WorldWideScience

Sample records for belostomatidae insecta hemiptera

  1. A taxonomic synopsis of Limnogeton Mayr, 1853 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Belostomatidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, José Ricardo I; Meyin-A-Ebong, Solange E; Le-Gall, Philippe; Guilbert, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The Afrotropical Belostomatidae fauna has long proved to be a difficult taxonomic problem, not so much for the overwhelmingly large number of species involved but rather because of a lack of trained specialists. The rarity of some taxa also contributes to confusion, because some species remain poorly described or are known only from one or two specimens. During a visit to the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France and the Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren, Belgium, it was possible to comprehensively review the Limnogeton species based mainly on the specimens housed in the aforementioned collections. An updated key to adults of all species presently included in the genus, particularly based on male genitalia characters studied during the present study, has been provided.

  2. Influence of Type of Electric Bright Light on the Attraction of the African Giant Water Bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Chinaru Nwosu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of type of electric bright light (produced by fluorescent light tube and incandescent light bulb on the attraction of the African giant water bug, Lethocerus indicus (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae. Four fluorescent light tubes of 15 watts each, producing white-coloured light and four incandescent light bulbs of 60 watts each, producing yellow-coloured light, but both producing the same amount of light, were varied and used for the experiments. Collections of bugs at experimental house were done at night between the hours of 8.30 pm and 12 mid-night on daily basis for a period of four months per experiment in the years 2008 and 2009. Lethocerus indicus whose presence in any environment has certain implications was the predominant belostomatid bug in the area. Use of incandescent light bulbs in 2009 significantly attracted more Lethocerus indicus 103 (74.6% than use of fluorescent light tubes 35 (25.41% in 2008 [4.92=0.0001]. However, bug’s attraction to light source was not found sex dependent [>0.05; (>0.18=0.4286 and >0.28=0.3897]. Therefore, this study recommends the use of fluorescent light by households, campgrounds, and other recreational centres that are potentially exposed to the nuisance of the giant water bugs. Otherwise, incandescent light bulbs should be used when it is desired to attract the presence of these aquatic bugs either for food or scientific studies.

  3. DNA barcodes for Nearctic Auchenorrhyncha (Insecta: Hemiptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G Foottit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have shown the suitability of sequence variation in the 5' region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI gene as a DNA barcode for the identification of species in a wide range of animal groups. We examined 471 species in 147 genera of Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha drawn from specimens in the Canadian National Collection of Insects to assess the effectiveness of DNA barcoding in this group. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the COI gene revealed less than 2% intra-specific divergence in 93% of the taxa examined, while minimum interspecific distances exceeded 2% in 70% of congeneric species pairs. Although most species are characterized by a distinct sequence cluster, sequences for members of many groups of closely related species either shared sequences or showed close similarity, with 25% of species separated from their nearest neighbor by less than 1%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study, although preliminary, provides DNA barcodes for about 8% of the species of this hemipteran suborder found in North America north of Mexico. Barcodes can enable the identification of many species of Auchenorrhyncha, but members of some species groups cannot be discriminated. Future use of DNA barcodes in regulatory, pest management, and environmental applications will be possible as the barcode library for Auchenorrhyncha expands to include more species and broader geographic coverage.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of the true water bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Nepomorpha: evidence from mitochondrial genomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Qiang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The true water bugs are grouped in infraorder Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera and are of great economic importance. The phylogenetic relationships within Nepomorpha and the taxonomic hierarchies of Pleoidea and Aphelocheiroidea are uncertain. Most of the previous studies were based on morphological characters without algorithmic assessment. In the latest study, the molecular markers employed in phylogenetic analyses were partial sequences of 16S rDNA and 18S rDNA with a total length about 1 kb. Up to now, no mitochondrial genome of the true water bugs has been sequenced, which is one of the largest data sets that could be compared across animal taxa. In this study we analyzed the unresolved problems in Nepomorpha using evidence from mitochondrial genomes. Results Nine mitochondrial genomes of Nepomorpha and five of other hemipterans were sequenced. These mitochondrial genomes contain the commonly found 37 genes without gene rearrangements. Based on the nucleotide sequences of mt-genomes, Pleoidea is not a member of the Nepomorpha and Aphelocheiroidea should be grouped back into Naucoroidea. Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies of Nepomorpha were resolved robustly. Conclusion The mt-genome is an effective data source for resolving intraordinal phylogenetic problems at the superfamily level within Heteroptera. The mitochondrial genomes of the true water bugs are typical insect mt-genomes. Based on the nucleotide sequences of the mt-genomes, we propose the Pleoidea to be a separate heteropteran infraorder. The infraorder Nepomorpha consists of five superfamilies with the relationships (Corixoidea + ((Naucoroidea + Notonectoidea + (Ochteroidea + Nepoidea.

  5. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-06-25

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality.

  6. Types of true bugs (Insecta, Hemiptera, Heteroptera) deposited in the Museo de La Plata, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscarón, María Del Carmen; Basset, Carina; Lopez, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    A checklist of Heteroptera type specimens deposited in the collection of División Entomología, Museo de La Plata. It harbours type material of 1153 species belonging to 37 families (Enicocephalidae, Schizopteridae, Gerridae, Veliidae, Hydrometridae, Naucoridae, Belostomatidae, Nepidae, Corixidae, Notonectidae, Pleidae, Saldidae, Cimicidae, Polyctenidae, Nabidae, Miridae, Tingidae, Vianaididae, Thaumastocoridae, Reduviidae, Aradidae, Alydidae, Coreidae, Rhopalidae, Berytidae, Blissidae, Lygaeidae, Oxycarenidae, Rhyparochromidae, Idiostolidae, Largidae, Pyrrhocoridae, Anthocoridae, Cydnidae, Pentatomidae, Scutelleridae, Thyreocoridae), represented by 207 holotypes, 26 allotypes, 578 paratypes, 1 lectotype, 1 paralectotype and 340 syntypes. For each taxon providing update information on valid names, categories of types, and locality. PMID:26249933

  7. Phylogenetic divergences of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera), with emphasis on the aquatic lineages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yan-hui; Cui, Ying; Rédei, Dávid;

    2016-01-01

    Heteroptera are among the most diverse hemimetabolous insects. Seven infraorders have been recognized within this suborder of Hemiptera. Apart from the well-established sister-group relationship between Cimicomorpha and Pentatomomorpha (= Terheteroptera), the two terminal lineages, the relationsh...

  8. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae) and Comparison with Other Aphididae Insects

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan Wang; Jing Chen; Li-Yun Jiang; Ge-Xia Qiao

    2015-01-01

    The mitogenome of Mindarus keteleerifoliae Zhang (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a 15,199 bp circular molecule. The gene order and orientation of M. keteleerifoliae is similarly arranged to that of the ancestral insect of other aphid mitogenomes, and, a tRNA isomerism event maybe identified in the mitogenome of M. keteleerifoliae. The tRNA-Trp gene is coded in the J-strand and the same sequence in the N-strand codes for the tRNA-Ser gene. A similar phenomenon was also found in the mitogenome of Eri...

  9. Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov., a new Miocene psyllid (Insecta, Hemiptera, Psyllidae from Dominican amber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Gimeno, V.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available new species of the fossil genus Otroacizzia Klimaszewski, 1996 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae is described as Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov. on the basis of a female specimen. This species is preserved in mid-Miocene amber from La Toca mines, Dominican Republic. The genus Otroacizzia is the most diverse psylloid genus in Dominican amber, with four known species. The new species differs from the three previously known species by the presence of a subapical dark band in the fore wing from the anterior part of the end of vein Rs to the end of vein Cu1b, which has a gap in the middle of the cell c1. Other differences in the fore wing are the presence of a strongly curved vein Cu1b and a cell c1 clearly longer than cell m1. Finally, the antennal segment 3 of the new species is one and a half times longer than segment 4.Se describe una nueva especie del género fósil Otroacizzia Klimaszewski, 1996 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae a partir de un ejemplar hembra: Otroacizzia soriae sp. nov. Esta especie está conservada en ámbar del Mioceno medio de las minas de La Toca en República Dominicana. Con cuatro especies conocidas, el género Otroacizzia es el género de psiloideo con mayor diversidad en el ámbar dominicano. La nueva especie difiere de las tres especies ya conocidas por la presencia de una banda oscura subapical en el ala anterior desde la parte anterior del final de la vena Rs hasta el final de la vena Cu1b, la cual presenta una discontinuidad en el medio de la celda c1. Otras diferencias en el ala anterior son la presencia de una vena Cu1b fuertemente curvada y una celda c1 claramente más larga que la celda m1. Finalmente, el tercer segmento antenal de la nueva especie es una vez y media más largo que el cuarto segmento.

  10. Identification guide to Nordic aphids associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns (Bryophyta, Equisetophyta, Polypodiophyta (Insecta, Hemiptera, Aphidoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders Christian Albrecht

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Keys and diagnoses of North European aphids (Hemiptera, Aphidoidea associated with mosses, horsetails and ferns are given, based on fresh and freeze-dried material. Numerous externally visible and thus informative characters, that are absent in cleared, slide-mounted specimens, such as body shape colours, wax coating and pattern etc., are utilized. Most of the species are illustrated by photographs of live specimens and drawings. Root-feeding species living in the moss layer or otherwise often present in moss samples are also included, even if their hosts were spermatophytes. The combination of colour images and diagnoses, utilizing easily observed characters, allows the identification of a large number of species already in the field, and many more at home with the aid of a stereo microscope. Host plant relationships and association with ants are summarised, including new records. Brief accounts on aphid life cycles, freeze-drying preparation techniques, etc. are also given to support the use of the keys.

  11. Building-Up of a DNA Barcode Library for True Bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of Germany Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Surprises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Michael J.; Hendrich, Lars; Küchler, Stefan M.; Deister, Fabian; Morinière, Jérome; Gossner, Martin M.

    2014-01-01

    During the last few years, DNA barcoding has become an efficient method for the identification of species. In the case of insects, most published DNA barcoding studies focus on species of the Ephemeroptera, Trichoptera, Hymenoptera and especially Lepidoptera. In this study we test the efficiency of DNA barcoding for true bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera), an ecological and economical highly important as well as morphologically diverse insect taxon. As part of our study we analyzed DNA barcodes for 1742 specimens of 457 species, comprising 39 families of the Heteroptera. We found low nucleotide distances with a minimum pairwise K2P distance 2.2% were detected for 16 traditionally recognized and valid species. With a successful identification rate of 91.5% (418 species) our study emphasizes the use of DNA barcodes for the identification of true bugs and represents an important step in building-up a comprehensive barcode library for true bugs in Germany and Central Europe as well. Our study also highlights the urgent necessity of taxonomic revisions for various taxa of the Heteroptera, with a special focus on various species of the Miridae. In this context we found evidence for on-going hybridization events within various taxonomically challenging genera (e.g. Nabis Latreille, 1802 (Nabidae), Lygus Hahn, 1833 (Miridae), Phytocoris Fallén, 1814 (Miridae)) as well as the putative existence of cryptic species (e.g. Aneurus avenius (Duffour, 1833) (Aradidae) or Orius niger (Wolff, 1811) (Anthocoridae)). PMID:25203616

  12. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification. PMID:27390089

  13. The first complete mitochondrial genome of a Belostomatidae species, Lethocerus indicus, the giant water bug: An important edible insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Kshetrimayum Miranda; Shantibala, Tourangbam; Debaraj, Hajarimayum

    2016-10-10

    Lethocerus indicus of the family Belostomatidae is one of the most preferred and delicious edible insects in different parts of South-East Asia including North-East, India. The mitogenome of L. indicus represents the first complete mitogenome sequence of a Belostomatidae species in Heteroptera order. The mitogenome of L. indicus is 16,251bp and contains 37 genes including 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a large non-coding region. The genome has a typical gene order which is identical to other Heteroptera species. All tRNAs exhibit the classic cloverleaf secondary structure except tRNASer (AGN). All the PCGs employ a complete translation termination codon either TAA or TAG except COII. The nucleotide composition showed heavy biased toward AT accounting to 70.9% of total mitogenome. The overall A+T content of L. indicus mitogenome was comparatively lower than some other Heteropteran bugs mitogenomes. The control region is divided into seven different parts which includes the putative stem loop, repeats, tandem repeats, GC and AT rich regions. The phylogenetic relationship based on maximum-likelihood method using all protein coding genes was congruent with the traditional morphological classification that Belostomatidae is closely related to Nepidae. The complete mitogenome sequence of L. indicus provides fundamental data useful in conservation genetics and aquaculture diversification.

  14. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida) ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae) from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida) ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae) da região sul do Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    José F. R. Amato; Suzana B. Amato

    2005-01-01

    A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans), Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown), mimetizi...

  15. New species of Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosymbiont on giant water bugs, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae from southern Brazil Nova espécie do gênero Temnocephala Blanchard (Platyhelminthes, Temnocephalida ectosimbionte sobre baratas d´água, Belostoma spp. (Hemiptera, Belostomatidae da região sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F. R. Amato

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 is described from southern Brazil, ectosymbiont on giant water bugs (aquatic hemipterans, Belostoma spp. from the greater Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul. Some hemipterans examined were positive for this species of Temnocephala and carried bunches of eggs between the first two pairs of legs and between the first pair of legs and the rostrum, as well as adult and young specimens. The adults were darkly pigmented (greenish-brown, mimetizing the color of the hemipteran hosts. The new species is similar to Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, from Argentina, the only other species of Temnocephala from belostomatid hemipterans known to date, by having an extra long and curved cirrus, but differs by having the distal portion of the introvert not bent as a 'full-bent' smoking pipe-like, as the author depicted originally for T. decarloi.Uma nova espécie de Temnocephala Blanchard, 1849 é descrita para o sul do Brasil, ectosimbionte sobre baratas-d'água (hemípteros aquáticos, Belostoma spp. da região metropolitana de Porto Alegre, Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Vários hemípteros examinados estavam positivos para esta espécie do gênero Temnocephala, inclusive com posturas sempre localizadas na face ventral entre os dois primeiros pares de apêndices locomotores, e entre o primeiro par de pernas e o rostro. Espécimes adultos e jovens de tamanhos variados também foram sempre encontrados na face ventral do hemíptero. Os vermes adultos eram pigmentados (marrom-esverdeado, mimetizando a cor do exoesqueleto de seus hospedeiros. A nova espécie é semelhante à Temnocephala decarloi Moretto, 1978, descrita da Argentina, única espécie conhecida do gênero já encontrada sobre hemípteros belostomatídeos, por ter um cirro extremamente longo e curvo, mas difere desta por ter a porção distal do 'introvert' sem a forma típica de um cachimbo ('full-bent' como ilustrada pelo autor na descrição original.

  16. Two ancient bacterial endosymbionts have coevolved with the planthoppers (Insecta: Hemiptera: Fulgoroidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urban Julie M

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the hemipteran suborder Auchenorrhyncha (commonly known as planthoppers, tree- and leafhoppers, spittlebugs, and cicadas are unusual among insects known to harbor endosymbiotic bacteria in that they are associated with diverse assemblages of bacterial endosymbionts. Early light microscopic surveys of species representing the two major lineages of Auchenorrhyncha (the planthopper superfamily Fulgoroidea; and Cicadomorpha, comprising Membracoidea [tree- and leafhoppers], Cercopoidea [spittlebugs], and Cicadoidea [cicadas], found that most examined species harbored at least two morphologically distinct bacterial endosymbionts, and some harbored as many as six. Recent investigations using molecular techniques have identified multiple obligate bacterial endosymbionts in Cicadomorpha; however, much less is known about endosymbionts of Fulgoroidea. In this study, we present the initial findings of an ongoing PCR-based survey (sequencing 16S rDNA of planthopper-associated bacteria to document endosymbionts with a long-term history of codiversification with their fulgoroid hosts. Results Results of PCR surveys and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rDNA recovered a monophyletic clade of Betaproteobacteria associated with planthoppers; this clade included Vidania fulgoroideae, a recently described bacterium identified in exemplars of the planthopper family Cixiidae. We surveyed 77 planthopper species representing 18 fulgoroid families, and detected Vidania in 40 species (representing 13 families. Further, we detected the Sulcia endosymbiont (identified as an obligate endosymbiont of Auchenorrhyncha in previous studies in 30 of the 40 species harboring Vidania. Concordance of the Vidania phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts (reconstructed based on sequence data from five genes generated from the same insect specimens from which the bacterial sequences were obtained was supported by statistical tests of codiversification. Codiversification tests also supported concordance of the Sulcia phylogeny with the phylogeny of the planthopper hosts, as well as concordance of planthopper-associated Vidania and Sulcia phylogenies. Conclusions Our results indicate that the Betaproteobacterium Vidania is an ancient endosymbiont that infected the common ancestor of Fulgoroidea at least 130 million years ago. Comparison of our findings with the early light-microscopic surveys conducted by Müller suggests that Vidania is Müller’s x-symbiont, which he hypothesized to have codiversified with most lineages of planthoppers and with the Sulcia endosymbiont.

  17. A remarkable new species of the sharpshooter genus Egidemia (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Egidemia China, 1927, E. impudica, is described and illustrated from the Department of Magdalena (Colombia. The male genitalia of the new species have a very peculiar, diagnostic feature: the pygofer is considerably reduced and truncate posteriorly, so that part of the aedeagus is exposed. A key to males of all known Egidemia species is provided. Notes comparing E. impudica with the other nine known species of the genus are also given.

  18. Bacterial symbionts of the leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Grzywacz, Beata; Szwedo, Jacek; Michalik, Anna

    2016-03-01

    Plant sap-feeding hemipterans harbor obligate symbiotic microorganisms which are responsible for the synthesis of amino acids missing in their diet. In this study, we characterized the obligate symbionts hosted in the body of the xylem-feeding leafhopper Evacanthus interruptus (Cicadellidae: Evacanthinae: Evacanthini) by means of histological, ultrastructural and molecular methods. We observed that E. interruptus is associated with two types of symbiotic microorganisms: bacterium 'Candidatus Sulcia muelleri' (Bacteroidetes) and betaproteobacterium that is closely related to symbionts which reside in two other Cicadellidae representatives: Pagaronia tredecimpunctata (Evacanthinae: Pagaronini) and Hylaius oregonensis (Bathysmatophorinae: Bathysmatophorini). Both symbionts are harbored in their own bacteriocytes which are localized between the body wall and ovaries. In E. interruptus, both Sulcia and betaproteobacterial symbionts are transovarially transmitted from one generation to the next. In the mature female, symbionts leave the bacteriocytes and gather around the posterior pole of the terminal oocytes. Then, they gradually pass through the cytoplasm of follicular cells surrounding the posterior pole of the oocyte and enter the space between them and the oocyte. The bacteria accumulate in the deep depression of the oolemma and form a characteristic 'symbiont ball'. In the light of the results obtained, the phylogenetic relationships within modern Cicadomorpha and some Cicadellidae subfamilies are discussed.

  19. Resin gathering in neotropical resin bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Reduviidae): functional and comparative morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forero, Dimitri; Choe, Dong-Hwan; Weirauch, Christiane

    2011-02-01

    Apiomerini (Reduviidae: Harpactorinae) collect plant resins with their forelegs and use these sticky substances for prey capture or maternal care. These behaviors have not been described in detail and morphological structures involved in resin gathering, transfer, and storage remain virtually undocumented. We here describe these behaviors in Apiomerus flaviventris and document the involved structures. To place them in a comparative context, we describe and document leg and abdominal structures in 14 additional species of Apiomerini that represent all but one of the 12 recent genera in the tribe. Based on these morphological data in combination with the behavioral observations on A. flaviventris, we infer behavioral and functional hypotheses for the remaining genera within the tribe Apiomerini. Setal abdominal patches for resin storage are associated with maternal care so far only documented for species of Apiomerus. Based on the occurrence of these patches in several other genera, we propose that maternal care is widespread within the tribe. Ventral abdominal glands are widespread within female Apiomerini. We propose that their products may prevent hardening of stored resins thus providing long-term supply for egg coating. Judging from the diverse setal types and arrangements on the front legs, we predict six different behavioral patterns of resin gathering within the tribe.

  20. New records of Gerromorpha and Nepomorpha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Higor D. D.; Barbosa, Julianna Freires; Reduciendo Klementová, Barbora; Svitok, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Aquatic and semiaquatic Heteroptera occur on all continents except Antarctica and occupy a wide variety of habitats, including lentic and lotic water bodies, perennial or temporary. In the Neotropical Region, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the geographical distribution of most represented species, which can only be solved by the collection of specimens in under-studied areas and publication of new records and lists of species. New information New records are presented for eleven species of Gerromorpha and ten Nepomorpha, including first records from Venezuela (Brachymetra lata, Limnogonus hyalinus, Rhagovelia evidis, Tenagobia peruana, Limnocoris burmeisteri, L. fittkaui fittkaui, Placomerus micans, and Martarega gonostyla), the Venezuelan State of Bolívar (Cylindrostethus palmaris, R. elegans, R. tenuipes, and Ambrysus stali), the Brazilian State of Bahia (Martarega bentoi), Peru (Euvelia lata), and the Peruvian Region of Arequipa (Microvelia pulchella). PMID:27226754

  1. Prolamin proteins alteration in durum wheat by species of the genus Eurygaster and Aelia (Insecta, Hemiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salis, L.; Goula, M.; Valero, J.; Gordun, E.

    2010-07-01

    Wheat bugs are widely distributed in various areas of Europe, Asia and North Africa. Species belonging to the genus Eurygaster and Aelia pierce wheat kernels affecting protein quality. The effects of these insects feeding activity have been studied mainly in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). This study provides information on the degradation of prolamin proteins (glutenins and gliadins) of bug-damaged durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) in six cultivars grown in Sardinia (Italy). Samples of whole flour mixture of 70% sound wheat and 30% damaged wheat were hydrated and incubated at two temperatures (45 and 4 degree centigrade), for different periods of time (0, 1 and 3 h). Glutenin and gliadin content was analysed using free zone capillary electrophoresis. The presence of bug-damaged kernels had influence on the quality of durum wheat proteins. Glutenins were rapidly degraded independently to incubation temperature. Gliadin degradation, however, took place with dependence on temperature and incubation time. Therefore glutenin degradation was possibly not due solely to the activity of proteolytic enzymes but also to some other as yet unknown factor linked to wheat bugs feeding activity. (Author) 35 refs.

  2. Tres nuevas especies y nuevos registros de Ladoffa de Panamá (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se describen e ilustran tres nuevas especies panameñas del género Ladoffa: woldai Lozada & Freytag sp.nov., lamasi Lozada & Freytag sp.nov. y grandis Lozada & Freytag sp.nov. Asimismo, se dan a conocer nuevos registros para Panamá de las especies variolaria Young, donsana Young, rubriguttata (Walker, elauta Young, dependens Young, uncata Young y trifasciata Cavichioli & Chiamolera.

  3. Arthropods of Steel Creek, Buffalo National River, Arkansas. III. Heteroptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Skvarla, Michael Joseph; Fisher, Danielle M.; Dowling, Ashley P.G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background This is the third in a series of papers detailing the terrestrial arthropods collected during an intensive survey of a site near Steel Creek campground along the Buffalo National River in Arkansas. The survey was conducted over a period of eight and a half months using twelve trap types – Malaise traps, canopy traps (upper and lower collector), Lindgren multifunnel traps (black, green, and purple), pan traps (blue, purple, red, white, and yellow), and pitfall traps – and B...

  4. 18S rRNA secondary structure and phylogenetic position of Peloridiidae (Insecta, hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouvrard, D; Campbell, B C; Bourgoin, T; Chan, K L

    2000-09-01

    A secondary structure model for 18S rRNA of peloridiids, relict insects with a present-day circumantarctic distribution, is constructed using comparative sequence analysis, thermodynamic folding, a consensus method using 18S rRNA models of other taxa, and support of helices based on compensatory substitutions. Results show that probable in vivo configuration of 18S rRNA is not predictable using current free-energy models to fold the entire molecule concurrently. This suggests that refinements in free-energy minimization algorithms are needed. Molecular phylogenetic datasets were created using 18S rRNA nucleotide alignments produced by CLUSTAL and rigorous interpretation of homologous position based on certain secondary substructures. Phylogenetic analysis of a hemipteran data matrix of 18S rDNA sequences placed peloridiids sister to Heteroptera. Resolution of affiliations between the three main euhemipteran lineages was unresolved. The peloridiid 18S RNA model presented here provides the most accurate template to date for aligning homologous nucleotides of hemipteran taxa. Using folded 18S rRNA to infer homology of character as morpho-molecular structures or nucleotides and scoring particular sites or substructures is discussed. PMID:10991793

  5. Papel dos besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) na Entomologia Forense

    OpenAIRE

    Wellington Emanuel dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Esse trabalho apresenta uma revisão do papel que os besouros (Insecta, Coleoptera) desempenham na Entomologia Forense. Discussões sobre ocorrência em cadáveres humanos e carcaças animais, estimativas de Intervalo Pós-Morte (IPM), estudos realizados no Brasil e em outros países, principais famílias de importância forense e aspectos biológicos, ecológicos e biogeográficos das espécies são apresentadas.

