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Sample records for belt argentina geothermobarometry

  1. The belt of metagabbros of La Pampa: Lower Paleozoic back-arc magmatism in south-central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernicoff, Carlos J.; Zappettini, Eduardo O.; Villar, Luisa M.; Chemale, Farid, Jr.; Hernández, Laura

    2009-12-01

    Combined geological, geochronological, geochemical and geophysical studies have led to identification of a large (˜300 km long, ˜5 km wide) N-S trending belt of metagabbros in the province of La Pampa, south-central Argentina. This belt, though only poorly exposed in the localities of Valle Daza and Sierra de Lonco Vaca, stands out in the geophysical data (aeromagnetics and gravity). Modeling of the aeromagnetic data permits estimation of the geometry of the belt of metagabbros and surrounding rocks. The main rock type exposed is metagabbros with relict magmatic nucleii where layering is preserved. A counterclockwise P-T evolution affected these rocks, i.e., during the Middle Ordovician the protolith reached an initial granulite facies of metamorphism (M1), evolving to amphibolite facies (M2). During the Upper Devonian, a retrograde, greenschist facies metamorphism (M3) partially affected the metagabbros. The whole-rock Sm-Nd data suggest a juvenile source from a depleted mantle, with model ages ranging from 552 to 574 Ma, and positive Epsilon values of 6.51-6.82. A crystallization age of 480 Ma is based on geological considerations, i.e. geochronological data of the host rocks as well as comparisons with the Las Aguilas mafic-ultramafic belt of Sierra de San Luis (central Argentina). The geochemical studies indicate an enriched MORB and back-arc signature. The La Pampa metagabbros are interpreted to be originated as a result of the extension that took place in a back-arc setting coevally with the Famatinian magmatic arc (very poorly exposed in the western part of the study area). The extensional event was 'aborted' by the collision of the Cuyania terrane with Pampia-Gondwana in the Middle Ordovician, causing deformation and metamorphism throughout the arc-back-arc region. The similarities between the La Pampa metagabbros and the mafic-ultramafic Las Aguilas belt of the Sierra de San Luis are very conspicuous, for example, the age (Lower Paleozoic), geochemical

  2. Missing shortening in the thick-skinned retroarc thrust belt of the central Andes, northwestern Argentina, ~25°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D. M.; Kapp, P. A.; Decelles, P. G.; Reiners, P. W.

    2010-12-01

    A very large discrepancy exists among estimated retroarc shortening magnitudes in the thin-skinned thrust belt of Bolivia and the thick-skinned thrust belt of northwestern Argentina. Fieldwork and structural analysis from this study at ~25°S latitude in northwestern Argentina confirm the presence of a mainly west verging, thick-skinned style of shortening in the region which, taken together with thermochronological data ((U-Th)/He in zircon and apatite and published apatite fission track results), imply up to 10 km of rapid, Miocene exhumation. Although these results suggest that significant exhumation occurred in the region, displacements on mapped, discrete faults are insufficient in magnitude (by ~15-20%) to generate the observed ~58 km thick crust (Yuan et al., 2002). We suggest that additional, unrecognized shortening or crustal addition is required in the region to explain the thick crust and occurred by 1) crustal flow from neighboring regions of thickened crust; 2) passive roof thrusting whereby major, likely mid-crustal shortening was fed to higher structural levels; 3) tectonic underplating of trench or forearc rocks; and/or 4) significant penetrative strain not accommodated by through going faults. We do not discard other mechanisms of crustal thickening and/or addition in the region, but magnitudes of upper crustal shortening required by excess area calculations are best explained by penetrative deformation within rheologically weak metaturbidites of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Puncoviscana Formation. Although penetrative strain was generally not considered in cross section restorations in the retroarc of Bolivia, a relative lack of these rheologically weak rocks there probably precludes penetrative deformation as a significant mode of deformation and may partially reconcile the discrepancy in along-strike shortening magnitudes. Significant shortening has been accommodated by penetrative strain in other orogens worldwide, including western North

  3. La concentración de la agricultura entre 1937 y 1988: El Corn Belt y la pampa maicera argentina

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    Javier Balsa

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available En el presente artículo comparamos la evolución del tamaño de las explotaciones agropecuarias y de la superficie que controlaban, en el Corn Belt norteamericano y la zona predominantemente agrícola de la pampa argentina. En primer lugar, cotejamos las estructuras para fines de los años treinta y, luego, analizamos su evolución durante los siguientes cincuenta años. Para ello trabajamos no sólo con la información censal, sino con los informes técnicos de las estaciones experimentales de ambas regiones. Por último, incorporamos algunas hipótesis sobre los diversos factores que pudieron haber incidido sobre el proceso de concentración.This article compares the evolution of farm size and the acreage they occupied in U.S.' Corn Belt and the Agricultural Zone of the Argentine Pampas. The first part devotes to the contrast between both regions in the late thirties. Then, there is an analysis of their evolution during the following fifty years. Along with census data, technical reports of the Agricultural Experiment Stations of both regions were used. Finally, some hypotheses dealing with the factors that could have influenced in the concentration process were introduced.

  4. Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Nogues, Julio J.

    2005-01-01

    After decades of being a marginal player in the GATT trade negotiations, Argentina decided to participate actively in the Uruguay Round. This chapter measures the imbalance between the concessions given and received and concludes that the value of the first are far more important than the second. I discusss the economic consequence of this imbalance, and the prospects that the outcome of the Doha Round can be more balanced outcome for Argentina.

  5. Late-Neoproterozoic hydrothermal fluid activity in the Tandilia belt, Argentina

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    Juan C Martínez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In the Barker - Villa Cacique area, Tandilia belt, alteration mineral assemblages were studied by petrography, XRD and EMPA at three different stratigraphic levels: (1 a phyllic alteration at the unconformity palaeoproterozoic basement-neoproterozoic sedimentary succession (TLPU; (2 an advanced argillic alteration in the Las Águilas Formation (middle level; and (3 a phyllic alteration on pyroclastic rocks of the Olavarría Formation (upper level. Special emphasize was placed on the chemical characterization of K-white micas and chlorites. Secondary K-white micas of altered migmatites, from the Las Aguilas and Olavarría Formations have a low paragonite content (Na* 9.5 km for the entire sedimentary pile. Hot fluids would rise from deep-seated realms, metamorphic and/or hidden igneous sources. A correlation with a Brasiliano thermo-tectonic event is hypothesized.

  6. Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1999-09-01

    This report presents a brief overview of the socio-economic, energy and environmental context in which climate change mitigation actions in Argentina shall be inserted. To that end, the dynamic of the Argentine economic development, its influence on the energy system and environmental impacts is summarised. From the environmental standpoint, emphasis shall only be made on the impact of economic development patterns and energy policies on GHG emission. (au) 73 refs.

  7. Argentina

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    Karina M. Michetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Draparnaldia mutabilis posee un talo compuesto por un sistema rizoidal postrado reducido y un sistema erguido que muestra una marcada diferenciación entre filamentos axiales y laterales, estos últimos agrupados en fascículos densos, altamente ramificados. La reproducción asexual ocurre por medio de zoósporas que poseen un patrón de germinación erguido. El registro de esta especie constituye la primera cita cierta para la República Argentina. Se presenta además, una clave con las especies mejor definidas.

  8. Trace-element geochemistry of mantle olivine and application to mantle petrogenesis and geothermobarometry

    OpenAIRE

    De Hoog, Cees-Jan; Gall, Louise; Cornell, David H.

    2010-01-01

    Trace-element compositions of olivine from 75 mantle rocks of diverse origin, including xenoliths from kimberlites, basaltic lavas and orogenic peridotites, were determined by laser ablation ICP-MS to study systematic variations between mantle lithologies, partitioning mechanisms in olivine and their potential for geothermobarometry and unravelling mantle processes. Samples were selected to cover a wide range of forsterite contents (89.1-93.4), equilibration temperatures and pressures (750-14...

  9. Puncoviscana folded belt in northwestern Argentina: testimony of Late Proterozoic Rodinia fragmentation and pre-Gondwana collisional episodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omarini, R. H.; Sureda, R. J.; Götze, H.-J.; Seilacher, A.; Pflüger, F.

    Stratigraphic correlations and tectonic analysis suggest that the Puncoviscana fold belt of northwestern Argentina was an intracontinental basin with bimodal igneous suites that formed in connection with the breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent (at 800Ma). Several lines of evidences point to an initial lithosphere rupture, possibly induced by a rising mantle plume. The earliest synrift igneous products are represented by ultra-potassic dykes and alkaline lava flows of high LREE/HREE and low Zr/Nb-Y/Nb ratios. The dyke emplacements and the initiation of rifting were probably synchronous. They pass laterally and upwards (middle part of the Puncoviscana succession) into basalts of alkaline transitional character (OIB-like source). The distinctive chemical feature of these lavas are very similar to the source of oceanic island basalts; thus, they are thought to represent a magmatism associated with the rift and rift-drift transition stage. During this stage of rifting probably true oceanic crust was formed. The upper part of the Puncoviscana sequence, Late Precambrian/Lower Cambrian in age, comprises a thick and monotonous sequence of pillow lavas, massive basaltic flows and minor volcanic breccias and hyaloclastites. These lavas exhibit MORB trace element characteristics with high FeOt and TiO2, low K2O and P2O5, flat light REE spectra, little or no depletion in Nb and Ta. This volcanism consists of the major and latest effusive episode from the Puncoviscana basin which was slightly modified by subduction processes. The geodynamical model proposed for the generation of these volcanic rocks could have been developed in two stages. In the first stage the volcanic event is compatible with a progressive opening of a continental rift leading to formation of a mature oceanic basin. In contrast, the second stage shows the effects of a completed Wilson cycle including a primitive volcanic arc which continued until the accreted Cuyania-Arequipa-Belen-Antofalla (CABA) terrane

  10. Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-02-01

    Background notes on Argentina provide a profile of the geography, selected demographic features, government and economic conditions. Descriptive text includes a discussion of the people, their history and political conditions, the government and officials, the state of the economy, their defense, foreign relations, and relations with the US. The 1992 estimated population was about 33 million of whom 97% are European (mostly Spanish and Italian). Religions represented are Roman Catholic (92%), Protestant (2%), Jewish (2%), and other (4%). Adult literacy is 95%. 36% are engaged in industry and commerce, 20% in services, 19% in agriculture, 6% in transport and communications, and 19% other. Per capita gross domestic product was $4,500. There are only 50,000 native Indians remaining in peripheral provinces. The population enjoys a high standard of living and a low growth rate. The country was shaped by dominant forces: modern agricultural techniques and the integration of the country into the world economy. Foreign investment aided the economic revolution. Conservative and radical rule has swung the country back and forth politically since 1916. Colonel Juan Domingo Peron led a successful military coup in 1943 and was elected in 1946. Policies were instituted to give a greater voice to the working class, and with the influences of his wife, women's groups. In 1955, he was ousted by the military, which failed to revive the economy and quiet increasing terrorism. After a number of difficult elections, Peron was reinstated as president in 1973. Extremists on the left and right threatened public order; the military as a consequence imprisoned persons indefinitely. Peron's wife succeeded him after his death, but was removed from office in the military coup of 1976. Basic human rights were violated during this period. By 1983, a fair election was held and support increased for a democratic system. In 1989, Carlos Saul Menem, a Peronist candidate, won and established

  11. Argentina

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    G. Benedetti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo realizar un diagnóstico ambiental de un sector de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca, Argentina basado en el arbolado urbano de alineación. El arbolado constituye un componente fundamental de los paisajes artifi ciales ya que contribuye al aumento del confort y al mejoramiento de la calidad del medio. En este sentido, actúa como un factor moderador de las condiciones climáticas, la contaminación y la salud de la población. El municipio de la ciudad de Bahía Blanca tiene como proyecto la realización de inventarios del arbolado en los distintos barrios, para lograr optimizar la relación entre la cantidad de ejemplares arbóreos y la densidad poblacional. Es importante considerar la variedad de ejemplares en función del uso del suelo y de las características ambientales de cada sector. Por lo tanto, este trabajo presenta un diseño metodológico para la elaboración del plano verde de la ciudad.

  12. Argentina

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    Hernan Galperin

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan las bases sobre las que se está desarrollando el proceso de transición hacia la TV digital en Brasil y Argentina, y se discuten las posibilidades que la transición presenta para replantear la estructura de mercado y el modelo de regulación de la TV abierta en los países del Mercosur. La principal hipótesis es que la TV digital abre una oportunidad única para reformar el actual modelo de radiodifusión basado en la concesión de un número reducido de licencias a operadores de tipo generalista. Al multiplicar la capacidad de transmisión y facilitar el desarrollo de servicios interactivos tanto de entretenimiento como educativos y de información, la transición a la TV digital se ofrece como instrumento de política pública para alcanzar objetivos clave en materia de comunicación, como el pluralismo, la apertura del mercado y el achicamiento de la llamada brecha digital.

  13. Andean Basin Evolution Associated with Hybrid Thick- and Thin-Skinned Deformation in the Malargüe Fold-Thrust Belt, Western Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, B. K.; Fuentes, F.

    2015-12-01

    Andean deformation and basin evolution in the Malargüe fold-thrust belt of western Argentina (34-36°S) has been dominated by basement faults influenced by pre-existing Mesozoic rift structures of the hydrocarbon-rich Neuquen basin. However, the basement structures diverge from classic inversion structures, and the associated retroarc basin system shows a complex Mesozoic-Cenozoic history of mixed extension and contraction, along with an enigmatic early Cenozoic stratigraphic hiatus. New results from balanced structural cross sections (supported by industry seismic, well data, and surface maps), U-Pb geochronology, and foreland deposystem analyses provide improved resolution to examine the duration and kinematic evolution of Andean mixed-mode deformation. The basement structures form large anticlines with steep forelimbs and up to >5 km of structural relief. Once the propagating tips of the deeper basement faults reached cover strata, they fed slip to shallow thrust systems that were transported in piggyback fashion by newly formed basement structures, producing complex structural relationships. Detrital zircon U-Pb ages for the 5-7 km-thick basin fill succession reveal shifts in sedimentation pathways and accumulation rates consistent with (1) local basement sources during Early-Middle Jurassic back-arc extension, (2) variable cratonic and magmatic arc sources during Late Jurassic-Cretaceous postrift thermal subsidence, and (3) Andean arc and thrust-belt sources during irregular Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic shortening. Although pulses of flexural subsidence can be attributed to periods of fault reactivation (inversion) and geometrically linked thin-skinned thrusting, fully developed foreland basin conditions were only achieved in Late Cretaceous and Neogene time. Separating these two contractional episodes is an Eocene-lower Miocene (roughly 40-20 Ma) depositional hiatus within the Cenozoic succession, potentially signifying forebulge passage or neutral to

  14. The role of magma mixing in the evolution of the Early Paleozoic calc-alkaline granitoid suites. Eastern magmatic belt, Puna, NW Argentina

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    Suzaño, Néstor; Becchio, Raúl; Sola, Alfonso; Ortiz, Agustín; Nieves, Alexis; Quiroga, Mirta; Fuentes, Gabriela

    2017-07-01

    The outcrops of the Eastern magmatic belt in Puna, NW Argentina, offer an excellent field laboratory to study the interaction processes between magmas of contrasting composition in a plutonic environment. We evaluate the genesis of Cambrian-Ordovician intermediate to acid rocks from the Diablillos Intrusive Complex and the Cerro Bayo area, through detailed geological, petrographic, mineralogical, geochemical, and Nd isotopic analyses in combination with published data. These localities display a great variety of magmatic rocks from diorite/Qz-diorite to two-mica syenogranites with tonalite, granodiorite, monzogranite and Bt-Ttn-leucogranites as mixed products. Major, trace element and whole-rock Nd isotope modeling and petrological data, suggests that magma mixing between hydrous juvenile mantle- and crustal-derived magmas contributed significantly to the geochemical variation of these granites. The estimated proportion of mafic component 0.40-0.67 and 0.14-0.35 in the mixtures may produce the tonalite-granodiorites and monzogranites magmas. The mixing model excludes the predominant influence of fractional crystallization from a mafic magma and local assimilation-fractional-crystallization processes. Isotopic and geochemical comparison between the studied rocks and the magmatic belts in Puna and Tastil batholith suites reveals a marked resemblance. The data suggests that those rocks were probably generated by magma mixing and denotes a regionally and continuous process in a long-lasting (∼540-440 Ma) active continental margin. We propose that partial melting of the crust and magma mixing occurred in the lower crust and was possibly triggered by underplated and intraplated hydrous (4.37-5.91 wt% H2O) mafic magmas. The hybrid magmas were emplaced at shallow depth (∼8-9 km, 684-727 °C) and occasionally injected either by synplutonic-to late successive pulses of mafic magmas.

  15. Reintroducing Guanaco in the Upper Belt of Central Argentina: Using Population Viability Analysis to Evaluate Extinction Risk and Management Priorities

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    Barri, Fernando Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Wildlife reintroduction is an increasingly used strategy to reverse anthropocene defaunation. For the purpose of ecosystem restoration, in 2007 the guanaco (Lama guanicoe) was reintroduced to the Quebrada del Condorito National Park, situated in the mountains of central Argentina. With the aim of developing management recommendations, the project included permanently monitoring the population to evaluate its dynamics and the ecological response of the individuals released into the area. Nine years later and after two releases of guanacos (113 individuals in 2007 without and 25 in 2011 with a pre-adaptation period), only 24 individuals, which conform three reproductive groups, and one group of solitary males were settled in the Park. Here I modeled a population viability analysis to evaluate extinction risk, using VORTEX software. Initial population structure, specified age distribution, mortality and reproductive rates, and mate monopolization recorded during field work were used in the model, whereas the remaining used demographic parameters, such as age of first offspring, maximum number of broods per year, mean foaling rate, and length of fecundity period, were taken from the literature. Each of the three different scenarios (without supplementation of individuals, and with a realistic and optimistic supplementation) and two possible catastrophic events (fires and food shortage) covering 100 years was repeated 1000 times. Even though the guanaco reintroduction project can be considered to have been partially successful since its start, the model predicts that the current reintroduced population could be extinct in the next few decades if no reinforcements occur, and that only a continuous supplementation can reach the probability that the population survives over the next 100 years. I conclude that, so far, the current population is at a high risk of extinction if further supplementation of individuals is discontinued. PMID:27741302

  16. Petrography, Mineral Chemistry and Geothermobarometry of Andalusite- Bearing Schists North of Azna (Northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, Iran

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    Karim Abdollahi Silabi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The area studied is located north of Azna (Lorestan Province in a small portion of the Sanandaj – Sirjan structural zone (Mohajjel et al., 2003.This area is part of the Zagros orogenic belt, formed by the opening and closure of Neotethyan ocean. From NE to SW, it consists of three parallel tectonic regions: the Orumieh-Dokhtar magmatic belt, the Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone and the Zagros thrust-fold belt (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2005. The Sanandaj-Sirjan structural zone is a metamorphic belt composed mostly of greenschist, amphibolite and eclogite facies rocks. The development of the zonetook placeduring the opening of the Tethys ocean and its subsequent closing during the Cretaceous and earlyTertiary convergence of the Afro-Arabian and Eurasian plates (Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000. The second stage of metamorphism and deformation of the zone, designated D2, is the most important, resulting from the opening and closure of the Neotethyan ocean and the collision of the Arabian plate with the southwestern part of central Iran in the Late Cretaceous to Tertiary (Laramideorogenic phase (Ghasemi and Talbot, 2005; Aghanabati, 2004; Mohajjel et al., 2003; Mohajjel and Fergusson, 2000; Alavi, 1994. In the Sanandaj-Sirjanzone, which includes the Azna area, Cretaceous granitic intrusions into the schists were followed byfolding and faulting. The intrusions produced contact metamorphism, and have lens-shaped outlines, trendingNW-SE. Consequently, the Azna area has a varied petrologic assemblage with polyphase metamorphism and deformation, including schists, metabasites and mylonitic granites. The phases include: 1. Deformation D1, and dynamothermal metamorphism (M1,a result of the subduction of Neotethysoceanic crust beneath the Iranian plate in the Late Jurassic. 2.Deformation D2, and thermal metamorphism (M2,a result of Paleocene continental collision and 3. Deformation D3, and dynamic metamorphism (M3. This deformation is a progressive

  17. Tectonic insight based on anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and compaction studies in the Sierras Australes thrust and fold belt (southwest Gondwana boundary, Argentina)

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    Arzadún, Guadalupe; Tomezzoli, Renata N.; Cesaretti, Nora N.

    2016-04-01

    The Sierras Australes fold and thrust belt (Buenos Aires Province, Argentina) was in the southwestern Gondwanaland margin during the Paleozoic. The Tunas Formation (Permian) is exposed along the eastern part of it and continues eastward beneath the Claromecó Basin. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and compaction studies are described and compared with previous paleomagnetic studies with the aim of determining direction and magnitude of the main stresses acting during the sedimentation of the Tunas Formation. The anisotropy ellipsoids are triaxial with oblate or prolate shapes, reflecting different stages of layer parallel shortening during the evolution of the basin. Kmax axes trend NW-SE, parallel to the fold axes, while Kmin move from a horizontal (base) to a vertical orientation at the top of the succession, showing a change from a tectonic to almost a sedimentary fabric. The magnitude of anisotropy and compaction degree decreases toward the top of the succession. The AMS results are consistent with the outcrop structural observations and the compaction and paleomagnetic data. Regional pattern indicates a compression from the SW along this part of Gondwana, with a migration of the orogenic front and attenuation toward the NE in the foreland basin during the Upper Paleozoic. This deformation, locally assigned to the San Rafael noncollisional orogenic phase, is the result of the latitudinal movements toward the Equator of Gondwana (southern plates) and Laurentia (northern plates) during the Permian. This movement is the result of a rearrangement of the microplates that collided with Gondwana during the Late Devonian, to configure Pangea during the Triassic.

  18. Hydrothermal karst and associated breccias in Neoproterozoic limestone from the Barker-Villa Cacique area (Tandilia belt), Argentina

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    Dristas, Jorge A.; Martínez, Juan C.; van den Kerkhof, Alfons M.; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Theye, Thomas; Frisicale, María C.; Gregori, Daniel A.

    2017-07-01

    In the Barker-Villa Cacique area (Tandilia belt), remarkable megabreccias, limestone breccias and phosphate-bearing breccias hosted in black limestone and along the contact with the upper section of the sedimentary succession are exposed. These rocks are the result of extensive hydrothermal alteration of the original micritic limestone and other fine-grained clastic sediments. Typical alteration minerals are sericite, chlorite, interstratified chlorite/K-white mica, kaolinite, dickite, pyrite, chalcopyrite, goethite, quartz, calcite, Fe-calcite, dolomite, ankerite, fluor-apatite, barite and aluminium-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals. Quartz and calcite cements from hydraulic breccias in the limestone contain low-salinity aqueous fluid inclusions. Corresponding homogenization temperatures display 200-220 °C and 110-140 °C in hydrothermal quartz, and 130-150 °C in late calcite cement. Carbon and oxygen stable isotope analyses of carbonates from the Loma Negra quarry (LNQ) support the major role of hydrothermal activity. A significant difference was found between δ18Ocar values from unaltered micritic limestone (ca. 23.8‰ SMOW) and secondary calcite (ca. 18.5‰ SMOW). The lower δ18Ocar values are interpreted as a result of calcite precipitation from hot hydrothermal fluids. At a late stage, the hydrothermal fluid containing H2S mixed with descending and oxidizing meteoric waters. Circulation of the ensuing acid fluids resulted in the partly dissolution and collapse brecciation of the Loma Negra Formation. The hydrothermal stage can be tentatively dated ca. 590-620 Ma corresponding to the Brasiliano orogeny.

  19. Oblique half-graben inversion of the Mesozoic Neuquén Rift in the Malargüe Fold and Thrust Belt, Mendoza, Argentina: New insights from analogue models

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    Yagupsky, Daniel L.; Cristallini, Ernesto O.; Fantín, Julián; Valcarce, Gonzalo Zamora; Bottesi, Germán; Varadé, Roberto

    2008-07-01

    The Malargüe fold and thrust belt, located in the Andean mountains between 34°S and 36°30'S, formed in response to contraction during Cenozoic times. Its structural style and geometry was controlled by the Mesozoic rift system that formed the Neuquén basin in west-central Argentina. The rift architecture in the southern sector of this belt was previously interpreted in terms of the present N-S compressive structural trends, assuming the inversion of pre-existing normal faults with the same orientation. Here, we propose that the NW-SE-trending El Manzano-Liu Cullín lineament, located in the northern termination of the Sierra Azul, reflects the presence of a half-graben master fault in the subsurface. This hypothesis is supported by subsurface data, a balanced cross section, and it is tested using a series of scaled sandbox analogue models. We suggest that the lineament responds to a reactivated NW-trending half-graben fault, hidden by the mainly N-S-trending Andean structures. The proposed orientation is in agreement with the NE-SW extension developed in the Neuquén basin during the Triassic-Early Jurassic. The modeling of the inverted oblique half-graben reveals that the strikes of the main structures of inversion-related belts may often be independent of the orientation of the previously developed extensional system, providing a new perspective for their interpretation.

  20. Kinematic history of the retroarc thrust belt in the central Andes of Argentina at 24-25°S: significant Andean shortening and sporadic foreland-ward deformation propagation

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    Pearson, D. M.; Kapp, P. A.; Decelles, P. G.; Reiners, P. W.

    2009-12-01

    The southward along-strike transition from major thin-skinned shortening of Bolivia to the significantly lower magnitude of thick-skinned shortening in northwestern Argentina has often been attributed to the presence of a thick mid to late Paleozoic section in Bolivia relative to a thin group of correlative rocks in northwestern Argentina that were affected by significant Cretaceous rifting. Despite the Andes being regarded as an archetype of ocean-continent convergence, the northwestern Argentine Andes have remained enigmatic in a structural and tectonic context. This study integrates regional geological mapping, structural analysis, and geo- and thermochronology from the Salta province of northwestern Argentina. Geological mapping in the Cachi range at ~25° S latitude revealed the presence of an ~60° west-dipping package of rocks, passing from low grade phyllites in the eastern part of the range into cordierite-bearing, anatectic and arc-related rocks in the core of the range (one anatectic pluton yielded a U/Pb zircon age of 488 ± 10 Ma). Detrital zircons record U-Pb ages demonstrating that the highest-grade, structurally highest rocks are the oldest (maximum depositional age (MDA) ~548 Ma), rocks at structurally lower levels are younger (MDA ~538 Ma), whereas the structurally lowest rocks are the youngest (MDA ~523 Ma). Double dating some of these same zircons using the low temperature U-Th/He system indicates that at least 6-8 km of Miocene (15.7 ± 0.4 Ma) exhumation occurred in the core of the range at this time, yet exhumation at the eastern range margin was insufficient to reset zircons. U/Pb zircon ages from a tuff within growth strata in the footwall of a major thrust fault ~50 km east of Cachi demonstrate that shortening was ongoing there at 9.4 ± 0.4 Ma, yielding a propagation rate of the thrust belt of ~8 km/Ma. Since ~9 Ma, deformation has jumped ~150 km eastward to the Santa Barbara ranges, yielding an average rate of >30 km/Ma. Many thrust

  1. Structural style of the Chos Malal fold and thrust belt, Neuquén basin, Argentina: Relationship between thick- and thin-skinned tectonics

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    Sánchez, Natalia; Turienzo, Martín; Lebinson, Fernando; Araujo, Vanesa; Coutand, Isabelle; Dimieri, Luis

    2015-12-01

    The Chos Malal fold and thrust belt (FTB) is a thick-skinned mountain belt formed by Mesozoic deposits of the Neuquén Basin during the Andean orogeny. Four structural cross-sections in the entire deformed area, supported by field and subsurface data, suggest a strong link between thick and thin-skinned structures. Major Andean thrusts branching from a detachment placed 12 km into the crust created large basement wedges, which were inserted in the cover producing minor order structures. The westernmost of these wedges is exposed forming the Cordillera del Viento, while others basement slices at depth were interpreted from seismic lines. These thick-skinned structures transferred deformation to the cover along the Auquilco Formation and contributed to create all thin-skinned structures surveyed in the Chos Malal FTB. We recognized half-graben geometries in the seismic lines, preserving their extensional configuration, which suggests that the main normal faults were not inverted. Shortenings calculated from the restoration of the four cross-sections are 16.9 km (29.7%), 16.9 km (29.7%), 14.7 km (26.9%) and 14.15 km (26.3%), which evidence a slight diminution of the contraction toward the south probably associated with the plunge of the Cordillera del Viento structure in this segment of the Chos Malal FTB.

  2. Tectonic repetitions of the Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation in the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, Neuquén Basin, Argentina: Geometry, kinematics and structural implications for Andean building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turienzo, M.; Sánchez, N.; Dimieri, L.; Lebinson, F.; Araujo, V.

    2014-08-01

    The Neuquén Basin, developed in a retroarc setting in the central-west of Argentina, contains more than 6000 m of Mesozoic marine and continental sedimentary rocks. These rocks were deformed during the Andean orogeny leading to several thick and thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belts. The Early Cretaceous Agrio Formation is composed by a thick marine succession predominantly of black shales in which highlights a thin fluvial-aeolian sandy interval named Avilé Member. The Avilé Member, one of the most important hydrocarbon reservoirs of the Neuquén Basin, constitutes an excellent structural marker. At the Chos Malal fold-and-thrust belt, the strong mechanical anisotropy given by the contrasting lithology of the Avilé Member within the Agrio Formation favored the location of detachments along the shales and ramps affecting the sandstones during the Andean compression. Detailed field mapping at the Chacay Melehue area allowed us to recognize tectonic repetitions of the Avilé Member, which form imbrications in the simplest case whereas in other places constitute a more complex combination of imbrications, including fault-bend folding that duplicates stratigraphic sequences and fault-propagation folding that deforms more intensely the duplicated units. Along three structural cross-sections we illustrate the geometry of these tectonic repetitions of the Agrio Formation, which in the northern area have an eastward-vergence and in the central and southern regions show a clear westward-vergence. A tear fault along the arroyo Chacay Melehue could explain this vergence change. Forward modeling of the structures at the central cross-section, where a backthrust system produced imbrication, duplication and folding of the Agrio Formation, allows us to propose a balanced kinematic reconstruction of this complex structure and to compare the features produced at different stages of the deformation sequence with field observations. Our kinematic interpretation shows that the

  3. Paleoproterozoic migmatitic gneisses from the Tandilia belt (Argentina), Río de la Plata craton, record cooling at deep crustal levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Cruz; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Dristas, Jorge Anastasio; Theye, Thomas; Graff, Ailín Ayelén

    2016-04-01

    We studied high-grade metamorphic rocks of the El Cristo hill area of the Tandilia belt. Mineral analyses and thermodynamic calculations were carried out for two adjacent rock samples: an amphibole-biotite gneiss and a garnet-biotite-bearing migmatite. Peritectic garnets in the migmatite show core compositions of pyr4.5(gro + andr)10spes6alm79.5 changing to pyr3.5(gro + andr)17spes6alm73.5 at their thin rims. Garnet compositions in the gneiss are pyr6.5(gro + andr)26spes12alm55.5 and pyr4.5(gro + andr)34spes12alm49.5 for core and rim, respectively. A P-T path was constructed by calculating pseudosections in the 11-component system Si-Ti-Al-Fe-Mn-Mg-Ca-Na-K-O-H and contouring them by isopleths for garnet components using the PERPLE_X software package. Supra-solidus crystallization of garnet cores in the migmatite began at 5.8 kbar and 660 °C. Garnet rims equilibrated at 7.0 kbar and 640 °C compatible with garnet cores in the amphibole-biotite gneiss (7.6 kbar and 660 °C). The further chemical development of garnet in this rock points to P-T conditions of 11.6 kbar and 620 °C and 12.2 kbar and 595 °C (outermost garnet rim). At this high-pressure stage Ca-amphibole was not stable. Most biotite formed during exhumation whereas the high-pressure accessory minerals, titanite and epidote, persisted. According to the obtained anti-clockwise P-T path the originally partly melted material was tectonically transported from ∼22 km (middle crust) to ∼40 km (lower crust) depths reaching a geothermal gradient as low as 15 °C km-1. This transport probably occurred along a major suture zone, which was active during the Paleoproterozoic (2.25-2.10 Ga), before a terminating collision of terranes near the SW boundary of the Rio de la Plata craton.

  4. Late Cretaceous Uplift in the Malargiie fold-and-thrust belt (35°S, southern Central Andes of Argentina and Chile Levantamiento Cretácico Tardío en la faja plegada y corrida de Malargüe (35°S, Andes Centrales del sur, Argentina y Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Mescua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Cordillera de los Andes is the typical example of a subduction-related orogen. Its present topography is the result of post-Miocene uplift, however, Andean compressional deformation and uplift started in the Late Cretaceous, as increasingly recognized in different sectors of the mountain belt. We present evidences of a Late Cretaceous event of compressional deformation in the southern Central Andes (35°S, reflected in syn-orogenic foreland basin deposits assigned to the Neuquén Group in Argentina and the Brownish-Red Clastic Unit in Chile. Comparison of the facies of these units allows us to recognize a sector proximal to the Late Cretaceous orogenic front, a distal sector with sediment provenance from the forebulge and a western sector where the sediments where deposited within the Late Cretaceous mountain belt. On this basis, we assign the orogenic front to an inverted Jurassic normal fault, the Río del Cobre fault, and reconstruct the structure of the easternmost Late Cretaceous Andes at this latitude. The change in the location of the orogenic front north and south of 35°S allows us to recognize a long-lived change in behavior in Andean evolution in this sector, which correlates with a change in the shape and the deposits of Mesozoic Neuquén basin.La Cordillera de los Andes es el ejemplo típico de un orógeno asociado a subducción. Si bien su topografía actual es el resultado del levantamiento posterior al Mioceno, la deformación y el levantamiento ándicos comenzaron a partir del Cretácico Tardío, como se reconoce actualmente en diversos sectores de la faja montañosa. En este trabajo se presentan evidencias de un evento de deformación compresiva durante el Cretácico Tardío en los Andes Centrales del sur (35°S reconocido a partir de los depósitos sinorogénicos asociados, que se asignan al Grupo Neuquén en Argentina y la 'Unidad Clástica Café-Rojiza' (BRCU en Chile. Mediante las variaciones de facies en estos dep

  5. The 3D Distribution of Magma Bodies that Fed the Paraná Silicic Volcanics, Brazil: A Combination of Field Evidence, Textural Analysis, and Geothermobarometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, L.; Gualda, G. A. R.; Gravley, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    The Paraná Silicic Volcanics include some of the largest eruptive deposits known in the geological record. However, we know very little about the magma bodies that fed these eruptions. Combining physical volcanology, geochemistry, and geothermobarometry techniques, we aim to find the sources of extinct magma bodies to build a 3D view of the magma structure at the time by discovering storage conditions, eruption styles, and post-eruption alteration. The approach elucidates temporal and spatial eruption styles and sequences of the silicic units that make up the Palmas unit of the Serra Geral formation, Brazil. We use field investigations to determine the history of volcanic deposits, domes, and changes in eruptive style; we map and characterize volcanic deposits based on thickness (thicker is proximal to source) and distribution of effusive (proximal to source) and explosive deposits. We focus on several exposed canyons that exhibit either exclusively explosive or effusive, or a clear progression from explosive to effusive deposits. The progression from explosive to effusive indicates a system change from explosively energetic to effusively waning. Additionally, observation of pervasive flow banding in both effusive and explosive deposits indicates rheomorphic flow through many portions of the field area, an indicator of hot emplacement. Geochemical work focuses on the pre-eruptive magma conditions to determine the depth of magma bodies. We utilize glass bearing samples of both the explosively deposited juvenile blob-like structures and obsidian samples to determine crystallization depth. The glass is variably altered, via silicification and devitrification processes, with the blobs more greatly silicified than the obsidian. We use rhyolite-MELTS geothermobarometry when pristine glass can be found. Initial results indicate shallow ( 80 MPa) storage conditions for the explosively erupted blobs. The combination of techniques builds a 3D understanding of extinct super

  6. Polyphase white mica growth in low-grade metapelites from La Cébila Metamorphic Complex (Famatinian Belt, Argentina: evidence from microstructural and XRD investigations Crecimiento polifásico de mica blanca en metapelitas de bajo grado del Complejo Metamórfico La Cébila (Faja Famatiniana, Argentina: evidencias a partir de investigaciones microestructurales y de DRX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastián O Verdecchia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Two tectono-thermal metamorphic events, M1-D1 (S1, with associated white mica and chlorite: WM1-Chl1 and M2-D2 (S2, with development of WM2-Chl2, are established from polyphase white mica growth for low-grade units from the Ordovician metasedimentary successions of La Cébila Metamorphic Complex in the Famatinian belt (western-central Argentina. The thermobarometric characterization of the M1 main event was carried out by means of clay-mineral analysis and crystallo-chemical parameter measurements. Epizonal (temperatures between 300 and 400°C and low-pressure conditions are suggested for M1 event, based in Kübler index values ranging from 0.23 to 0.17 A°20, white mica b parameter values between 9.004 and 9.022 Á (mean of 9.014 Á, n=16 and Si contents between 3.13-3.29 a.p.f.u. Temperatures of ~180-270°C are estimated for the M2 event, with Kübler index values ranging from 0.31 to 0.46 A°20. The M1-D1 event of La Cébila could be linked to high-strain heating tectono-metamorphic Ordovician regime recorded in others complexes from Famatinian foreland region of Sierras Pampeanas.Dos eventos tectono-metamórficos fueron establecidos a partir de la blastesis superpuesta de mica blanca en sucesiones metasedimentarias ordovícicas de bajo grado del Complejo Metamórfico La Cébila, cinturón Famati-niano (centro oeste de Argentina: M1-D1 (S1, con blastesis asociada de mica blanca y clorita: WM1-Chl1 y M2-D2 (S2, con desarrollo de WM2-Chl2. La caracterización termobarométrica del evento principal M1 fue llevada a cabo a través del análisis de minerales de arcilla y de la medición de parámetros cristaloquímicos. Las condiciones de epizona con temperaturas entre 300 y 400°C, y baja presión fueron estimadas para el evento M1 sobre la base de valores de índice de Kübler de 0,23 a 0,17 A°20, parámetro b de la mica blanca entre 9,004 y 9,022 Á (valor medio de 9,014 Á, n=16 y contenidos de Si entre 3,13-3,29 a.p.f.u. Se estimaron

  7. Belt conveyer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cwieczek, A.; Dembinski, C.

    1982-04-30

    The patented belt conveyor is distinguished by the fact that the rate of motion of the belt changes smoothly depending on the load: the greater the load the higher the rate. This makes it possible to prolong the service life of the belt, i.e., during idling of the conveyor it is exposed to deformation on the drive and tension drums a fewer number of times. The essence of the invention is based on the use for driving the drum of a friction transmission. One of the elements of this transmission is the drive drum of the conveyor, and the other is the drive wheel which is pressed to the inner (or outer) surface of the drum. Change in rotation velocity of the drum is reached by changing the diameter of the drive wheel. The rim of the latter has an elastic tire to which compressed air is fed. The diameter of the drive wheel depends on the quantity of air in the tire. It is set automatically by a regulating system depending on the conveyor load. Variants are patented for the belt conveyor which is distinguished by the design of the friction transmission. It contains 1, 2 or more drive wheels. It can have a cylindrical or conical inner surface of the drive drum, etc.

  8. Argentina; Argentine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    This economical study summarizes the energy situation of Argentina: energy institutions and policy, energy companies (oil, electricity, gas, coal), energy supplies (resources, power production, petroleum, natural gas), prices and tariffs, consumption, economical stakes and perspectives (investments, agreements, projects). Energy data for the 1971-1999 period are summarized in graphs and tables. (J.S.)

  9. Rafaela, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Brinda información acerca de la provincia de Rafaela, Argentina. Da a conocer el planeamiento estratégico de Rafaela, los temas a resolver con el sector privado, así como las acciones para abordar la relación público-privada.

  10. Las fajas de deformación dúctil de las Sierras Pampeanas de Córdoba: Una reseña general Ductile deformation shear belts at Pampean Ranges near Córdoba, Central Argentina: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Martino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen dieciseis fajas de deformación dúctil, reconocidas hasta el momento en las sierras de Córdoba, atendiendo a su extensión, límites, descripción general de las rocas de falla que la conforman, estructura interna y se da un significado tectónico que permite asignarlas a cuatro grupos. (1 Fajas transcurrentes dextrales paralelas al arco magmático precámbrico-cámbrico, relacionadas con la subducción pampeana durante el Cámbrico inferior. (2 Fajas de desenraizamiento del Orógeno Pampeano cámbrico, de naturaleza inversa, producidas por cizalla general convergente (transpresión, relacionadas con etapas póstumas colisionales del terreno Pampia contra el margen de Gondwana y con la subducción famatiniana. Su actividad deformacional se constriñe al lapso 490-470 Ma. (3 Fajas de imbricación regional con generación de cabalgamientos con un fuerte control reológico, ligadas a la contracción oclóyica (Ordovícico superior-Silúrico inferior, de naturaleza inversa, que determinan dominios de edad. De este a oeste, se definen: los dominios precámbrico-cámbrico (ígneo, cámbrico (metamórfico de grado medio a alto y ordovícico (metamórfico de grado medio a alto. Estas fajas estarían relacionadas con el acercamiento del terreno Cuyania al margen gondwánico, antes de su emplazamiento y colisión final en el Ordovícico superior. (4 Fajas contraccionales achalianas, con cinemáticas que indican movimientos inversos con una actividad deformacional que se extendería hasta el Devónico inferior, coincidente con la amalgamación definitiva del terreno Cuyania y con el cese del magmatismo famatiniano. Posteriormente, se registra una reactivación importante o el desarrollo de nuevas fajas de deformación alrededor del límite Devónico-Carbonífero, que serían la expresión de la orogenia Chánica producida por el emplazamiento del terreno Chilenia en el margen gondwánico.Sixteen ductile shear belts recognized at Pampean

  11. Seat belt reminders.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    Seat belts are an effective way of reducing the number or road deaths and severe road injuries in crashes. Seat belt reminders warn car drivers and passengers if the seat belt is not fastened. This can be done by a visual signal or an acoustic signal or by a combination of the two. Seat belt reminde

  12. Belt attachment and system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  13. Argentina: spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patriquin, W

    1987-10-01

    In 1987 Argentina had a population of 31.5 million, with an annual rate of increase of 1.6%. The total fertility rate was 3.3, and the birth rate was 24/1000 population. Mortality stood at 8/1000 population, and the infant mortality rate was 35.3/1000 live births. Life expectancy at birth is 70 years. 84% of the population lives in Argentina's urban areas. Current government policies call for regional development to maintain and increase population in rural areas and control growth in urban centers. 90% of the population is of European descent, largely as a result of high rates of immigration during the 1880s-1930s from countries such as Spain and Italy. In 1985 the gross national product per capita was US$2130. Argentina is rich in resources and almost self-sufficient in terms of basic foodstuffs, power supply, and advanced communication networks. On the other hand, political conflicts and economic crises have hindered the realization of both human and natural resource potential. 80% of the value of export products is the amount due in interest on foreign debts.

