao

    2018-03-01

    Taking the Shenfu mining area, located in the northwest of China, as an example, temporal and spatial changes of land use/cover and its human-driven mechanism were analyzed based on the land use and MODIS NDVI data. The results show that: (1) by the implementation of the Grain for Green Project (GGP), the area of cultivated land decreased, and grassland increased. By the exploitation of coal and other resources and the development of social and economic levels, the area of construction land increased. (2) The vegetation cover level in the mining area significantly increased from 2000 to 2015, and the implementation of GGP and the increase of precipitation were the main reasons. (3) The driving force of land use to forest land and grassland could increase the level of vegetation cover, such as with the GGP, and the promotion of cultivated land and construction land will lead to the reduction of vegetation cover level, such as with urban expansion and mining area construction caused by population growth and industrial development.

  1. Isotopic and geochemical evidence of recharge sources and water quality in the Quaternary aquifer beneath Jinchang city, NW China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jinzhu; Pan Feng; Chen Lihua; Edmunds, W. Mike; Ding Zhenyu; He Jianhua; Zhou Kunpeng; Huang Tianming

    2010-01-01

    Multiple isotopic and hydrogeochemical tracers were utilized to understand the recharge sources and geochemical evolution of groundwater in the Quaternary aquifer beneath Jinchang city and the adjacent Gobi desert area. The groundwater shows markedly depleted stable isotopic composition compared to modern rainfall. The signature of groundwaters from Jinchang and the northern Gobi desert area differ clearly from that of the alluvial fan in the south Yongchang basin and modern rainfall, and has lower or non-detectable 3 H activity, implying that the aquifer is likely maintained by palaeowater. This groundwater in the Gobi desert has a 14 C age older than 12 ka, indicating that the groundwater resources are non-renewable. The build-up of dissolved solids through evaporation is a major control on groundwater composition, and the dominant anion species change systematically from HCO 3 - , SO 4 2- to Cl - , but cations from weathering of albite, calcite, dolomite and gypsum also make a significant contribution. The scientific results have important implications for groundwater management in Jinchang city and as well as in the Shiyang River basin under China's West Development Strategy. It is recommended that the water allocation program of diverting water from the Dongda river to the Minqin basin be reconsidered.

  2. Mesozoic and Cenozoic uplift and exhumation of the Bogda Mountain, NW China: Evidence from apatite fission track analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Tang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Apatite fission track (AFT analysis on samples collected from a Paleozoic series is used to constrain the cooling history of the Bogda Mountain, northwest China. AFT ages range from 136.2 to 85.6 Ma and are younger than rock depositional ages and the mean confined track lengths (11.0–13.2 μm mostly showing unimodal distribution are shorten, indicating significant track-annealing. Thermal histories modeling based on the distribution of fission-track lengths combined with the regional geological data show that two rapid cooling phases occurred in the latest Jurassic–early Cretaceous and the Oligocene–Miocene. Those new data together with previous published data show that the AFT ages become younger from the southwest to northeast in the western Bogda Mountain and its adjacent areas. The fission-track ages of the southwest area are relatively older (>100 Ma, recording the earlier rapid uplift phase during the late Jurassic–Cretaceous, while the ages in the north piedmont of the Bogda Mountain (namely the northeast part are younger (<60 Ma, mainly reflecting the later rapid uplift phase in the Oligocene–Miocene. The trend of younger AFT ages towards the northeast might be explained by post-Cretaceous large-scale crustal tilting towards the southwest. In the thrust fault-dominated northern limbs of the Bogda Mountain, AFT ages reveal a discontinuous pattern with age-jumps across the major fault zones, showing a possible strata tilting across each thrust faults due to the thrust ramps during the Cenozoic. The two rapid uplift stages might be related to the accretion and collision in the southern margin of the Asian continent during the late Jurassic and late Cenozoic, respectively.

  3. Recognized Multiple Rifts of the Neoproterozoic in the Initiation of the Tarim Craton (NW China) and Their Tectonic Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, B.; Jiao, C.; Huang, T.; Zhou, X.; Cai, Z.; Cao, Z.; Jiang, Z.; Cui, J.; Yu, Z.; Chen, W.

    2017-12-01

    The Tarim Basin is the largest, oil-bearing and superimposed basin in the northwest of China. The development and tectonic property of the initial Tarim basin have been acutely disputed and remain enigmatic. Urgently need to reveal the origin and formation dynamics of the Tarim Carton and evaluate the potential of the deep energy resources. However, covered by vast desert and huge-thickness sedimentary strata, suffered by multiple tectonic movements, seismic data with low signal- to- noise ratio in the deep are the critical difficulties. We analyse 4 field outcrops, 18 wells, 27 reprocessed seismic reflection profiles with high SNR across the basin and many ancillary ones and aeromagnetic data. We find about 20 normal fault-controlled rift depressions of the Cryogenian and Ediacaran scattered in the Tarim basin, which developed on the Precambrian metamorphic and crystalline basements and covered by the epeiric sea and basin facies sediments of the Lower Cambrian. The structural styles of the rifts are mainly half grabens, symmetrical troughs and horst-grabens. The regional differences exist obviously in spatial and temporal. The WNW-ESE-trending faults occur in the central part and northern of the basin and the NE, and the NEE-trending faults occur in the southern parts, which response with the anomaly of aeromagnetic. Some main faults of the Ediacaran inherited from the Cryogenian and some occurred newly, the more rifting depressions occurred during the Ediacaran. The extensional NNW-SSE-oriented and NNE-SSW-oriented paleostress field occurred simultaneously during rifting, and accompanied with the clockwise shearing. According to the activities of syn-sedimentary faults, magmatic events and sediments, the tectonic properties of the rifts are different depending on their locations in the Tarim craton. The rifting phases mainly occurred from 780 Ma to 615 Ma. The formation of rifts were associated with the opening of the South Tianshan Ocean and the South Altun

  4. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  5. Origin of lacustrine carbonate-dominated clinoforms in the lower- Permian Lucaogou low-order cycle, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yiran

    Lacustrine carbonate clinoforms deposit can reflect ancient lake condition like paleoclimate and lake type. Complex lithofacies of a carbonate-dominated clinoform package in lower Permian Lucaogou low order cycle, Bogda Mountains, NW China, provide clues on clinoform-forming processes in a half-graben lake. The clinoform package is 5.2 m thick, prograding from S to N for 200 m with a maximum 15o dip angle, and spans 4 km laterally. A clinoform consists of a lower siliciclastic-rich and an upper carbonate-rich beds, forming a clinoform cycle. Results of petrographic study of 30 thin sections suggest that the clinoform package is composed of mixed siliciclasticcarbonate rocks. Carbonate-rich bed is composed of diagenetically-altered lithic packstone and wackestone, and siliciclastic-rich clinoform of micritic sandstone. The foundation rock is mainly microbial boundstone, indicating a shallow littoral environment. The carbonate-rich beds mainly consist of coarse peloids, rip-up intraclasts, aggregate grains, and volcanic lithics. The siliciclastic-rich clinoform is rich in coarse volcanic lithics. Both types of clinoforms contain abundant current laminations, indicating frequent strong current activities. The lack of evidence of unidirectional current flow suggests that the carbonate-dominated clinoform package was probably primarily formed by wave and longshore current processes. Unlike grains in wave-built terrace in the Glenns Ferry Formation (Swirydczuk et al., 1979, 1980), few ooids were observed in the studied strata, which do not have local sediments as nucleus and are often broken. This indicates that the wave was not facing the lake margin directly but was more oblique to the lake margin. The carbonate-dominated clinoform package is thus interpreted as a bar or spit, controlled primarily by lake shoreline morphology and strong wave and current activities. The shift between carbonate and siliciclastic rich clinoform beds within a clinoform cycle suggests high

  6. Geologic and geochemical insights into the formation of the Taiyangshan porphyry copper–molybdenum deposit, Western Qinling Orogenic Belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kun-Feng Qiu,; Taylor, Ryan D.; Yao-Hui Song,; Hao-Cheng Yu,; Kai-Rui Song,; Nan Li,

    2016-01-01

    Taiyangshan is a poorly studied copper–molybdenum deposit located in the Triassic Western Qinling collisional belt of northwest China. The intrusions exposed in the vicinity of the Taiyangshan deposit record episodic magmatism over 20–30 million years. Pre-mineralization quartz diorite porphyries, which host some of the deposit, were emplaced at 226.6 ± 6.2 Ma. Syn-collisional monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries, which also host mineralization, were emplaced at 218.0 ± 6.1 Ma and 215.0 ± 5.8 Ma, respectively. Mineralization occurred during the transition from a syn-collisional to a post-collisional setting at ca. 208 Ma. A barren post-mineralization granite porphyry marked the end of post-collisional magmatism at 200.7 ± 5.1 Ma. The ore-bearing monzonite and quartz monzonite porphyries have a εHf(t) range from − 2.0 to + 12.5, which is much more variable than that of the slightly older quartz diorite porphyries, with TDM2 of 1.15–1.23 Ga corresponding to the positive εHf(t) values and TDM1 of 0.62–0.90 Ga corresponding to the negative εHf(t) values. Molybdenite in the Taiyangshan deposit with 27.70 to 38.43 ppm Re suggests metal sourced from a mantle–crust mixture or from mafic and ultramafic rocks in the lower crust. The δ34S values obtained for pyrite, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite from the deposit range from + 1.3‰ to + 4.0‰, + 0.2‰ to + 1.1‰, and + 5.3‰ to + 5.9‰, respectively, suggesting a magmatic source for the sulfur. Calculated δ18Ofluid values for magmatic K-feldspar from porphyries (+ 13.3‰), hydrothermal K-feldspar from stockwork veins related to potassic alteration (+ 11.6‰), and hydrothermal sericite from quartz–pyrite veins (+ 8.6 to + 10.6‰) indicate the Taiyangshan deposit formed dominantly from magmatic water. Hydrogen isotope values for hydrothermal sericite ranging from − 85 to − 50‰ may indicate that magma degassing progressively depleted residual liquid in

  7. An Analysis of the Dynamic Effect of China's E-commerce Development on Export: Evidences from the Countries Involved in the Belt and Road Initiative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tongsheng; YANG Ying; CHEN Ya

    2017-01-01

    E-commerce is one of the important contents of "Internet+".With the entropy method,this paper measures the development level of China's E-commerce and analyzes the mechanism of its impact on export trade.Based on the data of China's exports to 60 countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative from 1999 to 2014 and adopting the panel vector auto-regression model,it tries to validate the dynamic effect of E-commerce development on export.The results show that China's E-commerce development is presenting a continuously rising momentum,which has a positive impact on the one phase lag export and its binary margins,the impact on the intensive margin is greater than that on the expansion margin.In the second phase,it has a negative impact on the binary margins,but in other times,it has only positive impacts.Its contribution to the changes of export value is the biggest,followed by the changes of the intensive margin,and its contribution to the changes of expansion margin is the least.Therefore,to strive to develop E-commerce and effectively control its risks is an important measure to promote exports and its binary margins.

  8. Sedimentation of Jurassic fan-delta wedges in the Xiahuayuan basin reflecting thrust-fault movements of the western Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhuang, Qitian; Steel, Ronald J.

    2018-06-01

    Mesozoic thrusting within the Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt of North China resulted in a series of fault-bounded intramontane basins whose infill and evolution remain poorly understood. In particular, the bounding faults and adjacent sediment accumulations along the western segments of the belt are almost unstudied. A sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and the Upper Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation have been mapped to show two distinctive clastic wedges: an early Jurassic wedge representing a mass-flow-dominated, Gilbert-type fan delta with a classic tripartite architecture, and an late Jurassic shoal-water fan delta without steeply inclined strata. The basinward migration of the fan-delta wedges, together with the analysis of their conglomerate clast compositions, paleocurrent data and detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra, strongly suggest that the northern-bounding Xuanhuan thrust fault controlled their growth during accumulation of the Jiulongshan Formation. Previous studies have suggested that the fan-delta wedge of the Xiahuayuan Formation was also syntectonic, related to movement on the Xuanhua thrust fault. Two stages of thrusting therefore exerted an influence on the formation and evolution of the Xiahuayuan basin during the early-late Jurassic.

  9. Carboniferous volcanic rocks associated with back-arc extension in the western Chinese Tianshan, NW China: Insight from temporal-spatial character, petrogenesis and tectonic significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Wenbo; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Wan, Bo; Wang, Xiangsong; Bao, Zihe; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-06-01

    The Yili-Central Tianshan Block, as a Late Paleozoic major continental silver of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, holds a massive volume of Carboniferous volcanic rocks, occurring as subparallel magmatic belts. However, the petrogenesis and tectonic implications of these volcanic rocks remain enigmatic. This study compiled isotopic age data for mapping their temporal-spatial character, and conducted petrogenetic study of these magmatic belts, aiming to understand their tectonic implications. Our compiled dataset reveals four magmatic belts in the Yili-Central Tianshan Block, including the Keguqinshan-Tulasu belt and the Awulale belt in the north, and the Wusun Mountain belt and the Haerk-Nalati belt in the south. In addition, our new zircon U-Pb dating results define two significant Early Carboniferous eruptive events (ca. 355-350 Ma and 325 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain belt. Volcanic rocks of the early significant eruptive event (ca. 355-350 Ma) in the Wusun Mountain comprise basalt, trachy-andesite, andesite, dacite and rhyolite, which are similar to the typical rock assemblage of a continental arc. Their positive εNd(t) values (+0.3 to +1.5) and relatively high Th/Yb and Nb/Yb ratios suggest the derivation from a mantle source with additions of slab-derived components. The gabbroic dykes and rhyolites of the late volcanic event (ca. 325 Ma) form a bimodal rock association, and they show alkaline features, with relatively low Th/Yb and Th/Nb ratios, and higher positive εNd(t) values (εNd(t) = +3.3-+5.0). It is interpreted that the gabbroic dykes and rhyolites may have been derived from mantle and juvenile crustal sources, respectively. The isotopic and trace elemental variations with time elapse of the Wusun Mountain magmatic belt show an important clue for strengthening depletion of the magma sources. Considering the distinctive temporal-spatial character of the Carboniferous volcanic rocks, two separate subduction systems in the southern and northern margins of

  10. Fractal Dimension Change Point Model for Hydrothermal Alteration Anomalies in Silk Road Economic Belt, the Beishan Area, Gansu, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, H. H.; Wang, Y. L.; Ren, G. L.; LI, J. Q.; Gao, T.; Yang, M.; Yang, J. L.

    2016-11-01

    Remote sensing plays an important role in mineral exploration of “One Belt One Road” plan. One of its applications is extracting and locating hydrothermal alteration zones that are related to mines. At present, the extracting method for alteration anomalies from principal component image mainly relies on the data's normal distribution, without considering the nonlinear characteristics of geological anomaly. In this study, a Fractal Dimension Change Point Model (FDCPM), calculated by the self-similarity and mutability of alteration anomalies, is employed to quantitatively acquire the critical threshold of alteration anomalies. The realization theory and access mechanism of the model are elaborated by an experiment with ASTER data in Beishan mineralization belt, also the results are compared with traditional method (De-Interfered Anomalous Principal Component Thresholding Technique, DIAPCTT). The results show that the findings produced by FDCPM are agree with well with a mounting body of evidence from different perspectives, with the extracting accuracy over 80%, indicating that FDCPM is an effective extracting method for remote sensing alteration anomalies, and could be used as an useful tool for mineral exploration in similar areas in Silk Road Economic Belt.

  11. Age and composition of the UHP garnet peridotites in the Dabie orogenic belt (central China) record complex crust-mantle interaction in continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zheng, J.; Wang, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Dabie-Sulu UHP belt was created by the collision between the North and South China cratons in Middle Triassic time (240-225 Ma). There are lots of garnet-bearing ultramafic body occurs as a lens in the belt. Age and composition of the Maowu garnet peridotites in the Dabie orogenic belt are reported. The garnet harzburgites are main moderately refractory (Mg#Ol=92) and minor fertile (Mg#Ol=88) with high Ni (2344-2603 ppm) and low Al2O3 (0.35-0.54 wt.%), CaO (0.76-2.19 wt.%) and TiO2 (˜0.01 wt.%). Zircons in the harzburgites mainly document metamorphism at 230 ± 2 Ma, 275 ± 5 Ma, 357 ± 4 Ma, and complex minor populations of ages including: 1.8 Ga, 1.3 Ga, and Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic ages (901-420 Ma). The early Meszosic and late Paleozoic zircons have similar trace-element patterns and ranges in ɛHf(t) (+0.6 to +3.4), Th/U ratio (0.2-0.7) and Hf depleted-mantle model ages (TDM ) mainly cluster in the interval 1.2-0.9 Ga. In contrast, the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic zircons have negative ɛHf(t) (-24.9 to -2.7) and oldest Hf TDM = 3.4Ga. Zircons of Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic have a wide range of Hf depleted-mantle model ages (2.4-0.7Ga) and ɛHf(t) (-15.3 to +9.5). Above of the all, we suggest that the Maowu garnet harzburgites are interpreted as a fragment of the metasomatized ancient lithospheric mantle beneath the southern margin of the North China Craton. They experienced the Proterozoic thermal event (1.9-1.8Ga), which is coeval with the assembly of the supercontinent Columbia. And then 1.3Ga mantle metasomatism with asthenospheric materials resulted in the final breakup of the Columbia supercontinent. Neoproterozic-early Paleozoic (901-420 Ma), deep parts of the south margin of the craton were metasomatized during the assembly and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. Then, the southern margin of the craton occurred oceanic crust subduction ( 357 Ma), subsequent continental deep subduction and final continent-continent collision in Triassic.

  12. Porphyry copper assessment of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides: China, Mongolia, Russia, Pakistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and India: Chapter X in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Ludington, Stephen; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Alexeiev, Dmitriy V.; Frost, Thomas P.; Light, Thomas D.; Robinson, Gilpin R.; Briggs, Deborah A.; Wallis, John C.; Miller, Robert J.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Panteleyev, Andre; Chitalin, Andre; Seltmann, Reimar; Guangsheng, Yan; Changyun, Lian; Jingwen, Mao; Jinyi, Li; Keyan, Xiao; Ruizhao, Qiu; Jianbao, Shao; Gangyi, Shai; Yuliang, Du

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collaborated with international colleagues to assess undiscovered resources in porphyry copper deposits in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt and eastern Tethysides. These areas host 20 known porphyry copper deposits, including the world class Oyu Tolgoi deposit in Mongolia that was discovered in the late 1990s. The study area covers major parts of the world’s largest orogenic systems. The Central Asian Orogenic Belt is a collage of amalgamated Precambrian through Mesozoic terranes that extends from the Ural Mountains in the west nearly to the Pacific Coast of Asia in the east and records the evolution and final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean in Permian time. The eastern Tethysides, the orogenic belt to the south of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, records the evolution of another ancient ocean system, the Tethys Ocean. The evolution of these orogenic belts involved magmatism associated with a variety of geologic settings appropriate for formation of porphyry copper deposits, including subduction-related island arcs, continental arcs, and collisional and postconvergent settings. The original settings are difficult to trace because the arcs have been complexly deformed and dismembered by younger tectonic events. Twelve mineral resource assessment tracts were delineated to be permissive for the occurrence of porphyry copper deposits based on mapped and inferred subsurface distributions of igneous rocks of specific age ranges and compositions. These include (1) nine Paleozoic tracts in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, which range in area from about 60,000 to 800,000 square kilometers (km2); (2) a complex area of about 400,000 km2 on the northern margin of the Tethysides, the Qinling-Dabie tract, which spans central China and areas to the west, encompassing Paleozoic through Triassic igneous rocks that formed in diverse settings; and (3) assemblages of late Paleozoic and Mesozoic rocks that define two other tracts in the Tethysides, the 100

  13. Belt technology stretches conveyors' coverage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-15

    With China the leading growth engine in the conveyor market, leading belt manufacturers are establishing local manufacturing plants to boost their presence. Fenner is planning to almost triple production capacity over the next three years, with a third of its investment in China. Shanxi-Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems is a joint venture between Phoenix Conveyor Belt Systems GmbH, now part of ContiTech Ag, and its Chinese partners Lu An Mining Group Co. Ltd. and Jingcheng Anthracite Group Co. Ltd. It manufacturers steel cable belts, PVC and multi-ply belts for coal mines and power plants. Recent belt designs by FennerEurope and Metso Minerals are reported. 2 photos.

  14. Main types and metallogenetic characteristics of sandstone-type uranium deposits in central asian mobile belt and its neighbouring area, and the study on prospecting direction of northwest China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Chengming

    2007-01-01

    Based on the study of geotectonic setting, formation evolution model and metallogenic characteristics of uranium productive basins, important sandstone-type uranium deposits in Central Asian mobile belt and neighbouring area are divided into five types. The statial distribution pattern of different sandstone-type uranium deposits is analyzed in detail. Geotectonic setting and metallogenetic characteristics are discussed. Finally, the characteristics of basin geodynamics, prospecting type and ore-bearing stratigraphy in Northwest China have been proposed. (authors)

  15. Deformation behavior of migmatites: insights from microstructural analysis of a garnet-sillimanite-mullite-quartz-feldspar-bearing anatectic migmatite at Rampura-Agucha, Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt, NW India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Abhishek; Piazolo, Sandra; Saha, Lopamudra; Bhattacharya, Abhijit; Pal, Durgesh Kumar; Sarkar, Saheli

    2018-03-01

    In the present study we investigate the microstructural development in mullite, quartz and garnet in an anatectic migmatite hosted within a Grenvillian-age shear zone in the Aravalli-Delhi Fold Belt. The migmatite exhibits three main deformation structures and fabrics (S1, S2, S3). Elongated garnet porphyroblasts are aligned parallel to the metatexite S2 layers and contain crenulation hinges defined by biotite-sillimanite-mullite-quartz (with S1 axial planar foliation). Microstructural evidence and phase equilibrium relations establish the garnet as a peritectic phase of incongruent melting by breakdown of biotite, sillimanite ± mullite and quartz at peak P-T of 8 kbar, 730 °C along a tight-loop, clockwise P-T path. Monazite dating establishes that the partial melting occurred between 1000 and 870 Ma. The absence of subgrains and systematic crystal lattice distortions in these garnets despite their elongation suggests growth pseudomorphing pre-existing 3-D networks of S1 biotite aggregates rather than high-temperature crystal plastic deformation which is noted in the S1 quartz grains that exhibit strong crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), undulatory extinction and subgrains. Mode-I fractures in these garnet porphyroblasts induced by high melt pressure during late stage of partial melt crystallization are filled by retrograde biotite-sillimanite. Weak CPO and non-systematic crystal lattice distortions in the coarse quartz grains within the S2 leucosome domains indicate these crystallized during melt solidification without later crystal plastic deformation overprint. In the later stages of deformation (D3), strain was mostly accommodated in the mullite-biotite-sillimanite-rich restite domains forming S3 which warps around garnet and leucosome domains; consequently, fine-grained S3 quartz does not exhibit strong CPOs.

  16. Teleseismic P-wave tomography and the upper mantle structure of the Sulu orogenic belt (China): implications for Triassic collision and exhumation mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Miao; Tan, Handong; Jiang, Mei; Xu, Zhiqin; Li, Zhonghai; Xu, Lehong

    2016-12-01

    As the largest ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic tectonic unit outcropping in the world, the Dabie-Sulu UHP metamorphic belt is considered to be one of the best areas for studying the continental dynamics. However, their continental collision and exhumation mechanism are still debated. We performed a 3D teleseismic P-wave tomography beneath the Sulu orogen for the purpose of understanding the deep structure. The tomographic results show that there is a prominently near-SN-trending low-velocity zone (LVZ) close to the Tanlu fault (TLF), indicating a slab tear of the subducted Yangtze plate (YZP) during the initial Early Triassic collision. Our results also suggest that both the Yangze crustal slab and the North China lithospheric slab were dragged downwards by the subducted oceanic slab, which constituted a ‘two-sided’ subduction mode. A conceptual geodynamic model is proposed to explain the exhumation of Sulu high- to UHP rocks and imply a polyphase exhumation driven by buoyancy of continental materials at different depth and upward extrusion of crustal partial melting rocks to the surface at the later stage.

  17. The Eurasian Economic Union: A Brittle Road Block on China's "One Belt – One Road" - A Liberal Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Zank

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article, I explore the development and character of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU and its compatibility with China's OBOR initiative. The genesis of the EEU is placed in the context of Russia's attempts to fill its "Monroe Doctrine" with substance, i.e. to claim the post-Soviet space as a zone of exclusive Russian influence. Russia's "Monroe Doctrine" was primarily formulated against the EU, its enlargement and its "European Neighbourhood Policy" (ENP which offers privileged relations also to countries in the post-Soviet space. The logic of the Russian "Monroe Doctrine" works, however, against all countries trying to establish closer ties with former Soviet republics, China included. In 2013, President Putin presented the EEU as a predominantly political project, shortly after the Chinese President had launched the OBOR initiative; all twelve states in the post-Soviet space were invited to participate. However, Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine opted for an association agreement with the EU, a move to which Russia responded by the annexation of Crimea and starting an insurgency in Eastern Ukraine. In 2015, the EEU officially started with the participation of only five countries: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Russia. It implied the extension of the rather high Russian tariffs to the whole EEU, a move which had negative effects on Chinese transactions with the region. This, however, could not impede a rise of the Chinese presence in Central Asia. In its present form, the EEU is not compatible with the OBOR initiative. A free-trade agreement between China and the EEU could make it compatible, but this is not a realistic perspective for the near future. The EEU seems to be an unstable construction, with many basic rules and norms being unclear, and many tensions and conflicts among its members.

  18. On the Preservation of Intergranular Coesite in UHP Eclogite at Yangkou Bay, Sulu belt of eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, L.; Wang, S.; Brown, M.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to coesite that occurs as inclusions in zircon and rock-forming minerals, intergranular coesite is preserved in UHP eclogite at Yangkou in the Sulu belt. The survival of intergranular coesite is intriguing because the eclogite experienced phengite growth and partial melting during exhumation. The coesite eclogite occurs as rootless isoclinal fold noses within quartz-rich schist which contains 10-20 vol% phengite, whereas phengite is absent from coesite eclogite in the fold noses. To evaluate the factors that control preservation of intergranular coesite, four samples representative of different stages along the retrograde P-T path were selected for study. For each sample we determined the number of intergranular coesite grains per cm2 and the OH content of garnet and omphacite. As the number of coesite grains decreases, the bulk rock OH content increases from transformation to quartz of intergranular coesite outside of the fold noses. The fluid is inferred to have been a supercritical fluid probably residual from prograde dehydration but also derived by dissolution of nominally anhydrous minerals. Post-metamorphic-peak deformation combined with fluid percolation along sheared fold limbs induced phengite growth during initial exhumation and then facilitated partial melting. In contrast, fold hinges in competent layers are unfavourable sites for fluid penetration. At Yangkou, the intergranular coesite is preserved in the fold noses where it was protected from both penetrative deformation and fluid ingress. Therefore, the fold noses maintained a relatively dry environment that allowed preservation of the intergranular coesite. Thus, deformation partitioning and strain localization impose local controls on fluid distribution and migration in UHP eclogite. This study informs our understanding of variations in fluid regime during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust.

  19. Geochronological and sedimentological evidences of Panyangshan foreland basin for tectonic control on the Late Paleozoic plate marginal orogenic belt along the northern margin of the North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jialiang; Zhou, Zhiguang; He, Yingfu; Wang, Guosheng; Wu, Chen; Liu, Changfeng; Yao, Guang; Xu, Wentao; Zhao, Xiaoqi; Dai, Pengfei

    2017-08-01

    There is a wide support that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift on the northern margin of the North China Craton has undergone an uplifting history. However, when and how did the uplift occurred keeps controversial. Extensive field-based structural, metamorphic, geochemical, geochronological and geophysical investigations on the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, which suggested that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an uplifted region since the Early Precambrian or range from Late Carboniferous-Early Jurassic. The geochemical characteristics of the Late Paleozoic to Early Mesozoic intrusive rocks indicated that the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift was an Andean-type continental margin that is the extensional tectonic setting. To address the spatial and temporal development of the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift, we have carried out provenance analysis of Permian sedimentary rocks which collected from the Panyangshan basin along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The QFL diagram revealed a dissected arc-recycled orogenic tectonic setting. Moreover, the framework grains are abundant with feldspar (36-50%), indicating the short transport distance and unstable tectonic setting. Detrital zircon U-Pb analysis ascertained possible provenance information: the Precambrian basement ( 2490 and 1840 Ma) and continental arc magmatic action ( 279 and 295 Ma) along the northern margin of the North China Craton. The projection in rose diagrams of the mean palaeocurrent direction, revealing the SSW and SSE palaeoflow direction, also shows the provenance of the Panyangshan basin sources mainly from the Inner Mongolia Palaeo-uplift. The andesite overlying the Naobaogou Formation has yielded U-Pb age of 277.3 ± 1.4 Ma. The additional dioritic porphyry dike intruded the Naobaogou and Laowopu Formations, which has an emplacement age of 236 ± 1 Ma. The above data identify that the basin formed ranges from Early Permian to Middle Triassic (277-236 Ma). Accordingly, the Inner Mongolia

  20. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Falandysz

    Full Text Available For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter, Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter, and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter. Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from

  1. Evaluation of Mercury Contamination in Fungi Boletus Species from Latosols, Lateritic Red Earths, and Red and Yellow Earths in the Circum-Pacific Mercuriferous Belt of Southwestern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falandysz, Jerzy; Zhang, Ji; Wang, Yuan-Zhong; Saba, Martyna; Krasińska, Grażyna; Wiejak, Anna; Li, Tao

    2015-01-01

    For the first time, highly elevated levels of mercury (Hg) have been documented for several species of the edible Fungi genus Boletus growing in latosols, lateritic red earths, and red and yellow earths from the Yunnan province of China. Analysis of Hg concentrations in the genus suggests that geogenic Hg is the dominant source of Hg in the fungi, whereas anthropogenic sources accumulate largely in the organic layer of the forest soil horizon. Among the 21 species studied from 32 locations across Yunnan and 2 places in Sichuan Province, the Hg was found at elevated level in all samples from Yunnan but not in the samples from Sichuan, which is located outside the mercuriferous belt. Particularly abundant in Hg were the caps of fruiting bodies of Boletus aereus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus bicolor (up to 5.5 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus edulis (up to 22 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus luridus (up to 11 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus magnificus (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus obscureumbrinus (up to 9.4 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus purpureus (up to 16 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus sinicus (up to 6.8 mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus speciosus (up to 4.9mg kg-1 dry matter), Boletus tomentipes (up to 13 mg kg-1 dry matter), and Boletus umbriniporus (up to 4.9 mg kg-1 dry matter). Soil samples of the 0-10 cm topsoil layer from the widely distributed locations had mercury levels ranging between 0.034 to 3.4 mg kg-1 dry matter. In Yunnan, both the soil parent rock and fruiting bodies of Boletus spp. were enriched in Hg, whereas the same species from Sichuan, located outside the mercuriferous belt, had low Hg concentrations, suggesting that the Hg in the Yunnan samples is mainly from geogenic sources rather than anthropogenic sources. However, the contribution of anthropogenically-derived Hg sequestered within soils of Yunnan has not been quantified, so more future research is required. Our results suggest that high rates of consumption of Boletus spp. from Yunnan can

  2. U-Pb, Re-Os and Ar-Ar dating of the Linghou polymetallic deposit, Southeastern China: Implications for metallogenesis of the Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yanwen; Xie, Yuling; Liu, Liang; Lan, Tingguan; Yang, Jianling; Sebastien, Meffre; Yin, Rongchao; Liang, Songsong; Zhou, Limin

    2017-04-01

    The Qingzhou-Hangzhou metallogenic belt (QHMB) in Southeastern China has gained increasingly attention in recent years. However, due to the lack of reliable ages on intrusions and associated deposits in this belt, the tectonic setting and metallogenesis of the QHMB have not been well understood. The Linghou polymetallic deposit in northwestern Zhejiang Province is one of the typical deposits of the QHMB. According to the field relationships, this deposit consists of the early Cu-Au-Ag and the late Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization stages. Molybdenite samples with a mineral assemblage of molybdenite-chalcopyrite-pyrite ± quartz are collected from the copper mining tunnel near the Cu-Au-Ag ore bodies. Six molybdenite samples give the Re-Os model ages varying from 160.3 to 164.1 Ma and yield a mean age of 162.2 ± 1.4 Ma for the Cu-Au-Ag mineralization. Hydrothermal muscovite gives a well-defined Ar-Ar isochron age of 160.2 ± 1.1 Ma for the Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Three phases of granodioritic porphyry have been distinguished in this deposit, and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that they have formed at 158.8 ± 2.4 Ma, 158.3 ± 1.9 Ma and 160.6 ± 2.1 Ma, comparable to the obtained ages of the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization. Therefore, these intrusive rocks have a close temporal and spatial relationship with the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu ore bodies. The presences of skarn minerals (e.g., garnet) and vein-type ores, together with the previous fluid inclusion and H-O-C-S-Pb isotopic data, clearly indicate that the Cu-Au-Ag and Pb-Zn-Cu mineralization are genetically related to these granodiorite porphyries. This conclusion excludes the possibility that this deposit is of ;SEDEX; type and formed in a sag basin of continental rifts setting as previously proposed. Instead, it is proposed that the Linghou polymetallic and other similar deposits in the QHMB, such as the 150-160 Ma Yongping porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo, Dongxiang porphyry? Cu, Shuikoushan/Kangjiawang skarn Pb

  3. Uplifting of the Jiamusi Block in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt, NE China: evidence from basin provenance and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Wen, Quanbo; Han, Guoqing; Li, Wei

    2010-05-01

    The main part of Jiamusi Block, named as Huanan-Uplift, is located in the northeastern Heilongjiang, China. The Huanan-Uplift is surrounded by many relatively small Mesozoic-Cenozoic basins, e.g. Sanjiang Basin, Hulin Basin, Boli Basin, Jixi Basin, Shuangyashan Basin and Shuanghua Basin. However previous research works were mainly focused on stratigraphy and palaeontology of the basins, therefore, the coupling relation between the uplift and the surrounding basins have not been clear. Based on the field investigations, conglomerate provenance studies of the Houshigou Formation in Boli Basin, geochronology of the Huanan-Uplift basement, we have been studied the relationships between Huanan-Uplift and the surrounding basins. The regional stratigraphic correlations indicates that the isolated basins in the area experienced the same evolution during the period of the Chengzihe and the Muling Formations (the Early Cretaceous). The paleogeography reconstructions suggest that the area had been a large-scale basin as a whole during the Early Cretaceous. The Huanan-Uplift did not exist. The paleocurrent directions, sandstone and conglomerate provenance analyses show that the Huanan-Uplift started to be the source area of the surrounding basins during the period of Houshigou Formation (early Late Cretaceous), therefore, it suggests that the Jiamusi Block commenced uplift in the early Late Cretaceous. The granitic gneisses in Huanan-Uplift give 494-415 Ma monazite U-Th-total Pb ages, 262-259 Ma biotite and 246-241 Ma K-feldspar 40Ar/39Ar ages. The cooling rates of 1-2 ℃/Ma from 500-260 Ma and 10-11 ℃/Ma from 260-240 Ma have been calculated based on the ages. This suggests that the Jiamusi Block had a rapid exhumation during late Permian, which should be related to the closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean between the Siberian and North China continents. It is concluded that during the late Paleozoic the Jiamusi Block was stable with a very slow uplifting. With the closure of

  4. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit in Derbugan metallogenic belt of the NE China, and their geological significances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bingyu; Zhang, Lianchang; Jin, Xindi; Li, Wenjun; Chen, Zhiguang; Zhu, Mingtian

    2016-03-01

    The Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit belongs to the Derbugan metallogenic belt, which is located in the Ergun block, NE China. In the mining area, the Cu-Mo mineralization mainly occurs in quartz diorite porphyry and is hosted within silicified-sericitized and sericite alteration zone. Geochemical results of the host porphyry is characterized by high SiO2, high Al2O3, low MgO, weak positive Eu anomalies and clearly HREE depletion, high Sr, low Y and low Yb, similar to those of adakite. The Sr-Nd isotopic composition of the host porphyry displays an initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratio of 0.7036-0.7055 and positive Nd( t) values of +0.1 to +0.6, which are similar to the OIB, reflecting the source of the host porphyry may derive from subducted ocean slab, and the new lower crust also had some contribution to the magma sources. The SIMS zircon U-Pb age from the host porphyry is 229 ± 2 Ma. The Re-Os isochron age for the molybdenite in the deposit is 225 ± 2 Ma closed to zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry, indicating that Cu-Mo mineralization event occurred in Triassic. Combining the geology-geochemistry of the host porphyry and the regional tectonic evolution, we infer that the subduction processes of Mongol-Okhotsk oceanic slab under the Ergun block led to the formation of the Badaguan porphyry Cu-Mo deposit during the Triassic.

  5. Continental crust melting induced by subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean: Insight from the Latest Devonian granitic magmatism in the southern Yili Block, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Zihe; Cai, Keda; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao; Wan, Bo; Wang, Yannan; Wang, Xiangsong; Xia, Xiaoping

    2018-03-01

    The Tianshan belt of the southwestern Central Asian Orogenic Belt was generated by Paleozoic multi-stage subduction and final closure of several extinct oceans, including the South Tianshan Ocean between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim blocks. However, the subduction initiation and polarity of the South Tianshan Ocean remain issues of highly debated. This study presents new zircon U-Pb ages, geochemical compositions and Sr-Nd isotopes, as well as zircon Hf isotopic data of the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous granitic rocks in the Wusun Mountain of the Yili Paleozoic convergent margin, which, together with the spatial-temporal distributions of regional magmatic rocks, are applied to elucidate their petrogenesis and tectonic linkage to the northward subduction initiation of the South Tianshan Ocean. Our zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that these granites were emplaced at the time interval of 362.0 ± 1.2-360.3 ± 1.9 Ma, suggesting a marked partial melting event of the continental crust in the Latest Devonian to Early Carboniferous. These granites, based on their mineral compositions and textures, can be categorized as monzogranites and K-feldspar granites. Geochemically, both monzogranites and K-feldspar granites have characters of I-type granites with high K2O contents (4.64-4.83 wt.%), and the K-feldspar granites are highly fractionated I-type granites, while the monzogranites have features of unfractionated I-type granites. Whole-rock Sr-Nd isotopic modeling results suggest that ca. 20-40% mantle-derived magmas may be involved in magma mixing with continental crust partial melts to generate the parental magmas of the granites. The mantle-derived basaltic magmas was inferred not only to be a major component of magma mixture but also as an important heat source to fuse the continental crust in an extensional setting, which is evidenced by the high zircon saturation temperatures (713-727 °C and 760-782 °C) of the studied granites. The Latest Devonian to

  6. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of Late Devonian arc volcanic rocks in southern Beishan orogen, NW China: Geochemical and Nd-Sr-Hf isotopic constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qian-Qian; Chung, Sun-Lin; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Li, Shan

    2017-05-01

    Late Devonian (ca. 370 Ma) volcanic rocks provide important information about the nature of magmatism during the tectonic transition between the Early and Late Paleozoic in the Beishan orogen, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. They are predominantly an andesitic-dacitic-rhyolitic assemblage, characterized by alkali contents ranging from slightly calcic to slightly alkaline. The rhyolitic rocks are generally ferroan, whereas the andesitic rocks are magnesian. These volcanic rocks exhibit similar trace element characteristics to those of continental arcs. Strongly negative εNd(t) values (- 2.8 to - 3.6) and high Sr isotopic compositions (initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7036-0.7108) suggest that they are mainly derived from an ancient crust. However, the positive zircon εHf(t) values (+ 1.4 to + 16.4) support the role of juvenile components in their genesis, indicating the significant input of new mantle-derived magmas. These characteristics imply a hybrid derivation, from an ancient crustal source with the addition of juvenile materials during magma genesis, or perhaps heterogeneous contamination or hybridization during magma emplacement. Combined with the regional geology, our results indicate that the Late Devonian magmatism resulted from a southward retreat of the subduction zone, which records significant continental crustal growth in a transitional arc or an accretionary arc setting. The distinct geochemical compositions, especially the Nd-Hf isotope decoupling of the Dundunshan volcanic rocks, imply a significant change in the geodynamic setting in the Late Paleozoic.