  6. Gender- and species-specific characteristics of bacteriomes from three psyllid species (Hemiptera: Psylloidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psyllids (Hemiptera: Pyslloidea) harbor bacterial symbionts in specialized organs called bacteriomes. Bacteriomes may be subject to manipulation to control psyllid pests including Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) and Cacopsylla pyricola (Forster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) if the bi...

  7. Organization of the mitochondrial genomes of whiteflies, aphids, and psyllids (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baumann Paul

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With some exceptions, mitochondria within the class Insecta have the same gene content, and generally, a similar gene order allowing the proposal of an ancestral gene order. The principal exceptions are several orders within the Hemipteroid assemblage including the order Thysanoptera, a sister group of the order Hemiptera. Within the Hemiptera, there are available a number of completely sequenced mitochondrial genomes that have a gene order similar to that of the proposed ancestor. None, however, are available from the suborder Sternorryncha that includes whiteflies, psyllids and aphids. Results We have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genomes of six species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid. Two species of whiteflies, one psyllid and one aphid have mitochondrial genomes with a gene order very similar to that of the proposed insect ancestor. The remaining four species of whiteflies had variations in the gene order. In all cases, there was the excision of a DNA fragment encoding for cytochrome oxidase subunit III(COIII-tRNAgly-NADH dehydrogenase subunit 3(ND3-tRNAala-tRNAarg-tRNAasn from the ancestral position between genes for ATP synthase subunit 6 and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5. Based on the position in which all or part of this fragment was inserted, the mitochondria could be subdivided into four different gene arrangement types. PCR amplification spanning from COIII to genes outside the inserted region and sequence determination of the resulting fragments, indicated that different whitefly species could be placed into one of these arrangement types. A phylogenetic analysis of 19 whitefly species based on genes for mitochondrial cytochrome b, NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1, and 16S ribosomal DNA as well as cospeciating endosymbiont 16S and 23S ribosomal DNA indicated a clustering of species that corresponded to the gene arrangement types. Conclusions In whiteflies, the region of the

  8. The valid name for the genus Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta, Hymenoptera: Braconidae), preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foissner, W.; Achterberg, van C.

    1997-01-01

    Loxocephalus Foerster, 1862 (Insecta: Braconidae) is preoccupied by Loxocephalus Eberhard, 1862 (Protozoa: Ciliophora). The name previously used for Loxocephalus Foerster, Myiocephalus Marshall, 1897, becomes the valid name for the genus.

  9. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) in Java, Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    ERNIWATI; ROSICHON UBAIDILLAH

    2011-01-01

    Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011) Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae) from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles) erionotae, Brachymeria l...

  10. De springstaart Isotomurus maculatus nieuw voor de fauna van Nederland (Insecta: Collembola)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, M.P.; Noordijk, J.; Schakel, A.; Bongers, M.

    2001-01-01

    The springtail Isotomurus maculatus new to the fauna of the Netherlands (Insecta: Collembola) Isotomurus maculatus (Schäffer, 1896) is a southern European springtail, which is recorded here as new for the fauna of the Netherlands. Specimens were collected on five sites in different regions of the Ne

  11. Sexual conflict in Gerris gillettei (Insecta: Hemiptera): intraspecific intersexual correlated morphology and experimental assessment of behaviour and fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, M-C; Turgeon, J

    2011-07-01

    The contemporary dynamics of sexually antagonistic coevolution caused by sexual conflicts have seldom been investigated at the intraspecific level. We characterized natural populations of Gerris gillettei and documented significant intersexual correlations for morphological traits previously related to sexual conflict in water striders. These results strongly indicate that sexually antagonistic coevolution contributed to population differentiation and resulted in different balances of armaments between the sexes within natural populations of this species. No-choice mating experiments further revealed that both male and male-female relative arms levels influence copulation duration. However, there were no asymmetries in reproductive behaviour and fitness between sympatric and allopatric mating pairs, suggesting that differentiation by sexual conflict was not sufficient to influence the outcome of mating interactions. Altogether, these results question the relative importance of female connexival spines vs. genitalia traits in mediating pre- and post-copulatory conflict in Gerris.

  12. A new species of Rotigonalia (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Peru with a key to males of the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Afonso Henrique; Mejdalani, Gabriel; Creão-Duarte, Antonio J

    2016-01-01

    Rotigonalia regina sp. nov. is described and illustrated based on a male specimen from Pasco, Peru. The holotype of R. regina is rather large in comparison with other specimens of the genus, but the inflated clypeus and the shape of the paraphyses support its inclusion in Rotigonalia Young, 1977. A key to males of the five known species of Rotigonalia is given.

  13. Description of a new Brazilian Paraportanus and key to the species of the genus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Portanini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Carvalho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Paraportanus longispinus,, a new leafhopper species from Roraima and Amazonas States, North Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species can be recognized by the male genital features, especially the distal third of ventral margin of the pygofer with a dentiform short process; plates distinctly longer than pygofer, extending posteriorly beyond pygofer by approximately 1/3 of their length and aedeagus with one pair of spiniform process long crossed and directed ventrally. A checklist and key to males of all known Paraportanus species is provided.

  14. On the female of Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972, with emphasis on genital structures (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elidiomar Da-Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gypona reversa DeLong & Martinson, 1972 has its ovipositor described and illustrated based on the examination of specimens from its type locality. This is the first species of Gypona Germar, 1821 to have the female genitalia detailed description published.

  15. Phylogeny of the major lineages of Membracoidea (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) based on 28S rDNA sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, C H; Rakitov, R A; Holmes, J L; Black, W C

    2001-02-01

    Analysis of sequences from a 3.5-kb region of the nuclear ribosomal 28S DNA gene spanning divergent domains D2-D10 supports the hypothesis, based on fossil, biogeographic, and behavioral evidence, that treehoppers (Aetalionidae and Membracidae) are derived from leafhoppers (Cicadellidae). Maximum-parsimony analysis indicated that treehoppers are the sister group of a lineage comprising the currently recognized cicadellid subfamilies Agalliinae, Megophthalminae, Adelungiinae, and Ulopinae. Based on this phylogenetic estimate, the derivation of treehoppers approximately coincided with shifts in physiology and behavior, including loss of brochosome production and a reversal from active, jumping nymphs to sessile, nonjumping nymphs. Myerslopiidae, traditionally placed as a tribe of the cicadellid subfamily Ulopinae, represented a basal lineage distinct from other extant membracoids. The analysis recovered a large leafhopper lineage comprising a polyphyletic Deltocephalinae (sensu stricto) and its apparent derivatives Koebeliinae, Eupelicinae (polyphyletic), Selenocephalinae, and Penthimiinae. Clades comprising Macropsinae, Neocoelidiinae, Scarinae, Iassinae, Coelidiinae, Eurymelinae + Idiocerinae, Evacanthini + Pagaroniini, Aphrodinae + Ledrinae (in part), Stenocotini + Tartessinae, and Cicadellini + Proconiini were also recovered with moderate to high branch support. Cicadellinae (sensu lato), Ledrinae, Typhlocybinae, and Xestocephalinae were consistently polyphyletic on the most-parsimonious topologies, but constraining these groups to be monophyletic did not significantly increase the length of the cladograms. Relationships among the major lineages received low branch support, suggesting that more data are needed to provide a robust phylogenetic estimate.

  16. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae in North West Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Augier

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae is expanded to North West Argentina.

  17. Presencia de Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) en el Noroeste Argentino (NOA) Record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in North West Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Lucrecia Augier; Gerardo Gastaminza; Marcelo Lizondo; Manuel Argañaraz; Eduardo Willink

    2006-01-01

    Se amplía la distribución de Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) para el Noroeste Argentino.The distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is expanded to North West Argentina.

  18. The complete mitogenome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nan, Xiaoning; Wei, Cong; He, Hong

    2016-05-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of Eucryptorrhynchus brandti (Harold) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Curculionidae) were reconstructed from whole-genome Illumina Hiseq 2000 sequencing data with an average coverage of 1406.7X. The circular genome is 15,122 bp in length, consisting of 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 21 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) and one D-loop or control region. The tRNA-Ile gene was not found in the mitochondrial genome, as is identical to two other curculionidae species, i.e. Sphenophorus sp. (GU176342) and Naupactus xanthographus (GU176345). All PCGs initiated with ATN codons, except for the ND1 started with TTG. Two PCGs (COI and ND4) have an incomplete stop codon T. Two PCGs (ND4L and ND1) harbor the stop codon TAG, while all other PCGs terminated with the TAA codon. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (38.7% A, 14.4% C, 9.2% G and 37.8% T) with an overall AT content of 76.5%. PMID:25427809

  19. The mitochondrial genome of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenosvesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carapelli, Antonio; Vannini, Laura; Nardi, Francesco; Boore,Jeffrey L.; Beani, Laura; Dallai, Romano; Frati, Francesco

    2005-12-01

    In this study, the nearly complete sequence (14,519 bp) of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the entomophagous endoparasite Xenos vesparum (Insecta: Strepsiptera) is described. All protein coding genes (PCGs) are in the arrangement known to be ancestral for insects, but three tRNA genes (trnA, trnS(gcu), and trnL(uag)) have transposed to derived positions and there are three tandem copies of trnH, each of which is potentially functional. All of these rearrangements except for that of trnL(uag) is within the short span between nad3 and nad4 and there are numerous blocks of unassignable sequence in this region, perhaps as remnants of larger scale predisposing rearrangements. X. vesparum mtDNA nucleotide composition is strongly biased toward As and Ts, as is typical for insect mtDNAs. There is also significant strand skew in the distribution of these nucleotides, with the J-strand being richer in A than T and in C than G, and the N-strand showing an opposite skew for complementary pairs of nucleotides. The hypothetical secondary structure of the 16S rRNA has also been reconstructed, obtaining a structural model similar to that of other insects.

  20. Metagenomics of Glassy-Winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Metagenomics approach was used to identify unknown organisms which live in association with the glassy-winged sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). Metagenomics combines molecular biology and genetics to identify, and characterize genetic material from unique biological ...

  1. Metagenomics of Glassy-winged Sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new insect-infecting viruses, three endosymbiotic bacteria, a fungus, and a bacterial phage were discovered using a metagenomics approach to identify unknown organisms that live in association with the sharpshooter, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae). The genetic composition of ...

  2. ¿QUÉ PERCEPCIÓN TENEMOS DE LOS INSECTOSPALO (Insecta: Phasmatodea? What Perception do we Have of Stick Insects (Insecta: Phasmatodea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAURICIO VARGAS C

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio compilatorio acerca de la relación que tienen las personas con los insectos palo (e insectos hoja; Insecta: Phasmatodea. Se destaca la importancia que tienen estos insectos en diferentes culturas, la forma de apreciarlos, percibirlos e interactuar con ellos. Se describen algunos aspectos etnotaxonómicos, de credo, usos y costumbres, representaciones gráficas, producciones literarias y cinematográficas de estos insectos en distintos grupos humanos. Se propone el estudio de la Etnofasmatología como disciplina dedicada a conocer las relaciones que tienen las distintas culturas con los insectos palo y hoja.A compillatory study was carried out about the relationship that people have with stick and leaf insects (Insecta: Phasmatodea. Stands out, the importance that these insects have in differents cultures, the form of appreciating them, perceiving and interacting with them. Some etnotaxonomics aspects are described, as well as credo, uses and customs, graphic representations, and literary and film productions of these insects in different human groups. In this study it is proposed that Etnophasmatology is the discipline dedicated to know the relationships that the different cultures have with the stick and leaf insects.

  3. Butterfly (Lepidoptera: Insecta Diversity from Different Sites of Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera is a large order of insects that includes moths and butterflies. Lepidoptera is the second largest order in the class Insecta. Some of the butterfly species were identified as indicators of disturbance in any area. The present study conducted in three sites of taluka Jhagadia, Ankleshwar, District-Bharuch, Gujarat. In the present study a total of 484 individuals belonging to 58 species of 9 families were identified. Among which Pieridae was found to be the most dominant family. The area of study having rich diversity of butterflies, therefore it should be of great importance for conservation.

  4. Structural variation of the ribosomal gene cluster within the class Insecta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukha, D.V.; Sidorenko, A.P.; Lazebnaya, I.V. [Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    General estimation of ribosomal DNA variation within the class Insecta is presented. It is shown that, using blot-hybridization, one can detect differences in the structure of the ribosomal gene cluster not only between genera within an order, but also between species within a genera, including sibling species. Structure of the ribosomal gene cluster of the Coccinellidae family (ladybirds) is analyzed. It is shown that cloned highly conservative regions of ribosomal DNA of Tetrahymena pyriformis can be used as probes for analyzing ribosomal genes in insects. 24 refs., 4 figs.

  5. CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE KNOWLEDGE OF THE SPECIES OF BEETLES (INSECTA: COLEOPTERA FROM WHEAT CROP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Tălmaciu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the species of beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera between in wheat crops from Tişiţa, in Vrancea county. The observations were made in a crop of wheat in 2013, who were placed the soil traps type Barber, during the two months, May and June. It was used three variants: • Variant 1 - consumption wheat untreated • Variant 2 - consumption wheat treaty • Variant 3 - treated wheat seed The gathering of samples from the traps was done periodically, every 12-15 days. The most species frequent gathered was: Pentodon idiota, Epicometis hirta, Opatrum sabulosum, Phyllotreta atra, Phyllotreta nemorum, Tanymecus dilaticollis.

  6. A molecular phylogeny of Hemiptera inferred from mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Song

    Full Text Available Classically, Hemiptera is comprised of two suborders: Homoptera and Heteroptera. Homoptera includes Cicadomorpha, Fulgoromorpha and Sternorrhyncha. However, according to previous molecular phylogenetic studies based on 18S rDNA, Fulgoromorpha has a closer relationship to Heteroptera than to other hemipterans, leaving Homoptera as paraphyletic. Therefore, the position of Fulgoromorpha is important for studying phylogenetic structure of Hemiptera. We inferred the evolutionary affiliations of twenty-five superfamilies of Hemiptera using mitochondrial protein-coding genes and rRNAs. We sequenced three mitogenomes, from Pyrops candelaria, Lycorma delicatula and Ricania marginalis, representing two additional families in Fulgoromorpha. Pyrops and Lycorma are representatives of an additional major family Fulgoridae in Fulgoromorpha, whereas Ricania is a second representative of the highly derived clade Ricaniidae. The organization and size of these mitogenomes are similar to those of the sequenced fulgoroid species. Our consensus phylogeny of Hemiptera largely supported the relationships (((Fulgoromorpha,Sternorrhyncha,Cicadomorpha,Heteroptera, and thus supported the classic phylogeny of Hemiptera. Selection of optimal evolutionary models (exclusion and inclusion of two rRNA genes or of third codon positions of protein-coding genes demonstrated that rapidly evolving and saturated sites should be removed from the analyses.

  7. Behaviour of damselfly larvae (Enallagma cyathigerum) (Insecta, Odonata) after long-term exposure to PFOS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gossum, Hans van [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: hans.vangossum@ua.ac.be; Bots, Jessica [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: jessica.bots@ua.ac.be; Snijkers, Tom [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: tom.snijkers@gmail.com; Meyer, Johan [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: izak.meyer@ua.ac.be; Van Wassenbergh, Sam [Laboratory for Functional Morphology, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: sam.vanwassenbergh@ua.ac.be; De Coen, Wim [Research group of Ecophysiology, Biochemistry and Toxicology, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium)], E-mail: wim.decoen@ua.ac.be; De Bruyn, Luc [Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, B-2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Research Institute for Nature and Forest, Kliniekstraat 25, 1070 Brussels (Belgium)], E-mail: luc.debruyn@ua.ac.be

    2009-04-15

    Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) is a persistent and ubiquitous environmental contaminant that has been detected in organisms worldwide. Here, we evaluate whether long-term (1 and 4 months) exposure to PFOS contamination affects the behavioural performance of freshwater larvae of the damselfly Enallagma cyathigerum (Insecta: Odonata). Our results show reduced behavioural performance with increasing PFOS concentration. In 1 month exposed larvae, no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 100 {mu}g/L for general activity. In 4 months exposed larvae, NOECs were 10 {mu}g/L, for each behavioural trait, except swimming acceleration of male larvae where the NOEC was 100 {mu}g/L. When faced with PFOS concentrations above the NOEC, E. cyathigerum larvae were less active, less capable to escape a simulated predator attack and less efficient in foraging. Together, our results show that damselfly larvae suffer reduced survival-related behavioural performance. - Long-term laboratory exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonic acid decreases behavioural performance of damselfly larvae (Insecta: Odonata)

  8. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) sequence of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), from Guangzhou, China is presented. The circular mitogenome is 14,996 bp in length with an A+T content of 74.5%, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 tRNA genes ...

  9. Catalog of the adelgids of the world (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A taxonomic and nomenclatural catalog of the adelgids (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) is presented. Six family-group names are listed, five being synonyms of Adelgidae. Twenty-two genus-group names, of which nine are valid and in use, are presented with their type species, etymology, and grammatical gender. ...

  10. The biology of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C; Zimmermann, H G

    2009-12-01

    Dactylopius tomentosus (Lamarck) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) is a cochineal insect whose host range is restricted to Cylindropuntia species (Caryophyllales: Cactaceae). This insect has been utilized successfully for biological control of Cylindropuntia imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth in Australia and South Africa. Despite this, its biology has not been studied previously, probably due to the widely held belief that the biology of all Dactylopius species is similar. This study investigated the life cycle and the morphological and reproductive characteristics of D. tomentosus. Results revealed some unique characteristics of D. tomentosus: (i) eggs undergo a much longer incubation period, an average of 17 days compared to Dactylopius spp. due to a longer egg incubation period; (iv) D. tomentosus does not undergo parthenogenesis; (v) D. tomentosus is smaller in size than its congeners; and (vi) male mating capacity and reproductive potential were both high and variable between males. There was a significant, strong, positive relationship (r = 0.93) between female mass and fecundity, whereas the relationship between the number of females mated per male that became gravid and their fecundity was negative (r = -0.68). Besides contributing to our knowledge of this economically important species, the finding of unique characteristics of D. tomentosus biology underlines the need to study each species in this genus. PMID:19203403

  11. Bacteria belonging to the genus Burkholderia are obligatory symbionts of the eriococcids Acanthococcus aceris Signoret, 1875 and Gossyparia spuria (Modeer, 1778) (Insecta, Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Katarzyna; Szklarzewicz, Teresa; Kalandyk-Kołodziejczyk, Małgorzata; Jankowska, Władysława; Michalik, Anna

    2016-05-01

    In the fat body cells of the scale insects, Gossyparia spuria and Acanthococcus aceris, numerous rod-shaped symbiotic bacteria occur. Molecular analyses have revealed that these microorganisms are closely related to the widely distributed bacterium Burkholderia. Ultrastructural observations have revealed that the bacteria are transovarially (vertically) transmitted from the mother to offspring. The microorganisms leave the fat body cells and invade ovarioles containing vitellogenic oocytes. They pass through the follicular epithelium in the neck region of the ovariole and enter the perivitelline space. Next, the symbionts infest the anterior region of the oocyte.

  12. Neotropical Pentatomidae (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera of the collection of Massimiliano Spinola preserved in the "Museo Regionale de Scienze Naturali", Turin, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jocélia Grazia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and forty specimens of Neotropical pentatomids of the Spinola collection were examined and identified and are listed in the present work. Lectotypes are designated for Arvelius gladiator Spinola, 1837; Arvelius laciniatus Spinola, 1837; Audinetella bipunctata Spinola, 1850; Ochlerus cinctus Spinola, 1837; Pentatoma albocostatum Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma dimidiaticollis (Spinola, 1852; Pentatoma unidentatum Spinola, 1852; Schaefferella litigiosa Spinola, 1850, Sympiezorhincus tristis Spinola, 1837; and Thoreyella brasiliensis Spinola, 1850. A lectotype is also designated for Chlorocoris tau, putting aside the previous Neotype designation. The preservation status of each specimen is provided.

  13. Descriptions of a new Brazilian Tacora species and the female of T. saturata, and a key to the species of the genus (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Cicadellini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Tacora johanni, a new species from Rondônia State, North Brazil, is described and illustrated. The new species can be recognized by the male genital features, especially the subgenital plates with the basal half distinctly expanded and with outer lateral margin round, the long and slender preapical pygofer process, and the styles with apical half strongly curved. Also, the genus is recorded for the first time from Venezuela, based on specimens of T. saturata Young, 1977, while the female of this species (here described in detail for the first time shows two unusual features of the genitalia. A key to males of all known Tacora species and a map showing the known distribution of the genus are provided.

  14. Notes on Neotropical Proconiini (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. VIII: morphology of the male and female genitalia of Paraulacizes munda, revalidated from synonymy of P. confusa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mejdalani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Paraulacizes munda (Fowler, 1899 has been considered a junior synonym of P. confusa (Signoret, 1855. These two species were described from Mexico. Here it is shown that P. munda can be distinguished from P. confusa by the color and size of the body. Hence, the former is revalidated from synonymy of the latter. Descriptions and illustrations of the male and female genitalia of P. munda, which are necessary for an accurate identification of leafhopper species in general, are provided for the first time. Paraulacizes munda can be distinguished from the other 11 species currently included in Paraulacizes by the following combination of features: ground color of anterior dorsum yellow or pale yellow; dorsal processes of male pygofer strongly inflated apically; style with apex transversely truncate, not projected inward; atrial processes of aedeagus, in lateral view, not distinctly curved apically; female sternite VII with small median lobe on posterior margin and pair of dark brown marks posteromedially. This is the first detailed description of the first and second ovipositor valvulae of a Paraulacizes species. The female genitalia of Paraulacizes are compared with those of the related genera Aulacizes Amyot & Serville, 1843 and Proconosama Young, 1968.

  15. A remarkable new species of Euragallia from Peru (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Agalliini, including the description of a peculiar structure of the male genitalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Rodrigues

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Euragallia Oman, 1938 from Peru (Pasco Department is described and illustrated. Euragallia batmani sp. n. can be distinguished from the other species of the genus by the very posteriorly pronounced male pygofer, with an apical hook-like projection, and by the well-developed dorsal area of the aedeagal base, resembling the open wings of a bat. With the addition of E. batmani sp. n., the number of Euragallia species is increased to 21. Only one additional species of the genus is recorded from Peru (E. prion Kramer, 1976. A comparison between the new species and E. prion is provided. A conspicuous structure, which connects the subgenital plates to the styles, is described in detail and named.

  16. Endemism analysis of Neotropical Pentatomidae (Hemiptera, Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Ferrari

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The definition of areas of endemism is central to studies of historical biogeography, and their interrelationships are fundamental questions. Consistent hypotheses for the evolution of Pentatomidae in the Neotropical region depend on the accuracy of the units employed in the analyses, which in the case of studies of historical biogeography, may be areas of endemism. In this study, the distribution patterns of 222 species, belonging to 14 Pentatomidae (Hemiptera genera, predominantly neotropical, were studied with the Analysis of Endemicity (NDM to identify possible areas of endemism and to correlate them to previously delimited areas. The search by areas of endemism was carried out using grid-cell units of 2.5° and 5° latitude-longitude. The analysis based on groupings of grid-cells of 2.5° of latitude-longitude allowed the identification of 51 areas of endemism, the consensus of these areas resulted in four clusters of grid-cells. The second analysis, with grid-cells units of 5° latitude-longitude, resulted in 109 areas of endemism. The flexible consensus employed resulted in 17 areas of endemism. The analyses were sensitive to the identification of areas of endemism in different scales in the Atlantic Forest. The Amazonian region was identified as a single area in the area of consensus, and its southeastern portion shares elements with the Chacoan and Paraná subregions. The distribution data of the taxa studied, with different units of analysis, did not allow the identification of individual areas of endemism for the Cerrado and Caatinga. The areas of endemism identified here should be seen as primary biogeographic hypotheses.

  17. Diaspididae (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Espírito Santo, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Culik, Mark P.; David S Martins; José A. Ventura; Wolff, Vera S.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-seven species of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) are newly recorded from Espírito Santo, Brazil, and information on the host plants and geographic distribution of the 31 species of Diaspididae that have been identified in the State is provided. New plant host records are reported for 11 of the diaspidid species studied and results are discussed with respect to development of agriculture in this and similar areas with objectives of modernization and diversification.

  18. An overview on the ecology of Triatominae (Hemiptera:Reduviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvão, Cleber; Justi, Silvia A

    2015-11-01

    Chagas disease, the American trypanosomiasis, is an important neglected tropical illness caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) and transmitted by insects of the subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Here we provide an overview on the current knowledge about Triatominae ecology, its association with human, T. cruzi infection and the immediate consequences of habitat fragmentation. We also discuss the geographic distribution of the species and the importance of predicting their distributions to control programs.

  19. Assembly and annotation of full mitochondrial genomes for the corn rootworm species, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera and D. barberi (Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), using Next Generation Sequence data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Complete mitochondrial genomes for two corn rootworm species, Diabrotica v. virgifera (16,747 bp) and D. barberi (16,632; Insecta: Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), were assembled from Illumina HiSeq2000 read data. Annotation indicated that the order and orientation of 13 protein coding genes (PCGs), and...

  20. Podagrion charybdis Fernando (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae parasitic on ootheca of Tendodera fasciata (Olivier (Insecta: Mantodea: first record from India and redescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Sureshan

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Podagrion charybdis Fernando (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Torymidae is being reported for the first time from India based on specimens reared from the ootheca of Tendodera fasciata (Olivier (Insecta: Mantodea: Mantidae. The species is being reported subsequent to the original description with the new host record, is redescribed and illustrated.