  14. Monazite geochronology and geothermobarometry in polymetamorphic host rocks of volcanic-hosted massive sulphide mineralizations in the Mesoproterozoic Areachap Terrane, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Kai; Schulz, Bernhard; Bailie, Russell; Gutzmer, Jens

    2015-11-01

    The Areachap Terrane represents the medium-to high-grade metamorphic and deformed remnants of a Mesoproterozoic (ca. 1240-1300 Ma) volcanic arc bound to the margin of the Archean Kaapvaal Craton in the east, and the polydeformed and metamorphosed Proterozoic Namaqua Province in the west. There has been protracted debate as to the exact nature, origin, age and tectonic evolution of this terrane, adjacent to an important Mesoproterozoic crustal suture between the Archean Kaapvaal Craton and the Namaqua Province, which developed during the ∼1200-1000 Ma Namaquan Orogeny. The Areachap Terrane comprises highly deformed bimodal volcanic and volcano sedimentary successions that host a number of massive sulphide base metal orebodies. Samples from three of these orebodies at different locations were analysed to determine the age and P-T conditions of metamorphism along the Areachap Terrane. Metamorphic ages were determined by electron microprobe chemical dating of monazite. Garnet- and amphibole-bearing mineral assemblages were used for geothermobarometry at the Areachap Mine, located in the northern sector of the Areachap Terrane, monazite geochronology yields evidence for two populations of Th-U-Pb-ages at 1432 ± 30 Ma - a possible protolith age - and a metamorphic age of 1153 ± 21 Ma. Kantienpan and Copperton, representing the central and southern sector of the Areachap Terrane respectively, yield monazite ages for a younger metamorphic event with U-Th-Pb-ages of 1108 ± 19 Ma and 1104 ± 17 Ma, respectively. Geothermobarometric data give a differentiated view on the metamorphic evolution of the Areachap Terrane. An arc consistent clockwise P-T evolution path and upper amphibolite-facies peak metamorphic conditions are consistent at the three locations. The Areachap site shows a short prograde development with 8.0 kbar maximum pressure at circa 700 °C maximum temperature and a subsequent retrograde metamorphism. At Kantienpan, on the other hand, maximum metamorphic

  15. Lap belts and three-point belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kampen, L.T.B. van & Edelman, A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of the swov-accident investigation prove that if there are any differences in the effectiveness of lap belts and three-point belts, these are so small that they cannot form a basis for giving preference to one type over the other. Furthermore, in spite of the results of this investigation wh

  16. en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Davolos

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Hacia finales de la década pasada comienza a cobrar dinamismo la protesta social en Argentina como respuesta a la crisis resultante de las políticas neoliberales que dominaron la escena nacional en los noventa. En ese contexto, grupos de trabajadores ocupan empresas en riesgo de cerrar sus puertas, organizándose para operarlas en forma autogestionaria. Aquí se estudian las características del mercado de trabajo, así como las tradiciones y los recursos que permitieron a los trabajadores llevar adelante este tipo de acciones, delineando distintas trayectorias que otorgaron inteligibilidad al fenómeno analizado.

  17. Cap rock efficiency of geothermal systems in fold-and-thrust belts: Evidence from paleo-thermal and structural analyses in Rosario de La Frontera geothermal area (NW Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffucci, R.; Corrado, S.; Aldega, L.; Bigi, S.; Chiodi, A.; Di Paolo, L.; Giordano, G.; Invernizzi, C.

    2016-12-01

    Cap rock characterization of geothermal systems is often neglected despite fracturing may reduce its efficiency and favours fluid migration. We investigated the siliciclastic cap rock of Rosario de La Frontera geothermal system (NW Argentina) in order to assess its quality as a function of fracture patterns and related thermal alteration. Paleothermal investigations (XRD on fine-grained fraction of sediments, organic matter optical analysis and fluid inclusions on veins) and 1D thermal modelling allowed us to distinguish the thermal fingerprint associated to sedimentary burial from that related to fluid migration. The geothermal system is hosted in a Neogene N-S anticline dissected by high angle NNW- and ENE-striking faults. Its cap rock can be grouped into two quality categories: rocks acting as good insulators, deformed by NNW-SSE and E-W shear fractures, NNE-SSW gypsum- and N-S-striking calcite-filled veins that developed during the initial stage of anticline growth. Maximum paleo-temperatures (< 60 °C) were experienced during deposition to folding phases. rocks acting as bad insulators, deformed by NNW-SSE fault planes and NNW- and WNW-striking sets of fractures associated to late transpressive kinematics. Maximum paleo-temperatures higher than about 115 °C are linked to fluid migration from the reservoir to surface (with a reservoir top at maximum depths of 2.5 km) along fault damage zones. This multi-method approach turned out to be particularly useful to trace the main pathways of hot fluids and can be applied in blind geothermal systems where either subsurface data are scarce or surface thermal anomalies are lacking.

  18. Patagonia Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Acuña

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available La zona central de la Patagonia, Argentina, se encuentra sometida a explotación petrolera y sus suelos se caracterizan por ser deficientes en nitrógeno. Esto causaría un efecto negativo en los procesos de atenuación natural que se desarrollan en los suelos contaminados con hidrocarburos. El objeto de este estudio fue determinar cual es el efecto de la deficiencia de nitrógeno sobre la biodegradación de los hidrocarburos en un suelo de la Patagonia, Argentina. Se trabajó con tres microcosmos a los que se les realizó tratamientos diferentes. En uno se monitoreo la atenuación natural del sistema, en otro la fertilización con nitrógeno (N, fósforo (P y potasio (K, y en el último la fertilización con P y K. Durante el seguimiento se determinaron mineralización y medición de hidrocarburos, y se realizaron recuentos bacterianos y determinación de nitrato, nitrito y amonio. Los resultados indican que es posible la biodegradación de hidrocarburos en el suelo deficiente de nitrógeno de la Patagonia estudiado en tiempos mas prolongados que en aquellos que se realiza una fertilización con nitrógeno. El nitrógeno necesario para el proceso sería obtenido por los microorganismos del suelo por fijación biológica.

  19. Trans-Amazonian U-Th-Pb monazite ages and P-T-d exhumation paths of garnet-bearing leucogranite and migmatitic country rock of the southeastern Tandilia belt, Rio de la Plata craton in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Juan Cruz; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Frisicale, María Cristina; Dristas, Jorge A.

    2017-03-01

    A garnet-bearing leucogranite and two country rocks from the Transamazonian Tandilia belt of the Rio de la Plata craton were studied in detail. The leucogranite contains garnet with homogeneous composition of pyr6(gros + andr)2spes5alm87. In a garnet-biotite migmatite, the core and rim compositions of garnet are pyr1.7(gros + andr)5spes5.6alm87.7 and pyr1.2(gros + andr)5.5spes6.7alm86.6, respectively. These compositions in a sillimanite-garnet-muscovite migmatite are pyr4(gros + andr)2.7spes2.7alm90.6 and pyr2.7(gros + andr)4spes3.2alm90.1, respectively. We used this information to decipher the P-T evolution of the rocks applying P-T and T-H2O pseudosections with the PERPLE_X computer software package taking into consideration deformational microstructures. The leucogranite records an isothermal decompression from 5.3 to 3.8 kbar at 665 °C. The garnet-biotite migmatite was exhumed from 5.5 kbar at 630 °C to 4.3 kbar at 615 °C and the sillimanite-garnet-muscovite migmatite from supersolidus conditions of 670 °C and 3.6 kbar to 625 °C at 2.4 kbar. Late andalusite formed in this rock. Seventy four analyses of 28 monazite grains of the country rocks yielded three groups of U-Th-Pb ages which were related to a collisional event (I: ca. 2.13-2.14 Ga.), a postcollisional thermal overprint (II: ca. 2.01 Ga) and slow cooling of the orogen (III: 1.80-1.90 Ga). Inherited ages of 2.28 and 2.25 Ga could refer to an early accretionary stage of the orogen. An age of 2.41 Ga indicates the presence of recycled Siderian continental crust. Synkinematic crystallization of melts and the subsolidus development of an S2-foliation, demonstrated by deformational microstructures, occurred during the exhumation of the studied area from depths of 18 km to 8 km in the time interval 2.01-1.90 Ga.

  20. Climate history of the Southern Hemisphere Westerlies belt during the last glacial-interglacial transition revealed from lake water oxygen isotope reconstruction of Laguna Potrok Aike (52° S, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The Southern Hemisphere westerly winds (SHW play a crucial role in the large-scale ocean circulation and global carbon cycling. Accordingly, the reconstruction of its latitudinal position and intensity is essential for understanding global climatic fluctuations during the last glacial cycle. The southernmost part of the South American continent is of great importance for paleoclimate studies as the only continental mass intersecting a large part of the SHW belt. However, continuous proxy records back to the last Glacial are rare in southern Patagonia, owing to the Patagonian Ice Sheets expanding from the Andean area and the scarcity of continuous paleoclimate archives in extra-Andean Patagonia. Here, we present an oxygen isotope record from cellulose and purified bulk organic matter of aquatic moss shoots from the last glacial-interglacial transition preserved in the sediments of Laguna Potrok Aike (52° S, 70° W, a deep maar lake located in semi-arid, extra-Andean Patagonia. The highly significant correlation between oxygen isotope values of aquatic mosses and their host waters and the abundant well-preserved moss remains allow a high-resolution oxygen isotope reconstruction of lake water (δ18Olw for this lake. Long-term δ18Olw variations are mainly determined by δ18O changes of the source water of lake, surface air temperature and evaporative 18O enrichment. Under permafrost conditions during the Glacial, the groundwater may not be recharged by regional precipitation. The isolated groundwater could have had much less negative δ18O values than glacial precipitation. The less 18O depleted source water and prolonged lake water residence time caused by reduced interchange between in- and outflows could have resulted in the reconstructed glacial δ18Olw that was only ca. 3‰ lower than modern values. The significant two-step rise in reconstructed δ18Olw during the last deglaciation demonstrated the response of isotope composition of lake

  1. Seat belt restraint system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garavaglia, A.; Matsuhiro, D.

    1972-01-01

    Shoulder-harness and lap-belt restraint system was designed to be worn by individuals of widely different sizes and to permit normal body motion except under sudden deceleration. System is divided into two basic assemblies, lap belt and torso or shoulder harness. Inertia-activated reels immediately lock when seat experiences sudden deceleration.

  2. Faja plegada y corrida subandina del noroeste argentino: estratigrafía, geometría y cronología de la deformación Subandean fold and thrust belt of Northwest Argentina: stratigraphy, geometry, and chronology of deformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Hernández

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Las Sierras Subandinas del noroeste argentino son una faja plegada y corrida que representa la deformación más oriental en los Andes Centrales. La estratigrafía está formada por más de 10 km de sedimentos de edad silúrica a actual. Los sedimentos siluro-devónicos incluyen más de 3.000 metros de sedimentos de plataforma marina somera, dispuestos en tres secuencias granocrecientes. La sedimentación carbonífera-jurásica muestra en la base una fuerte influencia glacial (Grupos Macharetí y Mandiyutí, que evoluciona hacia condiciones más áridas y templadas hacia el techo (Grupos Cuevo y Tacurú. Por último, se deposita una potente secuencia continental en una cuenca de antepaís. El nivel de despegue principal de las Sierras Subandinas se encuentra en las pelitas silúricas e inclina 2°- 3° al oeste, y todas las fallas principales se despegan de él. Niveles de despegue intermedios importantes en las pelitas devónicas generan estructuras tipo lift off y el desacople de los niveles estructurales inferior y superior. Las Sierras Subandinas poseen un acortamiento mínimo de 60 km (36% a la latitud de 22°40'. La deformación comenzó a los aproximadamente 8.5-9 Ma con el levantamiento de la sierra de El Pescado y el backthrust asociado y luego migró en dirección este. Se reconoce un importante estadio de deformación dominado por movimientos fuera de secuencia que comenzó a los 4.5 Ma y está activo en la actualidad. Se proponen dos modelos de acortamiento, para los cuales las tasas de deformación durante el Cuaternario, entre 8 y 11 mm/año, son coincidentes con los resultados de estaciones de GPS del área.The Subandean ranges of northwestern Argentina are an active thin-skinned fold and thrust belt that represents the easternmost deformation expression at the Central Andes. The stratigraphic column is made up by more than 10 km of sediments from the Silurian to the Present. The Silurian-Devonian sediments include more than 3

  3. Radiation Belt Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-27

    Wygant, J. R., et al., “The Electric Field and Waves Instruments on the Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission,” Space Sci. Rev., 179, 2013, pp. 183–220, doi...A. N., Li, X., Kanekal, S. G., Hudson, M. K., and Kress, B. T., “Observations of the Inner Radiation Belt: CRAND and Trapped Solar Protons,” J...1215–1228, doi:10.1002/2014JA020777. [27] Selesnick, R. S., “ Measurement of Inner Radiation Belt Electrons with Kinetic Energy Above 1 MeV,” J

  4. Dynamic characteristics of conveyor belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-fu; MENG Qing-rui

    2008-01-01

    The dynamic characteristics of a belt conveyor are determined to a large extent by the properties of the belt. This paper describes experiments designed to establish the dynamic properties of belting material. The dynamic elastic modulus, viscous damping and theological constants of the belt were measured. Several properties were studied as a function of the tensile loading on the belt. These included longitudinal vibration, the natural vibration frequency in the transverse direction and the response to an impulse excitation. Vibration response was observed under several different excitation frequencies. Most of these properties have not been tested previously under conditions appropriate for the ISO/DP9856 standard. Two types of belt were tested, a steel reinforced belt and a fabric reinforced belt. The test equipment was built to provide data appropriate for designing belt conveyors. It was observed that the stress wave propagation speed increased with tensile load and that tensile load was the main factor influencing longitudinal vibrations.

  5. Medical revolution in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarin, V L; Isoardi, R A

    2010-01-01

    The paper discusses the major Argentineans contributors, medical physicists and scientists, in medical imaging and the development of medical imaging in Argentina. The following are presented: history of medical imaging in Argentina: the pioneers; medical imaging and medical revolution; nuclear medicine imaging; ultrasound imaging; and mathematics, physics, and electronics in medical image research: a multidisciplinary endeavor.

  6. Argentina Welcomes Chinese Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ On July 13,China-Argentina Entrepreneur Luncheon Meeting was held in Beijing.Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner,President of Argentina,Hui Liangyu,Vice Prime Minister of China and Wan Jifei,President of CCPIT attended the meeting.

  7. DESIGN TRENDS IN TIMING BELTS

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz DOMEK

    2014-01-01

    Paper presents the state of the art gear with timing belts. Areas of use pose new challenges for designers gear. It has materials and technologies used in the production. Has been developed algorithm of design timing belts to new applications

  8. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S

    1973-12-07

    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  9. Astronomy in Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Muriel, Hernán

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the current state of Astronomy in Argentina and describes its origins. We briefly describe the institutions where astronomical research takes place, the observational facilities available, the training of staff and professionals, and the role of the institutions in scientific promotion. We also discuss the outreach of Astronomy towards the general public, as well as amateur activities. The article ends with an analysis of the future prospects of astronomy in Argentina.

  10. The empty primordial asteroid belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre

    2017-09-01

    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  11. Kuiper Belt Occultation Predictions

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Wesley C; Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W; Kavelaars, JJ; Brown, Michael E; Bianco, Federica B; Boyle, Richard P; Brucker, Melissa J; Hetherington, Nathan; Joner, Michael; Keel, William C; Langill, Phil P; Lister, Tim; McMillan, Russet J; Young, Leslie

    2013-01-01

    Here we present observations of 7 large Kuiper Belt Objects. From these observations, we extract a point source catalog with $\\sim0.01"$ precision, and astrometry of our target Kuiper Belt Objects with $0.04-0.08"$ precision within that catalog. We have developed a new technique to predict the future occurrence of stellar occultations by Kuiper Belt Objects. The technique makes use of a maximum likelihood approach which determines the best-fit adjustment to cataloged orbital elements of an object. Using simulations of a theoretical object, we discuss the merits and weaknesses of this technique compared to the commonly adopted ephemeris offset approach. We demonstrate that both methods suffer from separate weaknesses, and thus, together provide a fair assessment of the true uncertainty in a particular prediction. We present occultation predictions made by both methods for the 7 tracked objects, with dates as late as 2015. Finally, we discuss observations of three separate close passages of Quaoar to field star...

  12. New Early Paleozoic Paleomagnetic Poles From NW Argentina: a Reappraisal of Tectonic Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, C. M.; Rapalini, A. E.; Astini, R. A.

    2007-05-01

    A paleomagnetic study carried out on Early Ordovician volcanic units in the Famatina Ranges of NW Argentina yielded a pre-tectonic paleomagnetic pole at 32.7°S, 4.3°E, (5.6°/ 8.6°, N=14 sites) that is consistent with four previous Early Ordovician poles from the Famatina - Eastern Puna Eruptive Belt of NW Argentina. However, these five poles are rotated around 50° clockwise respect to the coeval reference pole of Gondwana. Our new results seem to confirm previous models of this belt as a paraauthocthonous rotated terrane on the southwestern margin of Gondwana. However, a recent paleomagnetic pole from the Late Cambrian Mesón Group, at the Eastern Cordillera of NW Argentina, corresponding to the Gondwana foreland (4.5°S, 359.0°E, dp=5.5°, dm=8.8°, n=26 samples) and preliminary paleopoles obtained from the same unit and the latest Cambrian - Early Ordovician Santa Victoria Group at other three localities in the same region, also indicate an anomalous pole position rotated some 40° clockwise respect to the reference pole for Gondwana. These results suggest that the postulated model of a rotated terrane for the Famatina-Eastern Puna belt must be reconsidered. Different alternative scenarios including the possibility of an Early Paleozoic displacement of the whole basement of the Eastern Sierras Pampeanas of Argentina ("Pampia") will be explored.

  13. Helosis (Balanophoraceae en Argentina Helosis (Balanophoraceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Fontana

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez para Argentina Helosis cayennensis (Swartz Sprengel var. cayennensis en base a colecciones hechas por los autores en la Isla argentina de Apipé Grande, Ituzaingó, provincia de Corrientes. Se describe e ilustra la especie, el desarrollo de la planta y su estado de conservación. Esta cita de Helosis corresponde a un género nuevo para la flora argentina.Helosis cayennensis var. cayennensis is reported for the first time for Argentina. The species is described and ilustrated. Developement and ecology are also given. Helosis is also a new generic record for Argentina.

  14. Lap belt injuries in children.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGrath, N

    2010-07-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children\\'s hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  15. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  16. Coronal radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, H S; Frewen, S F N; DeRosa, M L

    2009-01-01

    The magnetic field of the solar corona has a large-scale dipole character, which maps into the bipolar field in the solar wind. Using standard representations of the coronal field, we show that high-energy ions can be trapped stably in these large-scale closed fields. The drift shells that describe the conservation of the third adiabatic invariant may have complicated geometries. Particles trapped in these zones would resemble the Van Allen Belts and could have detectable consequences. We discuss potential sources of trapped particles.

  17. Dunlop Enerka Belting supplies and installs Europe's longest conveyor belt at British Coal-Mine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ Dunlop Enerka Belting of Farington, U.K., has supplied a steel cord conveyor belt to the mine complex at Selby in North Yorkshire operated by RJB Mining plc. The new conveyor belt replaces the belt supplied and installed in 1981 by Dunlop Enerka Belting (then BTR Belting Ltd.).

  18. DESIGN TRENDS IN TIMING BELTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz DOMEK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents the state of the art gear with timing belts. Areas of use pose new challenges for designers gear. It has materials and technologies used in the production. Has been developed algorithm of design timing belts to new applications

  19. Geography of the asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  20. Albert Einstein visits Argentina

    CERN Document Server

    Gangui, A; Gangui, Alejandro; Ortiz, Eduardo L.

    2005-01-01

    This is a detailed, day by day, account of Albert Einstein's activities, both social and scientific, during his 30-day stay in Argentina in 1925, including his lectures on relativity at the various local universities and his visit to the National Academy of Sciences, as follows from his personal Diary of the trip to South-America and other contemporary documents.

  1. Argentina : una literatura urbana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Dolgopol

    1979-04-01

    Full Text Available Gran parte del trayecto histórico de la literatura argentina está signado por la influencia de la ciudad. Esta ciudad es, fundamentalmente, Buenos Aires, la megalópolis nacida a orillas del Plata, frente mismo a Montevideo, otra urbe que mucho tiene que ver con el desarrollo más reciente de la literatura uruguaya.

  2. A lab in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Mauricio Erben, a researcher at the National University of La Plata and the National Scientific and Technical Research Council, talks to Nature Chemistry about his experience of research in Argentina, and how it is inherently linked to the country's political climate.

  3. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  4. Mathematics Education in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varsavsky, Cristina; Anaya, Marta

    2009-01-01

    This article gives an overview of the state of mathematics education in Argentina across all levels, in the regional and world contexts. Statistics are drawn from Mercosur and UNESCO data bases, World Education Indicators and various national time-series government reports. Mathematics results in national testing programmes, Programme for…

  5. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  6. AUTOMATION OF CONVEYOR BELT TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenad Marinović

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available Belt conveyor transport, although one of the most economical mining transport system, introduce many problems to mantain the continuity of the operation. Every stop causes economical loses. Optimal operation require correct tension of the belt, correct belt position and velocity and faultless rolls, which are together input conditions for automation. Detection and position selection of the faults are essential for safety to eliminate fire hazard and for efficient maintenance. Detection and location of idler roll faults are still open problem and up to now not solved successfully (the paper is published in Croatian.

  7. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  8. Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-05-17

    Forundizi stayed in office until March 29, 1962. Skillfully, Frondizi managed partially to revive the economy and set the country on the road toward... Frondizi could not win the support of all sections of the population for a concentrated effort of austerity to save Argentina’s economy from the chaos it...make sacrifices. Frondizi came to grief when the reinstated Peronist Party won control of several provinces and increased its membership in congress in

  9. Regional Seismology in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-11

    Historia (Pananerican Institute of Geography and History, sponsored by the Organization of American States: Revista Geoffsica (Geophysical Journal). B...South America and the Recurrence Relation of Earthquakes. Revista Geofisica del Instituto Panamericano do Geograffa • Historia (IPGH), No. 4, June, 155...Underground Explosion, 8-18 September, Oslo, Norway. Universidad Nacional do San Juan, 1979. Informs del Simposio Bi- nacional Argentina-Estados Unidos sobre

  10. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  11. Chaos on the conveyor belt

    CERN Document Server

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by spring to an external static point, and due to the dragging effect of the belt the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can only be achieved by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks, around five.

  12. de la sociedad argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Galeano

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata sobre un período de la historia argentina en el cual la "mirada médica", a través de un grupo de prestigiosos intelectuales, se convirtió en una clave de interpretación de la sociedad argentina. El análisis gira en torno a la obra de uno de los médicos higienistas más influyentes, José María Ramos Mejía, deteniéndose especialmente en su libro más famoso: Las multitudes argentinas (1899. La hipótesis principal que recorre el texto es la siguiente: la medicalización de la sociedad, acentuada luego de las epidemias de cólera y fiebre amarilla de mediados del siglo XIX, ofreció a las elites públicas la posibilidad de construir dominios legítimos de intervención estatal. Intromisiones del Estado en la vida privada que, además de ser algo resistidas por la población, entraban en tensión con los principios teóricos del liberalismo que los propios miembros de la elite defendían.

  13. Northern Belt of Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere, absorb sunlight. That

  14. República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos

    2008-01-01

    El sistema de gobierno en la Argentina adopta la forma representativa, republicana y federal (Constitución Nacional, art. 1º).Por su extensión -que corresponden al Continente Americano; al Continente Antártico (incluyendo las Islas Orcadas del Sur) y las islas australes (Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur)- ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los países americanos (después de Canadá, Estados Unidos de América y la República Federativa del Brasil) y el séptimo a nivel mundial. Con una población de má...

  15. República Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Centro de Estudios Sudamericanos (CENSUD)

    2008-01-01

    El sistema de gobierno en la Argentina adopta la forma representativa, republicana y federal (Constitución Nacional, art. 1º).Por su extensión -que corresponden al Continente Americano; al Continente Antártico (incluyendo las Islas Orcadas del Sur) y las islas australes (Georgias del Sur y Sandwich del Sur)- ocupa el cuarto lugar entre los países americanos (después de Canadá, Estados Unidos de América y la República Federativa del Brasil) y el séptimo a nivel mundial. Con una población de má...

  16. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  17. Kuiper Belts Around Nearby Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Nilsson, R; Brandeker, A; Olofsson, G; Pilbratt, G L; Risacher, C; Rodmann, J; Augereau, J -C; Bergman, P; Eiroa, C; Fridlund, M; Thébault, P; White, G J

    2010-01-01

    In order to detect and characterise cold extended circumstellar dust originating from collisions of planetesimal bodies in disks, belts, or rings at Kuiper-Belt distances (30--50\\,AU or beyond) sensitive submillimetre observations are essential. Measurements of the flux densities at these wavelengths will extend existing IR photometry and permit more detailed modelling of the Rayleigh-Jeans tail of the disks spectral energy distribution (SED), effectively constraining dust properties and disk extensions. By observing stars spanning from a few up to several hundred Myr, the evolution of debris disks during crucial phases of planet formation can be studied. // We have performed 870\\,$\\mu$m observations of 22 exo-Kuiper-Belt candidates, as part of a Large Programme with the LABOCA bolometer at the APEX telescope. Dust masses (or upper limits) were calculated from integrated 870\\,$\\mu$m fluxes, and fits to the SED of detected sources revealed the fractional dust luminosities $f_{\\mathrm{dust}}$, dust temperatures...

  18. Hedeoma mandonianum (Lamiaceae en Argentina Hedeoma mandonianum (Lamiaceae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Carlos Slanis

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available En el presente trabajo se confirma la presencia de H. mandonianum Wedd. en el Noroeste de Argentina, la cual había sido citada previamente para los Andes de Perú y Bolivia. Se presenta una clave para diferenciar las especies argentinas de Hedeoma como así también descripción, ilustraciones, usos, distribución geográfica y observaciones ecológicas de la especie aquí tratada.In this paper the presence of H. mandonianum Wedd. from Northwestern Argentina is confirmed. This species has been previously cited for the Andes of Peru and Bolivia. A description, illustrations, uses, geographical distribution and ecological observations of the treated species are presented herein, together a key to identify the species of the genus Hedeoma in Argentina.

  19. Appendiceal transection associated with seat belt restraint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Seung Je; Sul, Young Hoon; Ye, Jin Bong; Kim, Joong Suck

    2016-08-01

    The seat belt is designed for safety in a motor vehicle and should be worn to prevent severe injuries. But, the seat belt itself can be an injury factor in combination with deceleration forces applied to fixation points of mobile viscera. Here, we present a 23-year-man with traumatic transection of the appendix, highly mobile viscera, following seat belt injury.

  20. French experience in seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lassarre, S. & Page, Y.

    1992-01-01

    This paper concerns the French experience in seat belt use. As well as the seat belt regulations, the strategies employed to reinforce the wearing of seat belts by using information and encouragement campaigns and checks by the police and gendarmerie are described here along with their timetables an

  1. Kuiper belts around nearby stars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nilsson, R.; Liseau, R.; Brandeker, A.; Olofsson, G.; Pilbratt, G. L.; Risacher, C.; Rodmann, J.; Augereau, J-C.; Bergman, P.; Eiroa, C.; Fridlund, M.; Thebault, P.; White, G. J.

    2010-01-01

    Context. The existence of dusty debris disks around a large fraction of solar type main-sequence stars, inferred from excess far-IR and submillimetre emission compared to that expected from stellar photospheres, suggests that leftover planetesimal belts analogous to the asteroid-and comet reservoirs

  2. DERECHO AMBIENTAL EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Nonna

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de la presente publicación es brindar un panorama general, introductorio y actualizado del derecho ambiental argentino. Entendiendo que el derecho ambiental es un signo de nuestra era y que por la dinamicidad de la cuestión ambiental requiere de permanente actualización regulatoria. La autora desarrolla en forma objetiva su postura en relación con la necesidad de hacer sostenible al derecho ambiental. Para luego analizar brevemente la situación actual del derecho vigente en Argentina, haciendo un rápido y resumido recorrido desde la última reforma de la Constitución Nacional hasta la consideración especial de cada una de las nuevas normas de presupuestos mínimos de protección ambiental.

  3. gobierno dividido en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elisa Alonso García

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo es una reflexión sobre el gobierno dividido en Argentina, y un análisis sobre las consecuencias negativas que tiene el binomio presidencialismo –multipartidismo para la gobernabilidad y el desarrollo institucional del país. El estudio del caso argentino permite comprobar que el gobierno en minoría no constituye un obstáculo para el desarrollo institucional, y que los problemas que de él se derivan, como el bloqueo legislativo y el conflicto institucional pueden solventarse, evitando la crisis. En este sentido, se analiza el papel jugado por los partidos provinciales, que han sido determinantes para evitar los problemas vinculados con el gobierno dividido

  4. nueva realidad de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Miranda

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Una de las características de la política latinoamericana de los últimos tiempos ha sido la tensión entre integración y fragmentación. En este contexto hubo una reproducción de situaciones conocidas. Pero también se procesaron cambios importantes. Uno de éstos estuvo relacionado con la irrupción de los liderazgos regionales, de naturaleza y envergadura diversa. Encontramos una puja muy particular entre el liderazgo de Venezuela en un proyecto alternativo y la respuesta geopolítica de Estados Unidos a través de Colombia. La realidad de los liderazgos impactó notoriamente a Argentina. Fue evidente que a partir de la crisis de 2001 perdió capacidad de influencia en la región.

  5. Metropolization in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Dagnino Pastore, José María; Canavese, Paula

    1996-01-01

    A partir de la regla de "orden-magnitud" el trabajo formula el concepto de "metropolización" (Smger) y explicita su relación con el índice de urbanización usual. Rastrea la evolución de la metropolización en Argentina a través de sus ocho censos, tanto para el conjunto de todos los centros urbanos como para tres subconjuntos: grandes, medianos y pequeños. El trabajo presenta después la idea de economías de "concentración geográfica" de las actividades (Lösch), explorando su relación -bajo sup...

  6. Argentina, ¿trabaja?

    OpenAIRE

    De Sena, Angélica; Chahbenderian, Florencia

    2012-01-01

    En la última década en la Argentina se implementaron una serie de políticas sociales denominadas socio-productivas, socio-laboral y socio-económicas con el objeto de mejorar la situación de desempleo o precariedad laboral de la población. Las mismas pueden considerarse un modo de compensación de los efectos de exclusión del régimen de producción y acumulación vigente. En este contexto en el año 2009 nace el Plan “Ingreso Social con Trabajo” desde el Ministerio de Desarrollo Social, que declar...

  7. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  8. Seat belt sign and its significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

    2013-07-01

    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term "seat belt sign" was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries.

  9. Ring current and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  10. Coccocypselum pulchellum (Rubiaceae, nuevo registro para Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa L. Cabral

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita Coccocypselum pulchellum por primera vez para Argentina, en Predio Guaraní, Misiones. Esta es la tercera especie de Coccocypselum registrada para la flora de Argentina junto con C. hasslerianum y C. lanceolatum. Se incluyen descripciones, ilustraciones y una clave para reconocer las tres especies argentinas de Coccocypselum.

  11. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E

    2002-01-01

    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  12. Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Gregori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Preandean geological configuration of the eastern North Patagonian Massif is established through the use of geological and geophysical analysis. The positive gravity anomalies located near the Atlantic coast are due to 535 and 540 Ma old rocks belonging to the Pampean Orogeny (Precambrian–middle Cambrian, which are widely recognized in central and northern Argentina. The Famatinian Cycle (Ordovician–Devonian is represented by a Silurian–Devonian marine basin equivalent to those of eastern-central Argentina and South Africa, and which was deformed at the end of the Devonian by an ∼E–W to WNW–ESE compressional event, part of the Famatinian Orogeny. Containing strong gravity gradients, the NW–SE belt is coincident with fault zones which were originated during the Gondwanide Orogeny. This event also produced NW–SE overthrusting of the Silurian–Devonian sequences and strike-slip faults that displaced blocks in the same direction. This deformation event belongs to the Gondwanide Orogeny that includes movements related to a counterclockwise rotation of blocks in northern Patagonia. The strong negative anomalies located in the western part of the area stem from the presence of rocks of the Jurassic Cañadón Asfalto basin interbedded in the Marifil Complex. These volcaniclastic sequences show mild deformation of accommodation zones in a pre-Jurassic paleorelief.

  13. del Estero, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefa Delgado

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación, desde una perspectiva holística, buscó conocer en las familias de niños que asisten a los comedores comunitarios en un barrio capitalino de Santiago del Estero, Argentina, la red de apoyo que utilizan y los recursos que obtienen para poder resolver sus necesidades cotidianas. Es un estudio cuanticualitativo. Los datos fueron recolectados por encuestas parcialmente estructuradas y entrevistas en profundidad. El análisis de los datos se basó en identificación de frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Para los datos cualitativos se usó el referencial fenomenológico heideggeriano. Los resultados indican que 48% de las familias tienen 4 a 5 elementos en la red de apoyo; 91% buscan alimentos, 84% salud y el 73% trabajo; esta reducida red les genera importantes dificultades al momento de satisfacer sus necesidades básicas. La falta de trabajo y baja escolaridad son los principales condicionantes de su aislamiento social.

  14. Intelligent seat belt reminders-do they change driver seat belt use in Europe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, Anders; Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    Many modern cars have seat belt reminders (SBRs) using loud and clear sound and light signals. These systems have developed over the last few years. This study investigates how these modern systems influence the seat belt use in real-life traffic in built-up areas in some European cities. The data were collected by field observations in major cities in six European countries and in five cities around Sweden. A selection of car models having seat belt reminders (SBR) were compared to a fleet of similar car models without such reminders. A significant difference in seat belt wearing rate was found in the cars with seat belt reminders. For all observations, the total seat belt wearing rate was 97.5% +/- 0.5% in cars with SBR, while it was 85.8% +/- 0.8% in cars without. There were differences in seat belt use in the different observation locations. The lowest seat belt use was found in Brussels/Belgium with a use rate of 92.6 +/- 2.2% in cars with seat belt reminders and 69.6 +/- 3.1% in cars not fitted with reminders. The highest seat belt use was found in Paris/France where 99.8 +/- 0.4% of the drivers used the seat belt in cars with reminders and 96.9 +/-1.1% were belted in cars without reminders. Seat belt reminders fulfilling Euro NCAP's seat belt reminder protocol are increasing the seat belt use in daily traffic significantly. Around 80% (82.2% +/- 8.6%) of the drivers not putting the belt on without a seat belt reminder do so in cars equipped with an SBR that has a light signal and an associated loud and clear sound signal.

  15. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  16. Hungry China Shops in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Chinese investment is flooding into Argentina as the Asian giant expands its global commodity hunt from the raw materials used in industry to the foodstuffs needed to feed its 1.3 billion citizens. China's investment in Latin America hit USI15.6 billion during the 12-month period through the end of May, nearly three times greater than the year-ago period, consulting firm Deloitte said in a report.Of that amount, Brazil received about 60% and Argentina close to 40%.

  17. Tick paralysis cases in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Remondegui

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Tick paralysis (TP occurs worldwide and is caused by a neurotoxin secreted by engorged female ticks that affects the peripheral and central nervous system. The clinical manifestations range from mild or nonspecific symptoms to manifestations similar to Guillain-Barré syndrome, bulbar involvement, and death in 10% of the patients. The diagnosis of TP is clinical. To our knowledge, there are no formal reports of TP in humans in South America, although clusters of TP among hunting dogs in Argentina have been identified recently. In this paper, clinical features of two cases of TP occurring during 1994 in Jujuy Province, Argentina, are described.

  18. 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    TR-14-18 1962 Satellite High Altitude Radiation Belt Database Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. March...the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database”, AFRL-VS-PS-TR- 2006-1079, Air Force Research Laboratory...Roth, B., “Blue Ribbon Panel and Support Work Assessing the Status of the High Altitude Nuclear Explosion (HANE) Trapped Radiation Belt Database

  19. The Andean orogenic front at Sierra de Las Peñas-Las Higueras, Mendoza, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Carlos H.; Gardini, Carlos E.; Diederix, Hans; Cortés, José M.

    2000-07-01

    The Sierra de Las Peñas-Las Higueras (Mendoza Province, Argentina, 32°15'S-32°45'S) presents one of the clearest and most continuous exposures of the Quaternary thrust front of the Precordilleran fold-and-thrust belt. It is characterized by an east-verging thrust that breaks the surface and causes Neogene sedimentary rocks to override Quaternary alluvial conglomerates. Monoclinal folds and progressive unconformities are characteristic of deformation in the upper part of the alluvial cover, indicating synchronous development of sedimentation and thrusting during the Quaternary. South of this range, ongoing deformation is by gentle warping of the piedmont alluvial plain, hiding blind thrusts at depth.

  20. Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María L. Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se coleccionaron hojas maduras de ejemplares adultos de Populus alba, Populus deltoides, Robinia pseudoacacia, Ulmus pumila y Fraxinus americana del Campus Universitario, Tandil, Buenos Aires, Argentina (37° 19’S, 59° 08’O en febrero de 2004. La cera cuticular fue extraída, purificada, y el contenido y proporción relativa de n-alcanos de número impar de carbonos (C23C35 fue cuantificado mediante cromatografía gas-líquido capilar. La concentración total de n-alcanos (mg/kg MS fue P. alba (6935 > Robinia (1571 > P. deltoides (1379 > Ulmus (880 > Fraxinus (467. Los n-alcanos más abundantes en todas las especies fueron C27 y C29 que constituyeron entre 10 y 51% y entre 35 y 76% del total respectivamente, excepto en Fraxinus donde los más abundantes fueron C29 y C31 que constituyeron el 31 y 49% del total respectivamente. P. alba y P. deltoides difirieron no solo en la concentración total de n-alcanos sino también en la proporción relativa de C27 y C29, siendo C29 el n-alcano más abundante en la segunda especie (76% igual que en Robinia (75%. La presencia de nalcanos de número par de carbonos no fue detectable o resultó muy baja en general en todas las especies, con excepción de C26, C28 y C30, este último se destacó particularmente en Fraxinus.

  1. Sessea regnellii (Solanaceae en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Keller

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez a Sessea regnelli para la flora argentina. Se presenta una descripción de la especie sobre la base de los ejemplares examinados, como así también ilustraciones y observaciones ecológicas.

  2. NREL technical assistance to Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilienthal, P. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes assistance to Argentina from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory which has touched on four programs: tariff analysis for rural concessions programs; wind/diesel hybrid retrofits in Patagonia; small hybrid systems designs for rural schools; an assessment of wind resources. The paper expands briefly on the first two points.

  3. Formation of Kuiper Belt Binaries

    CERN Document Server

    Goldreich, P; Sari, R; Goldreich, Peter; Lithwick, Yoram; Sari, Re'em

    2002-01-01

    It appears that at least several percent of large Kuiper belt objects are members of wide binaries. Physical collisions are too infrequent to account for their formation. Collisionless gravitational interactions are more promising. These provide two channels for binary formation. In each, the initial step is the formation of a transient binary when two large bodies penetrate each other's Hill spheres. Stabilization of a transient binary requires that it lose energy. Either dynamical friction due to small bodies or the scattering of a third large body can be responsible. Our estimates favor the former, albeit by a small margin. We predict that most objects of size comparable to those currently observed in the Kuiper belt are members of multiple systems. More specifically, we derive the probability that a large body is a member of a binary with semi-major axis of order a. The probability depends upon sigma, the total surface density, Sigma, the surface density of large bodies having radius R, and theta=10^-4, t...

  4. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  5. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  6. Parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, G; Laiou, A; Vardaki, S; Papadimitriou, E; Dragomanovits, A; Kanellaidis, G

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this research is the exploration of seat belt use in Greece and particularly the identification of the parameters affecting seat belt use in Greece. A national field survey was conducted for the analytical recording of seat belt use. A binary logistic regression model was developed, and the impact of each parameter on seat belt use in Greece was quantified. Parameters included in the model concern characteristics of car occupants (gender, age and position in the car), the type of the car and the type of the road network. The data collection revealed that in Greece, the non-use of seat belt on the urban road network was higher than on the national and rural road network and young and older men use seat belts the least. The developed model showed that travelling on a national road is negative for not wearing the seat belt. Finally, the variable with the highest impact on not wearing a seat belt is being a passenger on the back seats.

  7. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack

  8. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  9. Intelligent Belt Conveyor Monitoring and Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pang, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Belt conveyors have been used worldwide in continuous material transport for about 250 years. Traditional inspection and monitoring of large-scale belt conveyors focus on individual critical components and response to catastrophic system failures. To prevent operational problems caused by the lack o

  10. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  11. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  12. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  13. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. (Geophysics Lab., Air Force Systems Command, Hanscom AFB, MA (US)); Holeman, E. (Physics Dept., Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA (US))

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  14. Area Handbook Series: Argentina: A Country Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-08-01

    processes of change. Socioeconomic statistical information has been systematically published by Argentina’s Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos in...Nacional de Estadisticas y Censos Estima- 353 Argentina: A Country Study clones y proyecdones de poblaciion, 1950-2025. Buenos Aires: 1982...Aires: Institute Nacional de Estadistica y Censos, 1983. Argentina. Ministerio de Educaciön. Departamento de Estadis- tica. Estadisticas de la

  15. Anaglyph: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (bright patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (dark lakes with bright shores). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This anaglyph was generated by first draping a Landsat Thematic Mapper image over a topographic map from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, then producing the two differing perspectives, one for each eye. When viewed through special glasses, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions. Anaglyph glasses cover the left eye with a red filter and the right eye with a blue filter.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7 Thematic Mapper image used here was provided to

  16. Stereo Pair: Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    This view of northern Patagonia, near El Cain, Argentina shows complexly eroded volcanic terrain, with basalt mesas, sinkholes, landslide debris, playas, and relatively few integrated drainage channels. Surrounding this site (but also extending far to the east) is a broad plateau capped by basalt, the Meseta de Somuncura. Here, near the western edge of the plateau, erosion has broken through the basalt cap in a variety of ways. On the mesas, water-filled sinkholes (lower left) are most likely the result of the collapse of old lava tubes. Along the edges of the mesas (several locations) the basalt seems to be sliding away from the plateau in a series of slices. Water erosion by overland flow is also evident, particularly in canyons where vegetation blankets the drainage channels (green patterns, bottom of image). However, overland water flow does not extend very far at any location. This entire site drains to local playas, some of which are seen here (blue). While the water can reach the playas and then evaporate, what becomes of the eroded rock debris? Wind might excavate some of the finer eroded debris, but the fate of much of the missing bedrock remains mysterious.This cross-eyed stereoscopic image pair was generated using topographic data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, combined with an enhanced Landsat 7 satellite color image. The topography data are used to create two differing perspectives of a single image, one perspective for each eye. In doing so, each point in the image is shifted slightly, depending on its elevation. When stereoscopically merged, the result is a vertically exaggerated view of the Earth's surface in its full three dimensions.Landsat satellites have provided visible light and infrared images of the Earth continuously since 1972. SRTM topographic data match the 30-meter (99-foot) spatial resolution of most Landsat images and provide a valuable complement for studying the historic and growing Landsat data archive. The Landsat 7

  17. Seat belt use law in developing countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SangWanLee

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To highlight the way to successful implementation of mandantory seat belt use law in developing countries particulary where have significant increase in number or cars and subsequent increase in car occupant casualties.Methods:Literatures concerning seat belt use were reviewed and experiences of the world.Satisfactory or not,investigated.It summed up general aspects of seat belt use as well as benefits,attitude toward legislation and measures to enhance the usage.Results:Seat belt use has been proven and stood time tested as the most effective means to protect car occupants from road crash injuries.It appears to be arduous to achieve the golal of seat belt use law in developing countries. but possible via strategies appropriately leading to legislation and promotion of the belt usage.Conclusions:It is prime necessity for the government authorities to recognize the importance of seat belt use.There needs an organizational structure composed of relevant professional from both private and government sectors which is able to carry out every steps toward successful legislation and implementation:education,publicity,enforcement,evaluation and dissemination of the law's benefits.