  7. Secular Variation in the Storage and Dissipation of Elastic Strain Energy Along the Central Altyn Tagh Fault (86-88.5°E), NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowgill, E.; Gold, R. D.; Arrowsmith, R.; Friedrich, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    In elastic rebound theory, hazard increases as interseismic strain rebuilds after rupture. This model is challenged by the temporal variation in the pacing of major earthquakes that is both predicted by mechanical models and suggested by some long paleoseismic records (e.g., 1-3). However, the extent of such behavior remains unclear due to a lack of long (5-25 ky) records of fault slip. Using Monte Carlo analysis of 11 offset landforms, we determined a 16-ky record of fault slip for the active, left-lateral Altyn Tagh fault, which bounds the NW margin of the Tibetan Plateau. This history reveals a pulse of accelerated slip between 6.4 and 6.0 ka, during which the fault slipped 9 +14/-2 m at a rate of 23 +35/-5 mm/y, or ~3x the 16 ky average of 8.1 +1.2/-0.9mm/y. These two modes of earthquake behavior suggest temporal variation in the rates of stress storage and release. The simplest explanation for the pulse is a cluster of 2-8 Mw > 7.5 earthquakes. Such supercyclicity has been reported for the Sunda (4) and Cascadia (3) megathrusts, but contrasts with steady slip along the strike-slip Alpine fault (5), for example. A second possibility is that the pulse reflects a single, unusually large rupture. However, this Black Swan event is unlikely: empirical scaling relationships require a Mw 8.2 rupture of the entire 1200-km-long ATF to produce 7 m of average slip. Likewise, Coulomb stress change from rupture on the adjacent North Altyn fault is of modest magnitude and overlap with the ATF. Poor temporal correlation between precipitation and the slip pulse argues against climatically modulated changes in surface loading (lakes/ice) or pore-fluid pressure. "Paleoslip" studies such as this sacrifice the single-event resolution of paleoseismology in exchange for long records that quantify both the timing and magnitude of fault slip averaged over multiple ruptures, and are essential for documenting temporal variations in fault slip as we begin to use calibrated physical

  8. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    : the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep ...

  9. Linking the southern West Junggar terrane to the Yili Block: Insights from the oldest accretionary complexes in West Junggar, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Rong; Han, Bao-Fu; Guan, Shu-Wei; Liu, Bo; Wang, Zeng-Zhen

    2018-06-01

    West Junggar is known to tectonically correlate with East Kazakhstan; however, the tectonic link of the southern West Junggar terrane to adjacent regions still remains uncertain. Here, we examined the oldest accretionary complexes, thus constraining its tectonic evolution and link during the Early-Middle Paleozoic. They have contrasting lithologic, geochemical, and geochronological features and thus, provenances and tectonic settings. The Laba Unit was derived from the Late Ordovician-Early Devonian continental arc system (peaking at 450-420 Ma) with Precambrian substrate, which formed as early as the Early Devonian and metamorphosed during the Permian; however, the Kekeshayi Unit was accumulated in an intra-oceanic arc setting, and includes the pre-Late Silurian and Late Silurian subunits with or without Precambrian sources. Integrated with the regional data, the southern West Junggar terrane revealed a tectonic link to the northern Yili Block during the Late Silurian to Early Devonian, as suggested by the comparable Precambrian zircon age spectra between the southern West Junggar terrane and the micro-continents in the southern Kazakhstan Orocline, the proximal accumulation of the Laba Unit in the continental arc atop the Yili Block, and the sudden appearance of Precambrian zircons in the Kekeshayi Unit during the Late Silurian. This link rejects the proposals of the southern West Junggar terrane as an extension of the northern Kazakhstan Orocline and the Middle Paleozoic amalgamation of West Junggar. A new linking model is thus proposed, in which the southern West Junggar terrane first evolved individually, and then collided with the Yili Block to constitute the Kazakhstan continent during the Late Silurian. The independent and contrasting intra-oceanic and continental arcs also support the Paleozoic archipelago-type evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt.

  10. Modification of an ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle by continental subduction: Insight from the Maowu garnet peridotites in the Dabie UHP belt, eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Su, Bin; Chu, Zhuyin

    2017-05-01

    Orogenic mantle-derived peridotites commonly originate from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) and thus provide a key target to investigate the modification of the SCLM by a subducting slab. The Maowu ultramafic rocks from the Dabie ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belt have formerly been debated as representing cumulates or mantle-derived peridotites. Detailed petrological and geochemical data presented in this study provide new constraints on the origin and formation of the peridotites involving melt depletion in the ancient SCLM and deep crustal metasomatism. The Maowu garnet dunites have refractory bulk compositions characterized by high Mg# (91.9-92.0) and Ni (2537-2892 ppm) values and low Al2O3 (0.26-0.76 wt.%), CaO (0.05-0.32 wt.%), TiO2 (China craton. Many garnet orthopyroxenite veins crosscutting the Maowu dunites preserve abundant metasomatic textures and show variable enrichment in incompatible elements. Mineral and whole-rock chemistry indicate that these veins represent metasomatic products between the wall dunites and silica-rich hydrous melts under UHP conditions. The veins show large variations in platinum-group element (PGE) signatures and Re-Os isotopes. The garnet-poor orthopyroxenite veins are characterized by low Al2O3 ( 6 wt.%) and S (99-306 ppm) contents and show melt-like PGE patterns and high 187Os/188Os ratios (up to 0.36910). These features, combined with the occurrence of interstitial sulfides in the garnet-rich orthopyroxenite veins, suggest that crust-derived sulfur-saturated silicate melts may have significantly modified the PGE signature and destroyed the Re-Os systematics of the SCLM. However, when the crust-derived silicate melts became sulfur-depleted, such melts would not significantly modify the PGE patterns, radiogenic Os-isotope compositions or the Re-depletion model ages of the SCLM. Consequently, deep crust-mantle interactions in continental subduction zones could induce high degrees of Os isotopic

  11. The southwestern extension of the Jiao-Liao-Ji belt in the North China Craton: Geochronological and geochemical evidence from the Wuhe Group in the Bengbu area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chaohui; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Fulai; Cai, Jia

    2018-04-01

    The Wuhe complex is located at the southeastern margin of the North China Craton. The complex consists of metamorphosed Paleoproterozoic potassic granitoids and supracrustal rocks, of which the latter include the Fengyang and Wuhe groups. Meta-mafic rocks from the lower Wuhe Group have igneous zircon U-Pb ages of 2126 ± 37 Ma with εHf(t) values of -6.22 to +8.38, and xenocrystic zircons of 2.39-2.36 Ga, 2.55-2.54 Ga and 2.77-2.69 Ga. Geochemically, the meta-mafic rocks can be classified into two groups. Group 1 island arc tholeiites display flat to slightly right declined REE patterns and moderately negative Nb, Ta, Zr, and Ti anomalies. Group 2 mature arc calcalkaline basalts display strongly fractionated chondrite-normalized REE patterns and evidently negative Nb, Ta and Ti anomalies. These meta-mafic rocks formed by partial melting of sub-arc depleted mantle wedge which had been modified by slab-derived melts at an active continental margin. Depositional age of the group can be constrained in the period of 2.16-2.10 Ga based on ages of the youngest detrital zircons and latter intrusions. U-Pb ages of detrital zircons yield major age peaks of 2.69 Ga and 2.52 Ga, with minor peaks at 2.88 Ga, 2.78 Ga, 2.35 Ga and 2.17 Ga, most of which are derived from the late Mesoarchean to early Paleoproterozoic granitoids in the Wuhe complex and the Jiaodong Terrane. Metamorphic zircons in the marbles coexisting with garnet amphibolites or granulites occur as either single grains or overgrowth (or recrystallization) rims surrounding magmatic zircon cores and yield ages of 1882 ± 19 Ma to 1844 ± 15 Ma. The comparable ca. 2.1 Ga potassic granites with A-type granite affinity, the ca. 2.1 Ga meta-mafic rocks with arc-like geochemical features, the 2.1-1.9 Ga meta-sedimentary units and the 1.9-1.8 Ga subduction- and collision-related granulite-facies metamorphism suggest that the Wuhe complex and the Jiao-Liao-Ji Belt share the same late Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution

  12. Origin of ore-forming fluids of the Haigou gold deposit in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic belt, NE China: Constraints from H-O-He-Ar isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qingdong; He, Huaiyu; Zhu, Rixiang; Zhang, Song; Wang, Yongbin; Su, Fei

    2017-08-01

    The Haigou lode deposit contains 40 t of gold at an average grade of 3.5 g/t, and is one of the largest deposits in the Jiapigou gold belt located along the eastern segment of the northern margin of the North China Craton. The deposit comprises 15 gold-bearing quartz veins hosted in a Carboniferous monzonite-monzogranite stock. Cretaceous dikes consisting of diorite, diabase, and granodiorite porphyries are well developed in the deposit. The diorite porphyry dikes (130.4 ± 6.3 Ma) occur together with gold-bearing quartz veins in NNE- and NE-striking faults. Gold-bearing quartz veins crosscut the diorite porphyry dikes, and the veins are in turn crosscut by E-W-striking 124.6 ± 2.2 Ma granodiorite porphyry dikes. The mineralization mainly occurs as auriferous quartz veins with minor amounts of sulfide minerals, including pyrite, galena, chalcopyrite, and molybdenite. Gold occurs as either native gold or calaverite. Common gangue minerals in the deposit include quartz, sericite, and calcite. The deposit is characterized by various types of hydrothermal alteration, including silicification, sericitization, chloritization, potassic alteration, and carbonatization. Three stages of hydrothermal activity have been recognized in the deposit: (1) a barren quartz stage; (2) a polymetallic sulfide (gold) stage; (3) a calcite stage. Fluid inclusions in hydrothermal pyrites have 3He/4He ratios of 0.3 to 3.3 Ra and 40Ar/36Ar ratios of 351 to 1353, indicating mixing of fluids of mantle and crustal origin. Hydrothermal quartz yielded δ18O values of -1.3‰ to +7.2‰ and δD values of fluid inclusions in the quartz vary between -80‰ and -104‰. These stable isotope data also suggest mixing of magmatic and meteoric fluids. Noble gas and stable isotopic data suggest that the ore fluids have a predominant mantle source with a significant crustal component. Based on the spatial association of gold-bearing quartz veins with early Cretaceous intrusions, and the H-O-He-Ar isotopic

  13. Zircon U-Pb chronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions of the Volcanic Rocks in the Elashan area, NW China: petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, H.; Wei, J.; Shi, W.; Li, P.; Chen, M.; Zhao, X.

    2017-12-01

    Elashan area is located in the intersection of the East Kunlun Orogenic Belt (EKOB) and the West Qinling Orogenic (WQOB). We present petrology, zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions from the andesite and felsic volcanic rocks (rhyolite and rhyolitic tuffs) in Elashan group volcanic rock. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age data indicate that the volcanic rocks are emplaced at 250 247 Ma. The volcanic rocks have high -K and aluminum - peraluminous characteristics, A/CNK = 1.07 1.82, δ ranges from 1.56 2.95, the main body is calc-alkaline rock. They are enriched in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted in some high field strength elements (HFSEs, e.g., Nb, Ta, P and Ti), while having a flat heavy REE (HREEs) pattern. The ∑REE values of 178.68 to 298.11 ppm, average 230.50 ppm. The LREE/HREE values of 4.39 to 11.78 ppm, average 6.77 ppm. REE fractionation is obvious, REE distribution curve was right smooth, and have slightly negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu*=0.44-0.80, average 0.60), which as similar to the island arc volcanic rocks. The volcanic rocks have initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.71028-0.71232, ɛNd(t) values of -6.7 to -7.6, with T2DM-Nd ranging from 1561 to 1640 Ma. Pb isotopic composition (206 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 18.055 18.330, (207 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 15.586 15.618, (208 Pb / 204 Pb)t = 37.677 38.332. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes indicates that Elashan group volcanic magma derived mainly from the lower crust. Elashan group volcanic rocks is the productive East Kunlun block and West Qinling block collision, which makes the thicken crust caused partial melting in the study area. The source rocks is probably from metamorphic sandstone of Bayankala. But with Y-Nb and Rb-(Y+Nb), R1-R2 and Rb/10-Hf-Ta*3 diagrams showing that intermediate-acid rocks mainly formed in volcanic arc-collision environment, probably the collision event is short , therefore rocks retain the original island

  14. Permian arc evolution associated with Panthalassa subduction along the eastern margin of the South China block, based on sandstone provenance and U-Pb detrital zircon ages of the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Hirano, Miho; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Takahashi, Toshiro; Ueda, Hayato

    2018-01-01

    We have studied the petrography, geochemistry, and detrital zircon U-Pb ages of sandstones from shallow-marine forearc sediments, accretionary complexes (ACs), and metamorphosed accretionary complexes (Meta-ACs) within the Kurosegawa belt of Southwest Japan. Those rocks formed in a forearc region of a Permian island arc associated with subduction of the Panthalassa oceanic crust along the eastern margin of the South China block (Yangtze block). The provenance of the shallow-marine sediments was dominated by basaltic to andesitic volcanic rocks and minor granitic rocks during the late Middle to Late Permian. The ACs were derived from felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks during the Late Permian. The provenance of Meta-ACs was dominated by andesitic volcanic rocks in the Middle Permian. The provenance, source rock compositions, and zircon age distribution for the forearc sediments, ACs and Meta-ACs have allowed us to reconstruct the geological history of the Permian arc system of the Kurosegawa belt. During the Middle Permian, the ACs were accreted along the eastern margin of the South China block. The Middle Permian arc was an immature oceanic island arc consisting of andesitic volcanic rocks. During the Late Permian, the ACs formed in a mature arc, producing voluminous felsic to andesitic volcanic rocks. A forearc basin developed during the late Middle to Late Permian. Subsequently, the Middle Permian ACs and part of the Late Permian AC underwent low-grade metamorphism in the Late to Early Jurassic, presenting the Meta-ACs.

  15. Devonian post-orogenic extension-related volcano-sedimentary rocks in the northern margin of the Tibetan Plateau, NW China: Implications for the Paleozoic tectonic transition in the North Qaidam Orogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Yu; Feng, Qiao; Chen, Gang; Chen, Yan; Zou, Kaizhen; Liu, Qian; Jiao, Qianqian; Zhou, Dingwu; Pan, Lihui; Gao, Jindong

    2018-05-01

    The Maoniushan Formation in the northern part of the North Qaidam Orogen (NQO), NW China, contains key information on a Paleozoic change in tectonic setting of the NQO from compression to extension. Here, new zircon U-Pb, petrological, and sedimentological data for the lower molasse sequence of the Maoniushan Formation are used to constrain the timing of this tectonic transition. Detrital zircons yield U-Pb ages of 3.3-0.4 Ga with major populations at 0.53-0.4, 1.0-0.56, 2.5-1.0, and 3.3-2.5 Ga. The maximum depositional age of the Maoniushan Formation is well constrained by a youngest detrital zircon age of ∼409 Ma. Comparing these dates with geochronological data for the region indicates that Proterozoic-Paleozoic zircons were derived mainly from the NQO as well as the Oulongbuluk and Qaidam blocks, whereas Archean zircons were probably derived from the Oulongbuluk Block and the Tarim Craton. The ∼924, ∼463, and ∼439 Ma tectonothermal events recorded in this region indicate that the NQO was involved in the early Neoproterozoic assembly of Rodinia and early Paleozoic microcontinental convergence. A regional angular unconformity between Devonian and pre-Devonian strata within the NQO suggests a period of strong mountain building between the Oulongbuluk and Qaidam blocks during the Silurian, whereas an Early Devonian post-orogenic molasse, evidence of extensional collapse, and Middle to Late Devonian bimodal volcanic rocks and Carboniferous marine carbonate rocks clearly reflect long-lived tectonic extension. Based on these results and the regional geology, we suggest that the Devonian volcano-sedimentary rocks within the NQO were formed in a post-orogenic extensional setting similar to that of the East Kunlun Orogen, indicating that a major tectonic transition from compression to extension in these two orogens probably commenced in the Early Devonian.

  16. The luminescence dating chronology of a deep core from Bosten Lake (NW China) in arid central Asia reveals lake evolution over the last 220 ka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Guoqiang; Duan, Yanwu; Huang, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    The lacustrine deposits of lakes in arid central Asia (ACA) potentially record palaeoclimatic changes on orbital and suborbital time scales, but such changes are still poorly understood due to the lack of reliable chronologies. Bosten Lake, the largest freshwater inland lake in China, is located...... in the southern Tianshan Mountains in central ACA. A 51.6-m-deep lacustrine succession was retrieved from the lake and 30 samples from the succession were used for luminescence dating to establish a chronology based on multi-grain quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL (pIRIR290) dating. Quartz OSL ages were only....... A stable deep lake occurred at c. 220, 210–180, c. 165, 70–60, 40–30 and 20–5 ka, while shallow levels occurred at c. 215, 180–165, 100–70, 60–40 and 30–20 ka. Bosten Lake levels decreased by at least ~29 m and possibly the lake even dried up between c. 160 and c. 100 ka. We suggest that the water...

  17. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt

  18. Characterization of macropore structure of Malan loess in NW China based on 3D pipe models constructed by using computed tomography technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; He, Shengdi; Deng, Xiaohong; Xu, Yongxin

    2018-04-01

    Malan loess is a grayish yellow or brownish yellow, clastic, highly porous and brittle late Quaternary sediment formed by the accumulation of windblown dust. The present-day pore structure of Malan loess is crucial for understanding the loessification process in history, loess strengths and mechanical behavior. This study employed a modern computed tomography (CT) device to scan Malan loess samples, which were obtained from the east part of the Loess Plateau of China. A sophisticated and efficient workflow for processing the CT images and constructing 3D pore models was established by selecting and programming relevant mathematical algorithms in MATLAB, such as the maximum entropy method, medial axis method, and node recognition algorithm. Individual pipes within the Malan loess were identified and constructed by partitioning and recombining links in the 3D pore model. The macropore structure of Malan loess was then depicted using quantitative parameters. The parameters derived from 2D images of CT scanning included equivalent radius, length and aspect ratio of pores, porosity, and pore distribution entropy, whereas those derived from the constructed 3D structure models included porosity, coordination number, node density, pipe radius, length, length density, dip angle, and dip direction. The analysis of these parameters revealed that Malan loess is a strongly anisotropic geomaterial with a dense and complex network of pores and pipes. The pores discovered on horizontal images, perpendicular to the vertical direction, were round and relatively uniform in shape and size and evenly distributed, whereas the pores discovered on vertical images varied in shape and size and were distributed in clusters. The pores showed good connectivity in vertical direction and formed vertically aligned pipes but displayed weak connectivity in horizontal directions. The pipes in vertical direction were thick, long, and straight compared with those in horizontal directions. These

  19. Establishment and maintenance of regulating ecosystem services in a dryland area of central Asia, illustrated using the Kökyar Protection Forest, Aksu, NW China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, S.; Welp, M.; Thevs, N.; Abliz, A.; Halik, Ü.

    2015-06-01

    The city of Aksu, situated at the northern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert in northwest China, is exposed to severe periodic dust and sand storms. In 1986, local authorities decided to establish a peri-urban shelterbelt plantation, the so-called Kökyar Protection Forest, with the aim of reducing dust and sand storm impacts on Aksu City by the regulating ecosystem services provided by the plantation. It was realised as a patchwork of poplar shelterbelts and orchards. The total area of the plantation reached 3800 ha in 2005. The Kökyar Protection Forest is used as a case study to answer the following question: under which institutional frameworks and to which financial conditions can peri-urban shelterbelts be established and maintained? The endeavour of planting the shelterbelt was made possible by the annual mass mobilisation of Aksu citizens, based on the Chinese regulation of the "National Compulsory Afforestation Campaigns". Establishment costs amounted to ca. CNY 60 000 ha-1 (ca. USD 10 000 ha-1). Permanent maintenance of the plantation is facilitated by leasing orchard plots to private fruit farmers. From the perspective of the local economy, annual farming net benefits generated by Kökyar fruit farmers more than compensate for annual government grants for maintenance, resulting in an average overall monetary net benefit of at least CNY 10 500 ha-1 (ca. USD 1600 ha-1) in the long term. For a more complete understanding of Kökyar Protection Forest, future research should be directed towards quantifying the effect of its regulating ecosystem services and on investigating the negative downstream consequences of its water consumption.

  20. Establishment and maintenance of regulating ecosystem services in a dryland area of Central Asia: the Kökyar Protection Forest, Aksu, NW China, as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Missall, S.; Welp, M.; Thevs, N.; Abliz, A.; Halik, Ü.

    2014-12-01

    The city of Aksu, situated at the northern fringe of the Taklimakan Desert in the northwest of China, is exposed to periodic severe dust and sand storms. In 1986, local authorities decided to establish a peri-urban shelterbelt plantation, the so-called Kökyar Protection Forest. It was realised as a patchwork of poplar shelterbelts and orchards. The total area of the plantation reached 3800 ha in 2005. This endeavour was made possible by the annual mass mobilisation of Aksu citizens, based on the Chinese regulation of the "National Compulsory Afforestation Campaigns". Establishment costs amounted to ca. CNY 60 000 ha-1 (ca. USD 10 000 ha-1). The regulating ecosystem services provided by Kökyar Protection Forest clearly reduce dust and sand storm impacts on Aksu City. Permanent maintenance of the plantation is facilitated by leasing orchard plots to private fruit farmers. This system ensures forest tending, reduces government expenses, and provides incomes to farmers. From the perspective of the local economy, annual farming net benefits generated by Kökyar fruit farmers more than compensate annual government grants for maintenance, resulting in an overall monetary net benefit of at least CNY 10 500 ha-1 (ca. USD 1600 ha-1) on the long-term average. The intended regulating ecosystem services can thus be provided to the citizens of Aksu without payments for ecosystem services or other financial burdens. For a more complete understanding of Kökyar Protection Forest, future research should be directed towards quantifying the effect of its regulating ecosystem services, and on investigating the negative downstream consequences of its water consumption.

  1. Radon/helium studies for earthquake prediction N-W Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virk, H.S.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the preliminary data of radon monitoring stated in the Himalayan orogenic belt. Radon anomalies are correlated with microseismic activity in the N-W Himalaya. The He/Rn ratio will be used as a predictive tool for earthquakes

  2. Molybdenite Re/Os dating, zircon U-Pb age and geochemistry of granitoids in the Yangchuling porphyry W-Mo deposit (Jiangnan tungsten ore belt), China: Implications for petrogenesis, mineralization and geodynamic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jingwen; Xiong, Bikang; Liu, Jun; Pirajno, Franco; Cheng, Yanbo; Ye, Huishou; Song, Shiwei; Dai, Pan

    2017-08-01

    The Yangchuling W-Mo deposit, located in the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn (JNB) tungsten ore belt, is the first recognized typical porphyry W-Mo deposit in China in the 1980's. Stockworks and disseminated W-Mo mineralization occur in the roof pendant of a 0.3 km2 monzogranitic porphyry stock that intruded into a granodiorite stock, hosted by Neoproterozoic phyllite and slate. LA-ICPMS zircon U-Pb analyses suggest that of the monzogranitic porphyry and granodiorite were formed at 143.8 ± 0.5 Ma and 149.8 ± 0.6 Ma, respectively. Six molybdenite samples yielded a Re-Os weighted mean age of 146.4 ± 1.0 Ma. Geochemical data show that both granodiorite and monzogranitic porphyry are characterized by enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE), indicating a peraluminous nature (A/CNK = 1.01-1.08). Two granitoids are characterized by a negative slope with significant light REE/heavy REE fractionation [(La/Yb)N = 8.38-23.20] and negative Eu anomalies (Eu/Eu* = 0.69-0.76). The P2O5 contents of the Yangchuling granitoids range from 0.12% to 0.17% and exhibit a negative correlation with SiO2, reflecting that they are highly fractionated I-type. They have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7104-0.7116), low negative εNd(t) (- 5.05 to - 5.67), and homogeneous εHf(t) between - 1.39 and - 2.17, indicating similar sources. Additionally, two-stage Nd model ages (TDM2) of 1.3-1.4 Ga and two-stage Hf model ages (TDM2) of 1.2-1.3 Ga are consistent, indicating that Neoproterozoic crustal rocks of the Shuangqiaoshan Group could have contributed to form the Yangchuling magmas. Considering the two groups of parallel Late Mesozoic ore belts, namely the Jiangnan porphyry-skarn tungsten belt (JNB) in the south and the Middle-Lower Yangtze River porphyry-skarn Cu-Au-Mo-Fe ore belt (YRB) in the north, the Nanling granite-related W-Sn ore belt (NLB) in the south, the neighboring Qin-Hang porphyry-skarn Cu-Mo-hydrothermal Pb-Zn-Ag ore belt (QHB

  3. Belt attachment and system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2018-03-06

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  4. The Pobei Cu-Ni and Fe ore deposits in NW China are comagmatic evolution products: evidence from ore microscopy, zircon U-Pb chronology and geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, G.I.; Li, W.Y.; Lu, X.B.; Huo, Y.H.; Zhang, B.

    2017-11-01

    The Pobei mafic-ultramafic complex in northwestern China comprises magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide ore deposits coexisting with Fe-Ti oxide deposits. The Poshi, Poyi, and Podong ultramafic intrusions host the Cu-Ni ore. The ultramafic intrusions experienced four stages during its formation. The intrusion sequence was as follows: dunite, hornblende-peridotite, wehrlite and pyroxenite. The wall rock of the ultramafic intrusions is the gabbro intrusion in the southwestern of the Pobei complex. The Xiaochangshan magmatic deposit outcrops in the magnetitemineralized gabbro in the northeastern part of the Pobei complex. The main emplacement events related to the mineralization in the Pobei complex, are the magnetite-mineralized gabbro related to the Xiaochangshan Fe deposit, the gabbro intrusion associated to the Poyi, Poshi and Podong Cu-Ni deposits, and the ultramafic intrusions that host Cu-Ni deposits (Poyi and Poshi). The U-Pb age of the magnetite-mineralized gabbro is 276±1.7Ma, which is similar to that of the Pobei mafic intrusions. The εHf(t) value of zircon in the magnetite-mineralized gabbro is almost the same as that of the gabbro around the Poyi and Poshi Cu-Ni deposits, indicating that the rocks related to Cu-Ni and magnetite deposits probably originated from the same parental magma. There is a trend of crystallization differentiation evolution in the Harker diagram from the dunite in the Cu-Ni deposit to the magnetite-mineralized gabbro. The monosulfide solid solution fractional crystallization was weak in Pobei; thus, the Pd/Ir values were only influenced by the crystallization of silicate minerals. The more complete the magma evolution is, the greater is the Pd/Ir ratio. The Pd/Ir values of dunite, the lithofacies containing sulfide (including hornblende peridotite, wehrlite, and pyroxenite) in the Poyi Cu-Ni deposit, magnetite-mineralized gabbro, and massive magnetite, are 8.55, 12.18, 12.26, and 18.14, respectively. Thus, the massive magnetite was probably the

  5. The Pobei Cu-Ni and Fe ore deposits in NW China are comagmatic evolution products: evidence from ore microscopy, zircon U-Pb chronology and geochemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, G.I.; Li, W.Y.; Lu, X.B.; Huo, Y.H.; Zhang, B.

    2017-01-01

    The Pobei mafic-ultramafic complex in northwestern China comprises magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide ore deposits coexisting with Fe-Ti oxide deposits. The Poshi, Poyi, and Podong ultramafic intrusions host the Cu-Ni ore. The ultramafic intrusions experienced four stages during its formation. The intrusion sequence was as follows: dunite, hornblende-peridotite, wehrlite and pyroxenite. The wall rock of the ultramafic intrusions is the gabbro intrusion in the southwestern of the Pobei complex. The Xiaochangshan magmatic deposit outcrops in the magnetitemineralized gabbro in the northeastern part of the Pobei complex. The main emplacement events related to the mineralization in the Pobei complex, are the magnetite-mineralized gabbro related to the Xiaochangshan Fe deposit, the gabbro intrusion associated to the Poyi, Poshi and Podong Cu-Ni deposits, and the ultramafic intrusions that host Cu-Ni deposits (Poyi and Poshi). The U-Pb age of the magnetite-mineralized gabbro is 276±1.7Ma, which is similar to that of the Pobei mafic intrusions. The εHf(t) value of zircon in the magnetite-mineralized gabbro is almost the same as that of the gabbro around the Poyi and Poshi Cu-Ni deposits, indicating that the rocks related to Cu-Ni and magnetite deposits probably originated from the same parental magma. There is a trend of crystallization differentiation evolution in the Harker diagram from the dunite in the Cu-Ni deposit to the magnetite-mineralized gabbro. The monosulfide solid solution fractional crystallization was weak in Pobei; thus, the Pd/Ir values were only influenced by the crystallization of silicate minerals. The more complete the magma evolution is, the greater is the Pd/Ir ratio. The Pd/Ir values of dunite, the lithofacies containing sulfide (including hornblende peridotite, wehrlite, and pyroxenite) in the Poyi Cu-Ni deposit, magnetite-mineralized gabbro, and massive magnetite, are 8.55, 12.18, 12.26, and 18.14, respectively. Thus, the massive magnetite was probably the

  6. Post-collisional polycyclic plutonism from the Zagros hinterland: the Shaivar Dagh plutonic complex, Alborz belt, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghazadeh, Mehraj; Castro, Antonio; Badrzadeh, Zahra; Vogt, Katharina

    2011-01-01

    The petrological and geochronological study of the Cenozoic Shaivar Dagh composite intrusion in the Alborz Mountain belt (NW Iran) reveals important clues to decipher complex relations between magmatic and tectonic processes in the central sectors of the Tethyan (Alpine–Himalayan) orogenic belt.

  7. Nature and timing of the final collision of Central Asian Orogenic Belt: insights from basic intrusion in the Xilin Gol Complex, Inner Mongolia, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Li, Y.; Zhou, H.; Brouwer, F.M.; Xiao, W.; Wijbrans, J.R.; Zhao, J.; Zhong, Z.; Liu, H.

    2014-01-01

    The Solonker suture zone of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) records the final closure of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The nature and timing of final collision along the Solonker suture has long been controversial, partly because of an incomplete record of isotopic ages and differing interpretations

  8. Collision of the Tacheng block with the Mayile-Barleik-Tangbale accretionary complex in Western Junggar, NW China: Implication for Early-Middle Paleozoic architecture of the western Altaids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ji'en; Xiao, Wenjiao; Luo, Jun; Chen, Yichao; Windley, Brian F.; Song, Dongfang; Han, Chunming; Safonova, Inna

    2018-06-01

    Western Junggar in NW China, located to the southeast of the Boshchekul-Chingiz (BC) Range and to the north of the Chu-Balkhash-Yili microcontinent (CBY), played a key role in the architectural development of the western Altaids. However, the mutual tectonic relationships have been poorly constrained. In this paper, we present detailed mapping, field structural geology, and geochemical data from the Barleik-Mayile-Tangbale Complex (BMTC) in Western Junggar. The Complex is divisible into Zones I, II and III, which are mainly composed of Cambrian-Silurian rocks. Zone I contains pillow lava, siliceous shale, chert, coral-bearing limestone, sandstone and purple mudstone. Zone II consists of basaltic lava, siliceous shale, chert, sandstone and mudstone. Zone III is characterized by basalt, chert, sandstone and mudstone. These rocks represent imbricated ocean plate stratigraphy, which have been either tectonically juxtaposed by thrusting or form a mélange with a block-in-matrix structure. All these relationships suggest that the BMTC is an Early-Middle Paleozoic accretionary complex in the eastern extension of the BC Range. These Early Paleozoic oceanic rocks were thrust onto Silurian sediments forming imbricate thrust stacks that are unconformably overlain by Devonian limestone, conglomerate and sandstone containing fossils of brachiopoda, crinoidea, bryozoa, and plant stems and leaves. The tectonic vergence of overturned folds in cherts, drag-related curved cleavages and σ-type structures on the main thrust surface suggests top-to-the-NW transport. Moreover, the positive εNd(t) values of volcanic rocks from the Tacan-1 drill-core, and the positive εHf(t) values and post-Cambrian ages of detrital zircons from Silurian and Devonian strata to the south of the Tacheng block indicate that its basement is a depleted and juvenile lithosphere. And there was a radial outward transition from coral-bearing shallow marine (shelf) to deep ocean (pelagic) environments, and from

  9. Geochemistry and geochronology of the ∼0.82 Ga high-Mg gabbroic dykes from the Quanji Massif, southeast Tarim Block, NW China: Implications for the Rodinia supercontinent assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Fanxi; Wang, Qinyan; Chen, Nengsong; Santosh, M.; Xu, Yixian; Mustafa, Hassan Abdelsalam

    2018-05-01

    The role of the Tarim Block in the reconstruction of the Neoproterozoic supercontinent Rodinia remains contentious. Here we report a suite of high-Mg gabbroic dykes from the Yingfeng area in northwestern Quanji Massif, which is considered as a fragment of the Tarim Block in NW China. Magmatic zircons from these dykes yield to have a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 822.2 ± 5.3 Ma, recording the timing of their emplacement. The gabbros have high MgO (9.91-13.09 wt%), Mg numbers (69.89-75.73) and CaO (8.41-13.55 wt%), medium FeOt (8.50-9.67 wt%) and TiO2 (0.67-0.93 wt%), variable Al2O3 (13.04-16.07 wt%), and high Cr (346.14-675.25 ppm), but relatively low Ni (138.72-212.94 ppm), suggestive of derivation from a primary magma. The rocks display chondrite-normalized LREE patterns with weak fractionation but flat HREE patterns relative to those of the N-MORB. Their primitive mantle normalized trace elemental patterns show positive Rb, Ba and U but negative Th, Nb, Ti and Zr anomalies, carrying characteristics of both mid-ocean ridge basalts and arc basalts. The εHf(t) values of the zircons from these rocks vary from +4.7 to +13.5 with depleted mantle model ages (TDM) of 1.23-0.85 Ga, and the youngest value nearly approaching that for the coeval depleted mantle, suggesting significant addition of juvenile materials. Our data suggest that the strongly depleted basaltic magma was probably sourced from a depleted mantle source that had undergone metasomatism by subduction-related components in a back-arc setting. Accordingly we postulate that a subduction-related tectonic regime possibly prevailed at ∼0.8 Ga along the southeastern margin of the Tarim Block. Combining with available information from the northern Tarim Block, we propose an opposite verging double-sided subduction model for coeval subduction of the oceanic crust beneath both the southern and northern margins of the Tarim Block during early Neoproterozoic.

  10. Geochronology and Sr–Nd–Hf isotopic composition of the granites, enclaves, and dikes in the Karamay area, NW China: Insights into late Carboniferous crustal growth of West Junggar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available New whole-rock major and trace elements, and zircon U–Pb and Hf–Nd isotope compositions are reported for the Karamay dikes, enclaves, and host granites in the West Junggar, NW China. Zircon U–Pb dating of the Karamay pluton yields an age of 300.7 ± 2.3 Ma for the enclave and 300.0 ± 2.6 Ma for the host granite, which was intruded by dike with an age of 298 Ma. The host granites exhibit relatively low SiO2 contents and A/CNK and Ga/Al ratios, low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.703421–0.703526 and positive εHf(t (5.5–14.1 and εNd(t (7.3–8.1 values with a young model age, suggesting that they are I-type granites and were mainly derived from a juvenile lower crustal source. The enclaves and dikes belong to an andesitic calc-alkaline series and have high MgO concentrations at low silica content and positive εHf(t (7.6–13.2, 14.2–14.9 and εNd(t (6.8–8.3, ∼6.9 values. They are enriched in LILEs (Rb, Ba and U and LREE and depleted in HFSEs (Nb and Ta with insignificant negative Eu anomalies, indicating that the melts were derived from an enriched lithospheric mantle modified by subducted oceanic crust-derived melts and minor fluids, followed by fractional crystallization. The Karamay host granites and enclaves are of mixed origin and are most probably formed by the interaction between the lower crust- and lithospheric mantle-derived magmas, and were intruded by the unmixed dikes subsequently. The upwelling mantle through a slab window in an island arc environment might have triggered partial melting of the lithospheric mantle and its subsequent interaction with the granitic magma, further suggesting that the ridge subduction played an important role in the crustal growth of West Junggar.

  11. Depositional environments and cyclo- and chronostratigraphy of uppermost Carboniferous-Lower Triassic -lacustrine deposits, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China - A terrestrfluvialial paleoclimatic record of mid-latitude NE Pangea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Feng, Q.; Liu, Yajing; Tabor, N.; Miggins, D.; Crowley, J.L.; Lin, J.; Thomas, S.

    2010-01-01

    Two uppermost Carboniferous–Lower Triassic fluvial–lacustrine sections in the Tarlong–Taodonggou half-graben, southern Bogda Mountains, NW China, comprise a 1834 m-thick, relatively complete sedimentary and paleoclimatic record of the east coast of mid-latitude NE Pangea. Depositional environmental interpretations identified three orders (high, intermediate, and low) of sedimentary cycles. High-order cycles (HCs) have five basic types, including fluvial cycles recording repetitive changes of erosion and deposition and lacustrine cycles recording repetitive environmental changes associated with lake expansion and contraction. HCs are grouped into intermediate-order cycles (ICs) on the basis of systematic changes of thickness, type, and component lithofacies of HCs. Nine low-order cycles (LCs) are demarcated by graben-wide surfaces across which significant long-term environmental changes occurred. A preliminary cyclostratigraphic framework provides a foundation for future studies of terrestrial climate, tectonics, and paleontology in mid-latitude NE Pangea.Climate variabilities at the intra-HC, HC, IC, and LC scales were interpreted from sedimentary and paleosol evidence. Four prominent climatic shifts are present: 1) from the humid–subhumid to highly-variable subhumid–semiarid conditions at the beginning of Sakamarian; 2) from highly-variable subhumid–semiarid to humid–subhumid conditions across the Artinskian-Capitanian unconformity; 3) from humid–subhumid to highly-variable subhumid–semiarid conditions at early Induan; and 4) from the highly-variable subhumid–semiarid to humid–subhumid conditions across the Olenekian-Anisian unconformity. The stable humid–subhumid condition from Lopingian to early Induan implies that paleoclimate change may not have been the cause of the end-Permian terrestrial mass extinction. A close documentation of the pace and timing of the extinction and exploration of other causes are needed. In addition, the

  12. Melt recharge, f O2-T conditions, and metal fertility of felsic magmas: zircon trace element chemistry of Cu-Au porphyries in the Sanjiang orogenic belt, southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xuyang; Mao, Jingwen; Zhang, Changqing; Zhang, Dongyang; Liu, Huan

    2018-06-01

    The magmatic hydrothermal Pulang Cu deposit (Triassic) and the Beiya Au-Cu deposits (Eocene) are located in the Sanjiang copper porphyry belt, southwest China. Zircon chemistry was used to constrain the magmatic evolution and oxidation state of the porphyries. The results show that porphyries of the Beiya district formed from an early oxidized melt and a later relatively reduced and more evolved magma, whereas Pulang experienced a normal Cu porphyry evolutionary trend. The Pulang porphyries crystallized from more oxidized magma (ΔFMQ + 2.9-4.6, average = 4.0 ± 1.0, n = 3) with an average temperature of 709 ± 6 °C compared to the Beiya porphyries (ΔFMQ + 0.6-3.5, average = 1.9 ± 1.3, n = 5) with a mean magmatic temperature of 780 ± 22 °C. These data, combined with data from other Cu- and Au-rich porphyries in the Sanjiang belt (i.e., Machangjing Cu, Yao'an Au), are consistent with previous experimental work showing that elevated Cu and Au solubilities in magma require oxidizing conditions. A compilation of existing geochemical data for magmatic zircons from fertile and barren porphyry systems worldwide establishes an optimal diagnostic interval on CeIV/CeIII-TTi-in-zircon and (Eu/Eu*)N plots for generating magmatic hydrothermal Cu-Au deposits.