  1. Jumping performance of planthoppers (Hemiptera, Issidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Malcolm

    2009-09-01

    The structure of the hind limbs and the kinematics of their movements that propel jumping in planthopper insects (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Fulgoroidea, Issidae) were analysed. The propulsion for a jump was delivered by rapid movements of the hind legs that both move in the same plane beneath the body and parallel to its longitudinal axis, as revealed in high-speed sequences of images captured at rates up to 7500 images s(-1). The first and key movement was the depression of both trochantera about their coxae, powered by large depressor muscles in the thorax, accompanied by rapid extension of the tibiae about their femora. The initial movements of the two trochantera of the hind legs were synchronised to within 0.03 ms. The hind legs are only 20% longer than the front and middle legs, represent 65% of the body length, and have a ratio of 1.8 relative to the cube root of the body mass. The two hind coxae have a different structure to those in frog- and leafhoppers. They are fused at the mid-line, covered ventrally by transparent cuticle, and each is fixed laterally to a part of the internal skeleton called the pleural arch that extends to the articulation of a hind wing. A small and pointed, ventral coxal protrusion covered in microtrichia engages with a raised, smooth, white patch on a dorsal femur when a hind leg is levated (cocked) in preparation for a jump. In the best jumps by a male Issus, the body was accelerated in 0.8 ms to a take-off velocity of 5.5 m s(-1), was subjected to a force of 719 g and was displaced a horizontal distance of 1.1 m. This performance required an energy output of 303 microJ, a power output of 388 mW and exerted a force of 141 mN, or more than 700 times its body mass. This performance implies that a catapult mechanism must be used, and that Issus ranks alongside the froghopper Philaenus as one of the best insect jumpers. PMID:19684220

  2. Checklist of butterfly (Insecta: Lepidoptera fauna of Tehsil Tangi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farzana Khan Perveen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The butterflies (Insecta: Lepidopteraare well known insects, play an important role in the ecosystem as bioindicators and pollinators. They have bright colours, remarkable shapes and supple flight. The present study was conducted to prepare the checklist of butterfly fauna of Tehsil Tangi during August, 2014 to May, 2015. A total of 506 specimens were collected belong to 3 families with 18 genera and 23 species. The collected species are the common or lemon emigrant, Catopsila ponoma Fabricius; mottled emigrant, Catopsilia pyranthe Linnaeus; clouded yellow, Colias fieldii Fabricius; common grass yellow, Eurema hecabe Linnaeus; eastern pale clouded yellow butterfly, Colias erate Esper; Indian cabbage white, Pieris canidia Sparrman; Indian little orange tip, Colotis etrida Boisduval; pioneer white or African caper white, Belonias aurota Fabricius; plain tiger, Danaua chrysippus Linnaeus; blue tiger, Tirumala liminniace Cramer; peacock pansy, Junonia almanac Linnaeus; Indian fritillary, Argyreus hyperbius Linnaeus; Indian red admiral, Venesa indica Herbst; yellow pansy, Junonia hierta Fabricius; blue pansy, Junonia orytha Linnaeus; white edged rock brown, Hipparchia parisatis Kollar; banded tree brwon, Lethe confuse Aurivillius; common castor, Ariadne merione Cramer; painted lady, Caynthia cardui Linnaeus; Himalayan sailer, Neptis mahendra Moore; common boran, Euthalia garuda Hewitson; lime butterfly, Papilio demoleus Linnaeus and great black mormon butterfly, Papilio polytes Linnaeus. It was concluded that the family Nymphalidae has the highest numbers of individuals in the present checklist. It is recommended that butterfly fauna of the study area should be conserved and their habitat should be protected.

  3. Assessment of water quality in urban streams based on larvae of Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tszydel, Mariusz; Markowski, Marcin; Majecki, Janusz; Błońska, Dagmara; Zieliński, Mateusz

    2015-10-01

    Hydropsyche angustipennis (Insecta, Trichoptera) larvae were used as indicators of stream contamination in the city of Łódź, Poland. The larvae of H. angustipennis were present at 9 sampling sites established for this study. Significant differences between the sampling sites were noted for environmental parameters as well as concentration of chemicals in water and biodiversity of aquatic invertebrates. Statistical analyses showed significant correlations between quantity and quality of water pollutants and density of H. angustipennis larvae, concentration of metals in larval bodies, and the appearance of morphological anomalies in tracheal gills and anal papillae. In comparison to literature data, the level of contaminants in water, including heavy metals, for each of the studied streams of Łódź was surprisingly low while concentration of these metals in the whole bodies of H. angustipennis larvae was very high. Some of the heavy metals present in the water might be identified only after conducting analyses of their concentration in the larval bodies. Therefore, long life cycle of H. angustipennis and heavy metal tolerance with a possibility of their accumulation in the larval bodies may constitute a support to traditional chemical assessment of water quality or traditional biomonitoring. PMID:25982980

  4. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiao-Yi; Duan, Xiao-Yu; Qiang, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome of the Scarlet Tiger moth Callimorpha dominula (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Arctiidae) has been reconstructed from the whole-genome Illumina sequencing data. This circular genome is 15 496 bp in size, and contains 13 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 22 transfer RNAs (tRNAs), two ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs), and one A + T-rich D-loop or control region. Most PCGs are initiated with the ATN codons, except for COX1 with the unusual CGA as its initiation codon. Four PCGs (COX1, COX2, ND3, and ND4) are terminated with incomplete codon T, ND4L uses TAG as its termination codon, while all the other eight PCGs employ the usual ATN codons. The nucleotide composition is highly asymmetric (40.1% A, 40.9% T, 7.6% G, and 11.4% C) with an overall A + T content of 81.0%. The phylogenetic analysis based on the neighbor-joining (NJ) method suggests that C. dominula is more phylogenetically related to its confamilial counterparts than to those from other families. PMID:26329289

  5. Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Criste Massariol

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Conservation of mayflies (Insecta, Ephemeroptera in Espírito Santo, southeastern Brazil. Ephemeroptera exhibits great diversity among bodies of freshwater in the Atlantic Forest, a biome that is suffering from massive human impact. Within this context, the creation of conservation units using biological information is more recommended than economic, cultural, or political criteria. The distribution pattern of 76 Ephemeroptera species was analyzed using the biogeographical methods Parsimony Analysis of Endemicity and Network Analysis Method in order to infer relevant areas for conservation of the mayfly community in Espírito Santo. The results obtained from both analyses were largely congruent, and pointed out four relevant areas for conservation: two in the south of the state, where conservation units or priority areas for conservation are well established; and two in the north, a region in the state where little conservation efforts have been historically done. Therefore, based on our analyses on mayflies, we recommend the expansion of the existing APCs or the creation of new APCs on the north of Espírito Santo.

  6. Study of the mayfly order Ephemeroptera (Insecta in Brazil: a scienciometric review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulie Shimano

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Study of the mayfly order Ephemeroptera (Insecta in Brazil: a scienciometric review. Despite an increase in the number of studies in recent years of the aquatic insect order Ephemeroptera (the mayflies much still remains to be learnt. In order to identify the current state of knowledge of this group in Brazil, we performed a scienciometric analysis with the purpose of identifying the strong and weak points of Brazilian research into the group. Our research used the "Institute for Scientific Information - ISI" database and was based on the abstracts, titles and keywords of manuscripts published between 1992 and 2011. We selected the papers with the combination of the words "Ephemeroptera" and "Brazil*" based on a search in February 2012. We analyzed 92 articles, and noted a lack of studies in some Brazilian states, no specific studies about some families, and an absence of phylogenetic studies. To improve ecological studies, it is necessary to fine-tune taxonomic resolution. Moreover, there is a lack of studies investigating the environmental variables which influence the distribution of mayflies. Despite these gaps, if the rate of publication with mayflies proceeds at the same pace, we anticipate that many of these knowledge gaps will be closed.

  7. Preparing soft-bodied arthropods for arthropods for microscope examination: Mealybugs (Insects: Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proper identification of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) require preparation of the specimen on a microscope slide. This training video provides visual instruction on how to prepare mealybug specimens on microscope slides for examination and identification. Steps ranging from collection, spec...

  8. Variation in male and female genitalia among ten species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We compared morphology of internal reproductive anatomy and genitalia among 10 species of North American Anthocoris (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Anthocoridae). Reproductive structures of males, including internal reproductive organs (testes, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory bulb, phallus), the left parame...

  9. Los megalópteros de la Península Ibérica (Insecta, Neuropterida, Megaloptera, Sialidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat, Víctor J.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available All existing Iberian bibliographical information related to the three alder-flies species known in the Iberian Peninsula’s fauna (Insecta, Neuropterida, Megaloptera: Sialidae is brought up to date. On the basis of general knowledge about these species, and taking into account the known Iberian data, a key for imagoes and larvae is included and what is known about their morphology, biology, larval stages and geographical, phenological and altitudinal distribution in the area studied is reviewed.Se actualiza toda la información bibliográfica relativa a la Península Ibérica y relacionada con las tres especies de megalópteros presentes en su fauna (Insecta, Neuropterida, Megaloptera: Sialidae. Partiendo de los datos generales conocidos sobre estas especies, y en base a esta información ibérica, se aporta una clave de identificación de imagos y larvas de estas especies, y se anotan y se recopilan los datos conocidos sobre su morfología, su biología, sus estadios larvarios y su distribución geográfica, fenológica y altitudinal en la zona estudiada.

  10. Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERNIWATI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Erniwati, Ubaidillah R (2011 Hymenopteran parasitoids associated with the banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae in Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas 12: 76-85. Hymenopteran parasitoids of banana-skipper Erionota thrax L. (Insecta: Lepidoptera, Hesperiidae from Java, Indonesia are reviewed and an illustrated key to 12 species is presented to include Theronia zebra zebra, Xanthopimpla gamsura, Casinaria sp., Charops sp., Cotesia (Apanteles erionotae, Brachymeria lasus, B. thracis, Ooencyrtus pallidipes, Anastatus sp., Pediobius erionotae, Agiommatus sumatraensis and Sympiesis sp. The surveys of the natural enemies of the banana-skipper were conducted in 1990-2006 in several localities in Java. The aim of this study was to assess the native natural enemies of E. thrax, especially the parasitic Hymenoptera. Infested eggs, larvae and pupae of E. thrax were collected and reared in the laboratory. Emerging parasitoids were preserved in both dry mounting and in 80% alcohol for the species identification. Members of families Braconidae, Ichneumonidae, Encyrtidae, Pteromalidae, Chalcididae, Eupelmidae and Eulophidae were recorded as parasitoids of the banana skipper E. thrax from Java, Indonesia. Species distribution and alternative hosts of the parasitoids are presented.

  11. Diaspididae (Hemiptera, Coccoidea in sori of two fern species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Santos

    2015-12-01

    Duas Espécies de Cochonilhas (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Associadas com Soros de Samambaias Resumo. A presente comunicação relata a presença de duas espécies de cochonilhas Hemiberlesia palmae (Cockerell e Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley (Coccoidea, Diaspididae, associadas respectivamente com Asplenium serratum L. (Aspleniaceae e Niphidium crassifolium (L. Lellinger (Polypodiaceae. É o primeiro registro de uma samambaia como planta hospedeira de Hemiberlesia palmae.  Nas duas espécies de samambaias, os diaspidídeos encontravam-se concentrados principalmente ao redor dos soros.

  12. The Asian Citrus Psyllid Genome (Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera)

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Wayne B.; Reese, Justin; International Psyllid Genome Consortium, The

    2014-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera), is an important pest of citrus because it vectors bacteria responsible for huanglongbing, which is one of the most serious diseases of citrus worldwide.  The first genome draft of D. citri (DIACI_1.0) was completed in 2011 (ARS, Ft. Pierce, FL), however, gaps in the assembly prompted additional sequencing using the long run PacBio system at the Los Alamos National Lab, NM.  The revised draft genome (DIACI_1.1) was assembled using the new...

  13. Exceptionally Preserved Caddisfly Larval Cases (Insecta) from the Lower Cretaceous of the Liupanshan Basin, Western China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin He; Zhong-Qiang Chen; Zongsheng Lu; Jun Li; Wei Hu; Shengfu Li; Zhitao Xu

    2015-01-01

    Abundant well-preserved tubular fossils of caddisfly (Insecta: Trichoptera) larval cases are reported from the Early Cretaceous Madongshan and Naijiahe formations of the Liupanshan Basin, Ningxia Province, western China. Most cases were mainly preserved in life position and densely packed in various layers. Individual cases in each layer tended to be same in size and were erect and parallel to one another and open at both ends. In a transverse section cut perpendicular to the long axis of the cases, individual case appears to form a rounded ring. Small cases are elliptic in a cross-section oblique to the long axis of the cases. Tube walls are nearly subparallel to one another in longitudinal section with both ends being open. The caudal end of the case slightly tapers and usually points downward. The cases were closely packed, almost touching with one another and lacking bifurcate or connecting struc-ture. The overwhelming majority of cases were partially or fully filled with calcite. The case wall em-braces a medium particle layer flanked by inner and outer organic layers. Individual particles are ovate in outline and comprise cryptocrystalline or ganic pellets. SEM imaging shows that those pellets are sub-cylindrical in outline and elliptic in cross section, and are made primarily of calcium carbonate. All features observed justify the assignment of the Liupanshan caddisfly cases to ichnogenus Coprindusia. The extinct insect Ningxiapsyche fangi was found in association with the Liupanshan caddisfly larval cases, and thus could be the candidate of the potential trace-maker.

  14. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    OpenAIRE

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu; Maria Lígia Paseto; Lucas S. de Faria; Júlio Mendes; Arício X Linhares

    2014-01-01

    Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera) from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus) carcas...

  15. Rapid and accurate taxonomic classification of insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) DNA barcode sequences using a naïve Bayesian classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, Teresita M.; Gibson, Joel F; Shokralla, Shadi; Baird, Donald J.; Golding, G. Brian; Hajibabaei, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    Current methods to identify unknown insect (class Insecta) cytochrome c oxidase (COI barcode) sequences often rely on thresholds of distances that can be difficult to define, sequence similarity cut-offs, or monophyly. Some of the most commonly used metagenomic classification methods do not provide a measure of confidence for the taxonomic assignments they provide. The aim of this study was to use a naïve Bayesian classifier (Wang et al. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 2007; 73: 5261)...

  16. Notas sobre la presencia de siálidos (Insecta: Sialidae en la cuenca del río Ebro (España = Notes on the presence of Sialidae (Insecta: Sialidae in the Ebro River Basin (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Oscoz, A. Agorreta, C. Durán

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Muestreos de macroinvertebrados en diferentes ríos de la cuenca del Ebro (España aportaron capturas de larvas de siálidos (Insecta: Megaloptera: Sialidae que fueron clasificadas como tres especies (Sialis fuliginosa, Sialis lutaria y Sialis nigripes de las cuales se muestra el mapa de presencia en la cuenca del Ebro. Las tres especies se encontraron en general en tramos de cabecera o ríos de montaña con aguas de calidad "Muy Buena" o "Buena" según el índice biótico IBMWP, si bien dicha distribución podría estar influida por otros factores limitantes diferentes a la necesidad de una alta calidad en las aguas.

  17. Nutritional and Antinutritional Composition of the Five Species of Aquatic Edible Insects Consumed in Manipur, India

    OpenAIRE

    Shantibala, T.; Lokeshwari, R. K.; Debaraj, H.

    2014-01-01

    The people living in Manipur have a distinct identity, culture, and food habits. They have a prototype culture of eating insects. In our study, the nutritive contents of five potentially-edible aquatic insects, Lethocerus indicus (Lepeletier and Serville) (Hemiptera: Belostomatidae), Laccotrephes maculatus (F.) (Nepidae), Hydrophilus olivaceous (F.) (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Cybister tripunctatus (Olivier), and Crocothemis servilia (Drury) (Odonata: Libellulidae), were analyzed to inform cons...

  18. Pan trapping soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using attractants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrens, Nicholas S; Zhu, Junwei; Coats, Joel R

    2012-06-01

    Since its introduction into the United States in the past 10 yr, soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. During 2008 and 2009, fields in central and north central Iowa experienced pockets of high soybean aphid populations. Electroantennograms have shown that soybean aphid alatae are capable of detecting host plant volatiles and sex pheromones. Here, we evaluated baited pan traps as a potential soybean aphid attractant. Yellow pan traps were placed in soybean fields after planting along with lures that contained plant volatiles and sex pheromones in 2008 or sex pheromones only in 2009. Pan trap contents were collected weekly, and plant counts also were conducted. Aphids were identified, and soybean aphids were counted to determine whether one chemical lure was more attractive to spring migrants than other lures. In both years, soybean aphids collected in pan traps with lures were not significantly different from the other products tested. PMID:22812127

  19. Effects of irradiation on Planococcus minor (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravuiwasa, Kaliova Tavou; Lu, Kuang-Hui; Shen, Tse-Chi; Hwang, Shaw-Yhi

    2009-10-01

    Irradiation has been recognized and endorsed as a potential phytosanitary measure that could be an alternative to current quarantine treatments. Dosages of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 Gy were used to irradiate three different life stages (eggs, immatures, and adults) of Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), focusing on females due to its parthenogenesis ability, with an aim to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose to control P. minor. Cobalt 60 was the source of irradiation used. Irradiation of 150-250 Gy has a significant effect on all life stages of P. minor, decreasing its survival rate, percentage of adult reproduction, oviposition, and fertility rate. The adult was the most tolerant life stage in both mortality and fertility rate. All the different irradiated target life stage groups oviposited eggs, but none of the F2 eggs hatched at the most optimal dosage of 150-250 Gy.

  20. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host.

  1. Do Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs use vibrational communication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuche, Julien; Thiéry, Denis; Mazzoni, Valerio

    2011-07-01

    Small Auchenorrhyncha use substrate-borne vibrations to communicate. Although this behaviour is well known in adult leafhoppers, so far no studies have been published on nymphs. Here we checked the occurrence of vibrational communication in Scaphoideus titanus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) nymphs as a possible explanation of their aggregative distributions on host plants. We studied possible vibratory emissions of isolated and grouped nymphs, as well as their behavioural responses to vibration stimuli that simulated presence of conspecifics, to disturbance noise, white noise and predator spiders. None of our synthetic stimuli or pre-recorded substrate vibrations from nymphs elicited specific vibration responses and only those due to grooming or mechanical contacts of the insect with the leaf were recorded. Thus, S. titanus nymphs showed to not use species-specific vibrations neither for intra- nor interspecific communication and also did not produce alarm vibrations when facing potential predators. We conclude that their aggregative behaviour is independent from a vibrational communication.

  2. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper.

  3. Complete mitochondrial genome of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunfei; Dai, Renhuai; Zhan, Hongping; Qu, Ling

    2016-09-01

    The complete mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Drabescoides nuchalis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was sequenced. It is 15 309 bp in length with 75.62% (A + T) content and comprises 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNAs, two ribosomal RNA genes, and a non-coding region (GenBank accession no. KR349344). Gene order is identical to that of the inferred ancestral insect genome. All PCGs start with an ATN codon and terminate with TAA except ND4, which has an incomplete stop codon (T). The anticodons are identical to those of Drosophila yakuba. The phylogenetic tree confirms D. nuchalis and two Cicadellidae species are clustered into a clade, and Cicadellidae is a monophyletic group and provides support for the sister relationship of leafhopper and treehopper. PMID:26436567

  4. Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) on Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, V R S; Kondo, T; Peronti, A L B G; Noronha, A C S

    2016-06-01

    Commercial cultivation of the fruit tree Myrciaria dubia (Myrtaceae) is being developed in Brazil but phytophagous insects, including scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea), can become pests in plantations. The coccids Ceroplastes jamaicensis White, Coccus viridis (Green), Parasaissetia nigra (Nietner), Pseudokermes vitreus (Cockerell) (Coccidae), and the diaspidid Pseudaonidia trilobitiformis (Green) were collected on M. dubia in the municipality of Belém and Tomé-Açu, state of Pará (PA), metropolitan and Northeast Pará mesoregions, Brazil. A key to species of Coccoidea recorded on M. dubia, based on adult females, is provided. Photographs for all scale insects reported on M. dubia are provided. Ceroplastes jamaicensis is recorded for the first time for Brazil and is herein reported for the first time associated with this host. PMID:26957084

  5. Observations on the Biology and Anatomy of Myerslopiidae (Hemiptera, Membracoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults and nymphs of Mapuchea chilensis (Nielson, from the poorly known family Myerslopiidae, were collected from the litter horizon of temperate forests and shrub bogs in southern Chile. The species apparently feeds on roots and creeping stems of angiosperms. Salivary sheaths of captive specimens terminated in vascular bundles. Indirect evidence suggests feeding on phloem sap. Both nymphs and adults are strong jumpers and both actively disperse, as evidenced by their capture in pan traps. The Malpighian tubules of this species produce no brochosomes and, unlike in most previously studied Membracoidea, comprise no specialized secretory segment. Each tubule comprises secretory cells scattered among excretory ones, a condition not previously known among Hemiptera.

  6. Efficacy of insecticide residues on adult Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) mortality and injury in apple and peach orchards

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary threat from Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) originates from populations continuously dispersing from and among wild and cultivated hosts. Many individuals may not come in contact with freshly applied insecticides, but only dried, aged residues. Limited information e...

  7. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.Espécies de tripes (Insecta, Thysanoptera associadas à cultura do morangueiro em dois sistemas de produção no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Tripes são insetos diminutos responsáveis pela redução da qualidade dos frutos do morangueiro. O trabalho objetivou registrar e quantificar a tisanopterofauna presente em dois sistemas de produção de morangueiro, túnel baixo e semihidropônico. Folhas, flores e frutos foram coletados semanalmente, de julho de 2005 a dezembro de 2006 em Caxias do Sul e Bom Princípio, RS. Foram coletados 664 indivíduos pertencentes a duas famílias, quatro gêneros e 10 espécies: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910

  8. Phylogenetic relationships among superfamilies of Cicadomorpha (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha) inferred from the wing base structure

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshizawa, Kazunori; Wagatsuma, Mutsumi

    2012-01-01

    The infraorder Cicadomorpha is a monophyletic group of the order Hemiptera, suborder Auchenorrhyncha, and is composed of three superfamilies: Cercopoidea (spittle bugs), Cicadoidea (cicadas) and Membracoidea (leafhoppers and treehoppers). Phylogenetic relationships among the superfamilies have been highly controversial morphologically and molecularly, but recent molecular phylogenetic analyses provided support for Cercopoidea + Cicadoidea. In this study, we examined morphology of the wing bas...

  9. Life table analysis and development of Singhiella simplex (Hemiptera:Aleyrodidae) under different constant temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ficus whitefly, Singhiella simplex (Singh) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a newly-invasive pest of ficus plants in the United States. Very little is known about its biology and life history. Here, we studied development and reproduction at 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. No immatures survived the 35°...

  10. A redescription of the endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kment, Petr; Baena, Manuel

    2015-11-17

    The endemic Madagascan genus Tricompastes Cachan, 1952 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae: Pentatominae: Triplatygini), containing a single species-Tricompastes gigas Cachan, 1952, is redescribed and illustrated, including first descriptions of male and female genitalia. First exact localities of the species are provided. Lectotype of T. gigas is designated.

  11. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aubrey Moore

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  12. DNA markers to disentangle complexes of cryptic taxa in mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are major pests of a wide range of crops and ornamental plants worldwide. Their high degree of morphological similarity makes them difficult to identify and limits their study and management. We aimed to identify a set of markers for the genetic characterization...

  13. Genes expressed in field-caught pink hibiscus mealybugs, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We advanced the understanding of the biology of an invasive pest, the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) by using a genomics approach to identify genes expressed within field collected PHM. The information produced provides valuable, new and unique info...

  14. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  15. Proteins expressed in the pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    We produced a dataset of 315 protein sequences which we isolated from the pink hibiscus mealybug, PHM, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). The dataset was published under accession numbers: EF070444-EF070605 and EF092085-EF091933, in the National Center for Biotechnology Informatio...

  16. Descriptions of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Paladini

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Description of two new species of Sphenorhina (Hemiptera, Cercopidae, Tomaspidinae from the Neotropical region. Two new species of Sphenorhina Amyot & Serville, S. pseudoboliviana SP. NOV: from Bolivia and S. plata SP. NOV: from Argentina are described and illustrated.

  17. Variation in susceptibility to potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae),among Solanum verrucosum germplasm accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a key pest of potato and the vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. Development of potato cultivars with genetic resistance to potato psyllid would enable cost-effecti...

  18. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  19. Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thereza de Almeida Garbelotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Contributions to the knowledge of Banasa Stål (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Pentatomidae: Banasa chaca Thomas. The male of Banasa chaca Thomas is described with emphasis on external and internal genitalia and the female internal genitalia is described. Banasa chaca is newly recorded from Buenos Aires Province (Argentina.

  20. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citus psyllid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Internal bacteria were isolated and cultured from the Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), the insect which transmits the plant-infecting bacteria, Candidatus Liberibacter, known to infect and kill citrus trees, known as citrus greening disease. The bacteria from Di...