  18. Pediatric intensive care in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, E J

    1993-09-01

    8.2% of the gross domestic product is spent annually on health care in Argentina, a country of 32 million people. There is 1 medical doctor of every 147,000 beds in a total 3180 hospitals. The infant mortality rate in Argentina is 24.5/1000 live births which is high compared to developed countries. Perinatal causes and congenital anomalies are the main cause of death after the neonatal period, and accidents, cardiac disease, and respiratory tract infections are the main causes of death among children over age 1 year. Argentina has approximately 35 pediatric intensive care units (ICU), but 154 of 244 beds are within or near the capital. Only 2 hospitals have pediatric intensive care fellowship programs, so full time dedicated staff is rare. 250 registered pediatricians dedicated to intensive care are in the Argentine Pediatric Society and the nurse/bed ratio is 1:2-1:3. Moreover, the country has neither postanesthesia recuperation units, burn units, chronic ventilation units, nor approved home assistance programs, and intermediate care is not clearly standardized. These inadequacies have led to a shortage of beds and the caring for of critically ill children in general pediatric or emergency wards in hospitals which lack adequate equipment; patients are often discharged inappropriately to clear bed space. Even so, prehospital and emergency room care tends to be provided without the necessary coordination with the pediatric ICU, and structural conditions regarding electrical self-sufficiency, air conditioning, and circulation are met in only few units. Despite the existence of these adverse conditions for the care of critically ill children, a pediatric organ transplant program developed since 1987 has demonstrated 70% to 100% survival rates for 16l orthotopic liver and 9 heart transplants, respectively. Alternatives to improving intensive care in Argentina include optimizing the response of emergency and critical care delivery systems, categorizing hospitals and

  19. Thunderstorms, Andean Mountains Ridgeline, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    In this scenic view of thunderstorms skirting the eastern ridgeline of the Andeas Mountains in northern Argentina (approximate coordinates 28.0S, 57.0W), the confluence of the Rio Salado and Rio Saladillo where they merge with the Rio Parana can be seen in sunglint. Thunderstorms along the eastern Andes are typical at this time of year (Southern Hemisphere summer) with anvils moving to the east from the core of the storm.

  20. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loftin, Laurel

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP, a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was the use of incentives, such as gift cards, to promote teen seat belt use. The third component involved disincentives, such as increased police patrol and school policies. The fourth component was a programmatic intervention that focused on education and media coverage of the DAPP program.Results: Eleven pre-intervention surveys and nine post-intervention surveys were conducted before and after the intervention. The pre- and post-intervention seat belt usage showed significant differences (p<0.0001. The average pre-intervention seat belt usage rate was 51.2%, while the average post-intervention rate was 74.5%. This represents a percentage point increase of 23.3 in seat belt use after the DAPP intervention.Conclusion: Based on seat belt observational surveys, the DAPP was effective in increasing seat belt use among rural high school teenagers. Utilizing a theory-based program that builds on existing best practices can increase the observed seat belt usage among rural high school students. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(3: 280-283.

  1. Argentina em El siglo XXI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Fernández Soto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This present article has as its main focus the reconfiguration of the development matrix acting in Argentina, as a result of the deepening crisis and the social conflicts from 2001-02. Identifies the presence of inflexions and continuities in this moment of hegemonic recomposition, which some authors call of "post neo-liberal neo-developmentalist phase", fruit of the correlations of forces resulting in the general movement of the society. Therefore, addresses, in first place, the neo- liberal reaction in the mark of the capitalist crisis and the logic configuration of the accumulation in a flexible standard. In second place it analyzes the context of crisis from the beginning of the 21st century, highlighting the inflexions and continuities with the neo-liberalism and characterizing the behavior of the main socioeconomic indicators. In third place , discusses the reactions to neo-liberalism and the neo-developmentalist recomposition observed in Argentina as well in some national experiences in the latin american region, identifying continuities and ruptures. For last , taking as reference this context, it analyzes the orientation of the social policies after the 2001 crisis, putting in discussion the state action and its politics with the projects of society that are in dispute in Argentina nowadays.

  2. Computer-aided design of conveyor belts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karolewski, B.; Pytel, J.

    1984-01-01

    Possibilities are discussed for using mathematical models of belt conveyors for development of computer-aided design of conveyors for coal mining. Examples of optimization tasks and methods for their solution using computerized simulation are analyzed. The analysis is illustrated by an algorithm used to design a starter for the drive system of a belt conveyor. Electromagnetic moment and starting current are used as optimization criteria. A simplified model of a belt conveyor is used. The model consists of an equation of motion with variable braking moment and variable moment of inertia. 3 references.

  3. Collisional evolution of the early asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, Ricardo; Brunini, Adrián

    1999-04-01

    We present numerical results obtained by a simulation of the collisional process between asteroids and scattered comets from the Uranus-Neptune zone. This mechanism allows the use of single exponent incremental size distributions for the initial belt reaching a final distribution that matches the observed population very well. Since the cometary bombardment was extremely efficient removing mass from the primordial asteroid belt in a very short time, we always obtained belts with total masses less than 0.001 M ⊕ after ≈ 2×10 7 yrs. This result allows processes with an important initial mass preserving Vestas basaltic crust.

  4. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  5. Simulation of engine auxiliary drive V-belt slip motion. Part 1. Development of belt slip model; Engine hoki V belt slip kyodo no simulation. 1. Belt slip model no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurisu, T. [Mazda Motor Corp., Hiroshima (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    V-belts are widely used for driving auxiliary components of an engine. Inadequet design of such belt system sometimes results in troubles such as belt squeak, side rubber separation and/or bottom rubber crack. However, there has been no design tools which can predict belt slip quantitatively. The author developed a motion simulation program of Auxiliary Drive V-Belt System considering belt slip. The program showed good prediction accuracy for belt slip motion. This paper describes the simulation model. 1 ref., 12 figs.

  6. A new Batillipedidae (Tardigrada, Arthrotardigrada) from Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menechella, Agustín G; Bulnes, Verónica N; Cazzaniga, Néstor J

    2015-10-16

    A new species of marine tardigrade, Batillipes acuticauda sp. n., has been found in midlittoral sand sediments collected at Monte Hermoso beach (Buenos Aires province, Argentina). The new species differs from all other members of Batillipedidae by its combination of caudal apparatus, lateral processes and toe patterns. It is the first description of an arthrotardigrade from Argentina.

  7. Mida õpetab Argentina finantskriis? / Karsten Staehr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Staehr, Karsten, 1962-

    2002-01-01

    Norra majandusanalüütik kirjeldab Argentina majanduspoliitikat, analüüsib tehtud vigu ning hoiatab avatud majandusega Eestit võimalike tulevaste välisshokkide eest. Diagramm: SKP kasv ja üleüldine riigieelarve tasakaal 1991-2001 Argentinas

  8. Mida õpetab Argentina finantskriis? / Karsten Staehr

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Staehr, Karsten, 1962-

    2002-01-01

    Norra majandusanalüütik kirjeldab Argentina majanduspoliitikat, analüüsib tehtud vigu ning hoiatab avatud majandusega Eestit võimalike tulevaste välisshokkide eest. Diagramm: SKP kasv ja üleüldine riigieelarve tasakaal 1991-2001 Argentinas

  9. English in Argentina: A Sociolinguistic Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Paul Maersk

    2003-01-01

    Provides insight into the dimensions and dynamics of English in Argentina by drawing a sociolinguistic profile of this language in a South American setting. Begins with an overview of the languages and cultures represented in Argentina and the historical presence, contact, and availability of English from the eighteenth century on. (VWL)

  10. The Stenopodainae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera) of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Fernando; Coscarón, María del Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In Argentina, 10 genera and 33 species of Stenopodainae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) have been recorded. Diagnoses of the genera, subgenera and species are given, and an illustrated key to genera is provided. Six species are new records for Argentina and an additional seven species represent new records for provinces. PMID:25493054

  11. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  12. Handbook Timing Belts Principles, Calculations, Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perneder, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    Timing belts offer a broad range of innovative drivetrain solutions; they allow low-backlash operation in robot systems, they are widely used in automated processes and industrial handling involving highly dynamic start-up loads, they are low-maintenance solutions for continuous operation applications, and they can guarantee exact positioning at high operating speeds. Based on his years of professional experience, the author has developed concise guidelines for the dimensioning of timing belt drives and presents proven examples from the fields of power transmission, transport and linear transfer technology. He offers definitive support for dealing with and compensating for adverse operating conditions and belt damage, as well as advice on drive optimization and guidelines for the design of drivetrain details and supporting systems. All market-standard timing belts are listed as brand neutral. Readers will discover an extensive bibliography with information on the various manufacturers and their websites. This...

  13. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  14. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  15. The Compositional Structure of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    DeMeo, Francesca E; Walsh, Kevin J; Chapman, Clark R; Binzel, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has brought major improvements in large-scale asteroid discovery and characterization with over half a million known asteroids and over 100,000 with some measurement of physical characterization. This explosion of data has allowed us to create a new global picture of the Main Asteroid Belt. Put in context with meteorite measurements and dynamical models, a new and more complete picture of Solar System evolution has emerged. The question has changed from "What was the original compositional gradient of the Asteroid Belt?" to "What was the original compositional gradient of small bodies across the entire Solar System?" No longer is the leading theory that two belts of planetesimals are primordial, but instead those belts were formed and sculpted through evolutionary processes after Solar System formation. This article reviews the advancements on the fronts of asteroid compositional characterization, meteorite measurements, and dynamical theories in the context of the heliocentric distribution of...

  16. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Malhotra, Renu

    2016-01-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64,000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that Plummer's (1916) conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution: there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than $\\sim0.1$ and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance: the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modeled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Ra...

  17. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    OpenAIRE

    Burkett, Katie M.; Davidson, Steve; Cotton, Carol; Barlament, James; Loftin, Laurel; Stephens, James; Dunbar, Martin; Butterfield, Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices. Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second compo...

  18. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D

    1973-12-07

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  19. Seat-belt message and the law?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  20. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  1. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  2. THE GOULD'S BELT DISTANCE SURVEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Loinard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Observaciones que utilizan la interferometría de muy larga línea de base (VLBI por sus siglas en ingl´es pueden proveer la posición de radiofuentes compactas con una precisión del orden de 50 micro-segundos de arco. Esto es suficiente para medir la paralaje trigonométrica y los movimientos propios de cualquier objeto localizado hasta 500 pc del Sol con una precisión mejor que unos porcientos. Por ser magnéticamente activas, las estrellas jóvenes a menudo emiten emisión radio compacta detectable usando técnicas VLBI. Aquí, mostraremos cómo observaciones VLBI ya han restringido la distancia a las regiones de formación estelar cercanas más frecuentemente estudiadas (Tauro, Ofiuco, Orión, etc. y han empezado a revelar su estructura y su cinemática interna. Luego, describiremos un gran proyecto (llamado The Gould's Belt Distance Survey diseñado para proveer una vista detallada de la formación estelar en la vecindad Solar, usando observaciones VLBI.

  3. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  4. en Argentina en los noventa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fabián Delfini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los efectos de la implantación de las políticas económicas neoliberales desde 1990 en Argentina sobre la distribución del ingreso y la pobreza, en un marco en que el crecimiento económico no provocó disminuciones sustantivas sobre las variables en estudio. Se emplea el concepto de “estancamiento dinámico ” para analizar las variables propuestas, pues éste sí permite dar cuenta de las regulaciones vigentes durante la década en estudio.

  5. Bioceres: AG Biotechnology from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Feeney

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this case we present a business decision-making situation in which the CEO of an Argentine Ag Biotech company, Bioceres, has to decide the best way to commercialize a new drought-tolerant transgenic technology. The company was founded by twenty three farmers, who shared a common dream that Argentina could become a benchmark in the development of Ag biotechnology. The case has strategic and financial implications, as well as decision-making situation involving a joint venture with an American biotechnology company. It also introduces to discussion the business models of Ag biotechnology companies in developing countries.

  6. Seat belts, airbags and child protection devices. [previously: Seat belts and child restraint seats.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts results in a yearly reduction of hundreds of fatalities. Seat belts reduce the risk of fatal injury by 37 to 48%, depending on the position in the car. At 50%, the effect of child protection devices is even slightly higher. When last measured (in 2010), 97%

  7. [The health system of Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belló, Mariana; Becerril-Montekio, Victor M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS) covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll contributions of employers and employees. Finally, the private sector includes all those private providers offering services to individuals, OS beneficiaries and all those with private health insurance.This sector also includes private insurance agencies called Prepaid Medicine Enterprises, financed mostly through premiums paid by families and/or employers.This paper also discusses some of the recent innovations implemented in Argentina, including the program Remediar.

  8. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley turbine'' (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the turbine'' corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the turbine'' belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  9. [Traffic law compliance in the city of Santa Fe, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramino, Juan Carlos; Carrera, Elena

    2007-08-01

    An observational, descriptive study was conducted to evaluate compliance with certain traffic regulations in city of Santa Fe, Argentina, and compare these with measurements taken in prior years. During January 2-4, 2006, at 13 sites across the city, compliance with the following traffic rules was measured: for car drivers: seat belt use and restricting minors to the rear seat; and for motorcycle drivers: helmet use and not carrying a minor on board. At total of 4 173 cars and 1 013 motorcycles were observed. Only 9% of the car drivers wore seatbelts. Of the 246 cars carrying minors, 56% had a minor in the front seat. Regarding the motorcycles drivers, only 12% wore a helmet and 6.7% had a child on board. When these observations were compared with those of the previous five years, findings showed that over the past three years compliance rates had decreased. The results of this study suggest that most drivers in city of Santa Fe do not obey the stated traffic laws. In order to reduce the high rate of mortality from traffic accidents, in addition to legislation and public-awareness campaigns, a system for enforcing compliance is needed.

  10. Sistema de salud de Argentina The health system of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Belló

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo se describe el sistema de salud de Argentina, que está compuesto por tres sectores: público, de seguridad social y privado. El sector público está integrado por los ministerios nacional y provincial, y la red de hospitales y centros de salud públicos que prestan atención gratuita a toda persona que lo demande, fundamentalmente a personas sin seguridad social y sin capacidad de pago. Se financia con recursos fiscales y recibe pagos ocasionales de parte del sistema de seguridad social cuando atiende a sus afiliados. El sector del seguro social obligatorio está organizado en torno a las Obras Sociales (OS, que aseguran y prestan servicios a los trabajadores y sus familias. La mayoría de las OS operan a través de contratos con prestadores privados y se financian con contribuciones de los trabajadores y patronales. El sector privado está conformado por profesionales de la salud y establecimientos que atienden a demandantes individuales, a los beneficiarios de las OS y de los seguros privados. Este sector también incluye entidades de seguro voluntario llamadas Empresas de Medicina Prepaga que se financian sobre todo con primas que pagan las familias y/o las empresas. En este trabajo también se describen las innovaciones recientes en el sistema de salud, incluyendo el Programa Remediar.This paper describes the health system of Argentina.This system has three sectors: public, social security and private.The public sector includes the national and provincial ministries as well as the network of public hospitals and primary health care units which provide care to the poor and uninsured population. This sector is financed with taxes and payments made by social security beneficiaries that use public health care facilities. The social security sector or Obras Sociales (OS covers all workers of the formal economy and their families. Most OS operate through contracts with private providers and are financed with payroll

  11. The effects of Maine's change to primary seat belt law on seat belt use and public perception and awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Neil K; Tison, Julie; Casanova, Tara

    2010-04-01

    Maine upgraded its seat belt law to primary enforcement on September 20, 2007. Belt observations during the day and night were conducted along with awareness surveys in state licensing offices. Both daytime and nighttime observed belt use increased in the months following implementation of the law (daytime 77-84%; night 69-81%). Although daytime belt use was generally higher, nighttime belt use showed a greater increase than daytime belt use. Awareness surveys indicated that Maine motorists were clearly aware of the law change and its consequences. Survey respondents also indicated having heard both messages about enforcement and messages encouraging belt use. Primary seat belt laws may have a stronger effect on belt use at night--when risk is higher--than during the day.

  12. Friction and Wear in Timing Belt Drives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Stojanovic

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Timing belt tooth goes into contact with a drive pulley, stretched to the maximum, because of the previous tension. When the contact begins the peak of the belt tooth makes the contact with the outer surface of the pulley teeth. The process of the teeth entering into the contact zone is accompanied with the relative sliding of their side surfaces and appropriate friction force. The normal force value is changing with the parabolic function, which also leads to the changes of the friction force. The biggest value of the normal force and of the friction force is at the tooth root. Hollow between teeth and the tip of the pulley teeth are also in contact. Occasionally, the face surface of the belt and the flange are also in contact. The friction occurs in those tribomechanical systems, also. Values of these friction forces are lower compared with the friction force, which occurs at the teeth root.

  13. Ionospheric heating for radiation-belt control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burke, W.J.; Villalon, E.

    1990-10-01

    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons, as formulated by Kennel and Petschek 1, describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a slot region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. We describe a set of planned, active experiments in which VLF radiation will be injected from ground and space based transmitters in conjunction with the CRRES satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments will measure the intensity of waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves. An ability to reduce the flux of energetic particles trapped in the radiation belts by artificial means could improve the reliability of microelectronic components on earth-observing satellites in middle-altitude orbits.

  14. Argentina: entre o Mercosul e a Alca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Bernal-Meza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo procura mostrar que a Argentina não está numa encruzilhada na sua política externa, tendo que escolher entre Mercosul ou Alca. Ao contrário, a Argentina vê o Mercosul como um caminho que leva à Alca, afirmando uma posição que se tornou possível depois da confluência de outros fatores, como a posição brasileira frente a Alca e o modelo de integração regional proposta para o Mercosul.This article seeks to show that Argentina is not in crossroads in your foreign policy, having to choose between Mercosur and FTAA. In contrast, Argentina sees Mercosur as a way that leads to FTAA, affirming a position that become possible after a confluence of others factors, as the Brazilian position front Alca and the model of regional integration proposal for Mercosur.

  15. Drive Alive: Teen Seat Belt Survey Program

    OpenAIRE

    Loftin, Laurel; Barlament, James; Cotton, Carol; Davidson, Steve M; Burkett, Katie M.; Stephens, James

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To increase teen seat belt use among drivers at a rural high school by implementing the Drive Alive Pilot Program (DAPP), a theory-driven intervention built on highway safety best practices.Methods: The first component of the program was 20 observational teen seat belt surveys conducted by volunteer students in a high school parking lot over a 38-month period before and after the month-long intervention. The survey results were published in the newspaper. The second component was t...

  16. Development of belt conveyor driving system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jun-qing(付峻青); WANG Cong(王聪); HUO Wei(霍伟)

    2004-01-01

    A short review for the existing various driving methods for belt conveyor was given, which include the analysis and comparison about the advantages, disadvantages and suitable application range of these methods. Based on this the variable-frequency-control(VFC) method for belt conveyor drive was fully discussed with focus on its application in medium-high voltage range. The principle of Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) Three-Level Inverter using high-voltage IGBTs together with the control strategy of rotor field-oriented vector control for induction motor drive were illustrated.

  17. The radiation belt of the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Gruzinov, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    For a given solar magnetic field, the near-Sun (phase-space) density of cosmic ray electrons and positrons of energy above about 10GeV can be calculated from first principles, without any assumptions about the cosmic ray diffusion. This is because the sunlight Compton drag must be more important than diffusion. If the solar magnetic field has an appreciable dipole component, the electron/positron density should have a belt-like dent, perhaps extending to several solar radii. The belt structure appears because the quasi-bound orbits are depopulated by the sunlight Compton drag.

  18. Composite Microdiscs with a Magnetic Belt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knaapila, Matti; Høyer, Henrik; Helgesen, Geir

    2015-01-01

    We describe an emulsion-based preparation of patchy composite particles (diameter of 100-500 mu m) consisting of a disclike epoxy core and a belt of porous polystyrene particles (diameter of 30 mu m) with magnetite within the pores. Compared to the magnetically uniform polystyrene particles......, the spontaneous aggregation of composite particles is suppressed when dispersed into liquid, which is attributed to the increased particle size, reduced magnetic susceptibility, and the shape of the magnetic domain distribution within the particles (spherical versus a belt). When the composite particles...

  19. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-10-01

    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  20. CALCULATION OF TENSION FORCE OF BELT CONVEYOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Ibishi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper is done the explanation on tension fashion of the belt conveyor which is employed in Kosovo Energy Corporation – KEK, for coal transportation to provide electric power plant. The aim of the paper enables to recognize tension forces not to pass with deformation of belt so that this problem will damage the workingprocess. Work principle is based on initial tension and tension during working process. The fact is known that the tension starts from the carriage on the way to tension mechanization, so forces on the rope passing through pulley there has to dominate the friction coefficient. All this process is related to economy of transportationmechanism.

  1. China, Argentina agree to further strategic ties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua,China and Argentina have agreed to further enhance mutual trust and their strategic partnership as the two emerging economies are playing an increasingly important role in the world arena.“China will work with Argentina to strengthen strategic mutual trust,expand cooperation and coordination within multilateral frameworks in order to promote bilateral ties and benefit the two peoples,” Vice President Xi Jinping told Argentine Foreign Minister Hector Timerman on September 9.

  2. Soybean biomass produced in Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Semino, Stella; Paul, Helena; Tomei, Julia

    Soybean biomass for biodiesel, produced in Argentina amongst other places, is considered by some to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate climate change when compared with fossil fuel. To ensure that the production of biofuels is ‘sustainable', EU institutions and national governments...... are currently designing certification schemes for the sustainable production of biomass. This paper questions the validity of proposed environmental standards, using the production of Argentine soybean as a case study. The production of soybean production is associated with profound environmental impacts...... generates emissions of N2O. The large quantity of substances, sprayed by terrestrial and aerial means, has negative impacts on biodiversity, water, soil, and human and animal health. The intensive production of soybeans also leads to social impacts, including loss of livelihoods and food sovereignty...

  3. Burle Marx en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Berjman

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available La figura de Roberto Burle Marx, el más grande paisajista brasileño, goza de amplio conocimiento en el ambiente profesional argentino pero sólo a través de sus trabajos en Brasil. El icónico caso de la Plaza Perú de Buenos Aires –hoy totalmente cambiada- es la única excepción. Hubo otras concreciones y proyectos, así como conferencias y presentación de sus obras plásticas, que son desconocidas. Por ello, nos hemos propuesto desentrañar las participaciones de Roberto Burle Marx en la Argentina, todas ellas dentro del área de la región metropolitana.

  4. Poverty and Health in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alejandra Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This article examines health conditions in the rural areas of Central Argentina, the country’s main region for soy-bean production and export. Health conditions are analyzed through the concepts of emerging and re-emerging diseases in a context of increasing poverty. Data on poverty and health was obtained from both primary sources (trade union, government officials, rural doctors and the South Watch/FA/FODEPAL/UNR working group and secondary sources (IPEC/INDEC, IDESA, Consultora Equis, the Argentine Ministry of Employment, ILO, the Ministry of Health, the Ministry of the Environment, toxicology centers and rural doctors. Analysis of rural health conditions gives cause for concern. There is evidence of deterioration in the social determinants of health such as an increase in rural and urban poverty associated with informal employment and child labor. At the same time lack of government epidemiological and toxicological data appears to hide or distort the reality of health conditions.

  5. Garnet peridotites from Pohorje: Petrography, geothermobarometry and metamorphic evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirijam Vrabec

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP metamorphism has been recorded in Eo-Alpine garnet peridotites from the PohorjeMts., Slovenia, belonging to the Eastern Alps. The garnet peridotite bodies are found within serpentinized metaultrabasitesin the SE edge of Pohorje and are closely associated with UHP kyanite eclogites. These rocks belongto the Lower Central Austroalpine basement unit of the Eastern Alps, exposed in the proximity of the Periadriaticfault system.Garnet peridotites show signs of a complex four-stage metamorphic history. The protolith stage is represented bya low-P high-T assemblage of olivine + Al-rich orthopyroxene + Al-rich clinopyroxene + Cr-spinel. Due to metamorphism,primary clinopyroxene shows exsolutions of garnet, orthopyroxene, amphibole, Cr-spinel and ilmenite. TheUHP metamorphic stage is defined by the assemblage garnet + olivine + Al-poor orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene +Cr-spinel. Subsequent decompression and final retrogression stage resulted in formation of kelyphitic rims aroundgarnet and crystallization of tremolite, chlorite, serpentine and talc.Pressure and temperature estimates indicate that garnet peridotites reached the peak of metamorphism at 4 GPaand 900 °C, that is well within the UHP stability field. Garnet peridotites in the Pohorje Mountains experiencedUHP metamorphism during the Cretaceous orogeny and thus record the highest-pressure conditions of all Eo-Alpinemetamorphism in the Alps.

  6. Spanish Coastal Patrol Ships for Argentina and Mexico (Guardacostas Espanoles para Argentina y Mejico),

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-22

    GABARRUS TRANSLATED BY: LT GREGORY STOVER, USNR-R NISC TRANSLATION UNIT 0166 SOURCE: TECNOLOGIA MILITAR, NO. 4, 1983; PP. 50, 53-54; SPANISH DTIC S ELECTE...SHIPS FOR ARGENTINA AND MEXICO [Ramirez Gabarrus, M.; Guardacostas espaioles para Argentina y Mejico; Tecnologia Militar, No. 4, 1983; pP. 50, 53-54

  7. Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermina Fernández Zambón

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La actividad industrial, de cualquier época, tiene una gran importancia para el hombre, pues al igual que el resto de los procesos económicos, es el reflejo del accionar cotidiano de la sociedad sobre el espacio. Considerando esto, el presente articulo tiene como objetivo presentar al patrimonio industrial como recurso para organizar rutas turísticas que permitan en algunos casos recuperar espacios industriales abandonados o usar establecimientos industriales en funcionamiento pero que pueden incorporarse a este tipo de desarrollo turístico. La creación de rutas turísticas puede permitir la reactivación de las economías locales, por constituirse en definitiva en una nueva actividad económica. Para lograr esto es necesario articular el sector público y el privado. De esta forma es posible, a través de la creación de rutas turísticas del patrimonio industrial, generar un desarrollo turístico local sustentable.

  8. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  10. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  11. 49 CFR 392.16 - Use of seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of seat belts. 392.16 Section 392.16... VEHICLES Driving of Commercial Motor Vehicles § 392.16 Use of seat belts. A commercial motor vehicle which has a seat belt assembly installed at the driver's seat shall not be driven unless the driver...

  12. Observed seat belt use in Kumasi Metropolis, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afukaar, Francis K; Damsere-Derry, James; Ackaah, Williams

    2010-01-01

    We conducted an observational survey of seat belt use to determine the use rate of drivers and front-right passengers of vehicles in Kumasi, Ghana. Unobtrusive observations of seat belt use were made at 41 locations composed of signalized intersections and roundabouts where vehicles come to a halt or slow down considerably. The overall driver seat belt use rate was 17.6% compared to 4.9% for front-right passengers. Driver belt use was 33.2% for private cars, 9.0% for taxis, 8.3% for minibus (trotro), 13.1% for large buses and 9.7% for trucks. Overall seat belt use was higher for female drivers than for male drivers (44.8% versus 16.4%, p seat belt use rate increased with age. Passengers belted more often if drivers were belted, but about three-quarters of male passengers and 70-80% of female passengers were unbelted even when drivers were belted. In conclusion, the seat belt use rate was generally low in Kumasi, Ghana, and it is a function of occupant seating position, gender, vehicle type and usage, age group, and location setting. The results provide important preliminary data about seat belt use, particularly among male drivers and commercial vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests the need to develop effective strategies and programs that address low seat belt use in Ghana.

  13. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  14. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the r

  15. Design aspects of multiple driven belt conveyors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nuttall, A.J.G.

    2007-01-01

    Worldwide belt conveyors are used to transport a great variety of bulk solid materials. The desire to carry higher tonnages over longer distances and more diverse routes, while keeping exploitation costs as low as possible, has fuelled many technological advances. An interesting development in the

  16. Is the Cameron River greenstone belt allochthonous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Many tectonic models for the Slave Province, N.W.T., Canada, and for Archean granite - greenstone terranes in general, are implicitly dependent on the assumption that greenstone belt lithologies rest unconformably upon older gneissic basement. Other models require originally large separations between gneissic terranes and greenstone belts. A key question relating to the tectonics of greenstone belts is therefore the original spatial relationship between the volcanic assemblages and presumed-basement gneisses, and how this relationship has been modified by subsequent deformation. What remains unclear in these examples is the significance of the so-called later faulting of the greenstone - gneiss contacts. Where unconformities between gneisses and overlying sediments are indisputable, such as at Point Lake, the significance of faults which occur below the base of the volcanic succession also needs to be evaluated. As part of an on-going investigation aimed at answering these and other questions, the extremely well-exposed Cameron River Greenstone Belt and the Sleepy Dragon Metamorphic Complex in the vicinity of Webb Lake and Sleepy Dragon Lake was mapped.

  17. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... always wear your seat belt even if your car has air bags.Where should I sit if I’m a ... editorial staff Categories: Family Health, Pregnancy and ChildbirthTags: air bag, auto accident, automobile safety, car accident, car safety, fetal injury, patient ...

  18. The thrust belts of Western North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  19. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  20. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  1. Economic Valuation of Green Belt: Focusing on the Conservation Value of Green Belt in Greater Seoul

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Joon Koo [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea); Shin, Young Cheol [Daejin University, Pochon (Korea)

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to measure the benefits of conservation of the green belt in the Greater Seoul area by CVM using dichotomous choice with a follow-up elicitation method. According to the government's plan, part of the green belt in the Greater Seoul area is to be freed from green belt designation. The mean willingness-to-pay(WTP) to conserve the green belt in the current state turns out to be about 7,430 won(95% confidence interval 6,220{approx}8,640 won) per household, which amounts to 308 billion won per year for entire population of Seoul. This WTP figure is found to be significantly influenced by level of education, sex, and the variables related to the perception and attitudes of respondents. (author). 26 refs., 3 tabs.

  2. Belt fires and mine escape problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovac, J.G.; Lazzara, C.P. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Kravitz, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    A conveyor belt fire in an underground coal mine is a serious threat to life and property. About 30% of the reportable underground coal mine fires from 1988 through 1992 occurred in belt entries. In one instance, a fire started in the drive area of a belt line, spread rapidly, and resulted in seating of the entire mine. Large-scale studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in an aboveground fire gallery at Lake Lynn Laboratory clearly show the hazards of conveyor belt fires. Mine conveyor belt formulations which passed the current Federal acceptance test for fire-resistant betting were completely consumed by propagating fires or propagated flame, with flame spread rates ranging from 0.3 to 9 m/min. High downstream temperatures and large quantities of smoke and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, were generated as the belting burned. The smoke and gases can be spread by the mine`s ventilation system and can create significant problems for miners in the process of evacuation, such as reduction in visibility and incapacitation. In the aftermath of a belt fire, the atmosphere inside of the mine can become smoke filled or unbreathable, forcing miners to evacuate while wearing Self-Contained Self-Rescuers (SCSR`s), Sometimes there is confusion about how to regard the rated duration of an MSHA/NIOSH-approved 60-min. SCSR, especially when an SCSR is used in a way which takes it outside of the test conditions under which it was approved. As examples, for a mine escape that takes a miner from the deepest point of penetration in the mine to the surface: How long will a 60-min. SCSR actually last? and How many SCSR`s will a miner need? To answer these kinds of questions, in-mine data being gathered on escape times, distance and heart rates using miners escaping on foot and under oxygen. A model will be developed and validated which predicts how much oxygen is actually needed for a mine escape, and compares oxygen consumption bare faced versus wearing an SCSR.

  3. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  4. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  5. China belting up or down? Seat belt wearing trends in Nanjing and Zhoushan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Li, Dan; Yu, Min; Wang, Jianyue; Zhang, Junhe; Tong, Zhendong; Wu, Ming; Wang, Peihua; Qin, Yu

    2008-11-01

    National seat belt wearing legislation became effective in China May 2004 and associated provincial and city regulations followed. Despite rapid motorisation seat belt studies in China have been scarce. Patterns and trends in urban seat belt wearing were observed for all driver, front and rear seating positions over the years 2005-2007 in two eastern cities Nanjing (Jiangsu Province) and Zhoushan (Zhejiang Province). There were 35,256 vehicles observed in Nanjing, 20,939 in Zhoushan and 95,933 occupants overall. Males dominated all seating positions, especially drivers. Seat belt wearing overall was significantly higher for drivers (49.9% Nanjing, 47.4% Zhoushan) than for front seat passengers (9.1% Nanjing, 1.0% Zhoushan) and virtually nonexistent for rear passengers (0.5% Nanjing, 0.2% Zhoushan). Generally levels declined significantly from year to year (drivers Nanjing 66.7%, 47.7%, 38.6%; Zhoushan 57.4%, 57.9%, 30.6%; front passengers Nanjing 19.2%, 6.6%, 3.2%). Zhoushan wearing did not initially decline, 2006 observations coinciding with anticipation of provincial regulations (July 2006). Observations revealed an absence of child restraints. Pretend wearing/belt tampering was observed almost exclusively in taxi drivers (14.2% of Nanjing taxi drivers, 11.3% of Zhoushan's). Awareness of and attitudes to urban seat belt laws should be investigated, appropriate countermeasures developed and enforcement reassessed.

  6. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm

    CERN Document Server

    Bobylev, V V

    2014-01-01

    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A new estimate for the pitch angle of the Local spiral arm has been obtained by an independent method: i=12.9+/-2.9^o. Previously, a belt of young B stars, the de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt, was pointed out on the celestial sphere with parameters close to such an orientation. We have refined the spatial orientation parameters of this belt based on a homogeneous sample of protostars. The de Vaucouleurs.Dolidze belt can be identified with the Local arm, with the belt proper as a continuous band on the celestial sphere like the ...

  7. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lafon-Hughes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG. Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair. Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt. In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO. PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  8. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  9. LOAD DISTRIBUTION ON DRUMS OF DOUBLE DRIVE BELT CONVEYOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛河; 苏清祖; 马胜利

    1999-01-01

    The double drum drive is widely used on the mine belt conveyor, which are divided the rigid connected double drums and separately driving double drums according to connected method of two drums. Because of the change of real work condition, the load distribution is changed on the two drive drums, which may produce a slippage between a drum and belt. Slippage may intensify the wear of the drum, and sometimes causing the fire of the belt. This restricts the development toward narrow belt, high velocity and large power of belt conveyor. In this paper, the factors affecting the load distribution of two drums of double drum belt conveyor are'systematically analyzed and some computing formulas derived, by these formulas, the actual load distribution onthe two drums of rigid connected or separately driving belt conveyor can be separately calculated. These formulas also can be as the theory base for adjusting the driving force of two drums.

  10. Soil and Terrain Database for Argentina, primary data (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.; Huting, J.R.M.

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Argentina primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Argentina), was compiled of enhanced soil information within the framework of the FAO's program Land Degradation Assessment in Drylands (LADA). Primary soil and terrain data for Argentina were

  11. Psychiatry and humanism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niño Amieva, Alejandra

    2016-04-01

    The authors of the present selection of Latin American Psychiatry texts were characterized by a common deep humanistic attitude. These prolific writers were able to establish or extend the scope of the discipline in which they chose to act, questioning the establishment of rigid boundaries within the framework of a rigorous epistemological reflection. Thus the systematizing spirit of Jose Ingenieros' in the context of positivist evolutionism, resulted in the act of founding a discipline that integrated the biological and the social. In the case of Guillermo Vidal his conception of mental health went beyond the biomedical to consider psychotherapies as an emotional commitment, continence and empathic understanding; with regard to César Cabral his formation and extensive clinical practice resulted in a work defined by the inquiring into the theoretical concepts underlying Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. This brief selection does not exhaust the issues or the level of ideas and discussions of Psychiatry in Argentina, but constitutes a textual corpus representative of a disciplinary conception understood as scientific and humanistic endeavor.

  12. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  13. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1983-01-01

    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  14. HP metamorphic belt of the western Alps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RobertoCompagnoni

    2003-01-01

    The understanding of the subduction-related processes benefited by the studies of the high-pressure (HP) meta-morphic rocks from the western Alps. The most stimu-lating information was obtained from the inner part of the western Alpine belt, where most tectonic units show an early Alpine eclogite-facies recrystallisation. This is especially true for the Austroalpine Sesia Zone and the Penninic Dora-Maira massif. From the Sesia zone,which consists of a wide spectrum of continental crust lithologies recrystallised to quartz-eclogite-facies min-eral assemblages, the first finding of a jadeite-bearingmeta-granitoid has been described, supporting evidencethat even continental crust may subduct into the mantle.From the Dora-Maira massif the first occurrence of regional metamorphic coesite has been reported, open-ing the new fertile field of the ultrahigh-pressure meta-morphism (UHPM), which is now becoming the rule in the collisional orogenic belts.

  15. Argentina to fully privatize state owned YPF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-10-05

    Argentina's Congress has voted to fully privatize state petroleum company Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales (YPF), a move the government expects to net at least $8 billion. Despite some political opposition, the vote was 119-10 in favor, with one abstention and opposition party members refusing to participate in the vote. Argentina's President Carlos Menem had threatened to authorize YPF privatization by decree if there was no quorum for a vote. YPF is responsible for 40% of Argentina's oil production. The country h as been self-sufficient in crude since 1982. Current production is 563,472 b/d, and proved reserves of oil and gas are valued at $7 billion.

  16. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1). NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present. The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight. In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.) In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  17. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. Rodger

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR. Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  18. Hepatitis C in Argentina: epidemiology and treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Gaite LA; Marciano S; Galdame OA; Gadano AC

    2014-01-01

    Luis Alejandro Gaite, Sebastián Marciano, Omar Andrés Galdame, Adrián Carlos GadanoHepatology Unit, Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, ArgentinaAbstract: Hepatitis C is the leading cause of chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver cancer in Argentina, where from 1.5% to 2.5% of adults are infected. Most of the infections were acquired 30–50 years ago. It is estimated that more than half of infected individuals are not aware of their infe...

  19. de la Argentina y notas nomenclaturales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulma E. Rúgolo de Agrasar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta primera revisión del género Deyeuxia para la Argentina se reconocen 58 taxones nativos de América, tres de ellos son endémicos de la Argentina, y los restantes también crecen en Bolivia, Brasil y Chile. Se describen tres nuevos taxones para la ciencia: Deyeuxia alba subsp. breviaristata (Argentina, Brasil y Uruguay; Deyeuxia heterophylla var. puberilemma (Perú; Deyeuxia trichodonta var. hirsuta (Argentina: Salta. Se establece un nuevo nombre: Deyeuxia nana, para en Agrostis caespitosa. Las siguientes once entidades constituyen nuevas citas para Argentina, Bolivia, Chile y Ecuador: Deyeuxia brevifolia var. brevifolia y Deyeuxia brevifolia var. expansa (Chile; Deyeuxia cabrerae var. cabrerae, D. cabrerae var. aristulata (Chile; D. cabrerae var. trichopoda (Chile; Deyeuxia curta (Ecuador; Deyeuxia filifolia (Chile; D. diemii (Chile; Deyeuxia filifolia (Chile; Deyeuxia hackelii (Chile; Deyeuxia minima (Argentina y Ecuador; Deyeuxia sclerantha (Ecuador; Deyeuxia spicigera var. spicigera (Chile; Deyeuxia spicigera var. cephalotes (Argentina y Deyeuxia trichodonta var. trichodonta (Bolivia. Se establecen cinco nuevas combinaciones: Deyeuxia reitzii, Deyeuxia rupestris f. pilosa., Deyeuxia rupestris var. minor, D. tarmensis var. macrochaeta y Deyeuxia velutina var. nardifolia. Se adicionan nuevos sinónimos en las siguientes entidades: Deyeuxia heterophylla (Calama grostis mulleri, Calamagrostis macbridei; Deyeuxia rupestris f. pilosa (Calamagrostis leonardii, Calamagrostis longearistata f. pilosa y Calamagrostis epigeios (Calamagrostis chilensis. Esta revisión incluye una evaluación crítica de los caracteres morfológicos (algunos estudiados con MEB con valor taxonómico para Deyeuxia y sus especies aquí estudiadas, como también una discusión de las relaciones de Deyeuxia con sus géneros más afines. Se presentan en detalle consideraciones nomenclaturales sobre taxones problemáticos, claves dicotómicas para distinguir Deyeuxia de

  20. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  1. Seat belt use during pregnancy in Iran: attitudes and practices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mojgan Karbakhsh; Zahra Ershadi; Ali Khaji; Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Seat belt use during pregnancy reduces injury to the mother and her fetus. During recent years, the use of seat belts has been mandated by law in Iran. The purpose of this study was to determine the attitudes and practices of pregnant women regarding seat belt use.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we asked 335 pregnant women at a hospital-based prenatal care clinic on the use of safety belt before and during pregnancy. SPSS version 13.0 was used for data analysis.Results: The mean age of study subjects was 27.3 years±5.3 years with the median of 27 years. Compared with the seat belt use before pregnancy, no change was detected in 48.7% of the women; seat belt use had increased in 17.5 %of them and decreased in 33.8 %. Eighty-one percent of women knew the correct placing of both lap belt and shoulder belt. Only 4% of women had received education on proper restraint use during pregnancy.Conclusions: The prevalence of seat belt use during pregnancy is lower than reports which are mostly from developed nations. The fact that about one-third of women have decreased their seat belt usage during pregnancy highlights the importance of education of mothers on this topic.