  13. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  14. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation

  15. Evidence for volcanism in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaddis, L.; Greeley, R.

    1989-01-01

    Venera 15/16 radar data for an area in NW Ishtar Terra, Venus, show an area with moderate radar return and a smooth textured surface which embays low lying areas of the surrounding mountainous terrain. Although this unit may be an extension of the lava plains of Lakshmi Planum to the southeast, detailed study suggests a separate volcanic center in NW Ishtar Terra. Lakshmi Planum, on the Ishtar Terra highland, exhibits major volcanic and tectonic features. On the Venera radar image radar brightness is influenced by slope and roughness; radar-facing slopes (east-facing) and rough surfaces (approx. 8 cm average relief) are bright, while west-facing slopes and smooth surfaces are dark. A series of semi-circular features, apparently topographic depressions, do not conform in orientation to major structural trends in this region of NW Ishtar Terra. The large depression in NW Ishtar Terra is similar to the calderas of Colette and Sacajawea Paterae, as all three structures are large irregular depressions. NW Ishtar Terra appears to be the site of a volcanic center with a complex caldera structure, possibly more than one eruptive vent, and associated lobed flows at lower elevations. The morphologic similarity between this volcanic center and those of Colette and Sacajawea suggests that centralized eruptions have been the dominant form of volcanism in Ishtar. The location of this volcanic center at the intersection of two major compressional mountain belts and the large size of the calders (with an inferred larg/deep magma source) support a crustal thickening/melting rather than a hot-spot origin for these magmas

  16. Belt Aligning Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yurchenko Vadim

    2017-01-01

    parts of the conveyor, the sides of the belt wear intensively. This results in reducing the life of the belt. The reasons for this phenomenon are well investigated, but the difficulty lies in the fact that they all act simultaneously. The belt misalignment prevention can be carried out in two ways: by minimizing the effect of causes and by aligning the belt. The construction of aligning devices and errors encountered in practice are considered in this paper. Self-aligning roller supports rotational in plan view are recommended as a means of combating the belt misalignment.

  17. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2018-06-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  18. Origin of the subduction-related Carboniferous intrusions associated with the Yandong porphyry Cu deposit in eastern Tianshan, NW China: constraints from geology, geochronology, geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf-O isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yin-Hong; Xue, Chun-Ji; Liu, Jia-Jun; Zhang, Fang-Fang

    2017-10-01

    The Yandong porphyry Cu deposit is located at the south margin of the Dananhu-Tousuquan arc belt in eastern Tianshan, northwest China. The Cu ores comprise mainly disseminations and vein zones in the potassic and phyllic alteration zones, and are predominantly hosted in diorite porphyry, tonalite, and quartz porphyry, which intruded into Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group volcanic rocks. The U-Pb ages indicate that four intrusions were emplaced between 338.6 ± 2.9 and 326.1 ± 2.6 Ma. Five molybdenite samples yield Re-Os model ages of 333.8-329.5 Ma with a weighted average age of 331.8 ± 2.1 Ma. Fourteen pyrite samples have 206Pb/204Pb of 17.776-18.959, 207Pb/204Pb of 15.410-15.534, and 208Pb/204Pb of 37.323-38.127, similar to the age-corrected data of the Yandong tonalite. The tonalite shows adakite-like characteristics (e.g., high Sr/Y ratios and low Y contents), and has positive ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t) values, and low zircon O isotopes (3.7-4.6 ‰), suggesting that the melt was derived from partial melting of a subducted oceanic slab followed by mantle peridotite interaction. The diorite porphyry exhibits high Mg# and low Sr/Y values, slightly negative Eu anomalies, and positive ɛHf(t) values, indicating a lithospheric mantle source. The quartz porphyry, with stronger negative Eu anomalies, less evolved ɛHf(t) values, and low δ18O values (4.7-5.5 ‰), was probably derived from mantle melts that experienced mixing with lower crustal materials (melts or assimilation). The new data suggest that the Yandong intrusions formed in an arc setting. As the tonalite is genetically linked to the Cu mineralization, subduction-related slab melts must have played a key role in the formation of the Yandong deposit.

  19. Better Buildings NW Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyer, Kevin [Toledo-Lucas County Port Authority, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-03-04

    Districts or ESIDs and what is nationally known as Property Assessed Clean Energy or PACE districts and PACE financing. The project methodology followed the identify, develop, implement, monitor and measure format. These districts began in Toledo and adjoining areas and are expanding to TLCPA’s 28 county financing agency geographic footprint. What began as the Toledo Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement Corporation is now doing business as the Northwest Ohio Advanced Energy Improvement District recognizing it expansion into creating and financing other districts in NW Ohio. The program has been sought out as an advisor by major communities and states in the process of developing similar legislation and programs and has become one of the largest most successful PACE energy improvement and financing districts in the US. The program and the energy district focused on transforming energy use, delivery, conservation and renewable energy as “options of first choice”. The significant energy savings paid for many of the improvements and created a financially viable program well beyond the grant period. The program has become a model within the State of Ohio and Nationally on how to implement and finance projects in broad energy districts including how to evolve and integrate several financing methodologies. It is a unique utilization of revolving loan funds and energy bond pooling with revenue backing primarily from energy improvement special assessments on commercial properties along with some power purchase agreement (PPA) and loan agreement revenue. The program has also incorporated Qualified Energy Conservation Bonds, State of Ohio Energy Loans (SEP), utility rebates, solar and renewable energy certificates, renewable tax incentives and grants, and owner funded equity as additional program leverage and funding. Other keys to this success have been a continual simplification and refinement of the application and documentation process to make funding available easily and

  20. Gravity distribution characteristics and their relationship with the distribution of earthquakes and tectonic units in the North–South seismic belt, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guiju Wu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The North–South Seismic Belt (NSSB is a Chinese tectonic boundary with a very complex structure, showing a sharp change in several geophysical field characteristics. To study these characteristics and their relationship with the distribution of earthquakes and faults in the study area, we first analyze the spatial gravity anomaly to achieve the Bouguer gravity anomaly (EGM2008 BGA and the regional gravity survey Bouguer gravity anomaly. Next, we ascertain the Moho depth and crustal thickness of the study area using interface inversion with the control points derived from the seismic and magnetotelluric sounding profiles achieved in recent years. In this paper, we summarize the relief, trend, Moho gradient, and crustal nature, in addition to their relationship with the distribution of earthquakes and faults in the study area. The findings show that earthquakes with magnitudes greater than Ms7.0 are mainly distributed in the Moho Bouguer anomaly variation belt and faults. The results of the study are important for future research on tectonic characteristics, geological and geophysical surveys, and seismicity patterns.

  1. Rates and fluxes of centennial-scale carbon storage in the fine-grained sediments from the central South Yellow Sea and Min-Zhe belt, East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianghai; Xiao, Xi; Zhou, Qianzhi; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenxi; Liu, Jinzhong; Yuan, Dongliang

    2018-01-01

    The global carbon cycle has played a key role in mitigating global warming and climate change. Long-term natural and anthropogenic processes influence the composition, sources, burial rates, and fluxes of carbon in sediments on the continental shelf of China. In this study, the rates, fluxes, and amounts of carbon storage at the centennial scale were estimated and demonstrated using the case study of three fine-grained sediment cores from the central South Yellow Sea area (SYSA) and Min-Zhe belt (MZB), East China Sea. Based on the high-resolution temporal sequences of total carbon (TC) and total organic carbon (TOC) contents, we reconstructed the annual variations of historical marine carbon storage, and explored the influence of terrestrial and marine sources on carbon burial at the centennial scale. The estimated TC storage over 100 years was 1.18×108 t in the SYSA and 1.45×109 t in the MZB. The corrected TOC storage fluxes at the centennial scale ranged from 17 to 28 t/(km2·a)in the SYSA and from 56 to 148 t/(km2·a) in the MZB. The decrease of terrestrial materials and the increase of marine primary production suggest that the TOC buried in the sediments in the SYSA and MZB was mainly derived from the marine autogenetic source. In the MZB, two depletion events occurred in TC and TOC storage from 1985 to 1987 and 2003 to 2006, which were coeval with the water impoundment in the Gezhouba and Three Gorges dams, respectively. The high-resolution records of the carbon storage rates and fluxes in the SYSA and MZB reflect the synchronous responses to human activities and provide an important reference for assessing the carbon sequestration capacity of the marginal seas of China.

  2. Belt drive construction improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.Yu. Khomenko

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The possibility of the traction capacity increase of the belt drive TRK is examined. This was done for the purpose of air conditioning system of passenger car with double-generator system energy supplying. Belts XPC (made by the German firm «Continental ContiTech» testing were conducted. The results confirmed the possibility of their usage in order to improve belt drive TRK characteristics.

  3. Crustal Deformation around Zhangjiakou-Bohai Seismically Active Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, H.; Fu, G.; Kato, T.

    2011-12-01

    Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt is a seismically active belt located in Northern China around Beijing, the capital of China. Near such a belt many great earthquakes occurred in the past centuries (e.g. the 1976 Tanshan Ms7.8 earthquake, the 1998 Zhangbei Ms6.2 earthquake, etc). Chinese Government established dense permanent and regional Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in and near the area. We collected and analyzed all the GPS observation data between 1999 and 2009 around Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt, and obtained velocities at 143 stations. At the same time we investigated Zhangjiakou-Bohai belt slip rate for three profiles from northwest to southeast, and constructed a regional strain field on the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt region by least-square collocation. Based on the study we found that: 1) Nowadays the Zhangjiakou-Bohai seismic belt is creeping with left-lateral slip rate of 2.0mm~2.4mm/a, with coupling depth of 35~50km; 2) In total, the slip and coupling depth of the northwestern seismic belt is less than the one of southeast side; 3) The maximum shear strain is about 3×10-8 at Beijing-Tianjin-Tangshan area.

  4. Metamorphic P-T-t-d evolution of (U)HP metabasites from the South Tianshan accretionary complex (NW China) - Implications for rock deformation during exhumation in a subduction channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Soldner, J.; Oliot, E.; Schulmann, K.; Štípská, P.; Kusbach, Vladimír; Anczkiewicz, R.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, July (2017), s. 161-187 ISSN 1342-937X Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : eclogite * Tianshan massif * (U)HP metamorphic belt Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 6.959, year: 2016

  5. The Sino-American belt study: nickel and cobalt exposure, epidemiology, and clinical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Dathan; Hamann, Carsten; Li, Lin-Feng; Xiang, Hailian; Hamann, Kylin; Maibach, Howard; Taylor, James S; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2012-01-01

    Nickel and cobalt are common causes of metal allergy. The objective of this study was to investigate nickel and cobalt exposure in belt buckles by testing 701 belts purchased in China and the United States and to consider the prevalence of nickel allergy and its relevance among Chinese patients. Seven hundred one belt buckles purchased in China and the United States were tested for nickel and cobalt release. Six hundred thirty-one Chinese patients with suspected allergic contact dermatitis were patch tested and interviewed to determine clinical relevance of results. The Chinese and American literature was reviewed to investigate trends in nickel prevalence over the past decades. Sixty percent (n = 219) of belts purchased in China (n = 365) released nickel, and 0.5% (n = 2) released cobalt; 55.7% (n = 187) in the United States (n = 336) released nickel, and 0.9% (n = 3) released cobalt. Belt dermatitis was a significant clinical finding in 34.8% of Chinese nickel-allergic patients. Literature review suggests increasing nickel allergy prevalence in the United States and China. Metallic belt buckles are an important source of nickel exposure to consumers. Belts from lowest socioeconomic vendors were more likely to release nickel. Belts with silver color and dark metallic color were more likely to release nickel and cobalt, respectively. Clinical findings show belt dermatitis in China to be a problem.

  6. Geochemical provenance of sediments from the northern East China Sea document a gradual migration of the Asian Monsoon belt over the past 400,000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beny, François; Toucanne, Samuel; Skonieczny, Charlotte; Bayon, Germain; Ziegler, Martin

    2018-06-01

    The reconstruction of the long-term evolution of the East Asian Monsoon remains controversial. In this study, we aim to give a new outlook on this evolution by studying a 400 kyr long sediment record (U1429) from the northern East China Sea recovered during IODP Expedition 346. Neodymium isotopic ratios and rare earth element concentrations of different grain-size fractions reveal significant provenance changes of the sediments in the East China Sea between East Asian continental sources (mainly Yellow River) and sediment contributions from the Japanese Archipelago. These provenance changes are interpreted as the direct impact of sea level changes, due to the reorganization of East Asian river mouth locations and ocean circulation on the East China Sea shelf, and latitudinal shifts of the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) from the interior of Asia to the western North Pacific Ocean. Our data reveal the dominance of winter and summer monsoons during glacial and interglacial periods, respectively, except for glacial MIS 6d (∼150-180 ka) during which unexpected summer monsoon dominated conditions prevailed. Finally, our data suggests a possible strengthening of the interglacial summer monsoon rainfalls over the East Asian continent and Japan throughout the past 400 kyr, and between MIS 11 and MIS 5 in particular. This could result from a gradual northward migration of the ITCZ.

  7. Evolution of supercritical fluid in deeply subducted continental crust: a case study of composite granite-quartz veins in the Sulu belt, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Wang, L.; Brown, M.

    2016-12-01

    Although fluid plays a key role in element transport and rock strength during subduction to and exhumation from ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions, the source of supercritical fluid at P above the second critical endpoints (SCE) and the subsequent evolution are not well constrained. To provide insight into the evolution of supercritical fluid in continental subduction zones, we undertook an integrated study of composite granite-quartz veins in retrogressed and migmatitic UHP eclogite at General's Hill, N of Qingdao, in the central Sulu belt. The composite veins are irregularly distributed in the eclogite, which occurs as blocks within gneiss. The granite component is enriched in large ion lithophile elements and light rare earth elements but depleted in high field strength elements and heavy rare earth elements, indicating crystallization from a melt phase of crustal origin. Additionally, the granite contains high modal phengite (22-30 vol%) and clinozoisite/epidote (3-10 vol%), implying precipitation from a H2O-rich silicate melt. By contrast, the quartz component is dominated by SiO2 (99.10 wt%), and contains low total rare earth elements (ΣREE = 0.46 ppm), indicating precipitation from an aqueous fluid. The crystallization age of the composite veins is 221 ± 2 Ma, which is younger than the UHP metamorphism in the Sulu belt at ca 230 Ma, consistent with formation during exhumation. Initial 176Hf/177Hf ratios and δ18O values of metamorphic zircons from the composite veins, and Sr-Nd isotope compositions of the granites all lie between values for eclogite and gneiss, indicating a mixed source. Accordingly, we propose that a supercritical fluid generated from the gneiss and the included blocks of eclogite at P-T conditions above the SCE for both compositions became trapped in the eclogite during exhumation. At P below the SCE for the hydrous granite system, the mixed supercritical fluid separated into immiscible aqueous melt and aqueous fluid and

  8. Effect of basement structure and salt tectonics on deformation styles along strike: An example from the Kuqa fold-thrust belt, West China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neng, Yuan; Xie, Huiwen; Yin, Hongwei; Li, Yong; Wang, Wei

    2018-04-01

    The Kuqa fold-thrust belt (KFTB) has a complex thrust-system geometry and comprises basement-involved thrusts, décollement thrusts, triangle zones, strike-slip faults, transpressional faults, and pop-up structures. These structures, combined with the effects of Paleogene salt tectonics and Paleozoic basement uplift form a complex structural zone trending E-W. Interpretation and comprehensive analysis of recent high-quality seismic data, field observations, boreholes, and gravity data covering the KFTB has been performed to understand the characteristics and mechanisms of the deformation styles along strike. Regional sections, fold-thrust system maps of the surface and the sub-salt layer, salt and basement structure distribution maps have been created, and a comprehensive analysis of thrust systems performed. The results indicate that the thrust-fold system in Paleogene salt range can be divided into five segments from east to west: the Kela-3, Keshen, Dabei, Bozi, and Awate segments. In the easternmost and westernmost parts of the Paleogene salt range, strike-slip faulting and basement-involved thrusting are the dominant deformation styles, as basement uplift and the limits of the Cenozoic evaporite deposit are the main controls on deformation. Salt-core detachment fold-thrust systems coincide with areas of salt tectonics, and pop-up, imbricate, and duplex structures are associated with the main thrust faults in the sub-salt layer. Distribution maps of thrust systems, basement structures, and salt tectonics show that Paleozoic basement uplift controlled the Paleozoic foreland basin morphology and the distribution of Cenozoic salt in the KFTB, and thus had a strong influence on the segmented structural deformation and evolution of the fold-thrust belt. Three types of transfer zone are identified, based on the characteristics of the salt layer and basement uplift, and the effects of these zones on the fault systems are evaluated. Basement uplift and the boundary of

  9. Riding the belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, A

    1998-04-01

    Recent developments in conveyor systems have focused on accessories rather than the belt itself. Radio frequency identification (RFID) is a technology using transponders embedded in conveyor belts and this is the latest development at the German firm Contitech. The system described in the articles developed with Moers, features transponders for cooling, controlling and monitoring conveyor belts. Other developments mentioned include a JOKI drum motor featuring a fully integrated gearbox and electric motor enclosed in a steel shell, from Interoll; a new scraper cleaning system from Hosch, new steel cord belting from Fenner, a conveying system for Schleenhain lignite opencast mine by FAM Foerdelantigen Magdeburg; new bearings from Nadella (the sales arm of Intersoll-Rand), an anti-shock belt transfer table from Rosta and new caliper disc brakes from GE Industrial.

  10. Belt conveying of minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stace, L.R.; Yardley, E.D. [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2008-02-15

    A discussion of the history and economics of conveyor applications sets the scene. Conveyor design is investigated in detail, covering power requirements, belt tensioning, and hardware. Principles regarding construction and joining of belts are outlined and a helpful and practical overview of relevant standards, belt test methods, and issues surrounding standardisation is given. Conveyor belt systems can represent a significant operational hazard, so the authors have set out to highlight the important area of safety, with consideration given to fire/electrical resistance, as well as the interface between personnel and conveyor systems - including nip points and operational issues such as man-riding. Selected case studies illustrate some practical aspects of installation and operation, at Selby mine in the UK and Prosper-Haniel Colliery in Germany and others. 3 apps.

  11. Earth's radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moslehi Fard, M.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of trapped particles in a magnetic field of approximated dipole is described completely in the first part. Second part contains experimental results. The mechanism of radiation belt source ''albedo neutrons'' and also types of dissipation mechanism about radiation belt is explained. The trapped protons and electrons by radiation belt is discussed and the life-time of trapped particles are presented. Finally the magnetic fields of Moon, Venus, Mars, and Saturn, measured by passengers Mariner 4,10 and pioneer 10,11 are indicated. The experimental and theoretical results for the explanation of trapped plasma around the earth which is looked like two internal and external belt have almost good correspondence

  12. China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segal, G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the reason for China's future nuclear policy. First, assuming a continued decline in superpower influence, China's focus will be on regional issues. The policies of Japan, the NICs and other Chinese neighbors will be more relevant than those of the superpowers. Second, Chinese domestic politics will have to resume the road to reform. A more unstable and suspicious Chinese leadership will perceive a more hostile and unstable world. Even when China was on the path to reform, its foreign relations were not always peaceful. However, it would be wrong to suggest that even a more xenophobic and unstable Chinese leadership would necessarily expand China's nuclear capability or lead China into a major war. Even at the height of the Cultural Revolution, Chinese foreign policy was careful, nuclear proliferation was avoided and crises were well-managed. Still China's basic domestic and foreign policy needs will likely remain unfulfilled for the foreseeable future. Furthermore, although the East Asian balance of power may not appear to be particularly dangerous at present, there is enough uncertainty to ensure that China remains a nuclear power and a maverick one at that at least in the near term

  13. Belt conveyor apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  14. Magmatism in the Shapinggou district of the Dabie orogen, China: Implications for the formation of porphyry Mo deposits in a collisional orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhi; Zhou, Taofa; Hollings, Pete; White, Noel C.

    2018-05-01

    The Shapinggou molybdenum deposit is located in the Qinling-Dabie Orogen, which hosts the world's largest molybdenum belt. The igneous rocks at Shapinggou can be divided into two stages (136-127 Ma and 118-114 Ma), the early suite of felsic (136-127 Ma, SiO2 = 58.0 to 72.9 wt%) and mafic rocks (133-128 Ma, SiO2 = 45.2 to 57.0 wt%), and a later suite comprising syenite (117 Ma, SiO2 = 64.2 to 65.0 wt%), quartz syenite porphyry (116 Ma, 62.5 to 70.0 wt%), granite porphyry (112 Ma, SiO2 = 75.5 to 77.6 wt%) and diorite porphyry (111 Ma, SiO2 = 56.6 to 59.7 wt%). The early-stage felsic rocks display high SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O, K2O, Sr, LREE contents, and Sr/Y, (La/Yb)N ratios, initial Sr isotope ratios of 0.7076 to 0.7089, but low MgO, FeOT, Y, Yb contents and negative εNd(t) values, consistent with partial melting of the lower continental crust. The early-stage mafic rocks exhibit low SiO2, high MgO, Ni and Cr contents, consistent with an upper mantle source, but trace element and isotope data suggest a role for crustal contamination. The late-stage syenite and quartz syenite porphyry show high abundances of Na2O, K2O, Al2O3, HFSEs (e.g., Th, U, Zr, Hf) and significant negative Eu anomalies. The late-stage granite porphyry displays high SiO2 contents, and depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu and Ti. The geochemical features of the late-stage intrusions are similar to A-type granites. Crystal fractionation of plagioclase, K-feldspar, biotite/ muscovite, amphibole/ garnet and Fe-Ti oxides controlled the evolution of the magma. The geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the rocks at Shapinggou were likely derived from a mixed source of lithospheric mantle, subducted continental crust of the Yangtze Block (Kongling Group) and partial melts of the Dabie Complex. Early stage rocks represent melts of the source with a lower proportion of Dabie Complex materials, whereas late stage rocks were derived from a source with a higher proportion Dabie Complex component. The geochemical and

  15. Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials in a fault zone in the Longmenshan thrust belt, China; comparisons with those of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Yui; Shimizu, Ichiko; Wang, Yu; Yao, Lu; Ma, Shengli; Shimamoto, Toshihiko

    2017-03-01

    We analyzed micro-Raman spectra of carbonaceous materials (CM) in natural and experimentally deformed fault rocks from Longmenshan fault zone that caused the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake, to characterize degree of disordering of CM in a fault zone. Raman spectral parameters for 12 samples from a fault zone in Shenxigou, Sichuan, China, all show low-grade structures with no graphite. Low crystallinity and δ13C values (-24‰ to -25‰) suggest that CM in fault zone originated from host rocks (Late Triassic Xujiahe Formation). Full width at half maximum values of main spectral bands (D1 and D2), and relative intensities of two subbands (D3 and D4) of CM were variable with sample locations. However, Raman parameters of measured fault rocks fall on established trends of graphitization in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. An empirical geothermometer gives temperatures of 160-230 °C for fault rocks in Shenxigou, and these temperatures were lower for highly sheared gouge than those for less deformed fault breccia at inner parts of the fault zone. The lower temperature and less crystallinity of CM in gouge might have been caused by the mechanical destruction of CM by severe shearing deformation, or may be due to mixing of host rocks on the footwall. CM in gouge deformed in high-velocity experiments exhibits slight changes towards graphitization characterized by reduction of D3 and D4 intensities. Thus low crystallinity of CM in natural gouge cannot be explained by our experimental results. Graphite formation during seismic fault motion is extremely local or did not occur in the study area, and the CM crystallinity from shallow to deep fault zones may be predicted as a first approximation from the graphitization trend in sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. If that case, graphite may lower the friction of shear zones at temperatures above 300 °C, deeper than the lower part of seismogenic zone.

  16. New developments of belt conveyor systems; Inclined belt systems, vertical pipe elevators, vibration belts, oscillating tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahke, E.A. (Universitaet Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Foerdertechnik)

    1991-03-01

    Factors that have influenced the design of belt conveyor systems are discussed - these include strength and shaping. Belt conveyor systems for inclined, steep-angle and vertical conveying are described and comparison made between cable belt and steel cord belt conveyors used in coal mines. Hose-belt or tube conveyors such as are used in the PWH/Conti-Rollgurt Conveyor System for feeding boilers in German coal fired power stations are mentioned and advantages of the pipe-belt conveyor for vertical transport discussed. Design of the vibratory conveyor for transporting solids upwards by pulses is described. 29 refs., 19 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Geochronology and petrogenesis of the Qibaoshan Cu-polymetallic deposit, northeastern Hunan Province: Implications for the metal source and metallogenic evolution of the intracontinental Qinhang Cu-polymetallic belt, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shunda; Mao, Jingwen; Zhao, Panlao; Yuan, Yabin

    2018-03-01

    The recently recognized Qinhang metallogenic belt (QHMB) is an economically important intracontinental Mesozoic porphyry-skarn Cu-polymetallic metallogenic belt in South China. However, the origin of the ore-bearing magma and the major factors controlling the different metal assemblages in the QHMB are still unclear. The Qibaoshan deposit is a large Cu-Au-Pb-Zn-Ag-Fe deposit located at the juncture between the northern and central parts of the QHMB. In this study, new zircon U-Pb ages, Hf-O isotopic data, molybdenite Re-Os ages, and whole-rock geochemical data are combined to constrain the timing of the mineralization and the origin and petrogenesis of the ore-bearing porphyry in the Qibaoshan deposit. The ages obtained from both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating fall in the Late Jurassic (between 152.7 and 148.3 Ma), revealing that this deposit is significantly younger than previously estimated (227-184 Ma). The Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz porphyry shows variable negative zircon εHf(t) values (-14.8 to -5.5), high δ18O values (8.4 to 10.8‰), and high Mg# values (69.1 to 73.0), indicating that it formed via the partial melting of ancient crust triggered by the injection of mantle-derived magma. Zircon Hf-O isotopic modeling of the mixing of two extreme endmembers indicates that the magmatic source comprised 70-80% reworked ancient crustal components and 20-30% depleted mantle components. Based on comparisons with other ore-bearing porphyries in the QHMB, a magmatic source dominated by crust-derived material and relatively low oxygen fugacities (ΔFMQ -1.8 to ΔFMQ +0.8) was responsible for the high (Pb + Zn)/Cu ratio in the Qibaoshan deposit, and the Pb, Zn and Ag were mainly derived from the reworked ancient crust. Although four analyses of inherited Neoproterozoic zircons ( 800 Ma) have variable positive εHf(t) values (0.72 to 11.21), indicating that Neoproterozoic juvenile crust was involved in the formation of the Qibaoshan ore-bearing quartz

  18. Coal belt options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-03-15

    Whether moving coal long distances overland or short distances in-plant, belt conveyors will always be in demand. The article reports on recent systems developments and applications by Beumer, Horizon Conveyor Equipment, Conveyor Dynamics, Doppelmayr Transport Technology, Enclosed Bulk Systems, ContiTech and Bateman Engineered Technologies. 2 photos.

  19. Geochemistry and geochronology of ore-bearing and barren intrusions in the Luanchuan ore fields of East Qinling metallogenic belt, China: Diverse tectonic evolution and implications for mineral exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Wang, Gongwen; Santosh, M.; Yang, Fan; Shen, Zhiwei; Kong, Liang; Guo, Nana; Zhang, Xuhuang; Jia, Wenjuan

    2018-05-01

    The Luanchuan ore fields form part of the East Qinling metallogenic belt in central China. In this study, we compare two ore-bearing intrusions, the Shibaogou granitic pluton (SBG) and the Zhongyuku granitic pluton (ZYK), with the ore-barren Laojunshan intrusion (LJS) from the Luanchuan ore field. Geochemically, all the three intrusions are characterized by high-Si, high-K, and alkalis, together with moderate-ASI, exhibiting I-type granite features. The rocks, especially the ore-related plutons also show enrichment in LREEs. Mineral chemistry of biotite from the intrusions exhibits similar features of high Si and Mg, and low Al and Fe. Zircon grains from the ZYK intrusion yielded a U-Pb age of 149.6 ± 2.4 Ma. The zircon grains show εHf (t) values and two stage model ages (TDM2) in the range of -16.8 to -19.7 and 1998-2156 Ma respectively. The biotite composition and Hf isotopic data indicate that the magma was derived by re-melting of deep crustal material with minor input of mantle components. We evaluate the results to understand the physico-chemical conditions, petrogenesis, and tectonic setting, and their implications for mineral exploration. The ore-bearing plutons show wide ranges of temperature and oxygen fugacity, favoring Mo-W mineralization. In addition, estimates on pressure and depth of emplacement suggest that lower solidification pressure in a decompressional setting contributed to the evolution of magmatic hydrothermal deposits. Our data suggest that the ZYK has the highest potential for Mo-W mineralization. The ore-bearing plutons of ZYK and SBG were formed in a transitional tectonic setting from compression to extension, with the large-scale metallogeny triggered by slab melts at ca. 145 Ma. However, the ore-barren LJS batholith formed in an extension-related geodynamic setting at ∼115 Ma. Our study shows that different tectonic settings and consequent physico-chemical conditions dictated the ore potential of the intrusions in the Luanchuan ore

  20. Virtual water trade of agricultural products: A new perspective to explore the Belt and Road.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Jin-He; Tian, Qing; Liu, Ze-Hua; Zhang, Hong-Lei

    2018-05-01

    The Belt and Road is an initiative of cooperation and development that was proposed by China. Moreover, most of the spanning countries faced water shortages and agriculture consumed a lot of water. Virtual water links water, food and trade and is an effective tool to ease water shortages. Therefore, this paper aims to understand the Belt and Road from the new perspective of virtual water trade of agricultural products. We considered agricultural products trade from 2001 to 2015. On the whole, the results indicated that China was in virtual water trade surplus with the countries along the Belt and Road. However, in terms of each country, >40 spanning countries were in virtual water trade surplus with China and eased water shortages. Russia had the largest net imported virtual water from China. Furthermore, the proportion of the grey water footprint that China exported to the spanning countries was much higher than that imported, no matter from the whole or different geographical regions. Moreover, more than half of the countries' virtual water trade with China conformed to the virtual water strategy, which helped to ease water crises. Furthermore, the products that they exported to China were mainly advantageous products that each spanning countries have. Virtual water trade is a new perspective to explore the Belt and Road. Agricultural products trade with China definitely benefits both the countries along the Belt and Road and China from the perspective of virtual water. The findings are beneficial for the water management of the countries along the Belt and Road and China, alleviating water shortages, encouraging the rational allocation of water resources in the various departments. They can provide references for optimizing trade structures as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. [Strategy programming for acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuyang; Shen, Zhixiang; Wu, Zhongchao; Luo, Lu; Liu, Jingyuan; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-04-12

    Acupuncture has been applied in 183 countries and regions and gradually become a name card as TCM spreads across the world. The international influence of which plays a significant role in enhancing TCM development. The laws and regulations of TCM acupuncture along One-Belt-One-Road countries were compared and analyzed in this article. With comprehensive research and analysis, the international development strategy of acupuncture was rationally proposed. Combined with the historical background of China's national initiative One-Belt-One-Road, the acupuncture was taken as a breakthrough to lead the global spreading of TCM culture and Chinese herbs, so as to enhance China's soft strength, which could further create a fine cultural environment for the economic prosperity of One-Belt-One-Road countries. In addition, the strategy selection for China regarding TCM acupuncture development along One-Belt-One-Road countries was proposed, and the suggestive solution and implementation strategy for the essential missions and significant issues were provided.

  2. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain

    2017-07-01

    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  3. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  4. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  5. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  6. Belt for picking up liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewell, R B.H.; Nelson, S P

    1973-05-18

    This belt for picking up liquids consists of a layer of strong material, e.g., coarse cloth, sewed on at least one layer of absorbing material, e.g., sponge cloth, the stitching being disposed along chevrons with their apexes along the central axis of the belt; the edges do not contain any other marks. This arrangement facilitates the expulsion of the absorbed liquid when the belt passes between compression rollers.

  7. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  8. Belt of Yotvings. Radioecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazheika, J.; Petroshius, R.; Strzelecki, R.; Wolkovitcz, S.; Lewandowski, P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: The map of gamma radiation dose of 'Belt of Yotvings' area displays the summarized gamma radiation coming from natural radionuclides of 238 U, 232 Th, 40 K and from cesium isotopes 137 Cs, 134 Cs, artificially supplied into the environment after the Chernobyl disaster. The average value of gamma radiation dose for 'Belt of Yotvings' area is 44.2 n Gy/h, with a distinct regional differentiation. The content of uranium varies from 0 to 4.5 g/t, with the average value of about 1.4 g/t. Thorium content varies from 0 to 10.3 g/t, with the average value of 4.3 g/t. Potassium content varies from 0.1 up to 2.5 %, with the average value of 1.2 %. The concentration of caesium radioisotopes reaches up to 11.6 kBq/m 2 , the average value being 3.8 kBq/m 2 . Radon concentration in soil air has been determined in 55 sites (83 analyses). Radon concentration has been noticed in volumes from trace amounts up to 55 kBq/m3.The radioecological mapping has documented that the highest concentrations of natural radioisotopes and, correspondingly, the highest total gamma radiation dose were observed in the northeastern part of the area studied, which is covered by clay-silty glaciolacustrine deposits. Slightly lower values are typical for the whole northwestern part of 'Belt of Yotvings'. Very low contents of radioactive elements and low total radiation doses are typical for eolian and sandur sands, occurring south-eastward from the line Augustow-Veisiejai. The Chernobyl NPP accident polluted the studied region with artificial cesium radioisotopes un significantly. The concentrations are low and they involve no radioecological hazard. The investigation of radon concentration in soil air have revealed several places affected by high radon emanation. These places should be studied in a more detailed way

  9. NW CSC annual report fiscal year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisbal, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Northwest Climate Science Center (NW CSC) was established in 2010 as one of eight regional Climate Science Centers created by the Department of the Interior (DOI). The NW CSC encompasses Washing-ton, Oregon, Idaho, and western Montana and has overlapping boundaries with three Landscape Conservation Cooperatives (LCCs): the Great Northern, the Great Basin, and the North Pacific. With guidance from its Executive Stakeholder Advisory Committee (ESAC), the NW CSC and its partner LCCs are addressing the highest priority regional climate science needs of Northwest natural and cultural resource managers. Climate Science Centers tap into the scientific expertise of both the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and academic institutions. The NW CSC is supported by an academic consortium with the capacity to generate climate science and tools in a coordinated fashion, serving stakeholders across the Northwest region. This consortium is primarily represented by Oregon State University (OSU), the University of Id-ho (UI), and the University of Washington (UW). The academic consortium and USGS provide capabilities in climate science, ecology, impacts and vulnerability assessment, modeling, adaptation planning, and advanced information technology, all necessary to address and respond to climate change in the Northwest. University members also recruit and train graduate students and early-career scientists. This Annual Report summarizes progress for the goals set out in the NW CSC Strategic Plan for 2012-2015 (http://www.doi.gov/csc/northwest/upload/Northwest-CSC-Strategic-Plan.cfm) and the NW CSC Work-plan for Fiscal Year (FY) 2013 (October 1, 2012 through September 30, 2013). The report follows the structure of the Strategic Plan, which describes the five core services (Executive, Science, Data, Communications, and Education and Training) provided by the NW CSC in support of the stated vision: Our Vision: To become nationally recognized as a best-practice model for the provision

  10. Quo vadis NW Black Sea benthic ecosystems?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traian Gomoiu, Marian

    2016-04-01

    The author briefly presents a general review on the evolution trends of benthic ecosystems at the Romanian Black Sea coast, referring to some recent data from the literature. The Black Sea represents a "unicum hydrobiologicum" by some of its basic characteristics, such as: 1. a large semi-enclosed basin with an intense exchange of waters; 2. a sea receiving a large amount of fresh water, especially in its northwestern sector, brought by the Danube, Dnieper and Dniester Rivers; 3. a large meromictic sea - euxinic-azoic below depths of 150 - 200 m; 4. around the sea there is a large filter-holding belt consisting of bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis and Modiolula phaseolina); 5. a sea having in its northwestern sector a large area covered by red algae of the genus Phyllophora; 6. a sea undergoing, in the last 50 years, intense environmental pressures (pollution by large rivers and direct discharges of wastewater from urban areas, the development of maritime traffic, overfishing by bottom trawling, coastal facilities and especially by many defense works of the new port); 7. a sea registering in the last decades of the past century many events of eutrophication; 8. a sea enriching its biodiversity by alien species. After the political and socio-economic changes triggered by the events of 1989 and especially after Romania's accession to EU, the state of the northwestern Black Sea coastal ecosystems, has recorded positive changes: • Decrease in environmental pressures; • Decreasing pollutant / fertilizing discharges into the Danube; • Reduction of domestic sewage quantities from coastal settlements; • Improvement in the quality of the wastewater discharged into the sea; • Reduction of active fishing by bottom trawling; • Adopting and implementing a national / international set of guidelines concerning marine environment; • Adopting regulations on the protection of the marine environment against pollution in marine economy: transport / shipping, tourism

  11. Petrography, geochemistry and geochronology of the host porphyries and associated alteration at the Tuwu Cu deposit, NW China: a case for increased depositional efficiency by reaction with mafic hostrock?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ping; Pan, Hongdi; Zhou, Taofa; Wang, Jingbin

    2014-08-01

    Tuwu is the largest porphyry copper deposit discovered in the Eastern Tianshan Mountains, Xinjiang, China. A newly recognized volcanic complex in the Early Carboniferous Qi'eshan Group at Tuwu consists of basalt, andesite, and diorite porphyry. The plagiogranite porphyry was emplaced into this complex at 332.8±2.5 Ma (U-Pb zircon SIMS determination). Whole-rock element geochemistry shows that the volcanic complex and plagiogranite porphyry formed in the same island arc, although the complex was derived by partial melting of the mantle wedge and the plagiogranite porphyry by partial melting of a subducting slab. The diorite and the plagiogranite porphyries have both been subjected to intense hydrothermal alteration and associated mineralization, but the productive porphyry is the plagiogranite porphyry. Three alteration and mineralization stages, including pre-, syn- and post-ore stages, have been recognized. The pre-ore stage formed a barren propylitic alteration which is widespread in the volcanic complex. The syn-ore stage is divided into three sub-stages: Stage 1 is characterized by potassic alteration with chalcopyrite + bornite + chalcocite; Stage 2 is marked by chlorite-sericite-albite alteration with chalcopyrite ± pyrite ± bornite; Stage 3 is represented by phyllic alteration with chalcopyrite + pyrite ± molybdenite. The post-ore stage produced a barren argillic alteration limited to the diorite porphyry. A specific feature of the Tuwu deposit is that the productive porphyry was emplaced into a very mafic package, and reaction of the resulting fluids with the ferrous iron-rich hostrocks was a likely reason that Tuwu is the largest porphyry in the district.