  1. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita ( Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae ), on Guam: Potentially a major pest

    OpenAIRE

    Aubrey Moore; Gillian Watson; Jesse Bamba

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrix insolita (Green) ( Hemiptera : Pseudococcidae ), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed.

  2. First record of Eggplant Mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on Guam: Potentially a major pest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aubrey; Watson, Gillian W; Bamba, Jesse

    2014-01-01

    The eggplant mealybug, Coccidohystrixinsolita (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is recorded from the island of Guam in the Mariana Islands for the first time. Factors indicating that this introduced mealybug has the potential to become a pest of economic importance for agriculture and horticulture on Guam are discussed. PMID:24855439

  3. Attraction of stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) nymphs to Euschistus spp. aggregation pheromone in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophagous stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are primary pests in most fruit, vegetable, grain, and row crops worldwide. Pheromones have been identified and synthesized for several species of economically important stink bug pests. When yellow pyramid traps are baited with lures containing thes...

  4. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae on avocado (Persea americana Mill. from Colombia, South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  5. Description of a new coccid (Hemiptera, Coccidae) on avocado (Persea americana Mill.) from Colombia, South America

    OpenAIRE

    Takumasa Kondo

    2010-01-01

    A new soft scale insect, Bombacoccus aguacatae Kondo, gen. n. and sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccidae) collected on the branches and twigs of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Colombia, is described and illustrated based on the adult female. An updated taxonomic key to closely related genera of the Toumeyella-group is provided.

  6. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål (Hemiptera: Reduviidae as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo G. Virla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae, is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina; in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  7. Preliminary Observations on Zelus obscuridorsis (Stål) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) as Predator of the Corn Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virla, Eduardo G; Melo, Cecilia M; Speranza, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The corn leafhopper Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is an important corn pest in most of tropical and subtropical America. This leafhopper has a rich natural enemy complex of which parasitoids and pathogens are the most studied; knowledge on its predators is limited. We noted the presence of the native assassin bug Zelus obscuridorsis (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) predating diverse motile insects, including the corn leafhopper, on corn plants cultivated in household vegetable gardens in San Miguel de Tucumán (Argentina); in order to verify its predatory actions, we exposed lab-bred individuals of D. maidis to adults of Z. obscuridorsis. The predators were starved for 24 h before trials in which the corn leafhopper in different developmental stages were exposed. Zelus obscuridorsis is highly skilled in catching specimens in motion, but it was not able to prey on eggs. The predator was capable to catch and prey on nymphs and adults.

  8. Dasypodidae Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera): Proposed emendation of spelling to Dasypodaidae, so removing the homonymy with Dasypodidae Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, B.A.; Michener, C.D.; Gardner, A.L.

    1998-01-01

    The family-group name DASYPODIDAE Borner, 1919 (Insecta, Hymenoptera) is a junior homonym Of DASYPODIDAE Gray, 1821 (Mammalia, Xenarthra). It is proposed that the homonymy between the two names, which relate to short-tongued bees and armadillos respectively, should be removed by emending the stem of the generic name Dasypoda Latreille, 1802, on which the insect familygroup name is based, to give DASYPODAIDAE, while leaving the mammalian name (based on Dasypus Linnaeus, 1758) unchanged. Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758, the type species of Dasypus, has a wide distribution in the southern United States, Central and South America. The genus Dasypoda ranges throughout most of the Palearctic region.

  9. Contribución al conocimiento de los Crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile) (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

    OpenAIRE

    Monserrat, V. J.; Freitas, S

    2005-01-01

    New data on the morphology, distribution and biology of five species of green-lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) collected from samplings made in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Coquimbo (Argentina, Chile) are given. The general morphology and the preimaginal stages of Ungla argentina (Navás, 1911), Ungla binaria (Navás, 1922) and Chrysopodes (Neosuarius) porterina (Navás, 1910) are described. This last species and Ch...

  10. Jurassic Progonocimicidae (Hemiptera) from China and phylogenetic evolution of Coleorrhyncha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SZWEDO; Jacek

    2009-01-01

    The fossil record of Progonocimicidae of Hemiptera suborder Coleorrhyncha from China is reviewed. Ovicimex laiyangensis Hong et Wang, 1990, from the Lower Cretaceous of Laiyang, is excluded from Coleorrhyncha. The available generic name Mesocimex Hong, 1983 is resurrected from synonymy and proposed for replacement of the preoccupied name and junior homonym Mesoscytina Hong, 1983, non Mesoscytina Tillyard, 1919. It resulted in following new combinations: Mesocimex abditus (Yu. Popov, 1982) comb. n., Mesocimex ambiguus (Yu. Popov, 1985) comb. n., Mesocimex brunneus (Hong, 1983), comb. n., Mesocimex fidus (Yu. Popov, 1982) comb. n., Mesocimex intermedius (Yu. Popov, 1985) comb. n., Mesocimex kuzbasicus (Yu. Popov, 1985) comb. n., Mesocimex liliputus (Yu. Popov, 1988) comb. n., Mesocimex minutus (Yu. Popov, 1982) comb. n., Mesocimex modestus (Yu. Popov, 1985) comb. n., Mesocimex paulinus (Yu. Popov, 1982) comb. n., Mesocimex cognatus (Yu. Popov, 1982) comb. n. An annotated list of species of Mesocimex is given. In addition, a new species, Mesocimex lini sp. nov., is described based on well-preserved specimens with wings and bodies from the Middle Jurassic of Daohugou, China. This discovery supports the Middle Jurassic age of Daohugou Lagerstatte, since all species of Mesocimex are confined to the Lower-Middle Jurassic. The phylogenetic evolution of Coleorrhyncha is discussed: Cicadocorinae, Karabasiinae, Hoploridiinae, and Peloridiidae are monophyletic clades whereas Progonocimicinae and Karabasidae are clearly paraphyletic groups.

  11. Application of RNA interference in triatomine(Hemiptera:Reduviidae)studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rafaela M.M.Paim; Ricardo N.Araujo; Michael J.Lehane; Nelder F.Gontijo; Marcos H.Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Triatomines(Hemiptera: Reduviidae)are obligate hematophagous insects.They are of medical importance because they are vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi,the causative agent of Chagas disease in the Americas.In recent years,the RNA interference (RNAi)technology has emerged as a practical and useful alternative means of studying gene function in insects,including triatomine bugs.RNAi research in triatomines is still in its early stages,several issues still need to be elucidated,including the description of the molecules involved in the RNAi machinery and aspects related to phenotype evaluation and persistence of the knockdown in different tissues and organs.This review considers recent applications of RNAi to triatomine research,describing the major methods that have been applied during the knockdown process such as the double-stranded RNA delivery mechanism(injection,microinjection,or ingestion)and the phenotype characterization (mRNA and target protein levels)in studies conducted with the intent to provide greater insights into the biology of these insects.In addition to the characterization of insect biomolecules,some with biopharmacological potential,RNAi may provide a new view of the interaction between triatomine and trypanosomatids,enabling the development of new measures for vector control and transmission of the parasite.

  12. Weed hosts of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vennila, S; Prasad, Y G; Prabhakar, M; Agarwal, Meenu; Sreedevi, G; Bambawale, O M

    2013-03-01

    The exotic cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) invaded India during 2006, and caused widespread infestation across all nine cotton growing states. P. solenopsis also infested weeds that aided its faster spread and increased severity across cotton fields. Two year survey carried out to document host plants of P. solenopsis between 2008 and 2010 revealed 27, 83, 59 and 108 weeds belonging to 8, 18, 10 and 32 families serving as alternate hosts at North, Central, South and All India cotton growing zones, respectively. Plant species of four families viz., Asteraceae, Amaranthaceae, Malvaceae and Lamiaceae constituted almost 50% of the weed hosts. While 39 weed species supported P. solenopsis multiplication during the cotton season, 37 were hosts during off season. Higher number of weeds as off season hosts (17) outnumbering cotton season (13) at Central over other zones indicated the strong carryover of the pest aided by weeds between two cotton seasons. Six, two and seven weed hosts had the extreme severity of Grade 4 during cotton, off and cotton + off seasons, respectively. Higher number of weed hosts of P. solenopsis were located at roadside: South (12) > Central (8) > North (3) zones. Commonality of weed hosts was higher between C+S zones, while no weed host was common between N+S zones. Paper furnishes the wide range of weed hosts of P. solenopsis, discusses their significance, and formulated general and specific cultural management strategies for nationwide implementation to prevent its outbreaks.

  13. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of the Maltese Archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mifsud, David; Mazzeo, Gaetana; Russo, Agatino; Watson, Gillian W

    2014-09-25

    Past works on scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) from the Maltese Archipelago are reviewed. Based on the literature and contemporary collections, a total of 93 species of scale insects belonging to 12 scale insect families are here reported (Aclerdidae 1 species; Asterolecaniidae 4; Coccidae 17; Diaspididae 46; Eriococcidae 5; Kermesidae 1; Margarodidae 1; Micrococcidae 1; Monophlebidae 2; Pseudoccocidae 11; Putoidae 2 and Rhizoecidae 2). Of these, 17 species represent new distribution records. Ten species are excluded from the scale insect fauna of the Maltese Islands. Of the 93 species present, only 29 (31.18%) are probably indigenous and the rest (68.82%) represent established introductions from elsewhere. More than 65% of the indigenous species are typical Mediterranean in distribution, with a few species having a mainly European chorotype. A quarter of the established aliens originate from Eurasia, followed by an East Asian/ Oriental component (20.31%); European (14.06%); Neotropical (14.06%); cryptogenic (14.06%); African (7.81%) and Australasian (4.70%). Movement of live fruit trees and ornamental plants into the Maltese Archipelago from nearby countries is probably the main route for entry of alien scale insects into the country. Some possible future introductions are discussed.

  14. Exploration for facultative endosymbionts of glassy-wingedsharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montllor-Curley, C.; Brodie, E.L.; Lechner, M.G.; Purcell, A.H.

    2006-07-01

    Homalodisca vitripennis (Germar) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae),glassy-winged sharpshooter, was collected in California and severalstates in the southeastern United States in 2002 and 2003 and analyzedfor endosymbiotic bacteria. Hemolymph, eggs, and bacteriomes wereexamined for the presence of bacteria by polymerase chain reaction. Asubset of hemolymph and egg samples had their 16S rRNA gene ampliconscloned and sequenced or analyzed by restriction digest patterns ofsamples compared with known bacterial DNA. Baumannia cicadellinicola, oneof the primary symbionts of glassy-winged sharpshooter, was found in themajority of hemolymph samples, although it has been considered until nowto reside primarily inside the specialized host bacteriocytes. Wolbachiasp., a common secondary symbiont in many insect taxa investigated todate, was the second most frequently detected bacterium in hemolymphsamples. In addition, we detected bacteria that were most closely related(by 16S rRNA gene sequence) to Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, andAcinetobacter in hemolymph samples of one and/or two glassy-wingedsharpshooters, but their origin is uncertain.

  15. Egg parasitoids of Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serguei V. TRIAPITSYN

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Se revisaron los parasitoides oófagos (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae, Mymaridae, y Platygastridae de Megamelus spp. (Hemiptera: Delphacidae de la Argentina, y se presenta una clave para su identificación. Se describen cuatro especies nuevas: Anagrus (Anagrus empanadus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris Berg que se alimenta de camalote, Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach; Aprostocetus (Ootetrastichus riverplaticus Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae, parasitoide de M. bellicus Marino de Remes Lenicov & Sosa; A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (parasitoide de M. bellicus, M. scutellaris y Megamelus sp., todos de la provincia de Buenos Aires (A. (Ootetrastichus yerbamatei también se encuentra en Formosa; y Parascelio sabcli Triapitsyn, sp. nov. (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa. Se incluyen otros parasitoides oófagos conocidos de Megamelus spp. en la Argentina, tales como Kalopolynema (Kalopolynema poema Triapitsyn & Berezovskiy (Mymaridae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Buenos Aires y también Cremastobaeus atratus Loiácono & Mulvani (Platygastridae: Scelioninae, parasitoide de M. scutellaris en Formosa, la asociación con el huésped es tentativa.

  16. Climbing Ability of the Common Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottel, B A; Pereira, R M; Gezan, S A; Qing, R; Sigmund, W M; Koehler, P G

    2015-05-01

    Little is known about what factors influence the climbing ability of bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), in relation to the various surfaces they encounter. We examined how sex, time since last fed, and what surfaces the bed bugs were in contact with affected their climbing performance. The effects of sex and time since fed were tested by counting the number of bed bugs able to climb a 45° slope. The pulling force was recorded using an analytical balance technique that captured the sequential vertical pulling force output of bed bugs attached to various surfaces. Recently fed female bed bugs were found to have the most difficulty in climbing smooth surfaces in comparison with males. This difference can be explained by the larger weight gained from bloodmeals by female bed bugs. A variety of vertical pulling forces were observed on surfaces ranging from sandpaper to talc powder-covered glass. For surfaces not treated with talc powder, bed bugs generated the least amount of vertical pulling force from synthetically created 0.6-µm plastron surfaces. This vast range in the ability of bed bugs to grip onto various surfaces may have implications on limiting bed bugs dispersal and hitchhiking behaviors. PMID:26334801

  17. Accuracy of Trained Canines for Detecting Bed Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Richard; Wang, Changlu; Singh, Narinderpal

    2014-12-01

    Detection of low-level bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), infestations is essential for early intervention, confirming eradication of infestations, and reducing the spread of bed bugs. Despite the importance of detection, few effective tools and methods exist for detecting low numbers of bed bugs. Scent dogs were developed as a tool for detecting bed bugs in recent years. However, there are no data demonstrating the reliability of trained canines under natural field conditions. We evaluated the accuracy of 11 canine detection teams in naturally infested apartments. All handlers believed their dogs could detect infestations at a very high rate (≥95%). In three separate experiments, the mean (min, max) detection rate was 44 (10-100)% and mean false-positive rate was 15 (0-57)%. The false-positive rate was positively correlated with the detection rate. The probability of a bed bug infestation being detected by trained canines was not associated with the level of bed bug infestations. Four canine detection teams evaluated on multiple days were inconsistent in their ability to detect bed bugs and exhibited significant variance in accuracy of detection between inspections on different days. There was no significant relationship between the team's experience or certification status of teams and the detection rates. These data suggest that more research is needed to understand factors affecting the accuracy of canine teams for bed bug detection in naturally infested apartments. PMID:26470083

  18. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.

  19. Catalase activity in Smicridea McLachlan, 1871 (Insecta, Trichoptera collected from natural and altered/impacted streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Biasus

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We compare catalase activity in SmicrideaMcLachlan, 1871 (Insecta, Trichoptera collected in natural and agricultural streams and correlates the enzyme pattern with metal content in the water.MethodsOrganisms were collected in sites classified as natural (riparian vegetation in buffer zone and altered/impacted (agricultural land use in drainage area environments, located at Cravo River and Campo River sub-basins (RS, Brazil. Next the collected larvae were identified and used to proteins quantification and catalase activity measure. The concentration of Mg, Cr, Cu, Pb and Cd in the water was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry.ResultsCatalase activity in Smicridea ranged from 1.5 to 6 U, with mean values about 2.63 ± 0.096 U (SEM. The presence of metals was higher in the streams located at agricultural drainage area, except for Mg at the Cravo sub-basin and Cu at the Campo sub-basin. Catalase was higher in Smicridea collected in natural streams as compared to that agriculture streams and was correlated with Pb and Cd levels.ConclusionsThe data showed the potential of this biomarker as a useful tool for complementation of water quality biomonitoring studies using Smicridea as bioindicator.

  20. Contribución al conocimiento de los Crisópidos de Coquimbo, Patagonia y Tierra del Fuego (Argentina, Chile (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monserrat, V. J.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available New data on the morphology, distribution and biology of five species of green-lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae collected from samplings made in Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego and Coquimbo (Argentina, Chile are given. The general morphology and the preimaginal stages of Ungla argentina (Navás, 1911, Ungla binaria (Navás, 1922 and Chrysopodes (Neosuarius porterina (Navás, 1910 are described. This last species and Chrysoperla defreitasi Brooks, 1994 are recorded from Argentina for the first time.

    Se anotan nuevos datos sobre la morfología, distribución y biología de cinco especies de crisópidos (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae capturadas durante los muestreos realizados en Patagonia, Tierra del Fuego y Coquimbo (Argentina, Chile. Se describen los estadios juveniles y los adultos de Ungla argentina (Navás, 1911, Ungla binaria (Navás, 1922 y Chrysopodes (Neosuarius porterina (Navás, 1910. Esta última especie y Chrysoperla defreitasi Brooks, 1994 se citan por primera vez de Argentina.

  1. Diversidade de Larvas de Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera da Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, AM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Rabelo dos Santos-Neto

    2008-03-01

    é fornecendo substrato estável (vegetação marginal e folhiço para a manutenção da fauna. No período chuvoso o substrato é carreado pelas enxurradas não sendo possível � manutenção da fauna.Diversity of Larve Leptophlebiidae (Insecta: Ephemeroptera of the Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve, Manaus, AM.Abstract. The Adolpho Ducke Forest Reserve (ADRF is a fragment of 10.000 hectares in geographic conflict with the city of Manaus. The knowledge of the diversity of Ephemeroptera in the ADRF is essencial because these organisms are biological important elements as food source and for its potential as indicative of the human disturbances. The objective of this study was to develop a survey of the diversity of Leptophlebiidae from two basins of ADRF, comparing the diversity between basins and the dry and rainy periods 38 points were collected from streams of the Eastern (Ipiranga, Uberê and Tinga and Western (Acará and Bolivia ADRF basins with aquatic entomological net (rapiché. To verify differences in the wealth of the two basins and to compare the wealth in the dry and rainy periods it was utilized the Jackknife wealth index. It was colleded 804 larvae of Leptophlebiidae, being identified 368 individuals from seven genera: Hagenulopsis Ulmer (35%; n=128; Thraulodes Ulmer (34%; n=124; Farrodes Peters (13%; n=48; Miroculis Edmunds Jr (12%; n=45; Hydrosmilodon Flowers & Dominguez (5%; n=19; Hermanella Needham & Murphy (0.8%; n=3, Microphlebia Savage & Peters (n=1. It represents the first register of Hydrosmilodon, Hermanella and Microphlebia for the ADRF. In the comparison between the basins East and West, the Jackknife’s did not indicate significant difference in the wealth of genera. Hermanella and Hydrosmilodon had not occurred in the West basin and, Microphlebia did not occurred in the East basin, however these absences does not represent significant difference in the taxonomic wealth of the basins. The comparison in the wealth of species of Leptophlebiidae

  2. New records of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Huertas, Valentina; Schwertner, Cristiano F; Fernández, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    New records of genera and species of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) from Colombia are provided. Two genera are new records for South America: Alathetus and Schraderiellus. Fifteen genera are new record for Colombia: Agaclitus, Boea, Ceratozygum, Euthyrhynchus, Eritrachys, Doesburguedessa, Lopadusa, Marmessulus, Paralincus, Patanius, Peromatus, Phalaecus, Phoeacia, Rio, and Tyrannocoris. Forty-nine species from five subfamiles are recorded for the first time in Colombia. Asopinae: Coryzorhaphis carneolus Erichson, Coryzorhaphis superba Breddin, Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus), Podisus sagitta Fabricius, Stiretrus anchorago (Fabricius), Stiretrus cinctellus Germar, Tylospilus peruvianus Horvath, Tyrannocoris nigriceps Thomas. Cyrtocorinae: Ceratozygum horridum (Germar). Discocephalinae: Agaclitus dromedarius Stål, Antiteuchus melanoleucus (Westwood), Antiteuchus sepulcralis (Fabricius), Dinocoris gibbosus (Fallou), Dinocoris variolosus (Linnaeus), Discocephalessa terminalis (Walker), Dryptocephala crenata Ruckes, Dryptocephala dentifrons (Latreille), Eurystethus ovalis Ruckes, Paralcippus dimidiatus (Ruckes), Alathetus rufitarsus Dallas, Eritrachys bituberculata Ruckes, Paralincus bimaculatus (Ruckes), Schraderiellus cinctus (Ruckes), Xynocoris recavus (Garbelotto & Campos). Edessinae: Brachystethus cribus (Fabricius), Brachystethus tricolor Bolívar, Doesburguedessa elongatispina Fernandes and Lopadusa fuscopunctata (Distant). Pentatominae: Banasa fulgida Thomas, Banasa paraexpallescens Thomas, Dichelops divisus (Walker), Dichelops nigrum Bergroth, Euschistus carbonerus Rolston, Mormidea bovilla (Distant), Mormidea triangularis (Walker), Murgantia bifasciata Herrich-Schaeffer, Murgantia violascens (Westwood), Oebalus pugnax (Fabricius), Oebalus ypsilon-griseus (DeGeer), Odmalea concolor (Walker), Patanius vittatus Rolston, Proxys albopunctulatus (Palisot), Proxys punctulatus (Palisot), Rhyncholepta grandicallosa Bergroth, Rio insularis Ruckes, Roferta

  3. Repellency of selected chemicals against the bed bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Changlu; Lü, Lihua; Zhang, Aijun; Liu, Chaofeng

    2013-12-01

    In recent years, the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), became a major public health concern in urban communities. Bed bugs are notoriously difficult to control, and their bites are not tolerated by most people. The public has an urgent need for materials and methods to reduce bed bug introduction and bites during work, travel, or sleep. A repellent product will help achieve these goals by discouraging and preventing bed bugs from moving to a protected area. We evaluated the repellency of three commercially available insect repellent or control materials and five nonregistered materials with the goal of identifying safe and effective bed bug repellents. The two commercial repellent products that contained 7% picaridin or 0.5% permethrin had little repellency against bed bugs. N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET), the most commonly used insect repellent, provided a high level of repellency against bed bugs. When a host cue (carbon dioxide) was present, the minimum DEET concentration to repel > or = 94% of the bed bugs for a9-h period was 10%. The longevity of repellency of DEET was concentration dependent. At 25% concentration, DEET-treated fabric surface remained highly repellent to bed bugs for a 14-d period. However, DEET has a strong smell and dissolves certain plastic materials. Therefore, we evaluated several odorless, noncorrosive, and potentially effective repellents. Isolongifolenone and isolongifolanone, two natural products and recently reported insect repellents, exhibited strong repellent property against bed bugs but at significantly lower levels than DEET. Three novel potential repellent compounds discovered by Bedoukian Research Inc. (Danbury, CT) exhibited similar level of repellency and longevity as DEET for repelling bed bugs. These nonirritant and odorless compounds are promising candidates as alternatives to DEET for reducing the spread of bed bugs and bed bug bites. PMID:24498754

  4. Application of RNA-seq for mitogenome reconstruction, and reconsideration of long-branch artifacts in Hemiptera phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Nan; An, Shiheng; Yin, Xinming; Cai, Wanzhi; Li, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Hemiptera make up the largest nonholometabolan insect assemblage. Despite previous efforts to elucidate phylogeny within this group, relationships among the major sub-lineages remain uncertain. In particular, mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) data are still sparse for many important hemipteran insect groups. Recent mitogenomic analyses of Hemiptera have usually included no more than 50 species, with conflicting hypotheses presented. Here, we determined the nearly complete nucleotide sequence of the mitogenome for the aphid species of Rhopalosiphum padi using RNA-seq plus gap filling. The 15,205 bp mitogenome included all mitochondrial genes except for trnF. The mitogenome organization and size for R. padi are similar to previously reported aphid species. In addition, the phylogenetic relationships for Hemiptera were examined using a mitogenomic dataset which included sequences from 103 ingroup species and 19 outgroup species. Our results showed that the seven species representing the Aleyrodidae exhibit extremely long branches, and always cluster with long-branched outgroups. This lead to the failure of recovering a monophyletic Hemiptera in most analyses. The data treatment of Degen-coding for protein-coding genes and the site-heterogeneous CAT model show improved suppression of the long-branch effect. Under these conditions, the Sternorrhyncha was often recovered as the most basal clade in Hemiptera. PMID:27633117

  5. Cophylogenetic analysis of New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae) and their parasitic wing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera: Columbicola).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweet, Andrew D; Johnson, Kevin P

    2016-10-01

    Hosts-parasite interactions are plentiful and diverse, and understanding the patterns of these interactions can provide great insight into the evolutionary history of the organisms involved. Estimating the phylogenetic relationships of a group of parasites and comparing them to that of their hosts can indicate how factors such as host or parasite life history, biogeography, or climate affect evolutionary patterns. In this study we compare the phylogeny generated for a clade of parasitic chewing lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) within the genus Columbicola to that of their hosts, the small New World ground-doves (Aves: Columbidae). We sampled lice from the majority of host species, including samples from multiple geographic locations. From these samples we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear loci for the lice, and used these data to estimate phylogenetic trees and population networks. After estimating the appropriate number of operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for the lice, we used cophylogenetic analyses to compare the louse phylogeny to an existing host phylogeny. Our phylogenetic analysis recovered significant structure within the louse clade, including evidence for potentially cryptic species. All cophylogenetic analyses indicated an overall congruence between the host and parasite trees. However, we only recovered a single cospeciation event. This finding suggests that certain branches in the trees are driving the signal of congruence. In particular, lice with the highest levels of congruence are associated with high Andean species of ground-doves that are well separated altitudinally from other related taxa. Other host-parasite associations are not as congruent, and these often involved widespread louse taxa. These widespread lice did, however, have significant phylogeographic structure, and their phylogenetic relationships are perhaps best explained by biogeographic patterns. Overall these results indicate that both host phylogeny and biogeography can be

  6. Wing base morphology of Aetalionidae (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha) and its phylogenetic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Ogawa, Naoki; Maruyama, Munetoshi; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    The Aetalionidae is a small family belonging to the treehopper superfamily Membracoidea (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha). Although the wing-base morphology of Cicadomorpha was examined in detail recently, the wing base of this family has not been investigated to date. We examined morphology of the wing-base structure of Aetalionidae. Using the characters selected from the wing base, we inferred the phylogenetic placement of this family and confirmed that it belongs to the superfamily Membracoidea an...