  2. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  3. Aortic ruptures in seat belt wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arajärvi, E; Santavirta, S; Tolonen, J

    1989-09-01

    Several investigations have indicated that rupture of the thoracic aorta is one of the leading causes of immediate death in victims of road traffic accidents. In Finland in 1983, 92% of front-seat passengers were seat belt wearers on highways and 82% in build-up areas. The mechanisms of rupture of the aorta have been intensively investigated, but the relationship between seat belt wearing and injury mechanisms leading to aortic rupture is still largely unknown. This study comprises 4169 fatally injured victims investigated by the Boards of Traffic Accident Investigation of Insurance Companies during the period 1972 to 1985. Chest injuries were recorded as the main cause of death in 1121 (26.9%) victims, 207 (5.0%) of those victims having worn a seat belt. Aortic ruptures were found at autopsy in 98 victims and the exact information of the location of the aortic tears was available in 68. For a control group, we analyzed 72 randomly chosen unbelted victims who had a fatal aortic rupture in similar accidents. The location of the aortic rupture in unbelted victims was more often in the ascending aorta, especially in drivers, whereas in seat belt wearers the distal descending aorta was statistically more often ruptured, especially in right-front passengers (p less than 0.05). The steering wheel predominated statistically as the part of the car estimated to have caused the injury in unbelted victims (37/72), and some interior part of the car was the most common cause of fatal thoracic impacts in seat belt wearers (48/68) (p less than 0.001). The mechanism of rupture of the aorta in the classic site just distal to the subclavian artery seems to be rapid deceleration, although complex body movements are also responsible in side impact collisions. The main mechanism leading to rupture of the ascending aorta seems to be severe blow to the bony thorax. This also often causes associated thoracic injuries, such as heart rupture and sternal fracture. Injuries in the ascending

  4. Glyphium elatum (Ascomycota in Patagonia (Argentina Glyphium elatum (Ascomycota en Patagonia (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Lorenzo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The genus Glyphium, represented by G. elatum (Ascomycota is recorded for the first time among the mycobiota of Argentina. Prior to this finding, this species was known in southern South America from southern Chile only. The new record extends its geographic range to the temperate-humid forests in the Andean-Patagonian regions of Argentina. Glyphium elatum is described and illustrated.El género Glyphium (Ascomycota representado por G. elatum, se cita por primera vez para la micobiota de la Argentina. Hasta la fecha, en el sur de Sudamérica, la especie había sido registrada en el sur de Chile solamente. Esta cita extiende su distribución geográfica a la región de los bosques húmedos andino-patagónicos de la Argentina. Glyphium elatum es descripta e ilustrada.

  5. Timing and rates of long-term landscape evolution in Southern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollenz, S.; Glasmacher, P. A.

    2013-12-01

    The eastern Argentina South Atlantic passive continental margin is distinguished by a very flat topography. Out of the so called Pampean flat two mountain ranges are arising. These mountain ranges, the Sierras Australes and the Sierras Septentrionales, are located in the State of Buenos Aires south of the capital Buenos Aires. North of the Sierras Septentrionales the Salado basin is located. The Sierras Septentrionales and the Sierras Australes are also divided by a smaller intracratonic basin. Further in the South the Colorado basin is located. The Sierras Australes is a variscian fold belt originated by strong phases of metamorphosis, but till now it is unclear by how many tectonic phases the area was influenced (Tomezzoli & Vilas, 1999). It consists of Proterozoic to Paleozoic rocks. The Sierras Septentrionales consists mainly of Precambrian crystalline rocks. The Precambrian sequences are overlain by younger Sediments (Cingolani, 2010). The aim is to understand the long-term landscape evolution of the area by quantifiying erosion- and exhumation-rates and by dating ancient rock-uplift-events. Another goal is to find out how the opening of the south atlantic took effect on this region. To fulfill this goal, thermochronological techniques, such as fission-track dating and (U-Th-Sm)/He dating has been applied to samples from the region. Because there was no low- temperature thermochronology done in this area, both techniques were applied on apatites and zircons. Furthermore, numerical modeling of the cooling history has provided the data base for the quantification of the exhumation rates. The data-set shows clusters of different ages which can be linked to tectonic activities during late Paleozoic times. Also the thermokinematic modeling is leading to new insights of the evolution of both mountain ranges and shows patterns of ongoing tectonic processes in this region. Caltculated exhumation rates show also varying cooling historys and the influence of tectonics

  6. High-pressure/low-temperature metamorphism in the collision zone between the Chilenia and Cuyania microcontinents (western Precordillera, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boedo, F. L.; Willner, A. P.; Vujovich, G. I.; Massonne, H.-J.

    2016-12-01

    In central-western Argentina, an Early Paleozoic belt including mafic-ultramafic bodies, marine metasedimentary rocks and high-pressure rocks occur along the western margin of the Precordillera and in the Frontal Cordillera. First pressure-temperature estimates are presented here for low-grade rocks of the southern sector of this belt based on two metasedimentary and one metabasaltic sample from the Peñasco Formation. Peak metamorphic conditions resulted within the range of 345-395 °C and 7.0-9.3 kbar within the high-pressure greenschist facies. The corresponding low metamorphic gradient of 13 °C/km is comparable with subduction related geothermal gradients. Comparison between these results and data from other localities of the same collision zone (Guarguaraz and Colohuincul complexes) confirms a collision between Chilenia and the composite margin of western Gondwana and suggests a stronger crustal thickening in the south of the belt, causing exhumation of more deeply buried sequences. During the Early Paleozoic a long-lived marine sedimentation coupled with the intrusion of MORB-like basalts occurred along a stable margin before the collision event. This contrasts with the almost contemporaneous sedimentation registered during accretion in accretionary prism settings and additionally proves the development of a collision zone along western Precordillera and the eastern Frontal Cordillera as well as the existence of Chilenia as a separate microcontinent.

  7. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. V. The unusual polarimetric behavior of V-type asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; López-Sisterna, C.; Calandra, M. F.

    2017-03-01

    Aims: We present the results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained using the CASPROF and CASPOL polarimeters at the 2.15 m telescope. The CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation and CASPOL is a polarimeter based on a CCD detector, which allows us to observe fainter objects with better signal-to-noise ratio. Results: The survey began in 1995 and data on a large sample of asteroids were obtained until 2012. A second period began in 2013 using a polarimeter with a more sensitive detector in order to study small asteroids, families, and special taxonomic groups. We obtained 55 polarimetric measurements for 28 V-type main belt asteroids, all of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. The data obtained in this survey let us find polarimetric parameters for (1459) Magnya and for a group of 11 small V-type objects with similar polarimetric behavior. These polarization curves are unusual since they show a shallow minimum and a small inversion angle in comparison with (4) Vesta, although they have a steeper slope at α0. This polarimetric behavior could be explained by differences in the regoliths of these asteroids. The observations of (2579) Spartacus, and perhaps also (3944) Halliday, indicate a inversion angle larger than 24-25°. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.

  8. Modal analysis of coupled vibration of belt drive systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xiao-jun; CHEN Li-qun

    2008-01-01

    The modal method is applied to analyze coupled vibration of belt drive systems. A belt drive system is a hybrid system consisting of continuous belts modeled as strings as well as discrete pulleys and a tensioner arm. The characteristic equation of the system is derived from the governing equation. Numerical results demenstrate the effects of the transport speed and the initial tension on natural frequencies.

  9. Payenia volcanic province, southern Mendoza, Argentina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søager, Nina; Holm, Paul Martin; Llambias, Eduardo Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The Pleistocene to Holocene Payenia volcanic province is a backarc region of 60,000 km2 in Mendoza, Argentina, which is dominated by transitional to alkaline basalts and trachybasalts. We present major and trace element compositions of 139 rocks from this area of which the majority are basaltic...

  10. Argentina and Brazil's Relations to the EU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Steen Fryba

    Analysen diskuterer Argentina og Brasiliens relationer til EU i nyere tid med udgangspunkt i forhandlingerne om en associeringsaftale mellem EU og Mercosur, der igangsattes efter underskrivelsen af en bi-regional rammeaftale i 1995. Fokus er i særlig grad på, hvordan disse relationer bedst forstå...

  11. MASTER: bright PSN discovered in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Buckley, D.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.; Pogrosheva, T.; Shurpakov, S.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA (located in Argentina) auto-detection system ( Lipunov et al., 2010, Advances in Astronomy, vol. 2010, 30L ) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 22h 01m 01.36s -40d 15m 26.7s on 2016-10-31.08091 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=19.9m).

  12. China Looks to Argentina to Grow Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ It might sound perverse for a Chinese company to go halfway round the globe to grow soya and other crops on unproductive land in a dry corner of Argentina. Yet that is what Beidahuang Group, a state-owned farm company based in the north-eastern Chinese province of Heilongjiang, is doing in the Pa-tagonian province of Rio Negro.

  13. Contact dermatitis caused by dimethylfumarate in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Balbo, A; Gotelli, M J; Mac Cormack, W P; Kogan, N; Gotelli, C

    2011-07-01

    For the first time in Argentina, we describe an outbreak of contact dermatitis. New pairs of shoes caused intense pruritus, pain, and eruption, followed by edema, blisters, and a severe negative impact on the epidermal barrier of the feet. We identify dimethylfumarate as the causal agent and suggest an analytical method for its fast identification.

  14. Registration of veterinary products in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, E; Cané, B G

    1995-12-01

    A scheme for registering pharmaceutical and biological products for veterinary use was introduced in Argentina in 1994, as part of a joint scheme for countries of the Common Market of the South (Mercado Común del Sur: "Mercosur'). The authors describe the main features of these regulations, and the process which led to their development.

  15. Argentina : trade patterns and challenges ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Anos-Casero, Paloma; Rollo, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    Argentinean export growth was impressive during the recent economic boom (2003-2007). However, decomposing export growth reveals that the extensive margin (increases in exports of existing products to existing markets) dominates, while the intensive margin (increases in exports of new products or new markets) contributes little to export growth. Argentina's trade product concentration has ...

  16. Reared Opiinae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) from Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterberg, van C.; Salvo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The results of the identification of a small collection of Opiinae reared from Agromyzidae from Argentina are reported; six new species and one new genus (Lorenzopius gen. nov.; type species: Lorenzopius calycomyzae spec. nov.) are described. A checklist to the species of Opiinae known from

  17. Education Reform Brings New Challenges to Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetti, Mercedes

    1997-01-01

    A description of recent changes in Argentina's system of education looks at underlying policy, the redesigned schooling system, emphasis placed on English language instruction, the teacher training system, and problems in the process for assuring an adequate flow of qualified English teachers. (MSE)

  18. Sudden death syndrome of soybean in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS) is one of the most common and widely spread root disease affecting soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in Argentina where it is an economically important crop. This disease was first discovered in this country in 1992 in the Pampas Region, and the following year in Northwest...

  19. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-05

    board the plane also intended for the Fernández campaign that was not confiscated by Argentine customs.41 CRS-13 42 Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores ... Comercio Internacional, Y Culto, Comunicado de la Cancillería Argentina, September 11, 2008. 43 A. Rebossio, "Fernández Acusa al FBI de Desestablizar

  20. [Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althabe, Fernando; Colomar, Mercedes; Gibbons, Luz; Belizán, José M; Buekens, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women > or = 18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay), during antenatal visits in public hospitals of large urban regions; 44% of the women in Argentina and 53% in Uruguay had been or were regular smokers. 11% of the surveyed women in Argentina and 18% in Uruguay continued smoking during pregnancy. In both countries, the proportion of women who lived with smokers, allowed smoking at home, and were regularly or always exposed to tobacco smoke indoors, were 49%, 46% and 20% in the subgroup of women who never smoked, 67%, 60% and 32% in those who quit, and 78%, 75% and 52% in those who continued smoking, respectively. The study confirms a serious public health problem in both countries, and documents that environmental exposure persists in subgroups of women, even in those who quit smoking. It is important that the public health sector should provide access to effective programs for smoking cessation, to women who smoke during pregnancy. For the development of a new program, any intervention intending to have at least a moderate and sustainable success, it should seriously consider including components targeting the smoking environment of the pregnant women who smoke.

  1. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  2. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  3. Linear Motor for Drive of Belt Conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Krasl

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a novel approach on the design of a linear motor for drive of belt conveyor (LMBC. The motor is a simple combination of asynchronous motor in plane. The electromagnetic forces is one of the most important parameters of electrical machines. This parameter is necessary for the checking of the design. This paper describes several variants: linear motor with slots in platens, slots in one half of platens and optimization of slots. The electromagnetic force can be found with the help of a Finite Elements Method – based program. For solution was used QuickField program.

  4. Solar Neutrons and the Earth's Radiation Belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingenfelter, R E; Flamm, E J

    1964-04-17

    The intensity and spectrum of solar neutrons in the vicinity of the earth are calculated on the assumption that the low-energy protons recently detected in balloon and satellite flights are products of solar neutron decay. The solar-neutron flux thus obtained exceeds the global average cosmic-ray neutron leakage above 10 Mev, indicating that it may be an important source of both the inner and outer radiation belts. Neutron measurements in the atmosphere are reviewed and several features of the data are found to be consistent with the estimated solar neutron spectrum.

  5. Parametric resonances of convection belt system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-an YANG; Gao-feng LI

    2009-01-01

    Based on the Coriolis acceleration and the Lagrangian strain formula,a generalized equation for the transverse vibration system of convection belts is derived using Newton's second law.The method of multiple scales is directly applied to the governing equations,and an approximate solution of the primary parameter resonance of the system is obtained.The detuning parameter,cross-section area,elastic and viscoelastic parameters,and axial moving speed have a significant influences on the amplitudes of steady-state response and their existence boundaries.Some new dynamical phenomena are revealed.

  6. Orion revisited. III. The Orion Belt population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiak, K.; Alves, J.; Bouy, H.; Sarro, L. M.; Ascenso, J.; Burkert, A.; Forbrich, J.; Großschedl, J.; Hacar, A.; Hasenberger, B.; Lombardi, M.; Meingast, S.; Köhler, R.; Teixeira, P. S.

    2017-02-01

    Aims: This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the ɛ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0 Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. Methods: We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (XMM-Newton) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. Results: We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5 Myr and likely 10 Myr and estimate a total of about 2500 members, assuming a normal IMF. This new population, which we call the Orion Belt population, is essentially extinction-free, disk-free, and its spatial distribution is roughly centered near ɛ Ori, although substructure is clearly present. Conclusions: The Orion Belt population is likely the low-mass counterpart to the Ori OB Ib subgroup. Although our results do not rule out Blaauw's sequential star formation scenario for Orion, we argue that the recently proposed blue streams scenario provides a better framework on which one can explain the Orion star formation region as a whole. We speculate that the Orion Belt population could represent the evolved counterpart of an Orion nebula-like cluster. The catalog (Full Table A.1) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/598/A124

  7. CHAOTIC BELT PHENOMENA IN NONLINEAR ELASTIC BEAM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张年梅; 杨桂通

    2003-01-01

    The chaotic motions of axial compressed nonlinear elastic beam subjected totransverse load were studied. The damping force in the system is nonlinear. Consideringmaterial and geometric nonlinearity, nonlinear governing equation of the system wasderived. By use of nonlinear Galerkin method, differential dynamic system was set up.Melnikov method was used to analyze the characters of the system. The results showed thatchaos may occur in the system when the load parameters P0 and f satisfy some conditions.The zone of chaotic motion was belted. The route from subharmonic bifurcation to chaoswas analyzed. The critical conditions that chaos occurs were determined.

  8. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes Mission: Advancing Our Understanding of the Earth's Radiation Belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David; Kanekal, Shrikanth; Kessel, Ramona; Fox, Nicola; Mauk, Barry

    2012-01-01

    We describe NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, whose primary science objective is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, the dynamics of relativistic electrons and penetrating ions in the Earth's radiation belts resulting from variable solar activity. The overarching scientific questions addressed include: 1. the physical processes that produce radiation belt enhancement events, 2. the dominant mechanisms for relativistic electron loss, and 3. how the ring current and other geomagnetic processes affect radiation belt behavior. The RBSP mission comprises two spacecraft which will be launched during Fall 2012 into low inclination lapping equatorial orbits. The orbit periods are about 9 hours, with perigee altitudes and apogee radial distances of 600 km and 5.8 RE respectively. During the two-year primary mission, the spacecraft orbits precess once around the Earth and lap each other twice in each local time quadrant. The spacecraft are each equipped with identical comprehensive instrumentation packages to measure, electrons, ions and wave electric and magnetic fields. We provide an overview of the RBSP mission, onboard instrumentation and science prospects and invite scientific collaboration.

  9. Effects of driver characteristics on seat belt fit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Hallman, Jason J

    2013-11-01

    A laboratory study of posture and belt fit was conducted with 46 men and 51 women, 61% of whom were age 60 years or older and 32% age 70 years or older. In addition, 28% of the 97 participants were obese, defined as body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m^2. A mockup of a passenger vehicle driver's station was created and five belt anchorage configurations were produced by moving the buckle, outboard-upper (D-ring), and outboard-lower anchorages. An investigator recorded the three-dimensional locations of landmarks on the belt and the participant's body using a coordinate measurement machine. The location of the belt with respect to the underlying skeletal structures was analyzed, along with the length of belt webbing. Using linear regression models, an increase in age from 20 to 80 years resulted in the lap belt positioned 18 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, 26 mm greater lap belt webbing length, and 19 mm greater shoulder belt length. An increase in stature of 350 mm (approximately the range from 5th-percentile female to 95th-percentile male in the U.S. population) was associated with the lap belt 14 mm further forward relative to the pelvis, the shoulder belt 37 mm more outboard relative to the body centerline, and 38 mm less shoulder belt webbing length. Among the driver factors considered, body mass index had the greatest effects. An increase of BMI in 20 kg/m^2, which spans approximately the central 90% of U.S. adults, was associated with the lap belt being placed 102 mm further forward and 94 mm higher, relative to the pelvis, and increases in lap and shoulder belt webbing length of 276 and 258 mm, respectively. Gender did not have important effects on the analyzed belt fit measures after taking into account stature and body mass index. These results offer important considerations for future crash safety assessments and suggest that further research is needed to consider belt fit for older and obese occupants.

  10. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  11. Distribution of dust from Kuiper belt objects

    CERN Document Server

    Gorkavyi, N N; Taidakova, T; Mather, J C; Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid M.; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.

    2000-01-01

    (Abridged) Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the `kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects ; the resulting 3-D grid consists of $1.9\\times 10^6$ cells containing $1.2\\times 10^{11}$ particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau betwee...

  12. Chaotic Diffusion of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Tiscareno, Matthew S

    2008-01-01

    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term stability than the 3:2 -- only 15% of Twotinos are projected to survive for 4 Gyr, compared to 28% of Plutinos. We find that Pluto has only a modest effect, causing a ~4% decrease in the Plutino population that survives to 4 Gyr. Given current observational estimates, we conclude that the primordial populations of Plutinos and Twotinos formerly made up more than half the population of the classical and resonant Kuiper Belt. We also conclude that Twotinos were originally nearly as numerous as Plutinos, consistent with models ...

  13. The Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Morbidelli, Alessandro; O'Brien, David P; Minton, David A; Bottke, William F

    2015-01-01

    The asteroid belt is the leftover of the original planetesimal population in the inner solar system. However, currently the asteroids have orbits with all possible values of eccentricities and inclinations compatible with long-term dynamical stability, whereas the initial planetesimal orbits should have been quasi-circular and almost co-planar. The total mass in the asteroid population is a small fraction of that existing primordially. Also, asteroids with different chemical/mineralogical properties are not ranked in an orderly manner with mean heliocentric distance as one could expect from the existence of a radial gradient of the temperature in the proto-planetary disk, but they are partially mixed. These properties show that the asteroid belt has been severely sculpted by one or a series of processes during its lifetime. This paper reviews the processes that have been proposed so far, discussing the properties that they explain and the problems that they are confronted with. Emphasis is paid to the interpl...

  14. Young Stellar Objects in the Gould Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Dunham, Michael M; Evans, Neal J; Broekhoven-Fiene, Hannah; Cieza, Lucas; Di Francesco, James; Gutermuth, Robert A; Harvey, Paul M; Hatchell, Jennifer; Heiderman, Amanda; Huard, Tracy; Johnstone, Doug; Kirk, Jason M; Matthews, Brenda C; Miller, Jennifer F; Peterson, Dawn E; Young, Kaisa E

    2015-01-01

    We present the full catalog of Young Stellar Objects (YSOs) identified in the 18 molecular clouds surveyed by the Spitzer Space Telescope "cores to disks" (c2d) and "Gould Belt" (GB) Legacy surveys. Using standard techniques developed by the c2d project, we identify 3239 candidate YSOs in the 18 clouds, 2966 of which survive visual inspection and form our final catalog of YSOs in the Gould Belt. We compile extinction corrected SEDs for all 2966 YSOs and calculate and tabulate the infrared spectral index, bolometric luminosity, and bolometric temperature for each object. We find that 326 (11%), 210 (7%), 1248 (42%), and 1182 (40%) are classified as Class 0+I, Flat-spectrum, Class II, and Class III, respectively, and show that the Class III sample suffers from an overall contamination rate by background AGB stars between 25% and 90%. Adopting standard assumptions, we derive durations of 0.40-0.78 Myr for Class 0+I YSOs and 0.26-0.50 Myr for Flat-spectrum YSOs, where the ranges encompass uncertainties in the ado...

  15. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  16. Biodiversity information system of the national parks administration of Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonidas Lizarraga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The Biodiversity Information System (BIS of the National Parks Administration of Argentina (NPA was launched in 2002, with the support of the Global Environmental Fund (GEF through the Biodiversity Conservation Project in Argentina. The BIS consists of a set of thematic databases and Geographic Information System (GIS set to support management decisions, and to provide information to the general public on the national protected areas of Argentina. Currently, the BIS-NPA progr...

  17. Argentina’s Defaulted Sovereign Debt: Dealing with the Holdouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-17

    solution that it felt was commensurate with its deeply diminished economic and social reality. Facing a huge debt burden, Argentina adopted a hard line...34Vulture Funds Lobby Against Argentina," America Latina en Movimiento , August 6, 2009. http://alainet.org/index.phtml Argentina’s Defaulted Sovereign...Service 12 responsibility can have dramatic long-term economic, social , and political consequences. At the financial level, the costs to Argentina have

  18. Modulation of forelimb and hindlimb muscle activity during quadrupedal tied-belt and split-belt locomotion in intact cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigon, A; Thibaudier, Y; Hurteau, M-F

    2015-04-02

    The modulation of the neural output to forelimb and hindlimb muscles when the left and right sides step at different speeds from one another in quadrupeds was assessed by obtaining electromyography (EMG) in seven intact adult cats during split-belt locomotion. To determine if changes in EMG during split-belt locomotion were modulated according to the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, values were compared to those obtained during tied-belt locomotion (equal left-right speeds) at matched speeds. Cats were chronically implanted for EMG, which was obtained from six muscles: biceps brachii, triceps brachii, flexor carpi ulnaris, sartorius, vastus lateralis and medial gastrocnemius. During tied-belt locomotion, cats stepped from 0.4 to 1.0m/s in 0.1m/s increments whereas during split-belt locomotion, cats stepped with left-right speed differences of 0.1 to 0.4m/s in 0.1m/s increments. During tied-belt locomotion, EMG burst durations and mean EMG amplitudes of all muscles respectively decreased and increased with increasing speed. During split-belt locomotion, there was a clear differential modulation of the EMG patterns between flexors and extensors and between the slow and fast sides. Changes in the EMG pattern of some muscles could be explained by the speed of the belt the limb was stepping on, while in other muscles there were clear dissociations from tied-belt values at matched speeds. Therefore, results show that EMG patterns during split-belt locomotion are modulated to meet task requirements partly via signals related to the stepping speed of the homonymous limb and from the other limbs.

  19. Ambient Response Analysis of the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune; Frandsen, J. B.; Andersen, P.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper an ambient response analysis of the Great Belt Bridge is presented. The Great Belt Bridge is one of the largest suspension bridges in the world, and the analysis was carried out in order to investigate the possibilities of estimating reliable damping values from the ambient response...

  20. Increasing of horizontal velocity of particles leaving a belt conveyor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tavares Abraão

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the transport of granular materials by a conveyor belt via numerical simulations. We report an unusual increasing of particles horizontal velocity when they leave the belt and initiate free-fall. Using Discrete Elements Method, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon were investigated, and a study on how particle and system properties influences this effect were conducted.

  1. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  2. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  3. Teaching Taekwondo in Physical Education: Incorporating the Color Belt System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hyun-Ju; Hannon, James C.; Banks, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    Taekwondo is an excellent lifetime physical activity that provides both physical and mental benefits to its participants. The color belt system may be creatively used in physical education to encourage improvement in all learning domains. This article provides information on incorporating the color belt system into physical education, and provides…

  4. Respiratory Belt Transducer Constructed Using a Singing Greeting Card Beeper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, Anand; Subramani, Selvam; Ojha, Rajdeep

    2013-01-01

    An article by Belusic and Zupancic described the construction of a finger pulse sensor using a singing greeting card beeper. These authors felt that this beeper made of piezoelectric material could be easily modified to function as a respiratory belt transducer to monitor respiratory movements. Commercially available respiratory belt transducers,…

  5. Safety belt usage in Finland and in other Nordic countries.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valtonen, J.

    1992-01-01

    Legislation has played a significant role in increasing safety belt usage in Finland and in the other Nordic countries. Publicity and enforcement have, however, been required to support the legislation. The development of safety belt regulations has been nearly similar in all these countries, both i

  6. Canadian seat belt wearing rates, promotion programs, and future directions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grant, B.A.

    1992-01-01

    On the basis of a national driver seat belt survey conducted in Canada each year, the most important results are presented. A number of programmes for increasing seat belt use has been evaluated in Canada. Finally, a description is given of some of the current and planned activities within Canada wh

  7. HUMAN NEURONAL INTERLIMB COORDINATION DURING SPLIT-BELT LOCOMOTION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DIETZ, [No Value; ZIJLSTRA, W; DUYSENS, J

    1994-01-01

    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  8. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dietz, V.; Zijlstra, W.G.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a differenc

  9. Biomechanical considerations for abdominal loading by seat belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; El-Jawahri, Raed E; Laituri, Tony R

    2010-11-01

    While seat belts are the most effective safety technology in vehicles today, there are continual efforts in the industry to improve their ability to reduce the risk of injury. In this paper, seat belt pretensioners and current trends towards more powerful systems were reviewed and analyzed. These more powerful systems may be, among other things, systems that develop higher belt forces, systems that remove slack from belt webbing at higher retraction speeds, or both. The analysis started with validation of the Ford Human Body Finite Element Model for use in evaluation of abdominal belt loading by pretensioners. The model was then used to show that those studies, done with lap-only belts, can be used to establish injury metrics for tests done with lap-shoulder belts. Then, previously-performed PMHS studies were used to develop AIS 2+ and AIS 3+ injury risk curves for abdominal interaction with seat belts via logistic regression and reliability analysis with interval censoring. Finally, some considerations were developed for a possible laboratory test to evaluate higher-powered pretensioners.

  10. Policy Implications from an Evaluation of Seat Belt Use Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Anand; You, Min-Bong

    1992-01-01

    Effects of Ohio's mandatory seat belt law on seat belt use, number of car accidents, and number of fatal and severe injuries were evaluated for January 1982 through March 1988. The monthly average number of accident victims was 2,002. Implications for public policy formulation and implementation are discussed. (SLD)

  11. An Evaluation of the Seat Belt Education Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochon, James

    A seat belt education campaign conducted in Canada to dispel myths surrounding seat belts and promote a better understanding of their functions was evaluated. Two telephone surveys, each comprised of 4,000 respondents, were conducted. The first was done immediately before the campaign and the second immediately succeeding the campaign. Also, a…

  12. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-03-23

    Mar 23, 2011 ... has been estimated that using seat belts can reduce the risk ... 24‑h direct observational study of seat belt usage among vehicle occupants in Makurdi, Benue. State ... In Nigeria, the Federal Road Safety Corps (FRSC) was.

  13. Experimental Measurements of Belt Gears in Newly Developed Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mascenik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the alternative of determination of state of the belt gear. To realize themeasurements a newly developed device was designed for measurement and diagnostics of the belt gears. The main task is to detect the V-belt slip expressed by the coefficient of elastic creep and of specific slip with a measuring device. The measurements regarding can be performed if input revolutions of the electric motor and torque of the belt gear are constant whereas the tensioning force of the belt gear changes. It is also possible to perform the measurement if the input revolutions of the electric motor and the tensioning forces are constant and the torque changes.

  14. Nonoperative management of pediatric aortic injury with seat belt syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Dan W; Barnhorst, Amanda; Trebska-McGowan, Katarzyna; Amendola, Michael; Haynes, Jeffrey H

    2015-08-01

    "Seat belt syndrome" was first described by Garret and Braunstein in 1962. The syndrome involves skin and abdominal wall ecchymosis (seat belt sign) intra-abdominal solid organ and visceral injuries, as well as Chance fractures (compression and/or wedging deformity of the anterior portion of the vertebral body with disruption or fracture of the posterior elements, generally at L1-L3). We present a case of a 12-year-old male involved in a high-speed motor vehicle collision wearing only a lap belt resulting in seat belt syndrome, with disruption of the abdominal wall, mesenteric avulsion with multiple intestinal perforations, abdominal aortic dissection, and an L2 Chance fracture with cord transection. Intraoperative decision making is outlined with this scenario of complex injuries, and the literature of seat belt syndrome associated with blunt aortic injuries and its management is reviewed.

  15. Survey of current situation in radiation belt modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Shing F.

    2004-01-01

    The study of Earth's radiation belts is one of the oldest subjects in space physics. Despite the tremendous progress made in the last four decades, we still lack a complete understanding of the radiation belts in terms of their configurations, dynamics, and detailed physical accounts of their sources and sinks. The static nature of early empirical trapped radiation models, for examples, the NASA AP-8 and AE-8 models, renders those models inappropriate for predicting short-term radiation belt behaviors associated with geomagnetic storms and substorms. Due to incomplete data coverage, these models are also inaccurate at low altitudes (e.g., radiation data from modern space missions and advancement in physical modeling and data management techniques have now allowed the development of new empirical and physical radiation belt models. In this paper, we will review the status of modern radiation belt modeling. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  16. Landscape distribution characteristics of northern foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The foothill belts of Tianshan Mountains are about 280 km long and 60 km wide, and the study area extends from Kuitun city to Fukang city. They are transitional belts between mountains and plains, appearing in three rows of folds with different morphologies and their age becoming younger from south to north. Based on GIS and RS methods, and materials of the previous researchers, this paper deals with the genetics of the foothill belts and their landscape features resulting from folding by neotectonic movements, and also describes their length, width and slope by remote sensing image interpretation. The characteristics of the foothill belts are found to be very important for the surrounding environment by preventing groundwater from flowing into plains, changing groundwater, increasing flow of surface runoff, in addition to their roles in protecting the surrounding environment. The purpose of this paper is to provide an in-depth understanding of the foothill belts and influence on its surrounding environment.

  17. Detecting extrasolar asteroid belts through their microlensing signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lake, Ethan; Zheng, Zheng; Dong, Subo

    2017-02-01

    We propose that extrasolar asteroid belts can be detected through their gravitational microlensing signatures. Asteroid belt + star lens systems create so-called 'pseudo-caustics', regions in the source plane where the magnification exhibits a finite but discontinuous jump. These features allow such systems to generate distinctive signatures in the microlensing light curves for a wide range of belt configurations, with source trajectories as far as tenths of the Einstein ring radius from the centre of the lens. Sample light curves for a range of asteroid belt parameters are presented. In the near future, space-based microlensing surveys like WFIRST, which will have the power of detecting per cent-level changes in microlensing light curves even with subminute exposure times, may be able to discover extrasolar asteroid belts with masses of the order of an earth mass.

  18. Heads for shifting new generation of belt conveyors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.

    1980-03-01

    New design of belt conveyors characterized by rigid section joints and conveyor to pontoon joints significantly influences loading of machines shifting belt conveyors to new locations. A new belt conveyor shifting machine head design, called SGP12 (selflocking head for vertical loads up to 120 kN) is described. Design is shown in 4 diagrams. It is stressed that in the SGP-12 the force clamping rollers on rails is automatically controlled depending on the height to which the rails are lifted. Clamping force is proportional to the height. This means of controlling the clamping force excludes damage to the head and reduces wear of the rollers. The SGP12 is, therefore, superior to the GP-12 shifting head of similar capacity. It is suggested that the SGP-12 is characterized by simple design, easier operation, higher reliability and greater safety. The SGP-12 can be used to shift belt conveyors with belts 2250 mm to 3000 mm wide.

  19. Radiation-belt dynamics during solar minimum. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G.; Holeman, E.

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45 deg. and 55 deg. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  20. A Study on the Vibration of the Charging Belt in an Electrostatic Accelerator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The vibration of the charging belt in an electrostatic accelerator has intense influences on the accelerator operation. A calculating model was set up in this paper to study the belt vibration. The results show that the belt tension, belt velocity and belt current all contribute to the belt vibration. There is an optimal relationship among the three factors by which the belt would run most smoothly. There exists a minimum value of optimal tension for various belt velocities. The vibrating frequency of the is generally around several Hz.

  1. La migracion internacional en Argentina hacia 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Calvelo

    Full Text Available El artículo presenta los principales lineamientos de la migración internacional en Argentina hacia el año 2010, con detenimiento en el período 2000-2010. En el caso de la inmigración no nativa se basa en información de los censos nacionales de población 2001 y 2010. En el caso de la migración internacional de la población nativa de Argentina el análisis se sustenta en información de censos extranjeros hasta la ronda 2000 y en otras fuentes de datos de los principales países de destino hasta 2010 (Estados Unidos y España.

  2. Vaccines in Argentina: a regulatory view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A C; Diez, R A

    2003-07-28

    In Argentina, vaccines for immuno-preventable diseases are regulated by the national regulatory agency, the Administración Nacional de Medicamentos, Alimentos y Tecnología Médica (the National Administration of Drugs, Food and Medical Devices, or ANMAT) created in 1992 to ensure efficacy and safety of drugs, food and medical devices available in the country, according to Law 16,463 and Decree 150/92. ANMAT has licensed 84 out of 157 vaccines registered in Argentina. Since 1994, ANMAT evaluated, approved and inspected 20 clinical trials with vaccines (1.8% of the 1062 trials approved by the agency since that time). The National System of Pharmaco-vigilance has received 318 communications of eventual adverse post-vaccination events (0.3% of the total). In addition, ANMAT provides support to the National Immunisation Programme. The current procedure is to follow international guidelines in the field, to be prepared for new, rapidly changing scenarios.

  3. Equilibria and Free Vibration of a Two-Pulley Belt-Driven System with Belt Bending Stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieyu Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlinear equilibrium curvatures and free vibration characteristics of a two-pulley belt-driven system with belt bending stiffness and a one-way clutch are investigated. With nonlinear dynamical tension, the transverse vibrations of the translating belt spans and the rotation motions of the pulleys and the accessory shaft are coupled. Therefore, nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous governing equations are established. Considering the bending stiffness of the translating belt spans, the belt spans are modeled as axially moving beams. The pattern of equilibria is a nontrivial solution. Furthermore, the nontrivial equilibriums of the dynamical system are numerically determined by using two different approaches. The governing equations of the vibration near the equilibrium solutions are derived by introducing a coordinate transform. The natural frequencies of the dynamical systems are studied by using the Galerkin method with various truncations and the differential and integral quadrature methods. Moreover, the convergence of the Galerkin truncation is investigated. Numerical results reveal that the study needs 16 terms after truncation in order to determine the free vibration characteristics of the pulley-belt system with the belt bending stiffness. Furthermore, the first five natural frequencies are very sensitive to the bending stiffness of the translating belt.

  4. Prospects for Corn Ethanol in Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Bruce A. Babcock; Miguel Carriquiry

    2012-01-01

    Countries that export biofuel feedstocks such as grain or sugar and that are also importers of motor fuels will have a natural competitive advantage over other countries in the production of biofuels. Argentina is one of a very few countries that both export potential feedstocks and import gasoline and diesel. This combination means that an Argentine ethanol plant will pay less for feedstock and receive a higher price for ethanol than an ethanol plant located in a country that imports feedsto...

  5. Investment in Renewable Energies in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Recalde

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes how the enabling conditions of the energy policy of a developing country such as Argentina, are crucial for the deployment of renewable energy investments. The conclusions highlights that the low institutional quality of the country shapes enabling conditions and reduce effect of the instruments of the energy policy, dropping incentives for investment in renewable technologies in the country. Therefore, in order to promote renewable technologies investments efficiently, the institutional framework of countries must be seriously improved.

  6. Journalism studies in Argentina: background and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Amado; Natalia Pizzolo

    2014-01-01

    This article summarizes the background of empirical journalism studies in Argentina.  In recent publications, researchers have consistently underscored the lack of data on the profession and the scarce development of theoretical frameworks related to journalism studies.  The local investigations have prioritized approaches and methods that do not give the whole picture of the population of journalists. Most of the research tends to equate media analysis and media messages with journalism stud...

  7. SMEs in Argentina: Who are the Exporters?

    OpenAIRE

    Ottaviano, Gianmarco I.P.; Martincus, Christian Volpe

    2009-01-01

    There exists a growing body of literature which looks at export decisions made by firms. Most studies focus on developed countries and do not explore whether different behavioral patterns prevail over the firm size distribution. This paper aims at filling this gap in the literature by analyzing the export behavior of a statistically representative sample of 192 Small and Medium-Size Enterprises (SMEs) in a developing country, Argentina, over the period 1996-1998. We find that the level of emp...

  8. Argentina: Background and U.S. Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-06

    Congressional Research Service Summary Argentina, a South American country with a population of almost 43 million, has had a vibrant democratic tradition...but the country also has a diversified industrial base and a highly educated population . In 2001-2002, a severe economic crisis precipitated by...characterized by robust commercial relations and cooperation in such issues as nonproliferation, human rights, education, and science and technology. Under

  9. ZANTHOXYLUM ARMATUM (RUTACEAE, SU PRESENCIA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez a Zanthoxylum armatum var. armatum como especie asilvestrada para la flora argentina, en la provincia de Córdoba. Se presenta una descripción sobre la base de los ejemplares examinados, ilustraciones, mapa de distribución y observaciones ecológicas, como así también las diferencias con taxones similares.

  10. La izquierda Argentina: nuevamente el fracaso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel Rodríguez Kauth

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de los acontecimientos políticos y sociales ocurridos en Argentina desde finales de 2001, se estudia el papel protagónico que tuvieron las diversas organizaciones en que se ha atomizado la izquierda vernácula. Esto es no sólo en el plano electoral, sino también en el de las movilizaciones junto a la participación popular que reclamaba su presencia.

  11. Sunflower crop in Argentina to date

    OpenAIRE

    Vasquez A.; de Romano A.

    2006-01-01

    Inside a panorama of a spectacular grain production in the last 10 years in Argentina, sunflower crop participates with an annual production of more than 3,500,000 t. During that period, many advances were made in the improvement of diseases resistance: Verticillium wilt, downy mildew and head rot. Also oil yield per hectare continued to increase. The new hybrids have new qualities, for example imidazolinones resistance, which allows farmers to keep yields, although the soils destined to sunf...

  12. MASTER: 2 OT discovered in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shumkov, V.; Pogrosheva, T.; Lipunov, V.; Podesta, R.; Levato, H.; Gorbovskoy, E.; Tiurina, N.; Balanutsa, P.; Kuznetsov, A.; Vladimirov, V.; Gress, O.; Ivanov, K.; Chazov, V.; Lopez, C.; Podesta, F.; Saffe, C.

    2016-10-01

    MASTER-OAFA, located in Argentina, with auto-detection system (Lipunov et al., "MASTER Global Robotic Net", Advances in Astronomy, 2010, 30L) discovered OT source at (RA, Dec) = 03h 19m 42.92s -45d 30m 13.9s on 2016-10-27.27597 UT. The OT unfiltered magnitude is 16.9m (mlim=20.8m).

  13. en Argentina en el Siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Itatí Palermo

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The process of women accessing the university studies level was given in the midst of a debate regarding education for women and their capacity for knowledge. In this article we describe and interpret the access of women to the Unive sity in Argentina in the Nineteenth century, in a context full of debates about education for women and their capacity for knowledge.

  14. Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    The Mitre Peninsula is the easternmost tip of Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, (54.5S, 65.5W). Early winter snow can be seen on this south tip of the Andes Mountains. These same mountains continue underwater to Antarctica. The Strait of Magellan, separating the South American mainland from Tierra del Fuego is off the scene to the north and west, but the Strait of LeMaire, separating Tierra del Fuego from the Isla de los Estados can be seen.

  15. Andes Altiplano, Northwest Argentina, South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    This view of the Andes Altiplano in northwest Argentina (25.5S, 68.0W) is dominated by heavily eroded older and inactive volcano peaks. The altiplano is a high altitude cold desert like the Tibetan Plateau but smaller in area. It is an inland extension of the hyperarid Atacama Desert of the west coast of South America and includes hundreds of volcanic edifices (peaks, cinder cones, lava flows, debris fields, lakes and dry lake beds (salars).

  16. Main-belt comets: sublimation-driven activity in the asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    Our knowledge of main-belt comets (MBCs), which exhibit comet-like activity likely due to the sublimation of volatile ices, yet orbit in the main asteroid belt, has increased greatly since the discovery of the first known MBC, 133P/Elst-Pizarro, in 1996, and their recognition as a new class of solar system objects after the discovery of two more MBCs in 2005. I review work that has been done over the last 10 years to improve our understanding of these enigmatic objects, including the development of systematic discovery methods and diagnostics for distinguishing MBCs from disrupted asteroids (which exhibit comet-like activity due to physical disruptions such as impacts or rotational destabilization). I also discuss efforts to understand the dynamical and thermal properties of these objects.

  17. The JCMT Gould Belt Survey: Understanding the influence of molecular outflows on Gould Belt clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Drabek-Maunder, E; Buckle, J V; Di Francesco, J; Richer, J

    2015-01-01

    Using JCMT Gould Belt Survey data from CO J=3-2 isotopologues, we present a meta-analysis of the outflows and energetics of star-forming regions in several Gould Belt clouds. The majority of the regions are strongly gravitationally bound. There is evidence that molecular outflows transport large quantities of momentum and energy. Outflow energies are at least 20 per cent of the total turbulent kinetic energies in all of the regions studied and greater than the turbulent energy in half of the regions. However, we find no evidence that outflows increase levels of turbulence, and there is no correlation between the outflow and turbulent energies. Even though outflows in some regions contribute significantly to maintaining turbulence levels against dissipation, this relies on outflows efficiently coupling to bulk motions. Other mechanisms (e.g. supernovae) must be the main drivers of turbulence in most if not all of these regions.