  12. Seismic velocity structure of the crust in NW Namibia: Impact of rifting and mantle plume activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, K.; Heit, B.; Muksin, U.; Yuan, X.

    2017-12-01

    The continental crust in northwestern Namibiamainly was formed during to the Neoproterozoic assembly of Gondwana. The collision of old African and South American cratonic coressuch as the Congo, Kalahari and Rio de la Plata cratons led tothe development of the Pan-African Damara orogen. The fold systemconsists of an intracratonic branch in northern central Namibia (named Damara Belt), and two coast-parallel branches, the Kaoko Belt in northern Namibia and the Gariep Belt in the border region between Namibia and theRepublic of South Africa. During the Early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic ocean, the crust in NW Namibia was prominently affected by the Tristan da Cunha mantle plume, as evidenced by the emplacement of the Etendeka continental flood basalts.A local earthquake tomography was carried out in NW Namibia to investigateif and to what degree the deeper continental crust was modified by the magmaticactivity during rifting and the impingement of the Tristan da Cunhamantle plume. We analyzed data from 28 onshore stations of the temporaryWALPASS seismic network. Stations were covering the continental marginaround the landfall of the Walvis Ridge, parts of the Kaoko Belt and Damara Belt,and marginally the southwestern edges of the Congo craton.First arrivals of P and S waves were identified and travel times werepicked manually. 1D inversion was carried out with VELEST to derivestarting models and the initial seismicity distribution, and SIMUL2000was used for the subsequent 3D tomographic inversion. The resultingseismicity distribution mainly follows the structures of the Pan-Africanorogenic belts. The majority of events was localized in the upper crust,but additional seismicity was also found in the deeper crust.An anomaly of increased P velocities is revealed in the deep crust under the Etendekaflood basalt province. Increased P velocities can be explained by mafic and ultra-maficmaterial which intruded in the lower crust. The anomaly appears to be rather

  13. Radiation Belt Test Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, John W.

    2000-10-01

    Rice University has developed a dynamic model of the Earth's radiation belts based on real-time data driven boundary conditions and full adiabaticity. The Radiation Belt Test Model (RBTM) successfully replicates the major features of storm-time behavior of energetic electrons: sudden commencement induced main phase dropout and recovery phase enhancement. It is the only known model to accomplish the latter. The RBTM shows the extent to which new energetic electrons introduced to the magnetosphere near the geostationary orbit drift inward due to relaxation of the magnetic field. It also shows the effects of substorm related rapid motion of magnetotail field lines for which the 3rd adiabatic invariant is violated. The radial extent of this violation is seen to be sharply delineated to a region outside of 5Re, although this distance is determined by the Hilmer-Voigt magnetic field model used by the RBTM. The RBTM appears to provide an excellent platform on which to build parameterized refinements to compensate for unknown acceleration processes inside 5Re where adiabaticity is seen to hold. Moreover, built within the framework of the MSFM, it offers the prospect of an operational forecast model for MeV electrons.

  14. Nature, diversity of deposit types and metallogenic relations of South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaw, K.; Peters, S.G.; Cromie, P.; Burrett, C.; Hou, Z.

    2007-01-01

    The South China Region is rich in mineral resources and has a wide diversity of deposit types. The region has undergone multiple tectonic and magmatic events and related metallogenic processes throughout the earth history. These tectonic and metallogenic processes were responsible for the formation of the diverse styles of base and precious metal deposits in South China making it one of the resource-rich regions in the world. During the Proterozoic, the South China Craton was characterised by rifting of continental margin before eruption of submarine volcanics and development of platform carbonate rocks, and the formation of VHMS, stratabound copper and MVT deposits. The Phanerozoic metallogeny of South China was related to opening and closing of the Tethyan Ocean involving multiple orogenies by subduction, back-arc rifting, arc-continent collision and post-collisional extension during the Indosinian (Triassic), Yanshanian (Jurassic to Cretaceous) and Himalayan (Tertiary) Orogenies. The Late Palaeozoic was a productive metallogenic period for South China resulting from break-up and rifting of Gondwana. Significant stratabound base and precious metal deposits were formed during the Devonian and Carboniferous (e.g., Fankou and Dabaoshan deposits). These Late Palaeozoic SEDEX-style deposits have been often overprinted by skarn systems associated with Yanshanian magmatism (e.g., Chengmenshan, Dongguashan and Qixiashan). A number of Late Palaeozoic to Early Mesozoic VHMS deposits also developed in the Sanjiang fold belt in the western part of South China (e.g., Laochang and Gacun). South China has significant sedimentary rock-hosted Carlin-like deposits, which occur in the Devonian- to Triassic-aged accretionary wedge or rift basins at the margin of the South China Craton. They are present in a region at the junction of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Guangxi Provinces called the 'Southern Golden Triangle', and are also present in NW Sichuan, Gansu and Shaanxi, in an area known as

  15. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  16. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  17. Sewage Sludge Treatment for Energy Purpose in China : Waste Treatment in China

    OpenAIRE

    Nyyssönen, Ville

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is made for ANDRITZ China Technology to find out sludge incineration potential in China. ANDRITZ is looking for markets and customers for ANDRITZ sewage sludge incineration technology in China. In addition ANDRITZ China manufactures centrifuges, skeleton model filter presses, belt presses and rotatory drums to treat the sludge. Sludge in China has become a major problem. It is considered to be toxic waste, because it contains pathogens, which are dangerous for human health. Th...

  18. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-01-01

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported

  19. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All other...

  20. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  1. Mobile belt conveyor

    OpenAIRE

    Tenora, Jiří

    2017-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je návrh pásového dopravníku pro přepravu drobného kameniva, zeminy a drobné stavební sutě s dopravním výkonem 60 t/h, výškovým rozdílem 3,5 m a vzdáleností mezi osami bubnů 8 m. Tato práce obsahuje také popis základních částí pásového dopravníku, funkční výpočty podle normy ČSN ISO 5048, návrh hlavních rozměrů dopravníku a pohonu. Celá práce se skládá z technické zprávy a výkresové dokumentace. The aim of this word is to design belt conveyor to transport tiny aggreg...

  2. Neoproterozoic collision tectonics in the Mozambique Belt of East Africa: evidence from the Uluguru mountains, Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhongo, Sospeter

    1994-10-01

    The fault-bounded Proterozoic metamorphic terranes lying to the E of the Tanzanian craton make up the Usagara tectonic domain and are a part of the transcontinental Mozambique Orogenic Belt (MB). The lithotectonic units in the MB of the East Africa consist of comparable rock assembles which underwent the same complex deformational history and are thought to represent large thrust sheets or nappes. Their shelf- and fore-deep terranes border the Tanzanian craton and make up the foreland terranes of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt. Granulite-gneiss nappes are ubiquitous in the orogen. Granulite-facies metamorphism, associated with recumbent folds, was due to crustal thickening, which took place during the collision between Gondwana fragments. Isotope data suggest a collision (and concomitant granulite-facies metamorphism) age of between 700 and 550 Ma. The orientations of planar and linear fabrics in the granulite-facies rocks of the Uluguru mountains are used to infer the relative crustal block motions during this collisional event. This Pan-African collisional event was characterized by NW-directed movements, oblique to the N-S trend of the orogen, and involved SE-directed backthrusting. The Ubendian Belt of Tanzania and the Aswa Shear Zone in Uganda and Kenya, which both bifurcate around the Tanzania craton, accommodated the tectonically thickened crust, created by the collisional event, through NW-SE sinistral strike-slip movements.

  3. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  4. The Tintina Gold Belt - A global perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hart, Craig J.R.; Miller, Marti L.; Miller, Lance D.; Farmer, G. Lang; Groves, David I.; Tucker, Terry L.; Smith, Moira T.

    2000-01-01

    -Tanana terrane (e.g., Fort Knox, True North, Ryan Lode, Kantishna district) and inland into the passive-margin rocks of the Selwyn basin ( e.g., Scheelite Dome, Brewery Creek, Dublin Gulch), respectively. By 70 Ma, the arc had migrated to the vicinity of present-day southwestern Alaska, where it was associated with the formation of additional orogenic Au deposits (e.g., Willow Creek district) and, within still-preserved shallow crustal levels, epithermal Au systems (e.g., Donlin Creek). The Au-bearing deposits of the Tintina Gold Belt are typical of those found in most well-preserved, moderate- to high-temperature Phanerozoic collisional orogens. Around the circum-Pacific region, these would include large areas of Mesozoic tectonism along the Cordilleran orogen, throughout the Russian Far East, and along the margins of the North China craton. Favorable terrain for such Au belts of Paleozoic age worldwide include the active Gondwana margins (e.g., Tasman orogenic system, northern Africa, Telfer district), and the northern margins ( e.g., Caledonian Kazakhstania, Uralian orogen, Baikal orogen, Tian Shan orogenic system) and western margins ( e.g., southern European massifs) to the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. Gold lodes in all of the Phanerozoic belts are dominated by orogenic Au-deposit types; other deposit types are concentrated where relatively shallow levels to the orogens are locally preserved. A significant percentage of the lode-gold resource in many areas was lost to placer accumulation that began forming approximately 100 m.y. after hypogene ore formation, except where continent-continent collision "cratonized" highly mineralized terranes in central Asia.

  5. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted.

  6. AD1995: NW Europe's hydrocarbon industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glennie, K.; Hurst, A.

    1996-01-01

    This volume concerns itself with wide-ranging aspects of the upstream hydro-carbon industry over the whole of NW Europe. As such, the book contrasts with many thematic volumes by presenting a broad range of topics side-by-side. One section of the book looks back at the history of geological exploration and production, and provides an overview of hydrocarbon exploration across NW Europe. Another section covers the state of the art in hydrocarbon exploration and production. This includes an update on computer-based basin modelling overpressure systems, innovations in reservoir engineering and reserve estimation, 3D seismic and the geochemical aspects of secondary migration. The final section of the book takes a look into the future. This covers the remaining hydrocarbon resources of the North Sea, managing risk in oil field development, oil field economics, and pollution and the environment. It is the editors' hope that several key areas of NW Europe's upstream oil industry have been usefully summarized in the volume. (Author)

  7. Africa’s Role in Chinese People's Republic Initiative “One Belt and One Road”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кристина Михайловна Михайличенко

    2018-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses the role, place and forms of African countries’ participation in the new China’s strategy “One Belt and One Road”. The author describes the existing partnership between China and African countries and their future interaction within the New Silk Road. China’s initiative pays special attention to identification of positive and negative sides of China-Africa cooperation.

  8. Enclosed belts in the ascendancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-03-15

    Although there will always be a place for traditional overland belt conveyors, enclosed belt systems are increasingly being specified where environmental protection assumes high priority or where there is a need to protect material from the weather. The article reports on recent conveyor projects such as: an MRC cable Belt in a 6.4 km system to carry coal in the Appalachian Mountains; a $40 m contract awarded to FL Smidth to supply an integrated coal handling system to LILIAMA in Vietnam and other contracts to handle coal for India's Coastal Gujarat Power; and a contract awarded to Bateman Engineered Technologies to supply a 7 km Japan Pipe Conveyor for a coal power station in Brazil. 3 photos.

  9. Characterization of gold mineralization in Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria, using remote sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talaat M. Ramadan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Garin Hawal area, Kebbi State, NW Nigeria is part of the Neoproterozoic to Early Phanerozoic terrane separating the west African and Congo Cratons. Three main gold-bearing shear zones were detected in the study area from the processed Landsat ETM+ images and extensive ground investigation. Field and petrographical studies indicate that the Neoproterozoic rocks are represented by a highly folded and faulted belt constituted of hornblende, muscovite and graphite schist. They are intruded by granondiorites and late to post granitic dykes. Extensive alteration zones were identified using high resolution QuickBird image along Garin Hawal shear zone. The alteration zones and associated quartz veins are generally concordant with the main NE–SW regional structural trend and are dipping to the NW. Geochemical studies indicate that the gold content reaches 8 g/t in the alteration zones, while it reaches up to 35 g/t in the quartz veins. Mineralogical studies indicate that the alterations are strongly potassium-enriched. Pyrophyllite, kaolinite, illite, gypsum and quartz also occur. The main ore minerals are gold, chalcopyrite, arsenopyrite, pyrite, galena and iron oxides. This study indicates that the alteration zones and the associated quartz veins in the muscovite schist are promising and need more detailed exploration for Au and Ag mineralization to evaluate their potential.

  10. Digital geologic map of the Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle, Nye County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, S.A.; Orkild, P.P.; Sargent, K.A.; Warren, R.G.; Sawyer, D.A.; Workman, J.B.

    1998-01-01

    This digital geologic map compilation presents new polygon (i.e., geologic map unit contacts), line (i.e., fault, fold axis, dike, and caldera wall), and point (i.e., structural attitude) vector data for the Thirsty Canyon NW 7 1/2' quadrangle in southern Nevada. The map database, which is at 1:24,000-scale resolution, provides geologic coverage of an area of current hydrogeologic and tectonic interest. The Thirsty Canyon NW quadrangle is located in southern Nye County about 20 km west of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and 30 km north of the town of Beatty. The map area is underlain by extensive layers of Neogene (about 14 to 4.5 million years old [Ma]) mafic and silicic volcanic rocks that are temporally and spatially associated with transtensional tectonic deformation. Mapped volcanic features include part of a late Miocene (about 9.2 Ma) collapse caldera, a Pliocene (about 4.5 Ma) shield volcano, and two Pleistocene (about 0.3 Ma) cinder cones. Also documented are numerous normal, oblique-slip, and strike-slip faults that reflect regional transtensional deformation along the southern part of the Walker Lane belt. The Thirsty Canyon NW map provides new geologic information for modeling groundwater flow paths that may enter the map area from underground nuclear testing areas located in the NTS about 25 km to the east. The geologic map database comprises six component ArcINFO map coverages that can be accessed after decompressing and unbundling the data archive file (tcnw.tar.gz). These six coverages (tcnwpoly, tcnwflt, tcnwfold, tcnwdike, tcnwcald, and tcnwatt) are formatted here in ArcINFO EXPORT format. Bundled with this database are two PDF files for readily viewing and printing the map, accessory graphics, and a description of map units and compilation methods.

  11. Triple junction orogeny: tectonic evolution of the Pan-African Northern Damara Belt, Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jérémie; Saalmann, Kerstin; Naydenov, Kalin V.; Milani, Lorenzo; Charlesworth, Eugene G.; Kinnaird, Judith A.; Frei, Dirk; Kramers, Jan D.; Zwingmann, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Trench-trench-trench triple junctions are generally geometrically and kinematically unstable and therefore can result at the latest stages in complicated collisional orogenic belts. In such geodynamic sites, mechanism and timescale of deformations that accommodate convergence and final assembly of the three colliding continental plates are poorly studied. In western Namibia, Pan-African convergence of three cratonic blocks led to pene-contemporaneous closure of two highly oblique oceanic domains and formation of the triple junction Damara Orogen where the NE-striking Damara Belt abuts to the west against the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt. Detailed description of structures and microstructures associated with remote sensing analysis, and dating of individual deformation events by means of K-Ar, Ar-Ar (micas) and U-Pb (zircon) isotopic studies from the Northern Damara Belt provide robust constraints on the tectonic evolution of this palaeo-triple junction orogeny. There, passive margin sequences of the Neoproterozoic ocean were polydeformed and polymetamorphosed to the biotite zone of the greenschist facies to up to granulite facies and anatexis towards the southern migmatitic core of the Central Damara Belt. Subtle relict structures and fold pattern analyses reveal the existence of an early D1 N-S shortening event, tentatively dated between ~635 Ma and ~580 Ma using published data. D1 structures were almost obliterated by pervasive and major D2 E-W coaxial shortening, related to the closure of the Kaoko-Gariep oceanic domain and subsequent formation of the NNW-striking Kaoko-Gariep Belt to the west of the study area. Early, km-scale D1 E-W trending steep folds were refolded during this D2 event, producing either Type I or Type II fold interference patterns visible from space. The D2 E-W convergence could have lasted until ~533 Ma based on published and new U-Pb ages. The final D3 NW-SE convergence in the northernmost Damara Belt produced a NE-striking deformation

  12. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel...

  13. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  14. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  15. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt...

  16. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety belt...

  17. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch or...

  18. Re-Os dating of mineralization in Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (NW Iran) and investigating on its temporal relationship with porphyry Cu-Mo deposits in the southern Lesser Caucasus, NW and central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Selby, David

    2017-04-01

    The Neo-Tethyan basin closure in Iran is characterized by the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), formed by north-eastward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust during the Alpine orogeny. This belt also coincides with the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran, which hosts many porphyry Cu-Mo deposits (PCDs) and prospects, such as Sungun (NW Iran) and Sarcheshmeh (central Iran). The Siah Kamar porphyry Mo deposit (PMD) is the first discovered porphyry molybdenum deposit on this belt, which is located 10 km west of Mianeh (NW Iran), with 39.2 Mt proved reserves @ 539 ppm Mo and 66.4 Mt probable reserves @ 266 ppm Mo. The host porphyry stock has quartz-monzonitic composition, which intruded the volcanic and pyroclastic rocks of Eocene age. Re content of molybdenites is about 10.44-41.05 ppm which, considering the several tens of ppm concentration, is comparable with porphyry Mo deposits (e.g., Climax in USA), being clearly distinguished from porphyry Cu-Mo deposits. Re-Os dating of molybdenites from this PMD has given model ages between 28.1±0.15 to 29.06±0.2 Ma, and isochron age of 28.0±2.1 Ma, corresponding to the middle Oligocene (upper part of Rupelian). Comparing the ages determined for Siah Kamar PMD with porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Lesser Caucasus indicates that it is younger than most of the dated PCDs and prospects there, especially those of upper Eocene, while it is a little older than Paragachay and first-stage Kadjaran PCDs [1]. In a regional scale of NW Iran, it shows a narrow overlap with vein-type Cu-Mo-Au mineralizations in Qarachilar (Qaradagh batholith) and is nearly coeval with Haftcheshmeh PCD, indicating that mineralization in the Siah Kamar PMD corresponds to the second porphyry mineralization epoch in NW Iran, proposed by [2]. Meanwhile, mineralization in Siah Kamar is older than all the porphyry Cu-Mo mineralizations along the central and SE parts of the UDMA, except the Bondar Hanza PCD in Kerman zone, which nearly

  19. Multiple Emplacement and Exhumation History of the Late Mesozoic Dayunshan-Mufushan Batholith in Southeast China and Its Tectonic Significance: 1. Structural Analysis and Geochronological Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wenbin; Faure, Michel; Lin, Wei; Chen, Yan; Chu, Yang; Xue, Zhenhua

    2018-01-01

    The South China Block (SCB) experienced a polyphase reworking by the Phanerozoic tectonothermal events. To better understand its Late Mesozoic tectonics, an integrated multidisciplinary investigation has been conducted on the Dayunshan-Mufushan composite batholith in the north-central SCB. This batholith consists of two major intrusions that recorded distinct emplacement features. According to our structural analysis, two deformation events in relation to batholith emplacement and subsequent exhumation are identified. The early one (D1) was observed mostly at the southern border of the batholith, characterized by a top-to-the-SW ductile shearing in the early-stage intrusion and along its contact zone. This deformation, chiefly associated with the pluton emplacement at ca. 150 Ma, was probably assisted by farfield compression from the northern Yangtze foreland belt. The second but main event (D2) involved two phases: (1) ductile shearing (D2a) prominently expressed along the Dayunshan detachment fault at the western border of the batholith where the syntectonic late-stage intrusion and minor metasedimentary basement in the footwall suffered mylonitization with top-to-the-NW kinematics; and (2) subsequent brittle faulting (D2b) further exhumed the entire batholith that behaved as rift shoulder with half-graben basins developed on its both sides. Geochronological constraints show that the crustal ductile extension occurred during 132-95 Ma. Such a Cretaceous NW-SE extensional tectonic regime, as indicated by the D2 event, has been recognized in a vast area of East Asia. This tectonism was responsible not only for the destruction of the North China craton but also for the formation of the so-called "southeast China basin and range tectonics."

  20. New Insight Into the Crustal Structure of the Continental Margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    2002-12-01

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. The focus of investigations was on the deep water areas. The margin looks like a typical accretionary margin and was presumably formed during the subduction of a proto South China Sea. Presently, no horizontal movements between the two plates are being observed. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere which is characterised by a pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and a carbonate platform of Early Oligocene to Early Miocene age. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the Sabah Trough and the adjacent continental slope, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The tectonic pattern of the Dangerous Grounds' extended continental crust can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anomalies. Based on the new data we propose the following scenario for the development of the NW Sabah continental margin: Seafloor spreading in the present South China Sea started at about 30 Ma in the Late Oligocene. The spreading process separated the Dangerous Grounds area from the SE Asian continent and ceased in late Early Miocene when the oceanic crust of the proto South China Sea was fully subducted in eastward direction along the Borneo-Palawan Trough. During Lower and/or Middle Miocene, Borneo rotated counterclockwise and was

  1. The Challenge of Different Perceptions on the Belt and Road Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchi Ma

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This article1 focuses on the perceptions of the Chinese and its partners on the Belt and Road Initiative. The author summarizes the existing foreign opinions about the initiative, one “inequality” of the market, three goals that China wants to achieve and two ways in which China wants to create domestic stability. In fact, the difference between foreign and Chinese perceptions is based on the relative national condition of the two sides, the perception of great powers, and the combination of domestic needs and foreign policy. Finally, the author points out that there are three paradoxes which exist in the differences between China and its partners, which is the biggest challenge of the Belt and Road Initiative.

  2. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  3. Conveyor belt nuclear weighing machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1977-01-01

    In many industries the flow of materials on conveyor belts must be measured and controlled. Electromechanical weighing devices have high accuracy but are complicated and expensive to install and maintain. For many applications the nuclear weighing machine has sufficient accuracy but is considerably simpler, cheaper and more robust and is easier to maintain. The rating and performance of a gamma ray balance on the mar ket are detailed. (P.G.R.)

  4. Fracture patterns in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Decker, Kurt; Grasemann, Bernhard; Peresson, Herwig

    2012-11-01

    Fracture data have been collected in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq, which is a poorly accessible and unexplored area of the Zagros. Pre to early folding NE-SW striking extensional fractures and NW-SE striking contractive elements represent the older set affecting the exposed multilayer of the area. These latter structures are early syn-folding and followed by folding-related mesostructural assemblages, which include elements striking parallel to the axial trend of major folds (longitudinal fractures). Bedding perpendicular joints and veins, and extensional faults belonging to this second fracture set are located in the outer arc of exposed anticlines, whilst longitudinal reverse faults locate in the inner arcs. Consistently, these elements are associated with syn-folding tangential longitudinal strain. The younger two sets are related to E-W extension and NNE-SSW to N-S shortening, frequently displaying reactivation of the older sets. The last shortening event, which is described along the entire Zagros Belt, probably relates with the onset of N-S compression induced by the northward movement of the Arabian plate relative to the Eurasian Plate. In comparison between the inferred palaeostrain directions and the kinematics of recent GPS measurements, we conclude that the N-S compression and the partitioning into NW-SE trending folds and NW to N trending strike-slip faults likely remained unchanged throughout the Neogene tectonic history of the investigated area.

  5. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  6. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junxia Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed approach provides improved accuracy for dynamic design of belt conveyors.

  7. Drive alive: teen seat belt survey program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkett, Katie M; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-08-01

    To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program. Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001). The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention. Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students.

  8. Conveyor belt weigher using a nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magal, B.S.

    1976-01-01

    Principles of operation of different types of continuous conveyor belt weighing machines developed for use in factories for bulk weighing of material on conveyor belts without interupting the material flow, are briefly mentioned. The design of nuclear weighing scale making use of the radiation absorption property of the material used is described in detail. The radiation source, choice of the source, detector and geometry of such a weighing scale are discussed. The nucleonic belt weigher is compared with the gravimetric belt weigher system. The advantages of the nuclear system are pointed out. The assembly drawing of the electronics, calibration procedure and performance evaluation are given. (A.K.)

  9. Continuous Mass Measurement on Conveyor Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomobe, Yuki; Tasaki, Ryosuke; Yamazaki, Takanori; Ohnishi, Hideo; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Kurosu, Shigeru

    The continuous mass measurement of packages on a conveyor belt will become greatly important. In the mass measurement, the sequence of products is generally random. An interesting possibility of raising throughput of the conveyor line without increasing the conveyor belt speed is offered by the use of two or three conveyor belt scales (called a multi-stage conveyor belt scale). The multi-stage conveyor belt scale can be created which will adjust the conveyor belt length to the product length. The conveyor belt scale usually has maximum capacities of less than 80kg and 140cm, and achieves measuring rates of more than 150 packages per minute and more. The output signals from the conveyor belt scale are always contaminated with noises due to vibrations of the conveyor and the product to be measured in motion. In this paper an employed digital filter is of Finite Impulse Response (FIR) type designed under the consideration on the dynamics of the conveyor system. The experimental results on the conveyor belt scale suggest that the filtering algorithms are effective enough to practical applications to some extent.

  10. Condition-Based Conveyor Belt Replacement Strategy in Lignite Mines with Random Belt Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazej, Ryszard; Jurdziak, Leszek

    2017-12-01

    In Polish lignite surface mines, condition-based belt replacement strategies are applied in order to assure profitable refurbishment of worn out belts performed by external firms specializing in belt maintenance. In two of three lignite mines, staff asses belt condition subjectively during visual inspections. Only one mine applies specialized diagnostic device (HRDS) allowing objective magnetic evaluation of belt core condition in order to choose the most profitable moment for the dismantling of worn out belt segments from conveyors and sending them to the maintenance firm which provides their refurbishment. This article describes the advantages of a new diagnostic device called DiagBelt. It was developed at the Faculty of Geoengineering, Mining and Geology, Wroclaw University of Science and Technology. Economic gains from its application are calculated for the lignite mine and for the belt maintenance firm, taking into account random life (durability) of new and reconditioned belts (after the 1st and the 2nd refurbishment). Recursive calculations for following years allow the estimation of the length and costs of replaced, reconditioned and purchased belts on an annual basis, while the use of the Monte Carlo method allows the estimation of their variability caused by random deterioration of belts. Savings are obtained due to better selection of moments (times) for the replacement of belt segments and die to the possibility to qualify worn out belts for refurbishment without the need to remove their covers. In effect, increased belt durability and lowered share of waste belts (which were not qualified for reconditioning) create savings which can quickly cover expenditures on new diagnostic tools and regular belt inspections in the mine.

  11. Brusque belt: a monocyclic evolution ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basei, M.A.S.

    1990-01-01

    This paper discusses the radiometric data for the Brusque Belt (SC) where Rb-Sr isochrons, U-Pb in zircons, K-Ar in minerals and whole rock Sm-Nd model ages are available. The analysis of these results reveals two main groups, without intermediate values. The first, 500 to 800Ma., is related to magmatic and metamorphic ages and the second, 1600-2000Ma begin with the (probably) sedimentation age. A monociclic evolution is proposed, but with uncertanties in the age of the first metamorphic phase. (author)

  12. Geochronology and geochemistry of the granitoids and ore - forming age in the Xiaoyao tungsten polymetallic skarn deposit in the Jiangnan Massif tungsten belt, China: Implications for their petrogenesis, geodynamic setting, and mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiangwei; Mao, Jingwen; Wu, Shenghua; Zhang, Zhaochong; Xu, Shengfa

    2018-01-01

    Shangxi metamorphic rocks with some additional input of mantle material. The magmatism was triggered by asthenospheric upwelling induced by slab tearing during oblique subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate beneath the South China Block.

  13. The Security Challenges of the “One Belt, One Road” Initiative and China’s Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiquan Liu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road initiatives (“One Belt, One Road” are of significance in enhancing China’s open economy. This article explores the dual security challenges faced by the “One Belt, One Road” initiative. These challenges include both traditional security challenges, such as great power competition, territorial and island disputes, and political turmoil in the region, as well as non-traditional threats such as terrorism, piracy, and transnational organized crime. This article analyzes the present situation of security cooperation in the region covered by “One Belt, One Road” and also suggests that China needs to pay special attention to three issues, namely the supply of public security goods, the interests of the United States and Russia, and the pivot of Pakistan, besides developing its own strength.

  14. Using haptic feedback to increase seat belt use : traffic tech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The legacy of research on increasing seat belt use has : focused on enactment of seat belt legislation, public education, : high-visibility police enforcement, and seat belt : reminder systems. Several behavioral programs have : produced large, susta...

  15. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  16. The JET belt limiter tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deksnis, E.

    1988-09-01

    The belt limiter system, comprising two full toroidal rings of limiter tiles, was installed in JET in 1987. In consists of water-cooled fins with the limiter material in form of tile inbetween. The tiles are designed to absorb heat fluxes during irradiation without the surface temperature exceeding 2000 0 C and to radiate this heat between pulses to the water cooled sink whose temperature is lower than that of the vacuum vessel. An important feature of the design is to maximise the area of the radiating surface facing the water cooled fin. This leads to a tile depth much greater than the width of the tile facing the heat flux. Limiter tiles intercept particles flowing out of the plasma through the area between the two belt limiter rings and through remaining surface area of the plasma column. Power deposition to a limiter tile depends strongly on the shape of the plasma, the edge plasma properties as well as on the surface profile of the tiles. This paper will discuss the methodology that was followed in producing an optimized surface profile of the tiles. This shaped profile has the feature that the resulting power deposition profile is roughly similar for a wide range of plasma parameters. (author)

  17. Seat belt injuries and sigmoid colon trauma.

    OpenAIRE

    Eltahir, E M; Hamilton, D

    1997-01-01

    Colonic seat belt injuries are rare but carry higher mortality rates than small bowel injuries. The case of a 44 year old man is described who had severe sigmoid colon compression injury from his seat belt a few days after a road traffic accident.

  18. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  19. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at all...

  20. Research on development characteristics of railway logistics specialty under “the Belt and Road” strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhifeng Zhao

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proposed “the Belt and Road” strategy in China, the railway logistics specialty becomes one of the important links which draws more attention. Based on this, the paper studies transport route of railway logistics and sets up its model of the optimal route combining with ant colony algorithm. It carries out simulation analysis of each parameter of ant colony algorithm and chooses the optimal region of corresponding parameter. By taking railway logistics in Hubei Province as an example, the optimal transport route plan and its schematic drawing are required through calculation, which provides the important guidance on railway logistics transportation under “the Belt and Road” strategy in China

  1. Feed chute geometry for minimum belt wear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, A W; Wiche, S J [University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW (Australia). Centre for Bulk Solids and Particulate Technologies

    1998-09-01

    The paper is concerned with the feeding and transfer of bulk solids in conveyor belt operation. The paper focuses on chute design where the objective is to prevent spillage and minimise both chute and belt wear. It is shown that these objectives may be met through correct dynamic design of the chute and by directing the flow of bulk solids onto the belt at an acceptable incidence angle. The aim is to match the tangential velocity component of the feed velocity as close as possible to the belt velocity. At the same time, it is necessary to limit the impact pressure due to the change in momentum of the bulk solid as it feeds onto the belt. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  2. New Insight Into The Crustal Structure of The Continental Margin Off NW Sabah/borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barckhausen, U.; Franke, D.; Behain, D.; Meyer, H.

    The continental margin offshore NW Sabah/Borneo (Malaysia) has been investigated with reflection and refraction seismics, magnetics, and gravity during the recent cruise BGR01-POPSCOMS. A total of 4000 km of geophysical profiles has been acquired, thereof 2900 km with reflection seismics. Like in major parts of the South China Sea, the area seaward of the Sabah Trough consists of extended continental lithosphere. We found evidence that the continental crust also underlies the continental slope land- ward of the Trough, a fact that raises many questions about the tectonic history and development of this margin. The characteristic pattern of rotated fault blocks and half grabens and the carbon- ates which are observed all over the Dangerous Grounds can be traced a long way landward of the Sabah Trough beneath the sedimentary succession of the upper plate. The magnetic anomalies which are dominated by the magnetic signatures of relatively young volcanic features also continue under the continental slope. The sedimentary rocks of the upper plate, in contrast, seem to generate hardly any magnetic anoma- lies. We suspect that the volcanic activity coincided with the collision of Borneo and the Dangerous Grounds in middle or late Miocene time. The emplacement of an al- lochtonous terrane on top of the extended continental lithosphere could be explained by overthrusting as a result of the collision or it could be related to gravity sliding following a broad uplift of NW Borneo at the same time.

  3. NW-MILO Acoustic Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matzner, Shari; Myers, Joshua R.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Jones, Mark E.

    2010-02-17

    There is an enduring requirement to improve our ability to detect potential threats and discriminate these from the legitimate commercial and recreational activity ongoing in the nearshore/littoral portion of the maritime domain. The Northwest Maritime Information and Littoral Operations (NW-MILO) Program at PNNL’s Coastal Security Institute in Sequim, Washington is establishing a methodology to detect and classify these threats - in part through developing a better understanding of acoustic signatures in a near-shore environment. The purpose of the acoustic data collection described here is to investigate the acoustic signatures of small vessels. The data is being recorded continuously, 24 hours a day, along with radar track data and imagery. The recording began in August 2008, and to date the data contains tens of thousands of signals from small vessels recorded in a variety of environmental conditions. The quantity and variety of this data collection, with the supporting imagery and radar track data, makes it particularly useful for the development of robust acoustic signature models and advanced algorithms for signal classification and information extraction. The underwater acoustic sensing system is part of a multi-modal sensing system that is operating near the mouth of Sequim Bay. Sequim Bay opens onto the Straight of Juan de Fuca, which contains part of the border between the U.S. and Canada. Table 1 lists the specific components used for the NW-MILO system. The acoustic sensor is a hydrophone permanently deployed at a mean depth of about 3 meters. In addition to a hydrophone, the other sensors in the system are a marine radar, an electro-optical (EO) camera and an infra-red (IR) camera. The radar is integrated with a vessel tracking system (VTS) that provides position, speed and heading information. The data from all the sensors is recorded and saved to a central server. The data has been validated in terms of its usability for characterizing the

  4. Mercury concentrations in cattle from NW Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Alonso, M; Benedito, J L; Miranda, M; Castillo, C; Hernández, J; Shore, R F

    2003-01-20

    Mercury is a toxic metal that is released into the environment as a result of various industrial and agricultural processes. It can be accumulated by domestic animals and so contaminate human foodstuffs. To date, there is no information on mercury residues in livestock in Spain and the aim of the present study was to quantify the concentrations of mercury in cattle in two of the major regions in north-west Spain, Galicia (a largely rural region) and Asturias, which is characterised by heavy industry and mining. Total mercury concentrations were determined in tissue (liver, kidney and muscle) and blood from 284 calves (6-10 months old) and 56 cows (2-16 years old) from across the whole of the two regions. Mercury was usually detected in the kidney (62.4-87.5% of samples) but most (79.5-96%) liver, muscle and blood samples did not contain detectable residues. Renal mercury concentrations did not differ between male and female calves but were significantly greater in female calves than in cows. Unexpectedly, kidney mercury concentrations were significantly higher in calves from the predominantly rural region of Galicia (geometric mean: 12.2 microg/kg w.wt.) than in animals from the industrialised-mining region of Asturias (3.40 microg/kg w.wt.). Overall, mercury residues in cattle from NW Spain were similar to those reported in cattle from non-polluted areas in other countries and do not constitute a risk to animal or human health. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science B.V.

  5. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  6. Spatial evolution of Zagros collision zone in Kurdistan - NW Iran, constraints for Arabia-Eurasia oblique convergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, S.; Yassaghi, A.

    2015-09-01

    Stratigraphy, detailed structural mapping and crustal scale cross section of the NW Zagros collision zone evolved during convergence of the Arabian and Eurasian plates were conducted to constrain the spatial evolution of the belt oblique convergence since Late Cretaceous. Zagros orogeny in NW Iran consists of the Sanandaj-Sirjan, Gaveh Rud and ophiolite zones as internal, and Bisotoun, Radiolarite and High Zagros zones as external parts. The Main Zagros Thrust is known as major structures of the Zagros suture zone. Two stages of deformation are recognized in the external parts of Zagros. In the early stage, presence of dextrally deformed domains beside the reversely deformed domains in the Radiolarite zone as well as dextral-reverse faults in both Bisotoun and Radiolarite zones demonstrates partitioning of the dextral transpression. In the late stage, southeastward propagation of the Zagros orogeny towards its foreland resulted in synchronous development of orogen-parallel strike-slip and pure thrust faults. It is proposed that the first stage related to the late Cretaceous oblique obduction, and the second stage is resulted from Cenozoic collision. Cenozoic orogen-parallel strike-slip component of Zagros oblique faulting is not confined to the Zagros suture zone (Main Recent) but also occurred in the more external part (Marekhil-Ravansar fault system). Thus, it is proposed that oblique convergence of Arabia-Eurasia plates occurred in Zagros collision zone since the Late Cretaceous.

  7. Using SHRIMP zircon dating to unravel tectonothermal events in arc environments. The early Palaeozoic arc of NW Iberia revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abati, J.; Castineiras, P.G.; Arenas, R.; Fernandez-Suarez, J.; Barreiro, J.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    Dating of zircon cores and rims from granulites developed in a shear zone provides insights into the complex relationship between magmatism and metamorphism in the deep roots of arc environments. The granulites belong to the uppermost allochthonous terrane of the NW Iberian Massif, which forms part of a Cambro-Ordovician magmatic arc developed in the peri-Gondwanan realm. The obtained zircon ages confirm that voluminous calc-alkaline magmatism peaked around 500Ma and was shortly followed by granulite facies metamorphism accompanied by deformation at c. 480Ma, giving a time framework for crustal heating, regional metamorphism, deformation and partial melting, the main processes that control the tectonothermal evolution of arc systems. Traces of this arc can be discontinuously followed in different massifs throughout the European Variscan Belt, and we propose that the uppermost allochthonous units of the NW Iberian Massif, together with the related terranes in Europe, constitute an independent and coherent terrane that drifted away from northern Gondwana prior to the Variscan collisional orogenesis. ?? 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Spatiotemporal Patterns and its Instability of Land Use Change in Five Chinese Node Cities of the Belt and Road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, B.; Guo, T.; Liu, P. L.; Ren, H. G.

    2017-09-01

    It has long recognized that there exists three different terrain belt in China, i.e. east, central, and west can have very different impacts on the land use changes. It is therefore better understand how spatiotemporal patterns linked with processes and instability of land use change are evolving in China across different regions. This paper compares trends of the similarities and differences to understand the spatiotemporal characteristics and the linked processes i.e. states, incidents and instability of land use change of 5 Chinese cities which are located in the nodes of The Silk Road in China. The results show that on the whole, the more land transfer times and the more land categories involved changes happens in Quanzhou City, one of eastern China than those in central and western China. Basically, cities in central and western China such as Changsha, Kunming and Urumuqi City become instable while eastern city like Quanzhou City turns to be stable over time.