  7. Laboratory Rearing of Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae): A Predator of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Salom, S. M.; L. T. Kok; Lamb, A B; Jubb, C

    2012-01-01

    Coleopteran species are biological control agents of numerous invasive pests. Laricobius nigrinus (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a predaceous, univoltine species, spends the summer aestivating but is active for the rest of the year. Laricobius nigrinus possesses many essential attributes for effective biological control of the hemlock woolly adelgid (Hemiptera: Adelgidae). The predator must be reared in large numbers for field releases. We describe some of the studies that led to the successful ...

  8. Ooencyrtus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), egg parasitoids of the pistachio green stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayat, Mohammad; Mehrnejad, M Reza

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with three species of Ooencyrtus Ashmead (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) obtained from eggs of the green stink bug, Brachynema germarii (Kolenati) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) infesting pistachio plants in Iran. Two new species, Ooencyrtus iranicus Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov. and O. pistaciae Hayat & Mehrnejad, sp. nov., are described, and O. telenomicida (Vassiliev) is newly recorded from Iran, redescribed and illustrated. A key to some species considered similar to the species treated here is also given. PMID:27395169

  9. Scale insect genus-group names and their families (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Douglas J; Denno, Barbara D

    2014-06-05

    Genus names of the scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) are listed with their current families. The list includes all generic names that are currently valid with synonyms, unjustified emendations, homonyms, nomia nuda and misspellings. The list has been compiled from many sources as discussed in the introduction. This is the first list to be prepared in recent years of all generic names and it is in alphabetical order.

  10. Responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Hemiptera: Alydidae) to color and male-lured traps

    OpenAIRE

    Maurício Ursi Ventura; Antônio Ricardo Panizzi

    2004-01-01

    In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Alydidae) to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow). Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White...

  11. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nicoletta Faraone; N Kirk Hillier; G Christopher Cutler

    2015-01-01

    Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender) and Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids wer...

  12. Primer Registro para el Perú de Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Díaz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Se registra por primera vez para el Perú la especie Brachycaudus schwartzi (Bórner (Hemiptera: Aphididae, “pulgón pardo del duraznero”. La especie ha sido colectada en el departamento de Tacna. Material de referencia se encuentra depositado en la Colección Referencial de Insectos de la Unidad del Centro de Diagnóstico de Sanidad Vegetal del SENASA, Lima, Perú.

  13. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management. PMID:14994787

  14. Identification and impact of natural enemies of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Southern California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Casey D; Trumble, John T

    2012-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest of potato, (Solanum tuberosum L.), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), and peppers (Capsicum spp.). The purpose of our research was to identify and determine the impact of natural enemies on B. cockerelli population dynamics. Through 2 yr of field studies (2009-2010) at four different sites and laboratory feeding tests, we identified minute pirate bug, Orius tristicolor (White) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae); western bigeyed bug, Geocoris pallens Stål (Hemiptera:Geocoridae), and convergent lady beetle, Hippodamia convergens Guérin-Méneville (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) as key natural enemies of B. cockerelli in southern California potatoes, tomatoes, and bell peppers. In natural enemy exclusion cage experiments in the potato crop and in American nightshade, Solanum americanum Miller, the number of B. cockerelli surviving was significantly greater in the closed cage treatments, thus confirming the affect natural enemies can have on B. cockerelli. We discuss how this information can be used in an integrated pest management program for B. cockerelli.

  15. Influence of insecticide treatments on ant-hemiptera associations in tropical plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, M; Djiéto-Lordon, C; Orivel, J; Mony, R; Fabre, A; Dejean, A

    2003-04-01

    In this survey conducted in southern Cameroon, we compared ant-Hemiptera associations on plantations treated with insecticides, on plantations 2 years after insecticide treatments ceased, and on control lots that never received insecticide treatments. By eliminating arboreal-nesting ants, insecticides favored the presence of "ecologically dominant" ground-nesting, arboreal-foraging species that occupied the tree crowns. The reinstallation of arboreal ants was slow as 2 yr after insecticide treatment ceased differences with the control lots were significant. This intermediary period also illustrated that arboreal ants can found and develop colonies on trees occupied by ground-nesting species. Certain arboreal species were more frequent during this intermediary period than on the control lots, showing that the period of installation in the trees was followed by competition between arboreal ants. We confirm that ground-nesting ants tend a wide range of hemipteran families, including well known agricultural pests, whereas arboreal ants, particularly dominant species, were mostly associated with Coccidae and Stictococcidae that do not pose problems to the supporting trees. A tree effect was also noted for both ant and hemipteran distribution. We concluded that because of insecticide use, ground-nesting ants pose problems through their associated Hemiptera. On the contrary, dominant arboreal ants, strong predators, benefit their supporting trees by excluding ground-nesting species and tending mostly nonpest Hemiptera. Nevertheless, certain of them, carpenter species or species likely to tend Pseudococcidae, have to be eliminated through integrated management.

  16. Male Reproductive System and Spermatogenesis in Homoptera (Insecta: Hemiptera)%同翅类昆虫的雄性生殖系统及精子发生(昆虫纲:半翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田润刚; 袁锋; 张雅林

    2006-01-01

    本文比较了同翅类昆虫雄性生殖系统的结构、减数分裂期间染色体的行为和精子尾部的超微结构.研究表明蜡蝉总科和异翅类的精巢具有被膜,而蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、木虱总科、蚜总科、粉虱总科和蚧总科的精巢均不具有被膜.也可以根据精巢小叶的形状将精巢分为三类,蝉总科、叶蝉总科、沫蝉总科、角蝉总科、蚜总科和粉虱总科的精巢小叶为球形,蜡蝉总科、木虱总科和蚧总科的精巢小叶为管状,而异翅类的精巢小叶为片层状.减数分裂可以被分为5类:①蝉型(Cicadoid type);②蜡蝉型(Fulgoroid type);③木虱型(Psyloid type);④蚜型(Aphidoid type);⑤粉虱型(Aleyrodoid type)和⑥蚧型(Coccoid type),至少具有四个类群的减数分裂前期I具有弥散期,它们是:木虱总科、蜡蝉总科、蚧总科和异翅类.除粉虱总科和蚧总科的精子尾部退化以外,其余种类的精子鞭毛均具有典型的9+9+2轴丝结构.%Morphology of the male reproductive system, chromosome behaviors during meiosis and spem tail structures in Homoptera and Heteroptera are compared in this paper. The sheathed testis is found in Fulgoroidea and Heteroptera, and unsheathed testis occurs in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Psyloidea, Aphidoidea, Aleyrodoidea and Coccoidea. The testis also can be divide into three types by the shape of testicular follicles. The sphere-shaped type is found in Cicadoidea, Cicadelloidea, Cercopoidea, Membracoidea, Aphidoidea and Aleyrodoidea, the tube-shaped type observed in Fulgoroidea, Psyloidea and Coccoidea, and the lamella-shaped type represented by Heteroptera. It is suggested the unsheathed testis may be the primitive type in Homoptera. Meiosis can be divided into 6 type at least, i.e. 1) Cicadoid type; 2) Fulgoroid type; 3) Psyloid type; 4) Aphidoid type; 5) Aleyrodoid type; and 6) Coccoid type. At least four groups exhibit a diffuse stage during meiosis prophase I, they are Psyloidea, Fulgoroidea, Coccoidea and Heteroptera. Sperm tail structures are similar to those reported from other insects with a typical 9+9+2 axoneme except that in Aleyrodoidea and Coccoidea whose sperm tail is degenerated.

  17. Eight new species of Oragua Melichar, 1926 (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) from Amazonas State, Brazil, with description of the female terminalia of Oragua jurua Young, 1977, and new records for the genus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camisão, Beatriz M; Cavichioli, Rodney R; Takiya, Daniela M

    2014-01-01

    The thirty known species of Oragua are distributed from southern Mexico to Argentina. Seventeen species are recorded from Brazil, but only O. elegantula Young, 1977, O. insipida Young, 1977, and O. jurua Young, 1977 are recorded from Amazonas State. Oragua partitula (Jacobi, 1905) is herein firstly recorded from Brazil, ocurring in Amazonas State. The aim of the study was to describe eight new species of Oragua, to provide a key to males of the species of the genus that are recorded from Amazonas State and to study in detail the female terminalia of these new species. Also, the female of O. jurua Young, 1977 is herein described for the first time. Oragua alerochae sp. nov. has the external color pattern similar to O. bifasciata Cavichioli, 2000, however, the head is darker, the forewings are paler and the stripes are thinner, aedeagus is much more curved with long apical processes, and apex of paraphyses rami are curved. Oragua aurantimaculata sp. nov. is similar externally to O. elegantula and Oragua jau sp. nov. as they share the body brown with three orange maculae on crown and orange maculae on forewings, but it has the aedeagus with shaft enlarged medially with a pair of apical processes curved anteriorly and connective more slender. Oragua bella sp. nov. is dark with orange spots, aedeagus with basal elongated processes extending to the apex of the pygofer, with the basal portion enlarged and narrowing toward the apex. Oragua copiosa sp. nov. is dark with small pale dots all over the body, paraphyses rami are slender and their apices expanded, and styles with hooked apex, extending posteriorly beyond the connective apex. Oragua gracilenta sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. galerula, but it can be distinguished by the brown ground color, absence of two maculae near median line just before posterior margin on pronotum and apex of rami of paraphyses bifurcate and not truncate. Oragua jau sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. elegantula, but the aedeagus is curved and slender with a pair of small lateral processes at the apex and very thin paraphyses rami bifurcating only in the final portion, with the length of the rami just one third of the total length. Oragua schwertineri sp. nov. has the external color similar to O. insipida, however the male genitalia differs from the latter by the lack of paraphyses and aedeagus with pair of basal processes curved dorsally and shaft with pair of apical lateral processes. Oragua unifasciata sp. nov. is dark brown with pale spots over the body with a pale transverse stripe over the anteapical cells and paraphyses stem slender and abruptly broadened at apical two thirds, with rami robust and flattened with posterior margin serrate with large and irregular tooth-like projections. This work raises the number of Oragua species occurring in Amazonas State from three to twelve. 

  18. DNA Barcoding Technique and its Application in Cicadellidae (Insecta, Hemiptera, Cicadelloidea) Research%DNA条形编码技术及其在叶蝉科昆虫中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虎; 戴仁怀; 李子忠

    2012-01-01

    DNA barcoding was a new technique of DNA taxonomy developed during the past decade, and had been successfully applied to species identification and related researches in many animals. This paper summarised the theory and the processing of this technique, and briefly reviewed its development, application, as well as the advantage. The usage and prospect of DNA barcoding in taxonomic identification and related researches to Cicadellidae were further introduced.%DNA条形编码技术(DNA barcoding)是近十年来一种新兴的DNA分类(DNA Taxonomy)方法,已经成功应用于大多数动物的分类鉴定及相关研究.本文从DNA条形编码技术的产生、原理及操作步骤,简要回顾近十年来的发展和应用,总结其优点,并介绍条形编码技术在叶蝉科昆虫中的应用发展和前景.

  19. Higher-level phylogeny of the Therevidae (Diptera: insecta) based on 28S ribosomal and elongation factor-1 alpha gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, L; Wiegmann, B M; Yeates, D K; Irwin, M E

    2000-06-01

    Therevidae (stilleto flies) are a little-known family of asiloid brachyceran Diptera (Insecta). Separate and combined phylogenetic analyses of 1200 bases of the 28S ribosomal DNA and 1100 bases of elongation factor-1alpha were used to infer phylogenetic relationships within the family. The position of the enigmatic taxon Apsilocephala Kröber is evaluated in light of the molecular evidence. In all analyses, molecular data strongly support the monophyly of Therevidae, excluding Apsilocephala, and the division of Therevidae into two main clades corresponding to a previous classification of the family into the subfamilies Phycinae and Therevinae. Despite strong support for some relationships within these groups, relationships at the base of the two main clades are weakly supported. Short branch lengths for Australasian clades at the base of the Therevinae may represent a rapid radiation of therevids in Australia. PMID:10860652

  20. A Leafhopper Pest of Plants in the Mint Family, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), Ligurian Leafhopper, New to North America

    OpenAIRE

    Rung, Alessandra; Halbert, Susan E.; Ziesk, David C.; Gill, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    The Ligurian leafhoppter, Eupteryx decemnotata Rey (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae), is reported for the first time in North America (USA: Florida and California). Diagnostic characters for species identification, summary of hosts and damage, and U.S. known distribution are given.

  1. Morphology of the first-instar nymph and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky, with a comparison to K. vermilio Planchon (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkie Spodek

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The first-instar nymph and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae are described and illustrated. This species is compared with K. vermilio Planchon, a morphologically similar species known in the Palaeractic region.

  2. Morphology of the female reproductive system and physiological age-grading of Megamelus scutellaris (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), a biological control agent of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphology of the female reproductive system in Megamelus scutellaris Berg (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), a biocontrol agent of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, was examined using standard light microscopy techniques. Ovaries extracted from individuals dissected in phosphate buffered saline were ex...

  3. ABUNDÂNCIA RELATIVA DAS ESPÉCIES DE CERAMBYCIDAE (INSECTA-COLEOPTERA EM POMAR DE FRUTÍFERAS MISTO RELATIVE ABUNDANCE OF SPECIES OF THE CERAMBYCIDAE FAMILY (INSECTA-COLEOPTERA IN MIXED ORCHARD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Rose Pereira da Silva

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Estudou-se a abundância relativa das espécies da família Cerambycidae (Insecta-Coleoptera em um pomar de frutíferas misto composto por 28 diferentes espécies, no período de dezembro de 1997 a maio de 1999 em Ceres, Estado de Goiás, Brasil. Foram utilizadas armadilhas luminosas modelo “Luiz de Queiroz” com lâmpadas Bl-15 wats. Essas armadilhas foram ligadas por 12 horas em dois dias consectivos num total de 24 horas de coletas semanais. Coletaram-se 1.474 cerambicídeos, agrupados em 39 gêneros e 49 espécies. Acanthoderes jaspidea, Achryson surinamum, Chlorida festiva, Eurodacrys sexgutatta, Gnomibidion fulvipes, Lophopoeum timbouve, Megacyllene acuta, Rhopalophora collaris e Trichophorus distinctus foram as espécies classificadas como muito abundantes. Das espécies coletadas, 48,98 % foram classificadas como raras, 12,24 % como dispersas, 20,41 % como comuns e 18,37 % como muito abundantes. Dentre os 39 gêneros, Oreodera foi representado por três espécies (6,13 %, os gêneros Acanthoderes, Aerenica, Chrysoprasis, Colobothea, Eutrypanus, Megacylene, Myoxomorpha e Nyssodrysternum por duas espécies (4,08 %, e os demais gêneros por apenas uma espécie.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Levantamento; riqueza de espécies; ecologia; comportamento.

    It was studied the relative abundance to the species of the family Cerambycidae (Insecta-Coleoptera in a mixed orchard composed by 28 diferent species in the period from decembre 1997 to may 1999 in Ceres, state of Goi

  4. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoya Yefremova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae. Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  5. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given.

  6. Parasitism of Megacopta cribraria (Hemiptera: Plataspidae)by Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) in organic soybean plots in Georgia, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    The kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria (F.) (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is a newly-invasive exotic pest of soybean in the southeastern US. In 2013, the exotic egg parasitoid Paratelenomus saccharalis (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) (Dodd) was discovered parasitizing eggs of this pest in kudzu and soybean in...

  7. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J. Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  8. A new species in the genus Crisicoccus Ferris (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), with a key to Chinese species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiang-Tao; Wu, San-An

    2016-06-01

    A new mealybug, Crisicoccus ziziphus sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), collected on the leaves and twigs of Ziziphus jujuba (Rhamnaceae), is described from China. All the female developmental stages (adult, third-instar, second-instar and first-instar nymphs) are described and illustrated. Keys are provided to separate the female instars and to identify adult females of Crisicoccus species from China.

  9. OCORRÊNCIA DE Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae EM Eucalyptus spp. NO RIO GRANDE DO SUL, BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo da Silva Oliveira

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Em janeiro de 2005, pela primeira vez, foi constatada a ocorrência de Glycaspis brimblecombei (Moore, 1964 (Hemiptera: Psyllidae em espécies de Eucalyptus spp. no estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. A observação ocorreu nos municípios de Butiá, Caçapava do Sul e Santa Maria.

  10. Brochosome influence on parasitisation efficiency of Homalodisca coagulata (Say) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg masses by Gonatocerus ashmeadi Girault (Hymenoptera : Mymaridae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velema, H.P.; Hemerik, L.; Hoddle, M.S.; Luck, R.F.

    2005-01-01

    1. Many cicadellid females in the tribe Proconiini (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) cover their egg masses with specialised, usually rod-shaped, brochosomes as the eggs are being laid. The brochosomes are produced in Golgi complexes in the Malpighian tubules of Cicadellidae. In contrast to the gravid femal

  11. Review of the grassland leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) from the Chinese mainland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Yani; Zhang, Yalin

    2014-01-01

    The Chinese mainland species of the leafhopper genus Nephotettix Matsumura (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Deltocephalinae: Chiasmini) (Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler), Nephotettix malayanus Ishihara & Kawase, Nephotettix nigropictus (Stål), Nephotettix parvus Ishihara & Kawase rec. n., and Nephotettix virescens (Distant)) are reviewed. This genus is redescribed. Variation is described and illustrated. Keys for their separation are provided together with a worldwide checklist.

  12. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were evaluated. The assay consisted of confining adult females to cowpea stems in parafilm enclosures and quantifying adult feeding and egg maturation. Adult feeding was...

  13. New corological and biological data of the Red Gum Lerp Psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 in Italy (Hemiptera, Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Jiménez-Peydró

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, 1964 is a psyllid (Hemiptera: Psyllidae pest of Eucalyptus, native toAustralia and first recorded in Europe: Spain in 2008 and more recently (2010 in Italy. The present paper dealswith recent research, carried out in central Italy, with new data on the distribution and biology of this species.

  14. Pheromone of the banana-spotting bug, amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae): identification, synthesis and field bioassay

    Science.gov (United States)

    The banana spotting bug Amblypelta lutescens lutescens Distant (Hemiptera: Coreidae) is one of the principal pests of tree fruits and nuts across northern and eastern Australia. Apart from damage assessments in orchards, there are currently no other methods for monitoring bug activity to aid manage...

  15. Phalacrococcus howertoni Hodges & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae), a new soft scale record for the island of Guadeloupe

    OpenAIRE

    Étienne, Jean; Matile-Ferrero, Danièle; Kondo, Takumasa

    2014-01-01

    The croton scale, Phalacrococcus howertoni Hodges & Hodgson (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) is newly reported from the island of Guadeloupe, French West Indies, on several host-plants, including some new host records, i.e., on Spondias cytherea Sonnerat; (Euphorbiaceae), Ocotea membranacea (Sw.) R.A. Howard (Lauraceae), Miconia furfuracea (Vahl) Griseb (Melastomataceae), Ficus citrifolia Mill. (Moraceae) and Piper dilatatum Rich. (Piperaceae).

  16. Survey of 'Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum' in carrot crops affected by the psyllid Trioza apicalis (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    The carrot psyllid Trioza apicalis Förster (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a serious insect pest of carrot (Daucus carota L.) in northern Europe, where it can cause up to 100% crop loss. Although it was long believed that T. apicalis causes damage to carrot by injection of toxins into the plant, it was re...

  17. Potential transmission of Pantoea spp. and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) to plants by Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lygus hesperus Knight (Hemiptera: Miridae) is a key agricultural pest in the western United States. In a recent study, proteins from Pantoea ananatis and Serratia marcescens (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae) were identified in diet that was stylet-probed and fed upon by L. hesperus adults. P...

  18. Biology and host preference of the planthopper Taosa longula (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) a candidate for biological control of water hyacinth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taosa longula Remes Lenicov (Hemiptera: Dictyopharidae) is a planthopper from the South American tropics that feeds on water hyacinth, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae). The biology of T. longula was studied in the laboratory and field to evaluate it as a potential biologic...

  19. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan and Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stal) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), was accidently introduced into the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in...

  20. A new species of Tamarixia Mercet (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae), parasitoid of Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera, Triozidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Zoya; González-Santarosa, Graciela; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor

    2014-01-01

    Tamarixia aguacatensis Yefremova, sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae: Tetrastichinae) is described from Mexico as a parasitoid of the avocado psyllid, Trioza aguacate Hollis & Martin (Hemiptera: Triozidae). Trioza aguacate is a serious pest of avocado, Persea americana Miller. A key to the species of Tamarixia Mercet in Mexico is given. PMID:24478580

  1. The identity of Orthaea maculifera, with proposal of a new synonymy (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Rhyparochromidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rédei, Dávid; Zhu, Xudong; Kondorosy, Előd

    2016-01-01

    Orthaea maculifera Uhler, 1861 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Lygaeoidea: Rhyparochromidae) was described by Uhler (1861) based on an unspecified number of female specimens from Hong Kong. For a long time this species remained of unknown identity and uncertain generic placement (Stål 1874, Lethierry & Severin 1894). As a result of the synonymy of the genus Orthaea Dallas, 1852 with Pachybrachius Hahn, 1826 proposed by Barber (1939) (not accepted by Harrington (1980) and subsequent workers), Slater (1964) listed the species within the genus Pachybrachius. Although the species has still been regarded as of unknown identity (Zheng & Zou 1981), this generic placement has been followed by subsequent authors (Péricart 2001).

  2. [First record of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psylloidea), in Tipuana tipu (Benth.), from Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Dalva L Q; Burckhardt, Daniel; Aguiar, António M F

    2006-01-01

    The occurrence of Platycorypha nigrivirga Burckhardt (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, Acizzinae), is reported for the first time, in Brazil. The psyllid was observed causing injuries on leaves and shoots of Tipuana tipu (Benth.), in urban areas of Paraná State. P. nigrivirga are tiny sap-sucking insects that feed on phloem and cause curling, stains and fall of leaves. The excrements of these insects accumulate on the leaves propitiating fungus growth on the leaves, or they fall in great amount on the cars dirtying them as if they were sparkling of white and sticky ink.

  3. First report of Idiopterus nephrelepidis Davis, 1909 (Hemiptera: Aphididae from Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Tasheva-Terzieva

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Idiopterus nephrelepidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae is reported for the first time in Bulgaria on ornamental ferns in four greenhouses in Sofia and Varna. Dense colonies of apterous viviparous females and larvae were observed. The established host plants are Nephrolepis exaltata, Asplenium nidus and Pteris cretica. Infested ferns exhibit leaf deformation. The aphids were reared in laboratory conditions for four months. A morphometric study of apterae was carried out. Taking into account the presence of host plants of I. nephrelepidis in Bulgaria which are native to the local flora and the reports of the aphid from the Balkan area, it may spread in the country outdoors.

  4. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America. PMID:25527601

  5. Records of Natural Enemies of Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, L C; Lourenção, A L; Costa, V A; Souza, B; Costa, M B; Tanque, R L

    2014-04-01

    Collections of natural enemies of Bemisia tabaci biotype B (Genn.) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) were made in Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. In the greenhouse, 6,495 predators and 16,628 parasitoids belonging to three families were collected. In the field, 267 predators and 344 parasitoids belonging to five families were found. For the first time in Brazil, five species of predators associated with this whitefly were reported. Because of the diversity of natural enemies of B. tabaci biotype B recorded, this study points out the importance of these data for studies on integrated pest management.

  6. Dopluise (Hemiptera: Coccoidea geassosieer met die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi Emery (Hymenoptera: Formicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes H. Giliomee

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste van die wipstertmier, Crematogaster peringueyi (Hymenoptera: Formicidae, is op verskeie plekke langs die kus van die Wes-Kaap versamel. Die doel was om vas te stel watter dopluisagtiges (Hemiptera: Coccoidea in die neste in assosiasie met hierdie miere leef. Dopluise van drie families, naamlik die Pseudococcidae (witluise, Coccidae (sagtedopluise en Kerriidae (lakdopluise is in die neste gevind, almal bekend daarvoor dat hulle heuningdou afskei. Hierdie mutualistiese verhouding tussen die miere en dopluise, bekend as mirmekofilie, is fakultatief van aard. Die wipstertmier blyk ook nie spesifiek te wees wat betref die plant waarop hulle nes maak nie.