  18. Acute Intermittent Porphyria in Argentina: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Nora Cerbino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Porphyrias are a group of metabolic diseases that arise from deficiencies in the heme biosynthetic pathway. A partial deficiency in hydroxymethylbilane synthase (HMBS produces a hepatic disorder named Acute Intermittent Porphyria (AIP; the acute porphyria is more frequent in Argentina. In this paper we review the results obtained for 101 Argentinean AIP families and 6 AIP families from foreign neighbour countries studied at molecular level at Centro de Investigaciones sobre Porfirinas y Porfirias (CIPYP. Thirty-five different mutations were found, of which 14 were described for the first time in our population. The most prevalent type of mutations was the missense mutations (43% followed by splice defects (26% and small deletions (20%. An odd case of a double heterozygous presentation of AIP in a foreign family from Paraguay is discussed. Moreover, it can be noted that 38 new families were found carrying the most frequent mutation in Argentina (p.G111R, increasing to 55.66% the prevalence of this genetic change in our population and adding further support to our previous hypothesis of a founder effect for this mutation in Argentina. Identification of patients with an overt AIP is important because treatment depends on an accurate diagnosis, but more critical is the identification of asymptomatic relatives to avoid acute attacks which may progress to death.

  19. Argentina: Nuclear power development and Atucha 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2015-08-15

    In 2014, nuclear energy generated about 5,257 GWh of electricity or a total share of 4.05 % of the total electrical energy of about 129,747.63 GWh kWh produced in Argentina and there has been a trend for this production to increase. Argentina currently has a nuclear production capacity of 1,010 megawatts of electrical energy. However, when the Atucha 2 nuclear power plant is completed and starts commercial operation, it will add 745 megawatts to this electrical production capacity. There are two sites with nuclear power plants in Argentina: Atucha and Embalse. The Embalse nuclear power plant went into operation in 1984. At the Atucha site, the Atucha-1 nuclear power plant started operation in 1974. It was the first nuclear power plant in Latin America. Construction of Atucha-2 started in 1981 but advanced slowly due to funding and was suspended in 1994 when the plant was 81 % built. In 2003, new plans were approved to complete the Atucha 2. I summer 2014 the plant went critical for the first time. The construction was completed under a contract with AECL.

  20. The Case of Argentina, 1993-2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Tonveronachi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available El consenso sobre los beneficios netos de la presencia de bancos extranjeros en los países emergentes parece en alguna medida debilitarse a raíz de la experiencia de los años noventa, que constituye una fase de fuerte expansión y fortalecimiento de dicha presencia. Distinguiendo entre la presencia y la dominancia en el mercado local por parte de los bancos extranjeros, el presente trabajo analiza la experiencia argentina en el período 1993-2000. Para este fin, se reconstruyo por primera vez la serie completa de los balances bancarios. Los resultados sugieren que la aumentada presencia de bancos extranjeros no ha producido beneficios significativos, mientras que todo el sistema bancario se ha aventajado por el clima de mayor crecimiento y de estabilidad monetaria. Como parte de la estrategia perseguida por parte del poder público, la creciente dominancia de los bancos extranjeros resulta uno de los factores que han empobrecido la biodiversidad de la banca argentina. De todos modos, parte de los problemas que atormentaron a la economía argentina en los años noventa podrían ser considerados más como el resultado de la adopción de una abertura financiera completa que como consecuencia de la dominancia creciente por parte de los bancos extranjeros.

  1. Chytridiomycosis in endemic amphibians of the mountain tops of the Córdoba and San Luis ranges, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lescano, Julián N; Longo, Silvana; Robledo, Gerardo

    2013-02-28

    Chytridiomycosis is a major threat to amphibian conservation. In Argentina, the pathogenic fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been recorded in several localities, and recently, it was registered in amphibians inhabiting low-elevation areas of mountain environments in Córdoba and San Luis provinces. In the present study, we searched for B. dendrobatidis in endemic and non-endemic amphibians on the mountain tops of Córdoba and San Luis provinces. We collected dead amphibians in the upper vegetation belt of the mountains of Córdoba and San Luis. Using standard histological techniques, the presence of fungal infection was confirmed in 5 species. Three of these species are endemic to the mountain tops of both provinces. Although there are no reported population declines in amphibians in these mountains, the presence of B. dendrobatidis in endemic species highlights the need for long-term monitoring plans in the area.

  2. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  3. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  4. East Central Uplift Belt of Junggar Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    @@ Mosuowandong ( Z3 ) and Dongdaohaizi (Z4) are two bidding blocks located in the east part of central uplift Belt, the hinterland of Junggar Basin. Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It totally covers an area of 8 100km2. Topographically, the two blocks are quite gentle with elevation of 380-400 m on average. The north part is desert and the south area is good for farming. There are three ephemeral streams flowing across the desert from south to north. The ground water is buried at the depth ranging from 6 to 8 m. It belongs to continental climate with the annually averaged precipitation of 80 mm. The traffic is rather convenient in the south part of both blocks. There are several sand-paved roads and two asphalt roads connected with the highway from Karamay to Urumqi City.

  5. Subsurface Meridional Circulation in the Active Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Hernandez, I Gonzalez; Hill, F; Howe, R; Komm, R

    2008-01-01

    Temporal variations of the subsurface meridional flow with the solar cycle have been reported by several authors. The measurements are typically averaged over periods of time during which surface magnetic activity existed in the regions were the velocities are calculated. The present work examines the possible contamination of these measurements due to the extra velocity fields associated with active regions plus the uncertainties in the data obtained where strong magnetic fields are present. We perform a systematic analysis of more than five years of GONG data and compare meridional flows obtained by ring-diagram analysis before and after removing the areas of strong magnetic field. The overall trend of increased amplitude of the meridional flow towards solar minimum remains after removal of large areas associated with surface activity. We also find residual circulation toward the active belts that persist even after the removal of the surface magnetic activity, suggesting the existence of a global pattern o...

  6. Oscillations control of a transmission belt by Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temporelli, Robin; Micheau, Philippe

    2017-04-01

    A transmission belt deals with non-linear phenomena such as parametric excitations that can bring the belt in an instability region resulting in large transverse oscillations. These oscillations can cause belt life deflection, noise and unexpected vibration on its environment. The present study proposes a new strategy to control oscillations of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations. Indeed, for a transmission belt, periodic torque fluctuations cause periodic belt tension fluctuations which can be a source of excitation for the belt and resulting in belt oscillations under certain conditions. The presence of a clutch between the belt end-point and the source of torque fluctuations offers a means to clip torque fluctuations and thus to clip belt excitation. In keeping with this notion, belt oscillations can be controlled by an Excitation Clipping using Clutch Clamping Control (E4C) strategy. Through an example of a transmission belt subject to periodic tension fluctuations, the E4C strategy is presented and a new analytical model of belt behavior with its E4C strategy is constructed. Free belt oscillations (E4C is not activated) and controlled belt oscillations (E4C is activated) are observed through an experimental setup and predicted owing to the new analytical model. Finally, the E4C strategy leads to frequency unlocking that successfully removes belt oscillations. This new analytical model furthermore provides an accurate prediction of belt behavior with its E4C strategy.

  7. Geometry, kinematics and evolution of the Tongbai orogenic belt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Shaoying; XU Bei; WANG Changqiu; ZHAN Sheng; DENG Rongjing

    2006-01-01

    The Tongbai orogenic belt (TOB) is composed of six tectonic units. From south to north these units are: Tongbai gneiss rise (TGR); Hongyihe-Luozhuang eclogite belt (HLE); Maopo-Hujiazhai igneous rock belt (MHI); Zhoujiawan flysch belt (ZFB); Yangzhuang greenschist belt (YGB); and Dongjiazhuang marble belt (DMB).The geometry and kinematic images of the TOB include: the antiformal structures caused by a later uplift process, the top-to-north ductile shear structure that related to a process that the ultrahigh pressure rocks are brought to surface, the top-to-south ductile shear thrust and the sinistrial shear structures related to a south-north direction compression, and the east-west direction fold structures in the upper crust. In the view of the multistage subduction-collision orogenic belt, according to the characters of petrology and its distribution, geometry, kinematics and structural chronology in these tectonic units, tectonic evolution of the TOB can be divided into four stages: oceanic crust subduction during 400-300 Ma, continental collision during 270-250 Ma, continental deep subduction and uplift during 250-205 Ma and doming deformation during 200-185 Ma.

  8. Late Oligocene-Early Miocene compressional tectosedimentary episode and associated land-mammal faunas in the Andes of central Chile and adjacent Argentina (32 37°s)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semper, Thierry; Marshall, Larry G.; Rivano, Sergio; Godoy, Estanislao

    1994-01-01

    A reassessment of the geologic and land-mammal fossil evidence used in attribution of a tectosedimentary episode in the Andes between 32 and 37°S to the Middle Eocene "Incaic tectonic phase" of Peru indicates that the episode occurred during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene times(~ 27-20 Ma). From west to east, three structural domains are recognized for this time span in the study area: a volcanic arc (Chile); a thin-skinned, E-verging fold-thrust belt (Cordillera Principal, Chile-Argentina border strip); and a foreland basin (Argentina). Initiation of thrusting in the Cordillera Principal fold-thrust belt produced the coeval initiation of sedimentation in the foreland basin of adjacent Argentina. This onset of foreland deposition postdates strata bearing a Divisaderan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 35-30 Ma) and is marked at ~ 36°30'S by the base of the "Rodados Lustrosos" conglomerates, which are conformably overlain by sedimentary rocks containing a Deseadan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 29-21 Ma). Geologic relationships between the thick volcanic Abanico (Coya-Machalí) and Farellones formations also demonstrate that this tectosedimentary episode practically ended at ~ 20 Ma at least in the volcanic arc, and was therefore roughly coeval with the major tectonic crisis (~ 27-19 Ma) known in northwestern Andean Bolivia some 1500 km to the north. This strongly suggests that a long, outstanding tectonic upheaval affected at least an extended 12-37°S segment of the Andean margin of South America during Late Oligocene and Early Miocene times.

  9. Pre-Andean Rotations in NW Argentina: a Clue to a Possible Tectonic Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spagnuolo, C. M.; Rapalini, A. E.; Astini, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    In the early Paleozoic western South America underwent a complex tectonic history that includes a more or less continuous active margin that witnessed the accretion and displacement of several terranes. In particular, many models have been proposed to account for the geologic evolution of the northwestern region of Argentina in the Lower Paleozoic, which range from a wholly ensialic evolution to the accretion of exotic and/or para- autochthonous terranes. During the last three years a systematic paleomagnetic study on Lower Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks from NW Argentina have yielded a Late Cambrian paleomagnetic pole for the Eastern Cordillera (23° S 65° W, Campanario Fm.), an Early to Middle Ordovician pole for the Famatina volcanic arc (28° S 68° W, Cerro Morado and Los Molles Fms.) and a Permian one in the same locality. A clockwise rotation around 35° is found for both Lower Paleozoic units, while the Permian one is coincident with the apparent polar wander path of Gondwana. The Early Paleozoic results are virtually identical to others found several years ago in the Eastern Puna magmatic belt and in the same Famatina System. On the other hand, a counter-clockwise rotation has been reported for Early Paleozoic rocks exposed at different localities of the Antofalla block. Those results are reviewed together with the structural and geological information of the region in order to evaluate the feasibility of different tectonic models such as i) the opening and closure of a back-arc basin, ii) the collision or displacement of a para-autochthonous terrane, or iii) the development of systematic block rotations associated to oblique subduction or scape tectonics.

  10. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  11. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  12. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  13. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  14. Overview of activities on CANDU fuel in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, L.; Valesi, J., E-mail: lalvarez@cnea.gov.ar [National Commission on Atomic Energy, Fuel Engineering Department (Argentina)

    2013-07-01

    This paper gives an outline of activities on CANDU fuel in Argentina. It discusses the nuclear activities and electricity production in Argentina, evolution of the activities in fuel engineering, fuel fabrication, fuel performance at Embalse nuclear power plant and spent fuel storage options.

  15. 78 FR 47006 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  16. 78 FR 46610 - Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... COMMISSION Lemon Juice From Argentina and Mexico Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in... investigation on lemon juice from Mexico would not be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4418 (July 2013), entitled Lemon Juice from Argentina and Mexico: Investigation...

  17. Computing and Education in Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowsky, Manuel

    Although the report is specifically about Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, the considerations presented are valid for all of Latin America. In September, 1969, Argentina had approximately 200 electronic computers. The annual growth is estimated at 15-20% and the implementation of teleprocessing and time-sharing systems have made evident the…

  18. Intercultural Citizenship Education in an EFL Online Project in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Melina

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I describe an online intercultural citizenship experience in an English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom in Argentina. An action research project on the Malvinas/Falklands war fought between Argentina and the UK in 1982 was carried out in 2012. Through a comparative methodology involving Argentine and English foreign language…

  19. Pro-Market Educational Governance: Is Argentina a Black Swan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beech, Jason; Barrenechea, Ignacio

    2011-01-01

    In this article we explore ways in which pro-market discourses have been interpreted in policy initiatives in Argentina since the 1970s. Our argument is that even though pro-market discourses have guided reforms in many aspects of public policies in Argentina, the arena of education has overall been resistant to taking them up. The first part of…

  20. Prospect for Development of Open Access in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Sandra; Bongiovani, Paola C.; Gomez, Nancy D.; Bueno-de-la-Fuente, Gema

    2013-01-01

    This perspective article presents an overview of the Open Access movement in Argentina, from a global and regional (Latin American) context. The article describes the evolution and current state of initiatives by examining two principal approaches to Open Access in Argentina: "golden" and "green roads". The article will then…

  1. Argentina Imp Anti-dumping Duties on Tires from China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On June 22, Argentina made the final anti-dumping adjudication once tires from China; on July 6, the Argentina authorities released the No. 221 resolution in 2011 issued by the Ministry of Industry: Impose 23% anti-dumping duties off estate car tires, 10% on the tires of machinery or vehicles used for agriculture and forestation,

  2. Argentina v globalizačních procesech

    OpenAIRE

    Chervets, Tamara

    2009-01-01

    The process of globalization is a very important issue these days. This work will describe the process of globalization in Argentina, especially its economic aspect (foreign direct investments, export and import of goods and services, migration of labor force). I will also mention the history of its development and Argentina's membership in most important international and regional organizations.

  3. North Florida is part of the stroke belt.

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, P. Z.; Wolfe, L E; Wilcox, D.; Deeb, L C

    1992-01-01

    Florida is the only State in the southeastern United States that is not part of the "stroke belt." The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI), National Institutes of Health, defines the stroke belt as those States with an age-adjusted stroke mortality rate for the years 1979 to 1981 that is more than 10 percent above the national annual rate of 40.3 per 100,000 population. By reproducing at the county level the methods that were used at the State level to describe the stroke belt, ...

  4. Radiation Belt Storm Probes: Resolving Fundamental Physics with Practical Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukhorskiy, Aleksandr Y.; Mauk, Barry H.; Fox, Nicola J.; Sibeck, David G.; Grebowsky, Joseph M.

    2011-01-01

    The fundamental processes that energize, transport, and cause the loss of charged particles operate throughout the universe at locations as diverse as magnetized planets, the solar wind, our Sun, and other stars. The same processes operate within our immediate environment, the Earth's radiation belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) mission will provide coordinated two-spacecraft observations to obtain understanding of these fundamental processes controlling the dynamic variability of the near-Earth radiation environment. In this paper we discuss some of the profound mysteries of the radiation belt physics that will be addressed by RBSP and briefly describe the mission and its goals.

  5. Human neuronal interlimb coordination during split-belt locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, V; Zijlstra, W G; Duysens, J.E.J.

    1994-01-01

    Human interlimb coordination and the adaptations in leg muscle activity were studied during walking on a treadmill with split belts. Four different belt speeds (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 m/s) were offered in all possible combinations for the left and right leg. Subjects adapted automatically to a difference in belt speed within 10–20 stride cycles.This adaptation was achieved by a reorganization of the stride cycle with a relative shortening of the duration of the support and lengthening of the swin...

  6. Resistance and other parameters of belt conveyor shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembinski, M.

    1988-07-01

    Discusses a method developed by Poltegor for calculating energy consumption of belt conveyor shifting in brown coal surface mines in Poland. A program for simulating effects of all significant factors that represent the environment, physical and mechanical properties of soil, effects of weather and atmospheric precipitations, design of belt conveyors, effects of soil or coal buildup and conveyor wear is used. Indices that describe effects of major groups of factors are used for calculating resistance to belt conveyor shifting considering local conditions. Investigations carried out in the Belchatow brown coal mine show the method to be accurate and reliable.

  7. Power Transmission Through Timing Belt In Two Wheeler Motors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurumurthy Veerapathiran

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of noise and friction on performance of the chain drive system for motor bikes. Experiment shows that chain transmission in chain drive system leads to poor overall performance, due to its noise and chain gets loose due to aging and sprockets wear due to chain friction etc., the proposed system consists of drive and driven pulley with timing belt transmission. Compared to conventional method, proposed method give improved tension in pulleys and belt by the additional arrangement called belt tensioner. This gives good overall performance of the system, and reduces noise, vibration and gives high transmission speed.

  8. 75 FR 23674 - Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Determination...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... International Trade Administration A-357-812 Honey from Argentina: Final Results of Antidumping Duty... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Honey from Argentina: Preliminary Results of Antidumping... preliminary results of the administrative review of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for...

  9. Control of pre-Cenozoic extensional heterogeneities on the kinematics of Cenozoic shortening: Northwestern Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, D. M.; Kapp, P. A.; Reiners, P. W.; Gehrels, G. E.

    2012-12-01

    Results from regional-scale mapping and structural analysis, (U-Th)/He and U-Pb age dating of apatite and zircon, and a regional balanced cross section allow us to build upon the pre-existing geological framework for the retroarc of northwestern Argentina. Coupled with previous work in the region, our results suggest that the style, distribution, and kinematics of shortening in the Eastern Cordillera and Santa Bárbara tectonomorphic provinces of the thrust belt at this latitude (24-25°S) were strongly influenced by the architecture of a Mesozoic rift system. In contrast to the thin-skinned Subandean fold-thrust belt of southern Bolivia where structures are primarily W-dipping and propagated progressively eastward through time, reverse faults in northwestern Argentina are more variably oriented, steeply E-dipping, locally inverted structures that propagated in an overall eastward direction in a much more sporadic manner. The first major eastward propagation event at this latitude occurred at ~40 Ma and is expressed as Eocene (U-Th)/He apatite and zircon ages coincident with the western arm of the Cretaceous Salta rift system. Other workers also documented angular unconformities of this age in the western and eastern arms of the rift system. Up until ~10 Ma, deformation and exhumation were restricted to the western margin of the Cretaceous rift in the western Eastern Cordillera and eastern margin of the Puna plateau. This was followed by an ~75 km jump in the location of the thrust front toward the east to bypass the central portion of a horst block of the Cretaceous rift system, followed by subsequent initiation of new E-dipping reverse faults in a subsystem that propagated toward the west into this pre-existing structural high. During Pliocene time, deformation again migrated >100 km eastward to a Cretaceous syn-rift depocenter in the Santa Bárbara Ranges and was likely followed by additional westward propagation to the current location of deformation with the

  10. La familia Cyatheaceae (Pteridophyta en Argentina The family Cyatheaceae (Pteridophyta in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo J Marquez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available La familia Cyatheaceae comprende alrededor de 500 especies de helechos arborescentes. Su distribución es pantropical y en Argentina se encuentra representada por 4 especies, reunidas en los géneros Alsophila y Cyathea: A. setosa, A. odonelliana, C. atrovirens y C. delgadii. En este trabajo se presenta una actualización de la información disponible hasta el momento referente a estas especies. Se exponen microfotografías de las esporas, que presentan la superficie con lomos en Alsophila y con cordones en Cyathea. Se ilustran los indusios y escamas de la base de los pecíolos, que son de importancia fundamental para la diferenciación de las especies estudiadas. Asimismo se presenta un mapa de distribución y una clave de las especies que crecen en Argentina.The family Cyatheaceae comprises about 500 species of tree ferns. Their distribution is pantropical and in Argentina is represented by four species, grouped in genera Alsophila y Cyathea: A. setosa, A. odonelliana, C. atrovirens and C. delgadii. In this paper, an update of the available information of the mentioned species is presented. A key to diferentiate the species growing in Argentina, their descriptions and a distribution map are also given. Spores are ridged in Alsophila and with rodlets in Cyathea. Indusia and scales of petiole basis are also illustrated.

  11. Bibliografia Bibliotecologica Argentina [Hasta 1967] (A Bibliography of Library Science in Argentina [to 1967]).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matijevic, Nicolas, Comp.

    A guide to library services, management, and organization is offered to professionals in this comprehensive bibliography, written in Spanish, of approximately 2500 items. Published by the Universidad Nacional del Sur (The National University of the South) in Bahia Blanca, Argentina, the list covers books, articles, monographs, manuals, catalogs,…

  12. Cadenas productivas y disponibilidad de alimentos en Argentina Productive chains and food availability in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malena Giai

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En abril de 2009 se conformó en la Asociación Argentina de Dietistas y Nutricionistas Dietistas el Grupo de Estudio sobre Soberanía Alimentaria, constituido por un grupo de Licenciados en Nutrición con interés en el tema. Como primer objetivo, el Grupo se propuso estudiar tres temas: "el Derecho a la Alimentación", "la Producción y Disponibilidad de alimentos en Argentina" y "la Canasta Básica de Alimentos". En el presente artículo se expone un resumen de los avances en el segundo tema mencionado.In April 2009, was formed in the Argentina Association of Dieticians and Nutritionists Dietitians the Study Group on Food Sovereignty, established by a group of graduates in nutrition with interest in the subject. As a first objective, the Group was to examine three issues: "The Right to Food", "Production and Availability of food in Argentina" and "Basic Food Basket." This article is a summary of progress on the second topic mentioned.

  13. New U-Pb ages in the Diablillos Intrusive Complex, Southern Puna, Argentina: A long magmatic event in the Paleozoic Arc, SW Gondwana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Agustin; Hauser, Natalia [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), DF (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias. Lab. de Geocronologia; Becchio, Raul; Nieves, Alexis; Suzano, Nestor [Universidad Nacional de Salta (UNSa)-CONICET, Salta (Argentina)

    2015-07-01

    The Puna geological region comprises Salta, Jujuy and Catamarca provinces, northwestern Argentina. This 4000 meter above sea level high-plateau region lies between the Central Argentinian Andes. The Puna basement in the central Andes consists of Proterozoic–Paleozoic metamorphic rocks and granitoids. Diverse authors, proposed different models to explain the origin of the basement, where two orogenic events are recognized: the Pampean (Upper Precambrian–Lower Cambrian) and Famatinian (Upper Cambrian–Lower Silurian) (e.g. Ramos et al., 1986; Ramos, 1988; Loewy et al., 2004; for opposite points of view see Becchio et al., 1999; Bock et al., 2000; Buttner et al., 2005). Hence, Lucassen et al. (2000) proposed for the Central Andean basement, an evolution in a mobile belt, where the Pampean and Famatinian cycles are not distinct events but, they are one single, non-differentiable event from 600 to 400 Ma. The mobile belt culminated in low-P/ high-T metamorphism at approximately 525-500 Ma. Then, these were followed by a long-lasting high-thermal gradient regime in the mid-crust until Silurian times. Becchio et al., (2011) defined the Diablillos Intrusive Complex (CID, by its Spanish name), emplaced in the Inca Viejo Range. This range splits the Salares Ratones-Centenario with the Salar Diablillos (Fig.1). This Complex is located in the Eastern Magmatic Belt, Southern Puna, Argentina. Here we present new zircons U-Pb ages by LA-MC-ICPMS in the Diablillos Intrusive Complex, contributing to understanding the magmatic event in the lower Paleozoic arc, SW Gondwana. (author)

  14. Effect of one-way clutch on the nonlinear vibration of belt-drive systems with a continuous belt model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Hu; Zu, Jean W.

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the nonlinear steady-state response of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch. A dynamic model is established to describe the rotations of the driving pulley, the driven pulley, and the accessory shaft. Moreover, the model considers the transverse vibration of the translating belt spans for the first time in belt-drive systems coupled with a one-way clutch. The excitation of the belt-drive system is derived from periodic fluctuation of the driving pulley. In automotive systems, this kind of fluctuation is induced by the engine firing harmonic pulsations. The derived coupled discrete-continuous nonlinear equations consist of integro-partial-differential equations and piece-wise ordinary differential equations. Using the Galerkin truncation, a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained from the integro-partial-differential equations. Applying the Runge-Kutta time discretization, the time histories of the dynamic response are numerically solved for the driven pulley and the accessory shaft and the translating belt spans. The resonance areas of the coupled belt-drive system are determined using the frequency sweep. The effects of the one-way clutch on the belt-drive system are studied by comparing the frequency-response curves of the translating belt with and without one-way clutch device. Furthermore, the results of 2-term and 4-term Galerkin truncation are compared to determine the numerical convergence. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to understand the effects of the system parameters on the nonlinear steady-state response. It is concluded that one-way clutch not only decreases the resonance amplitude of the driven pulley and shaft's rotational vibration, but also reduces the resonance region of the belt's transverse vibration.

  15. Evolution of the Chos Malal and Agrio fold and thrust belts, Andes of Neuquén: Insights from structural analysis and apatite fission track dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Vera, E. A.; Mescua, J.; Folguera, A.; Becker, T. P.; Sagripanti, L.; Fennell, L.; Orts, D.; Ramos, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Chos Malal and Agrio fold and thrust belts are located in the western part of the Neuquén basin, an Andean retroarc basin of central-western Argentina. Both belts show evidence of tectonic inversion at the western part during Late Cretaceous times. The eastern part is dominated by late Miocene deformation which also partially reactivated the western structures. This work focuses on the study of the regional structure and the deformational event that shaped the relief of this part of the Andes. Based on new field work and structural data and previously published works a detailed map of the central part of the Neuquén basin is presented. Three regional structural cross sections were surveyed and balanced using the 2d Move™ software. In order to define a more accurate uplift history, new apatite fission track analyses were carried on selected structures. These data was used for new thermal history modeling of the inner part of the Agrio and Chos Malal fold and thrust belts. The results of the fission track analyses improve the knowledge of how these fold and thrust belts have grown trough time. Two main deformational events are defined in Late Cretaceous to Paleocene and Late Miocene times. Based on this regional structural analysis and the fission track data the precise location of the orogenic front for the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene times is reconstructed and it is proposed a structural evolution of this segment of the Andes. This new exhumation data show how the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene event was a continuous and uninterrupted deformational event.

  16. Trio of Neptunes and their Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-05-01

    Using the ultra-precise HARPS spectrograph on ESO's 3.6-m telescope at La Silla (Chile), a team of European astronomers have discovered that a nearby star is host to three Neptune-mass planets. The innermost planet is most probably rocky, while the outermost is the first known Neptune-mass planet to reside in the habitable zone. This unique system is likely further enriched by an asteroid belt. ESO PR Photo 18a/06 ESO PR Photo 18a/06 Planetary System Around HD 69830 (Artist's Impression) "For the first time, we have discovered a planetary system composed of several Neptune-mass planets", said Christophe Lovis, from the Geneva Observatory and lead-author of the paper presenting the results [1]. During more than two years, the astronomers carefully studied HD 69830, a rather inconspicuous nearby star slightly less massive than the Sun. Located 41 light-years away towards the constellation of Puppis (the Stern), it is, with a visual magnitude of 5.95, just visible with the unaided eye. The astronomers' precise radial-velocity measurements [2] allowed them to discover the presence of three tiny companions orbiting their parent star in 8.67, 31.6 and 197 days. "Only ESO's HARPS instrument installed at the La Silla Observatory, Chile, made it possible to uncover these planets", said Michel Mayor, also from Geneva Observatory, and HARPS Principal Investigator. "Without any doubt, it is presently the world's most precise planet-hunting machine" [3]. ESO PR Photo 18d/06 ESO PR Photo 18d/06 Phase Folded Measurements of HD 69830 The detected velocity variations are between 2 and 3 metres per second, corresponding to about 9 km/h! That's the speed of a person walking briskly. Such tiny signals could not have been distinguished from 'simple noise' by most of today's available spectrographs. The newly found planets have minimum masses between 10 and 18 times the mass of the Earth. Extensive theoretical simulations favour an essentially rocky composition for the inner planet, and

  17. 30 CFR 57.14131 - Seat belts for surface haulage trucks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. 57.14131... and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14131 Seat belts for surface haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be...

  18. Practical and medical aspects of the use of car seat belts.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edelman, A. & Kampen, L.T.B. van

    1974-01-01

    An analysis is made of the influence of use and non-use of seat belts on type and severity of injuries to drivers and of the influence of seat belt type on type and severity of injuries to drivers. Users of lap belts and users of 3-point belts enjoy a comparable and considerable reduction of injury

  19. MACRO MODEL OF SEAT BELT USE BY CAR DRIVERS AND PASSENGERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimierz JAMROZ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents some problems of seat belt use by car drivers and passengers. It looks in particular at seat belt use and effectiveness in selected countries. Next, factors of seat belt use are presented and methodology of model development. A macro model of seat belt use is presented based on data from around fifty countries from different continents.

  20. Feasibility of electro-osmotic belt filter dewatering technology at pilot scale

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Snyman, HG

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available -effective dewatering technologies, electro-osmotic belt filtering was developed by Smollen and Kafaar in 1995. The mechanical equipment resembles a belt filter press but the belts are stainless steel, woven belts, which act as the electrodes. In this study...

  1. FORMATION AND EVOLUTION OF THE CENOZOIC THRUST FOLD BELT IN JINPING, SICHUAN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIAO Zhongli; DENG Yongfu; LIAO Guangyu

    2003-01-01

    The Jinping orogenic belt in Sichuan, China consists mainly of the Jinpingshan intracontinental thrust-nappe belt, foreland thrust-nappe belt and foreland uplift belt. Based on analyses about the characteristics of the structural units in this area, the authors propose in this paper that Chapuzi-Bazhe revival fault belt is the regional boundary fault, and points out that after the formation of the Pre-Sinian basement, the western edge of the Yangtze paraplatform was turned into the passive continental margin in Sinian to Triassic, then into the Mesozoic collision orogenic belt, and finally into the Cenozoic orogenic belt through intracontinental orogeny.

  2. "Abomination"--life as a Bible belt gay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Bernadette

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on observation, autoethnography, and audio-taped interviews, this article explores the religious backgrounds and experiences of Bible Belt gays. In the Bible Belt, Christianity is not confined to Sunday worship. Christian crosses, messages, paraphernalia, music, news, and attitudes permeate everyday settings. Consequently, Christian fundamentalist dogma about homosexuality-that homosexuals are bad, diseased, perverse, sinful, other, and inferior-is cumulatively bolstered within a variety of other social institutions and environments in the Bible Belt. Of the 46 lesbians and gay men interviewed for this study (age 18-74 years), most describe living through spirit-crushing experiences of isolation, abuse, and self-loathing. This article argues that the geographic region of the Bible Belt intersects with religious-based homophobia. Informants explained that negative social attitudes about homosexuality caused a range of harmful consequences in their lives including the fear of going to hell, depression, low self-esteem, and feelings of worthlessness.

  3. Back belts in occupational setting: what are the evidences?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Bernardes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although, widely used the mechanisms of action and the effectiveness of back belts in the prevention of occupational low back disorders remains uncertain, generating controversy about its use. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to do a critical literature review about back belts use in the prevention of occupational low back pain in the occupational setting. In order to do that, a bibliographic research in the following data basis: Medline, SciELO and LILACS was conducted. There is evidence that back belts use reduces spine range of motion, however the studies about intra-abdominal pressure and muscle activity presented contradictory results, as the epidemiologic studies, not allowing the recommendation of its use in the prevention of occupational low back pain. Based on this literature review it is suggested therefore, the implementation of new studies, to confirm or not the effectiveness of back belts as personal protective equipment, in the prevention of occupational low back disorders.

  4. Jupiter's radiation belt ions - A comparison of theory and observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Danny; Thorne, Richard M.; Mei, YI

    1989-01-01

    Radial profiles are constructed for the Jovian radiation belt flux-tube content Y-asterisk from the reported phase-space density of energetic particles obtained from Voyager 1 data over the range L = 6 to L = 9. These experimental profiles are compared with theoretical solutions for Y-asterisk from an interchange-diffusion model of the coupled radiation belt and Iogenic ion populations. Subject to certain limitations of the Voyager 1 data, the model solutions are found to be consistent with the data for a variety of input parameters. Model solutions are also found corresponding to radiation belt ions that are expected to be mainly responsible for the auroral energy input. Comparison of the present theoretical profiles with the data implies that the energetic radiation belt ions should have a peak loss rate within a factor of three of that for strong diffusion scattering.

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Survey at Laysan 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 3 sites at Laysan in the Northwest...

  6. Periumbilical allergic contact dermatitis: blue jeans or belt buckles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byer, Tara T; Morrell, Dean S

    2004-01-01

    Nickel is the most ubiquitous contact allergen among children and adolescents. Metal blue jeans buttons and belts have been noted to cause nickel dermatitis around the umbilicus. For these children, traditional teaching is strict avoidance of all pants with metal snaps/buttons, particularly blue jeans. In this study we tested 90 pairs of blue jeans and 47 belts for nickel using the dimethylglyoxime spot test. Only 10% of blue jeans tested positive, while 53% of belts tested positive. Furthermore, 10 pairs of nickel-negative blue jeans remained negative after 10 washings. Overall we found no resistance to testing in clothing stores. From these results, we recommend that patients with allergic contact dermatitis secondary to nickel need not strictly avoid blue jeans and metal belt buckles. Rather, families should be encouraged to use the dimethylglyoxime spot test to test these items for nickel prior to purchase.

  7. 5m Main Belt Asteroid Population Estimation Using Vesta Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Michael; Trilling, David E.

    2016-10-01

    The Main Belt is the largest source of Near-Earth asteroids, but objects 2 pixels in diameter that were counted in a 33km 2 region to give a crater density. By knowing the crater density and making some reasonable assumptions about the orbital distribution of asteroids and the age of Vesta's surface, an estimate of the population of small asteroids in the inner main belt was made. It was found that the inner region of the main asteroid belt contains approximately 20 billion asteroids larger than 5 m. These results agree well with the measured inner Main Belt Size distribution derived by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, WISE (Masiero et al. 2011).

  8. Cenozoic intracontinental deformation of the Kopeh Dagh Belt, Northeastern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Yang; Wan, Bo; Chen, Ling; Talebian, Morteza

    2016-04-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens represent large tectonic zones far from plate boundaries. Since intracontinental mountain belts cannot be framed in the conventional plate tectonics theory, several hypotheses have been proposed to account for the formations of these mountain belts. The far-field effect of collision/subduction at plate margins is now well accepted for the origin and evolution of the intracontinental crust thickening, as exemplified by the Miocene tectonics of central Asia. In northern Iran, the Binalud-Alborz mountain belt witnessed the Triassic tectonothermal events (Cimmerian orogeny), which are interpreted as the result of the Paleotethys Ocean closure between the Eurasia and Central Iran blocks. The Kopeh Dagh Belt, located to the north of the Binalud-Alborz Belt, has experienced two significant tectonic phases: (1) Jurassic to Eocene rifting with more than 7 km of sediments; and (2) Late Eocene-Early Oligocene to Quaternary continuous compression. Due to the high seismicity, deformation associated with earthquakes has received more and more attention; however, the deformation pattern and architecture of this range remain poorly understood. Detailed field observations on the Cenozoic deformation indicate that the Kopeh Dagh Belt can be divided into a western zone and an eastern zone, separated by a series of dextral strike-slip faults, i.e. the Bakharden-Quchan Fault System. The eastern zone characterized by km-scale box-fold structures, associated with southwest-dipping reverse faults and top-to-the NE kinematics. In contrast, the western zone shows top-to-the SW kinematics, and the deformation intensifies from NE to SW. In the northern part of this zone, large-scale asymmetrical anticlines exhibit SW-directed vergence with subordinate thrusts and folds, whereas symmetrical anticlines are observed in the southern part. In regard to its tectonic feature, the Kopeh Dagh Belt is a typical Cenozoic intracontinental belt without ophiolites or

  9. Tobacco industry targeting youth in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, S; Mejia, R; Ling, P M; Pérez-Stable, E J

    2013-01-01

    Background/aim Argentina has one of the highest cigarette smoking rates among both men and women in the Americas and no legislated restrictions on tobacco industry advertising. The tobacco industry has traditionally expanded markets by targeting adolescents and young adults. The objective of this study was to determine whether and how the tobacco industry promotes cigarettes to adolescents in Argentina. Methods We conducted a systematic search of tobacco industry documents available through the internet dated between 1995 and 2004 using standard search terms to identify marketing strategies in Argentina. A selected review of the four leading newspapers and nine magazines with reported high readership among adolescents was completed. The selected print media were searched for tobacco images and these were classified as advertisements if associated with a commercial product or as a story if not. Results The tobacco industry used market segmentation as a strategy to target Argentinean consumers. British American Tobacco (BAT) undertook a young adult psychographic study and classified them as “progressives”, “Jurassics” or “conservatives” and “crudos” or “spoiled brats”. BAT marketed Lucky Strike to the “progressives” using Hollywood movies as a vehicle. The tobacco industry also targeted their national brands to the conservatives and linked these brands with “nationalistic values” in advertising campaigns. Philip Morris promoted Marlboro by sponsoring activities directed at young people and they launched the 10 cigarettes packet as a starter vehicle. Conclusions The tobacco industry used psychographic segmentation of the population and developed advertising strategies focused on youth. Tobacco control researchers and advocates must be able to address these strategies in counter-marketing interventions. PMID:18299308

  10. Design of MGA trajectories for main belt asteroid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔祜涛; 乔栋; 崔平远; 栾恩杰

    2003-01-01

    Asteroid exploration is one of the most sophisticated missions currently being investigated. Gravityassist trajectories have proven valuable in interplanetary missions such as the Pioneer, Voyager and Galileo. In this paper, we design interplanetary trajectory for main belt asteroid exploration mission with the Mars gravityassist (MGA) using "pork chop" plots and patched-conic theory and give some initial valuable trajectory parameters on main belt asteroid exploration mission with MGA.

  11. The Role of Plasma in Radiation Belt Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahn, J. M.; Bonnell, J. W.; Kurth, W. S.; Millan, R. M.; Goldstein, J.; Jaynes, A. N.; Blake, J. B.; Denton, R. E.

    2015-12-01

    The radiation belts are zones of relativistic electrons encircling the Earth. Their radial structure is controlled by the competition between source and loss processes. Most commonly, a two-belt structure prevails, though a more complicated three-belt structure - an inner belt plus two outer electron belts - have repeatedly been observed. The plasma conditions that enable and enhance loss-facilitating wave activity in the inner magnetosphere are still under discussion. Relativistic electrons have been thought to more easily resonate with electromagnetic ion-cyclotron waves (EMIC) when the total plasma density is large (i.e., in the plasmasphere and plume). However, there is evidence that this interaction may be not as strong as thought, and that instead the field-aligned motion of lower energy ring current ions (up to a few 10's keV) may play a key role. Similarly, the exact influence of large heavy ion (O+) concentrations remains unsettled. We use 2.5+ years of Van Allen Probes observations to study the region of plasmasphere-outer belt overlap (and its vicinity). By now, the Van Allen Probes provide a complete and very dense coverage of the complete magnetosphere inside geosynchronous orbit We focus our interest on understanding the plasma conditions that can favor EMIC wave growth. We investigate the temperature anisotropy A (modified by plasma β) of the warm/hot plasma, and contrast it with the location specifics of the plasmasphere (i.e., very high total density) and the occurrence of high O+ concentrations in the overlap regions with the radiation belt(s). We present both average conditions for all parameters during a variety of geomagnetic conditions, and highlight specific loss and overlap events in an effort to establish favorable plasma conditions for relativistic electron loss during those times.

  12. Sexual Politics and Religious Actors in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the role of religious actors in sexual politics in Argentina. Sexual politics has become a critical battlefield when it comes to the role of religion in the Argentinean liberal-democratic regime, while gender and sexuality have been the main political targets of religious institutions since the 1980s and 1990s. In this context, progressive legislation on gender, sexual, and reproductive rights was passed, including same-sex marriage and the recognition of transgender identities, despite the opposition of the Catholic Church. Paradoxically, abortion remains largely illegal, allowed only in exceptional circumstances.

  13. Taxes and landowners in Argentina: an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Román, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    En este artículo se ofrece un balance de lo que sabemos –y de lo que aún desconocemos- sobre la historia de la relación entre los impuestos y los productores rurales en la Argentina contemporánea. Se lleva a cabo un recorrido por la historiografía sobre los impuestos al mundo agrario en los siglos XIX y XX tanto en el plano nacional como en el provincial y se señalan los aspectos que aún necesitan mayor investigación en este campo. This article provides an overview of our knowledge on the ...

  14. Aedes aegypti resistance to temephos in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccacini, Emilia; Lucia, Alejandro; Zerba, Eduardo; Licastro, Susana; Masuh, Hector

    2008-12-01

    Monitoring of resistance of Aedes aegypti to temephos was implemented in the provinces of Formosa and Misiones, Argentina, as a response to the need to improve the vigilance for the dengue vector in areas of high risk of dengue. Eggs collected in each locality were reared, and susceptibility to temephos was assayed using larval bioassays. A weak decrease in susceptibility of larvae to temephos was observed in Clorinda and Puerto Iguazú, indicating an incipient resistance with a resistance ratio of 3. No control failures have been observed yet, and this program should allow the early detection of a real problem in our country.

  15. Clientelism and Political Control in Rural Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Landini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Scholarship on clientelism frequently addresses political clientelism using strong ideological presuppositions and/or neglecting its subjective dimension. In this article I explore political clientelism in a rural community of the province of Formosa, Argentina from the peasants' point of view. The results suggest that peasants consider the clientelist relation as one that recognizes their personal needs, while the bureaucracy of the state does not. Thus, they perceive clientelist ties as legitimate, criticizing only the fact that the provision of resources by patrons takes place only during elections.

  16. CIFCA Delegation Visits Brazil and Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang; Bo

    2014-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of the UNALE(National Union of State Legislatures)of Brazi land La Plata City of Argentina,the China International Friendship Cities Association(CIFCA)Delegation,led by Vice President Hu Sishe,visited the two countries from May 4 to 13,during which it attended the 18th Conference of UNALE(18th CNLE)in Brasilia,the Brazilian capital.Broad Attendance at CNLE The CNLE,an annual event sponsored by the UNALE,seeks to promote

  17. Derechos humanos y sexualidad en la Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Pecheny; Mónica Petracci

    2006-01-01

    Este artículo presenta un panorama de la situación de los derechos que tienen que ver con la sexualidad, en la Argentina contemporánea. Basándose principalmente en la legislación positiva, se presenta en primer lugar una síntesis del sistema legal y político, resumiendo a continuación el proceso de inclusión de los derechos sexuales, sobre todo desde 1983, cuando se recuperó la democracia. Las temáticas abordadas son: igualdad civil y conyugalidad, orientación sexual e identidad de género, re...