  9. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  10. Belt design central to conveyor performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-15

    While a conveyor system comprises a complex range of components, it is the belt design which ultimately dictates its core performance and reliability. The complexity of modern systems can be seen by the recent contract awarded to ThyssenKrupp Foerdertechnik (TKF) to supply systems for a new steel plant (including a coking plant and a power plant) to be built in Sepetiba Bay in Brazil. Phoenix has designed the Phoenotec system to protect steel cord conveyor belts. Fenner Dunlop has developed Fenaplast belting with nylon or polyester load-bearing warp and weft yarns for good impact resistance. 2 photos.

  11. Petrography, Geochemistry and Petrogenesis of Volcanic Rocks, NW Ghonabad, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Zirjanizadeh

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The study area is located in NW Gonabad, Razavi Khorasan Province, northern Lut block and eastern Iran north of the Lut Block. Magmatism in NW Gonabad produced plutonic and volcanic rock associations with varying geochemical compositions. These rocks are related to the Cenozoic magmatic rocks in Iran and belong to the Lut Block volcanic–plutonic belt. In this study, petrogenesis of volcanic units in northwest Gonabad was investigated. The volcanic rocks are andesites/trachyandesites, rhyolites, dacites/ rhyodacites and pyroclastics.These rocks show porphyritic, trachytic and embayed textures in phenocrysts with plagioclase, sanidine and quartz (most notably in dacite and rhyolite, hornblende and rare biotite. The most important alteration zones are propylitic, silicification and argillic.Four kaolinite- bearing clay deposits have been located in areas affectedby hydrothermal alteration of Eocene rhyolite, dacite and rhyodacite. Analytical techniques Five samples were analyzed for major elements by wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (XRF and six samples were analyzed for trace elements using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS in the Acme Laboratories, Vancouver (Canada.Sr and Nd isotopic compositions were determined for four whole-rock samples at the Laboratório de GeologiaIsotópica da Universidade de Aveiro, Portugal. Results Petrography. The rocks in this area are consist of trachyte, andesite/ trachyandesite, dacite/ rhyodacite, principally as ignimbrites and soft tuff. The textures of phenocrysts are mainly porphyritic, glomerophyric, trachytic and embayed textures in plagioclase, hornblende and biotite. The groundmasses consist of plagioclase and fine-grainedcrystals of hornblende. Plagioclase phenocrysts and microlitesare by far the most abundant textures in andesite - trachyandesites (>25% and in size from 0.01 to 0.1mm. Euhedral to subhedral hornblende phenocrysts areabundant (3-5%and 0.1 to 0

  12. 76 FR 13357 - Multilayered Wood Flooring from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-11

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Postponement of Preliminary Determination of Antidumping Duty..., 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482- 2336 or (202) 482... multilayered wood flooring from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The notice of initiation stated that, unless...

  13. 76 FR 26685 - Multilayered Wood Flooring From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination With Final... the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') with the final determination in the companion antidumping..., International Trade Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW...

  14. 76 FR 49443 - Certain Stilbenic Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... Optical Brightening Agents From the People's Republic of China, and Taiwan: Postponement of Preliminary... 5; Maisha Cryor at (202) 482-5831 or Shaun Higgins at (202) 482-0679 (People's Republic of China.... Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230. SUPPLEMENTARY...

  15. Design of Green Cold Chain Networks for Imported Fresh Agri-Products in Belt and Road Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Fang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The development of Belt and Road has seen a boom of imported fresh agri-products in China. This stimulates the growth of refrigerated transport, which accounts for much more carbon emissions than traditional transport. Designing a sustainable cold chain network is of vital importance from both financial and environmental perspectives. In this research, a multi-objective linear programming model is proposed for green cold chain design for multiple imported fresh agri-products in China to balance between the two competing goals—the total cost and carbon emissions. The effect of the outdoor air temperature on the carbon emissions of transportation and maintaining distribution centers is considered. By applying the ε-constraint method, the multi-objective model is solved. Numerical examples derived from the scenario of imported fresh-agri products in China are conducted to shed light on green cold chain design under Belt and Road development.

  16. Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Y.-Q.

    2017-09-01

    Variations of Synchrotron Radio Emissions from Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt Yu-Qing Lou* Physics Department, Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics (THCA), Tsinghua-National Astronomical Observatories of China (NAOC) joint Research Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China We describe the basic phenommenology of quasi-periodic 40 minute (QP-40) polar burst activities of Jupiter and their close correlation with the solar wind speed variations at the Jovian magnetosphere. Physically, relativistic electrons of QP-40 bursts most likely come from the circumpolar regions of the inner radiation belt (IRB) which gives off intense synchroton radio emissions in a wide wavelength range. Such relativistic electron bursts also give rise to beamed low-frequency radio bursts along polar magnetic field lines with distinct polarizations from Jupiter's two polar regions. Jovian aurora activities are expected to be also affected by such QP-40 burst activities. We present evidence of short-term (typical timescales shorter than an hour) variabilities of the IRB at 6cm wavelength and describe recent joint radio telescope observation campaign to monitor Jupiter in coordination with JUNO spacecraft. Except for low-frequency polarization features, we anticipate JUNO to detect QP-40 activities from both polar regions during the arrival of high-speed solar wind with intermittency. References 1. Y.-Q. Lou, The Astrophysical Journal, 548, 460 (2001). 2. Y.-Q. Lou, and C. Zheng, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 344, L1 (2003). 3. Y.-Q. Lou, H. G. Song, Y.Y. Liu, and M. Yang, Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc. Letters, 421, L62 (2012). 4. Y.-Q. Lou, Geophysical Research Letters, 23, 609 (1996). 5. Y.-Q. Lou, Journal of Geophysical Research, 99, 14747 (1994). 6. G. R. Gladstone, et al., Nature, 415, 1000 (2002).

  17. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping the...

  18. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled mantrips...

  20. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage ...

  1. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  2. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  3. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a d...

  4. The Stability of the Conveyor Belt Pontoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří PODEŠVA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available To lead the conveyor belt transport cross water area the pontoon are used to support the carrying structure of the belts. The accident can happen when the pontoon turnover. For this reason the pontoon stability is investigated. The stability is described by the Reed’s diagram. This can be constructed analytically or via numerical modeling. Both methods are described in the paper.

  5. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Characteristics and Influential Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junxia; Pang, Xiaoxu

    2018-01-01

    This paper uses the Kelvin-Voigt viscoelastic model to establish the continuous dynamic equations for tail hammer tension belt conveyors. The viscoelastic continuity equations are solved using the generalized coordinate method. We analyze various factors influencing longitudinal vibration of the belt conveyor by simulation and propose a control strategy to limit the vibration. The proposed approach and control strategy were verified by several experimental researches and cases. The proposed a...

  6. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  7. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  8. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  9. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  10. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Laysan Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  11. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Pearl And Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  12. CRED REA Belt Surveys of Coral Population and Disease Assessments at Lisianski Island, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  13. Late Cretaceous to Present evolution of the NW Africa peri-cratonic in the Africa-Eurasia plate convergence context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbal, B.; Bertotti, G.; Andriessen, P. A. M.

    2009-04-01

    Africa-Eurasia plate convergence is the main mechanism to explain topographic evolution and patterns of Tertiary vertical motions recorded around the entire Mediterranean and even further east. However, most of the studies are concentrated on the Eurasian side of the Mediterranean Realm. Along the NW Africa pericratonic zone (western Mediterranean side) extending longitudinally from the Anti-Atlas to the Rif Mountains, the highest topography is observed in the High Atlas intracontinental belt and in the Pan-African Anti-Atlas belt, and not in the youngest belt, the Rif. The combination of AFT and (U-Th)/He low-thermal dating, performed on pre-Cenozoic basement rocks along the Moroccan pericratonic transect (500km) yield ages ranging respectively between 90-9Ma and 65-7Ma, documenting vertical motions of subsidence and exhumation in between Late Cretaceous and Present. Time-Temperature models show that vertical movements are spatially zoned through Morocco, with the highest amplitude of vertical movements in the High Atlas (>4-5km) and more modest amounts in the Anti-Atlas and the Western Meseta (African peri-cratonic zone including the Western Meseta and the Anti-Atlas in addition to the Atlas and the Rif systems experienced Tertiary deformation. Two stages of folding are distinguished on the basis of low-thermal dating results along the pericratonic transect. The first is a lithospherical folding of ~500km in the Late Cretaceous (confirming that this process is a primary response to recently induced compressional stress fields) and the second is a crustal folding of ~100-150km wavelength in the Late Eocene that occurred independently to the mantle, requiring therefore the existence of a decoupling in between the base of the crust and the high mantle.

  14. Microfluidic magnetic bead conveyor belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Pelt, Stijn; Frijns, Arjan; den Toonder, Jaap

    2017-11-07

    Magnetic beads play an important role in the miniaturization of clinical diagnostics systems. In lab-on-chip platforms, beads can be made to link to a target species and can then be used for the manipulation and detection of this species. Current bead actuation systems utilize complex on-chip coil systems that offer low field strengths and little versatility. We demonstrate a novel system based on an external rotating magnetic field and on-chip soft-magnetic structures to focus the field locally. These structures were designed and optimized using finite element simulations in order to create a number of local flux density maxima. These maxima, to which the magnetic beads are attracted, move over the chip surface in a continuous way together with the rotation of the external field, resulting in a mechanism similar to that of a conveyor belt. A prototype was fabricated using PDMS molding techniques mixed with iron powder for the magnetic structures. In the subsequent experiments, a quadrupole electromagnet was used to create the rotating external field. We observed that beads formed agglomerates that rolled over the chip surface, just above the magnetic structures. Field rotation frequencies between 0.1-50 Hz were tested resulting in magnetic bead speeds of over 1 mm s -1 for the highest frequency. With this, we have shown that our novel concept works, combining a simple design and simple operation with a powerful and versatile method for bead actuation. This makes it a promising method for further research and utilization in lab-on-chip systems.

  15. Analysis of stress distribution of timing belts by FEM; Yugen yosoho ni yoru timing belt oryoku kaiseki (belt code oryoku bunpu kaiseki hokoku)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furukawa, Y; Tomono, K; Takahashi, H; Uchida, T [Honda R and D Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    A model of the belt analyzed by-ABAQUS (: a general nonlinear finite element program) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates the belt cord stress. A quite good agreement between experimental and computed results for the stress distribution of the belt cord. It is found that maximum stress of the cords occurs near the root of the tooth by calculation, where the belt cords break off. 3 refs., 9 figs.

  16. Influence of the Istranca-Rhodope Massifs and strands of the North Anatolian Fault on oil potential of Thrace Basin, NW Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, B.

    2000-01-01

    The Thrace Basin (NW Turkey) is an intermontane trough bounded to the north and west by the granitic and metamorphic rocks of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs. Recent subsurface studies of the NW portion of the Thrace Basin have led to the identification of two trends in geothermal gradient, both of which are oriented approximately NW-SE (i.e. parallel to the depositional axis of the basin). Geological and geophysical data indicate that, due to the thrust of the Istranca Massif upon the Rhodope Massif, the subsurface temperature may have increased in the northern part of the basin. Other controls were wrench-fault activity of the Splays of the North Anatolian Fault (SNAF) and continuing basinal subsidences. The thermal history of the southern part of the basin was affected by Miocene ophiolitic emplacement to the west in Greece. The presence of a belt of intrabasinal palaeotopography (mainly Palaeozoic rocks) also contributed to increased geothermal gradients in the southern part of the study area. The basin is divisible into northern and southern zones of subsidence, which are separated by the Kuleli-Babaeski High. During the Oligocene, subsidence rates were highest in the northern zone and in the western sector of the southern zone. Later, during the Miocene, basin subsidence was associated with intense tectonic activity of the SNAF and with the emplacement of ophiolites to the west. A map of the top of the oil generation zone, based on TTI values calculated by the Lopatin method, indicates the presence of two maturation zones in the basin ; these were separated by the Late Oligocene Kuleli-Babaeski High. Oil generation in these zones was influenced by rapid subsidence, by a NW-SE oriented wrench fault system associated with the NAF and also by tectonic activity of the Istranca and Rhodope Massifs in the study area

  17. [Spatial characteristics of soil organic carbon and nitrogen storages in Songnen Plain maize belt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chun-Hua; Wang, Zong-Ming; Ren, Chun-Ying; Song, Kai-Shan; Zhang, Bai; Liu, Dian-Wei

    2010-03-01

    By using the data of 382 typical soil profiles from the second soil survey at national and county levels, and in combining with 1:500000 digital soil maps, a spatial database of soil profiles was established. Based on this, the one meter depth soil organic carbon and nitrogen storage in Songnen Plain maize belt of China was estimated, with the spatial characteristics of the soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities as well as the relationships between the soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities and the soil types and land use types analyzed. The soil organic carbon and nitrogen storage in the maize belt was (163.12 +/- 26.48) Tg and (9.53 +/- 1.75) Tg, respectively, mainly concentrated in meadow soil, chernozem, and black soil. The soil organic carbon and nitrogen densities were 5.51-25.25 and 0.37-0.80 kg x m(-2), respectively, and the C/N ratio was about 7.90 -12.67. The eastern and northern parts of the belt had much higher carbon and nitrogen densities than the other parts of the belt, and upland soils had the highest organic carbon density [(19.07 +/- 2.44) kg x m(-2)], forest soils had the highest nitrogen density [(0.82 +/- 0.25) kg x m(-2)], while lowland soils had the lower organic carbon and nitrogen densities.

  18. The significance of strike-slip faulting in the basement of the Zagros fold and thrust belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hessami, K.; Koyi, H.A.; Talbot, C.J. [Uppsala University (Sweden). Institute of Earth Sciences

    2000-01-01

    Lateral offsets in the pattern of seismicity along the Zagros fold and thrust belt indicate that transverse faults segmenting the Arabian basement are active deep-seated strike-slip faults. The dominant NW-SE trending features of the belt have undergone repeated horizontal displacements along these transverse faults. These reactivated basement faults, which are inherited from the Pan-African construction phase, controlled both deposition of the Phanerozoic cover before Tertiary-Recent deformation of the Zagros and probably the entrapment of hydrocarbons on the NE margin of Arabia and in the Zagros area. We have used observations of faulting recognized on Landsat satellite images, in conjunction with the spatial distribution of earthquakes and their focal mechanism solutions, to infer a tectonic model for the Zagros basement. Deformation in the NW Zagros appears to be concentrated on basement thrusts and a few widely-spaced north-south trending strike-slip faults which separate major structural segments. In the SE Zagros, two main structural domains can be distinguished. A domain of NNW-trending right-lateral faults in the northern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks are likely to have rotated anticlockwise about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. In contrast, the predominance of NNE-trending left-lateral faults in the southern part of the SE Zagros implies that fault-bounded blocks may have rotated clockwise about vertical axes. We propose a tectonic model in which crustal blocks bounded by strike-slip faults in a zone of simple shear rotate about vertical axes relative to both Arabia and Central Iran. The presence of domains of strike-slip and thrust faulting in the Zagros basement suggest that some of the convergence between Arabia and Central Iran is accommodated by rotation and possible lateral movement of crust along the belt by strike-slip faults, as well as by obvious crustal shortening and thickening along thrust

  19. Montane pollen from the Tertiary of NW. Borneo

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, J.

    1966-01-01

    In NW. Borneo thick series of Tertiary sediments occur which are rich in fossil pollen and spores. The majority of these plant microfossils were derived from the various types of tropical lowland vegetation such as mangrove (Muller, 1964), mixed peat swamp forest and mixed Dipterocarp forest. Some

  20. Hydrogeology of the basalts in the Uruguayan NW

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausman, A.; Fernandez, A.

    1967-01-01

    This work is about the hydrogeological aspects in the NW Uruguayan basaltic area. The results of this research are the main geological, morphological and hydrogeological aspects of the area as well as the characteristics and the color of the basalt and sandstones

  1. Palaeofloods and ancient fishing weirs in NW Iberian rivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viveen, W.; Sanjurjo-Sanchez, J.; Goy-Dizc, A.; Veldkamp, A.; Schoorl, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    A 15-m-thick, fluvial sedimentary record of the NW Iberian lower Miño River was studied. Grain-size analyses were performed and twelve samples were dated using optically stimulated luminescence dating techniques, documenting a 1300-yr-old reconstructed fluvial record that does not match with known

  2. Radiometric measurement independent of profile. Belt weighers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otto, J.

    1986-01-01

    Radiometric measuring techniques allow contactless determination of the material carried by belt conveyors. Data defining the material is obtained via attenuation of gamma rays passing through the material on the belt. The method applies the absorption law according to Lambert-Beer, which has to be corrected by a build-up factor because of the stray radiation induced by the Compton effect. The profile-dependent error observed with conventional radiometric belt weighers is caused by the non-linearity of the absorption law in connection with the simultaneous summation of the various partial rays in a detector. The scanning method allows separate evaluation of the partial rays' attenuation and thus yields the correct data of the material carried, regardless of the profile. The scanning method is applied on a finite number of scanning sections, and a residual error has to be taken into account. The stochastics of quantum emission and absorption leads to an error whose expectation value is to be taken into account in the scanning algorithm. As the conveyor belt is in motion during the process of measurements, only part of the material conveyed is irradiated. The resulting assessment error is investigated as a function of the autocorrelation function of the material on the belt. (orig./HP) [de

  3. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r ∼ 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  4. Storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics: Repeatability in the outer radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. R.; Mann, I. R.; Rae, J.; Watt, C.; Boyd, A. J.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Fennell, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    During intervals of enhanced solar wind driving the outer radiation belt becomes extremely dynamic leading to geomagnetic storms. During these storms the flux of energetic electrons can vary by over 4 orders of magnitude. Despite recent advances in understanding the nature of competing storm-time electron loss and acceleration processes the dynamic behavior of the outer radiation belt remains poorly understood; the outer radiation belt can exhibit either no change, an enhancement, or depletion in radiation belt electrons. Using a new analysis of the total radiation belt electron content, calculated from the Van Allen probes phase space density (PSD), we statistically analyze the time-dependent and global response of the outer radiation belt during storms. We demonstrate that by removing adiabatic effects there is a clear and repeatable sequence of events in storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. Namely, the relativistic (μ=1000 MeV/G) and ultra-relativistic (μ=4000 MeV/G) electron populations can be separated into two phases; an initial phase dominated by loss followed by a second phase dominated by acceleration. At lower energies, the radiation belt seed population of electrons (μ=150 MeV/G) shows no evidence of loss but rather a net enhancement during storms. Further, we investigate the dependence of electron dynamics as a function of the second adiabatic invariant, K. These results demonstrate a global coherency in the dynamics of the source, relativistic and ultra-relativistic electron populations as function of the second adiabatic invariant K. This analysis demonstrates two key aspects of storm-time radiation belt electron dynamics. First, the radiation belt responds repeatably to solar wind driving during geomagnetic storms. Second, the response of the radiation belt is energy dependent, relativistic electrons behaving differently than lower energy seed electrons. These results have important implications in radiation belt research. In particular

  5. A time series deformation estimation in the NW Himalayas using SBAS InSAR technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.; Venkataraman, G.

    2012-12-01

    A time series land deformation studies in north western Himalayan region has been presented in this study. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (InSAR) is an important tool for measuring the land displacement caused by different geological processes [1]. Frequent spatial and temporal decorrelation in the Himalayan region is a strong impediment in precise deformation estimation using conventional interferometric SAR approach. In such cases, advanced DInSAR approaches PSInSAR as well as Small base line subset (SBAS) can be used to estimate earth surface deformation. The SBAS technique [2] is a DInSAR approach which uses a twelve or more number of repeat SAR acquisitions in different combinations of a properly chosen data (subsets) for generation of DInSAR interferograms using two pass interferometric approach. Finally it leads to the generation of mean deformation velocity maps and displacement time series. Herein, SBAS algorithm has been used for time series deformation estimation in the NW Himalayan region. ENVISAT ASAR IS2 swath data from 2003 to 2008 have been used for quantifying slow deformation. Himalayan region is a very active tectonic belt and active orogeny play a significant role in land deformation process [3]. Geomorphology in the region is unique and reacts to the climate change adversely bringing with land slides and subsidence. Settlements on the hill slopes are prone to land slides, landslips, rockslides and soil creep. These hazardous features have hampered the over all progress of the region as they obstruct the roads and flow of traffic, break communication, block flowing water in stream and create temporary reservoirs and also bring down lot of soil cover and thus add enormous silt and gravel to the streams. It has been observed that average deformation varies from -30.0 mm/year to 10 mm/year in the NW Himalayan region . References [1] Massonnet, D., Feigl, K.L.,Rossi, M. and Adragna, F. (1994) Radar interferometry mapping of

  6. 78 FR 28194 - Certain Magnesia Carbon Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-14

    ... Bricks From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the Final Results of the 2010-2011... of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482-4047... duty order on certain magnesia carbon bricks from the People's Republic of China.\\1\\ The period of...

  7. 77 FR 25136 - Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Parts Thereof From the People's Republic of China; Extension of Time Limit for Final Results of..., U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230... certain parts thereof from the People's Republic of China. See Hand Trucks and Certain Parts Thereof from...

  8. 77 FR 37653 - Utility Scale Wind Towers From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-22

    ... From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty Determination With Final... People's Republic of China (PRC) with the final determination in the companion antidumping duty (AD..., 14th Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: 202-482-4793 and 202-482-1503...

  9. Security Belt for Wireless Implantable Medical Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulaç, Selman

    2017-09-19

    In this study, a new protective design compatible with existing non-secure systems was proposed, since it is focused on the secure communication of wireless IMD systems in all transmissions. This new protector is an external wearable device and appears to be a belt fitted around for the patients IMD implanted. However, in order to provide effective full duplex transmissions and physical layer security, some sophisticated transceiver antennas have been placed on the belt. In this approach, beam-focused multi-antennas in optimal positions on the belt are randomly switched when transmissions to the IMD are performed and multi-jammer switching with MRC combining or majority-rule based receiving techniques are applied when transmissions from the IMD are carried out. This approach can also reduce the power consumption of the IMDs and contribute to the prolongation of the IMD's battery life.

  10. Estimates Of Radiation Belt Remediation Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuszewski, M.; Hoyt, R. P.; Minor, B. M.

    2004-12-01

    A low-Earth orbit nuclear detonation could produce an intense artificial radiation belt of relativistic electrons. Many satellites would be destroyed within a few weeks. We present here simple estimates of radiation belt remediation by several different techniques, including electron absorption by gas release, pitch angle scattering by steady electric and magnetic fields from tether arrays, and pitch angle scattering by wave-particle interactions from in-situ transmitters. For each technique, the mass, size, and power requirements are estimated for a one-week remediation (e-folding) timescale, assuming that a 10 kTon blast trapped 1024 fission product electrons (1 to 8 MeV) at L = 1.5 in a dipolar belt of width dL = 0.1.

  11. [Discussion on exploitation of foreign traditional chinese medicine resources based on "the Belt and Road"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Bo; Lyu, Dong-Mei; Huang, Lu-Qi; Li, Meng; Guo, Lan-Ping; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2018-04-01

    At the beginning of the ancient "Silk Road", traditional Chinese medicine resources (TCM resources) have long been integrated into it, and it was once the "important part" of the ancient "Silk Road" in Chinese history, benefited from this, the political connections was strengthened, the economic and trade was developed, and Chinese medicine culture was spread. Before Qing Dynasty, people took out the "silk" and brought back "herbs" on the "Silk Road", which enriched China's medicinal resources. While in the later Qing Dynasty and the period of the Republic of China, more scientific and technological methods were brought back from abroad, and this in turn enriched the medical research methods. With more than 2 000 years' development, China's boundaries have changed countless times, therefore the word "Foreign" has different meanings in different historical periods. The import, development and utilization of foreign TCM resources is different in different historical periods, at present, with the continuous enhancement of China's comprehensiv national strength,especially the "Belt And Road" strategy, the communication and import of TCM resources with countries that participating in the "Belt and Road" initiativ became much easier. In order to actively respond to the "Belt and Road" initiative promote the development and utilization of foreign medicinal resources; serve people from the countries participating in the "Belt and Road" initiative we sorted out the foreign TCM resources from different periods in ancient and modern China, and based on this, we proposed the strategy of import of foreign TCM resources under the new situation, those are: "three levels, four steps, one support and one key". And "three levels" refers to intelligence collection level, field investigation level, scientific research level, "Four steps" refers to the original identification research, safety evaluation research, functional positioning research and medicinal properties research; "One

  12. El Chichón Volcano (Chiapas Volcanic Belt, Mexico) Transitional Calc-Alkaline to Adakitic-Like Magmatism: Petrologic and Tectonic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ignacio San José, Cristina de; Castiñeiras García, Pedro; Márquez González, Álvaro; Oyarzun, Roberto; Lillo Ramos, F. Javier; López Ruiz-Labranderas, Iván

    2003-01-01

    The rocks of the 1982 eruption of El Chichón volcano (Chiapas, Mexico) display a series of geochemical and mineralogical features that make them a special case within the NW-trending Chiapas volcanic belt. The rocks are transitional between normal arc and adakitic-like trends. They are anhydrite-rich, and were derived from a water-rich, highly oxidized sulfur-rich magma, thus very much resembling adakitic magmas (e.g., the 1991 Pinatubo eruption). We propose that these rocks we...

  13. K-Ar cooling age profile from Joinville massif (PR and SC, Brazil) and Dom Feliciano belt (SC, Brazil) - Tectonics entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siga Junior, O.; Basei, M.A.S.; Kawashita, K.

    1990-01-01

    A K-Ar cooling age profile using different minerals from metamorphic rocks of the Joinville Massif and Dom Feliciano Belt is presented. Three main geochronological domains are distinguishable, from NW to SE: 1) Northern part of the Joinville Massif (NJM); 2) Southern part of the Joinville Massif (SJM) and 3) Dom Feliciano Belt (DBF). Geochronological domains 1 and 3 yielded K-Ar values in the range 800-500 Ma and 700-500 Ma, respectively, which show a clear influence of the Brasiliano Cycle. The granulite terrain comprising the SMJ exhibits ages older than 1700 Ma, indicating that this area was cool during the Late Proterozoic Brasiliano Cycle. The SJM and NJM limit is marked by a rapid Transition from Early Proterozoic ages in the SJM to Late Proterozoic ages in the NJM. On the other hand the contact between the SJM and DFB is interpreted as a thrust at a high, relatively cool crustal level. (author)

  14. SMALL MAIN-BELT ASTEROID SPECTROSCOPIC SURVEY, PHASE II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains visible-wavelength (0.435-0.925 micron) spectra for 1341 main-belt asteroids observed during the second phase of the Small Main-belt Asteroid...

  15. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are ... major types of schist belts are identified in the ... Dharwar craton; Gadag schist belt; gravity method; inversion. ..... the Research Associateship of Dr D Himabindu.

  16. A Study on the International Tourism of Jiangxi Province under the Guidance of One Belt, One Road Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Xiaojing

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, with the shift and violent development of economic globalization and sciences and technology, the connection between counties and citizens all over the world has become more and more intimate, so that the international tourism develops quickly and has become one of the important revenue sources gradually. In 2013, China proposed the new strategic thought of One Belt, One Road (the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. Jiangxi province will bring its local regional superiority to full play under the guidance of the strategic thought, and powerfully cooperate with neighboring provinces and cities, in order to actively participate in the international tourism market and attempt to make its international tourism bigger and stronger. As the national strategic pillar industry, tourism plays an important role in the regional industrial structure adjustment and upgrade. Possessing the characteristics of strong integration, high interactivity and wide expansibility, tourism is the important engine to accelerate the development of urban economy. In September and October of 2013,during the visit of Chinese President Xi Jinping to countries of Central and East Asia, he successively proposed the significant suggestions of the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road, and the two of them were collectively intituled as One Belt, One Road New Strategic Thought. Silk Road Economic Belt covers the integration of the Southeast and Northeast Asian Economy entities which were eventually merged to lead to Europe. 21st Century Maritime Silk Road refers to unite Europe, Asia and Africa at sea in order to form a complete economic belt. Based on the increasingly deepening of economic integration, One Belt, One Road New Strategy is an international strategy which possesses the strategic importance of promoting industry upgrading and accelerating the transformation of economic growth mode for the purpose of mutual

  17. Origin and Development of El Bajío Basin in the Central Sector of Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botero, P. A.; Alaniz Álvarez, S. A.; Nieto Samaniego, Á. F.; Lopez-Martinez, M.; Levresse, G.; Xu, S.; Ortega Obregón, C.

    2015-12-01

    Volcanism of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt has been placed on pre-existing tectonic basins; one of them is El Bajío Basin. We present the origin and evolution of this basin through the study of its deformation events occurring mainly on the El Bajío fault, at the boundary between the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt and the Mesa Central. Detailed stratigraphy, and structural analysis suggest 4 deformation events in the northwest of the Sierra de Guanajuato. The first event (D1) with E-W shortening is characterized by the development of axial plane foliation (S1) with N-S direction, this event occurred between the Tithonian and Aptian age. In the second event (D2), occurred between the Albian and the early Eocene, foliations NW-SE (S2) were generated with a NE-SW shortening trend dated between the Albian and early Eocene, this deformation is related to the Laramide Orogeny. The Granito Comanja was emplaced during the third event (D3) and generated foliation (S3) in sediments of the complejo vulcanosedimentario Sierra de Guanajuato that circumscribes the Granito Comanja in response to its intrusion. After its emplacement, NW-SE normal faults were generated along the S-SE contact of the Granito Comanja, at that time El Bajío fault began. The fourth event (D4) has three phases that affected the sedimentary and volcanic Cenozoic rocks. D4F1 is marked by continental conglomerates deposition with variable thickness along of the main trace of the El Bajío fault. D4F2 affected the Oligocene volcanic rocks showing an important fault activity at that time, as evidenced the tilting above 45o in the Oligocene rocks, temporarily coincides with the triaxial extension to the Mesa Central. The direction of elongation of D4F3 is ESE-WNW, El Bajío fault had little movement. Since the Miocene the deformation was concentrated along the southern central sector of the Trans-mexican Volcanic Belt and there were few deformation in the Mesa central. During the three phases of deformation

  18. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved under...

  19. Green operations of belt conveyors by means of speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors can be partially loaded due to the variation of bulk material flow loaded onto the conveyor. Speed control attempts to reduce the belt conveyor energy consumption and to enable the green operations of belt conveyors. Current research of speed control rarely takes the conveyor dynamics

  20. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either ...

  1. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... the airplane who is at least 2 years old; and (2) An approved safety belt for separate use by each...

  2. The inter-decadal correlation between summer arctic oscillation and summer drought and moist characteristic of northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Pengxiang; Zheng, Youfei; Sun, Landong; Ren, Zhenhe; He, Jinhai; Zhang, Qiang

    2007-09-01

    In the context of 1960~2003 summertime rainfall and small-sized pan evaporations from 131 stations distributed over NW China covering Xinjiang, Qinghai, Gansu, Ningxia, Shaanxi as well as western Nei Mongolia, and Arctic Oscillation Indices (AOI) we define a homogenized index for aridity or wetness feature, with which to examine the relations between AOI and NW China aridity-wetness regime, indicating their noticeable relations on an interdecadal basis. It is found that during the decade of summer Arctic oscillation stronger than mean, the sea level pressure field shows positive (negative) anomalies over Asian landmass, a stronger anticyclonic anomaly circulation appears at 700 hPa over Lake Baikal and to the south, westerly (northerly) departure emerges in the westerly (monsoon) portion of NW China, as well as over NW China there appears a structure with a low in the west and a high in the east at the 500 hPa height field, suggestive of east-Asian summer monsoon weaker than normal such that westerly flows prevail in the westerly zone of NW China, leading to rainfall more than mean for a wetter climate while in its monsoon area the northerly winds are dominant, with precipitation less than normal, resulting in a climate drier in comparison to mean and v.v. for the decade with summer AO weaker than normal.

  3. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  4. Bayesian inference of radiation belt loss timescales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camporeale, E.; Chandorkar, M.

    2017-12-01

    Electron fluxes in the Earth's radiation belts are routinely studied using the classical quasi-linear radial diffusion model. Although this simplified linear equation has proven to be an indispensable tool in understanding the dynamics of the radiation belt, it requires specification of quantities such as the diffusion coefficient and electron loss timescales that are never directly measured. Researchers have so far assumed a-priori parameterisations for radiation belt quantities and derived the best fit using satellite data. The state of the art in this domain lacks a coherent formulation of this problem in a probabilistic framework. We present some recent progress that we have made in performing Bayesian inference of radial diffusion parameters. We achieve this by making extensive use of the theory connecting Gaussian Processes and linear partial differential equations, and performing Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling of radial diffusion parameters. These results are important for understanding the role and the propagation of uncertainties in radiation belt simulations and, eventually, for providing a probabilistic forecast of energetic electron fluxes in a Space Weather context.

  5. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    , the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  6. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... passenger has not been shown to affect the safety of an unborn baby in a crash. Injuries from car crashes tend to be less serious in people who are sitting in the back seat. If you are not driving, you may want to sit in the back seat. It is still important to wear a seat belt, no matter where ...

  7. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  8. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  9. Energy efficient idler for belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.K.; Chattopadhyay, A. [Indian School of Mines Univ., Dhanbad (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Mining; Soni, R.; Bhattnagar, M.

    2009-07-01

    In today's economic and legal environment, energy efficiency has become more important than ever. This paper proposes a new design of idler rollers for belt conveyors that could help to them even more efficient by reducing their energy consumption and also their CO{sub 2} footprint. (orig.)

  10. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  11. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  12. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  13. Mafic magmatism in the Bakhuis Granulite Belt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaver, M.; de Roever, E.W.F.; Thijssen, A.C.D.; Bleeker, W.; Söderlund, U.; Chamberlain, K.; Ernst, R.; Berndt, J.; Zeh, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Bakhuis Granulite Belt (BGB) is a metamorphic terrain within the Guiana Shield that experienced ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) metamorphism at 2.07–2.05Ga. In the southwest of the BGB, the Kabalebo charnockites were emplaced at ca. 1.99Ga and thus postdate UHT metamorphism by at least 60Myr. Two

  14. Origin of Permian OIB-like basalts in NW Thailand and implication on the Paleotethyan Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuejun; He, Huiying; Zhang, Yuzhi; Srithai, Boontarika; Feng, Qinglai; Cawood, Peter A.; Fan, Weiming

    2017-03-01

    The basaltic rocks in NW Thailand belong to part of giant Southeast Asian igneous zone that delineates the extension of the Paleotethyan Ocean from SW China into NW Thailand. The Chiang Mai basaltic samples from the Chiang Dao, Fang, Lamphun and Ban Sahakorn sections are divisible into two groups of high-iron basalt. Group 1 has SiO2 of 38.30-49.18 wt.%, FeOt of 13.09-25.37 wt.%, MgO of 8.38-1.60 wt.%, TiO2 of 3.92-6.30 wt.%, which is rarely observed in nature. Group 2 shows SiO2 = 44.71-49.21 wt.%, FeOt = 10.88-14.34 wt.%, MgO = 5.24-16.11 wt.%, TiO2 = 2.22-3.07 wt.% and mg# = 44-70. Olivine and pyroxene are responsible for the fractionation of the Group 2 magma whereas low oxygen fugacity during the late-stage differentiation of the Group 1 magma prolonged fractionation of ilmenite and magnetite. The onset of ilmenite and magnetite fractionations controls the distinct differentiation commencing at MgO = 7 wt.%. Both groups show similar REE and primitive mantle-normalized patterns with insignificant Eu, Nb-Ta and Zr-Hf anomalies. They have similar Nd isotopic compositions with εNd (t) values ranging from + 2.8 to + 3.7 and similar Nb/La, Nb/U, Th/La, Zr/Nb, Th/Ta, La/Yb, Nb/Th, Nb/Y and Zr/Y, resembling those of OIB-like rocks. The representative basaltic sample yields the argon plateau age of 282.3 ± 1.4 Ma, suggestive of Early Permian origin. Our data argue for Group 1 and Group 2 are coeval in the intra-oceanic seamount setting within the Paleotethyan Ocean, which at least continued till 283 Ma. These data, along with other observations, suggest that the Inthanon zone defines the main Paleotethyan suture zone, which northerly links with the Changning-Menglian suture zone in SW China.

  15. NW Pacific mid-depth ventilation changes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rella, S.; Uchida, M.

    2010-12-01

    During the last 50 years the oxygen content of North Pacific Intermediate Water primarily originating in the Okhotsk Sea has declined suggesting decreased mid-depth water circulation, likely leading to changes in biological productivity in the NW Pacific realm and a decrease in CO2 drawdown. It is therefore of high interest to elucidate the climate-oceanic interconnections of the present interglacial period (Holocene) in the NW Pacific, in order to predict possible future climate and surface productivity changes associated with a decrease in mid-depth ventilation in this ecologically sensitive region. However, such efforts have been hampered so far by the lack of appropriate sediment cores with fast sedimentation rates during the Holocene. Core CK05-04 that was recovered in 2005 from off Shimokita peninsula, Japan, at ~1000 m depth shows sedimentation rates of ~80 cm/kyr during the Holocene and therefore presents an ideal opportunity to reconstruct for the first time the Holocene ventilation history of the NW Pacific Ocean. We employ Accelerator Mass Spectroscopy (NIES-TERRA, Tsukuba) radiocarbon analysis of co-existing benthic and planktonic foraminifera to conclude on the ventilation age of the mid-depth water using benthic-planktonic radiocarbon age differences. At the conference we would like to present the results.

  16. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  17. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  18. Dynamics Analysis and Modeling of Rubber Belt in Large Mine Belt Conveyors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Yang

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rubber belt not only is one of the key components of belt conveyor, but also affects the overall performance of the core part. Research on dynamics analysis of large conveyor not only helps to improve the reliability and design level, but also can guide the rational selection of conveyor safety factor, and effectively reduce the cost of the conveyor belt. Based on unique viscoelastic properties of belt conveyor, it was simplified as one-dimensional viscoelastic rod in this study, and then a discrete element model of conveyor systems was established. The kinetic equations of each discrete unit was derived using kinetic energy, potential energy of driving segment, bearing segment and return segment and equation of energy dissipation and Lagrange equation. Based on Wilson-q algorithm, the kinetic equation of DT1307-type ST2000's conveyor belt was solved by using Matlab to write computer programs. Research on the change rule of conveyor displacement, velocity, acceleration and dynamic tension during the boot process revealed the working mechanism of nonlinear viscoelastic, which lay the theoretical foundation for dynamic performance optimization of large belt conveyor. The calculation results were used to optimize design and analysis of conveyor system, the result showed that it could reduce the driven tension peaks about 12 %, save 5 % of overall manufacturing cost, which bring considerable profits for enterprises.

  19. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    OpenAIRE

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-01-01

    Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  20. Determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in using of belt conveyor intermediate drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goncharov K.A.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Method of determination of relative immobile and sliding areas between carrying and tractive belts in places of mount-ing of belt conveyor intermediate drives made in the form of tractive contours is proposed. The example shows potential of this method in multidrive belt conveyor design process.

  1. Method of monitoring, inspecting or testing conveyor belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Walt, A.J.