  7. The genus Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera, Ortheziidae with the description of a new species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Szita

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a new species of Arctorthezia Cockerell (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Ortheziidae from the Palaearctic region. The specimens were extracted from forest litter in the collections of Muséum d’histoire Naturelle de Genève, Switzerland, using Berlese funnels. Three further species, A. cataphracta (Olafsen, A. occidentalis (Douglas and A. pseudoccidentalis Morrison, are redescribed and re-illustrated. The genus Arctorthezia now contains five species. An identification key, diagnostic illustrations, photographs of unmounted females and new locality records of the Arctorthezia species currently known are provided.

  8. A new species of Dysmicoccus damaging lavender in French Provence (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, J-F; Matile-Ferrero, D; Kaydan, M B; Malausa, T; Williams, D J

    2015-07-01

    Une nouvelle espèce de Dysmicoccus nuisible à la lavande en Provence (France) (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Pseudococcidae). Dysmicoccus lavandulae Germain, Matile-Ferrero & Williams n. sp. est décrite et illustrée. Ses séquences ADN sont présentées. L'espèce vit sur Lavandula x intermedia cultivée pour la production d'essence de lavande en Provence. La liste des espèces de pseudococcines vivant sur les lavandes spontanées en France est dressée. Le statut des 2 genres voisins Trionymus Berg et Dysmicoccus Ferris est discuté.

  9. The Vine Mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Damaging Vineyards in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, V C; Galzer, E C W; Malausa, T; Germain, J F; Kaydan, M B; Botton, M

    2016-08-01

    In the last decade, the incidence of mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards has increased, especially on crops grown under plastic covering, in the Serra Gaúcha region of southern Brazil where the major Brazilian wineries are concentrated. Eggs, nymphs, and female adults were collected in two highly infested vineyards in Bento Gonçalves City, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Mealybugs were identified by morphological and molecular techniques as the vine mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret). This is a principal mealybug pest of vineyards worldwide, and this is the first record of damage from this species in Brazil.

  10. Cicadidae types (Hemiptera-Cicadomorpha) housed at the Museo de La Plata entomological collection (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Remes Lenicov, Ana M Marino; Maciá, Arnaldo; Pianzola, Bruno

    2015-06-23

    A catalog of the 161 type specimens of species of Hemiptera Cicadidae housed in the collection of the Entomology Division of the Museo de La Plata is presented. This collection represents 52 species grouped in 19 genera. For each species the original and current names, bibliographic references, type category, number of specimens, gender, Museo de La Plata code numbers, and transcription of data from labels (country, province, locality, date of collection, collector's name, and hosts) are given. Information about the state of preservation of the specimens in each series and photographs of each type species are also provided.

  11. First record of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Ecuador infesting urban citrus and orange jasmine trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornejo, J F; Chica, E J

    2014-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), were collected in the Guayaquil, Samborondón, and Durán cantons in coastal Ecuador. Psyllids were found in high numbers in citrus (Citrus spp., Sapindales: Rutaceae) and orange jasmine (Murraya exotica [L.] Jack, Sapindales: Rutaceae) trees within the Guayaquil-Samborondon-Duran conurbation; however, none was found during scoutings in the main citrus producing areas in coastal Ecuador. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of D. citri in Ecuador and the Pacific coastal plain of South America.

  12. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae)%The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanfeng ZHANG; Yingping XIE; Jiaoliang XUE; Xiaohong FU; Weimin LIU

    2012-01-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy,we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug,Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera:Coccoidea:Pseudococcidae).We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular,quinquelocular,and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts,recording characteristics of their structure,size and distribution.We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers—the procuticle,epidermis and basement membrane—and four sub-layers of the procuticle—the epicuticle,exocuticle,endocuticle and formation zone.The waxsecreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis.All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells.These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage.Synthesized by the glandular cells,the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  13. Complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the treehopper Leptobelus gazella (Membracoidea: Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xing; Liang, Ai-Ping

    2016-09-01

    The first complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Leptobelus gazelle (Membracoidea: Hemiptera) is determined in this study. The circular molecule is 16,007 bp in its full length, which encodes a set of 37 genes, including 13 proteins, 2 ribosomal RNAs, 22 transfer RNAs, and contains an A + T-rich region (CR). The gene numbers, content, and organization of L. gazelle are similar to other typical metazoan mitogenomes. Twelve of the 13 PCGs are initiated with ATR methionine or ATT isoleucine codons, except the atp8 gene that uses the ATC isoleucine as start signal. Ten of the 13 PCGs have complete termination codons, either TAA (nine genes) or TAG (cytb). The remaining 3 PCGs (cox1, cox2 and nad5) have incomplete termination codons T (AA). All of the 22 tRNAs can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure. The complete mitogenome sequence data of L. gazelle is useful for the phylogenetic and biogeographic studies of the Membracoidea and Hemiptera. PMID:25714149

  14. Preparation of Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) for Genetic Characterization and Morphological Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahder, B W; Bollinger, M L; Sudarshana, M R; Zalom, F G

    2015-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are economically significant agricultural pests on many different crops. Because of their small size and lack of easily visible characters for identification, determination of their taxonomic status is difficult and requires technical competency to prepare a slide-mounted specimen. The standard mounting technique does not allow for analysis of the genome of the specimen. Conversely, preparatory techniques for genetic analysis of mealybugs cause either loss of the entire individual or physical damage that can make morphology-based identification difficult. This study describes a simple protocol that does not impact physical integrity of the specimen for fixation and microscopic examination yet enables simultaneous DNA extraction for DNA-based identification of four mealybug species. All species prepared yielded high quality slide mounts, identified as Planococcus citri Risso, Pseudococcus viburni Signoret, Rhizoecus kondonis Kuwana, or Rhizoecus californicus Ferris. DNA extracted in this manner had higher purity and yield in the final eluate than in samples extracted using standard methods. DNA extracted was successfully amplified by polymerase chain reaction using primers for the cytochrome oxidase I gene and subsequently sequenced for all specimens. This protocol is likely to be applicable to other Hemiptera taxa that are preserved by slide mounting, allowing for both the preparation of a high-quality voucher specimen for morphological identification and simultaneous analysis of DNA for the same specimen. The methods used are technically less challenging than current standard procedures.

  15. Population Dynamics of Empoasca fabae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) in Central Iowa Alfalfa Fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser Erlandson, L A; Obrycki, J J

    2015-01-01

    Adults and nymphs of Empoasca fabae Harris (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and adults of predatory species in the families Coccinellidae, Anthocoridae, Nabidae, Chrysopidae, and Hemerobiidae were sampled in Iowa alfalfa fields from June to September in 1999 and 2000. The relationship between each predatory taxa and E. fabae was examined using regression analysis. In 2000, all predators were found to be positively correlated with the presence of E. fabae during all periods sampled and most likely contributed to mortality. Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthoridae) was the most numerous insect predatory species; population numbers ranged from 0 to 1 and 0.1 to 3.7 adults per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. Partial life tables were constructed for E. fabae nymphs for two alfalfa-growing periods. Nymphs were grouped into three age intervals: first and second, third and fourth, and fifth instars. For the first alfalfa growing period examined, E. fabae nymphal mortality was 70% in 1999 and 49% in 2000. During the last growing period of each season (August-September), total nymphal mortality was relatively low (<25%). Adult E. fabae density ranged from 5.4 to 25.6 and 1.4-9.2 per 0.25 m(2) in 1999 and 2000, respectively. E. fabae population peaks were similar for each age interval in all growing periods. This study provides further information on the population dynamics of E. fabae and its relationship with select predatory species in Iowa alfalfa fields.

  16. Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil Preferência de alimentação e oviposição de Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) por Eucalyptus spp. e outras Myrtaceae

    OpenAIRE

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz; Keti M. R. Zanol; Edílson B. Oliveira; Norivaldo dos Anjos; Jonathan Majer

    2010-01-01

    Feeding and oviposition preferences of Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) for Eucalyptus spp. and other Myrtaceae in Brazil. The Australian psyllid, Ctenarytaina spatulata Taylor (Hemiptera, Psyllidae), was first detected in Brazil in 1994, where it was found on drought-affected shoots of Eucalyptus grandis in a plantation located in the northern part of Paraná State. The oviposition and feeding preferences of this psyllid were examined on 19 Eucalyptus species, one Eucalypt...

  17. Composição e preferência por microhábitat de imaturos de Odonata (Insecta) em um trecho de baixada do Rio Ubatiba, Maricá-RJ, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana C. F. de Assis; Alcimar L. Carvalho; Jorge Luiz Nessimian

    2004-01-01

    No período de maio de 1999 a maio de 2000 foram efetuadas coletas de imaturos de Odonata (Insecta), em sete diferentes substratos, ao longo de 50 metros de um trecho do Rio Ubatiba, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Um total de 1.279 larvas de Odonata foi coligido e identificado em 27 espécies de cinco famílias. Acanthagrion lancea (Selys, 1876), Hetaerina auripennis (Burmeister, 1839), Micrathyria hesperis Ris, 1911 e Telebasis filiola (Perty, 1834) foram as espécies mais numerosas. O substrat...

  18. Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cátia A. Mello-Patiu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarchophagid flies (Insecta, Diptera from pig carcasses in Minas Gerais, Brazil, with nine new records from the Cerrado, a threatened Neotropical biome. The diversity of the Sarcophagidae fauna of the Cerrado biome, also know as the Brazilian Savanna, is still underestimated. In this research we collected flies in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, during a Forensic Entomology experiment. Samples were collected throughout the decomposition process of domestic pig (Sus scrofa Linnaeus carcasses, and the experiments were conducted in areas of pasture and semideciduous forest. A total of 85,694 adult flesh flies belonging to 57 species were collected from all carcasses. New records for nine species of Sarcophaginae are provided, including the first record of Blaesoxipha (Acridiophaga caridei (Brèthes, 1906 to Brazil, and new occurrences of the following species for the Cerrado and/or for the state of Minas Gerais: Blaesoxipha (Acanthodotheca acridiophagoides (Lopes & Downs, 1951, Malacophagomyia filamenta (Dodge, 1964, Nephochaetopteryx orbitalis (Curran & Walley, 1934, Nephochaetopteryx cyaneiventris Lopes, 1936, Nephochaetopteryx pallidiventris Townsend, 1934, Oxysarcodexia occulta Lopes, 1946, Ravinia effrenata (Walker, 1861 and Sarcophaga (Neobellieria polistensis (Hall, 1933.

  19. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  20. Mirideos neotropicais, CCLXXII: descrições de sete espécies novas da tribo Resthenini Reuter (Hemiptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C.M. Carvalho

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available Os autores descrevem sete espécies novas da tribo Resthenini Reuter (Hemiptera, Miridae, coligidos nas repúblicas da Argentina e do Chile, como segue: Nanniresthenia penai, sp. n, Chile; N. cordobensis, sp. it, Argentina, Platytylus saltensis, sp. n., Argentina; Prepops correntinoides, sp. n., Argentina; P. entrerianus, sp. n., Argentina; P. iguazuensis, sp. n., Argentina; P. oranensis, sp. n., Argentina. Ilustrações de corpo inteiro e genitália do macho acham-se incluídas.The authors describe seven new species of Resthenini Reuter (Hemiptera, Miridae as follows: Nanniresthenia penai, sp. n., Chile; N. cordobensis, sp. n., Argentina; Platytylus saltensis, sp. n., Argentina; Prepops correntinoides, sp. n., Argentina; P. entrerianus, sp. n., Argentina; P. iguazuensis, sp. n., Argentina; P. oranensis, sp. n., Argentina. Illustrations of habitus and mole genitalia are included.

  1. Predation of Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini over Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, in the State of Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Coletto da Silva

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work shows the occurrence of an intense predatory activity on adults working Meliponinae bees (Hymenoptera, Apidae, by Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorinae, Apiomerini at a meliponary in the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.O presente trabalho registra a ocorrência de intensa atividade predatória de Apiomerus pilipes (Fabricius, 1787 (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Harpactorini, Apiomerini sobre operárias adultas de meliponíneos (Hymenoptera, Apidae, no meliponário experimental do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA, Manaus, Estado do Amazonas, Brasil. O meliponário se encontra num fragmento de vegetação secundária no próprio INPA.

  2. Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio B. P. Lopes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae on the development of Rhodnius nasutus (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, Triatominae under laboratory conditions. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of the methanolic fraction of the latex from Parahancornia amapa (Apocynaceae (PALAM on individuals of the species Rhodnius nasutus Stål (Hemiptera, Triatominae. Many of the insects treated with the substance presented deformities and these may interfere in the feeding and possibly hinder the reproductive capacity. They also presented significant mortality during the molt when compared to the control group, noting a gradual increase in mortality. The treated insects also presented delayed nymphal development (5th instar and higher adult longevity.

  3. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Ibrahim Samah Sayed; Moharum Fatma Abdelhalim; Abd El-Ghany Nesreen Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking ...

  4. Portanus Ball: descrição de uma espécie nova (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenomar Neves de Carvalho

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Portanus dubius sp. nov. é descrita e ilustrada a partir de espécimens que foram coletados com armadilha Malaise durante um levantamento entomológico no Estado do Paraná, Brasil (PROFAUPAR.Portanus Ball: description of a new species (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae, Xestocephalinae. Portanus dubius sp. nov. is described and illustrated. The specimens were collected with Malaise trap during an entomological inventory in Paraná State, Brazil (PROFAUPAR.

  5. Phylogeography of a semi-aquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae): an evaluation of historical, geographical and ecological factors

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Ye; Gengping Zhu; Jakob Damgaard; Xin Chen; Pingping Chen; Wenjun Bu

    2016-01-01

    Subtropical China is a centre of speciation and well known for its high biological diversity and endemism. To understand the impact of historical, geographical and ecological factors on the intraspecific lineage divergence of invertebrates, we examined these processes in a semiaquatic bug, Microvelia horvathi (Hemiptera: Veliidae). Three hypotheses were developed using ecological niche models (ENM). We tested these hypotheses using mitochondrial (COI + COII) and nuclear data (ITS1 + 5.8S + IT...

  6. The cotton mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new insect pest on tomato plants in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Samah Sayed

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the mealybug Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae was recorded as a new pest on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill growing in Egypt. The mealybugs specimens were collected from tomato plants in the Qalyoubia governorate during summer season of 2014. The mealybug was identified as P. solenopsis based on the morphological characters and taxonomic key of this species. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect pest attacking tomato plants in Egypt

  7. Description of Sangeeta sinuomacula sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Megophthalminae: Agalliini) from Yunnan Province of Southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    A new species, Sangeeta sinuomacula Li, Dai & Li sp. nov., of tribe Agalliini of subfamily Megophthalminae (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) is described and illustrated from Yunnnan Province of Southwest China. The new species is easily distinguished from other Sangeeta species by the aedeagal shaft with a pair of slender processes instead of lamelliform lateral expansions. A key to Sangeeta species and updated checklist with distribution are provided.

  8. Studies on idiocerine leafhoppers with descriptions of Chinaocerus gen. nov. and three new species from China (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Li-Hong; Zhang, Bin; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2016-01-01

    A new leafhopper genus of the tribe Idiocerini (Hemiptera: Cicadomorpha: Cicadellidae), Chinaocerus, is described from the southwest China together with three new species, C. kangdingensis Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province), C. bispinatus Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Yunnan Province) and C. shii Zhang & Li sp. nov. (Sichuan Province). Descriptions and illustrations of these three new species are provided, and a key for their separation is also given.

  9. A revision of the tribe Coelidiini of the Oriental, Palearctic and Australian biogeographical regions (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Coelidiinae)

    OpenAIRE

    Nielson, Mervin W.

    2016-01-01

    Within the tribe Coelidiini, subfamily Coelidiinae (Cicadellidae: Hemiptera), fragmentation of the genera Calodia Nielson, Olidiana McKamey and Taharana Nielson established the following 13 new genera: Cladolidia, type-species, Lodiana cladopenis Zhang; Creberulidia, type-species, Calodia paucita Nielson; Glaberana, type-species, Glaberana spadix, sp. nov.; Hamusolidia, type-species, Hamusolidia introrsa, sp. nov.; Hiatusorus, typespecies, Taharana schonhorsti Nielson; Laosolidia, type-specie...

  10. Desenvolvimento de Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera:Pseudococcidae em duas cultivares de abacaxi Development of the pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae on two pineapple cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A cochonilha Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae é uma das principais pragas em cultivos de abacaxi e os estudos biológicos desse inseto em diferentes cultivares são uma necessidade. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o desenvolvimento dessa cochonilha em duas cultivares de abacaxi, Pérola e Cayenne. O experimento foi conduzido em câmara climatizada a 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% UR e fotofase de 12 horas. As plantas de abacaxi foram reproduzidas in vitro, transplantadas para vasos (250 mL e aclimatadas em casa-de-vegetação. Ninfas com até um dia de vida foram confinadas em gaiolas de PVC (1 cm de diâmetro, e fixadas em folhas de ambas as cultivares. Não foram detectadas diferenças no desenvolvimento de D. brevipes nos dois substratos alimentares utilizados. O desenvolvimento ninfal de fêmeas e machos de D. brevipes foi 39,9 e 32,0 dias na cv. Pérola e 38,5 e 32,4 dias na cv. Cayenne, respectivamente. A sobrevivência da fase ninfal foi 32,3 e 40,5%; a razão sexual, 0,39 e 0,33; e a longevidade de fêmeas, 20,3 e 26,1 dias nas cvs. Pérola e Cayenne, respectivamente.The pineapple mealybug Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is the main pest on pineapple crops and biological studies of this insect are necessary on different cultivars. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development time of this mealybug on the pineapple cultivars Pérola and Cayenne. The experiment was performed in climated chambers at 25 ± 1ºC, 70 ± 10% RH and 12 h photophase. Pinneapple plants were reproduced in vitro, transplanted to pots (250 mL and kept in greenhouse. One-day-old nymphs were kept inside a clipcage (1 cm diameter fixed on the plants. No differences in development of D. brevipes among the cultivars were found. Development times of females and males, respectively, were 39.9 and 32 days on cv. Pérola and 38.5 and 32.4 days on cv. Cayenne. Nymphs survivals were 32.3 and 40.5%, sexual rates

  11. Biodiversidad de Heteroptera (Hemiptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas de la Patagonia argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Cecilia MELO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Las Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas (infraórdenes Nepomorpha, Gerromorpha y Leptopodomorpha no presentan una alta diversidad específica en Argentina, hasta el momento se han registrado 208 especies. Carlos Berg en 1881, publica el primer trabajo que hace referencia a heterópteros de la Patagonia, en el que lista los insectos recolectados durante la Campaña del Desierto. Desde principios de la década del ’60, las Heteroptera acuáticas han sido estudiadas principalmente por A.O. Bachmann y colaboradores. Hasta el momento, se han registrado 36 especies pertenecientes a las familias Corixidae, Notonectidae, Belostomatidae, Gelastocoridae, Naucoridae y Nepidae (Nepomorpha; Hydrometridae, Veliidae y Mesoveliidae (Gerromorpha, y Saldidae (Leptopodomorpha. La mayoría de estas especies extienden su distribución geográfica hacia el norte de la Argentina, excepto Sigara (Tropocorixa egbertae Hungerford, S. (T. trimaculata (Le Guillou, S. (T. vuriloche Bachmann, S. (T. forciceps (Spinola, Trichocorixa milicorum Bachmann (Corixidae, Notonecta (Paranecta virescens Blanchard, N. (P. fazi Hungerford, N. (P. vereertbruggheni Hungerford (Notonectidae, Pseudosaldula bergi (Haglund y P. paralia (Torres, P. angusta (Drake & Carvalho, P. sola (Drake & Carvalho, P. doeringi (Drake & Carvalho y Saldula differata Drake & Carvalho (Saldidae, que son exclusivas de la Patagonia. El conocimiento de la diversidad de Heteroptera acuáticas y semiacuáticas en la Patagonia es bueno y, por los datos recogidos, su estado de conservación es aceptable ya que aproximadamente el 40% de la especies encontradas en áreas naturales protegidas son exclusivas de la región y representan cerca del 40 % del número de especies exclusivas de la Patagonia.

  12. Advances in the use of the RNA interference technique in Hemiptera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie Li; Xiao-Ping Wang; Man-Qun Wang; Wei-Hua Ma; Hong-Xia Hua

    2013-01-01

    RNA interference(RNAi)suppresses the expression of target genes by posttranscriptional regulation.Because double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)mediated gene silencing is a conserved mechanism in many eukaryotes,RNAi has become a valuable tool for unveiling gene function in many model insects.Recent research has also shown that RNAi can also be effective in the downregulation of target genes in Hemiptera.In this review,we discuss the use of the RNAi technique in gene functional analysis in hemipterans,highlighting the methods of dsRNA uptake by these insects and discuss the knock-down efficiency of these techniques.Although the RNAi technique has disadvantages,our primary goal here is to determine whether it can be exploited further in the discovery of new gene functions,and as a pest control strategy,in some important Hemipteran pests.

  13. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented. PMID:27081335

  14. Wolbachia infection density in populations of the Asian citrus psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, M; Coy, M R; Kingdom Gibbard, H N; Pelz-Stelinski, K S

    2014-10-01

    The symbiotic relationships between bacteria of the genus Wolbachia (order Rickettsiales) and their arthropod hosts are diverse and can range from mutualism to parasitism. Whereas effects of Wolbachia on host biology are well investigated, little is known about diversity and abundance of Wolbachia in their natural hosts. The phloem-feeding Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Kuwayama) (Hemiptera: Liviidae), is naturally infected with Wolbachia (wDi). In the current study, we calculated the within-host density of Wolbachia in Florida D. citri populations using quantitative polymerase chain reaction for detection of the Wolbachia outer surface protein gene, wsp. Gene quantities were normalized to the D. citri wingless gene (Wg) to estimate Wolbachia abundance in individual D. citri. Using this method, significant geographic differences in Wolbachia densities were detected among Florida D. citri populations, with higher infection levels occurring in male versus female hosts. PMID:25259690

  15. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolora, Lakshmi D; Powell, Christopher M; Hunter, W; Bextine, B; Lauzon, C R

    2015-05-01

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits Candidatus Liberibacter spp. This insect/pathogen system was first identified in North America in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. Limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. In this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred to symbiotic control) for control of the insect vector or the pathogen. Culturable bacteria from the gut of Asian Citrus Psyllids were identified using standard culture techniques followed by sequencing of the cultured microorganisms. Further, 454 pyrosequencing of the gut was performed to audit bacterial presence in order to begin to identify any relationship between psyllid symbionts and C. Liberibacter spp. PMID:25645736

  16. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferenc Kozár

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %, to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera; Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera; Margarodidae sensu lato (5 species in 5 genera; Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera; Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus; and Cerococcidae (1 species. Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  17. Are Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) distinct species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzidimitriou, Evangelia; Simonato, Mauro; Watson, Gillian W; Martinez-Sañudo, Isabel; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Zhao, Jing; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2016-03-24

    Among the Nearctic species of Phenacoccus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), Phenacoccus solani Ferris and P. defectus Ferris are morphologically similar and it can be difficult to separate them on the basis of microscopic morphological characters of the adult female alone. In order to resolve their identity, a canonical variates morphological analysis of 199 specimens from different geographical origins and host plants and a molecular analysis of the COI and 28S genes were performed. The morphological analysis supported synonymy of the two species, as although the type specimens of the "species" are widely separated from each other in the canonical variates plot, they are all part of a continuous range of variation. The molecular analysis showed that P. solani and P. defectus are grouped in the same clade. On the basis of the morphological and molecular analyses, P. defectus is synonymized under the senior name P. solani, syn. n.

  18. The structure of integument and wax glands of Phenacoccus fraxinus (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanfeng; Xie, Yingping; Xue, Jiaoliang; Fu, Xiaohong; Liu, Weimin

    2012-06-01

    Using scanning electron microscopy and optical microscopy, we studied the structure of the integument and wax glands of the mealybug, Phenacoccus fraxinus Tang (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae). We observed the ultrastructure of four wax pores including trilocular, quinquelocular, and multilocular pores as well as tubular ducts, recording characteristics of their structure, size and distribution. We found that that the integument of the mealybug consists of three main layers-the procuticle, epidermis and basement membrane-and four sub-layers of the procuticle-the epicuticle, exocuticle, endocuticle and formation zone. The wax-secreting gland cells were closely arranged in epidermis. All of them were complex and composed of one central cell and two or more lateral cells. These complex cells possess a large common reservoir for collection and storage. Synthesized by the glandular cells, the wax is excreted outside integument through canals.

  19. Chirality and bioactivity of the sex pheromone of Madeira mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hsiao-Yung; Ko, Chi-Hung; Cheng, Chao-Chih; Su, Yu-Ting; Pola, Someshwar

    2011-06-01

    Two compounds (trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate and R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate) identified from aeration extracts of virgin female Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were synthesized and tested in field bioassays in northern Taiwan over a 1-mo period. In total, 1,492 male P. madeirensis were captured in sticky traps. Our results showed that 1 microg of synthetic trans-1R,3R-chrysanthemyl R-2-methylbutanoate released from a plastic tube dispenser was attractive to the mealybugs. Different stereoisomers of chrysanthemyl 2-methylbutanoate also were tested. The insect-produced stereoisomer was the most attractive of all the isomers tested, and the stereochemistry of the acid moiety proved to be more critical than that of the alcohol moiety. The minor component found in extracts, R-lavandulyl R-2-methylbutanoate, alone was not attractive to male Madeira mealybugs nor did it act synergistically or additively with the main component.