  18. MIGRACIONES INTERNACIONALES Y RACISMO CULTURAL EN ARGENTINA

    OpenAIRE

    Gonza, Gilda Ivana; González, Anahí Patricia

    2016-01-01

    El artículo aborda las representaciones sociales sobre la identidad nacional y la “cultura”migrante que construyen docentes y miembros del poder judicial en Argentina, visibilizandoel “racismo” cultural que atraviesa dichas representaciones y las relaciones de conflictoentre nativos y migrantes, vinculadas al acceso a los derechos. Para el análisis se recurrióa entrevistas individuales y grupales realizadas a dichos actores institucionales en BuenosAires, durante los años 2008-2014.

  19. Trapped radiation belts of saturn: first look.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, W; Ip, W H; McIlwain, C E

    1980-01-25

    Pioneer 11 has made the first exploration of the magnetosphere and trapped radiation belts of Saturn. Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between Earth's and Jupiter's, with trapped particle intensities comparable to Earth's. The outer region of Saturn's magnetosphere contains lower energy radiation and is variable with time; the inner region contains higher energy particles. The pitch angle distributions show a remarkable variety of field-aligned and locally mirroring configurations. The moons and especially the rings of Saturn are effective absorbers of trapped particles; underneath the rings, the trapped radiation is completely absorbed. We confirm the discovery of a new ring, called the F ring, a new division, the Pioneer division, and a moon, called 1979 S 2. The latter has probably been seen from Earth. There may be evidence for more bodies like 1979 S 2, but at this stage the interpretation of the data is ambiguous. Using particle diffusion rates, we estimate that the cross-sectional area of the F ring is > 7 x 10(13) square centimeters and that the opacity is > 10(-5). Cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay should be looked into as a source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  20. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selesnick, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  1. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  2. Politicians and Epidemics in the Bible Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Henk Spruyt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has a high vaccination coverage, but due to a concentration of people objecting to vaccination on religious grounds in the Bible belt, several polio and measles epidemics have occurred there in the past. This article analyses how and in what way Dutch politicians responded to parents refusing to have their children vaccinated. First, during these epidemics Members of Parliament mainly addressed written questions of a highly technical or procedural nature to the responsible State Secretary or Minister of Public Health. Secondly, the government always requested advice from an advisory body with regard to matters of health after an epidemic. These reports were opposed to mandatory vaccination mainly by using practical arguments. However, by advocating the idea of strengthening the position of minors in public healthcare these reports contributed to legislation codifying the rights of minors concerning public health. The most important rationale behind this response is the complexity of the issue of mandatory vaccination, because different human rights are involved. On the one hand, mandatory vaccination infringes the constitutional rights to the freedom of thought, conscience and religion and encroaches on parental autonomy. On the other hand, children have a right to physical integrity. To find a way out of this unsolvable dilemma, the government and its advisory bodies mainly used practical arguments against mandatory vaccination.

  3. Orion revisited III. The Orion Belt population

    CERN Document Server

    Kubiak, K; Bouy, H; Sarro, L M; Ascenso, J; Burkert, A; Forbrich, J; Großschedl, J; Hacar, A; Hasenberger, B; Lombardi, M; Meingast, S; Köhler, R; Teixeira, P S

    2016-01-01

    This paper continues our study of the foreground population to the Orion molecular clouds. The goal is to characterize the foreground population north of NGC 1981 and to investigate the star formation history in the large Orion star-forming region. We focus on a region covering about 25 square degrees, centered on the $\\epsilon$ Orionis supergiant (HD 37128, B0\\,Ia) and covering the Orion Belt asterism. We used a combination of optical (SDSS) and near-infrared (2MASS) data, informed by X-ray (\\textit{XMM-Newton}) and mid-infrared (WISE) data, to construct a suite of color-color and color-magnitude diagrams for all available sources. We then applied a new statistical multiband technique to isolate a previously unknown stellar population in this region. We identify a rich and well-defined stellar population in the surveyed region that has about 2\\,000 objects that are mostly M stars. We infer the age for this new population to be at least 5\\, Myr and likely $\\sim10$\\,Myr and estimate a total of about 2\\,500 mem...

  4. Dark nebulae, dark lanes, and dust belts

    CERN Document Server

    Cooke, Antony

    2012-01-01

    As probably the only book of its type, this work is aimed at the observer who wants to spend time with something less conventional than the usual fare. Because we usually see objects in space by means of illumination of one kind or another, it has become routine to see them only in these terms. However, part of almost everything that we see is the defining dimension of dark shading, or even the complete obscuration of entire regions in space. Thus this book is focused on everything dark in space: those dark voids in the stellar fabric that mystified astronomers of old; the dark lanes reported in many star clusters; the magical dust belts or dusty regions that have given so many galaxies their identities; the great swirling 'folds' that we associate with bright nebulae; the small dark feature detectable even in some planetary nebulae; and more. Many observers pay scant attention to dark objects and details. Perhaps they are insufficiently aware of them or of the viewing potential they hold, but also it may be...

  5. Politicians and Epidemics in the Bible Belt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geurt Henk Spruyt

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The Netherlands has a high vaccination coverage, but due to a concentration of people objecting to vaccination on religious grounds in the Bible belt, several polio and measles epidemics have occurred there in the past. This article analyses how and in what way Dutch politicians responded to parents refusing to have their children vaccinated. First, during these epidemics Members of Parliament mainly addressed written questions of a highly technical or procedural nature to the responsible State Secretary or Minister of Public Health. Secondly, the government always requested advice from an advisory body with regard to matters of health after an epidemic. These reports were opposed to mandatory vaccination mainly by using practical arguments. However, by advocating the idea of strengthening the position of minors in public healthcare these reports contributed to legislation codifying the rights of minors concerning public health. The most important rationale behind this response is the complexity of the issue of mandatory vaccination, because different human rights are involved. On the one hand, mandatory vaccination infringes the constitutional rights to the freedom of thought, conscience and religion and encroaches on parental autonomy. On the other hand, children have a right to physical integrity. To find a way out of this unsolvable dilemma, the government and its advisory bodies mainly used practical arguments against mandatory vaccination.

  6. The Gould Belt, the de Vaucouleurs-Dolidze Belt, and the Orion Arm

    OpenAIRE

    Bobylev, V. V.; Bajkova, A. T.

    2014-01-01

    Based on masers with measured trigonometric parallaxes, we have redetermined the spatial orientation parameters of the Local (Orion) arm. Using 23 sources (the Gould Belt objects were excluded), we have found that their spatial distribution can be approximated by a very narrow ellipsoid elongated in the direction L_1=77.1+/-2.9^o whose symmetry plane is inclined to the Galactic plane at an angle of 5.6+/-0.2^o. The longitude of the ascending node of the symmetry plane is l_\\Omega=70+/-3^o. A ...

  7. Forming the Cold Classical Kuiper Belt in a light Disk

    CERN Document Server

    Shannon, Andrew; Lithwick, Yoram

    2015-01-01

    Large Kuiper Belt Objects are conventionally thought to have formed out of a massive planetesimal belt that is a few thousand times its current mass. Such a picture, however, is incompatible with multiple lines of evidence. Here, we present a new model for the conglomeration of Cold Classical Kuiper belt objects, out of a solid belt only a few times its current mass, or a few percent of the solid density in a Minimum Mass Solar Nebula. This is made possible by depositing most of the primordial mass in grains of size centimetre or smaller. These grains collide frequently and maintain a dynamically cold belt out of which large bodies grow efficiently: an order-unity fraction of the solid mass can be converted into large bodies, in contrast to the ~0.1% efficiency in conventional models. Such a light belt may represent the true outer edge of the Solar system, and it may have effectively halted the outward migration of Neptune. In addition to the high efficiency, our model can also produce a mass spectrum that pe...

  8. Along-Strike Variations in Focal Mechanisms of Central Andean Crustal Earthquakes: Northern Peru through the Argentina Sierras Pampeanas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, S.; Isacks, B. L.

    2003-12-01

    120 shallow focal mechanisms in the crust above the subducted Nazca plate were assembled from the Harvard CMT catalog and published studies covering over 40 years of seismicity. The study area included the Andes crust above three major segments of the subducted plate, the Peruvian and Argentinean flat-slab segments and the intervening segment where the subducted Nazca plate dips more steeply. The most seismically active regions continue to be the thick-skinned foreland thrust belts in the eastern Andes of Peru and the Sierras Pampeanas. The earthquakes there are clearly associated with youthful tectonic structures with strong topographic signatures as revealed by the new 90 m SRTM digital elevation models. The mechanisms are dominantly of the thrust type but include a minority of strike-slip orientations. However the P axes remain consistent. The thin-skinned thrust belts east of the central Andean Plateau show significant activity only near Santa Cruz, Bolivia and northern Argentina; most of the Sub-Andean thrust belt of Bolivia and southern Peru remains aseismic. The central Andean plateau itself also remains aseismic except for the region of southern Peru and two earthquakes in the Puna. The crustal seismicity in southern Peru is largely concentrated on the western side of the plateau. The focal mechanisms show a strong grouping of T axes in a horizontal, north-south orientation. Both normal and strike-slip mechanisms occur in this region, with no obvious correlation with elevation or surface structures. Remarkably, with the exception of one normal fault type mechanism near the Cusco basin, the earthquakes occur in regions of the western parts of the Altiplano that do not exhibit topographic evidence of substantial crustal deformation. These results are consistent with a model in which the Altiplano of southern Peru, with a trend most oblique to the overall direction of convergence, manifests a left-lateral shearing component across the orogen.

  9. Yugoslav teachers in Argentina 1939-1944

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanović-Banović Milesa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present reports of Yugoslav teachers who held classes to immigrants in Argentina 1939-1944, organized by the government of Kingdom of Yugoslavia. Teachers’ reports to Yugoslav Embassy in Buenos Aires testify of Kingdom of Yugoslavia efforts to oppose assimilation and promote and strengthen “Yugoslav national unity”. The reports also describe general social circumstances of Yugoslav immigrants, show various details from their everyday life and contain valuable data on numerous political, economic, social and cultural problems of this diaspora in Argentina and their relationship with motherland. We believe that archive materials presented in this paper opens numerous questions which could be topics of separate researches. Some of them could be the following: To which extent the teachers’ reports represented the actual situation and to which they were shaped to match policy and expectations of Kingdom of Yugoslavia? What was the actual influence of teachers to spreading the “national unity” among immigrants? Have their work left trace in Yugoslav diaspora and in which way? Beside all of the open issues, it is certain that teachers’ reports contain valuable data on immigrants’ everyday life, curriculum, schooling conditions, relationship with motherland, etc. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47016: Interdisciplinarno istraživanje kulturnog i jezičkog nasleđa Srbije. Izrada multimedijalnog internet portala "Pojmovnik srpske kulture"

  10. Derechos humanos y sexualidad en la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pecheny

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta un panorama de la situación de los derechos que tienen que ver con la sexualidad, en la Argentina contemporánea. Basándose principalmente en la legislación positiva, se presenta en primer lugar una síntesis del sistema legal y político, resumiendo a continuación el proceso de inclusión de los derechos sexuales, sobre todo desde 1983, cuando se recuperó la democracia. Las temáticas abordadas son: igualdad civil y conyugalidad, orientación sexual e identidad de género, reproducción, aborto, violencia de género y violencia sexual, VIH/sida, y explotación y trabajo sexual. El artículo concluye con una reflexión sobre las principales deudas pendientes.This paper presents an overview of the situation concerning the rights related to sexuality in contemporary Argentina. Based specially on the positive legislation, it is primarily presented a synthesis of the legal and political system. Next, the paper summarizes the process of inclusion of the sexual rights, mainly since 1983, when democracy has been recovered. The following issues are addressed: civil equality and conjugality; sexual orientation and gender identity; reproduction; abortion; gender a sexual violence; HIV/Aids; and exploitation and sexual work. The paper ends with a consideration about the still remaining doubts.

  11. Ten years of SLR production in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, A.; Podestá, R.; Yin, Z.; Liu, W.; Actis, E.; Adarvez, S.; Quinteros, J.; Podestá, F.

    2017-07-01

    SLR technique is a proved astro-geodetic art with a significant power to contribute to Earth and Space Sciences. Therefore, scientific applications of SLR System are able to perform multiple tasks in the fields of Astrometry, Geodesy and Geophysics. The results we show here were obtained from satellite observations made at SLR 7406 Station of Observatorio Astronómico Félix Aguilar (OAFA) in San Juan, Argentina. The telescope was installed early on 2006, in concordance with an International Cooperation Agreement between Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Argentina and Chinese Academy of Sciences. In this abstract we show the current research being done with ILRS 7406 station: Length of day (LOD) and Angular velocity of Earth Rotation, calculated weekly; Pole Motion. ILRS7406 is daily surveying Pole coordinates x and y; Tracking SLR to GNSS constellations. SLR System contributes to the adjustment and validation of satellite GALILEO, GPS, GLONASS, and BEIDOU orbits. Our station is nowadays member of the new ITRF 2014 frame, and these past years has been one of the 3 highest producing SLR Stations on the ILRS net, composed of about 40 stations distributed all around the world. The obtained results during this first 10 years of experience are useful to enhance the traditional collaboration between OAFA and international services such as ILRS, IERS and NASA.

  12. [Dengue vaccines. A reality for Argentina?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orellano, Pablo W; Salomón, Oscar D

    2016-01-01

    Dengue outbreaks have occurred yearly in Argentina since 1998. A number of candidate vaccines have been tested in endemic countries. The most advanced one was licensed in three countries of Latin America for children over 9 years of age. In the present article the benefits and drawbacks of these vaccines as well as the challenges for the implementation of a vaccination strategy in Argentina are discussed. Furthermore, a risk stratification strategy with new criteria and a multidisciplinary vision is suggested as a possible path for the assessment of the pertinence of a vaccination program in areas showing the highest risk of dengue transmission and/or for people at the greatest risk of developing severe dengue. It is also suggested that the definition regarding the status of endemicity should take into account the local realities. Finally, this paper proposes a broad discussion on the evidences, the expected impact and instrumental aspects that would be involved in the incorporation of a dengue vaccine, marketed or in development, into the national immunization program, and especially which subpopulation should be targeted for the immunization strategy to be cost-effective.

  13. Oil and nationalism in Argentina: a history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solberg, C.E.

    1979-01-01

    This case study of Yacimientos Petroliferos Fiscales, the world's first state-owned oil company, traces the development of Argentina's nationalistic petroleum policy from the discovery of oil on state-owned land in 1907 to the present. The focus is on the period prior to 1930, when the institutions and ideologies that have shaped Argentine petroleum affairs became firmly established. A final chapter summarizes developments since 1930, with emphasis on the impact the Argentine experience has had on other oil-producing countries in Latin America. Prior to World War I, Argentine governments gave little attention to the development of petroleum resources, but the wartime economic crisis demonstrated to many prominent political figures the necessity of shifting from dependence on foreign capital and imported fuel toward greater economic self-sufficiency. A key aspect of this new policy was the founding in 1922 of the state oil agency, YPF, which gradually wrested control of oil resources from the provinces in order to establish a vertically integrated, national petroleum industry. Because of its power and influence, YPF survived the 1930 revolution, became the largest economic enterprise in Argentina, and emerged as the very symbol of national economic independence.

  14. The ages and tectonic setting of the Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental, Ordovician, NW Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich; Berndt, Jasper; Gerdes, Axel

    2016-07-01

    The Ordovician Faja Eruptiva de la Puna Oriental is a magmatic, predominantly intrusive belt in the Puna of northwestern Argentina with a N-S extension of ca. 400 km. Scarce isotope geochemical ages and biostratigraphic data on some of the folded Faja Eruptiva country rocks assign the magmatism either to the Lower and lower Middle Ordovician, or to the latest Ordovician. Interpretations of origin and tectonic framework of the Faja Eruptiva are controversial and vary between arc, back-arc and collisional-orogenic settings. We present high-resolution La-ICP-MS U-Pb age and Hf isotope data on zircons from 10 plutonic samples covering the magmatic belt along a length of 200 km in the northern Argentinian Puna. The xenocrystic and magmatic zircon age data have a wide spread between 2700 Ma and 440 Ma. Concordia and weighted mean age data document protracted magmatism in two phases between 480 and 460 Ma, and between 453 and 444 Ma, and constrain the time of the last intrusions at 444 ± 3 Ma and at 445 ± 2 Ma thus defining this last and main phase of intrusion at 444 Ma. εHf(t) values define a main vertical trend centered at 500 Ma with εHf(t) values between + 3 and - 16 indicating significant mixing of juvenile early Paleozoic melts with Paleoproterozoic crustal components. A second trend is formed by zircons with ages between 1.1 Ga and c. 500 Ma and predominantly positive εHf values between + 8 and - 3 and originates in juvenile mantle compositions between 1.6 and 1.1 Ga. The spread of the zircon and Hf data document that the Faja Eruptiva intrusives have experienced large-scale contamination by the hosting crustal basement. It follows that the basement of the Puna is formed either by the upper Proterozoic-lower Cambrian Puncoviscana Formation as an erosional product of the Proterozoic orogenic belts of SW Amazonia or that the Puna including its Puncoviscana basement is underlain by a crust shaped by these orogenies. The main intrusive event at 444 Ma has been

  15. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedades y las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espacio. Son movimientos que entienden lo individual y lo colectivo como vinculados entre sí.Hay mucho en común entre la experiencia en la Argentina y las prácticas e ideas anarquistas. Eso no significa que los que están creando nuevas relaciones y comunidades en la Argentina sean anarquistas. Lo que este artículo intenta hacer es basarse en las experiencias de los movimientos sociales argentinos para iniciar una reflexión sobre las prácticas e ideas que los anarquistas pueden prestar a los distintos movimientos y comunidades autónomas; y, a su vez, sobre lo que los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina puede dar a las ideas y prácticas anarquistas.Palabras Clave: movimientos sociales, rebelión popular, Argentina, Anarquismo, movimientos autónomos_____________________ABSTRACT:This article discusses the autonomous social movements that arose after the economic crisis and subsequent popular rebellion in Argentina in December of 2001. The autonomous movements in Argentina, as so many movements around the world today, are movements based on creating new social relationships and communities now, while simultaneously creating new societies and relationships in and for the future. They are movements with a different conception of time and place. They are movements that see the individual and the collective as linked to one another.There is a great deal in common with the experience in Argentina and anarchist practices and ideas. That does not make

  16. Brazil-Argentina trade and its impacts in brazilian states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A. Haddad

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to evaluate a number of spatial aspects of Brazil’s currentcommercial policy, emphasizing those relating to bilateral trade with Argentina,its main trading partner in Mercosur. A national computable general equilibrium modelwas developed and implemented (EFES-ARG —integrated with an interstatetrade model—, in order to evaluate the sectoral/regional impacts of different tradestrategies towards Argentina. The analysis of the short-run regional aspects of Brazil-Argentina trade relations reveals a trend towards concentration of the level of economicactivity in the states of the Brazilian south and southeast.

  17. Overview and perspectives for Open Access development in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Miguel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview and perspectives for development of the Open Access movement in Argentina, within the global and regional (Latin American context. It outlines the evolution and current state of initiatives around the two main approaches to Open Access, the golden and green roads. The main Open Access policies and support of OA movement by governments in Latin American region, and particularly in Argentina, are highlighted, while recent studies on publishing practices and authors’ positions regarding Open Access are presented. The paper concludes that the prospects for development of OA in Argentina, both through golden and green roads are favorable, with their strengths and shortcomings

  18. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  19. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include re

  20. Evaluation of legislation on seat belt use on rear seats : social persuasion as a new measure to promote seat belt use.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oei, H.-l.

    1996-01-01

    In the Netherlands, the use of seat belts for front seat passengers was made compulsory in 1975, and on April 1st 1992 the use of rear seat belts, if fitted, became a legal requirement. Since 1968, an annual survey of the presence and use of seat belts on front seats - extended in 1989 to include

  1. Polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids. II. Results for 58 B- and C-type objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Hutton, R.; Cañada-Assandri, M.

    2012-03-01

    Aims: We present results of a polarimetric survey of main-belt asteroids at Complejo Astronómico el Leoncito (CASLEO), San Juan, Argentina. The aims of this survey are to increase the database of asteroid polarimetry, to estimate diversity in polarimetric properties of asteroids that belong to different taxonomic classes, and to search for objects that exhibit anomalous polarimetric properties. Methods: The data were obtained with the Torino and CASPROF polarimeters at the 2.15m telescope. The Torino polarimeter is an instrument that allows simultaneous measurement of polarization in five different bands, and the CASPROF polarimeter is a two-hole aperture polarimeter with rapid modulation. Results: The survey began in 2003, and up to 2009 data on a sample of more than 170 asteroids were obtained. In this paper the results for 58 B- and C-type objects are presented, most of them polarimetrically observed for the first time. Using these data we find phase-polarization curves and polarimetric parameters for these taxonomic classes. Based on observations carried out at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito, operated under agreement between the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas de la República Argentina and the National Universities of La Plata, Córdoba, and San Juan.Tables 1 and 2 are available in electronic form at CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/539/A115

  2. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  3. The relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, J.; Baker, D. N.; Blake, J. B.; De Pascuale, S.; Funsten, H. O.; Jaynes, A. N.; Jahn, J.-M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Kurth, W. S.; Li, W.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.

    2016-09-01

    We quantify the spatial relationship between the plasmapause and outer belt electrons for a 5 day period, 15-20 January 2013, by comparing locations of relativistic electron flux peaks to the plasmapause. A peak-finding algorithm is applied to 1.8-7.7 MeV relativistic electron flux data. A plasmapause gradient finder is applied to wave-derived electron number densities >10 cm-3. We identify two outer belts. Outer belt 1 is a stable zone of >3 MeV electrons located 1-2 RE inside the plasmapause. Outer belt 2 is a dynamic zone of plasma density. Belt 1 decayed on hiss timescales prior to a disturbance on 17 January and suffered only a modest dropout, perhaps owing to shielding by the plasmasphere. Afterward, the partially depleted belt 1 continued to decay at the initial rate. Belt 2 was emptied out by strong disturbance-time losses but restored within 24 h. For global context we use a plasmapause test particle simulation and derive a new plasmaspheric index Fp, the fraction of a circular drift orbit inside the plasmapause. We find that the locally measured plasmapause is (for this event) a good proxy for the globally integrated opportunity for losses in cold plasma. Our analysis of the 15-20 January 2013 time interval confirms that high-energy electron storage rings can persist for weeks or even months if prolonged quiet conditions prevail. This case study must be followed up by more general study (not limited to a 5 day period).

  4. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests. The carotid arteries were pressurized in an attempt to simulate the corresponding neck vascular response of living humans. Post-test autopsies conducted on all test subjects indicated an absence of test-induced arterial or vertebral injuries. Further, comparative analysis of kinematics confirmed the adequacy of the BioSID and SID-IIs in simulating cadaveric response in farside impacts with harness style 4-point belts. A number of issues remain to be solved before the implementation of 4-point seat belts in vehicles, including, among others, the risk of injury to a pregnant woman and her fetus in frontal crashes. The risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants may be related to the location of the 4-point seat belt's buckle and latch junction at the centerline of the mother's abdomen.

  5. Aclerdidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea de la Argentina Aclerdidae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cristina Granara de Willink

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran la hembra adulta, el primer estadio y un estadio intermedio de la hembra de Aclerda colihuensis sp. nov., encontrada sobre Chusquea culeou una Bambusaceae, de los bosques andinopatagónicos. Se brinda una clave para las especies de Aclerda Signoret, de la región Neotropical. Se cita esta familia por primera vez para la Argentina.The female, the first stage, and intermediate female stages of Aclerda colihuensis n. sp., are described and illustrated. A key to the neotropical species for Aclerda Signoret is given. This is the first family report from Argentina. The new species was found on Chusquea culeou Desv. Bambusaceae, from the Patagonia forest.

  6. Tabaquismo durante el embarazo en Argentina y Uruguay Smoking during pregnancy in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Althabe

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Argentina y Uruguay están entre los países con mayor proporción de mujeres jóvenes fumadoras. Se desconoce cuál es la proporción exacta de ellas que fuman durante el embarazo así como las características de las que dejan de fumar y las que continúan fumando durante el embarazo. Realizamos una encuesta administrada por un/a entrevistador/a a 1512 mujeres embarazadas de 18 años o mayores (796 en Argentina; 716 en Uruguay, que concurrían a control prenatal en hospitales públicos de grandes conglomerados urbanos. 44% de las mujeres en Argentina y 53% en Uruguay habían sido o eran fumadoras. Durante el embarazo, 11% de las mujeres en Argentina y 18% en Uruguay continuaron fumando. En ambos países, la proporción de mujeres que vive con fumadores, permite fumar en el hogar y regularmente o siempre se encuentra en lugares cerrados con personas que estén fumando fue 49%, 46% y 20% entre las mujeres que nunca fumaron, 67%, 60% y 32% entre las que dejaron, y 78%, 75% y 52% entre las que continuaron fumando respectivamente. El estudio confirma un importante problema de salud pública y documenta que la exposición ambiental persiste en subgrupos de mujeres, aun en aquéllas que dejaron de fumar. Es importante que el sector de salud pública provea acceso a programas efectivos para dejar de fumar durante el embarazo. Cualquier nueva intervención a desarrollar que intente tener un éxito al menos moderado y sostenible, debiera incluir componentes que actúen sobre el entorno fumador de la mujer embarazada que fuma.Argentina and Uruguay are among the countries in which a large proportion of young women smoke. The rate of smokers during pregnancy in both countries is not well known, and data on the characteristics of women who quit smoking during pregnancy compared to those who continue smoking are not available. We conducted a survey including 1512 pregnant women >18 years old (796 in Argentina; 716 in Uruguay, during antenatal visits in

  7. Primer registro de Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae en la Argentina First record of Aulacaspis tubercularis (Hemiptera: Diaspididae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Amún

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead es una especie polífaga que ataca principalmente los cultivos de Mangifera indica. Se registra por primera vez en la Argentina esta especie de insecto. Los ejemplares estudiados fueron recolectados en árboles de mango, en localidades del noroeste argentino, en enero de 2011 y abril de 2012.Aulacaspis tubercularis Newstead is a polyphagous pest that attacks mainly Mangifera indica. This insect species is reported for the first time in Argentina. The studied specimens were collected from mango trees in different places of NW Argentina, in January 2011 and April 2012.

  8. Digital Spectra and Analysis of Altitudinal Belts in Tianshan Mountains,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Baiping; MO Shenguo; WU Hongzhi; XIAO Fei

    2004-01-01

    Based on the framework of the geo-info spectra of montane altitudinal belts, this paper firstly reviews six classification systems for the spectra of mountain altitudinal belts in China and considers that detailed regional study of altitudinal belts is the key for reaching standardization and systemization of mountain altitudinal belts. Only can this furtheridentify and resolve problems with the study of altitudinal belts. The factors forming the spectra of altitudinal belts are analyzed in the Tianshan Mountains of China, and a digital altitudinal belt system is constructed for the northern flank, Southern flank, the heartland, and Ilivalley in the west. The characteristics of each belt are revealed with a summarization of the pattern of areal differentiation of altitudinal belts.

  9. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  10. Formation and Dynamical Evolution of the Asteroid Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottke, William F.

    2015-08-01

    Asteroids are critical to our desire to unravel the origin of the Solar System because they supply unique, relatively pristine snapshots of the environment in which the Earth formed and evolved. This is due to the fact that, although the asteroids and Earth have followed very different evolutionary pathways, they all formed from the same set of physical processes and share a common ancestry. The asteroid belt presents a particular challenge to understanding terrestrial planet formation because of its small mass. Models of the protoplanetary disk suggest the region between 2-3 AU should contain roughly 3 Earth masses, while less than 0.001 of an Earth mass is actually found there.A long-standing explanation for the asteroid belt's small mass is that it is due to the gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn. Some have suggested protoplanets grew there before they were dynamically removed from the asteroid belt by resonances with the gas giants. This left the asteroid belt dynamically excited (which is observed) and heavily depleted in mass. More recently, however, detailed models have shown that this process produces an asteroid belt that is inconsistent with observations.Two recent models propose new ways to match asteroid belt constraints. The first, the so-called ‘Grand Tack’ scenario, uses the results of hydrodynamic simulations to show that Jupiter (and Saturn) migrated both inward and outward across the asteroid belt while interacting with the protoplanetary gas disk. The Grand Tack not only reproduces the mass and mixture of spectral types in the asteroid belt, but it also truncates the planetesimal disk from which the terrestrial planets form, potentially explaining why Mars is less massive than Earth. In a second scenario, planetesimals that form directly from cm- to meter-sized objects, known as “pebbles”, are rapidly converted to 100 to 1000 km asteroid-like object that subsequently grow by accreting even more pebbles. Pebble accretion models

  11. The Ivisartoq Greenstone Belt, Southwest Greenland: New Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mader, M. M.; Myers, J. S.; Sylvester, P. J.

    2004-05-01

    The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is situated 40 km south of the Isua greenstone belt, within the Archean gneiss complex of southwest Greenland. The Isua region has been the focus of intense study because it contains some of the oldest known (~ 3.8-3.7 Ga) rocks on Earth. However, relatively little research has been conducted within the Ivisartoq belt. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt is exceptionally well-exposed in three dimensions, and primary features are better preserved here than in any other Archean greenstone belt in Greenland. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt provides a unique opportunity to characterise early-middle Archean mafic-ultramafic magmatism. The Ivisartoq greenstone belt forms a southwest-closing, V-shaped synform and was subjected to amphibolite facies metamorphic conditions. New field mapping has concentrated on the 3 km thick southern limb of the synform, where the most complete section of the tectonostratigraphy is preserved, and where pillow structures with unambiguous way-up indicators are observed. The southern limb has been divided into two units of amphibolites: a lower unit and an upper unit. The upper amphibolite unit is characterized by heterogeneously deformed pillow structures interlayered with ultramafic amphibole schists, meta-gabbro, and with boudins of olivine-bearing ultrabasic rocks. The lower amphibolite unit is more heterogenous and intensely deformed than the upper unit. Layers of quartz-feldspathic rocks with sulfides are abundant in both the upper and lower unit and are highly sheared. A thick (~ 500m) section of quartzo-feldspathic gneisses and schists in the lower unit has been the focus of preliminary geochronological work. Previously, only one U/Pb zircon age (~ 2580 Ma from a "paraschist") has been obtained from the Ivisartoq belt and was reported by Baadsgaard in 1976. Currently, laser ablation microprobe inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (LAM ICP-MS) and isotope dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry

  12. A Physical Model of Electron Radiation Belts of Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzato, L.; Sicard-Piet, A.; Bourdarie, S.

    2012-04-01

    Radiation belts causes irreversible damages on on-board instruments materials. That's why for two decades, ONERA proposes studies about radiation belts of magnetized planets. First, in the 90's, the development of a physical model, named Salammbô, carried out a model of the radiation belts of the Earth. Then, for few years, analysis of the magnetosphere of Jupiter and in-situ data (Pioneer, Voyager, Galileo) allow to build a physical model of the radiation belts of Jupiter. Enrolling on the Cassini age and thanks to all information collected, this study permits to adapt Salammbô jovian radiation belts model to the case of Saturn environment. Indeed, some physical processes present in the kronian magnetosphere are similar to those present in the magnetosphere of Jupiter (radial diffusion; interaction of energetic electrons with rings, moons, atmosphere; synchrotron emission). However, some physical processes have to be added to the kronian model (compared to the jovian model) because of the particularity of the magnetosphere of Saturn: interaction of energetic electrons with neutral particles from Enceladus, and wave-particle interaction. This last physical process has been studied in details with the analysis of CASSINI/RPWS (Radio and Plasma Waves Science) data. The major importance of the wave particles interaction is now well known in the case of the radiation belts of the Earth but it is important to investigate on its role in the case of Saturn. So, importance of each physical process has been studied and analysis of Cassini MIMI-LEMMS and CAPS data allows to build a model boundary condition (at L = 6). Finally, results of this study lead to a kronian electrons radiation belts model including radial diffusion, interactions of energetic electrons with rings, moons and neutrals particles and wave-particle interaction (interactions of electrons with atmosphere particles and synchrotron emission are too weak to be taken into account in this model). Then, to

  13. FLORA ARGENTINA: NOVEDADES EN PRIMULACEAE Argentinian flora: novelties in Primulaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara G. Tressens

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., especie no mencionada previamente para la Argentina,
    es citada, descripta e ilustrada. Se señala por primera vez A. arvensis L., ampliamente
    extendida en la Argentina, para las provincias de Corrientes y Misiones. Se incluye una clave
    para la identificación de las cuatro especies de Anagallis presentes en el país
    Anagallis filiformis Cham. & Schltdl., species not previously mentioned for Argentina is
    recorded, described and illustrated. A. arvensis L., largely widespread in Argentina, is reported
    for the first time from Corrientes and Misiones provinces. A key for the identification of the four
    species of Anagallis present in the country is also included

  14. Explaining ethnic disparities in preterm birth in Argentina and Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L; Pawluk, Mariela; Nyarko, Kwame A; López-Camelo, Jorge S

    2016-11-22

    Little is understood about racial/ethnic disparities in infant health in South America. We quantified the extent to which the disparity in preterm birth (PTB; Ecuador are explained by household socio-economic, demographic, healthcare use, and geographic location indicators. The samples included 5199 infants born between 2000 and 2011 from Argentina and 1579 infants born between 2001 and 2011 from Ecuador. An Oaxaca-Blinder type decomposition model adapted to binary outcomes was estimated to explain the disparity in PTB risk across groups of variables and specific variables. Maternal use of prenatal care services significantly explained the PTB disparity, by nearly 57% and 30% in Argentina and Ecuador, respectively. Household socio-economic status explained an additional 26% of the PTB disparity in Argentina. Differences in maternal use of prenatal care may partly explain ethnic disparities in PTB in Argentina and Ecuador. Improving access to prenatal care may reduce ethnic disparities in PTB risk in these countries.

  15. The transformation of agriculture in Argentina through soil conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Peiretti

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of no till was a major turning point in the transformation of agriculture in Argentina. This paper describes the process of adoption of no till, and the impacts of this on agricultural production. Whereas previously, soil erosion was so extreme and pervasive as to threaten the economic viability and survival of the industry, today with the majority of production under no till, Argentina produces more than ever in the past. The paper also illustrates how, after first focusing on technology adoption (no-till, the system in Argentina has now broadened to include the concepts of Conservation Agriculture (CA and Sustainable Land Management (SLM. These strategic moves have contributed to an agricultural industry in Argentina that is more economically and environmentally sustainable than that of the past.

  16. The Pali Aike Windstreak Field, Southern Patagonia, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, J. A. P.; Zimbelman, J. R.; Kargel, J. S.; Tanaka, K. L.; Yamamoto, A.; Sasaki, S.

    2008-03-01

    Windstreaks are amongst the most common aeolian landforms on Mars, yet they are extremely rare on Earth. We have identified and carried out field based observations of an outstanding zone of windstreaks in southern Patagonia Argentina.

  17. Evolution of the Bhandara-Balaghat granulite belt along the southern margin of the Sausar Mobile Belt of central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H M Ramachandra; Abhinaba Roy

    2001-12-01

    The Bhandara-Balaghat granulite (BBG) belt occurs as a 190 km long, detached narrow, linear, NE-SW to ENE-WSW trending belt that is in tectonic contact on its northern margin with the Sausar Group of rocks and is bordered by the Sakoli fold belt in the south. The Bhandara part of the BBG belt is quite restricted, comprising a medium to coarse grained two-pyroxene granulite body that is of gabbroic composition and preserves relic igneous fabric. The main part of the belt in Arjuni-Balaghat section includes metasedimentary (quartzite, BIF, Al- and Mg-Al metapelites) and metaigneous (metaultramafic, amphibolite and two-pyroxene granulite) protoliths interbanded with charnockite and charnockitic gneiss. These rocks, occurring as small bands and enclaves within migmatitic and granitic gneisses, show polyphase deformation and metamorphism. Geochemically, basic compositions show tholeiitic trend without Fe-enrichment, non-komatitic nature, continental affinity and show evolved nature. Mineral parageneses and reaction textures in different rock compositions indicate early prograde, dehydration melt forming reactions followed by orthopyroxene stability with or without melt. Coronitic and symplectitic garnets have formed over earlier minerals indicating onset of retrograde IBC path. Evidences for high temperature ductile shearing are preserved at places. Retrogressive hydration events clearly post-date the above paths. The present study has shown that the BBG belt may form a part of the Bastar Craton and does not represent exhumed oceanic crust of the Bundelkhand Craton. It is further shown that rocks of the BBG belt have undergone an earlier high-grade granulite metamorphism at 2672 ± 54 Ma (Sm-Nd age) and a post-peak granulite metamorphism at 1416 ± 59 Ma (Sm-Nd age, 1380 ± 28 Ma Rb-Sr age). These events were followed by deposition of the Sausar supracrustals and Neoproterozoic Sausar orogeny between 973 ± 63 Ma and 800 ± 16 Ma (Rb-Sr ages).

  18. Out-of-sequence thrusting in polycyclic thrust belts: An example from the Mesozoic Yanshan belt, North China Craton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chengming; Zhang, Changhou; Cope, Tim D.; Lin, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The EW trending Yanshan belt, an intraplate fold-thrust belt located in the northern North China Craton that has experienced several episodes of deformation widely separated in time, is characterized by out-of-sequence thrusts. According to detailed mapping in the central Yanshan belt, five geometric and stratigraphic criteria used to aid in determining whether a thrust has an out-of-sequence geometry or not can be recognized. They are (1) unconformable relationships, (2) inclination of fault surfaces, (3) irregular changes in apparent offset along strike, (4) short fault length relative to apparent offset, and (5) in-sequence geometry. With the help of these criteria, two generations of out-of-sequence thrusts that postdate the original in-sequence thrusting in the central Yanshan belt are recognized. The ancestral southward verging fold-and-thrust belt that formed prior to 180 Ma was deformed and cut by two younger generations of faults that are probably more deeply rooted and are constrained to between 172-165 Ma and 152-135 Ma. A series of thrusts with opposite vergence formed during the last period, resulting in abundant abnormal field relationships such as younger-on-older thrust relations, fold truncation, and cutting down-section. The nature and occurrence of faults in the Yanshan belt implies that superimposed deformation, a common feature in polycyclic orogenic belts, is a mechanism for the generation of out-of-sequence thrusting. This adds to mechanisms already described in the literature, such as maintaining constant critical taper at an orogenic scale, inhibition of the deformation front, and lateral changes in the nature of the décollement horizons.

  19. Reliability models of belt drive systems under slipping failure mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Conventional reliability assessment and reliability-based optimal design of belt drive are based on the stress–strength interference model. However, the stress–strength interference model is essentially a static model, and the sensitivity analysis of belt drive reliability with respect to design parameters needs further investigations. In this article, time-dependent factors that contribute the dynamic characteristics of reliability are pointed out. Moreover, dynamic reliability models and failure rate models of belt drive systems under the failure mode of slipping are developed. Furthermore, dynamic sensitivity models of belt drive reliability based on the proposed dynamic reliability models are proposed. In addition, numerical examples are given to illustrate the proposed models and analyze the influences of design parameters on dynamic characteristics of reliability, failure rate, and sensitivity functions. The results show that the statistical properties of design parameters have different influences on reliability and failure rate of belt drive in cases of different values of design parameters and different operational durations.

  20. SEAT BELT USE AMONG CAR USERS IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KULANTHAYAN

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The car is the second (40% most common mode of transportation in Malaysia. In terms of fatal road accidents, car drivers constitute about 9.0% and passengers 13.6% of fatalities. The major cause of car occupants' fatality in such accidents is head injuries, which consist of more than half (56.4% of the fatalities. Thus restraining the head and body, the initial position is the most important injury control strategy for car users. The use of seat belts was deemed one of the most effective ways to reduce road accident fatalities in Malaysia and consequently the mandatory seat belt law was enforced in the early seventies. Therefore, a study on factors influencing the compliance behaviour of seat belt use among cars is needed as to date no such research has been undertaken in Malaysia. A questionnaire study was carried out in Selangor, Malaysia on the compliance behaviour of car occupants in relation to seat belt use. A total of 237 respondents were interviewed and the data analysed using logistic regression method. Six variables were found to be significant at 5 percent level (p<0.05: seating position, location of travel, education level, speeding, night-time driving and enforcement. Compliance with the seat belt law was higher among drivers, educated car users, in the presence of enforcement activities, travelling in city-center areas and car users with a positive attitude towards the risks of speeding and night driving.

  1. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt(1)), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness(2, 3)), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference(4-9)) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model(10)) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  2. Flat belt continuously variable high speed drive. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumm, E.L.

    1992-02-01

    A study was undertaken at Kumm Industries funded by DOE in the NBS/DOE Energy-Related Inventions Program starting in August 1990 to design, construct and test a novel very high speed flat belt drive. The test arrangement as shown in Figure 1 consists of a multiple belt-pulley configuration that transmits power from a low speed (2000--4000 RPM) input to a small pulley ``turbine`` (27,000 to 55,000 RPM) and then to the low speed output variable radius pulley (2000--5000 RPM) via a special self-active tensioner. Transmitting 25 HP to and from the ``turbine`` corresponds to obtaining 50 HP in one direction only in a possible turbo compounded engine application. The high speed of the ``turbine`` belts, i.e. 100 meters/sec. at 55,000 RPM, while transferring substantial power is a new much higher operating regime for belts. The study showed that the available belts gave overall test rig efficiencies somewhat above 80% for the higher speeds (50,000 RPM) and higher powers (corresponding to above 90% in the turbocompound application) and a significantly better efficiencies at slightly lower speeds. The tests revealed a number of improved approaches in the design of such high speed drives. It appears that there is considerable possibility for further improvement and application of such equipment.

  3. Allamanda schottii (Apocynaceae: nueva cita para la Flora Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio A. Hurrell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo Allamanda schottii Pohl (Apocynaceae es documentada como nueva cita genérica y específica para la Flora Argentina. La especie fue hallada en la ribera del Paraná, en el norte de la provincia de Corrientes, Argentina. Se incluye su sinonimia, descripción, comentarios sobre su distribución, hábitat, fenología, biología reproductiva, nombres vulgares, usos y observaciones.

  4. En torno al 2001 en la narrativa argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Sylvia Saítta

    2014-01-01

    El artículo propone un panorama de la narrativa argentina de finales del siglo veinte y comienzos del veintiuno con la hipótesis de que aun en tiempos de globalización, postautonomía e internacionalización del mercado editorial es posible trazar líneas de inscripción y diálogo entre la nueva narrativa y las grandes tradiciones de la literatura argentina.