    1985-01-01

    An invention is discussed which provides a method, installation and kit for monitoring, inspecting or testing a conveyor belt. Provision is made to transmit penetrating rays such as X-rays through a moving conveyor belt, forming a visible moving image from rays transmitted through the belt, and visually inspecting such moving image, after recording it if desired, to ascertain the condition of the interior of the belt. Typically an X-ray tube head is used to transmit the rays through the belt to a fluorescent screen which forms the image. The moving image can be recorded by means of a video camera

  2. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  3. The performance of one belt and one road exchange rate: Based on improved singular spectrum analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Lin; Guo, Kun

    2017-10-01

    ;One Belt and One Road; strategy in China is on push of foreign trade openness at northwest, southwest and northeast, absorption of the excess capacity and new support for economic increase. However, the fluctuation in RMB exchange rate with the countries along the road is unstable so related Chinese enterprises will face high risk of exchange rate. Precise explanation or prediction for exchange rate has been the challengeable hop point in the international finance. This paper decomposed the One Belt One Road Exchange Rate Index (OBORR) and the RMB Effective Exchange Rate Index (CNYX) into trend term, market fluctuation term and noise term using improved singular spectrum analysis (SSA). It turns out that the increasing velocity of OBORR is greater than that of CNYX in the long term, and there is dynamic lead-lag structure in the medium term. In the short term, the fluctuation range and frequency of OBORR are greater than those of CNYX, which means there will be more exchange rate risks in One Belt and One Road countries.

  4. China’s economic interests in the “One Belt, One Road” initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silin Yakov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the “One Belt – One Road” initiative of China aimed at the development of transport and logistics infrastructure on the trade route from China to Europe. The authors pay special attention to the history of the Silk Road, which serves as an ideological basis for the modern initiative. The scale of the new project allows the authors to expect that its impact on the international trade will be comparable with the contribution of the historical Silk Road to the development of the global economy as we know it. The authors analyze the prospects of the development and implementation of the initiative in terms of China’s economic interests. The most significant threats associated with the initiative are identified.

  5. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  6. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  7. Drivers' attitudes toward front or rear child passenger belt use and seat belt reminders at these seating positions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, David G; McCartt, Anne T

    2014-01-01

    Passengers, especially those in rear seating positions, use seat belts less frequently than drivers. In-vehicle technology can inform drivers when their passengers are unbuckled and encourage passengers to use belts. The current study collected information about drivers' attitudes toward passenger belt use and belt reminders for front passengers and children in back seats. A national telephone survey of 1218 people 18 and older was conducted, of which 477 respondents were drivers who transport a front seat passenger at least once a week and 254 were drivers who transport an 8- to 15-year-old child in the back seat. Respondents were asked about their attitudes toward belt use by their front passengers or rear child passengers and preferences for different passenger belt reminder features. Ninety percent of drivers who regularly transport front seat passengers said that the passengers always use seat belts. Reported belt use was even higher among 8- to 15-year-old children in the back seat (97%). Among the drivers whose children do not always buckle up, about half said their child unbuckled the belt during the trip. Almost every full-time belt use driver (96%) would encourage front passengers to buckle up if not belted, compared to 57 percent of part-time belt users and nonusers. In contrast, nearly every driver who transports children in the back seat would encourage their belt use, regardless of the driver's belt use habits. Most drivers who transport front passengers wanted passenger belt reminders to encourage passengers to buckle up. Most of these drivers wanted a chime/buzzer or warning light or text display and wanted the reminder to last indefinitely. Most drivers who transport child passengers in the rear seat wanted the vehicle to indicate whether child passengers are unbuckled. A large majority of these drivers wanted notifications via a visual diagram of seating positions and belt use, a chime/buzzer, and a warning light or text display. These drivers

  8. Understanding quaternions and the Dirac belt trick

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2π rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4π rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors has been achieved, or if the trick is just an amusing analogy. The goal of this paper is to demystify the belt trick and to show that it suggests an underlying four-dimensional parameter space for rotations that is simply connected. An investigation into the geometry of this four-dimensional space leads directly to the system of quaternions, and to an interpretation of three-dimensional vectors as the generators of rotations in this larger four-dimensional world. The paper also shows why quaternions are the natural extension of complex numbers to four dimensions. The level of the paper is suitable for undergraduate students of physics.

  9. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  10. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  11. Araguaia fold belt, new geochronological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafon, J.M.; Macambira, J.B.; Macambira, M.J.B.; Moura, C.A.V.; Souza, A.C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The northern part of the Araguaia Fold Belt (AFB) outcrops in a N-S direction for about 400 km in the state of Tocantins. Dome-like structures occur in this fold belt also in a N-S direction. Both deformation and metamorphism increase from the West to the East. The basement of the AFB consist of Colmeia complex and Cantao gneiss, which crop out mainly in the core of the dome-like structures. The supracrustals rocks of the fold belt belongs to the Baixo Araguaia supergroup which is divided into the lower Estrondo group and the upper Tocantins group. Preliminary Sm-Nd data from the Colmeia complex (Grota Rica dome) gave Archean model ages of 2.8 Ga (TNd sub(DM)) while Rb-Sr data in the same rocks give an age of 2530 ± 200 Ma. In the others dome-like structures, the Rb-Sr systematics gave ages for the Colmeia a complex of 2239 ± 47 Ma (Colmeia structure) and 1972 ± 46 Ma (Lontra structure). These younger ages are believed to represent partial to total isotopic resetting of the Rb-Sr system during the Transamazonian Event. The Rb-Sr studies of the Cantao gneiss gave an age of 1774 ± 31 Ma. (author)

  12. Anisotropy tomography beneath east-central China and its geodynamic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, G.; Zhang, G.

    2017-12-01

    The east-central China primary consists of the southeastern part of the North China Block (NCB), the Middle-Lower Yangtze Block (MLYB), the northern part of Cathaysia Block (CB) and the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu Orogen (QDSO) (Fig. 1). Previous studies have suggested that both the rich mineralization in MLYB and the ultra-high pressure metamorphic belts in QDSO are closely to the Cretaceous magmatism in the east-central China. For discussing the geodynamic process, we have used the teleseismic tomography to study the 3D P-wave velocity structure down to 800 km deep and proposed a double-slab subduction model. In the present study, we introduce another two parameters representing the azimuthal anisotropy based on the isotropy tomography. Compared with the SKS method, the anisotropy tomography can provide the velocity anisotropy structure in different depths. The new anisotropy results show that (1) high-velocity (high-V) anomalies exist beneath the Middle Yangtze Block (MYB) from 200 km to 700 km depths and beneath the Lower Yangtze Block from 500 km to 700 km depths, and (2) low-velocity (low-V) anomalies exist beneath the Lower Yangtze Block from 50 km to 200 km depths and beneath the CB from 300 km to 700 km depths, respectively, and (3) the fast directions of P-wave velocity at 50-100 km depths are chaotic, however they show some regular changes from 200 km to 600 km depths. At 200-km deep, the fast direction of the low-V beneath the LYB is nearly E-W-trending. With the depth increasing, the fast directions of the low-V beneath the CB from 300 km to 600 km depths change to NEE-trending. In other side, the fast directions of eastern part of the high-V beneath the MYB, close to the low-V beneath the CB, denote NW-trending from 300 km to 600 depths. Combing with previous studies, we explain the high-V and the low-V, mentioned above, as the ancient Yangtze Craton and the upwelling asthenospheric materials, respectively. In addition, the NE-trending fast directions in the

  13. Role of tectonic inheritance in the instauration of Tunisian Atlassic fold-and-thrust belt: Case of Bouhedma - Boudouaou structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanmi, Mohamed Abdelhamid; Ghanmi, Mohamed; Aridhi, Sabri; Ben Salem, Mohamed Sadok; Zargouni, Fouad

    2016-07-01

    Tectonic inversion in the Bouhedma-Boudouaou Mountains was investigated through recent field work and seismic lines interpretation calibrated with petroleum well data. Located to the Central-Southern Atlas of Tunisia, this area signed shortened intra-continental fold-and-thrust belts. Two dissymmetric anticlines characterize Bouhedma - Boudouaou major fold. These structures show a strong virgation respectively from E-W to NNE-SSW as a response to the interference between both tectonic inversion and tectonic inheritance. This complex geometry is driven by Mesozoic rifting, which marked an extensional inherited regime. A set of late Triassic-Early Jurassic E-W and NW-SE normal faults dipping respectively to the North and to the East seems to widely affect the overall geodynamic evolution of this domain. They result in major thickness changes across the hanging wall and the footwall blocks in response with the rifting activity. Tectonic inversion is inferred from convergence between African and European plates since late Cretaceous. During Serravalian - Tortonian event, NW-SE trending paroxysm led to: 1) folding of pre-inversion and syn-inversion strata, 2) reactivation of pre-existing normal faults to reverse ones and 3) orogeny of the main structures with NE-SW and E-W trending. The compressional feature still remains active during Quaternary event (Post-Villafranchian) with N-S trending compression. Contraction during inversion generates folding and internal deformation as well as Fault-Propagation-Fold and folding related strike.

  14. Late Quaternary deformation of the Longquan anticline in the Longmenshan thrust belt, eastern Tibet, and its tectonic implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Xu, Xi-Wei; Tan, Xi-Bin; Chen, Gui-Hua; Xu, Chong; Kang, Wen-Jun

    2015-11-01

    The 2008 Mw 7.9 Wenchuan earthquake and 2013 Mw 6.6 Lushan earthquake are a consequence of ongoing India-Tibet collision and reflect the growth of the Longmenshan thrust belt (LSTB). Assessing seismic hazards associated with the Longquan anticline and its contribution to crustal shortening of the LSTB requires understanding of its fold structure and activity. To address this, the geometry of fluvial terraces across the anticline was surveyed and measured by real-time kinematic (RTK), and these terraces were dated by using radiocarbon with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and optical stimulated luminescence (OSL) methods. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles suggest that the Longquan anticline grows laterally through kink-band migration and a total cumulative shortening is about 1.13 km in NW-SE direction. Combining with previous studies of depth of decollement, this yields a crustal shortening rate of ∼1.47 mm/yr in NW-SE direction and constrains the time of initiation of the Longquan anticline deformation to 1-2 Ma in the late Pliocene. Obviously, our result indicate that the Longquan anticline is active and potentially seismogenic, and that it should be incorporated into current regional seismic hazard models for the highly populated area of Sichuan basin.

  15. Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Stable Isotope Investigation of Gürkuyu Sb Mineralization (Gediz-Kütahya-NW Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim ÖZEN

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The Gürkuyu Sb mineralization is located in the western part of Anatolian tectonic belt, in southern part of İzmir-Ankara zone and in northern part of Menderes Massif. The mineralization located at west of the Koca hill in east of Gürkuyu village of Gediz (Kütahya-Turkey has been characterized through the detailed examinations involving sulfur and oxygen isotope. Serpentinites of Dağardı melange and crystallized limestones of Budağan limestone were hydrothermally altered by hydrothermal solutions, come from fissures and fractures due to tectonic movement during the thrust of melange and occurred silicified zone. Gürkuyu Sb mineralization suggest that occurred in this silicified zone. In Gürkuyu mineralization, primary ore minerals are antimonite and pyrite, secondary ore minerals are senarmontite, valentinite, orpiment and realgar. Quartz and calcite are the most common gangue minerals. In Gürkuyu Sb mineralization, δ34S values of stibnite are ranged from 1.0 ‰ to 1.3 ‰. δ18O values of quartz are ranged is 15.8 ‰ in Gürkuyu mineralization. Sulfur and oxygen isotope values are similar to the values for magmatic rocks and to the values for fluids of magmatic origin.Keywords: Stable isotope, Gürkuyu, Sb mineralization, Gediz, Kütahya, NW Turkey.

  16. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  17. Aquaculture research and management in the telecoupled Belt and Road Initiative countries and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Ying, Z.; Marín, T.

    2017-12-01

    Due to the continuous growth in aquatic product consumption, globally the total production of aquatic products has increased by 20% in the past two decades. In 2014, for the first time, the production of aquatic products for direct human consumption from aquaculture surpassed that of wild catch. In 2016, the total production of global aquatic products reached 170 million tons, of which 45% comes from the aquaculture sector. More importantly, over 80% of the global aquaculture production occurs in the Belt and Road Initiative countries. Particularly, China alone contributes to two third of the global share. The rapid expansion and intensification of aquaculture have many environmental and socioeconomic impacts both at the cultivation places and also in places where feed is produced; however, these telecoupled processes and effects are largely unknown in a quantitative manner. Here, we apply the telecoupling framework to analyze the aquaculture trade among China and other Belt and Road Initiative countries and beyond. The integrated telecoupling framework helps to demonstrate the environmental and socioeconomic interactions among the feed (and aquatic product) sending, receiving, and spillover systems. It also provides a platform to model the telecoupled processes and effects across multiple remotely connected systems. Moreover, the application of the framework reveals many research gaps and management needs on aquaculture research and management.

  18. Radiation Belts of Antiparticles in Planetary Magnetospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugacheva, G. I.; Gusev, A. A.; Jayanthi, U. B.; Martin, I. M.; Spjeldvik, W. N.

    2007-05-01

    The Earth's radiation belts could be populated, besides with electrons and protons, also by antiparticles, such as positrons (Basilova et al., 1982) and antiprotons (pbar). Positrons are born in the decay of pions that are directly produced in nuclear reactions of trapped relativistic inner zone protons with the residual atmosphere at altitudes in the range of about 500 to 3000 km over the Earth's surface. Antiprotons are born by high energy (E > 6 GeV) cosmic rays in p+p - p+p+p+ pbar and in p+p - p+p+n+nbar reactions. The trapping and storage of these charged anti-particles in the magnetosphere result in radiation belts similar to the classical Van Allen belts of protons and electrons. We describe the mathematical techniques used for numerical simulation of the trapped positron and antiproton belt fluxes. The pion and antiproton yields were simulated on the basis of the Russian nuclear reaction computer code MSDM, a Multy Stage Dynamical Model, Monte Carlo code, (i.e., Dementyev and Sobolevsky, 1999). For estimates of positron flux there we have accounted for ionisation, bremsstrahlung, and synchrotron energy losses. The resulting numerical estimates show that the positron flux with energy >100 MeV trapped into the radiation belt at L=1.2 is of the order ~1000 m-2 s-1 sr-1, and that it is very sensitive to the shape of the trapped proton spectrum. This confined positron flux is found to be greater than that albedo, not trapped, mixed electron/positron flux of about 50 m-2 s-1 sr-1 produced by CR in the same region at the top of the geomagnetic field line at L=1.2. As we show in report, this albedo flux also consists mostly of positrons. The trapped antiproton fluxes produced by CR in the Earth's upper rarified atmosphere were calculated in the energy range from 10 MeV to several GeV. In the simulations we included a mathematic consideration of the radial diffusion process, both an inner and an outer antiproton source, losses of particles due to ionization process

  19. Urban networks among Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road": A case of web search activity in cyberspace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Du, Hongru; Zhao, Yannan; Wu, Rongwei; Zhang, Xiaolei

    2017-01-01

    "The Belt and Road" initiative has been expected to facilitate interactions among numerous city centers. This initiative would generate a number of centers, both economic and political, which would facilitate greater interaction. To explore how information flows are merged and the specific opportunities that may be offered, Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road" are selected for a case study. Furthermore, urban networks in cyberspace have been characterized by their infrastructure orientation, which implies that there is a relative dearth of studies focusing on the investigation of urban hierarchies by capturing information flows between Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road". This paper employs Baidu, the main web search engine in China, to examine urban hierarchies. The results show that urban networks become more balanced, shifting from a polycentric to a homogenized pattern. Furthermore, cities in networks tend to have both a hierarchical system and a spatial concentration primarily in regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta region. Urban hierarchy based on web search activity does not follow the existing hierarchical system based on geospatial and economic development in all cases. Moreover, urban networks, under the framework of "the Belt and Road", show several significant corridors and more opportunities for more cities, particularly western cities. Furthermore, factors that may influence web search activity are explored. The results show that web search activity is significantly influenced by the economic gap, geographical proximity and administrative rank of the city.

  20. Urban networks among Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road": A case of web search activity in cyberspace.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Zhang

    Full Text Available "The Belt and Road" initiative has been expected to facilitate interactions among numerous city centers. This initiative would generate a number of centers, both economic and political, which would facilitate greater interaction. To explore how information flows are merged and the specific opportunities that may be offered, Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road" are selected for a case study. Furthermore, urban networks in cyberspace have been characterized by their infrastructure orientation, which implies that there is a relative dearth of studies focusing on the investigation of urban hierarchies by capturing information flows between Chinese cities along "the Belt and Road". This paper employs Baidu, the main web search engine in China, to examine urban hierarchies. The results show that urban networks become more balanced, shifting from a polycentric to a homogenized pattern. Furthermore, cities in networks tend to have both a hierarchical system and a spatial concentration primarily in regions such as Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta region. Urban hierarchy based on web search activity does not follow the existing hierarchical system based on geospatial and economic development in all cases. Moreover, urban networks, under the framework of "the Belt and Road", show several significant corridors and more opportunities for more cities, particularly western cities. Furthermore, factors that may influence web search activity are explored. The results show that web search activity is significantly influenced by the economic gap, geographical proximity and administrative rank of the city.

  1. Granulite belts of Central India with special reference to the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt: Significance in crustal evolution and implications for Columbia supercontinent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansutre, Sandeep; Hari, K. R.

    2010-11-01

    The Central Indian collage incorporates the following major granulite belts: (1) the Balaghat-Bhandara Granulite Belt (BBG), (2) the Ramakona-Katangi Granulite Belt (RKG), (3) the Chhatuabhavna Granulite (CBG) of Bilaspur-Raigarh Belt, (4) the Makrohar Granulite Belt (MGB) of Mahakoshal supracrustals, (5) the Kondagaon Granulite Belt (KGGB), (6) the Bhopalpatnam Granulite Belt (BGB), (7) the Konta Granulite Belt (KTGB) and (8) the Karimnagar Granulite Belt (KNGB) of the East Dharwar Craton (EDC). We briefly synthesize the general geologic, petrologic and geochronologic features of these belts and explain the Precambrian crustal evolution in Central India. On the basis of the available data, a collisional relationship between Bastar craton and the EDC during the Paleo-Mesoproterozoic is reiterated as proposed by the earlier workers. The tectonic evolution of only few of the orogenic belts (BGB in particular) of Central India is related to Columbia.

  2. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    OpenAIRE

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control. According to literature review, current research rarely takes the conveyor dynamics in transient operation into account. However, in belt conveyor speed control, the conveyor dynamic behaviors are signifi...

  3. Seat Belt Use Intention among Brazilian Undergraduate Students

    OpenAIRE

    TORQUATO, RENATA; FRANCO, CLÁUDIO M. A; BIANCHI, ALESSANDRA

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to explore self-reported seat belt use and group differences in different scenarios in a Brazilian sample and research the variables related to it. 120 college students answered a questionnaire with variables from the theory of planned behavior in order to evaluate the intention of seat belt use among car occupants. Results indicated that attitude and intention were the variables that most contributed to explaining seat belt use. Intention was highly correlat...

  4. Seismic evidence for multiple-stage exhumation of high/ultrahigh pressure metamorphic rocks in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yinhe; Zhao, Kaifeng; Tang, Chi-Chia; Xu, Yixian

    2018-05-01

    The Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in China contains one of the largest exposures of high and ultrahigh pressure (HP and UHP) metamorphic rocks in the world. The origin of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks and their exhumation to the surface in this belt have attracted great interest in the geologic community because the study of exhumation history of HP/UHP rocks helps to understand the process of continental-continental collision and the tectonic evolution of post-collision. However, the exhumation mechanism of the HP-UHP rocks to the surface is still contentious. In this study, by deploying 28 broadband seismic stations in the eastern Dabie orogenic belt and combining seismic data from 40 stations of the China National Seismic Network (CNSN), we image the high-resolution crustal isotropic shear velocity and radial anisotropy structure using ambient noise tomography. Our high-resolution 3D models provide new information about the exhumation mechanism of HP/UHP rocks and the origin of two dome structures.

  5. Discussion on several geological problems and uranium metallogeny on northern border of northern China block (platform)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hong.

    1987-01-01

    According to the informations from the satellite image and the field investigation the following geological events on the northern border of the Northern China Block are recognized and confirmed, duch as suture zones between blocks, folding-reversed fault zones, back-arc collision zones (faulted zones), transitional zone between platform and geosyncline, magmatic are and the double sturcture composed of NNE trend magmatic active belt and fault-depression belts (basins) of Yenshan-Ximalaya age. On thsee bases the following problems, such as the unique structural environment of uranium mineralization related to abyssal magmatic rocks and Yenshan magmatic active zone (including volcanic belt) on the northern border of the Northern China Block, the metallogenetic modes for urnaium deposits of 'magmatic type' and 'neutralized surface type' in fault-depression zone and the classification of uranium metallogenetic belts and the criteria for such classification are studied and discussed. Several uranium deposits are given for illustrations

  6. 75 FR 34974 - Drill Pipe From the People's Republic of China: Alignment of Final Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [C-570-966] Drill Pipe From the People's... duty investigation of drill pipe from the People's Republic of China (PRC) with the final determination....S. Department of Commerce, Room 4014, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230...

  7. Chinese Policy in Post-Soviet States. «One Belt — One Road Initiative»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya M. Borisova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Former Soviet Union countries is of special interest for China. Russian influence in former republics has been declining since the Soviet Union collapsed. China used these changes to start developing of bilateral relations with Central Asia states, as a first priority, and continued with Ukraine, Belorussia, South Caucasus governments. Former Soviet countries’ course to weaken Russian influence helped Chinese policy to be promoted. It has altered from bitty steps to concerted course in the region. China began to play a major role in the trade and economic development of Central Asia, supporting its policy with political mechanisms. To strengthen its positions, Beijing proposed its “One belt - one road” strategic initiative, which consists of two major projects : Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Route Economic Belt. These projects involve almost all of the former soviet states, of which Central Asian countries play a major part. This world region is seen in China as a platform for invading European markets, and it also provides a way to avoid trespassing of the Russian borders. In the context of Chinese “One road — one belt” initiative, there is a great concern of the cooperation with EAEU project. EAEU is aimed to provide coordinated unified economic policy with state-members, to guarantee the free movement of goods, capital and labour. Moscow sees its initiative as an instrument for construction of economic and political structure in the region, same as Beijing does. Possibility of two global projects coexistence, which can be distinguished as competitive, is a problem to be solved.   

  8. Health Monitoring for Coated Steel Belts in an Elevator System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaming Lei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a method of health monitoring for coated steel belts in an elevator system by measuring the electrical resistance of the ropes embedded in the belt. A model on resistance change caused by fretting wear and stress fatigue has been established. Temperature and reciprocating cycles are also taken into consideration when determining the potential strength degradation of the belts. It is proved by experiments that the method could effectively estimate the health degradation of the most dangerous section as well as other ones along the whole belts.

  9. Colors of Inner Disk Classical Kuiper Belt Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-07-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  10. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barclay, John A.; Stewart, Walter F.; Henke, Michael D.; Kalash, Kenneth E.

    1987-01-01

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  11. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1986-04-01

    The main design parameters used for belt conveyors in harbour applications are discussed. Conveyor belting including the carcass, belt cover, belt tension and speed, and safety factors, idlers, conveyor pulleys, motors, fluid couplings and drive arrangements are considered. Technical factors are briefly outlined for the designer to consider to achieve minimum acceptable component service life. A method is discussed to reduce coal degradation investigated using a test chute designed for the purpose of minimizing sized coal degradation at transfer points in the refurbishing of the Durban Coal Terminal. 24 references.

  12. COLORS OF INNER DISK CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanishin, W.; Tegler, S. C.; Consolmagno, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    We present new optical broadband colors, obtained with the Keck 1 and Vatican Advanced Technology telescopes, for six objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt. Objects in the inner classical Kuiper Belt are of interest as they may represent the surviving members of the primordial Kuiper Belt that formed interior to the current position of the 3:2 resonance with Neptune, the current position of the plutinos, or, alternatively, they may be objects formed at a different heliocentric distance that were then moved to their present locations. The six new colors, combined with four previously published, show that the ten inner belt objects with known colors form a neutral clump and a reddish clump in B-R color. Nonparametric statistical tests show no significant difference between the B-R color distribution of the inner disk objects compared to the color distributions of Centaurs, plutinos, or scattered disk objects. However, the B-R color distribution of the inner classical Kuiper Belt Objects does differ significantly from the distribution of colors in the cold (low inclination) main classical Kuiper Belt. The cold main classical objects are predominately red, while the inner classical belt objects are a mixture of neutral and red. The color difference may reveal the existence of a gradient in the composition and/or surface processing history in the primordial Kuiper Belt, or indicate that the inner disk objects are not dynamically analogous to the cold main classical belt objects.

  13. Earthquake activity along the Himalayan orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, L.; Mori, J. J.

    2017-12-01

    The collision between the Indian and Eurasian plates formed the Himalayas, the largest orogenic belt on the Earth. The entire region accommodates shallow earthquakes, while intermediate-depth earthquakes are concentrated at the eastern and western Himalayan syntaxis. Here we investigate the focal depths, fault plane solutions, and source rupture process for three earthquake sequences, which are located at the western, central and eastern regions of the Himalayan orogenic belt. The Pamir-Hindu Kush region is located at the western Himalayan syntaxis and is characterized by extreme shortening of the upper crust and strong interaction of various layers of the lithosphere. Many shallow earthquakes occur on the Main Pamir Thrust at focal depths shallower than 20 km, while intermediate-deep earthquakes are mostly located below 75 km. Large intermediate-depth earthquakes occur frequently at the western Himalayan syntaxis about every 10 years on average. The 2015 Nepal earthquake is located in the central Himalayas. It is a typical megathrust earthquake that occurred on the shallow portion of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). Many of the aftershocks are located above the MHT and illuminate faulting structures in the hanging wall with dip angles that are steeper than the MHT. These observations provide new constraints on the collision and uplift processes for the Himalaya orogenic belt. The Indo-Burma region is located south of the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, where the strike of the plate boundary suddenly changes from nearly east-west at the Himalayas to nearly north-south at the Burma Arc. The Burma arc subduction zone is a typical oblique plate convergence zone. The eastern boundary is the north-south striking dextral Sagaing fault, which hosts many shallow earthquakes with focal depth less than 25 km. In contrast, intermediate-depth earthquakes along the subduction zone reflect east-west trending reverse faulting.

  14. Dust bands in the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sykes, M.V.; Greenberg, R.; Dermott, S.F.; Nicholson, P.D.; Burns, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the original IRAS observations leading to the discovery of the three dust bands in the asteroid belt and the analysis of data. Special attention is given to an analytical model of the dust band torus and to theories concerning the origin of the dust bands, with special attention given to the collisional equilibrium (asteroid family), the nonequilibrium (random collision), and the comet hypotheses of dust-band origin. It is noted that neither the equilibrium nor nonequilibrium models, as currently formulated, present a complete picture of the IRAS dust-band observations. 32 refs

  15. On a new component of radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigorov, N.L.; Kurnosova, L.V.; Razorenov, L.A.; Remizov, A.S.; Fradkin, M.I.; Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of electron radiation belt filling with high-energy particles is discussed. Experimental data on particle fluxes in the Earth magnetosphere are presented. The experiments are carried out using the Cherenkov scintillation telescope installed on the ''Lightning-1'' satellite. Values of secondary particle flux obtained during the measurement at a height of 500 km and 30-40 th. km. coincide within the limits of errors. It is noted that secondary particle flux, equal to the albedo electron flux, is registered on large heights. This reason indicates the fact of forbidden angle filling with electrons with energies above 10 MeV

  16. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  17. The Fort Smith radioactive belt, Northwest Territories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbonneau, B.W.

    1980-01-01

    The Fort Smith Belt is an elongate zone, about 200 km x 50 km, extending from the East Arm of Great Slave Lake southerly into northeastern Alberta. The major feature of the belt is that it is one of the most radioactive regions so far recognized in the Canadian Shield. Potassium, uranium, and thorium are all enriched but the greatest increase is in thorium. The dominant rock type underlying the area is a foliated porphyritic granite. This rock contains an average of about 80 ppm thorium (with areas of tens of square kilometres containing up to 200 ppm) and approximately 11 ppm uranium. In places, dark elongate zones rich in biotite, apatite, and opaque minerals within the porphyritic granite may contain an order of magnitude more uranium and thorium than the porphyry. Radioactive minerals within both the porphyry and the dark zones are principally monazite (containing up to 16% ThO 2 ) and isolated grains of uraninite. This foliated porphyritic granite is interpreted as being pre- or syntectonic with respect to the Hudsonian event because its foliation parallels that of the surrounding rocks. There has been subsequent deformation. The second characteristic feature of the Fort Smith Belt is the development of a peripheral zone where eU is enriched relative to eTh correlating mainly with granitoid rocks which surround the thorium-rich area and wherein ratios of eU/eTh exceed 1:2 (compared to the crustal average of 1:4). Uranium may have moved laterally into this marginal area from the thorium-rich porphyry, possibly in a vapour phase. There is a possibility that concentrations of uranium as well as other metals such as Cu, Mo, Zn, Sn, and W could exist in the porphyry and its margin in appropriate chemical and/or structural traps. The radioactive granite rocks of the Fort Smith Belt are adjacent to uranium-thorium occurrences in the nearby Proterozoic Nonacho sediments but whether or not a genetic relationship exists between the two situations is uncertain. (auth)

  18. Cooperation Formats of China and Europe: Synergies and Divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šteinbuka Inna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution articulates the synergies and divergences of the various formats of cooperation between China and the European countries. The EU and China have a strong interest in each other’s flagship initiatives, namely the Investment Plan for Europe, and the One Belt, One Road Initiative (Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st-Century Maritime Silk Road. The authors argue that there are certain synergies between these initiatives. Furthermore, the new initiative EU-China Connectivity Platform is aimed to explore these synergies. The authors explore the recent developments in the EU-China investments, trade cooperation and the challenges of the ever-growing CEEC-China partnership in different formats, including the new platform of 16+1. The authors examine these implications in relation to the need to expand and adapt the content and approach of the EU-China Bilateral Investment agreement. The article concludes that the CEEC-China relation does not go against the EU; moreover, neither the CEE countries nor China have any motivation to try to weaken the EU.

  19. Pelvic belt effects on sacroiliac joint ligaments: a computational approach to understand therapeutic effects of pelvic belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sichting, Freddy; Rossol, Jerome; Soisson, Odette; Klima, Stefan; Milani, Thomas; Hammer, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The sacroiliac joint is a widely described source of low back pain. Therapeutic approaches to relieve pain include the application of pelvic belts. However, the effects of pelvic belts on sacroiliac joint ligaments as potential pain generators are mostly unknown. The aim of our study was to analyze the influence of pelvic belts on ligament load by means of a computer model. Experimental computer study using a finite element method. A computer model of the human pelvis was created, comprising bones, ligaments, and cartilage. Detailed geometries, material properties of ligaments, and in-vivo pressure distribution patterns of a pelvic belt were implemented. The effects of pelvic belts on ligament strain were computed in the double-leg stance. Pelvic belts increase sacroiliac joint motion around the sagittal axis but decrease motion around the transverse axis. With pelvic belt application, most of the strained sacroiliac joint ligaments were relieved, especially the sacrospinous, sacrotuberous, and the interosseous sacroiliac ligaments. Sacroiliac joint motion and ligament strains were minute. These results agree with validation data from other studies. Assigning homogenous and linear material properties and excluding muscle forces are clear simplifications of the complex reality. Pelvic belts alter sacroiliac joint motion and provide partial relief of ligament strain that is subjectively marked, although minimal in absolute terms. These findings confirm theories that besides being mechanical stabilizers, the sacroiliac joint ligaments are likely involved in neuromuscular feedback mechanisms. The results from our computer model help with unraveling the therapeutic mechanisms of pelvic belts.

  20. The Rajang Unconformity: Major provenance change between the Eocene and Miocene sequences in NW Borneo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitfeld, H. T.; Hennig, J.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Hall, R.

    2017-12-01

    The offshore Sarawak Basin NW of North Sarawak is a major hydrocarbon province in SE Asia. A very thick sedimentary sequence of Oligocene to ?Early Miocene age, named Cycle 1, is an important hydrocarbon source and reservoir. Despite numerous wells the stratigraphy and tectonic history is not very well understood. The Nyalau Formation of onshore North Sarawak is the supposed equivalent of the offshore Cycle 1 sequence. The Nyalau Formation is a thick sedimentary sequence of mainly tidal to deltaic deposits. The formation is dominated by well-bedded sandstone-mudstone alternations and thicker sandstones with abundant bioturbation. The sandstones are predominantly arenaceous. Various lithic fragments and feldspar indicate multiple sources and fresh input from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Interbedded thin limestone beds and marls yielded Early Miocene foraminifera for the upper part of the succession. Zircons separated from the sandstones yielded mainly Cretaceous and Triassic ages. The Triassic is the dominant age population. The Nyalau Formation conformably overlies the Buan Shale and the Tatau Formation, and in places unconformably overlies the Belaga Formation. The Belaga Formation is part of the Rajang Group that represents remnants of a large submarine fan deposited in the Late Cretaceous to Eocene in Central Sarawak. In contrast to the Nyalau Formation, the majority of zircons from the Rajang Group have Cretaceous ages. This marks an important change in provenance at the major unconformity separating the Belaga and Nyalau Formations. This unconformity was previously interpreted as the result of an orogeny in the Late Eocene. However, there is no evidence for a subduction or collision event at this time in Sarawak. We interpret it to mark plate reorganisation in the Middle Eocene and name it the Rajang Unconformity. Borneo is the principal source of Cretaceous zircons which were derived from the Schwaner Mountains and West Sarawak. The dominant Triassic zircon

  1. HERSCHEL -RESOLVED OUTER BELTS OF TWO-BELT DEBRIS DISKS—EVIDENCE OF ICY GRAINS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, F. Y.; Bryden, G.; Werner, M. W.; Stapelfeldt, K. R., E-mail: Farisa@jpl.nasa.gov [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    We present dual-band Herschel /PACS imaging for 59 main-sequence stars with known warm dust ( T {sub warm} ∼ 200 K), characterized by Spitzer . Of 57 debris disks detected at Herschel wavelengths (70 and/or 100 and 160 μ m), about half have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) that suggest two-ring disk architectures mirroring that of the asteroid–Kuiper Belt geometry; the rest are consistent with single belts of warm, asteroidal material. Herschel observations spatially resolve the outer/cold dust component around 14 A-type and 4 solar-type stars with two-belt systems, 15 of which for the first time. Resolved disks are typically observed with radii >100 AU, larger than expected from a simple blackbody fit. Despite the absence of narrow spectral features for ice, we find that the shape of the continuum, combined with resolved outer/cold dust locations, can help constrain the grain size distribution and hint at the dust’s composition for each resolved system. Based on the combined Spitzer /IRS+Multiband Imaging Photometer (5-to-70 μ m) and Herschel /PACS (70-to-160 μ m) data set, and under the assumption of idealized spherical grains, we find that over half of resolved outer/cold belts are best fit with a mixed ice/rock composition. Minimum grain sizes are most often equal to the expected radiative blowout limit, regardless of composition. Three of four resolved systems around the solar-type stars, however, tend to have larger minimum grains compared to expectation from blowout ( f {sub MB} = a {sub min}/ a {sub BOS} ∼ 5). We also probe the disk architecture of 39 Herschel -unresolved systems by modeling their SEDs uniformly, and find them to be consistent with 31 single- and 8 two-belt debris systems.

  2. Mesin Pemindah Bahan : Studi Prestasi Belt Conveyor Hubungannya Dengan Ukuran Butiran Dan Tingkat Kelembaban Bahan Curah ( Batubara ), Panjang Belt 7,6 Meter ; Lebar 32 Centimeter

    OpenAIRE

    Nugroho, Rio

    2011-01-01

    Banyak industri yang menggunakan belt conveyor sebagai alat transportasi material, sebab punya banyak keuntungan. Sehingga, untuk meningkatkan performansi belt conveyor tersebut perlu dilakukan pengidentifikasian prestasi belt conveyor. Identifikasi dilakukan dengan material transfer batubara. Yang akan diamati adalah pengaruh ukuran butiran material dan tingkat kelembaban terhadap kapasitas transfer belt conveyor. Dari pengujian didapatkan kapasitas transfer terbesar adalah material batubar...

  3. Uranium mineralization environment and prospecting potential of Dawan ore field in Nanling metallogenic belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Shanghai

    2011-01-01

    Located in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton, Nanling metallogenic belt, Dawan uranium ore field in Hunan Province is an important uranium-producing and rare metal, nonferrous metal cluster area due to the favourable mineralization environment. The Cambrian is the main uranium source bed and their contact zone to the pluton is the favorable part for mineralization. The uranium deposits which have been explored are all located in the exocontact zone of Jinjiling pluton in the middle part of Jiuyishan complex pluton which is composed of the independent eastern and western magma evolution centers. In the west center, Jinjiling pluton is closely related to uranium mineralization where the trinity geologic setting was formed with magma evolution, hydrothermal fluid action and mineralization. The deep slitted and large faults provide the pathway and thermodynamic source for circulating migration of mineralizing fluid. The uranium mineralization mainly occurred in crustal stress conversion period of Late Cretaceous and related to the tensive NW extending fault and deep originated fluid. The gravity, aero magnetic, airborne gamma-ray spectrometry anomalies and radioactivity hydrochemical anomaly are important criteria for uranium prospecting. Based on the analysis of regional uranium mineralization environment, the prospecting potential is forecasted. (authors)

  4. Structural analysis of sheath folds in the Sylacauga Marble Group, Talladega slate belt, southern Appalachians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mies, J.W.

    1993-01-01

    Remnant blocks of marble from the Moretti-Harrah dimension-stone quarry provide excellent exposure of meter-scale sheath folds. Tubular structures with elliptical cross-sections (4 ???Ryz ??? 5) are the most common expression of the folds. The tubes are elongate subparallel to stretching lineation and are defined by centimeter-scale layers of schist. Eccentrically nested elliptical patterns and opposing asymmetry of folds ('S' and 'Z') are consistent with the sheath-fold interpretation. Sheath folds are locally numerous in the Moretti-Harrah quarry but are not widely distributed in the Sylacauga Marble Group; reconnaissance in neighboring quarries provided no additional observations. The presence of sheath folds in part of the Talladega slate belt indicates a local history of plastic, non-coaxial deformation. Such a history of deformation is substantiated by petrographic study of an extracted hinge from the Moretti-Harrah quarry. The sheath folds are modeled as due to passive amplification of initial structures during simple shear, using both analytic geometry and graphic simulation. As indicated by these models, relatively large shear strains (y ??? 9) and longitudinal initial structures are required. The shear strain presumably relates to NW-directed displacement of overlying crystalline rocks during late Paleozoic orogeny. ?? 1993.

  5. Problems with models of the radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daly, E.J.; Lemaire, J.; Heynderickx, D.; Rodgers, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    The current standard models of the radiation-belt environment have many shortcomings, not the least of which is their extreme age. Most of the data used for them were acquired in the 1960's and early 1970's. Problems with the present models, and the ways in which data from more recent missions are being or can be used to create new models with improved functionality, are described. The phenomenology of the radiation belts, the effects on space systems, and geomagnetic coordinates and modeling are discussed. Errors found in present models, their functional limitations, and problems with their implementation and use are detailed. New modeling must address problems at low altitudes with the south Atlantic anomaly, east-west asymmetries and solar cycle variations and at high altitudes with the highly dynamic electron environment. The important issues in space environment modeling from the point of view of usability and relationship with effects evaluation are presented. New sources of data are discussed. Future requirements in the data, models, and analysis tools areas are presented

  6. Coordinates for Representing Radiation Belt Particle Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roederer, Juan G.; Lejosne, Solène

    2018-02-01

    Fifty years have passed since the parameter "L-star" was introduced in geomagnetically trapped particle dynamics. It is thus timely to review the use of adiabatic theory in present-day studies of the radiation belts, with the intention of helping to prevent common misinterpretations and the frequent confusion between concepts like "distance to the equatorial point of a field line," McIlwain's L-value, and the trapped particle's adiabatic L* parameter. And too often do we miss in the recent literature a proper discussion of the extent to which some observed time and space signatures of particle flux could simply be due to changes in magnetospheric field, especially insofar as off-equatorial particles are concerned. We present a brief review on the history of radiation belt parameterization, some "recipes" on how to compute adiabatic parameters, and we illustrate our points with a real event in which magnetospheric disturbance is shown to adiabatically affect the particle fluxes measured onboard the Van Allen Probes.