  20. A survey of scale insects in soil samples from Europe (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Éva

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades, several expeditions were organized in Europe by the researchers of the Hungarian Natural History Museum to collect snails, aquatic insects and soil animals (mites, springtails, nematodes, and earthworms). In this study, scale insect (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha) specimens extracted from Hungarian Natural History Museum soil samples (2970 samples in total), all of which were collected using soil and litter sampling devices, and extracted by Berlese funnel, were examined. From these samples, 43 scale insect species (Acanthococcidae 4, Coccidae 2, Micrococcidae 1, Ortheziidae 7, Pseudococcidae 21, Putoidae 1 and Rhizoecidae 7) were found in 16 European countries. In addition, a new species belonging to the family Pseudococcidae, Brevennia larvalis Kaydan, sp. n. and a new species of Ortheziidae, Ortheziola editae Szita & Konczné Benedicty, sp. n. are described and illustrated based on the adult female stage. Revised keys to the adult females of Brevennia and Ortheziola are presented.

  1. Genome sequence of "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" the flavobacterial endosymbiont of Llaveia axin axin (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Monophlebidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas-Pérez, Tania; Rosenblueth, Mónica; Rincón-Rosales, Reiner; Mora, Jaime; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza

    2014-03-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidae) constitute a very diverse group of sap-feeding insects with a large diversity of symbiotic associations with bacteria. Here, we present the complete genome sequence, metabolic reconstruction, and comparative genomics of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of the giant scale insect Llaveia axin axin. The gene repertoire of its 309,299 bp genome was similar to that of other flavobacterial insect endosymbionts though not syntenic. According to its genetic content, essential amino acid biosynthesis is likely to be the flavobacterial endosymbiont's principal contribution to the symbiotic association with its insect host. We also report the presence of a γ-proteobacterial symbiont that may be involved in waste nitrogen recycling and also has amino acid biosynthetic capabilities that may provide metabolic precursors to the flavobacterial endosymbiont. We propose "Candidatus Walczuchella monophlebidarum" as the name of the flavobacterial endosymbiont of insects from the Monophlebidae family.

  2. An annotated checklist of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malumphy, Chris

    2014-07-31

    An annotated list of 83 scale insect species (Hemiptera: Sterorrhyncha: Coccoidea) recorded from Saint Lucia is presented, based on data gathered from UK quarantine interceptions, samples collected in an urban coastal habitat in the North West of the Island in 2013, and published records. Thirty-three species (40%) are recorded for the first time for the country, including Dysmicoccus joannesiae (Costa Lima), a South American mealybug, and Poliaspoides formosana (Takahashi), an Asian armoured scale insect pest of bamboo, which are new for the Caribbean region. The economic, environmental and social impacts caused by introduced exotic species of scale insect are discussed. Two predatory midges Diadiplosis ?coccidivora (Felt) and Diadiplosis multifila (Felt) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) are recorded for the first time from Saint Lucia. The latter species was observed causing 90% mortality of a large infestation of passion vine mealybug Planococcus minor (Maskell) on soursop fruit. 

  3. An annotated update of the scale insect checklist of Hungary (Hemiptera, Coccoidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozár, Ferenc; Benedicty, Zsuzsanna Konczné; Fetykó, Kinga; Kiss, Balázs; Szita, Eva

    2013-01-01

    The number of scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) known from Hungary has increased in the last 10 years by 39 (16.6 %), to a total of 274 species belonging to 112 genera in10 families. The family Pseudococcidae is the most species rich, with 101 species in 34 genera; Diaspididae contains 59 species in 27 genera; Coccidae contains 54 species in 27 genera; and the Eriococcidae contains 33 species in 8 genera. The other 6 coccoid families each contain only a few species: Asterolecaniidae (7 species in 3 genera); Ortheziidae (7 species in 4 genera); Margarodidaesensu lato (5 species in 5 genera); Cryptococcidae (3 species in 2 genera); Kermesidae (4 species in 1genus); and Cerococcidae (1 species). Of the species in the check list, 224 were found in outdoor conditions, while 50 species occurred only in indoor conditions. This paper contains 22 species recorded for the first time in the Hungarian fauna.

  4. VOLATILE COMPONENTS FROM GALLS INDUCED BY Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae ON LEAVES OF Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Aparecida Besten

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatile components of the galls induced by the insect Baccharopelma dracunculifoliae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae on leaves of Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatographyflame- ionisation detection (GC-FID, and then comparison with volatile oil samples from healthy leaves collected in the vicinity. The galls produced around 3.5% of the total organic volatiles whereas healthy leaves rendered an average yield of 0.6%. The observed higher proportions of germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, limonene, and β-pinene in the galls suggest that all these compounds are important targets in the search for natural enemies of this Psyllid. Moreover, higher relative percentages of (E-nerolidol and spathulenol were found in healthy leaves.

  5. Internal extracellular bacteria of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), the Asian citrus psyllid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolora, Lakshmi D; Powell, Christopher M; Hunter, W; Bextine, B; Lauzon, C R

    2015-05-01

    The Asian Citrus Psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is an invasive insect pest that transmits Candidatus Liberibacter spp. This insect/pathogen system was first identified in North America in the early 2000's and has become the top threat to the citrus industry. Limited options for management of this problem exist; therefore, innovative pest management strategies are being developed. In this study, we describe the first step toward a paratransgenic approach (also referred to symbiotic control) for control of the insect vector or the pathogen. Culturable bacteria from the gut of Asian Citrus Psyllids were identified using standard culture techniques followed by sequencing of the cultured microorganisms. Further, 454 pyrosequencing of the gut was performed to audit bacterial presence in order to begin to identify any relationship between psyllid symbionts and C. Liberibacter spp.

  6. Survival and fecundity of two strains of Cimex lectularius (Hemiptera: Heteroptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbarin, Alexis M; Barbu, Corentin M; Gebhardtsbauer, Ron; Rajotte, Edwin G

    2014-09-01

    Knowledge of development of the bed bug Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) under specific environmental conditions could lead to improved management techniques. Developmental rates, age-, and stage-specific life tables were compared for a laboratory strain and a field strain of bed bugs reared on human blood. Both strains were then crossed reciprocally to produce four F1 generations and subsequent age- and stage-specific life tables were constructed. No significant differences were found in the overall survival of the parental strains, but significant differences were found in development rate within various instars based on strain. Parallel results were derived from the F1 generation hybrids. Stable age distribution calculations predict that 80% of bedbugs within exponentially growing populations will be immature. PMID:25276919

  7. Responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Hemiptera: Alydidae to color and male-lured traps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Ursi Ventura

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, the relative responses of Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae to colors in traps were assessed in the field. Colors were printed in white alkaline paper and covered with transparent plastic. Printed colors were black, green, yellow, red and blue. Treatments also included white paper and aluminum foil. Green traps captured more bugs than the other traps (except yellow. Yellow traps caught significantly more N. parvus males than blue, black and aluminum traps. White, red and blue traps captured significantly more N. parvus males than black traps. In 1999, the same treatments were used and additionally included the factor presence (X absence of males in cages in the traps. Four males were confined in the cages together with pigeon pea seeds and water. Control traps received only pigeon pea seeds and water. No responses were found for color comparisons. Male-lured traps captured significantly more males than control traps.Em 1998, as respostas relativas de Neomegalotomus parvus (Westwood (Hemiptera: Alydidae a cores em armadilhas foram avaliadas no campo. As cores foram impressas (preto, verde, amarelo, vermelho e azul, em papel alcalino branco e coberto com plástico transparente. Também se incluiu papel branco e folha de alumínio, como tratamentos. Armadilhas verdes capturaram mais insetos que outras armadilhas (exceto amarelo. Armadilhas amarelas capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas azuis, pretas e alumínio. Armadilhas brancas, vermelhas e azuis capturaram significativamente mais machos de N. parvus do que armadilhas pretas. Em 1999, os mesmos tratamentos foram usados e também se incluiu fator presença (X ausência de machos em gaiolas nas armadilhas. Quatro machos foram confinados nas gaiolas junto com sementes de guandu e água. Testemunhas receberam somente sementes de guandu e água. Não foram obtidas respostas significativas à cores. Armadilhas com machos capturaram

  8. Effects of temperature and food on the development of Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae); Efeitos da temperatura e do alimento no desenvolvimento de Dysdercus maurus Distant (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Fabio Souto [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Ambientais], e-mail: fbio_almeida@yahoo.com.br; Goncalves, Lenicio [Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ), Seropedica, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia Animal. Area de Biologia], e-mail: lencygon@globo.com

    2007-10-15

    Dysdercus maurus Distant, 1901 (Hemiptera, Pyrrhocoridae) is an important pest on Gossypium spp. (cotton tree), Citrus sinensis Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae) crops. This insect also feeds on seeds of Chorisia speciosa St. Hil. (Bombacaceae). This work aimed to evaluate the effects of temperature and food on the development of D. maurus. Eight treatments were carried out, in six of them bugs were fed with seeds of C. speciosa and kept at 15, 18, 20, 25 and 30 {+-} 1 deg C, 80 {+-} 3% RH and 12h photo phase or in laboratory conditions (23.5 {+-} 2.6 deg C, 73.3 {+-} 9.9 % RH), and in the other two treatments bugs were fed with seeds of cotton variety IAC-22 and kept at 25 or 30 deg C. In all treatments five immature stages were observed. The increase of temperature caused reduction in the developmental time. The temperature of 15 deg C disabled nymphal eclosion and was also lethal to those nymphs ecloded at other temperatures. The lower mortality of nymphs occurred in the temperature of 25 deg C with cotton as food (24.07%). The lower threshold temperature (Tb) occurred for the first instar (11.54 deg C) and the higher for the second instar (15.33 deg C). The females of D. maurus required more degree-days (329.93 degree-days) than males (300.49 degree-days) until adult emergence. (author)

  9. Primera cita de Blastopsylla occidentalis y Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae para la República Argentina First record of Blastopsylla occidentalis and Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Psyllidae from Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. R. Bouvet

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Se registran por primera vez para la República Argentina dos especies de "psílidos" (Hemiptera: Psyllidae, plagas provenientes de Australia que atacan a especies del género Eucalyptus L´Hér. Una de ellas, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore es de gran importancia económica en países vecinos, debido a los daños que produce. De la otra, Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor, es escasa la información referente a su biología y daños que ocasiona.Two psyllid species are recorded for the first time from Argentina. They are pests originating from Australia that attack species of the genus Eucalyptus L´Hér. One of them, Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore is of great economic importance in neighboring countries for the damage which it is causing on its hosts. Little information on the biology and damage caused is available for the second species, viz Blastopsylla occidentalis Taylor.

  10. First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia M. F. Broglio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available First report and morphological redescription of Teleonemia morio (Stål (Hemiptera, Tingidae in Annona squamosa L. (Annonaceae in Brazil. This is the first report of a severe attack of Teleonemia morio (Stål, 1855 (Hemiptera, Heteroptera, Tingidae on Annona squamosa L. (custard apple, causing up to 80% of losses of infested trees. In order to facilitate the identification of this insect pest, the adult female of T. morio is redescribed based on specimens collected in Palmeira dos Índios, Alagoas, Brazil.

  11. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Amazonas state, Brazil: new records, new combination, new species and identification key for nymphal stages. The following genera of Leptohyphidae occur in the Amazonas state: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer and Tricorythopsis Traver. Distribution of Leptohyphidae species in Amazonas state is presented. A new species, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., is described and can be distinguished from other Tricorythodes by: (1 tarsal claws with pair of submarginal denticles and no marginal denticles; (2 bi-articulated maxillary palp; (3 opercular gill black except on apical margin; (4 gill formula 2/3/3/3/2; and (5 expanded lateral abdominal margin of segments III_VI. The new combination, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., is proposed

  12. Material tipo de insectos en el Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, SENASA, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro W. Lozada

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta la lista de material tipo de Insecta depositado en la colección del Laboratorio de Sanidad Vegetal, Servicio Nacional de Sanidad Agraria (SENASA, Lima, Perú, comprendiendo 21 especies de Psylloidea (Hemiptera, 4 de Cicadellidae (Hemiptera, 4 de Curculionidae (Coleoptera y 2 de Tachinidae (Diptera, todas provenientes de localidades peruanas. Los tipos de Tachinidae descritos por Charles Townsend no han sido incluidos en esta relación.

  13. Ultrastructure of the salivary glands and bacteria-like structures in the gut and other organs of the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of huanglongbing disease bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri, Hemiptera, Liviidae) is the principal vector of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (Las), the bacterium associated with huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening, currently the most serious citrus disease worldwide. Liberibacter asiaticus is transmitted i...

  14. Use of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, Cordyceps bassiana and Isaria fumosorosea to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psylidae) in Persian lime under field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is a destructive insect pest in the citriculture, because it is an efficient vector of the proteobacteria, ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ (Las), ‘Ca. L. Africanus’ (Laf), and ‘Ca. L. Americanus’ (Lam). These bacteria c...

  15. A study of the scale insect genera Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea: Putoidae) and Ceroputo Šulc (Pseudococcidae) with a comparison to Phenacoccus Cockerell (Pseudococcidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    For almost a century, the scale insect genus Puto Signoret (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) was considered to belong to the family Pseudococcidae (the mealybugs), but recent consensus accords Puto its own family, the Putoidae. This paper reviews the taxonomic history of Puto and family Putoida...

  16. Knockdown and lethal effects of eight commercial nonconventional and two pyrethroid insecticides against moderately permethrin-resistant adult bed bugs, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The common bed bug, Cimex lectularius (L.) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) is undergoing a rapid resurgence in the United States during the last decade which has created a notable pest management challenge largely because the pest has developed resistance against DDT, organophosphates, carbamates, and pyreth...

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Gordon M; Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. "Candidatus Sulcia muelleri" and "Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola" represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus.

  18. First record of the leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae: Erythroneurini) from China, with descriptions of two new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Yalin

    2016-01-01

    The erythroneurine leafhopper genus Zyginopsis Ramakrishnan & Menon (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) is reported for the first time from China, with descriptions and illustrations of two new species, Zyginopsis paraverticalis and Zyginopsis gracilis spp. nov., and one newly recorded species from China, Zyginopsis verticalis Ahmed n. rec. A key for identification of Chinese species (adult males) is provided.

  19. Characterization of EPG waveforms for the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), on tea plants and their correlation with stylet activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylet probing activities of the tea green leafhopper, Empoasca vitis Göthe (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were studied using the DC electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique. Seven different EPG waveforms (i.e., Np, E1, E2, E3, E4, E5 and E6) were identified and characterized on susceptible tea leav...

  20. Pre shipping dip treatments using soap, natural oils, and Isaria fumosorosea: potential biopesticides for mitigating the spread of whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) invasive insects on ornamental plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyodidae) is an invasive insect pest affecting different crops including vegetables, fruits, cereals, and ornamentals. The efficacy of some products such as commercial soap, natural oils and Preferal® (based on the entomopathogenic fungus Isaria fumosorosea ...

  1. Identification of Bloodmeal Sources and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Triatomine Bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) From Residential Settings in Texas, the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kjos, Sonia A.; Marcet, Paula L.; Yabsley, Michael J.; KITRON, URIEL; Snowden, Karen F.; LOGAN, KATHLEEN S.; Barnes, John C.; Dotson, Ellen M.

    2013-01-01

    The host–vector–parasite interactions in Chagas disease peridomestic transmission cycles in the United States are not yet well understood. Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) infection prevalence and bloodmeal sources were determined for adult and immature triatomine (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) specimens collected from residential settings in central Texas. Sequenced cytochrome b DNA segments obtained from triatomine digestive tract identified nine vertebrate hosts and one invert...

  2. New record of Psyllaephagus phylloplectae Sushil & Khan (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae from Karnataka, with notes on its taxonomy and host, Megatrioza hirsuta (Crawford (Hemiptera: Triozidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Psyllaephagus phylloplectae Sushil & Khan (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae is reported for the first time from Karnataka on Megatrioza hirsuta (Crawford (Hemiptera: Triozidae, which forms galls on Terminalia spp. The parasitoid is briefly described, with notes on its taxonomy and its host.

  3. Characterization of a recombinant Cathepsin B-Like cysteine peptidase from Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae): A putative target control of citrus huanglongbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is one of the most destructive disease affecting citrus plants. The causal agent is associated with the phloem-limited bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus (CLas) spread by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae). Among the control strategies for H...

  4. Potential of the bean alpha-amylase inhibitor alpha-AI-1 to inhibit alpha-amylase activity in true bugs(Hemiptera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    True bugs (Hemiptera) are an important pest complex not controlled by Bt crops. An alternative source of resistance includes inhibitors of digestive enzymes. aAI-1, an a-amylase inhibitor from the common bean, has been shown to inhibit a-amylases of bruchid pests of grain legumes. Here we quantify t...

  5. Two new species of Phasmatocoris Breddin from Brazil, and description of the male of Phasmatocoris borgmeieri (Wygodzinsky) (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Santana, Hélcio R

    2015-12-21

    Phasmatocoris catarinae sp. nov. and P. galvaoi sp. nov. (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Emesinae: Emesini) are described from Brazil based on female and male specimens. The male of Phasmatocoris borgmeieri (Wygodzinsky, 1945) is described and short taxonomical notes on this species and P. xavieri Gil-Santana et al., 2007 are provided.

  6. Use of Electrical Penetration Graph Technology to Examine Transmission of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ to Potato by Three Haplotypes of Potato Psyllid (Bactericera cockerelli; Hemiptera: Triozidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a vector of the phloem-limited bacterium ‘Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum’ (Lso), the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. Little is known about how potato psyllid transmits Lso to potato. We used ele...

  7. A review of the Oriental genus Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Achilidae with description of one new species from Hainan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Kun Long

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae: Plectoderini, E. alatea Long & Chen sp. n. from Hainan, China, is described and illustrated. The generic characters are modified, including the addition of male genitalia characters. A key to the species of the genus is provided.

  8. A review of the Oriental genus Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson (Hemiptera, Fulgoromorpha, Achilidae) with description of one new species from Hainan, China

    OpenAIRE

    Jian-Kun Long; Lin Yang; Xiangsheng Chen

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Eudeferunda Chen, Yang & Wilson, 1989 (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Achilidae: Plectoderini), Eudeferunda alatea Long & Chen sp. n. from Hainan, China, is described and illustrated. The generic characters are modified, including the addition of male genitalia characters. A key to the species of the genus is provided.

  9. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) in vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Botton; George Wellington Bastos de Melo; Odoni Loris Pereira de Oliveira; Ismael Onzi

    2010-01-01

    O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae) na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano,...

  10. Controle químico da forma galícola da filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) na cultura da videira Chemical control of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856) leaf form (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) on vineyards

    OpenAIRE

    Marcos Botton; Rudiney Ringenberg; Odimar Zanuzo Zanardi

    2004-01-01

    A filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856) (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) é considerada a principal praga da videira. O inseto se alimenta da parte aérea e raízes sendo que os maiores prejuízos são observados em raízes de Vitis vinifera cultivada como pé-franco. O dano nas folhas é importante em viveiros, quando o ataque ocorre nos ramos utilizados como porta-enxertos, resistentes à forma radícola. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas que possam ser emprega...

  11. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil; Primeira ocorrencia de Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) predando lagartas desfolhadoras do dendezeiro no estado do Para, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Rafael C.; Lemos, Walkymario P.; Muller, Antonio A. [EMBRAPA Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia], e-mail: rafaufra@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: wplemos@cpatu.embrapa.br; Muller, Antonio A. [Embrapa Amazonia Oriental, Belem, PA (Brazil). Lab. de Entomologia; Bernardino, Aline S.; Buecke, Joel [Grupo Agropalma S/A., Tailandia, PA (Brazil)

    2010-01-15

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  12. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae) biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler; Carlos Frederico Wilcken; Nádia Cristina de Oliveira; Carlos Alberto Oliveira de Matos

    2009-01-01

    Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae) em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD), sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o...

  13. NUEVO REGISTRO DE Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) EN GUAYABO Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NEW REGISTRATION OF Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) IN GUAVA Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae) IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    OpenAIRE

    Rubén Darío David Giraldo; Jhon Albeiro Quiroz Gamboa; Francisco Yepes Rodríguez; Allan Henry Smith Pardo

    2009-01-01

    Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia) y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L.), la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina). Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los ani...

  14. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea with new records and distribution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masumeh Moghaddam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger, D. wuenni (Lindinger, Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, E. pamiricus (Bazarov, E. reynei Schmutterer, E. sanguinairensis Goux and E. saxidesertus (Borchsenius and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  15. A new Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Aguirre, María B; Logarzo, Guillermo A

    2016-05-26

    A new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), A. lapachosus sp. n., is described from Salta Province of Argentina as a parasitoid of Hypogeococcus sp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Harrisia pomanensis cactus (Cactaceae). It is a candidate "new association" biological control agent for quarantine evaluation and possible following introduction to Puerto Rico (USA) against another Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and often misidentified as H. pungens Granara de Willink (according to our unpublished data the latter attacks only Amaranthaceae), which devastates or threatens the native cacti there and also in some other Caribbean islands (Triapitsyn, Aguirre et al. 2014; Carrera-Martínez et al. 2015).

  16. An annotated checklist of the scale insects of Iran (Hemiptera, Sternorrhyncha, Coccoidea) with new records and distribution data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Masumeh

    2013-01-01

    A list of scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) of Iran is present based mainly on the literature records since 1902. In total, 13 families and 275 species have been recorded and these are listed along with their locality data and host plants. The families are as follows: Asterolecaniidae, Cerococcidae, Coccidae, Diaspididae, Eriococcidae, Kermesidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Ortheziidae, Phoenicococcidae, Pseudococcidae, Putoidae and Rhizoecidae. The following ten species are recorded for the first time from Iran: Diaspidiotus lenticularis (Lindinger), Diaspidiotus wuenni (Lindinger), Fiorinia proboscidaria Green, Koroneaspis lonicerae Borchsenius, Eriococcus cingulatus Kiritchenko, Eriococcus pamiricus (Bazarov), Eriococcus reynei Schmutterer, Eriococcus sanguinairensis Goux and Eriococcus saxidesertus (Borchsenius) and Porphyrophora victoriae Jashenko.

  17. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae) from Bogota, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hirotaka; Kondo, Takumasa

    2015-01-01

    A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) species, Pulvinariacaballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficussoatensis Dugand (Moraceae) in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles Pulvinariadrymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimyswinteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae), but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., Pulvinariacaballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas Pulvinariadrymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  18. Nuevo registro de greenidea ficicola takahashi (hemiptera: sternorrhyncha:aphididae) en guayabo psidium guajava (myrtaceae) en antioquia, colombia.

    OpenAIRE

    David Giraldo, Rubén Darío; Quiroz Gamboa, Jhon Albeiro; Yepes Rodríguez, Francisco; SmithPardo, Allan Henry

    2011-01-01

    Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia) y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L.), la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae) colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina). Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los ...

  19. Dropping Behavior in the Pea Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae): How Does Environmental Context Affect Antipredator Responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Katharine V; Preisser, Evan L

    2016-01-01

    The pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum : Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a phloem-feeding insect whose antipredator defenses include kicking, walking away, and dropping from the plant. Aphid dropping, a risky and energetically costly antipredator behavior, can be increased by the release of aphid alarm pheromone; there is also evidence that insect density and plant health can affect the likelihood of aphids engaging in this behavior. We investigated whether interactions between alarm cues, insect density, and plant health can alter the dropping behavior of aphids in response to an artificial disturbance. The presence of the alarm pheromone E-β-farnesene resulted in a nearly 15-fold increase in aphid dropping behavior; the other two factors, however, did not affect dropping and none of the two- or three-way interactions were significant. This was surprising because aphids affected plant health: production of new plant biomass after 5 d of exposure to high aphid densities was 50% lower than in the control treatment. This research adds to our understanding of the factors affecting aphid antipredator behavior; the fact that neither aphid density nor feeding period impacted dropping may reflect the high energetic costs of this activity and an unwillingness to use it in any but the riskiest situations. PMID:27638950

  20. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant. PMID:21510203

  1. Effects of selected fertilizers on the life history of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, K M; Sadof, C S; Cañnas, L A; Kuniyoshi, C H; Lopez, R G

    2011-04-01

    We tested the effects among a purportedly sustainable water-soluble fertilizer, a conventional water-soluble fertilizer, an alternation of these, a controlled-release fertilizer, and a clear water control on the life-history traits of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae; =Bemisia argentifolii Bellows & Perring) biotype B reared on poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willdenow ex Klotzch). Free amino acids in petioles were measured to estimate plant nutrient assimilation and phloem nutritional quality for B. tabaci biotype B. The sustainable fertilizer produced plants with the highest concentration of amino acids. In contrast, fecundity of whiteflies was lowest in plants treated with the sustainable fertilizer and the water control. The relationship between total amino acids in phloem and survival was significantly quadratic, with the highest survival at intermediate levels. Fecundity, however, was negatively correlated with total amino acid content of the maternal host plant. Variation in total amino acid concentration in petioles of plants treated within fertilizer treatments makes it difficult to predict whether a particular fertilizer will produce plants with enough amino acids to deleteriously affect both survivorship and fecundity and yet yield a plant of good quality. Despite this limitation, we can conclude that the use of this sustainable fertilizer will not cause increases in whitefly populations relative to plants fertilized with water-soluble and slow-release fertilizers that deliver the same level of nitrogen to the plant.