  5. La sociedad Argentina a principios del siglo XIX : La familia

    OpenAIRE

    Amieva, Francisca

    2015-01-01

    Primera parte: I- La sociedad Argentina a principios del Siglo XIX. II- Gobierno: 1- Autoridades. 2- Comercio. 3- Libertad de navegar, entrar, salir y permanecer en las Indias. 4- Libertad de conciencia. 5- Libertad de leer y escribir. 6- Caracteres del gobierno colonial. Tendencias de los primeros gobiernos revolucionarios. Segunda parte: 1- La familia en la sociedad Argentina a principios del Siglo XIX. 2- La familia: su organización civil y religiosa. El padre, la mujer, los hijos, los esc...

  6. CROSSROADS BETWEEN EDUCATION POLICIES AND INDIGENOUS LANGUAGES MAINTENANCE IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Hecht

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Process of language shift is explained by many researchers since linguistic and anthropological perspectives. This area focuses on the correlations between social processes and changes in systems of use of a language. This article aims to address these issues. In particular, we analyze the links between educational-linguistic policy and the maintenance of the languages spoken in Argentina. In doing so, we explore this field taking into account the linguistic and educational policies implemented about indigenous languages in Argentina.

  7. Some historical aspects of plant cytogenetics in Argentina and Uruguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan H. Hunziker

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available A brief account is given of the origin and development of plant cytogenetics in Argentina and Uruguay, along with some of the factors that hampered the development of this area.Uma breve narrativa é dada sobre a origem e desenvolvimento de citogenética em plantas na Argentina e Uruguai, juntamente com alguns fatores que prejudicaram o desenvolvimento desta area.

  8. Reflexiones para una historia del documental en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Guarini

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Documentary cinema has had, in Argentina, an uncertain destination, in some periods it was protagonist, and in others almost disappeared.In this last decade it reached levels of interesting production and quality. It is already a common place to associate this growth to the social situation of crisis since 2001 that overflew in “filmed events”. However, in Argentina documentary possesses a long history that includes fundamental names for its construction.

  9. Spectrophotometry of Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, S. M.; Vilas, F.

    2002-09-01

    We present an ongoing study of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) and Centaurs. We acquired broadband (UBVRI) and medium band photometry with the 4m Mayall telescope at Kitt Peak and the 1.8m Perkins telescope at Lowell Observatory. We present broadband colors of these objects and discuss the results of our search for absorption bands in the visible spectral region. Vilas (Icarus, 111) demonstrated that the existence of the 0.7um absorption feature in asteroids with solar-like colors was strongly correlated with the presence of the 3.0um water of hydration feature. The broad 0.7um absorption band is attributed to a charge-transfer in Fe-bearing hydrated silicates (phyllosilicates), which are a product of aqueous alteration. For aqueous alteration to take place, one must have water ice present in an object, and an energy source to heat the water ice to a liquid water phase. Water ice has already been discovered in some Centaurs (Luu et al. ApJ, 531; Brown AJ, 119), and Durda and Stern (Icarus, 145) estimate that KBOs experience collisional processing regularly throughout their lifetimes. The estimated impact energies are high enough to induce aqueous alteration. We undertook this study to search for evidence of the 0.7um feature in KBOs and Centaurs. We employed medium band Windhorst filters, located at 0.527, 0.666, 0.705, 0.755 and 0.848 um in conjunction with the Mosaic CCD to search for this absorption band, which extends from 0.57-0.83um. Initial analysis suggests that an absorption feature exists near 0.7um in the greyer objects but not the redder objects, following the correlations observed in asteroids. These data are consistent with the absorption band detected near 0.7um by de Bergh et al. (ACM 2002, Berlin) in visible spectra of 2000 EB173 and 2000 GN171. However, further analysis is required to confirm whether the absorption we see is due to phyllosilicates or another source. We will present the results from this analysis. This research was supported through the

  10. Research on Dynamic Tension for Belt Conveyor with Constant Force Automatic Take-Up Assembly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Guo-ying; CHEN Jing-li; LI Yu-jin

    2003-01-01

    The article Provides a dynamic model for belt conveyor. Based on the drive-force of conveyor, take-up tension of take-up assembly, gravity of conveyor belt and material, and friction between belt and idlers, it gives a viscoelastic dynamic equation for conveyor belt. It presents a calculation method of analytic solution to both viscoelastic dynamic equation and geometric dynamic equation when automatic take-up assembly is applied to belt conveyor. The article also makes a study of design method of limiting and eliminating the conveyor belt's elastic vibration.

  11. Belt(s) of debris resolved around the Sco-Cen star HIP 67497

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnefoy, M.; Milli, J.; Ménard, F.; Vigan, A.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Delorme, P.; Boccaletti, A.; Lazzoni, C.; Galicher, R.; Desidera, S.; Chauvin, G.; Augereau, J. C.; Mouillet, D.; Pinte, C.; van der Plas, G.; Gratton, R.; Beust, H.; Beuzit, J. L.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: In 2015, we initiated a survey of Scorpius-Centaurus A-F stars that are predicted to host warm-inner and cold-outer belts of debris similar to the case of the system HR 8799. The survey aims to resolve the disks and detect planets responsible for the disk morphology. In this paper, we study the F-type star HIP 67497 and present a first-order modelization of the disk in order to derive its main properties. Methods: We used the near-infrared integral field spectrograph (IFS) and dual-band imager IRDIS of VLT/SPHERE to obtain angular-differential imaging observations of the circumstellar environnement of HIP 67497. We removed the stellar halo with PCA and TLOCI algorithms. The disk emission was modeled with the GRaTeR code. Results: We resolve a ring-like structure that extends up to 450 mas ( 50 au) from the star in the IRDIS and IFS data. It is best reproduced by models of a non-eccentric ring with an inclination of 80 ± 1°, a position angle of -93 ± 1°, and a semi-major axis of 59 ± 3 au. We also detect an additional, but fainter, arc-like structure with a larger extension (0.65 arcsec) South of the ring that we model as a second belt of debris at 130 au. We detect ten candidate companions at separations ≥1''. We estimate the mass of putative perturbers responsible for the disk morphology and compare this to our detection limits. Additional data are needed to find those perturbers, and to relate our images to large-scale structures seen with HST/STIS. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 097.C-0060(A)This work is based on data products produced at the SPHERE Data Center hosted at OSUG/IPAG, Grenoble.

  12. Phylodynamics of vampire bat-transmitted rabies in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, C; Lema, C; Dohmen, F Gury; Beltran, F; Novaro, L; Russo, S; Freire, M C; Velasco-Villa, A; Mbayed, V A; Cisterna, D M

    2014-05-01

    Common vampire bat populations distributed from Mexico to Argentina are important rabies reservoir hosts in Latin America. The aim of this work was to analyse the population structure of the rabies virus (RABV) variants associated with vampire bats in the Americas and to study their phylodynamic pattern within Argentina. The phylogenetic analysis based on all available vampire bat-related N gene sequences showed both a geographical and a temporal structure. The two largest groups of RABV variants from Argentina were isolated from northwestern Argentina and from the central western zone of northeastern Argentina, corresponding to livestock areas with different climatic, topographic and biogeographical conditions, which determined their dissemination and evolutionary patterns. In addition, multiple introductions of the infection into Argentina, possibly from Brazil, were detected. The phylodynamic analysis suggests that RABV transmission dynamics is characterized by initial epizootic waves followed by local enzootic cycles with variable persistence. Anthropogenic interventions in the ecosystem should be assessed taking into account not only the environmental impact but also the potential risk of disease spreading through dissemination of current RABV lineages or the emergence of novel ones associated with vampire bats. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Maps, imaginary and environmental memory in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Hollman

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available While research on social ideas of nature focused on the discursive side of environmental rhetoric during the last decade of the twentieth century, the visual turn has introduced the analysis of its visual facet: the study of the visual representation of nature in photographs, films, paintings and media among many other image-based media. However, scarce attention has received the study of what is provoked by environmental images as well as how they shape our imagination and memory of environmental issues. Based on the analysis of mental maps created by 215 subjects -all of them students of the undergraduate programs of the Faculty of Humanities at Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires Province (Argentina in 2013- as the starting point to identify images that have become constitutive environmental memory, the article discusses the role of environmental images in shaping both our ways of looking to nature and our understanding of environmental issues.

  14. MEDIOS, PROTESTA Y EXPERIENCIA EN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Graciela Rodríguez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este artículo es dar a conocer algunas hipótesis acerca de los modos como se construyen los relatos sobre las protestas populares en Argentina. Para ello expongo los resultados de una etapa de la investigación en la cual se han confrontado el análisis discursivo de textos de medios de comunicación dedicados a la protesta con un corpus de entrevistas a los protagonistas de estas acciones. Los resultados de dicha confrontación muestran la existencia de dos formas distintas de operar sobre el devenir histórico relacionadas no sólo con la distintiva puntuación temporal de la secuencia de los hechos, sino también con los procesos de enmarcado valorativo y su colocación en una serie histórica.

  15. Virtual Archaeology in an argentina colonial estancia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Vázquez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a first approach to the application of virtual reconstruction techniques of a colonial house. In Argentina it is still uncommon to perform 3D modeling of archaeological sites and especially in historical archeology. As a first step, we used the Google SketchUp to model the country house located on the banks of the Río de la Plata (Buenos Aires. It has historical significance because it belonged to a Spanish councilman, housed hundreds of slaves and was the place where stayed the troops that carried out the Second British Invasion of Buenos Aires. In this case, the 3D modeling was useful for evaluating the future excavationa and activities of preservation of cultural heritage.

  16. movilización social en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Fernández Álvarez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las acciones estatales y las practicas de movilización social en torno al problema del desempleo en la Argentina contemporánea, poniendo énfasis en las interacciones entre ambas. Desde un enfoque etnográfico, focalizamos en las organizaciones de desocupados y de empresas recuperadas, para abordar aquellas categorías que resultan más relevantes en las interacciones en el campo, entre las que se destacan las de trabajo digno y genuino. Estas categorías resultan centrales tanto en la configuración de los procesos de construcción identitaria como en la formación de demandas, mostrando la complejidad que asume el problema del desempleo.

  17. Researching quality of life in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graciela Tonón

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study of quality of life considers at the same time objective and subjective circumstances of people life. In 1995 was created the International Society for Quality of Life Studies (ISQOLS whose purposes are to promote and encourage research in the field of quality-of-life studies and provide an organization through which all academic and professional researchers interested in QOL studies may coordinate their efforts to advance the field of QOL studies within various disciplines. In the case of Argentina since 2004, the Facultad de Ciencias Sociales, Universidad Nacional de Lomas de Zamora has organized the Research Program in Quality of life to develop different kind of projects about quality of life in different fields, trying to be considered by national institutions that decide public policies. 

  18. suprema de Justicia de la Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Gustavo Ferreyra

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Poder de reforma es político. Reforma y control judicial de constitucionalidad son garantías constitucionales. Puede suceder que la reforma, en lugar de defender, ataque la Constitución, por infringir límites prefijados para su actuación. Se describen y clasifican sentencias de la Corte Suprema de Justicia de la Argentina sobre la cuestión. Sostengo que si se acepta el control judicial de constitucionalidad, exclusivo y pleno, sobre la reforma, se pulveriza la concepción de que la juridicidad se basa en la premisa de que la voluntad de los ciudadanos posee mayor autoridad que la de quienes actúen en su nombre y representación.

  19. para la república Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana I. Hladki

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se describen doce especies del género Xylaria que se citan por primera vez para la Argentina: Xylaria adscendens, X. allantoidea, X. coccophora, X. cubensis, X. fissilis, X. gracillima, X. luxurians, X. melanura, X. multiplex, X. myosurus, X. kretschmarioidea y X. pseudoapiculata. El registro de las últimas dos especies es el segundo a nivel mundial. Se describen por primera vez los estromas anamórficos o estériles obtenidos en cultivo de X. kretschmarioidea, X. luxurians y X. melanura, y los cultivos en agar-avena de X. pseudoapiculata. Se sinominiza X. torulosa con X. coccophora, y se citan nuevos sustratos u hospedantes para la mayoría de las especies.

  20. OSMUNDACEAE EN ARGENTINA, PARAGUAY Y URUGUAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo D. Arana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se actualiza la taxonomía y distribución de las Osmundaceae, familia de helechos que habitan bosques y humedales subtropicales de la Argentina, Paraguay y Uruguay. Actualmente la familia comprende cuatro géneros, dos de ellos, con una especie cada uno, estan presentes en la región estudiada. Se acepta Osmunda spectabilis como una especie válida, diferente de O. regalis , la que no se encuentra presente en el área de estudio. Se reconoce a nivel de género a Osmundastrum con una única especie O. cinnamomeum var. cinnamomeum . Se incluyen una clave para los géneros, descripciones, la sinonimia relevante para América del Sur, distribuciones e ilustraciones de las especies. Se lectotipifica a Osmunda imbricata, Osmunda palustris y Osmunda spectabilis var. brasiliensis .

  1. en la Argentina, 1880-1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Dalla Corte

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo es el resultado de una investigación realizada en el Hospicio de Huérfanos y Expósitos de la ciudad de Rosario, provincia de Santa Fe, Argentina, en torno a las señales —breves cartas y objetos— que las madres abandonantes dejaban junto con sus hijos alrededor del mencionado asilo para identificarlos y recuperarlos más tarde, cuando las condiciones sociales y económicas lo hicieran posible. La mayoría de ellas eran mujeres italianas recién llegadas al país que enfrentan su condición de madres, por primera vez, paradójicamente, en la escena del abandono.

  2. NUEVAS CITAS DE ASCLEPIADACEAE PARA ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio A Cáceres Moral

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Dos especies no mencionadas anteriormente de la Argentina son tratadas e ilustradas: Oxypetalum molle Hook. et Arn. y Oxypetalum ineanum Fourn. Oxypetalum appendieulatum Mart. et Zucc., Oxypetalum confusum Malme, Oxypetalum jörgensenii Meyer, Oxypetalum microphyllum Hook. et Arn., Oxypetalum pannosum Decaisne, Oxypetalum stipatum Malme, Funastrum flavum (Decaisne Malme y Blepharodon lineare (Decaisne Decaisne se registran por primera vez para la flora de Corrientes ..

  3. The fourth nuclear power plant in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogarin, Mauro

    2017-01-15

    Since 2006 the nuclear sector in Argentina has aimed at recovering and strengthening its capabilities and facilities. Part of the challenge posed by this revival has been to also accompany the development of activities with a higher level of responsibility for safety and the environment. Among the strategic decisions taken in recent years, one main highlight is the construction of the nuclear power plant CAREM25 entirely with Argentine technology and design under the responsibility of the National Atomic Energy Commission. On February 4, 2015, the Ministry of Federal Planning and the National Energy Administration (NEA) signed the agreement for cooperation and construction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) with ACP-1000 technology, developed in the Peoples Republic of China.

  4. Sectorial analysis of nanotechnology companies in Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foladori, Guillermo; Lau, Edgar Záyago; Carroza, Tomás; Appelbaum, Richard P.; Villa, Liliana; Robles-Belmont, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we identify 37 companies that produce nano-enabled products in Argentina. We locate the products of these firms in terms of both their economic sector and position in a value chain. The research was done through a four-step methodology. Firstly, an inventory of firms was created. Secondly, the firms were classified by their economic sector, following the United Nations economic classification. Thirdly, the firms were located within a simple nanotechnology value chain. Finally, the products were classified according to their final destination, being either means of production or final consumer products. The results show that healthcare, cosmetics, and medicine is the most represented sector along the value chain, followed by electronics.

  5. Nuclear fuel supply view in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirimello, R.O. [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Conuar SA (Argentina)

    1997-07-01

    The Argentine Atomic Energy Commission promoted and participated in a unique achievement in the R and D system in Argentina: the integration of science technology and production based on a central core of knowledge for the control and management of the nuclear fuel cycle technology. CONUAR SA, as a fuel manufacturer, FAE SA, the manufacturer of Zircaloy tubes, CNEA and now DIOXITEC SA producer of Uranium Dioxide, have been supply, in the last ten years, the amount of products required for about 1300 Tn of equivalent U content in fuels. The most promising changes for the fuel cycle economy is the Slight Enriched Uranium project which begun in Atucha I reactor. In 1997 seventy five fuel assemblies, equivalent to 900 Candu fuel bundles, will complete its irradiation. (author)

  6. Republic of Argentina: Argentina is the envy of other Latin American countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spain, D

    1984-05-01

    Argentina's economic and political history may appear grim by US standards, but it is envied by many other Latin American nations, and by Latin American standards its demographic situation is enviable as well. A low population growth rate combined with abundant natural resources means that the poverty of its neighbors has not hit Argentina. Almost everyone eats well and the staple is beef -- about 240 pounds per capita per year. Final figures for the 1980 census of population and housing report a total of 27.9 million people, an increase of 17% from the 23.8 million people counted in 1970. The average annual rate of increase was 1.5% a year. With the exception of Uruguay, this is the lowest rate of increase in continental Latin America. The birthrate of 24 births/1000 population is third only to Chile and Uruguay as the lowest in continental Latin America, although the death rate is about average at 9/1000. After several decades of decline, the death rate is rising again because the population is aging. A current problem is the emigration of Argentinians to other countries, a problem that is most severe among highly trained professionals. Over 1/3 of those who leave Argentina come to the US, with Spain and Canada receiving the next highest numbers. At its current growth rate, Argentina's population will double in 46 years. It is estimated that the population was 29.1 million in 1983; it is projected to be 34.5 million by the year 2000 and 39.6 million by 2020. Over 1/3 of the population live in and around Gran Buenos Aires, the largest metropolitan area in South America and among the ten largest in the world. There is a large core of Spanish descendents still living, but some other European countries are well represented also. The 1980 census recorded 7.1 million households; the average number of persons per household was 3.9. There were 8.2 million dwellings counted in 1980, with an average of 3.3 people per dwelling. 13% of all dwellings were unoccupied at the

  7. Aqueous alteration on main-belt asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasier, S.; Lantz, C.; Barucci, M.; Lazzarin, M.

    2014-07-01

    The study of aqueous alteration is particularly important for unraveling the processes occurring during the earliest times in Solar System history, as it can give information both on the thermal processes and on the localization of water sources in the asteroid belt, and for the associated astrobiological implications. The aqueous alteration process produces the low temperature (< 320 K) chemical alteration of materials by liquid water which acts as a solvent and produces materials like phyllosilicates, sulphates, oxides, carbonates, and hydroxides. This means that liquid water was present in the primordial asteroids, produced by the melting of water ice by heating sources, very probably by ^{26}Al decay. Hydrated minerals have been found mainly on Mars surface, on primitive main-belt asteroids (C, G, B, F, and P-type, following the classification scheme by Tholen, 1984) and possibly also on few transneptunian objects. Reflectance spectroscopy of aqueous altered asteroids shows absorption features in the 0.6-0.9 and 2.5-3.5-micron regions, which are diagnostic of, or associated with, hydrated minerals. In this work, we investigate the aqueous alteration process on a large sample of 600 visible spectra of C-complex asteroids available in the literature. We analyzed all these spectra in a similar way to characterize the absorption-band parameters (band center, depth, and width) and spectral slope, and to look for possible correlations between the aqueous alteration process and the asteroids taxonomic classes, orbital elements, heliocentric distances, albedo, and sizes. We find that 4.6 % of P, 7.7 % of F, 9.8 % of B, 50.5 % of C, and 100 % of the G-type asteroids have absorption bands in the visible region due to hydrated silicates. Our analysis shows that the aqueous alteration sequence starts from the P-type objects, practically unaltered, and increases through the P → F → B → C → G asteroids, these last being widely aqueously altered, strengthening thus

  8. Mirror Coronograph for Argentina (MICA). Primera Luz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenborg, G.; Epple, A.; Schwenn, R.; Francile, C.; Rovira, M.

    En Julio de 1997 se terminó con la primera parte de la instalación del ``Coronógrafo de Espejo para la Argentina'' en la estación de altura Carlos U. Cesco (El Leoncito), gracias al esfuerzo de la gente del Max Planck Institut für Aeronomie (Alemania), del OAFA y del IAFE. Dicho coronógrafo forma parte de un programa de ciencia bilateral entre Alemania y Argentina. El propósito del mismo, en conjunción con otros telescopios solares y terrestres, es contribuir a un mejor entendimiento de cuestiones fundamentales de la física solar. Para ello, ya está observando la corona de emisión en el verde (Fe XIV), rojo (Fe X) y Hα entre 1.05 y 2 radios solares aproximadamente. El diseño del instrumento, el cual fuera ya presentado en esta misma reunión en La Plata en 1996, es esencialmente similar al del telescopio LASCO-C1 a bordo del Solar Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). La adquisición de datos se realiza con un CCD de 1280x1024 pixels, codificando en 12 bits, pudiendo ser el mismo operado en forma remota. En esta reunión presentaremos algunas de las observaciones realizadas durante la puesta a punto del instrumento en el período julio-setiembre de 1997. Asimismo expondremos cómo y por qué sus resultados complementarán a los de su par en el espacio.

  9. [Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in southern Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, M E; Resa, A J; Barclay, C M; Calanni, L; Samengo, L; Martinez, L; Padula, P J; Pini, N; Lasala, M B; Elsner, B; Enria, D A

    2000-01-01

    Andes virus was identified in 1995 as the etiologic agent of Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) in Southern Argentina. We describe herein the main clinical characteristics of 25 HPS confirmed cases acquired in this area between 1993 and September 1999. The mean age was 34 years (range 11-70), with 72% males. Clinical characteristics were similar to those previously reported for Sin Nombre virus (SNV) cases. However, in this group of patients we also observed conjuntival injection in 10/25 (42%), facial flushing in 8/25 (33%), pharyngeal congestion in 7/25 (29%) and petechiae in 3/25 (12%). On the other hand, BUN was increased in 83% of cases (mean 0.77 g/l range 0.31-2.01). Mean serum creatinine concentration was 26.8 mg/l (range: 8.1-110 mg/l) with serum creatinine being higher than 20 mg/l in 8/15 patients (53%). Urinalysis was abnormal in 12/12 cases and was characterized by presence of proteins, red blood cells and granular casts. Aminotransferases were increased in 90% of cases with levels 5-10 times over normal values in 50% of cases. Serum creatine kinase concentration was elevated in 11/14 cases. Two patients required hemodialysis. Case fatality rate was 44% (11/25) and 10 of these cases died among the first 10 days of illness. Mononuclear myocarditis was observed in two cases, a finding that has not been reported for SNV cases. During the 1996 HPS outbreak in Southern Argentina due to Andes virus, there were epidemiological and molecular evidences of person-to-person transmission, a feature not previously shown for other members of the hantavirus genus. These data would also be indicative of some distinctive clinical characteristics of HPS caused by Andes virus, with more frequent renal involvement than in SNV cases.

  10. Two new basaltic asteroids in the Outer Main Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Duffard, R

    2007-01-01

    The identification of other basaltic objects in the asteroid belt is mandatory to explain the diversity in the collection of basaltic meteorites. This diversity requires more than one differentiated parent body, a fact that is consistent with the diversity of differentiated parent bodies implied by the iron meteorites. Based on a list of previously identified candidate basaltic (V-type) asteroids, two asteroids in the outer main belt, (7472) Kumakiri and (10537) 1991 RY16, were spectroscopically observed during an observational run in Calar Alto Observatory, Spain. We confirm the V-type character of these two asteroids that, together with (1459) Magnya, become the only known traces of basaltic found in the outer main belt up to now. We also demonstrate that the searching for candidate V-type asteroids using a photometric survey, like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produces reliable results.

  11. Gravity inferred subsurface structure of Gadwal Schist belt, Andhra Pradesh

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; I B Ramaprasada Rao; N Srinivasulu

    2001-03-01

    Detailed gravity data collected across the Gadwal schist belt in the state of Andhra Pradesh show an 8.4 mgal residual gravity anomaly associated with meta-sediments/volcanics of the linear NNW-SSE trending schist belt that shows metamorphism from green schist to amphibolite facies. This schist belt is flanked on either side by the peninsular gneissic complex. The elevation and slab Bouguer corrected residual gravity profile data were interpreted using 2-D prism models. The results indicate a synformal structure having a width of 1.8 km at the surface, tapering at a depth of about 2.6 km with a positive density contrast of 0.15 gm/cc with respect to the surrounding peninsular gneissic complex.

  12. The Living with a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Mauk, B. H.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Fox, N. J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of NASA's Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission is to understand, ideally to the point of predictability, how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to the variable inputs of energy from the Sun. The investigations selected for this 2-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in early 2012 address this task by making extensive observations of the plasma waves, thermal, ring current, and relativistic particle populations, and DC electric and magnetic fields within the Earth's inner and outer radiation belts. We first describe the current mission concept within the scope of NASA's strategic plan and the Vision for Exploration, and then consider how its observations will be used to define and quantify the processes that accelerate, transport, and remove particles in the Earth's radiation belts.

  13. Recent Developments in the Radiation Belt Environment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, M.-C.; Glocer, A.; Zheng, Q.; Horne, R. B.; Meredith, N. P.; Albert, J. M.; Nagai, T.

    2010-01-01

    The fluxes of energetic particles in the radiation belts are found to be strongly controlled by the solar wind conditions. In order to understand and predict the radiation particle intensities, we have developed a physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model that considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. Recently, an improved calculation of wave-particle interactions has been incorporated. In particular, the model now includes cross diffusion in energy and pitch-angle. We find that the exclusion of cross diffusion could cause significant overestimation of electron flux enhancement during storm recovery. The RBE model is also connected to MHD fields so that the response of the radiation belts to fast variations in the global magnetosphere can be studied.Weare able to reproduce the rapid flux increase during a substorm dipolarization on 4 September 2008. The timing is much shorter than the time scale of wave associated acceleration.

  14. Radiation Belt Environment Model: Application to Space Weather and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching H.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics and variability of the radiation belts are of great scientific and space weather significance. A physics-based Radiation Belt Environment (RBE) model has been developed to simulate and predict the radiation particle intensities. The RBE model considers the influences from the solar wind, ring current and plasmasphere. It takes into account the particle drift in realistic, time-varying magnetic and electric field, and includes diffusive effects of wave-particle interactions with various wave modes in the magnetosphere. The RBE model has been used to perform event studies and real-time prediction of energetic electron fluxes. In this talk, we will describe the RBE model equation, inputs and capabilities. Recent advancement in space weather application and artificial radiation belt study will be discussed as well.

  15. Relativistic surfatron process for Landau resonant electrons in radiation belts

    CERN Document Server

    Osmane, A

    2014-01-01

    Recent theoretical studies of the nonlinear wave-particle interactions for relativistic particles have shown that Landau resonant orbits could be efficiently accelerated along the mean background magnetic field for propagation angles $\\theta$ in close proximity to a critical propagation $\\theta_\\textrm{c}$ associated with a Hopf--Hopf bifurcation condition. In this report, we extend previous studies to reach greater modeling capacities for the study of electrons in radiation belts by including longitudinal wave effects and inhomogeneous magnetic fields. We find that even though both effects can limit the surfatron acceleration of electrons in radiation belts, gains in energy of the order of 100 keV, taking place on the order of ten milliseconds, are sufficiently strong for the mechanism to be relevant to radiation belt dynamics.

  16. Formation and decay of the inner electron radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Y. J.; Selesnick, R.

    2016-12-01

    The inner electron radiation belt was found, early in the space age, to be highly variable with rapid injections followed by slower decay. Highly structured energy spectra were also observed (now known in energy-time spectrograms as "zebra stripes"). Inner belt formation was explained by inward diffusion. However, even the fastest diffusion is expected to require a period of many days, while observations show frequent rapid injections across the entire inner belt (as low as L=1.2) during periods of injections, slow decay, and structured energy spectra, as observed from Van Allen Probes for electrons with energies of 100-400 keV, by the action of large-scale electric fields. In addition, a case study of a non-diffusive fast injection event that occurred on March 17, 2013, is simulated by a test particle code which demonstrates the sensitivity of electron intensity to the selected electric field model.

  17. Jovian Early Bombardment: planetesimal erosion in the inner asteroid belt

    CERN Document Server

    Turrini, Diego; Magni, Gianfranco

    2012-01-01

    The asteroid belt is an open window on the history of the Solar System, as it preserves records of both its formation process and its secular evolution. The progenitors of the present-day asteroids formed in the Solar Nebula almost contemporary to the giant planets. The actual process producing the first generation of asteroids is uncertain, strongly depending on the physical characteristics of the Solar Nebula, and the different scenarios produce very diverse initial size-frequency distributions. In this work we investigate the implications of the formation of Jupiter, plausibly the first giant planet to form, on the evolution of the primordial asteroid belt. The formation of Jupiter triggered a short but intense period of primordial bombardment, previously unaccounted for, which caused an early phase of enhanced collisional evolution in the asteroid belt. Our results indicate that this Jovian Early Bombardment caused the erosion or the disruption of bodies smaller than a threshold size, which strongly depen...

  18. The effects of seat belt legislation on road traffic injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trinca, G W; Dooley, B J

    1977-04-01

    The compulsory wearing of seat belts, first introduced in the world in Victoria in 1970, has effectively reduced the number of deaths and injuries by approximately one-third for car occupants involved in motor vehicle crashes. Initially, the legislation did not apply to children under the age of eight years, but in 1975 a further law was introduced banning children from the front seat of any vehicle unless properly harnessed. Seat belts offer the best protection for front seat drivers and passengers involved in frontal impacts, but offer less protection to the recipient of a side impact. Ten per cent of car occupants admitted to hospital after a frontal impact show injuries, mostly minor, directly attibutable to the wearing of seat belts.

  19. Regional Fault Systems of Qaidam Basin and Adjacent Orogenic Belts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the regional fault systems of Qaidam basin and adjacent orogenic belts. Field investigation and seismic interpretation indicate that five regional fault systems occurred in the Qaidam and adjacent mountain belts, controlling the development and evolution of the Qaidam basin. These fault systems are: (1)north Qaidam-Qilian Mountain fault system; (2) south Qaidam-East Kunlun Mountain fault system; (3)Altun strike-slip fault system; (4)Elashan strike-slip fault system, and (5) Gansen-Xiaochaidan fault system. It is indicated that the fault systems controlled the orientation of the Qaidam basin, the formation and distribution of secondary faults within the basin,the migration of depocenters and the distribution of hydrocarbon accumulation belt.

  20. RATIONALE FOR CENTERING CAPACITY OF REDISIGNED BELT CONVEYOR DRUMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Suglobov

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In the study is necessary: 1 to justify aligning drums of a new design of belt conveyors; 2 to develop a method for calculating and determining the rational design parameters of drums depending on the technical parameters of the conveyor belt (the length of the conveyor, belt width, the performance of the conveyor, the diameter of the drive and tension drums, etc.; 3 to carry out pilot studies of efficiency conveyor belt in a production environment in order to determine the magnitude of dynamic loads and a comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the centering ability of conventional and new designs of drums. Methodology. To substantiate the effectiveness of the centering ability of the drums of a new design by the authors developed a mathematical model of interaction of the tape with the drum. Mathematical simulation of tape reels with new design comes to drawing up a differential equation of the belt based on the dynamic component and restoring force. This model allowed us to estimate the movement of the tape in the transverse direction based on the calculated additional dynamic loads and forces on the investigated centering a conveyor belt with given specifications. For the first time the technique of calculating and determining the rational parameters of the drums, which allows determining the design parameters of the centering portions, depending on the mechanical properties and geometric parameters of the tape. Findings. With the help of mathematical modeling the scientifically substantiated effect of centering the ability of the new design of the drum, which ensures stable tape running along the longitudinal axis of the conveyor. The authors made the following conclusions: 1 the mathematical model of interaction with the new belt design of the drum, which allowed to describe the belt in the transverse direction in view of additional dynamic loads and renewable power was developed; 2 the method of calculation and

  1. Migration trends in Argentina: immigration and exile Dinámica migratoria Argentina: inmigración y exilios

    OpenAIRE

    Esteban, Fernando Osvaldo

    2010-01-01

    Through the development of a typology of migration flows, the paper reviews the most important trends in the history of Argentina: the massive European immigration, internal migrations, and immigration from neighbouring countries. The paper then discuss the current process of emigration from Argentina, and the return of old immigrants. The paper assess the economic factors involved through an analysis of unemployment, poverty and income distribution indicators in recent years. Finally, the pa...

  2. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  3. Photometry and Lightcurve Analysis of 7 Main-Belt Asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Violante, Renata; Leake, M. A.

    2013-01-01

    We report the synodic periods and lightcurves for three main-belt asteroids and provide lightcurves for four other main-belt asteroids. 676 Melitta has a period of 8.35 ± 0.05 hours, with an amplitude of 0.056 ± 0.026 magnitude; 688 Melanie has a period of 16.10 ± 0.05 hours, and an amplitude of 0.091 ± 0.019 magnitude; 1677 Tycho Brahe has a period of 3.89 ± 0.06 hours, and an amplitude of 0.564 ± 0.011 magnitude.

  4. Detection of methane on Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar

    CERN Document Server

    Schaller, E L

    2007-01-01

    The near-infrared spectrum of (50000) Quaoar obtained at the Keck Observatory shows distinct absorption features of crystalline water ice, solid methane and ethane, and possibly other higher order hydrocarbons. Quaoar is only the fifth Kuiper belt object on which volatile ices have been detected. The small amount of methane on an otherwise water ice dominated surface suggests that Quaoar is a transition object between the dominant volatile-poor small Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) and the few volatile-rich large KBOs such as Pluto and Eris.

  5. A Spectroscopically Unique Main Belt Asteroid: 10537 (1991 RY16)

    CERN Document Server

    Moskovitz, Nicholas A; Jedicke, Robert; Willman, Mark; Haghighipour, Nader; Bus, Schelte J; Gaidos, Eric

    2008-01-01

    We present visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra and interpreted surface mineralogy for asteroid 10537 (1991 RY16). The spectrum of this object is without precedent amongst the Main Belt asteroids. A unique absorption band centered at 0.63 microns could be attributed to one of several mineralogies. Pronounced 1- and 2-micron absorption bands suggest that the composition of 10537 is a mixture of pyroxenes and olivine and that it originated from a parent body that was partially or fully differentiated. The closest available analog is the large Main Belt asteroid 349 Dembowska but 10537 may be an isolated fragment from a completely eroded parent body.

  6. Seat belt trauma: pectoralis muscle rupture and delayed mesh repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Kyle P; Adair, James D; Ali, M Azhar

    2008-03-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a seat belt-related rupture of the pectoralis major muscle and its successful delayed repair using mesh. We report a case of a 34-year-old white man who sustained a right pectoralis major muscle rupture from a seat belt during a motor vehicle crash. The patient presented to us 2 years after the injury. We introduce a technique using mesh that results in a successful repair of a cosmetically disfiguring chest wall defect.

  7. Active Asteroids: Main-Belt Comets and Disrupted Asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Hsieh, Henry H

    2015-01-01

    The study of active asteroids has attracted a great deal of interest in recent years since the recognition of main-belt comets (which orbit in the main asteroid belt, but exhibit comet-like activity due to the sublimation of volatile ices) as a new class of comets in 2006, and the discovery of the first disrupted asteroids (which, unlike MBCs, exhibit comet-like activity due to a physical disruption such as an impact or rotational destabilization, not sublimation) in 2010. In this paper, I will briefly discuss key areas of interest in the study of active asteroids.

  8. Intestinal stricture following seat belt injury in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J M; Albanese, C T; Meza, M P; Wiener, E S

    1996-10-01

    The most commonly reported intestinal injury from seat belts in children is perforation. A rarely reported late sequela following this type of injury is posttraumatic intestinal stricture (PTIS). A review of the literature reveals a common clinical pattern of presentation in children and adults but an apparent difference in the pathophysiologic mechanism between the pediatric and adult patient. Recently, we treated two children with PTIS. Each case is discussed, and a pathophysiological mechanism for this injury in children is proposed. Recommendations are made for the evaluation and treatment of these uncommon complications of seat belt-related blunt intestinal injury.

  9. Traffic restrictions due to wind on the Fehmarn Belt bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellwik, E.; Mann, Jakob; Rosenhagen, G.

    2006-01-01

    This report documents the calculations carried out in order to estimate the wind climate at the site where the Fehmarn Belt bridge is planned. Further, an estimate of how often and for how long traffic restrictions will be enforced according to statedcriteria (sec. 3.2) is given. This estimate...... is given both as a total percentage of time and as a mean distribution of restrictions over the year. We perform the same analysis for the Øresund and the Great Belt bridge and compare the result with the actualfractions. Only during the last year of operation of the Øresund bridge the criteria...

  10. Nonsanction seat belt law enforcement: a modern day tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, W W; Stewart, J R; Stutts, J C; Marchetti, L M

    1993-10-01

    This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a nonsanction seat belt law enforcement program in two experimental communities of contrasting size in a state with a mandatory belt law. The main ingredients of the program were seat belt "salutes," public information and education, and limited use of inexpensive economic incentives. Driver shoulder belt use data collected before, during, and after the experimental programs, compared to similar data collected in a comparison community, showed the approach to be effective. While standard seat belt enforcement activities without incentives have been shown to be effective, many police departments, especially in smaller communities, are reluctant to make wholesale increases in seat belt citations. Although requiring some additional level of manpower and resources, a nonsanction approach to seat belt law enforcement can provide an alternate way of increasing belt use in these communities.

  11. 75 FR 12734 - Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Antidumping or Countervailing Duty Order..., 2009). On December 31, 2009, the American Honey Producers Association and the Sioux Honey...

  12. NEW DISTRIBUTION RECORD OF Cryptotermes brevis (ISOPTERA, KALOTERMITIDAE IN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Coronel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  The first record of the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 in the city of Corrientes (Argentina is reported. Several C. brevis  colonies were detected inside a local deposit, from wooden crates used for carrying fresh fruits. The observed damage consisted of small rounded holes, partially hollowed wood pieces and presence of debris. The importance of weather factors and the type of material of vegetable and fruit containers in the colonization and dispersion of C. brevis  in this region of Argentina are discussed. Illustrations of soldiers and reproductive C. brevis , and an updated map of the distribution of this termite in Argentina are given.Nuevo registro de distribución de Cryptotermes brevis (Isoptera, Kalotermitidae en Argentina Se presenta el primer registro de Cryptotermes brevis  (Walker, 1853 en la ciudad de Corrientes (Argentina. Se detectaron varias colonias de esta termita dentro de un edificio en contenedores de madera empleados para el transporte de fruta fresca. Los daños observados consistieron en orificios redondos, piezas de madera parcialmente excavadas y presencia de debris fecales. Se discute la importancia de factores climatológicos y del tipo de material de contenedores de fruta, en la colonización y dispersión de C. brevis  en esta región de Argentina. Se presentan ilustraciones de soldados y reproductores de C. brevis  y un mapa actualizado de la distribución de esta termita en Argentina

  13. Explaining the dynamics of the ultra-relativistic third Van Allen radiation belt

    OpenAIRE

    Mann, Ian R.; Ozeke, L. G.; Murphy, Kyle R; Clauderpierre, S. G.; Turner, D. L.; Baker, D. N.; Rae, I. J.; Kale, A; Milling, David; Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; H. J. Singer; Dimitrakoudis, S.; Daglis, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts over 50 years ago, an explanation for their complete dynamics has remained elusive. Especially challenging is understanding the recently discovered ultra-relativistic third electron radiation belt. Current theory asserts that loss in the heart of the outer belt, essential to the formation of the third belt, must be controlled by high-frequency plasma wave–particle scattering into the atmosphere, via whistler mode chorus, plasmaspheric hiss,...

  14. Safety belt promotion at community swimming pools :effects of policy, rewards, prompts, and education

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, Michael Richard

    1990-01-01

    Data on safety belt use were collected at two swimming pools over three consecutive summers. The impact of several variables upon safety belt use was examined. First, an Intervention Program (IP) was designed, comprised of Promotional, Reward, and Feedback components. Second, an Awareness/Education (AE) strategy was introduced to children enrolled in swim lessons. Third, belt use was examined before and after a mandatory safety belt use law (BUL) was enacted in Virginia. The moderating ef...

  15. Anterior inferior iliac spine fracture: Another component of seat belt syndrome?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paisal HUSSIN

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Seat belt syndrome occurs when seat belts are used improperly, and it is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality. The spectrum of seat belt syndrome includes spinal, intra-abdominal and vascular injury. Here, we report the case of anterior inferior iliac spine avulsion fracture in association with seat belt injuries in a 24-year old man involved in a head on motor vehicle collision. 

  16. 75 FR 4509 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA... amendments to the regulations establishing the criteria for designing and conducting State seat belt use... seat belt use rates to NHTSA. NHTSA proposes these amendments so that future surveys will give...

  17. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  18. Seat Belt Education Program--A Model for Public Health Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Stephen; Pine, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a brief seat belt group educational intervention could be incorporated into an existing public health program and result in increased use of seat belts. Seat belt use increased from 4.9 to 12.6 percent among 268 low-income mothers during the study. (Author/CH)

  19. 48 CFR 1252.223-73 - Seat belt use policies and programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seat belt use policies and....223-73 Seat belt use policies and programs. As prescribed in (TAR) 48 CFR 1223.7000(c), insert the following clause: Seat Belt Use Policies and Programs (APR 2005) In accordance with Executive Order...

  20. 49 CFR 173.166 - Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.166 Air bag inflators, air bag modules and seat-belt pretensioners. (a... an inflatable bag assembly. A seat-belt pre-tensioner contains similar hazardous materials and...

  1. Seat Belt Law Experience in Four Foreign Countries Compared to the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, B. J.; Campbell, Frances A.

    This report examines the process of enacting laws requiring the use of seat belts in the United States. It assesses these laws against the perspective of benefits realized from such mandates in other nations. Chapter one is an introduction; chapter two provides background on seat belt installation in U.S. vehicles, introduction of belt use laws,…

  2. 30 CFR 56.14130 - Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts. (a) Equipment included. Roll-over protective structures (ROPS) and seat belts shall be installed on— (1) Crawler tractors and crawler loaders; (2) Graders; (3) Wheel... October 24, 1988, that is equipped with ROPS and seat belts that meet the installation and...

  3. 76 FR 36890 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 91 Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and... clarify prior interpretations of the seat belt and seating requirements of 14 CFR 91.107(a)(3). These... clarification states that the use of a seat belt and/or seat by more than one occupant is appropriate only...

  4. 77 FR 20550 - Uniform Criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration... implementation date for use of the revised uniform criteria for State Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use... Observational Surveys of Seat Belt Use.'' 76 FR 18042. That final rule amended the regulation...

  5. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National...

  6. 77 FR 30885 - Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt and Seating Requirements for General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-24

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 91 [Docket No. FAA-2011-0628] Clarification of Prior Interpretations of the Seat Belt... interpretations of FAA's seat belt and seating requirements. These prior interpretations state that the shared use of a single restraint may be permissible. This clarification states that the use of a seat belt...