  7. WATER ICE IN THE KUIPER BELT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M. E.; Fraser, W. C.; Schaller, E. L.

    2012-01-01

    We examine a large collection of low-resolution near-infrared spectra of Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs) and centaurs in an attempt to understand the presence of water ice in the Kuiper Belt. We find that water ice on the surface of these objects occurs in three separate manners: (1) Haumea family members uniquely show surfaces of nearly pure water ice, presumably a consequence of the fragmentation of the icy mantle of a larger differentiated proto-Haumea; (2) large objects with absolute magnitudes of H < 3 (and a limited number to H = 4.5) have surface coverings of water ice—perhaps mixed with ammonia—that appears to be related to possibly ancient cryovolcanism on these large objects; and (3) smaller KBOs and centaurs which are neither Haumea family members nor cold-classical KBOs appear to divide into two families (which we refer to as 'neutral' and 'red'), each of which is a mixture of a common nearly neutral component and either a slightly red or very red component that also includes water ice. A model suggesting that the difference between neutral and red objects due to formation in an early compact solar system either inside or outside, respectively, of the ∼20 AU methanol evaporation line is supported by the observation that methanol is only detected on the reddest objects, which are those which would be expected to have the most of the methanol containing mixture.

  8. Geophysical anomalies associated with Imjin River Belt (IRB) in the middle Korean Peninsula revealed by geomagnetic depth sounding and seismological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Choi, H.; Noh, M.; Im, C.

    2012-12-01

    Imjin River Belt (IRB), located in the middle of the Korean Peninsula, has been one of long-standing geological issues because it is a very important tectonic link to understand a tectonic evolution of north-eastern Asia including China, Korea and Japan. Although the IRB has been considered as an extension of collision belt between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB), there is little geophysical observation or study on this issue. In recent, we compiled a new induction arrow map for the Korean Peninsula, on the basis of long-period magneto-telluric (MT) data and the geomagnetic depth sounding data performed since the late 1990's. This newly compiled map has finer spatial resolution expecially in the middle area of the peninsula, which helps us to present the geophysical evidence that the IRB is the continuation or extension of the collision belt to the peninsula. The overall pattern of induction arrows in the peninsula appears to indicate a northwest-southeast direction, which is well-known 'sea effect' by the surrounding seas. However, the results of observations in the middle of the peninsula distinctly show an anomalous pattern around the IRB, which can not be explained only by the surrounding seas. This anomalous pattern may be attributed to enhanced conductivity associated with tectonic events that Imjin River Belt has experienced. The 3-D electromagnetic modeling results, considering both surrounding seas and enhanced conductivity of the IRB, explain well the anomalous observations around the IRB. Furthermore, recent seismological study demonstrates that focal mechanism around the IRB is mainly normal faulting event, which may be interpreted as the reactivation of paleo structures that are related to the post collisional lithospheric delamination. All the geophysical evidences convince us that the IRB is an extension of the collision belt between the NCB and SCB to the peninsula.

  9. Projected future wave climate in the NW Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas-Prat, M.; Sierra, J. P.

    2013-07-01

    Projected future regional wave climate scenarios at a high temporal-spatial scale were obtained for the NW Mediterranean Sea, using five combinations of regional-global circulation models. Changes in wave variables were analyzed and related to the variations of the forcing wind projections, while also evaluating the evolution of the presence of the different types of sea states. To assess the significance of the changes produced, a bootstrap-based method was proposed, which accounts for the autocorrelation of data and correctly reproduces the extremes. For the mean climate, relative changes of Hs up to ±10% were obtained, whereas they were around ±20% for the extreme climate. In mean terms, variations of Hs are similar to those associated with wind speed but are enhanced/attenuated, respectively, when fetch conditions are favorable/unfavorable. In general, most notable alterations are not in the Hs magnitude but rather in its direction. In this regard, during the winter season, it is interesting to note that the significant deviations between the results derived from the two global circulation models are larger than those between regional models. ECHAM5 simulated an enhanced west wind flow that is translated into more frequent W-NW waves, whereas the HadCM3Q3 global model gives rise to the east component, which contributes to a higher intensity and number of storms coming from such a direction and directly affects the wind-sea/swell distribution of coastal stretches that face east, like the Catalan coast. Different patterns of change were obtained during the summer when a common rise of NE-E waves was found.

  10. SPATIOTEMPORAL PATTERNS AND ITS INSTABILITY OF LAND USE CHANGE IN FIVE CHINESE NODE CITIES OF THE BELT AND ROAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Quan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It has long recognized that there exists three different terrain belt in China, i.e. east, central, and west can have very different impacts on the land use changes. It is therefore better understand how spatiotemporal patterns linked with processes and instability of land use change are evolving in China across different regions. This paper compares trends of the similarities and differences to understand the spatiotemporal characteristics and the linked processes i.e. states, incidents and instability of land use change of 5 Chinese cities which are located in the nodes of The Silk Road in China. The results show that on the whole, the more land transfer times and the more land categories involved changes happens in Quanzhou City, one of eastern China than those in central and western China. Basically, cities in central and western China such as Changsha, Kunming and Urumuqi City become instable while eastern city like Quanzhou City turns to be stable over time.

  11. Energy saving for belt conveyors by speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.

    2017-01-01

    Belt conveyors are widely used in bulk solids handling and conveying systems. Considering the extensive use of belt conveyors, their operations involve a large amount of energy. Taking the relevant economic and social challenges into account, there is a strong demand for lowering the energy

  12. The physical imitation experiments of nuclear belt weight scaler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Qicun; Wang Mingqian; Sun Jinhua; Li Zhonghao

    1993-01-01

    The physical imitation experiments of the nuclear belt weight scaler (NBWS) were performed with a coal-loaded belt. The linearity, repetition and long-time stability; of the NBWS were measured. And the influence of pile shape, load bias and the composition of coal on weight calculation were studied

  13. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  14. A belt charging system for the Vivitron - design, early results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helleboid, J.M.; Gaudiot, G.

    1990-10-01

    A specific belt charging system has been designed, built and assembled for the 35 MV Vivitron. 100 m long belt is used. Together with main features of the design, experimental studies, tests in a pilot machine and the results of the very early tests of the real system are reviewed

  15. Performance approximation of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper, an approximation method is discussed for the analysis of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. The aim of the approximation method is to provide an instrument for obtaining rapid insight in the performance of designs of pick-to-belt orderpicking systems. It can be used to

  16. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, Jeanette B.; Andersen, Palle

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  17. The Social Construction of the Great Belt Fixed Link

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    1994-01-01

    Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link.......Working paper in Technology Management. Actor Network theory (ANT) used upon the process of negotiating legislation and constructing the Great Belt fixed link....

  18. Belt conveyor dynamics in transient operation for speed control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, D.; Pang, Y.; Lodewijks, G.

    2016-01-01

    Belt conveyors play an important role in continuous dry bulk material transport, especially at the mining industry. Speed control is expected to reduce the energy consumption of belt conveyors. Transient operation is the operation of increasing or decreasing conveyor speed for speed control.

  19. Geometry and kinematics of Majiatan Fold-and-thrust Belt, Western Ordos Basin: implication for Tectonic Evolution of North-South Tectonic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Helan-Chuandian North-South Tectonic Belt crossed the central Chinese mainland. It is a boundary of geological, geophysical, and geographic system of Chinese continent tectonics from shallow to deep, and a key zone for tectonic and geomorphologic inversion during Mesozoic to Cenozoic. It is superimposed by the southeastward and northeastward propagation of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in late Cenozoic. It is thus the critical division for West and East China since Mesozoic. The Majiatan fold-and-thrust belt (MFTB), locating at the central part of HCNSTB and the western margin of Ordos Basin, is formed by the tectonic evolution of the Helan-Liupanshan Mountains. Based on the newly-acquired high-resolution seismic profiles, deep boreholes, and surface geology, the paper discusses the geometry, kinematics, and geodynamic evolution of MFTB. With the Upper Carboniferous coal measures and the pre-Sinian ductile zone as the detachments, MFTB is a multi-level detached thrust system. The thrusting was mainly during latest Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, breaking-forward in the foreland, and resulting in a shortening rate of 25-29%. By structural restoration, this area underwent extension in Middle Proterozoic to Paleozoic, which can be divided into three phases of rifting such as Middle to Late Proterozoic, Cambiran to Ordovician, and Caboniferous to early Permian. It underwent compression since Late Triassic, including such periods as Latest Triassic, Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous to early Paleogene, and Pliocene to Quaternary, with the largest shortening around Late Jurassic to early Cretaceous period (i.e. the mid-Yanshanian movement by the local name). However, trans-extension since Eocene around the Ordos Basin got rise to the formation the Yingchuan, Hetao, and Weihe grabens. It is concluded that MFTB is the leading edge of the intra-continental Helan orogenic belt, and formed by multi-phase breaking-forward thrusting during Late Jurassic to Cretaceous

  20. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2010-01-01

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study.

  1. Optimal control of operation efficiency of belt conveyor systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shirong [Department of Automation, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Xia, Xiaohua [Department of Electrical, Electronic and Computer Engineering, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0002 (South Africa)

    2010-06-15

    The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment or operation levels. Switching control and variable speed control are proposed in literature to improve energy efficiency of belt conveyors. The current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops or an individual belt conveyor without operational considerations at the system level. In this paper, an optimal switching control and a variable speed drive (VSD) based optimal control are proposed to improve the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems at the operational level, where time-of-use (TOU) tariff, ramp rate of belt speed and other system constraints are considered. A coal conveying system in a coal-fired power plant is taken as a case study, where great saving of energy cost is achieved by the two optimal control strategies. Moreover, considerable energy saving resulting from VSD based optimal control is also proved by the case study. (author)

  2. Energetic electrons in the inner belt in 1968

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, Jr, H I; Buck, R M [California Univ., Livermore (USA). Lawrence Livermore Lab.

    1976-07-01

    Pitch-angle data were obtained by the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory's scanning, magnetic electron spectrometer on OGO 5 during its traversals of the inner belt in 1968. Data from the five lowest-energy channels 79 to 822 keV, were analyzed. The inner-belt electron injection following two storm periods was observed; the first was the mild storm of 11 June and the second the more intense storms of 31 October and 1 November. Comparisons with other data indicate that only a small Starfish residual (at > 1 MeV) still remained in the heart of the inner belt; hence, the results are indicative of the normal inner belt. The data are discussed in terms of current ideas regarding the source and loss of particles in the inner belt.

  3. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  4. Transfer points of belt conveyors operating with unfavorable bulk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goehring, H [Technische Universitaet, Dresden (German Democratic Republic)

    1989-06-01

    Describes design of belt conveyor chutes that transfer bulk of surface mines from one conveyor to another. Conveyor belt velocity is a significant parameter. Unfavorable chute design may lead to bulk flow congestion, bulk velocity losses etc. The bulk flow process is analyzed, bulk flow velocities, belt inclinations and bulk feeding from 2 conveyors into one chute are taken into account. Conventional chutes have parabolic belt impact walls. An improved version with divided impact walls is proposed that maintains a relatively high bulk velocity, reduces friction at chute walls and decreases wear and dirt build-up. Design of the improved chute is explained. It is built to adapt to existing structures without major modifications. The angle between 2 belt conveyors can be up to 90 degrees, the best bulk transfer is noted at conveyor angles below 60 degrees. Various graphs and schemes are provided. 6 refs.

  5. Wrench tectonics control on Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogacsas, Gyorgy; Juhász, Györgyi; Mádl-Szőnyi, Judit; Simon, Szilvia; Lukács, Szilveszter; Csizmeg, János

    2010-05-01

    terrain, lying originally between the Central Alpine and Southern Alpine units, reached its recent position by some hundred kilometers strike slip movement, resulting in shifting of depocenters from the SW toward NE. The TISZA unit was characterised by clockwise motion, while counterclockwise rotation of the ALPACA is inferred in Late Oligocene-Miocene. Lower Miocene layers were deposited in depocenters whose subsidence was initiated by escape tectonics, NE-ward displacement of the ALCAPA terrane, and uplifting of the NW-SE oriented Neo-Vardar zone. The Neo-Vardar zone was represented by wide area of continental and alluvial depositional systems. 2. During the middle-late Badenian (15.5-13.6Ma), the ALCAPA collided with the European platform, and the eastward movement of the Tisza-Dacia became pronounced. Because of that the former right lateral motion along the Mid-Hungarian Mobile Belt ceased and a long period of left lateral strike slipe began. Earlier development of pull-apart basins, related to the extensive strike-slip faulting inside the ALCAPA, changed to the graben opening driven by the westward subduction and the eastward motion of the Tisza-Dacia. The middle-late Badenian period was characterised by sediments deposited in listric fault bounded half grabens, in crestal collapse grabens related to (flat-ramp) listric faults, in wide and/or narrow rift systems. Migration of volcanic activity and facies belts took place during relatively short period of times. Large displacements along listric faults have resulted in tilting of originally horizontal strata, and the formation of a regional unconformity between the middle Miocene and the upper Miocene sediments. Wrench fault related pull apart basins were filled by terrestrial to marine sediments. 3. During the Sarmatian-Pannonian (13.6-6.2 Ma), while the eastward motion of the ALPACA was strictly restricted, the Tisza-Dacia unit was able still to move eastward until the last parts of the remnant Carpathian Flysch

  6. Neoproterozoic stratigraphic framework of the Tarim Craton in NW China: Implications for rift evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lin; Guan, Shuwei; Zhang, Shuichang; Yang, Haijun; Jin, Jiuqiang; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhang, Chunyu

    2018-06-01

    The Tarim Craton is overlain by thick Neoproterozoic sedimentary successions in rift tectonic setting. This study examines the latest outcrop, seismic, and drilling core data with the objective of investigating the regional stratigraphy to deeply recognize the evolution of rifting in the craton. Cryogenian to Lower Ediacaran successions are mainly composed of clastic rocks with thicknesses of 2000-3000 m, and the Upper Ediacaran successions are composed of carbonate rocks with thicknesses of 500-800 m. The rift basins and stratigraphic zones are divided into northern and southern parts by a central paleo-uplift. The northern rift basin extends through the northern Tarim Craton in an E-W direction with two depocenters (Aksu and Kuruktag). The southern rift basin is oriented NE-SW. There are three or four phases of tillites in the northern zone, while there are two in the southern zone. Given the north-south difference of the stratigraphic framework, the northern rift basin initiated at ca. 740 Ma and the southern rift basin initiated at ca. 780 Ma. During the Cryogenian and Ediacaran, the northern and southern rift basins were separated by the central paleo-uplift, finally connecting with each other in the early Cambrian. Tectonic deformation in the Late Ediacaran led to the formation of a parallel unconformity in the rift basins and an angular unconformity in the central paleo-uplift. The Neoproterozoic rift basins continued to affect the distribution of Lower Cambrian hydrocarbon source rocks. The north-south distribution and evolution of the rift basins in the Tarim Craton have implications for reconstructions of the Rodinia supercontinent.

  7. Late Permian to Triassic intraplate orogeny of the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions, NW China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ju

    2014-01-01

    Based on previous studies and recent geochronogical data, we suggest that the final collision between the Tarim Craton and the North Asian continent occurred during the late Carboniferous. Therefore, the Permian was a period of intracontinental environment in the southern Tianshan and adjacent regions. We propose that an earlier, small-scale intraplate orogenic stage occurred in late Permian to Triassic time, which was the first intraplate process in the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions. The later large-scale and well-known Neogene to Quaternary intraplate orogeny was induced by the collision between the India subcontinent and the Eurasian plate. The paper presents a new evolutionary model for the South Tianshan Orogen and adjacent regions, which includes seven stages: (I late Ordovician–early Silurian opening of the South Tianshan Ocean; (II middle Silurian–middle Devonian subduction of the South Tianshan Ocean beneath an active margin of the North Asian continent; (III late Devonian–late Carboniferous closure of the South Tianshan Ocean and collision between the Kazakhstan-Yili and Tarim continental blocks; (IV early Permian post-collisional magmatism and rifting; (V late Permian–Triassic the first intraplate orogeny; (VI Jurassic–Palaeogene tectonic stagnation and (VII Neocene–Quaternary intraplate orogeny.

  8. [Challenge and strategy of prevention and control of important parasitic diseases under the Belt and Road Initiative].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chun-Li, Cao; Jia-Gang, Guo

    2018-04-17

    China was once a country with the heaviest burden of parasitic diseases. Under the leadership of the Communist Party and national authority, after more than 60 years' efforts of prevention and control, the remarkable results have been achieved in China. However, affected by the social and economic development and environmental changes, the prevention and control of parasitic diseases, especially imported parasitic diseases, are facing new challenges, and the parasitic diseases, such as malaria, schistosomiasis, leishmaniasis, filariasis and trypanosomiasis, appear increasingly. With the development of the Belt and Road Initiative, the transmission risks of these diseases are more increased. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience and results of parasitic disease prevention and control in China, understand the present parasitic disease epidemic situation of the Belt and Road Initiative related countries, analyze the transmission risks of important parasitic diseases, and present some relevant suggestions, so as to provide the evidence for the health administrative department formulating the prevention and control strategies of such parasitic diseases timely and effectively.

  9. Long-term subsidence, cooling, and exhumation history along the South Atlantic passive continental margin in NW-Namibia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menges, Daniel; Glasmacher, Ulrich Anton; Salomon, Eric; Hackspacher, Peter Christian; Schneider, Gabi

    2017-04-01

    amount of denudation in the last 130 Ma has been estimated to 1.7 km in the northeastern and 3.3 km in the southwestern Kaoko Belt. References 1. Miller, R.McG. Becker, T., 2008. The Geology of Namibia: Ministry of Mines and Energy, Geological Survey (Namibia). 2. Stollhofen, H., 1999. Karoo Synrift-Sedimentation und ihre tektonische Kontrolle am entstehenden Kontinentalrand Namibias: Z.dt.geol.Ges. 149: 519-632. 3. Renne, P.R., Glen, J.M., Milner, S.C., Duncan, A.R., 1996. Age of Etendeka flood volcanism and associated intrusions in southwestern Africa: Geology 24 (7): 659- 662. 4. Salomon, E., Koehn, D., Passchier, C., 2014. Brittle reactivation of ductile shear zones in NW Namibia in relation to South Atlantic rifting: Tectonics 34, 70-85.

  10. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  11. Structural control on gold mineralization in the Satulinmäki and Riukka prospects, Häme Schist Belt, southern Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Saalmann

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Satulinmäki and Riukka prospects located in the Häme Schist Belt in southern Finland are dominated by mafic and intermediate to felsic metavolcanic rocks of the Forssa Group formed in a continental arc setting. This magmatic belt formed some 1890–1880 Ma ago and has been deformed during the Svecofennian orogeny. The dominant penetrative foliation is represented by Sn+1, which is axial planar to cm- to dm-scale iscolinal Fn+1 folds and thus parallel to the layering Sn. Associated ductile shearing might reflect early thrusting. Dn+2 post-dating peak metamorphism is characterized by small-scale to regional-scale refolding of Fn+1 folds around ~SW-NE fold axes. This phase is transitional to development of SW-NE to WSW-ENE and NW-SE striking shear zones and faults formed due to dextral transpressionduring Dn+3 at retrograde conditions crossing the brittle-ductile transition. Many mineralized quartz veins have formed during this event. Later faults and quartz veins and reactivation of pre-existing structures during Dn+4 indicate rotation of the stress field to ~NESWoriented compression. A clear ~SW-NE trend of sulphide mineralization and elevated gold contents and the spatial association to Dn+3 quartz veins, shear zones and faults suggest a strong structural control, typical of orogenic gold deposits, and that mineralization took place during Dn+3. The controlling structures, (i WSW-ENE to SW-NE shear zones and faults and (ii NW-SE oriented fault, are second and third order structures to major regional-scale shear zones. The fault zones and their intersection points impart a directional permeability so that the mineralising fluids were channelled along dilatant zones. Approximately (WNW-(ESE trending faults being (reactivated as extensional faults or dilatant shear planes during Dn+3 transpression with WNW-ESE to NW-SE oriented compression direction could have acted as conduits for fluids during upward flow from deeper crustal level. Future

  12. A review of the Late Cambrian (Furongian) palaeogeography in the western Mediterranean region, NW Gondwana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvaro, J. Javier; Ferretti, Annalisa; González-Gómez, Cristina; Serpagli, Enrico; Tortello, M. Franco; Vecoli, Marco; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2007-11-01

    The Cambrian-Ordovician transition of the western Mediterranean region (NW Gondwana) is characterized by the record of major erosive unconformities with gaps that range from a chronostratigraphic stage to a series. The hiatii are diachronous and involved progressively younger strata along the Gondwanan margin, from SW (Morocco) to NE (Montagne Noire). They can be related to development of a multi-stage rifting (further North), currently connected to the opening of the Rheic Ocean, and concomitant erosion on southern rift shoulders. The platforms of this margin of Gondwana occupied temperate-water, mid latitudes and were dominated by siliciclastic sedimentation, while carbonate factories were only episodically active in the Montagne-Noire platform. The Upper Cambrian is devoid of significant gaps in the southern Montagne Noire and the Iberian Chains. There, the sedimentation took place in a transgressive-dominated depositional system, with common offshore deposits and clayey substrates, and was bracketed by two major regressive trends. The Late Cambrian is also associated with the record of volcanic activity ( e.g., in the Cantabrian and Ossa-Morena zones, and the northern Montagne Noire), and widespread development of a tectonic instability that led to the episodic establishment of palaeotopographies and record of slope-related facies associations. Several immigration events are recognized throughout the latest Middle Cambrian, Late Cambrian and Tremadocian. The trilobites show a stepwise replacement of Acado-Baltic-type families ( e.g., the conocoryphid-paradoxidid-solenopleurid assemblage) characterized by: (i) a late Languedocian (latest Middle Cambrian) co-occurrence of Middle Cambrian trilobite families with the first anomocarid, dorypygid and proasaphiscid invaders; (ii) a Late Cambrian immigration replacing previous faunas, composed of trilobites (aphelaspidids, catillicephalids, ceratopygids, damesellids, eulomids, idahoiids, linchakephalids, lisariids

  13. Non-linear belt transient analysis. A hybrid model for numerical belt conveyor simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, A. [Scientific Solutions, Inc., Aurora, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Frictional and rolling losses along a running conveyor are discussed due to their important influence on wave propagation during starting and stopping. Hybrid friction models allow belt rubber losses and material flexing to be included in the initial tension calculations prior to any dynamic analysis. Once running tensions are defined, a numerical integration method using non-linear stiffness gradients is used to generate transient forces during starting and stopping. A modified Euler integration technique is used to simulate the entire starting and stopping cycle in less than 0.1 seconds. The procedure enables a faster scrutiny of unforeseen conveyor design issues such as low belt tension zones and high forces at drives. (orig.)

  14. The Foundations of Radiation Belt Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, G. H.

    2008-12-01

    phenomenon. It also provided the first hint that there were two distinct radiation belts, although that conclusion was not reached until later. Although that new information was quickly announced, the results of the high altitude nuclear detonations were kept secret until well into 1959. They clearly revealed the charged particle shells created by the Argos nuclear detonations. The next major step in mapping and understanding the high-intensity radiation involved the launch of deep space probes Pioneers III and IV in December 1958 and March 1959. Although both launches fell short in their primary objective, to reach the moon, they traveled far enough from the Earth to fully meet the needs of the scientific experiment. They very clearly showed the two-radiation belt structure, and mapped its extent. They also showed the probable effect of a magnetic storm on 25 February, thus indicating the direct influence of solar activity on the outer belt. By the end of 1959, the existence of the Van Allen Radiation Belts and their general structure were solidly established, early information about the composition of the radiation was appearing in print, and energetic work was under way to understand the physics of the processes involved.

  15. Space electronics: radiation belts set new challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leray, J.L.; Barillot, C.; Boudenot, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    Telecommunications satellites have been in use since 1962 with the first satellite network (constellation) coming into operation in 1966. GPS systems have been available since the mid seventies. Until now, all these systems have avoided orbits which lie within the radiation belts. The latest constellation projects, offering much wider bandwidths, need to use orbits between 1500 and 2000 km, where the proton density is at its highest. The vulnerability of future generations of components can be predicted by extrapolating the behaviour of current devices. Screening is not a viable option due to cost and weight limitations in satellite applications. As a result, satellite and component manufacturers are seeking new methods of hardening components or making them more radiation tolerant in an environment where the radiation levels are ten times those currently experiences. (authors)

  16. Torque-transmitting mechanism of a metal CVT belt; Kinzoku CVT belt no torque dentatsu mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, D; Mabuchi, Y; Kato, Y [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    The slip mechanism of a metal CVT belt which consisted of several hundred V-shaped elements and two sets of laminated metal rings was analyzed by focusing on the distribution of the gaps occurring between the elements, and a simulation which could predict the slip-limit torque at which the slip ratio increases sharply was developed. In this paper, the outline of the simulation is shown with some comparison between the calculated results and the experimental data. 3 refs., 13 figs.

  17. Sr-Nd-Pb isotope systematics of the Permian volcanic rocks in the northern margin of the Alxa Block (the Shalazhashan Belt) and comparisons with the nearby regions: Implications for a Permian rift setting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Guanzhong; Wang, Hua; Liu, Entao; Huang, Chuanyan; Zhao, Jianxin; Song, Guangzeng; Liang, Chao

    2018-04-01

    The petrogenesis of the Permian magmatic rocks in the Shalazhashan Belt is helpful for us to understand the tectonic evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in the northern margin of the Alxa Block. The Permian volcanic rocks in the Shalazhashan Belt include basalts, trachyandesites and trachydacites. Our study shows that two basalt samples have negative εNd(t) values (-5.4 to -1.5) and higher radiogenic Pb values, which are relevant to the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle. One basalt sample has positive εNd(t) value (+10) representing mafic juvenile crust and is derived from depleted asthenosphere. The trachyandesites are dated at 284 ± 3 Ma with εNd(t) = +2.7 to +8.0; ISr = 0.7052 to 0.7057, and they are generated by different degrees of mixing between mafic magmas and crustal melts. The trachydacites have high εNd(t) values and slightly higher ISr contents, suggesting the derivation from juvenile sources with crustal contamination. The isotopic comparisons of the Permian magmatic rocks of the Shalazhashan Belt, the Nuru-Langshan Belt (representing the northern margin of the Alxa Block), the Solonker Belt (Mandula area) and the northern margin of the North China Craton (Bayan Obo area) indicate that the radiogenic isotopic compositions have an increasingly evolved trend from the south (the northern margins of the Alxa Block and the North China Craton) to the north (the Shalazhashan Belt and the Solonker Belt). Three end-member components are involved to generate the Permian magmatic rocks: the ancient subcontinental lithospheric mantle, the mafic juvenile crust or newly underplated mafic rocks that were originated from depleted asthenosphere, and the ancient crust. The rocks correlative with the mafic juvenile crust or newly underplated mafic rocks are predominantly distributed along the Shalazhashan Belt and the Solonker Belt, and the rocks derived from ancient, enriched subcontinental lithospheric mantle are mainly distributed along

  18. Inclination Mixing in the Classical Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Kathryn; Malhotra, Renu

    2011-07-01

    We investigate the long-term evolution of the inclinations of the known classical and resonant Kuiper Belt objects (KBOs). This is partially motivated by the observed bimodal inclination distribution and by the putative physical differences between the low- and high-inclination populations. We find that some classical KBOs undergo large changes in inclination over gigayear timescales, which means that a current member of the low-inclination population may have been in the high-inclination population in the past, and vice versa. The dynamical mechanisms responsible for the time variability of inclinations are predominantly distant encounters with Neptune and chaotic diffusion near the boundaries of mean motion resonances. We reassess the correlations between inclination and physical properties including inclination time variability. We find that the size-inclination and color-inclination correlations are less statistically significant than previously reported (mostly due to the increased size of the data set since previous works with some contribution from inclination variability). The time variability of inclinations does not change the previous finding that binary classical KBOs have lower inclinations than non-binary objects. Our study of resonant objects in the classical Kuiper Belt region includes objects in the 3:2, 7:4, 2:1, and eight higher-order mean motion resonances. We find that these objects (some of which were previously classified as non-resonant) undergo larger changes in inclination compared to the non-resonant population, indicating that their current inclinations are not generally representative of their original inclinations. They are also less stable on gigayear timescales.

  19. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  20. Space Weather Effects in the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. N.; Erickson, P. J.; Fennell, J. F.; Foster, J. C.; Jaynes, A. N.; Verronen, P. T.

    2018-02-01

    The first major scientific discovery of the Space Age was that the Earth is enshrouded in toroids, or belts, of very high-energy magnetically trapped charged particles. Early observations of the radiation environment clearly indicated that the Van Allen belts could be delineated into an inner zone dominated by high-energy protons and an outer zone dominated by high-energy electrons. The energy distribution, spatial extent and particle species makeup of the Van Allen belts has been subsequently explored by several space missions. Recent observations by the NASA dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission have revealed many novel properties of the radiation belts, especially for electrons at highly relativistic and ultra-relativistic kinetic energies. In this review we summarize the space weather impacts of the radiation belts. We demonstrate that many remarkable features of energetic particle changes are driven by strong solar and solar wind forcings. Recent comprehensive data show broadly and in many ways how high energy particles are accelerated, transported, and lost in the magnetosphere due to interplanetary shock wave interactions, coronal mass ejection impacts, and high-speed solar wind streams. We also discuss how radiation belt particles are intimately tied to other parts of the geospace system through atmosphere, ionosphere, and plasmasphere coupling. The new data have in many ways rewritten the textbooks about the radiation belts as a key space weather threat to human technological systems.

  1. Modeling of Jupiter's electron an ion radiation belts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sicard, Angelica

    2004-01-01

    In the Fifties, James Van Allen showed the existence of regions of the terrestrial magnetosphere consisted of energetic particles, trapped by the magnetic field: the radiation belts. The radiation belts of the Earth were the subject of many modeling works and are studied since several years at the Departement Environnement Spatial (DESP) of ONERA. In 1998, the DESP decided to adapt the radiation belts model of the Earth, Salammbo, to radiation environment of Jupiter. A first thesis was thus carried out on the subject and a first radiation belts model of electrons of Jupiter was developed [Santos-Costa, 2001]. The aim of this second thesis is to develop a radiation belts model for protons and heavy ions. In order to validate the developed model, the comparisons between Salammbo results and observations are essential. However, the validation is difficult in the case of protons and heavy ions because in-situ measurements of the probes are very few and most of the time contaminated by very energetic electrons. To solve this problem, a very good model of electrons radiation belts is essential to confirm or cancel the contamination of protons and heavy ions measurements. Thus, in parallel to the development of the protons and heavy ions radiation belts model, the electrons models, already existing, has been improved. Then Salammbo results have been compared to the different observations available (in-situ measurements, radio-astronomical observations). The different comparisons show a very good agreement between Salammbo results and observations. (author) [fr

  2. Speed Controlled Belt Conveyors: Drives and Mechanical Considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEBIC, M. Z.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variable speed belt conveyor system where the reference speed is changed in order to achieve improved energy efficiency of operation. The recorded measurements show that belt tension varies within the same limits as under constant speed operation. These results introduce a new insight of the present state of the art in variable speed belt conveyor drives. The system is realized with remote control from the control center on an open pit mine. The structure of the multi-motor drive system of a single conveyor, as well as of the network-based control system distributed among belt conveyor stations and the control center are shown. Speed control of a belt conveyor system is organized to provide better utilization of the available material cross section on the belt and reduced electrical energy consumption of the drive. The experimental results obtained on the system prove that, under existing constraints, the applied algorithm has not introduced additional stress to the belt or mechanical assemblies during acceleration and deceleration processes, while providing higher energy efficiency of operation.

  3. Timing belt in power transmission and conveying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domek Grzegorz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the problem of phenomena occurring at the contact of a timing belt and a pulley. Depending on a belt size range these phenomena differ significantly. There is no indication as to what solutions are optimal for drive belts. The analysis of the coupling process and performance tests have shown that the drive belt should have a cord of very good mechanical properties and its raceway side should be made from the material of a low friction coefficient against the pulley material. A flat belt in power transmission and conveying systems cooperates with several elements consisting of timing pulleys, tensioners or guiding rails. In gear with timing belts they depend strongly on characteristics of the process as well as the type of friction. In recent constructions, producers of timing belts are very much concerned about achieving as much slippery surface as possible. The work describes the problem of friction on different surfaces as well as its influence on gear lifetime. Research results confirm that on many surfaces bigger coefficient of friction is expected.

  4. An Effective Belt Conveyor for Underground Ore Transportation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Robert; Kawalec, Witold; Gladysiewicz, Lech

    2017-12-01

    Raw material transportation generates a substantial share of costs in the mining industry. Mining companies are therefore determined to improve the effectiveness of their transportation system, focusing on solutions that increase both its energy efficiency and reliability while keeping maintenance costs low. In the underground copper ore operations in Poland’s KGHM mines vast and complex belt conveyor systems have been used for horizontal haulage of the run-of-mine ore from mining departments to shafts. Basing upon a long-time experience in the field of analysing, testing, designing and computing of belt conveyor equipment with regard to specific operational conditions, the improvements to the standard design of an underground belt conveyor for ore transportation have been proposed. As the key elements of a belt conveyor, the energy-efficient conveyor belt and optimised carrying idlers have been developed for the new generation of underground conveyors. The proposed solutions were tested individually on the specially constructed test stands in the laboratory and in the experimental belt conveyor that was built up with the use of prototype parts and commissioned for the regular ore haulage in a mining department in the KGHM underground mine “Lubin”. Its work was monitored and the recorded operational parameters (loadings, stresses and strains, energy dissipation, belt tracking) were compared with those previously collected on a reference (standard) conveyor. These in-situ measurements have proved that the proposed solutions will return with significant energy savings and lower maintenance costs. Calculations made on the basis of measurement results in the specialized belt conveyor designing software allow to estimate the possible savings if the modernized conveyors supersede the standard ones in a large belt conveying system.

  5. 76 FR 35402 - Persulfates From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Correction to the Final Results of the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-847] Persulfates From the People.... Department of Commerce, 14th Street and Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20230; telephone: (202) 482... antidumping duty order on persulfates from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'').\\1\\ The period of review...

  6. 78 FR 54752 - Addition and Revision to the List of Validated End-Users in the People's Republic of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Bureau of Industry and Security 15 CFR Part 748 [Docket No. 130826763-3763... of China AGENCY: Bureau of Industry and Security, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this rule... Security, U.S. Department of Commerce, 14th Street & Pennsylvania Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20230; by...

  7. Research status of geothermal resources in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lincheng; Li, Guang

    2017-08-01

    As the representative of the new green energy, geothermal resources are characterized by large reserve, wide distribution, cleanness and environmental protection, good stability, high utilization factor and other advantages. According to the characteristics of exploitation and utilization, they can be divided into high-temperature, medium-temperature and low-temperature geothermal resources. The abundant and widely distributed geothermal resources in China have a broad prospect for development. The medium and low temperature geothermal resources are broadly distributed in the continental crustal uplift and subsidence areas inside the plate, represented by the geothermal belt on the southeast coast, while the high temperature geothermal resources concentrate on Southern Tibet-Western Sichuan-Western Yunnan Geothermal Belt and Taiwan Geothermal Belt. Currently, the geothermal resources in China are mainly used for bathing, recuperation, heating and power generation. It is a country that directly makes maximum use of geothermal energy in the world. However, China’s geothermal power generation, including installed generating capacity and power generation capacity, are far behind those of Western European countries and the USA. Studies on exploitation and development of geothermal resources are still weak.

  8. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Necker, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 2 sites at Necker in the NW...

  9. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Maro Reef, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Maro Reef in the NW...

  10. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Laysan, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the NW...

  11. Balancing cross-sections combining field work and remote sensing data using LithoTect software in the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, N Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Daniel; Grasemann, Bernhard; Lockhart, Duncan

    2010-05-01

    The Zagros fold-and-thrust belt has formed in detached Phanerozoic sedimentary cover rocks above a shortened crystalline Precambrian basement and evolved through the Late Cretaceous to Miocene collision between the Arabian and Eurasian plate, during which the Neotethys oceanic basin was closed. Deformation is partitioned in SW directed folding and thrusting of the sediments and NW-SE to N-S trending dextral strike slip faults. The sub-cylindrical doubly-plunging fold trains with wavelengths of 5 - 10 km host more than half of the world's hydrocarbon reserves in mostly anticlinal traps. Generally the Zagros is divided into three NW-SE striking tectonic units: the Zagros Imbricate Zone, the Zagros Simply Folded Belt and the Zagros Foredeep. This work presents a balanced cross-section through the Simply Folded Belt, NE of the city of Erbil (Kurdistan, Iraq). The regional stratigraphy comprises mainly Cretaceous to Cenozoic folded sediments consisting of massive, carbonate rocks (limestones, dolomites), reacting as competent layers during folding compared to the incompetent behavior of interlayered siltstones, claystones and marls. Although the overall security situation in Kurdistan is much better than in the rest of Iraq, structural field mapping was restricted to asphalt streets, mainly because of the contamination of the area with landmines and unexploded ordnance. In order to extend the structural measurements statistically over the investigated area, we used a newly developed software tool (www.terramath.com) for interactive structural mapping of spatial orientations (i.e. dip direction and dip angles) of the sedimentary beddings from digital elevation models. Structural field data and computed measurements where integrated and projected in NE-SW striking balanced cross-sections perpendicular to the regional trend of the fold axes. We used the software LithoTect (www.geologicsystems.com) for the restoration of the cross-sections. Depending on the interpretation

  12. Comparative study of Uranium estimation in drinking water samples of seismically active regions of NW-Himalayas, Himachal Pradesh and SW-Punjab, India using Laser Fluorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajwa, B.; Arora, V.; Saini, K. [Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar (India)

    2014-07-01

    The Laser Fluorimetry Technique has been used for the microanalysis of uranium content in drinking water samples collected from different sources like the hand pumps and natural springs of seismically active regions of Chamba and Dharamshala, Himachal Pradesh, NW-Himalayas and Bathinda and Mansa districts of SW-Punjab, state, India. The purpose of this study was to investigate the uranium concentration levels of ground water being used for drinking purposes and to determine its health effects, if any, to the local population of these regions. In the present study 47 samples of drinking water collected from different villages of the seismic active belt of Chamba and Dharamshala region of Himachal Pradesh, India have been analyzed for chemical and radiological toxicity. Uranium concentration in drinking water sample of study region ranged between 2.7 μgL{sup -1} - 53.9 μgL{sup -1} with an average value of 20.1 μgL{sup -1}. In SW-Punjab, Uranium concentration in 76 drinking water samples has been found to vary between 0.13 μgL{sup -1} and 676 μgL{sup -1} with an average of 90.2 μgL{sup -1}. Data analysis reveals that, 19% samples of NW-Himalayas water have uranium concentration higher than recommended limit of 30 μgL{sup -1} (WHO, 2011) while none of the samples exceeds the threshold of 60 μgL{sup -1} recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004. On the other hand, 64% water samples of SW-Punjab have uranium concentration higher than recommended limit of 30 μgL{sup -1} (WHO, 2011) while 39% water samples exceeds the threshold of 60 μgL{sup -1} recommended by AERB, DAE, India, 2004. Document available in abstract form only. (authors)

  13. Archaean Gold Mineralization in an Extensional Setting: The Structural History of the Kukuluma and Matandani Deposits, Geita Greenstone Belt, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shimba D. Kwelwa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Three major gold deposits, Matandani, Kukuluma, and Area 3, host several million ouncez (Moz of gold, along a ~5 km long, WNW trend in the E part of the Geita Greenstone Belt, NW Tanzania. The deposits are hosted in Archaean volcanoclastic sediment and intrusive diorite. The geological evolution of the deposits involved three separate stages: (1 an early stage of syn-sedimentary extensional deformation (D1 around 2715 Ma; (2 a second stage involving overprinting ductile folding (D2–4 and shearing (D5–6 events during N-S compression between 2700 and 2665 Ma, coeval with the emplacement of the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex; and (3 a final stage of extensional deformation (D7 accommodated by minor, broadly east-trending normal faults, preceded by the intrusion of felsic porphyritic dykes at ~2650 Ma. The geometry of the ore bodies at Kukuluma and Matandani is controlled by the distribution of magnetite-rich meta-ironstone, near the margins of monzonite-diorite bodies of the Kukuluma Intrusive Complex. The lithological contacts acted as redox boundaries, where high-grade mineralization was enhanced in damage zones with higher permeability, including syn-D3 hydrothermal breccia, D2–D3 fold hinges, and D6 shears. The actual mineralizing event was syn-D7, and occurred in an extensional setting that facilitated the infiltration of mineralizing fluids. Thus, whilst gold mineralization is late-tectonic, ore zone geometries are linked to older structures and lithological boundaries that formed before gold was introduced. The deformation-intrusive history of the Kukuluma and Matandani deposits is near identical to the geological history of the world-class Nyankanga and Geita Hill deposits in the central part of the Geita Greenstone Belt. This similarity suggests that the geological history of much of the greenstone belt is similar. All major gold deposits in the Geita Greenstone Belt lack close proximity to crustal-scale shear zones; they are associated

  14. The Cape Ghir filament system in August 2009 (NW Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangrà, Pablo; Troupin, Charles; Barreiro-González, Beatriz; Desmond Barton, Eric; Orbi, Abdellatif; Arístegui, Javier

    2015-06-01

    In the framework of the Canaries-Iberian marine ecosystem Exchanges (CAIBEX) experiment, an interdisciplinary high-resolution survey was conducted in the NW African region of Cape Ghir (30°38'N) during August 2009. The anatomy of a major filament is investigated on scales down to the submesoscale using in situ and remotely sensed data. The filament may be viewed as a system composed of three intimately connected structures: a small, shallow, and cold filament embedded within a larger, deeper, and cool filament and an intrathermocline anticyclonic eddy (ITE). The cold filament, which stretches 110 km offshore, is a shallow feature 60 m deep and 25 km wide, identified by minimal surface temperatures and rich in chlorophyll a. This structure comprises two asymmetrical submesoscale (˜18 km) fronts with jets flowing in opposite directions. The cold filament is embedded near the equatorward boundary of a much broader region of approximately 120 km width and 150 m depth that forms the cool filament and stretches at least 200 km offshore. This cool region, partly resulting from the influence of cold filament, is limited by two asymmetrical mesoscale (˜50 km) frontal boundaries. At the ITE, located north of the cold filament, we observe evidence of downwelling as indicated by a relatively high concentration of particles extending from the surface to more than 200 m depth. We hypothesize that this ITE may act as a sink of carbon and thus the filament system may serve dual roles of offshore carbon export and carbon sink.

  15. A study on the design and production of shadow puppets animation under the cultural background of "the Belt and Road" - Centering on the original work of shadow and image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuan; Jia, Yingxue; Yang, Hui

    2018-05-01

    "The Belt and Road" initiative is a national strategy of China to promote modernization construction. The Silk Road is not only a channel of business exchange, but also the artery in Sino-foreign cultural exchange. By promoting culture first, using China's shadow puppets animation production forms as a reference, using animation production techniques, depicting the two masters' pursuing of dharma to show the communication and exchange of Buddhist culture in ancient Silk Road, the original work seeks innovative expression methods in digital media production forms and animation processing and reveals the art and human style and features of China, Japan and India authentically.

  16. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  17. Easily fabricated and lightweight PPy/PDA/AgNW composites for excellent electromagnetic interference shielding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Gu, Fu-Qiang; Ni, Li-Juan; Liang, Kun; Marcus, Kyle; Liu, Shu-Li; Yang, Fan; Chen, Jin-Ju; Feng, Zhe-Sheng

    2017-11-30

    Conductive polymer composites (CPCs) containing nanoscale conductive fillers have been widely studied for their potential use in various applications. In this paper, polypyrrole (PPy)/polydopamine (PDA)/silver nanowire (AgNW) composites with high electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding performance, good adhesion ability and light weight are successfully fabricated via a simple in situ polymerization method followed by a mixture process. Benefiting from the intrinsic adhesion properties of PDA, the adhesion ability and mechanical properties of the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites are significantly improved. The incorporation of AgNWs endows the functionalized PPy with tunable electrical conductivity and enhanced EMI shielding effectiveness (SE). By adjusting the AgNW loading degree in the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites from 0 to 50 wt%, the electrical conductivity of the composites greatly increases from 0.01 to 1206.72 S cm -1 , and the EMI SE of the composites changes from 6.5 to 48.4 dB accordingly (8.0-12.0 GHz, X-band). Moreover, due to the extremely low density of PPy, the PPy/PDA/AgNW (20 wt%) composites show a superior light weight of 0.28 g cm -3 . In general, it can be concluded that the PPy/PDA/AgNW composites with tunable electrical conductivity, good adhesion properties and light weight can be used as excellent EMI shielding materials.

  18. Fault Slip Partitioning in the Eastern California Shear Zone-Walker Lane Belt: Pliocene to Late Pleistocene Contraction Across the Mina Deflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Stockli, D.; Gosse, J.

    2007-12-01

    Two different mechanisms have been proposed for fault slip transfer between the subparallel NW-striking dextral- slip faults that dominant the Eastern California Shear Zone (ECSZ)-Walker Lane Belt (WLB). In the northern WLB, domains of sinistral-slip along NE-striking faults and clockwise block rotation within a zone of distributed deformation accommodated NW-dextral shear. A somewhat modified version of this mechanism was also proposed for the Mina deflection, southern WLB, whereby NE-striking sinistral faults formed as conjugate faults to the primary zone of NW-dextral shear; clockwise rotation of the blocks bounding the sinistral faults accommodated dextral slip. In contrast, in the northern ECSZ and Mina deflection, domains of NE-striking pure dip-slip normal faults, bounded by NW-striking dextral-slip faults, exhibited no rotation; the proposed mechanism of slip transfer was one of right-stepping, high angle normal faults in which the magnitude of extension was proportional to the amount of strike-slip motion transferred. New geologic mapping, tectonic geomorphologic, and geochronologic data from the Queen Valley area, southern Mina deflection constrain Pliocene to late Quaternary fault geometries, slip orientations, slip magnitudes, and slip rates that bear on the mechanism of fault slip transfer from the relatively narrow northern ECSZ to the broad deformation zone that defines the Mina deflection. Four different fault types and orientations cut across the Queen Valley area: (1) The NE-striking normal-slip Queen Valley fault; (2) NE-striking sinistral faults; (3) the NW-striking dextral Coyote Springs fault, which merges into (4) a set of EW-striking thrust faults. (U-Th)/He apatite and cosmogenic radionuclide data, combined with magnitude of fault offset measurements, indicate a Pliocene to late Pleistocene horizontal extension rate of 0.2-0.3 mm/yr across the Queen Valley fault. Our results, combined with published slip rates for the dextral White Mountain

  19. Continuing scearch for a new type charging belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, N.L.

    1995-01-01

    The EN Tandem accelerator at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) operates to support a varied program of atomic physics research. As such, the demands on the accelerator often require a range of operation from ∼0.38 to 7.0 MV on the terminal, with low ripple and long term steady state operation. The standard charging belts obtained from the manufacture have generally given acceptable performance, but it is reasonable that modem manufacturing techniques and materials could increase belt lifetimes and improve accelerator performance, particularly voltage ripple. A new belt of significantly different construction from that of the conventional belts was specified, purchased, and installed in 1993. After 2800 hours of use at voltages from 0.38 to 5.8 MV, it was removed from the accelerator in early August 1995

  20. A comparative policy analysis of seat belt laws : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-24

    This analysis examined data from a variety of sources to estimate the benefit of enhancing Iowas current law to require all : passengers to use seat belts. In addition to assessing Iowans opinions about changing the law, a literature review, a ...

  1. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  2. Channel belt architecture formed by a meandering river

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lageweg, W.I. van de; Dijk, W.M. van; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2013-01-01

    Stratification in channel belts is the key to reconstructing formative channel dimensions and palaeoflow conditions; this requires an understanding of the relation between river morphodynamics and set thickness. So far, theories for reconstruction of the original morphology from preserved

  3. Gan-Hang tectonic belt and its geologic significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Jiarui; Zhang Zhiping.

    1989-01-01

    Gan-Hang tectonic belt is predominantly controlled by Gan-Hang fracture zone. It is mainly composed of Yongfeng-Zhuji downwarping zone, Gan-Hang volcanic activity structural belt and Gan-Hang red basin downfaulted zone. Gan-Hang fracture zone is derived from evolution and development of Shaoxing-Jiangshan deep fracture. It is mainly composed of three deep and large fracture and Fuzhou-Yongfeng large fracture. The fracture zone is a long active belt, but in each active period the geologic structural patterns intensity, depth and forming time were not same. Gan-Hang tectonic belt possesses obvious inheritance. It has always maintained the character of the relative depression or low land since the Caledonian movement. This specific structural environment is favourable for uranium mineralization. At any rate, the formation of this uranium minerogenetic zone has been experiencing a long and complicated processes which were closely associated with long activity of Gan-Hang fracture zone

  4. REDDY MAIN BELT ASTEROID SPECTRA V1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains low-resolution (R~150) near-infrared (0.7-2.5 microns) spectra of 90 main belt asteroids observed with the SpeX instrument on the NASA...

  5. Magmatic formations in the Okhotsk--Chukotka volcanogenic belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osipov, A.P.

    1976-05-01

    The relationship between the Okhotsk-Chukotka volcanogenic belt of Northeast USSR and the stage of evolution of magnetism and tectonic development of the region are examined. Recognizing the associations of effusive and intrusive rocks that are typical of the southern part of the volcanogenic belt and that are joined together by some characteristic features, a basic plan is presented for examination of the problem of magnetic formations. On the basis of the distinctive characteristics of epigeosynclinal tectonic development of the territory and the sequence of formation of the magmatic rocks within it, three main groups: volcanic, coleanoplutonic, and plutonic, can be distinguished; and a general scheme of development of these types in space and time within the volcanogenic belt can be developed. According to this scheme, four main stages can be recognized in the Mesozoic and Cenozoic magmatic evolution of the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt. This scheme of classification takes into consideration the factor of the structural development of this tectonomagmatic element.

  6. Controls on dryland mountain landscape development along the NW Saharan desert margin: Insights from Quaternary river terrace sequences (Dadès River, south-central High Atlas, Morocco)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokes, M.; Mather, A.E.; Belfoul, M.

    2017-01-01

    between 50 and 140 m. The rock strength, stratigraphy and structure of the mountain belt influences terrace distribution. Terraces are absent in river gorges of structurally thickened limestone; whilst well-developed, laterally continuous terraces (T1-T4) form along wide valleys occupying syncline...... sands and colluvium. This sequence with some OSL/IRSL age control, suggests terrace formation over a 100 ka climate cycle with valley floor aggradation during full glacials and incision during glacial-interglacial transitions. This integrates with other archives (e.g. lakes, glaciers, dunes), appearing...... typical of landscape development along the NW Saharan margin south of the High Atlas, and similar to patterns in the western-southern Mediterranean. The 100 ka climate cycle relationship suggests that the terrace sequence documents Late-Middle Pleistocene landscape development. Consistent altitudinal...

  7. Second longest conveyor belt in UK installed and fully operational

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    A conveyor belt (which after the completion of the Selby complex will be the second longest conveyor belt in the UK) has been installed at the Prince Charles Drift Mine, Prince of Wales Colliery, United Kingdom. The 1706 m conveyor is the sole underground-to-surface conveyor at the Drift Mine, and is powered by a single 2240 kW, 3000 hp drive unit.

  8. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    The asteroid belt is a remnant of planet-formation processes. By modeling its collisional and dynamical history, and linking the results to constraints, we can probe how the planets and small bodies formed and evolved. Some key model constraints are: (i) The wavy shape of the main-belt size distribution (SFD), with inflection points near 100-km, 10--20-km, 1 to a few km, and ˜0.1-km diameter; (ii) The number of asteroid families created by the catastrophic breakup of large asteroid bodies over the last ˜ 4 Gy, with the number of disrupted D > 100 km bodies as small as ˜20 or as large as 60; (iii) the flux of small asteroids derived from the main belt that have struck the Moon over the last 3.5 Ga --- crater SFDs on lunar terrains with known ages suggest the D 100 km bodies have been significantly battered, but only a fraction have been catastrophically disrupted. Conversely, most small asteroids today are byproducts of fragmentation events. These results are consistent with growing evidence that most of the prominent meteorite classes were produced by young asteroid families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  9. SPECIFIC RESISTANCE AND SPECIFIC INTENSITY OF BELT SANDING OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boleslaw Porankiewicz

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines and discusses the specific belt sanding resistance K (N·cm-2 and specific belt sanding intensity SI (g·cm-2·min-1, for wood of Pinus sylvestris L., Picea abies L., Quercus robra L., Acer pseudoplatanus L., Alnus glutinosa Gaertn., and Populus Nigra L., by different sanding pressure pS, different sanding grit NG number, and different wood grain angles Phi(v.

  10. Formation and Decay of the Inner Electron Radiation Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-09

    a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 09-01-2017 2. REPORT TYPE...radiation belt: CRAND and trapped solar protons......17 APPENDIX C - Inward diffusion and loss of radiation belt protons...transfer orbit that can be damaged by the intense charged -particle environment. Protons are the prominent hazard, often causing single event upsets in

  11. An Empirical Planetesimal Belt Radius–Stellar Luminosity Relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matrà, L.; Marino, S.; Kennedy, G. M.; Wyatt, M. C.; Öberg, K. I.; Wilner, D. J.

    2018-05-01

    Resolved observations of millimeter-sized dust, tracing larger planetesimals, have pinpointed the location of 26 Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt analogs. We report that a belt’s distance R to its host star correlates with the star’s luminosity L ⋆, following R\\propto {L}\\star 0.19 with a low intrinsic scatter of ∼17%. Remarkably, our Edgeworth–Kuiper Belt in the solar system and the two CO snow lines imaged in protoplanetary disks lie close to this R–L ⋆ relation, suggestive of an intrinsic relationship between protoplanetary disk structures and belt locations. To test the effect of bias on the relation, we use a Monte Carlo approach and simulate uncorrelated model populations of belts. We find that observational bias could produce the slope and intercept of the R–L ⋆ relation but is unable to reproduce its low scatter. We then repeat the simulation taking into account the collisional evolution of belts, following the steady-state model that fits the belt population as observed through infrared excesses. This significantly improves the fit by lowering the scatter of the simulated R–L ⋆ relation; however, this scatter remains only marginally consistent with the one observed. The inability of observational bias and collisional evolution alone to reproduce the tight relationship between belt radius and stellar luminosity could indicate that planetesimal belts form at preferential locations within protoplanetary disks. The similar trend for CO snow line locations would then indicate that the formation of planetesimals or planets in the outer regions of planetary systems is linked to the volatility of their building blocks, as postulated by planet formation models.

  12. Design of belt conveyors in bulk terminal applications. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, P J; Ramos, C M

    1985-10-01

    This paper discusses belt conveyors and their development in bulk terminal applications in South Africa. Single- and multi-product terminal philosophy is discussed, including methods of handling different products over the same system and limiting the effects of degradation at transfer points. In Part II, some aspects of belt conveyor design, as well as the results of tests on a chute designed to handle a range of products, will be covered. 23 references.

  13. GOLD MINERAL PROSPECTING USING PHASED ARRAY TYPE L-BAND SYNTHETIC APERTURE RADAR (PALSAR SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING DATA, CENTRAL GOLD BELT, MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Beiranvand Pour

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ of Peninsular Malaysia is one of the significant structural zones in Sundaland, Southeast Asia. It forms the boundary between the Gondwana-derived Sibumasu terrane in the west and Sukhothai arc in the east. The BRSZ is also genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the central gold belt Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In tropical environments, heavy tropical rainforest and intense weathering makes it impossible to map geological structures over long distances. Advances in remote sensing technology allow the application of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR data in geological structural analysis for tropical environments. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implication for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The major geological structure directions of the BRSZ are N-S, NNE-SSW, NE-SW and NW-SE, which derived from directional filtering analysis to PALSAR data. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Lineament analysis on PALSAR satellite remote sensing data is a useful tool for detecting the boundary between the Gondwana-derived terranes and major geological features associated with suture zone especially for large inaccessible regions in tropical environments.

  14. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  15. Dynamical Classifications of the Kuiper Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggard, Steven; Ragozzine, Darin

    2018-04-01

    The Minor Planet Center (MPC) contains a plethora of observational data on thousands of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs). Understanding their orbital properties refines our understanding of the formation of the solar system. My analysis pipeline, BUNSHIN, uses Bayesian methods to take the MPC observations and generate 30 statistically weighted orbital clones for each KBO that are propagated backwards along their orbits until the beginning of the solar system. These orbital integrations are saved as REBOUND SimulationArchive files (Rein & Tamayo 2017) which we will make publicly available, allowing many others to perform statistically-robust dynamical classification or complex dynamical investigations of outer solar system small bodies.This database has been used to expand the known collisional family members of the dwarf planet Haumea. Detailed orbital integrations are required to determine the dynamical distances between family members, in the form of "Delta v" as measured from conserved proper orbital elements (Ragozzine & Brown 2007). Our preliminary results have already ~tripled the number of known Haumea family members, allowing us to show that the Haumea family can be identified purely through dynamical clustering.We will discuss the methods associated with BUNSHIN and the database it generates, the refinement of the updated Haumea family, a brief search for other possible clusterings in the outer solar system, and the potential of our research to aid other dynamicists.

  16. Statistics of the outer radiation belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodgers, D.J.; Johnstone, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    The highly variable electron flux levels in the outer radiation belt come about by competition between time-dependent source and loss mechanisms. In order to identify some of the different mechanisms involved, we examine the statistics of the variability of fluxes at geostationary orbit. Data from the SEM-2 analyzer on Meteosat-3 and from GOES-7 are used. Correlation analysis is used to find time-delays between changes in flux at different energies. We see that low energy flux is added to this region during sub-storms and that higher energy fluxes appear after 2 or 3 days. Whilst the timescale for this process is brief compared to a complete cycle of the open-quote Recirculation close-quote energization process, it is consistent with the timescale of its final step endash outward radial diffusion. By isolating periods when no new injection of plasma occurs, we make an assessment of flux loss rates in a quiet magnetosphere. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  17. Scheelite distribution a long of amphibolitic belt from greenstone belt Barbacena, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, R.M.; Alexandre, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    In the middle southern portion of the Minas Gerais state a 60 Km long and 12 Km wide tungsten belt was discovered, and related to the amphibolitic rocks of the Barbacena Greenstone. Tungsten, present as scheelite, is associated with amphibolites, amphibole schists and amphibole gneisses, with chemical characteristics indicating an igneous origin. Chemical analyses on pan concentrates by I.C.P. showed high values on lead, tin, yttrium, lanthanum, cerium and zirconium, and average values for zinc and copper. The scheelite mineralization is probably strata bound and has a possible submarine exhalative origin. (author)

  18. Selection of Belt Conveyors Drive Units Number by Technical –Economical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Despodov, Zoran; Mijalkovski, Stojance; Adjiski, Vancho; Panov, Zoran

    2014-01-01

    In this paper is presented a methodology for selection of belt conveyor drive units number by technical - economical analysis of their parameters. Belt Conveyors with follow drive arrangement will be considered: one, two, three and four drive units. In the technical - economical analysis are including: Tension forces, Power of belt conveyor, Costs for belt, Costs for power and reducers, Total cost for belt conveyor system.

  19. Investigation on the age of mineralization in the Sungun porphyry Cu-Mo deposit, NW Iran with a regional metallogenic perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds, Vartan; Moazzen, Mohssen; Mathur, Ryan

    2016-04-01

    The Sungun porphyry copper deposit (PCD) is located in NW Iran, neighbouring several other PCDs and prospects in the region and the Lesser Caucasus (south Armenia). It lies on the Urumieh-Dokhtar magmatic arc (UDMA), which formed through the northeast-ward subduction of the Neo-Tethyan oceanic crust beneath the Central Iranian plate during late-Mesozoic and early-Cenozoic [1], and hosts the porphyry copper metallogenic belt of Iran. The Sungun PCD is the second largest deposit in Iran with ore reserves of about 850 Mt at 0.62 wt% Cu and 0.01 wt% Mo and probable reserves over 1Gt. The monzonitic to quartz monzonitic porphyry stock intruded the upper Cretaceous carbonates and Eocene volcano-sedimentary rocks. It produced a skarn-type mineralization at its contact zone with the carbonate rocks, as well as vast hydrothermal alteration zones and porphyry-type Cu and Mo mineralization. The zircon U-Pb age of the host porphyry stock is about 22.5±0.4 to 20.1±0.4 Ma [2]. Re-Os dating of four molybdenite separates from this PCD shows ages ranging between 22.9±0.2 to 21.7±0.2 Ma, with an average of 22.57±0.2 Ma, corresponding to the early Miocene (Aquitanian). These ages indicate that both the porphyry stock and the Cu-Mo mineralization are post-collisional events, similar to many other deposits and prospects in NW and central Iran and south Armenia, and the mineralization occurred shortly after the emplacement of the host stock, corresponding better to the ages obtained from the marginal parts of the stock. Magmatism and mineralization in Sungun coincides with the third metallogenic epoch in the Lesser Caucasus (Eocene to Miocene; [3]), though it is considerably younger than all of the dated PCDs and prospects in the south Armenia. It also postdates Cu-Mo mineralizations in the Saheb Divan (35 Ma), Qaradagh batholith (31.22±0.28 to 25.19±0.19 Ma), as well as Haft Cheshmeh PCD (28.18±0.42 to 27.05±0.37 Ma) in NW Iran, while it seems to be coeval with the Kighal

  20. Landscape History of Grosses Moos, NW Swiss Alpine Foreland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joanna Heer, Aleksandra; Adamiec, Grzegorz; Veit, Heinz; May, Jan-Hendrik; Novenko, Elena; Hajdas, Irka

    2017-04-01

    woodland clearings in the River Aare Valley and around the Lake Neuchâtel. The development of several dune belts in the study area are attributed to various periods since the Lateglacial, e.g. the turn of the Holocene, the lake level drop in the Mid-Holocene, and the beginning of the Little Ice Age, and can thus be related to surprisingly varied environmental conditions. Despite the eventful past of the Grosses Moos, a Holocene Luvisol has preserved until recently on top of the oldest dune belt called Isleren Dune.

  1. Modeling and energy efficiency optimization of belt conveyors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Shirong; Xia, Xiaohua

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We take optimization approach to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. → An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is proposed. → Then an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are investigated. → In a case study, six optimization problems are formulated with solutions in simulation. - Abstract: The improvement of the energy efficiency of belt conveyor systems can be achieved at equipment and operation levels. Specifically, variable speed control, an equipment level intervention, is recommended to improve operation efficiency of belt conveyors. However, the current implementations mostly focus on lower level control loops without operational considerations at the system level. This paper intends to take a model based optimization approach to improve the efficiency of belt conveyors at the operational level. An analytical energy model, originating from ISO 5048, is firstly proposed, which lumps all the parameters into four coefficients. Subsequently, both an off-line and an on-line parameter estimation schemes are applied to identify the new energy model, respectively. Simulation results are presented for the estimates of the four coefficients. Finally, optimization is done to achieve the best operation efficiency of belt conveyors under various constraints. Six optimization problems of a typical belt conveyor system are formulated, respectively, with solutions in simulation for a case study.

  2. On-conveyor belt determination of ash in coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sowerby, B.; Lim, C.S.; Abernethy, D.A.; Liu, Y.; Maguire, P.A.

    1997-01-01

    A laboratory feasibility study has been carried out on new and advanced neutron and gamma-ray analysis systems for the direct on-conveyor belt analysis of ash in coal without the need for sample by-lines. Such an analysis system could deliver the combined advantages of a direct on-conveyor configuration with new and accurate analysis techniques. An industry survey of 18 coal companies carried out in early 1996 indicated that accurate on-belt ash analysis is of the highest priority. Subsequent laboratory work has focussed on the investigation of methods with the potential for improving the accuracy of ash content measurement relative to existing on-belt ash analysers, the most widely-used of which are based on dual energy gamma-ray transmission (DUET), which is sensitive to variations in ash composition. The current work indicates that on-belt neutron/gamma-ray techniques combined with advanced spectral analysis techniques show promise for development into an on-belt ash analysis system which is significantly less sensitive to composition changes than DUET and which analyses a much larger proportion of coal on the belt, thus eliminating some key sources of analysis error

  3. ERUPTIVE VARIABLE STARS AND OUTFLOWS IN SERPENS NW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodapp, Klaus W. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 640 N. Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Chini, Rolf; Watermann, Ramon; Lemke, Roland, E-mail: hodapp@ifa.hawaii.edu [Ruhr Universitaet Bochum, Astronomisches Institut, Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44801 Bochum (Germany)

    2012-01-01

    We study the outflow activity, photometric variability, and morphology of three very young stellar objects in the Serpens NW star-forming region: OO Serpentis, EC 37 (V370 Ser), and EC 53 (V371 Ser). High spatial resolution Keck/NIRC2 laser guide star adaptive optics images obtained in 2007 and 2009 in broadband K and in a narrowband filter centered on the 1-0 S(1) emission line of H{sub 2} allow us to identify the outflows from all three objects. We also present new, seeing-limited data on the photometric evolution of the OO Ser reflection nebula and re-analyze previously published data. We find that OO Ser declined in brightness from its outburst peak in 1995 to about 2003, but that this decline has recently stopped and actually reversed itself in some areas of the reflection nebula. The morphology and proper motions of the shock fronts MHO 2218 near EC 37 suggest that they all originate in EC 37 and that this is an outflow seen nearly along its axis. We identify an H{sub 2} jet emerging from the cometary nebula EC 53. The star illuminating EC 53 is periodically variable with a period of 543 days and has a close-by, non-variable companion at a projected distance of 92 AU. We argue that the periodic variability is the result of accretion instabilities triggered by another very close, not directly observable, binary companion and that EC 53 can be understood in the model of a multiple system developing into a hierarchical configuration.

  4. Firewood Resource Management in Different Landscapes in NW Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela V. Morales

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystems, their components, processes and functions are all subject to management by human populations, with the purpose of adapting the environments to make them more habitable and ensuring the availability and continuity of subsistence resources. Although a lot of work has been carried out on resources of alimentary or medicinal interest, little has been done on associating processes of domestication with firewood extraction, a practice considered to be destructive of the environment. In the arid steppe of NW Patagonia, inhabited and managed for different purposes for a long time by Mapuche-Tehuelche communities, the gathering of combustible plant species has up to the present time played a crucial role in cooking and heating, and work is required to achieve sustainability of this resource. In this study we evaluate whether environments with less landscape domestication are more intensively used for firewood gathering. Using an ethnobiological approach, information was obtained through participant observation, interviews and free listing. The data were examined using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Twenty-eight firewood species are gathered, both native (75% and exotic (25%. The supply of firewood mainly depends on gathering from the domesticated (10 species, semi-domesticated (17 species and low human intervention landscapes (17 species. In contrast to our hypothesis, average use intensity is similar in all these landscapes despite their different levels of domestication. That is, the different areas are taken advantage of in a complementary manner in order to satisfy the domestic demand for firewood. Neither do biogeographic origin or utilitarian versatility of collected plants vary significantly between the different landscape levels of domestication. Our results show that human landscape domestication for the provision of firewood seems to be a socio-cultural resilient practice, and shed new light on the role of culture in

  5. Structural analysis of hanging wall and footwall blocks within the Río Guanajibo fold-and-thrust belt in Southwest Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.; Llerandi-Román, Pablo A.

    2017-01-01

    The Río Guanajibo fold-and-thrust belt (RGFT), composed of Cretaceous serpentinite and volcano-sedimentary rocks, represents the deformation front of a contractional event in SW Puerto Rico during the Paleogene. Previous studies inferred structural and stratigraphic relationships from poorly exposed outcrops. New road cuts exposed the Yauco (YF) and El Rayo Formations (ERF) providing insights on the deformation of the hanging wall and footwall. We described the nature and orientation of faults and folds and analyzed the kinematic indicators to characterize the deformation. The YF occurs in the hanging wall and shows a sequence of folded, medium-bedded mudstone and thinly bedded shale and sandstone. Major folds strike NW-SE and are gentle with steeply inclined axial planes and sub-horizontal fold axes. Minor folds are open with moderately inclined axial planes and gently to moderately inclined SE-plunging fold axes. NW-SE striking reverse and thrust faults cut layers and show movement to the SW. Steep left-lateral faults strike NW-SE and NE-SW, and smaller right-lateral strike-slip faults strike NNE-SSW. At the footwall, the ERF consists of bioclastic limestone and polymictic orthoconglomerates and paraconglomerates. Reverse and strike-slip faults cut along lithological contacts. Results suggest that the hanging wall and footwall accommodated strain along preexisting weaknesses, which are dependent on lithology and sedimentary structures. The kinematic analysis suggests that shortening in the NE-SW direction was partitioned between folding and interlayer shortening, accommodated by flexural slip, and reverse and left-lateral faults that resulted from contraction. The RGFT represents the Paleogene back arc deformation of a bivergent thrust system.

  6. China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC): Benefits For Pakistan And Comparison With Suez And Panama Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR PAKISTAN AND COMPARISON WITH SUEZ AND PANAMA CANALS by Hanif Ullah Khan December 2017 Thesis...DATE December 2017 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CHINA PAKISTAN ECONOMIC CORRIDOR (CPEC): BENEFITS FOR...The China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) is part of China’s “One Belt, One Road” initiative and joins two major economic corridors: The Silk Road

  7. Central and Eastern European countries between the 16+1 platform and Chinese OBOR - One Belt, One Road - Initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Cornel Dumitrescu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at analysing the projects and the initiatives of the Central and Eastern European countries that have been finalised, are in progress or will be developed in the near future with the help of the existing or future financial instruments specific to the 16+1 platform and the One Belt, One Road complex program. For our research we selected four countries, namely: Poland, Romania, Serbia and Hungary, the group being relevant from the perspective of the transportation corridors connected to the ”One Belt, One Road” initiative: (1 - Piraeus, Skopje, Belgrade, Budapest, Western Europe; (2 - Suez Canal, Constanta and then Danube, Western Europe, or through Moldova towards Ukraine and Poland; (3 – Constanta, through the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and then the corridors mentioned at the previous point. We based our analysis on the data provided by the National Bureau of Statistics of China, China-CEEC think-tank network and the literature in the field.

  8. Early cretaceous zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of the trachyte and its significances of the Gan-Hang belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feiyu; Wu Jianhua; Liu Shuai

    2009-01-01

    The Shixi basin was located at Gan-Hang tectonic volcanic uranium deposit of rock-magma belt which belong to a part of the Mesozoic volcanic rocks in the northeastern of China. The appearance of the trachyte in Shixi basin have the majoy elements characteristic of the shoshonite series volcanic rocks. To determine the geological age of trachyte have very important significance on the geodynamics research and the study on the cause of uranium mineralization. The zircons of the trachyte have clear ring and high Th/U ratio which belong to the typical magmatic zircons. The zircon SHRIMP U-Pb dating resules show that 14points' age range is very smaller is 132-144 Ma and the weighted average age is (137.00±0.94)Ma which represents the diagenetic age of volcanic rocks. Accronding to the latest International Stratigraphic Chart the boundary of Jurassic and Cretaceous is (145.4±4.0)Ma. So the trachyte of Shixi Group belong to early Cretaceous. The large-scale acidic volcanic activity occurred in the Early Cretaceous in Southeastern China, and the Volcanic uranium deposit of Gan-Hang tectonic belt relate to Alkali metasomatism Uranium mineralization also occurred in the Early Cretaceous (120-130 Ma). The determined of trachyte in Shixi Group in the Early Cretaceous show that the acidic volcanic activity have connection with magma activity and the early Uranium mineralization consistent with the Alkali magma activity. (authors)

  9. Deformation and kinematics of the central Kirthar Fold Belt, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinsch, Ralph; Hagedorn, Peter; Asmar, Chloé; Nasim, Muhammad; Aamir Rasheed, Muhammad; Kiely, James M.

    2017-04-01

    The Kirthar Fold Belt is part of the lateral mountain belts in Pakistan linking the Himalaya orogeny with the Makran accretionary wedge. This region is deforming very oblique/nearly parallel to the regional plate motion vector. The study area is situated between the prominent Chaman strike-slip fault in the West and the un-deformed foreland (Kirthar Foredeep/Middle Indus Basin) in the East. The Kirthar Fold Belt is subdivided into several crustal blocks/units based on structural orientation and deformation style (e.g. Kallat, Khuzdar, frontal Kirthar). This study uses newly acquired and depth-migrated 2D seismic lines, surface geology observations and Google Earth assessments to construct three balanced cross sections for the frontal part of the fold belt. Further work was done in order to insure the coherency of the built cross-sections by taking a closer look at the regional context inferred from published data, simple analogue modelling, and constructed regional sketch sections. The Khuzdar area and the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt are dominated by folding. Large thrusts with major stratigraphic repetitions are not observed. Furthermore, strike-slip faults in the Khuzdar area are scarce and not observed in the frontal Kirthar Fold Belt. The regional structural elevation rises from the foreland across the Kirthar Fold Belt towards the hinterland (Khuzdar area). These observations indicate that basement-involved deformation is present at depth. The domination of folding indicates a weak decollement below the folds (soft-linked deformation). The fold pattern in the Khuzdar area is complex, whereas the large folds of the central Kirthar Fold Belt trend SSW-NNE to N-S and are best described as large detachment folds that have been slightly uplifted by basement involved transpressive deformation underneath. Towards the foreland, the deformation is apparently more hard-linked and involves fault-propagation folding and a small triangle zone in Cretaceous sediments

  10. Anoxia, toxic metals and acidification: volcanically-driven causes of the Middle Permian (Capitanian) mass extinction in NW Pangaea?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, David; Grasby, Stephen; Wignall, Paul

    2017-04-01

    The controversial Capitanian (Middle Permian, 262 Ma) mass extinction, mostly known from equatorial latitudes, has recently been identified in a Boreal setting in Spitsbergen. We now document this extinction in the record of brachiopods from the Sverdrup Basin in NW Pangaea (Ellesmere Island, Canada), confirming Middle Permian losses as a global crisis on par with the "Big Five". Redox proxies (pyrite framboids and trace metals) show that the high latitude crisis coincided with an intensification of oxygen-poor conditions - a potent killer that is not clearly developed in lower latitude sections. Mercury becomes briefly enriched in strata at the level of the Middle Permian extinction level in Spitsbergen and Ellesmere Island, indicating voluminous but short-lived volcanism that is likely to have been the emplacement of the Emeishan large igneous province (LIP) in SW China. A potent cocktail of poisons appears to have impacted across the Boreal Realm, whilst the near-total loss of carbonates near the extinction level is also consistent with reduced pH across the region. Multiple stresses, possibly with origins in low-latitude LIP volcanism, are therefore implicated in the Middle Permian extinction and there was no respite even in the far-distant Boreal Realm.

  11. Petrogenesis and tectonic implication of the Late Triassic post-collisional volcanic rocks in Chiang Khong, NW Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Xin; Wang, Yuejun; Feng, Qinglai; Zi, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Yuzhi; Chonglakmani, Chongpan

    2016-04-01

    The volcanic rocks exposed within the Chiang Khong-Lampang-Tak igneous zone in NW Thailand provide important constraints on the tectonic evolution of the eastern Paleotethys ocean. An andesite sample from the Chiang Khong area yields a zircon U-Pb age of 229 ± 4 Ma, significantly younger than the continental-arc and syn-collisional volcanic rocks (ca. 238-241 Ma). The Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are characterized by low MgO (1.71-6.72 wt.%) and high Al2O3 (15.03-17.76 wt.%). They are enriched in LILEs and LREEs and depleted in HFSEs, and have 87Sr/86Sr (i) ratios of 0.7050-0.7065, εNd (t) of - 0.32 to - 1.92, zircon εHf (t) and δ18O values of 3.5 to - 11.7 and 4.30-9.80 ‰, respectively. The geochemical data for the volcanic rocks are consistent with an origin from the enriched lithospheric mantle that had been modified by slab-derived fluid and recycled sediments. Based on available geochronological and geochemical evidences, we propose that the Late Triassic Chiang Khong volcanic rocks are equivalent to the contemporaneous volcanic rocks in the Lancangjiang igneous zone in SW China. The formation of these volcanic rocks was possibly related to the upwelling of the asthenospheric mantle during the Late Triassic, shortly after slab detachment, which induced the melting of the metasomatized mantle wedge.

  12. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  13. On-conveyor belt analysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheryl Lim; David Abernethy; S. Rainey; L.K. Noack [CSIRO Minerals (Australia)

    2007-09-15

    The report describes the design and plant-testing of a prototype commercial on-belt ash analyser at the Bengalla CHPP (Muswellbrook, NSW). This analyser uses the Neutron Inelastic Scatter (NIS) and Thermal Neutron Capture (TNC) Analysis (NITA) technique, which has been investigated extensively in earlier ACARP projects C5051 (laboratory feasibility study) and the previous stage of C9042 (development and lab testing of a field prototype and evaluate the suitability of the technique for specific energy and sulphur measurement). The NITA analyser has been demonstrated to be capable of achieving an accuracy of 0.46 %ash. Specifically, a measured value for total r.m.s. error of 0.77 %ash, measured r.m.s error includes various uncertainties (estimated to be 0.61 %ash) associated with the chemical analysis and sample collection procedures used to generate the chemical laboratory data provided for calibration. In earlier laboratory work it was demonstrated that a measured r.m.s error of 0.75 %ash corresponded to an actual accuracy of 0.53 %ash after much smaller laboratory sampling errors had been excluded. Accurate measurement of ash value can be achieved in material which is expected to have significant variability in mineralogy, and in the past has not been amenable to analysis using the DUET technique. Accurate measurement of ash value is possible in the presence of significant levels of segregation and changes in mineral matter composition. CSIRO is collaborating with a commercial partner to demonstrate and complete the implementation of the NITA technology in industry. A commercial prototype analyser (NITA II) is under development and a plant installation is expected to occur in mid 2008.

  14. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address th