  7. Using naturalistic driving data to identify variables associated with infrequent, occasional, and consistent seat belt use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reagan, Ian J; McClafferty, Julie A; Berlin, Sharon P; Hankey, Jonathan M

    2013-01-01

    Seat belt use is one of the most effective countermeasures to reduce traffic fatalities and injuries. The success of efforts to increase use is measured by road side observations and self-report questionnaires. These methods have shortcomings, with the former requiring a binary point estimate and the latter being subjective. The 100-car naturalistic driving study presented a unique opportunity to study seat belt use in that seat belt status was known for every trip each driver made during a 12-month period. Drivers were grouped into infrequent, occasional, or consistent seat belt users based on the frequency of belt use. Analyses were then completed to assess if these groups differed on several measures including personality, demographics, self-reported driving style variables as well as measures from the 100-car study instrumentation suite (average trip speed, trips per day). In addition, detailed analyses of the occasional belt user group were completed to identify factors that were predictive of occasional belt users wearing their belts. The analyses indicated that consistent seat belt users took fewer trips per day, and that increased average trip speed was associated with increased belt use among occasional belt users. The results of this project may help focus messaging efforts to convert occasional and inconsistent seat belt users to consistent users.

  8. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  9. PROPOSALS ON IMPROVING THE EXCAVATION, TRANSPORT AND COAL DEPOSIT, USING THE RUBBER CONVEYOR BELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta-Maria MIHUT

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we make a study of the improvement methods of quantity of material transported by conveyor belt. Determination of discharge of solids entail establish of the parameters of the conveyor belt. As a result, we determine the belt speed who provide maximum discharge of solids materials.

  10. The use of seat belts and contributing factors : an international comparison.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mäkinen, T. Wittink, R.D. & Hagenzieker, M.P.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to define factors that contribute to the use or non-use of seat belts. Legislation prescribing compulsory seat belt usage is one of the most important factors. Promotion of the use of seat belts without this legislation is very difficult and time-consuming. So far, the

  11. Structure of Possible Long-lived Asteroid Belts

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, N W

    2002-01-01

    High resolution simulations are used to map out the detailed structure of two long-lived stable belts of asteroid orbits in the inner Solar system. The Vulcanoid belt extends from 0.09 to 0.20 astronomical units (au), though with a gaps at 0.15 and 0.18 au corresponding to de-stabilising mean motion resonances with Mercury and Venus. As collisional evolution proceeds slower at larger heliocentric distances, kilometre-sized or larger Vulcanoids are most likely to be found in the region between 0.16 and 0.18 au. The optimum location in which to search for Vulcanoids is at geocentric ecliptic longitudes roughly between 9 and 10 degrees. Dynamically speaking, the Earth-Mars belt between 1.08-1.28 au is an extremely stable repository for asteroids on nearly circular orbits. It is interrupted at 1.21 au due to the 3:4 commensurability with the Earth, while secular resonances with Saturn are troublesome beyond 1.17 au. These detailed maps of the fine structure of the belts can be used to plan search methodologies. S...

  12. Chaos in Mean Motion Resonances of the Kuiper Belt

    CERN Document Server

    Franklin, Fred

    2014-01-01

    In this paper on mean motion resonances in the Kuiper belt we consider effects on resonant bodies captured in an earlier migration by determining levels of chaos as a function of eccentricity, e, at the most stable orbital configuration. We find the the maximum observed e's at resonance very closely correspond to orbits with Lyapunov times ~ 1000 orbital periods of Neptune--much the same number as applies in the asteroid belt with Neptune's period replaced by Jupiter's. The fact that this number caps the e's of markedly chaotic but still existing bodies, implies that the great majority of escapes at equal and larger e's have already occurred. Yet escapes must continue at some level if the small population in the outermost belt is to be maintained because typical lifetimes of bodies there are only ~ 1/10 of the solar system's age. A study of stability at resonance also reinforces the claim that the post-migration boundary of the inner Kuiper belt lies near 34 AU and that the primordial, or pre-migration, outer...

  13. Influence of the Gould Belt on Interstellar Extinction

    CERN Document Server

    Gontcharov, George

    2016-01-01

    A new analytical 3D model of interstellar extinction within 500 pc of the Sun as a function of the Galactic spherical coordinates is suggested. This model is physically more justified than the widely used Arenou model, since it takes into account the presence of absorbing matter both in the layer along the equatorial Galactic plane and in the Gould Belt. The extinction in the equatorial layer varies as the sine of the Galactic longitude and in the Gould Belt as the sine of twice the longitude in the Belt plane. The extinction across the layers varies according to a barometric law. It has been found that the absorbing layers intersect at an angle of 17 deg and that the Sun is located near the axial plane of the absorbing layer of the Gould Belt and is probably several parsecs below the axial plane of the equatorial absorbing layer but above the Galactic plane. The model has been tested using the extinction of real stars from three catalogs.

  14. Structural appraisal of the Gadag schist belt from gravity investigations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G Ramadass; D Himabindu; N Srinivasulu

    2003-12-01

    Semi-detailed gravity investigations were carried out over an area of approximately 2750 sq km with maximum N-S and E-W extents of 55 and 50km respectively in the Gadag region in the Dharwar craton with a view to obtain a clearer perception of the structural configuration of the region. From qualitative analysis of the gravity data, several tectonic features are inferred: the high density Gadag schist belt is characterized by a gravity high and occurs in two discontinuous segments — the main N-S trending segment, and its thinner NW-SE trending extension, the two separated by a NE-SW trending deep seated fault. While the N-S trend of the Gadag schist belt is bounded on its east by the NW-SE trending Chitradurga thrust fault and on its west by another major NNW-SSE trending fault, the NW-SE extension is likewise bounded by two other NW-SE major faults. Quantitative evaluation from forward modeling/inversion of five profiles in the region, assuming a density contrast of 0.29 gm/cc of the anomalous schistose body with the gneissic host rocks indicated a synclinal structure plunging to the southeast along its axis for the Gadag schist belt. The maximum width and depth from surface of the schist belt are 22km and 5.6km respectively.

  15. 29 CFR 1926.104 - Safety belts, lifelines, and lanyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... be subjected to cutting or abrasion, shall be a minimum of 7/8-inch wire core manila rope. For all... strength of 5,400 pounds, shall be used. (d) Safety belt lanyard shall be a minimum of 1/2-inch nylon, or...

  16. CDC Vital Signs: Adult Seat Belt Use in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up in a seat belt, booster seat, or car seat, whichever is appropriate.* Have all children age 12 and under sit in the back seat. Never seat a child in front of an air bag. Place children in the middle of the back ...

  17. Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) Payload Safety Introduction Briefing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Chuck; Lampert, Dianna; Herrburger, Eric; Smith, Clay; Hill, Stuart; VonMehlem, Judi

    2008-01-01

    Mission of the Geospace Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) is: Gain s cientific understanding (to the point of predictability) of how populations of relativistic electrons and ions in space form or change in response to changes in solar activity and the solar wind.

  18. Wave acceleration of electrons in the Van Allen radiation belts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Richard B; Thorne, Richard M; Shprits, Yuri Y; Meredith, Nigel P; Glauert, Sarah A; Smith, Andy J; Kanekal, Shrikanth G; Baker, Daniel N; Engebretson, Mark J; Posch, Jennifer L; Spasojevic, Maria; Inan, Umran S; Pickett, Jolene S; Decreau, Pierrette M E

    2005-09-08

    The Van Allen radiation belts are two regions encircling the Earth in which energetic charged particles are trapped inside the Earth's magnetic field. Their properties vary according to solar activity and they represent a hazard to satellites and humans in space. An important challenge has been to explain how the charged particles within these belts are accelerated to very high energies of several million electron volts. Here we show, on the basis of the analysis of a rare event where the outer radiation belt was depleted and then re-formed closer to the Earth, that the long established theory of acceleration by radial diffusion is inadequate; the electrons are accelerated more effectively by electromagnetic waves at frequencies of a few kilohertz. Wave acceleration can increase the electron flux by more than three orders of magnitude over the observed timescale of one to two days, more than sufficient to explain the new radiation belt. Wave acceleration could also be important for Jupiter, Saturn and other astrophysical objects with magnetic fields.

  19. Dynamics of the low altitude secondary proton radiation belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, A A; Kohno, T; Spjeldvik, W N; Martin, I M; Pugacheva, G I; Turtelli, A

    1998-01-01

    At the interface between the upper atmosphere and the radiation belt region, there exists a secondary radiation belt consisting mainly of energetic ions that have become neutralized in the ring current and the main radiation belt and then re-ionized by collisions in the inner exosphere. The time history of the proton fluxes in the 0.64-35 MeV energy range was traced in the equatorial region beneath the main radiation belts during the three year period from 21 February 1984 to 26 March 1987 using data obtained with the HEP experiment on board the Japanese OHZORA satellite. During most of this period a fairly small proton flux of -1.2 cm-2 S-1 sr-1 was detected on geomagnetic field lines in the range 1.05 < L < 1.15. We report a few surprisingly deep and rapid flux decreases (flux reduction by typically two orders of magnitude). These flux decreases were also long in duration (lasting up to three months). We also registered abrupt flux increases where the magnitude of the proton flux enhancements could reach three orders of magnitude with an enhancement duration of 1-3 days. Possible reasons for these unexpected phenomena are discussed.

  20. 1991 National campaign to increase safety belt usage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration NHTSA

    1992-01-01

    The central theme of this paper is the national campaign of the USA to be conducted in 1991 and 1992, in order to reach the goal of 70 percent safety belt usage by 1992. Among other things, it is shown that visible enforcement of existing laws offers the greatest potential for achieving this goal. F

  1. Determination of Flutter Derivatives for the Great Belt Bridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Damsgaard, Aage; Reinhold, Thim A.

    1992-01-01

    A new method which combines control theory and system identification techniques has been used to extract flutter derivatives from section model tests for the Great Belt East Bridge. Tests were conducted by exciting the section model simultaneously in vertical and torsional modes of vibration. Tests...

  2. Knowledge, attitude and use of seat belt among commercial drivers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effectiveness of seat belt usage in reducing the severity of the sequelae of road traffic accidents is widely known. ... Each correct response to the knowledge questions was scored one mark and wrong response or non-response was ...

  3. On the Dynamics of Resonant Kuiper Belt Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Jiang, I G; Jiang, Ing-Guey; Yeh, Li-Chin

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of drag-induced resonant capture, which can explain the resonant Kuiper Belt Objects in a natural way. A review and comparison with the traditional mechanism of sweeping capture by the migrating Neptune will be given.

  4. Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chris Fromme

    2006-06-01

    This document details progress on the project entitled ''Effective Conveyor Belt Inspection for Improved Mining Productivity'' during the period from November 15, 2004 to May 14, 2004. Highlights include fabrication of an improved LED lightbar, fabrication of a line-scan sensor head for the Smart-Camera based prototype, and development of prototype vulcanized splice detection algorithms.

  5. Radiation Belt Storm Probes—Observatory and Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Karen; Artis, David; Bushman, Stewart; Butler, Michael; Conde, Rich; Cooper, Stan; Fretz, Kristen; Herrmann, Carl; Hill, Adrian; Kelley, Jeff; Maurer, Richard; Nichols, Richard; Ottman, Geffrey; Reid, Mark; Rogers, Gabe; Srinivasan, Dipak; Troll, John; Williams, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) is an Earth-orbiting mission that launched August 30, 2012, and is the latest science mission in NASA's Living with a Star Program. The RBSP mission will investigate, characterize and understand the physical dynamics of the radiation belts, as well as the influence of the Sun on the Earth's environment, by measuring particles, electric and magnetic fields and waves that comprise geospace. The mission is composed of two identically instrumented spinning observatories in an elliptical orbit around earth with 600 km perigee, 30,000 km apogee and 10∘ inclination to provide full sampling of the Van Allen radiation belts. The twin RBSP observatories (recently renamed the Van Allen Probes) will follow slightly different orbits and will lap each other four times per year, offering simultaneous measurements over a range of observatory separation distances. A description of the observatory environment is provided along with protection for sensitive electronics to support operations in the harsh radiation belt environment. Spacecraft and subsystem key characteristics and instrument accommodations are included that allow the RBSP science objectives to be met.

  6. Preservation of meandering river channels in uniformly aggrading channel belts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Lageweg, W.I.; Schuurman, F.; Cohen, K.M.; van Dijk, W. M.; Shimizu, Y.; Kleinhans, M.G.

    2016-01-01

    Channel belt deposits from meandering river systems commonly display an internal architecture of stacked depositional features with scoured basal contacts due to channel and bedform migration across a range of scales. Recognition and correct interpretation of these bounding surfaces is essential to

  7. Resolving the Planetesimal Belt of HR 8799 with ALMA

    CERN Document Server

    Booth, Mark; Casassus, Simon; Hales, Antonio S; Dent, William R F; Faramaz, Virginie; Matrà, Luca; Barkats, Denis; Brahm, Rafael; Cuadra, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The star HR 8799 hosts one of the largest known debris discs and at least four giant planets. Previous observations have found evidence for a warm belt within the orbits of the planets, a cold planetesimal belt beyond their orbits and a halo of small grains. With the infrared data, it is hard to distinguish the planetesimal belt emission from that of the grains in the halo. With this in mind, the system has been observed with ALMA in band 6 (1.34 mm) using a compact array format. These observations allow the inner edge of the planetesimal belt to be resolved for the first time. A radial distribution of dust grains is fitted to the data using an MCMC method. The disc is best fit by a broad ring between $145^{+12}_{-12}$ AU and $429^{+37}_{-32}$ AU at an inclination of $40^{+5}_{-6}${\\deg} and a position angle of $51^{+8}_{-8}${\\deg}. A disc edge at ~145 AU is too far out to be explained simply by interactions with planet b, requiring either a more complicated dynamical history or an extra planet beyond the orb...

  8. Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglis, I. A.; Bourdarie, S.; Khotyaintsev, Y.; Santolik, O.; Horne, R.; Mann, I.; Turner, D.

    2012-04-01

    We present the concept, objectives and expected impact of the MAARBLE (Monitoring, Analyzing and Assessing Radiation Belt Loss and Energization) project, which is being implemented by a consortium of seven institutions (five European, one Canadian and one US) with support from the European Community's Seventh Framework Programme. The MAARBLE project employs multi-spacecraft monitoring of the geospace environment, complemented by ground-based monitoring, in order to analyze and assess the physical mechanisms leading to radiation belt particle energization and loss. Particular attention is paid to the role of ULF/VLF waves. A database containing properties of the waves is being created and will be made available to the scientific community. Based on the wave database, a statistical model of the wave activity dependent on the level of geomagnetic activity, solar wind forcing, and magnetospheric region will be developed. Multi-spacecraft particle measurements will be incorporated into data assimilation tools, leading to new understanding of the causal relationships between ULF/VLF waves and radiation belt dynamics. Data assimilation techniques have been proven as a valuable tool in the field of radiation belts, able to guide 'the best' estimate of the state of a complex system. (The members of the MAARBLE team are: I. A. Daglis, S. Bourdarie, Y. Khotyaintsev, O. Santolik, R. Horne, I. Mann, D. Turner, A. Anastasiadis, V. Angelopoulos, G. Balasis, E. Chatzichristou, C. Cully, M. Georgiou, S. Glauert, B. Grison, I. Kolmasova, D. Lazaro, E. Macusova, V. Maget, C. Papadimitriou, G. Ropokis, I. Sandberg, M. Usanova.)

  9. Smoking, Sociodemographic Determinants, and Stress in the Alabama Black Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuaib, Faisal; Foushee, H. R.; Ehiri, John; Bagchi, Suparna; Baumann, Angela; Kohler, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the Alabama Black Belt, poverty is high, and the educational level is low. Studies have found increased tobacco use among individuals exposed to high levels of stress. Few studies have been conducted in this region to measure smoking status, its sociodemographic determinants, and how smoking status relates to stressful environmental…

  10. Interannual variability of temperature spells over Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusticucci, M. M; Vargas, W. M [Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmosfera y los Oceanos, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2001-04-01

    This work is aimed at studying the interannual variability of surface temperature cold spells and warm spells due to cold-and warm-air incursions. The effect of the ENSO event on the occurrence of extreme spells having three different indices was studied. In order to track changes during the 1959/96 period, spell parameters, persistence and intensity, have been studied from daily temperatures. The number of extreme spells per year show low frequency variability plus a biennial variability, which is more important in its intensity than in its persistence, and in summer rather than in winter. The number of extreme warm spell increase until the end of the sisties and seventies, reflecting and increase of northeasterly flow. From then onwards, the trend starts to decline significantly over northern Argentina. The interannual variability of extreme winter cold spells increases from the 80's onwards, indicating the variations of anticyclone permanence over the country. Cases are more numerous in the latest years. Extreme spell occurrence in northern Argentina is closely linked to the El nino phenomenon. Winter warm spells are more persistent in an El Nino (0) year and more intense and persistent in the year following El Nino. In summer, however, there is either no difference, or the relationship is reversed, resulting in more intense situations in November and December in the case of La Nina. Cold spells reaching the Northeastern most part of the country are more persistent when La Nina occurs, the conclusions being that the region would be affected by extreme cold spells when La Nina is active. [Spanish] En este trabajo se estudia la variabilidad interanual de las olas de calor y frio extremas sobre la Argentina, como la manifestacion de irrupciones extremas de aire tropical y polar. Se consideran las temperaturas de superficie diarias en el periodo de 1959/96, a partir de las cuales se calculan dos parametros para definir las olas: persistencia e intensidad. La

  11. 76 FR 16609 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... order on honey from Argentina for the period January 1, 2010, through December 31, 2010 based on a... published in the Federal Register the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice...

  12. 77 FR 4763 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... ] antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...

  13. 77 FR 77031 - Honey From Argentina; Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review; 2010-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina; Rescission of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... administrative review on honey from Argentina because all parties have withdrawn their requests for review and the antidumping duty order on imports of honey from Argentina is being revoked, effective December...

  14. 77 FR 45334 - Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Rescission of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... conducting a new shipper review (``NSR'') of the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina for the... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina was published on December 10, 2001.\\1\\ On January 3, 2012,...

  15. 76 FR 79655 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary..., petitioners withdrew their request for an antidumping duty administrative review of honey from Argentina for... that ACA is no longer subject to the antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. \\2\\ On February...

  16. 77 FR 21968 - Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Rescission of Countervailing Duty Administrative Review... countervailing duty order on honey ] from Argentina. See Notice of Countervailing Duty Order: Honey From... opportunity to request an administrative review of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina...

  17. 76 FR 76374 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Extension of Time Limit for Preliminary... respect to honey from Argentina. See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Administrative... order on honey from Argentina (in part). However, Nexco's request for revocation in part from the...

  18. 77 FR 77029 - Honey from Argentina; Final Results of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty Changed Circumstances...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey from Argentina; Final Results of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... orders on honey from Argentina because we have concluded that substantially all domestic producers lack..., the Department published the antidumping and countervailing duty orders on honey from Argentina.\\1\\...

  19. 76 FR 5332 - Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-31

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Notice of Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper... antidumping duty order on honey from Argentina. See Notice of Antidumping Duty Order: Honey From Argentina, 66...: Background On December 10, 2001, the Department published the antidumping duty order on honey from...

  20. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  1. Spatial distribution of rock glaciers in the semi-arid Andes of Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blöthe, Jan Henrik; Halla, Christian; Schrott, Lothar; Götz, Joachim; Trombotto, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Active rock glaciers are indicators for permafrost in periglacial environments of high mountain areas. Within the permafrost body and the seasonally frozen active layer, these rock glaciers potentially store large amounts of water. Especially in semiarid mountain belts, such as the central Andes of Argentina, rock glaciers attain several kilometres in length, covering surface areas of >106 m2. Here, rock glaciers even outrange ice glaciers in cumulative area and absolute number, indicating they might constitute a large water reservoir in this semiarid part of the Andes. Despite their potential hydrological importance, our knowledge about the rock glaciers' spatial distribution, subsurface composition and absolute ice content is still very limited. Our study addresses this shortcoming and aims at assessing the hydrological significance of rock glacier permafrost in the semi-arid Andes of Argentina by combining local geophysical investigations with regional remote sensing analysis. Our research focuses on the central Andes between 30°S and 33°S, where we have compiled an inventory that comprises more than 1200 rock glaciers, as well as 154 clear-ice and debris-covered glaciers. Two field sites that bracket this regional study area towards their northern and southern edge have been selected for local geophysical investigations. At these locations, earlier studies detected the presence of rock glacier permafrost by thermal monitoring and geophysical prospection. Preliminary results of the regional spatial distribution indicate that the spatial density of rock glaciers increases towards the south, concomitant with a twofold increase in mean annual precipitation. Rock glacier density peaks in the area of the Aconcagua massif, while precipitation is further increasing towards the south. Simultaneously, the lower altitudinal limit of intact rock glaciers slightly decreases, with the lowest rock glacier toe positions in the northern study area located at ~3800 m a. s. l

  2. Projected impact of a sodium consumption reduction initiative in Argentina: an analysis from the CVD policy model--Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konfino, Jonatan; Mekonnen, Tekeshe A; Coxson, Pamela G; Ferrante, Daniel; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in adults in Argentina. Sodium reduction policies targeting processed foods were implemented in 2011 in Argentina, but the impact has not been evaluated. The aims of this study are to use Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion and project the impact of Argentina's sodium reduction policies under two scenarios - the 2-year intervention currently being undertaken or a more persistent 10 year sodium reduction strategy. We used Argentina-specific data on sodium excretion by sex and projected the impact of the current strategy on sodium consumption and blood pressure decrease. We assessed the projected impact of sodium reduction policies on CVD using the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model, adapted to Argentina, modeling two alternative policy scenarios over the next decade. Our study finds that the initiative to reduce sodium consumption currently in place in Argentina will have substantial impact on CVD over the next 10 years. Under the current proposed policy of 2-year sodium reduction, the mean sodium consumption is projected to decrease by 319-387 mg/day. This decrease is expected to translate into an absolute reduction of systolic blood pressure from 0.93 mmHg to 1.81 mmHg. This would avert about 19,000 all-cause mortality, 13,000 total myocardial infarctions, and 10,000 total strokes over the next decade. A more persistent sodium reduction strategy would yield even greater CVD benefits. The impact of the Argentinean initiative would be effective in substantially reducing mortality and morbidity from CVD. This paper provides evidence-based support to continue implementing strategies to reduce sodium consumption at a population level.

  3. [Latin American malacology. Freshwater mollusks from Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumi, Alejandra; Gregoric, Diego E Gutiérrez; Núñez, Verónica; Darrigran, Gustavo A

    2008-03-01

    A report and an updated list with comments on the species of freshwater molluscs of Argentina which covers an area of 2 777 815 km2 is presented. Distributions of Gastropoda and Bivalvia families, endemic, exotic, invasive as well as entities of sanitary importance are also studied and recommendations on their conservation are provided. Molluscs related to the Del Plata Basin have been thoroughly studied in comparison to others areas of the country. This fauna exhibits relatively the biggest specific richness and keeps its affinity with the fauna of other regions of the basin in areas of Paraguay and Brasil. The 4 500 records of molluscs considered in this paper arise from the study of the collections of Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales "Bernardino Rivadavia", Buenos Aires; Museo de La Plata, La Plata and Fundación "Miguel Lillo", Tucumán. These institutions keep very important collections of molluscs in southern South America. Field information has recently been obtained and localities cited by other authors are also included in the data base. Until today, 166 species have been described, 101 belonging to 10 families of Gastropoda and 65 to 7 of Bivalvia. Families with highest specific richness are Lithoglyphidae (22) and Sphaeriidae (25), respectively. The number of endemic species (those present only in Argentina) by family is: Gastropoda: Ampullariidae (1), Cochliopidae (10), Lithoglyphidae (11), Thiariidae (3), Chilinidae (11), Lymnaeidae (2) and Physidae (2?); Bivalvia: Hyriidae (1?); Etheriidae (1?) and Sphaeriidae (10). Families with a distribution that comprise almost the whole country are: the Sphaeriidae and the gastropods Cochliopidae, Chilinidae and Lymnaeidae. Families Erodonidae and Solecurtidae (Bivalvia) were registered in mixohaline environments from Buenos Aires province. Gastropod families Thiaridae and Glacidorbiidae show a very restricted distribution. The rest of the families are present mainly in the center and north of the country

  4. [Nutritional graph for Argentina's bariatric population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantelli Pateiro, Laura; Pampillón, N; Coqueugniot, M; De Rosa, P; Pagano, C; Reynoso, C; De Pizzol, C; Iturralde, C; Podestá, S; Penutto, C

    2014-06-01

    Introducción: Una gráfica alimentaria es una guía que ayuda a los individuos a controlar y a mejorar la calidad de su alimentación; ofrece pautas sobre lo que debe comer una determinada población en términos de alimentos dando un marco para la correcta selección de los nutrientes a consumir. Objetivo: El objetivo de la presente publicación fue crear una herramienta de educación alimentaria destinada a pacientes de cirugía bariátrica para el postoperatorio en el largo plazo. Métodos: Se convocó a participar en mesas de trabajo a licenciados en nutrición y médicos especialistas en nutrición en un congreso realizado en el 2011. Se tomó como base científica el Primer Consenso Argentino de Nutrición en Cirugía Bariátrica y las “Guías alimentarias para la Población Argentina normal”. De esta forma se adapta la misma a la población argentina con cirugía bariátrica sumada a la experiencia de los profesionales. Resultado: Como resultado se obtuvo un gráfica alimentaria en forma de óvalo, adaptación de la gráfica de las “Guías alimentarias para la población argentina”, 12 mensajes o recomendaciones dirigidas a individuos con CB, una sugerencia de menú que responde a un valor calórico promedio de 1.273 calorías diarias, 145 g de carbohidratos, 76 g de proteínas y 43,2 g de grasas; 45,5% de calorías proveniente de los carbohidratos, 24% de calorías proveniente de las proteínas y 30,5 % de calorías proveniente de las grasas, 1.160 mg de calcio.

  5. Belt(s) of debris resolved around the Sco-Cen star HIP 67497

    CERN Document Server

    Bonnefoy, M; Ménard, F; Vigan, A; Lagrange, A -M; Delorme, P; Boccaletti, A; Lazzoni, C; Galicher, R; Desidera, S; Chauvin, G; Augereau, J C; Mouillet, D; Pinte, C; van der Plas, G; Gratton, R; Beust, H; Beuzit, J L

    2016-01-01

    In 2015, we initiated a survey of Scorpius-Centaurus A-F stars that are predicted to host warm-inner and cold-outer belts of debris similar to the case of the system HR~8799. The survey aims to resolve the disks and detect planets responsible for the disk morphology. In this paper, we study the F-type star HIP~67497 and present a first-order modelisation of the disk in order to derive its main properties. We used the near-infrared integral field spectrograph (IFS) and dual-band imager IRDIS of VLT/SPHERE to obtain angular-differential imaging observations of the circumstellar environnement of HIP~67497. We removed the stellar halo with PCA and TLOCI algorithms. We modeled the disk emission with the GRaTeR code. We resolve a ring-like structure that extends up to $\\sim$450 mas ($\\sim$50 au) from the star in the IRDIS and IFS data. It is best reproduced by models of a non-eccentric ring with an inclination of $80\\pm1^{\\circ}$, a position angle of $-93\\pm1^{\\circ}$, and a semi-major axis of $59\\pm3$ au. We also ...

  6. Horizontalidad, autogestión y protagonismo en Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Sitrin

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo trata los movimientos sociales autónomos que surgieron después de la crisis económica y la posterior rebelión popular en Argentina en diciembre de 2001. Los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina, como tantos movimientos en el mundo de hoy, son movimientos basados en la creación de nuevas relaciones sociales y comunidades ahora, al mismo tiempo que proyectan nuevas sociedadesy las relaciones en y para el futuro. Son movimientos con una concepción diferente del tiempo y el espacio. Son movimientos queentienden lo individual y lo colectivo como vinculados entre sí. Hay mucho en común entre la experiencia en la Argentina y las prácticas eideas anarquistas. Eso no significa que los que están creando nuevas relaciones y comunidades en la Argentina sean anarquistas. Lo que este artículo intenta hacer es basarse en las experiencias de los movimientos sociales argentinos para iniciar una reflexión sobre lasprácticas e ideas que los anarquistas pueden prestar a los distintos movimientos y comunidades autónomas; y, a su vez, sobre lo que los movimientos autónomos en la Argentina puede dar a las ideas y prácticas anarquistas.

  7. Tobacco industry successfully prevented tobacco control legislation in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebrié, E M; Barnoya, J; Pérez-Stable, E J; Glantz, S A

    2005-10-01

    To evaluate how transnational tobacco companies, working through their local affiliates, influenced tobacco control policymaking in Argentina between 1966 and 2005. Analysis of internal tobacco industry documents, local newspapers and magazines, internet resources, bills from the Argentinean National Congress Library, and interviews with key individuals in Argentina. Transnational tobacco companies (Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Lorillard, and RJ Reynolds International) have been actively influencing public health policymaking in Argentina since the early 1970s. As in other countries, in 1977 the tobacco industry created a weak voluntary self regulating code to avoid strong legislated restrictions on advertising. In addition to direct lobbying by the tobacco companies, these efforts involved use of third party allies, public relations campaigns, and scientific and medical consultants. During the 1980s and 1990s efforts to pass comprehensive tobacco control legislation intensified, but the organised tobacco industry prevented its enactment. There has been no national activity to decrease exposure to secondhand smoke. The tobacco industry, working through its local subsidiaries, has subverted meaningful tobacco control legislation in Argentina using the same strategies as in the USA and other countries. As a result, tobacco control in Argentina remains governed by a national law that is weak and restricted in its scope.

  8. Cooperation on Water management issues, Argentina : Project in the framework of Bilateral Cooperation between Argentina and the Netherlands : Case studies on water management issues in Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Querner, E.P.; Morabito, J.A.; Rebori, G.

    2007-01-01

    In Argentina parts of the country have problems encountered from too much water or suffer serious water shortages. The Humid Pampas encounter an increased rainfall since the 1970’s. In Mendoza Province water resources are limited and all the water from the rivers is used for agriculture, drinking

  9. 77 FR 28570 - Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... International Trade Administration Honey From Argentina: Extension of Time Limit for the Final Results of... period of review (POR) of honey from Argentina. See Honey From Argentina: Preliminary Results of.../exporters of honey from Argentina during the POR.\\1\\ \\1\\ See Preliminary Results for a detailed history...

  10. 77 FR 39257 - Honey From Argentina and China Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-02

    ... COMMISSION Honey From Argentina and China Institution of Five-Year Reviews Concerning the Countervailing Duty Order on Honey From Argentina and the Antidumping Duty Orders on Honey from Argentina and China AGENCY...)) (the Act) to determine whether revocation of the countervailing duty order on honey from Argentina...

  11. A new species of Habranthus (Amaryllidaceae from Argentina Una nueva especie de Habranthus (Amaryllidaceae de Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Roitman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Habranthus is described and illustrated. H. correntinus is found in wet grasslands of northeastern Argentina. The new species resembles Habranthus tubispathus in size, but can be easily distinguished by the presence of bulblets, narrow dark green leaves, narrow pinkish tepals with darker bases, the longer style with larger style arms, and the presence of leaves at anthesis. A key to identify the species of the genus from Corrientes is provided.Se describe e ilustra H. correntinus, especie que crece en pastizales húmedos en el noreste de Argentina. Esta nueva especie se parece en tamaño a Habranthus tubispathus pero puede distinguirse facilmente por la precencia de bulbillos, hojas más angostas de color verde oscuro, los tépalos rosados con la base oscura, el estilo mas largo al gual que las ramas estigmáticas y la presencia de hojas durante la antesis. Se brinda una clave para identificar las especies del género provenientes de la provincia de Corrientes.

  12. Publicaciones especializadas y liberalismo periférico. Notas sobre la transmisión de ideas económicas en Argentina, 1870-1890

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Plotkin, Mariano

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article —part of a larger project on the creation of «knowledge of state» in Argentina between the late nineteenth and 1930—, analyzes a series of publications that operated as «transmission belts» of economic knowledge and, more generally, of concepts tied to liberalism during the last decades of the n.ineteenth century in Argentina. What we want to reconstruct is the double process through which knowledge about the economy leads to an «expert discourse» socially recognized as such and, at the same time, certain ideas related to economy and society came to shape what could defined as an —always evolving— «social common sense».Este artículo —parte de un proyecto mayor sobre la conformación de «saberes de Estado» en la Argentina entre finales del siglo XIX y 1930—, se plantea como objetivo analizar una serie de publicaciones que operaron como «correas de transmisión» de saber económico y, en términos más generales, de concepciones vinculadas al liberalismo durante las últimas décadas del siglo XIX. Lo que pretendemos reconstruir es el doble proceso a partir del cual el saber sobre la economía da lugar a un «discurso experto» reconocido socialmente como tal y, al mismo tiempo, ciertas ideas vinculadas a la economía y a la sociedad llegaron a conformar lo que podría definirse como un —siempre cambiante— «sentido común social».

  13. Iodine-129 in animal thyroids from Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Negri, A.E., E-mail: negri@tandar.cnea.gov.ar [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Fernandez Niello, J.O. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, B1650BWA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Wallner, A. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria); Department of Nuclear Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia); Arazi, A. [Laboratorio TANDAR, CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, B1650KNA, San Martin, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Steier, P. [VERA-Laboratory, Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna, Waehringer Str. 17, A-1090 Wien (Austria)

    2012-07-15

    {sup 129}I and {sup 127}I concentrations in animal thyroids coming from several regions of Argentina were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and gas chromatography (GC), respectively. The measured {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios, ranging from 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -12} to 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -10}, are significantly lower than those typical for areas in the northern hemisphere (10{sup -10}-10{sup -7}). The {sup 129}I concentrations show a clear dependence with latitude and season, which can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible {sup 129}I sources and regional precipitation rates. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This is the first determination of {sup 129}I in thyroids from the southern hemisphere via AMS. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isotopic ratios measured are lower than those found in areas of the northern hemisphere. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two samples represent {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I ratios similar to pre-anthropogenic values. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data show a clear dependence with latitude and season, related with deposition pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We find a strong decorrelation between {sup 129}I and iodine sources.

  14. [Governance of PHC development in Rosario, Argentina].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báscolo, Ernesto; Yavich, Natalia

    2010-01-01

    Describing the development of PHC policy as promoted by Rosario Municipality (Argentina). A case-study was carried out during 2007 and 2008. Data was collected from secondary and primary sources (interviews, organisational census and observations). PHC development stages were identified by recognising the social norms which produced institutional change and transformation in municipal health services structure and health care and management models. The prevailing modes of governance in each stage were reconognised and characterised (clan, hierarchy and/or incentives). Four stages were identified between 1990 and 2008: 1990-1995/hierarchical mode: primary health care level organisation autonomied from hospitals. 1995-2000/ clan mode: developing of participatory managerial boards and community participation. 2000-2004/ clan mode: maturation of the "PHC movement" in competition with hospitals. 2004-2008/ clan-hierarchical mode: "movement's" crisis and constructions of norms tending towards enhancing an integrated network. Strengthening and empowering first-level health-care produced innovation favouring: the consolidation of a "PHC movement" having strong social commitment and improved services performance. The clan governance mode (regulating collective action via voluntary adhesion to shared values) was crucial for developing PHC between 1995 and 2004. Later on, the movement's fragmentation and the challenges of integrating the health system required developing hierarchical regulation mechanisms to complement the governance clan mode regulation.

  15. [Coccidioidomycosis in Argentina, 1892-2009].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canteros, C E; Toranzo, A; Ibarra-Camou, B; David, V; Carrizo, S G; Santillán-Iturres, A; Serrano, J; Fernández, N; Capece, P; Gorostiaga, J; Chacón, Y A; Tonelli, R; Boscaro, G; Abiega, C; Mendieta, S; Fernández, C; Fernández, A; Vitale, R; Santos, P; Pizarro, M R; López-Joffre, M C; Lee, W; Mazza, M; Posse, G; Tiraboschi, I N; Negroni, R; Davel, G

    2010-01-01

    Clinical cases of coccidioidomycosis are rare in Argentina and are generally found in the large arid precordilleran area of the country. This study aims to perform a retrospective review of all coccidioidomycosis cases documented in the country from 1892 to 2009, and to describe those occurring in the last 4 years. One hundred and twenty eight cases were documented in the 117 year-period. Since the original description of the disease in 1892 until 1939, only 6 cases were registered; between 1940 and 1999, 59 (6-14/10 yrs) and the remaining 63 (49% of total cases) occurred in the last decade. The median age of 34 patients registered in 2006-2009 was 31 years (range: 7-89), male/female ratio was 1.3:1 and 12 patients were immunocompromised. Twenty-six cases were confirmed by direct microscopy and/or culture whereas the remaining ones by serology. All isolates were identified as Coccidioides posadasii. Thirty patients lived in a vast geographic region with epicenter in Catamarca Valley. Between 2006 and 2009, annual disease incidence rates in Catamarca Province increased from historical values below 0.5/100,000 to 2/100,000 inhabitants. Such increase suggests an emergency of coccidioidomycosis in that region.

  16. Food-borne botulism in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebagliati, Victoria; Philippi, Romina; Tornese, Mariela; Paiva, Analia; Rossi, Laura; Troncoso, Alcides

    2009-05-01

    Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease caused by Clostridium botulinum toxins. Although the disease is uncommon it is a cause of great concern due to its high rate of mortality. Food-borne outbreaks of botulism occur worldwide and require immediate public health attention and acute care resources. Analysis of outbreaks showed that the food products most often involved were fermented fish products in Alaska; home-canned food, oil preservation and restaurant sauce in the rest of the United States (US) and in London and; and home-canned vegetables, airtight packed food with inappropriate refrigeration, and aerosols in Argentina. The diagnosis is based only on clinical findings matching the disease and previous exposure to suspicious food. Botulism must be immediately identified as even one case suggests the start of an epidemic and should be treated as a public health emergency. Therefore, the purpose of the following review is to recognize the risks associated with the consumption of potentially dangerous foods, and to encourage prevention by seeking to make all public health professionals aware of the dangers of this potentially lethal disease.

  17. Tracing the Iodine-129 fallout in Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez Niello, Jorge; Negri, Agustin; Arazi, Andres [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA), Buenos Aires (Argentina). Lab. TANDAR; Wallner, Anton [The Australian National University, Canberra (Australia). Dept. of Nuclear Physics; Niello, Jorge Fernandez [Universidad Nacional de San Martin, Campus Miguelete, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-07-01

    Full text: Long-lived {sup 129}I (half-life=15.6 Ma) is produced naturally by irradiation of atmospheric xenon by cosmic neutrons and in the sub-surface by spontaneous fission of {sup 238}U, from which the natural inventory of {sup 129}I has been estimated to be around 50,000 kg, only 140 kg of them corresponds to the hydrospheric inventory. Nuclear tests and accidents have added between 45-130 kg. Apart from a global atmospheric fallout component, {sup 129}I has been released from several nuclear fuel reprocessing plants located in the Northern Hemisphere (ca. 6000 kg) which serve as localized sources in oceanographic-tracer experiments. In this presentation, we report results from a study exploring the presence of {sup 129}I in the Southern Hemisphere by determining {sup 129}I/{sup 127}I isotopic ratios in water samples (rivers, lakes and shallow sea-water) taken at different latitudes in Argentina including Antarctica. The iodine-127 and iodine-129 concentrations were measured via ICP-MS (Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry) and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS), respectively. Distribution of both isotopes can be understood considering tropospheric circulation patterns, possible sources and regional precipitation patterns. Natural and anthropogenic sources for the Southern Hemisphere and their inventories are discussed. Similar contribution came from natural sources and nuclear tests. Contribution from the nuclear fuel reprocessing plants placed in the Northern hemisphere can be neglected. (author)

  18. Prevalence of cholelithiasis in Buenos Aires, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Mariano; Berkowski, Darío E; Córdoba, Juan Pablo; Verde, Juan Manuel; Giménez, Mariano E

    2013-06-01

    Cholelithiasis is an important cause of morbidity in the world and it varies significantly depending on the region of study. To assess the prevalence of cholelithiasis in Buenos Aires. This is a cross-sectional, descriptive, observational study performed in a public hospital with tertiary care in Gastrointestinal Surgery. From July 2010 to December 2011, 1,875 healthy volunteers who underwent liver, gallbladder and pancreas ultrasound imaging were included and a questionnaire containing the individual's medical history was administered. The presence of cholelithiasis and its eventual risk factors were studied. Of 1,875 individuals, 866 were males (46.2%) and 1,009 females (53.8%), older than 20 years old with an average age of 46.1 + 16.7 years. Cholelithiasis was found in 410 inidviduals (21.9%); 285 (15.2%) diagnosed at the time of the study and 125 (67%) who had already undergone a cholecystectomy due to gallstones. The prevalence of cholelithiasis in Buenos Aires, capital city of Argentina, is 21.9%. A significant association was found between cholelithiasis and female gender, age, body mass index, history of colic pain, family history of cholelithiasis, smoking, fatty liver and number of pregnancies.

  19. Psychotherapy, psychoanalysis and urban poverty in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epele, Maria Esther

    2016-12-01

    Based on ethnographic research carried out in the Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area, this paper examines the views of social actors on the psychoanalytically-oriented psychotherapy focused on marginalized populations. From Foucault's perspective on the forms of truth-telling, the aim of this paper is to analyze, as a preliminary research report, treatments according to the native ways of speaking and listening, which dominate the description of therapeutic experiences of patients who come to the treatment without any professional intermediation. The neoliberal transformations of the past decades in Argentina changed both the landscape of the public health system and the daily lives of marginalized people. Considering such changes, this paper examines the ways in which verbal actions (speaking and listening) take place in psychotherapy and mark the course not only of treatments but also the temporal rhythms of their development, and their various levels of efficacy. Finally, the discussion focuses on how ways of speaking and listening in treatments are modeled not only by institutional dynamics but also by the characteristics these verbal activities take in everyday life under the logics of power that prevail over them.

  20. docentes de escuelas públicas argentinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lía Kornblit

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizan los datos de una encuesta a docentes de escuelas públicas de Argentina que realizaron el curso virtual dictado por el Programa de Educación Sexual Integral del Ministerio de Educación. El objetivo fue analizar las opiniones, creencias y actitudes de los docentes sobre temas relacionados a la sexualidad, el derecho al aborto, la diversidad sexual, la equidad de género y el género y la sexualidad. La muestra del estudio estuvo compuesta por 585 docentes. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizaron métodos multivariantes. Los resultados muestran que los estereotipos relacionados con el sexismo y la diversidad sexual varían considerablemente en cuanto a su repre- sentación estadística según las regiones del país. Por lo tanto, el mapa de las con- cepciones de los docentes sobre estos temas muestra una marcada heterogeneidad según regiones geográficas.