  2. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  3. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis. PMID:26951150

  4. Probing behaviors of Sitobion avenae (Hemiptera: Aphididae on enhanced UV-B irradiated plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Zu-Qing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available UV-B induced changes in plants can influence sap-feeding insects through mechanisms that have not been studied. Herein the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (Fabricius (Hemiptera: Aphididae, was monitored on barley plants under the treatments of control [0 kJ/ (m2.d], ambient UV-B [60 kJ/ (m2.d], and enhanced UV-B [120 kJ/ (m2.d] irradiation. Electrical penetration graph (EPG techniques were used to record aphid probing behaviors. Enhanced UV-B irradiated plants negatively affected probing behaviors of S. avenae compared with control plants. In particular, phloem factors that could diminish sieve element acceptance appeared to be involved, as reflected by smaller number of phloem phase, shorter phloem ingestion, and fewer aphids reaching the sustained phloem ingestion phase (E2>10min. On the other hand, factors from leaf surface, epidermis, and mesophyll cannot be excluded, as reflected by higher number of non-probing, longer non-probing and pathway phase, and later the time to first probe.

  5. Trap Cropping Systems and a Physical Barrier for Suppression of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Khrimian, A; Cottrell, T E; Lou, X; Mizell, R F; Johnson, C J

    2015-10-01

    Euschistus servus (Say), Nezara viridula (L.), and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) are economic pests of cotton in the coastal plain of the southeastern United States. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the ability of trap cropping systems, pheromone-baited stink bug traps, and a synthetic physical barrier at the peanut-to-cotton interface to manage stink bugs in cotton. The physical barrier was the most effective management tactic. Stink bug density in cotton was lowest for this treatment. In 2010, boll injury was lower for the physical barrier compared to the other treatments except for soybean with stink bug traps. In 2011, boll injury was lower for this treatment compared to the control. Soybean was an effective trap crop, reducing both stink bug density in cotton and boll injury regardless if used alone or in combination with either stink bug traps or buckwheat. Incorporation of buckwheat in soybean enhanced parasitism of E. servus egg masses by Telenomus podisi Ashmead in cotton. The insertion of eyelets in the lid of the insect-collecting device of a stink bug trap allowed adult stink bug parasitoids, but not E. servus, to escape. Stand-alone stink bug traps were not very effective in deterring colonization of cotton by stink bugs or reducing boll injury. The paucity of effective alternative control measures available for stink bug management justifies further full-scale evaluations into these management tactics for control of these pests in crops. PMID:26453721

  6. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent.

  7. The foraging behavior of Diaeretiella rapae (Hymenoptera: Braconidae on Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tazerouni Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Host stage preference, functional response and mutual interference of Diaeretiella rapae (McIntosh (Hymenoptera: Braconidae: Aphidiinae on Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko (Hemiptera: Aphididae were investigated under defined laboratory conditions (20±1°C; 60±5% relative humidity; 16 h light/8 h dark photoperiod. Nicholson’s model and linear regression were used to determine per capita search-efficiency and the interference coefficient, respectively. There was a significant difference between the rates of parasitism on different stages of D. noxia. The highest parasitism percentage was observed on the third instar nymphs of D. noxia in both choice and no-choice preference tests. Results of logistic regression revealed a type II functional response. The estimated values of search-efficiency (a and handling time (Th were 0.072 h-1 and 0.723 h, respectively. The maximum attack rate was calculated to be 33.22. The per capita search-efficiency decreased from 0.011 to 0.004 (h-1 as parasitoid densities increased from 1 to 8. Therefore, different host-parasitoid ratios can affect the efficacy of D. rapae.

  8. Heterochromatin base pair composition and diversification in holocentric chromosomes of kissing bugs (Hemiptera, Reduviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Vanessa Bellini; Pita, Sebastián; Vanzela, André Luis Laforga; Galvão, Cleber; Panzera, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The subfamily Triatominae (Hemiptera, Reduviidae) includes 150 species of blood-sucking insects, vectors of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis. Karyotypic information reveals a striking stability in the number of autosomes. However, this group shows substantial variability in genome size, the amount and distribution of C-heterochromatin, and the chromosome positions of 45S rDNA clusters. Here, we analysed the karyotypes of 41 species from six different genera with C-fluorescence banding in order to evaluate the base-pair richness of heterochromatic regions. Our results show a high heterogeneity in the fluorescent staining of the heterochromatin in both autosomes and sex chromosomes, never reported before within an insect subfamily with holocentric chromosomes. This technique allows a clear discrimination of the heterochromatic regions classified as similar by C-banding, constituting a new chromosome marker with taxonomic and evolutionary significance. The diverse fluorescent patterns are likely due to the amplification of different repeated sequences, reflecting an unusual dynamic rearrangement in the genomes of this subfamily. Further, we discuss the evolution of these repeated sequences in both autosomes and sex chromosomes in species of Triatominae. PMID:27759763

  9. Within-plant distribution and binomial sampling of Pentalonia nigronervosa (Hemiptera: Aphididae) on banana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, Jacqueline D; Wright, Mark G; Almeida, Rodrigo P P

    2006-12-01

    The banana aphid, Pentalonia nigronervosa Coquerel (Hemiptera: Aphididae), infests banana (Musa spp.) worldwide. Pentalonia nigronervosa is the vector of Banana bunchy top virus (family Nanoviridae, genus Babuvirus) the etiological agent of Banana bunchy top disease (BBTD). BBTD is currently the most serious problem affecting banana in Hawaii. Despite the importance of this vector species, little is known about its biology or ecology. There are also no sampling plans available for P. nigronervosa. We conducted field surveys to develop a sampling plan for this pest. Ten plots were surveyed on seven commercial banana farms on the island of Oahu, HI, for the presence of P. nigronervosa on banana plantlets. We found aphids more frequently near the base of plants, followed by the newest unfurled leaf at the top of the plant. Aphids were least likely to be located on leaves in between the top and bottom of the plant. Aphid infestation on surveyed plots ranged from 8 to 95%. We developed a sequential binomial sampling plan based on our surveys. We also discovered that the within-plant distribution of P. nigronervosa is an important factor to consider when sampling for this pest. Our sampling plan will assist in the development of sustainable management practices for banana production.

  10. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance. PMID:24331611

  11. Fitness of Encarsia sophia(Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)parasitizing Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Luo; Tong-Xian Liu

    2011-01-01

    Fitness and efficacy of Encarsia sophia(Girault & Dodd)(Hymenoptera:Aphelinidae)as a biological control agent was compared on two species of whitefly(Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)hosts,the relatively smaller sweetpotato whitefly,Bemisia tabaci(Gennadius)biotype 'B',and the larger greenhouse whitefly,Trialeurodes vaporariorum(Westwood).Significant differences were observed on green bean(Phaseolus vulgaris L.)in the laboratory at 27± 2℃,55% ± 5% RH,and a photoperiod of 14 : 10 h(L : D).Adult parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum were larger than those emerging from B.tabaci,and almost all biological parameters of E.sophia parasitizing the larger host species were superior except for the developmental times of the parasitoids that were similar when parasitizing the two host species.Furthermore,parasitoids emerging from T.vaporariorum parasitized more of these hosts than did parasitoids emerging from B.tabaci.We conclude that E.sophia reared from larger hosts had better fitness than from smaller hosts.Those from either host also preferred the larger host for oviposition but were just as effective on smaller hosts.Therefore,larger hosts tended to produce better parasitoids than smaller hosts.

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samman Fatima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14% of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83% was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  13. Molecular characterization and gene functional analysis of Dicer-2 gene from Nilaparvata lugens(Hemiptera:Geometroidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yi Zhang; Kai Lu; Jia-Liang Zhou; Qiang Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens(St((A)l)(Hemiptera: Geometroidea),a serious rice pest in many countries of Asia,causes a great loss in rice production every year.RNA interference (RNAi)is a powerful technology for gene function study in insects and a potential tool for pest control.As a core component of RNAi pathway,Dicer-2(Dcr-2)protein determines the production of small interfering RNA(siRNA)and is crucial for the efficiency of RNAi.In this study,the full-length complementary DNA(cDNA)ofN.lugens Dcr-2(NlDcr-2)was first cloned and analyzed,and then the RNAi experiment was conducted to explore the function of NIDcr-2 gene.The complete Dcr-2 cDNA ofN.lugens was 4971 bp in length with an open reading frame(ORF)of 1,656 amino acids.Phylogenetic and protein domain analysis showed that the predicted NlDcr-2 protein was similar to Tribolium castaneum.In the RNAi experiment,the messenger RNA level of NIDcr-2 was significantly reduced by NlDcr-2double-stranded RNA(dsRNA)(dsDcr-2).Fifty-five per cent decrease of NlDcr-2 was found after 4 days of unremitting feeding.No significant effect was observed on the development ofN.lugens after dsRNA ingestion.

  14. Ecology and Management of Kudzu Bug (Hemiptera: Plataspidae) in Southeastern Soybeans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahiri, Sriyanka

    2016-01-01

    Kudzu bug, Megacopta cribraria Fabricius (Hemiptera: Plataspidae), is an invasive exotic pest of soybeans that has been present in the southeastern United States since 2009 and has been rapidly spreading through soybean-producing states. Their primary reproductive hosts in the United States are soybean, kudzu, pigeon pea, black eye pea, lima bean, pinto bean, wisteria, white sweet clover, white clover, red clover, alfalfa, perennial peanut, and American joint vetch. In soybeans, the kudzu bug feeds on vascular fluids at the stem, petiole, and nodes, causing yield losses of up to 60%. The current management recommendation for this pest includes spraying of pyrethroids such as bifenthrin, but this method is not environmentally friendly, as this negatively impacts beneficial insect populations. Sustainable management tactics, including the development of economic thresholds for insecticide sprays, assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of this pest, manipulating cultivation practices, use of biological control, and host plant resistance, are currently being explored. We present an overview of the ecology of the kudzu bug in soybeans and available management tactics to assist with the management of this potentially devastating pest of soybeans as it spreads westward.

  15. First record of Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848 (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini in Riohacha, La Guajira – Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Natalia Gómez-Melendro

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Knowledge of vector insect species, their habitat and geographical distribution is crucial for determining the risk of transmission of the etiologic agents that cause disease in humans, which allows defining strategies for prevention, surveillance and control in line with the characteristics of each area. Objective. To determine the presence and public health importance of vectors of Chagas disease in the indigenous settlements of Marbacella and El Horno of the Wayúu ethnic group in the municipality of Riohacha, La Guajira, Colombia. Materials and methods. From active search, installation and inspection of biosensors and occasional catches, Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatomini were collected intra and in the peridomicile housing of the indigenous settlements of El Horno and Marbacella of the the Wayúu ethnic group. Indices of intra and peridomestic infestation, colonization, density, dispersion and natural infection with Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, 1909 were calculated. Results. 79.6% (n = 90 of the specimens were collected around the homes and 20.3% (n = 23 inside the homes, all corresponding to Triatoma maculata (Erichson, 1848. The natural infection indices with T. cruzi accounted for 43.5% for Marbacella and 36% for El Horno. Conclusion. This is the first reported capture of individuals of T. maculata, considered a secondary vector of Chagas disease in Colombia, naturally infected with T. cruzi in the municipality of Riohacha expanding the geographical distribution of the species in the department of La Guajira.

  16. Evaluation of digital photography for quantifying Cryptococcus fagisuga (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) density on American beech trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieferich, D J; Hayes, D B; McCullough, D G

    2013-06-01

    Beech scale (Cryptococcus fagisuga Lindinger) (Hemiptera: Eriococcidae) is an invasive forest insect established in the eastern United States and Canada. It predisposes American beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrhart) trees to infection by Neonectria spp. Fungi causing beech bark disease. White wax secreted by the diminutive scales obscures individual insects, making it difficult to accurately quantify beech scale density. Our goals were to 1) evaluate the relationship between the area of wax and number of beech scales on bark samples, 2) determine whether digital photos of bark could accurately quantify beech scale density, and 3) compare efficiency and utility of a qualitative visual estimate and using the quantitative digital photo technique to assess beech scale populations. We visually estimated beech scale abundance and photographed designated areas on the trunk of 427 trees in 40 sites across Michigan. Photos were analyzed using a binary threshold technique to quantify the area of beech scale wax on each photo. We also photographed and then collected 104 bark samples from 45 additional beech trees in ten sites. We removed the wax, counted individual scales on each sample using a microscope, and assessed the linear relationship between wax area and scale counts. Area of wax explained approximately 80% of the variability in scale density. We could typically quantify beech scale density on 15 photographs per hour. Qualitative visual assessments of beech scale in the field corresponded with estimates derived from photos of bark samples for 79% of trees.

  17. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jardine, T.D.; Kidd, K.A.; Cunjak, R.A.; Arp, P.A. [University of New Brunswick, St John, NB (Canada). Canadian Rivers Institute

    2009-07-15

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (similar to 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species.

  18. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008). PMID:27615953

  19. The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov., its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino M. Sakakibara

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The genus Lycoderides Sakakibara, stat. nov. , its composition and descriptions of new species (Hemiptera, Membracidae, Stegaspidinae.The subgenus Lycoderes (Lycoderides Sakakibara, 1972 is raised to the genus category - Lycoderides stat. nov.. - : and it now includes: Lycoderides amazonicus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides brevilobus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides burmeisteri (Fairmaire, 1846, comb. nov. , Lycoderides cultratus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fernandezi (Strümpel, 1988, comb. nov. , Lycoderides fuscus (Amyot & Serville, 1843, comb. nov. , Lycoderides gradatus (Sakakibara, 1972, comb. nov. , Lycoderides hippocampus (Fabricius, 1803, comb. nov. , Lycoderides luteus (Funkhouser, 1940, comb. nov. , Lycoderides marginalis (Walker, 1851, comb. nov. , Lycoderides nathanieli (Cryan, 1999, comb. nov. , Lycoderides obtusus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides pennyi (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides phasianus (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. (= Enchenopa minamen Buckton, 1901,SYN. NOV: , Lycoderides protensus (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. , Lycoderides serraticornis (Fowler, 1896, comb. nov. , and Lycoderides strumpeli (Sakakibara, 1991, comb. nov. The following new species are described: Lycoderides abditus, sp. nov. , Lycoderides brulei,SP. NOV. (: both from French Guiana, Lycoderides capixaba, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Espírito Santo, Lycoderides cavichiolii, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Rio de Janeiro, Lycoderides meloi, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Bahia, and Lycoderides oliviae, sp. nov. (from Brazil, Minas Gerais. Other nomenclatural change: Stegaspis bracteata (Fabricius, 1787 = Lycoderes capitata Buckton, 1903, syn. nov. New records of geographical distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  20. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations. PMID:26038715

  1. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions. PMID:26895870

  2. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness. PMID:27247354

  3. Impact of Feeding on Contaminated Prey on the Life Parameters of Nesidiocoris Tenuis (Hemiptera: Miridae) Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanumen, Andrea Carolina; Sánchez-Ramos, Ismael; Viñuela, Elisa; Medina, Pilar; Adán, Ángeles

    2016-01-01

    Insecticide selectivity to natural enemies is an important concern in integrated pest management programs. Although there is a wide range of information concerning pesticide lethal and sublethal effects on contaminated surfaces, little is known when the route of exposure occurs at a trophic level. This study evaluates this route of pesticide intake on the omnivorous predator Nesidiocoris tenuis (Reuter) (Hemiptera: Miridae) for the first time. Under laboratory conditions, prey treated with six insecticides (flubendiamide, spirotetramat, deltamethrin, flonicamid, metaflumizone, and sulfoxaflor) were offered to N. tenuis adults for 3 days. Mortality (24, 48, and 72 h after treatment), offspring production (third until eighth day) and longevity were documented. Metaflumizone and sulfoxaflor were classified as moderately harmful products because although the percentage of mortality was only 28 and 36%, respectively, both products caused a severe decrease in offspring production and longevity. Flonicamid and flubendiamide were classified as slightly harmful products; although they did not have a lethal effect, sublethal impact was important on the parameters studied. Spirotetramat and deltamethrin were insecticides categorized as harmless. This information could be useful for selecting the most appropriate insecticides to control pests in tomato crops in which N. tenuis is a relevant biological control agent. PMID:27694345

  4. Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), defend Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) against its natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Aiming; Lu, Yongyue; Zeng, Ling; Xu, Yijuan; Liang, Guangwen

    2013-04-01

    Mutualism is a common and important ecological phenomenon characterized by beneficial interaction between two species. Red imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren, tend honeydew-producing hemipteran insects and reduce the activity of these insects' enemies. Ant-hemipteran interactions frequently exert positive effects on the densities of hemipterans. We tested the hypothesis that ant tending can increase the densities of the mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), and reduce the densities of the mealybug's predatory and parasitic enemies, the lady beetle, Menochilus sexmaculata Fabricius (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the parasitoid wasp, Aenasius bambawalei Hayat (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). We found that more ants foraged on mealybug-infested hibiscus plants than on mealybug-free plants. The number of foraging ants on plants infested with high densities of mealybugs (62.5 ants per plant) was nearly six times that on mealybug-free plants (10.2 ants per plant). Experiment results showed that ant tending significantly increased the survival of mealybugs: if predatory and parasitic enemies were present, the survival of mealybugs tended by fire ants was higher than that in the absence of tending ants. Furthermore, this tending by fire ants significantly decreased the survival of lady beetle larvae. However, no apparent effect was observed on the survival of parasitoid.

  5. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Brazilian vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor C Pacheco da Silva

    Full Text Available Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell, Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley, Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso, Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret, Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret. Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  6. Effects of gamma irradiation on different stages of mealybug Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    The, Doan Thi, E-mail: doanthithe@yahoo.com [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Khanh, Nguyen Thuy; Lang, Vo Thi Kim; Van Chung, Cao [Research and Development Center for Radiation Technology, Vietnam Atomic Energy Institute, 202A Street 11, Linh Xuan Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); An, Tran Thi Thien; Thi, Nguyen Hoang Hanh [Agriculture and Forestry University, Linh Trung Ward, Thu Duc District, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2012-01-15

    Utilization of phytosanitary irradiation as a potential treatment to disinfest agricultural commodities in trade has expanded rapidly in the recent years. Cobalt-60 gamma ray target doses of 100, 150, 200 and 250 Gy were used to irradiate immatures and adults of Dysmicoccus neobrevipes (Beardsley) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) infesting dragon fruits to find the most tolerant stage and the most optimal dose range for quarantine treatment. In general, irradiation affected significantly all life stages of D. neobrevipes mortality and adult reproduction. The pattern of tolerance to irradiation in D. neobrevipes was 1st instars<2nd instars<3rd instars Gamma Co-60 irradiation as a potential phytosanitary for quarantine treatments. > Reproduction ability of D. neobrevipes has been efficiently inhibited at low dose. > Pattern of tolerance to irradiation was 1st<2nd<3rd instars Doses from 200 to 250 Gy could be efficient to prevent the reproduction of mealybug.

  7. Development and Life Table Parameters of Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on Four Ornamental Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tok, B; Kaydan, M B; Mustu, M; Ulusoy, M R

    2016-08-01

    The development, reproduction, and life table parameters of the Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on four ornamental plant species, namely Pelargonium zonale (Geraniaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis, Hibicus syriacus (Malvaceae), and Cestrum nocturnum (Solanaceae) were investigated under controlled conditions (25 ± 2°C, 60 ± 10% R.H., and 16 h photophase). Life table data were analyzed by using an age-stage two-sex life table. The shortest total immature developmental time of females and males for P. madeirensis was obtained on C. nocturnum (20.42 and 21.90 days, respectively). The highest fecundities were 233 and 232 eggs on C. nocturnum and H. syriacus, respectively. The intrinsic rate of increase (r  = 0.1511 day(-1)) and finite rate of increase (λ  =  1.1631 day(-1)) were the greatest when mealybugs were reared on C. nocturnum. Net reproductive rate (R 0  =  129.5 offspring) was the greatest when reared on H. syriacus, but this value was not statistically different from that on C. nocturnum. The shortest mean generation time (T  =  31.3 days) was calculated on C. nocturnum. These results indicate that C. nocturnum and H. syriacus are more suitable hosts than H. rosa-sinensis and P. zonale for P. madeirensis.

  8. Citrus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) movement and population dynamics in an arbor-trained vineyard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cid, M; Pereiro, S; Cabaleiro, C; Segura, A

    2010-06-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Risso) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the main grapevine pest in vineyards in some countries, such as Spain and Brazil. In Galician vineyards (northwestern Spain), mealybug population levels are low because the accumulated degree-days are lower than in other grapevine-growing areas. The main problem caused by mealybugs is the transmission of viruses, even at low infestation levels. The active period of citrus mealybug in the study vineyard lasted from July until December, with an important movement peak at the end of July and August and a lower peak in November. The mealybug mainly moved upward along arbor-trained plants, and there were no important downward movements at the end of the season as has been described for other grapevine mealybugs. The mealybugs were normally restricted to the woody organs and were only present on leaves, branches, and green canes (always close to woody parts) in plants with high infestations. The movement of mealybugs between plants does not seem to take place by contact between green organs. Passive aerial transport and movement of pruning remains may play an important role in mealybug movement and thus in spread of the virus. The number of mealybugs carrying Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 3 (GLRaV-3) was found to represent approximately 75% of mealybugs caught in a GLRaV-3 infected vineyard.

  9. Molecular and morphological identification of mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Brazilian vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Bertin, Aline; Blin, Aurélie; Germain, Jean-François; Bernardi, Daniel; Rignol, Guylène; Botton, Marcos; Malausa, Thibaut

    2014-01-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are pests constraining the international trade of Brazilian table grapes. They damage grapes by transmitting viruses and toxins, causing defoliation, chlorosis, and vigor losses and favoring the development of sooty mold. Difficulties in mealybug identification remain an obstacle to the adequate management of these pests. In this study, our primary aim was to identify the principal mealybug species infesting the major table grape-producing regions in Brazil, by morphological and molecular characterization. Our secondary aim was to develop a rapid identification kit based on species-specific Polymerase Chain Reactions, to facilitate the routine identification of the most common pest species. We surveyed 40 sites infested with mealybugs and identified 17 species: Dysmicoccus brevipes (Cockerell), Dysmicoccus sylvarum Williams and Granara de Willink, Dysmicoccus texensis (Tinsley), Ferrisia cristinae Kaydan and Gullan, Ferrisia meridionalis Williams, Ferrisia terani Williams and Granara de Willink, Phenacoccus baccharidis Williams, Phenacoccus parvus Morrison, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, Planococcus citri (Risso), Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret), Pseudococcus cryptus Hempel, four taxa closely related each of to Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus sociabilis Hambleton, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn) and Pseudococcus meridionalis Prado, and one specimen from the genus Pseudococcus Westwood. The PCR method developed effectively identified five mealybug species of economic interest on grape in Brazil: D. brevipes, Pl. citri, Ps. viburni, Ph. solenopsis and Planococcus ficus (Signoret). Nevertheless, it is not possible to assure that this procedure is reliable for taxa that have not been sampled already and might be very closely related to the target species.

  10. A multiplex PCR assay for the simultaneous identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccaggi, D L; Krüger, K; Pietersen, G

    2008-02-01

    Molecular species identification is becoming more wide-spread in diagnostics and ecological studies, particularly with regard to insects for which morphological identification is difficult or time-consuming. In this study, we describe the development and application of a single-step multiplex PCR for the identification of three mealybug species (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) associated with grapevine in South Africa: Planococcus ficus (vine mealybug), Planococcus citri (citrus mealybug) and Pseudococcus longispinus (longtailed mealybug). Mealybugs are pests on many commercial crops, including grapevine, in which they transmit viral diseases. Morphological identification of mealybug species is usually time-consuming, requires a high level of taxonomic expertise and usually only adult females can be identified. The single-step multiplex PCR developed here, based on the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO I) gene, is rapid, reliable, sensitive, accurate and simple. The entire identification protocol (including DNA extraction, PCR and electrophoresis) can be completed in approximately four hours. Successful DNA extraction from laboratory and unparasitized field-collected individuals stored in absolute ethanol was 97%. Specimens from which DNA could be extracted were always correctly identified (100% accuracy). The technique developed is simple enough to be implemented in any molecular laboratory. The principles described here can be extended to any organism for which rapid, reliable identification is needed.

  11. Seasonal phenology, spatial distribution, and sampling plan for the invasive mealybug Phenacoccus peruvianus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrá, A; Garcia-Marí, F; Soto, A

    2013-06-01

    Phlenacoccus peruvianus Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug of Neotropical origin. In recent years it has invaded the Mediterranean Basin causing significant damages in bougainvillea and other ornamental plants. This article examines its phenology, location on the plant and spatial distribution, and presents a sampling plan to determine P. peruvianus population density for the management of this mealybug in southern Europe. Six urban green spaces with bougainvillea plants were periodically surveyed between March 2008 and September 2010 in eastern Spain, sampling bracts, leaves, and twigs. Our results show that P. peruvianus abundance was high in spring and summer, declining to almost undetectable levels in autumn and winter. The mealybugs showed a preference for settling on bracts and there were no significant migrations between plant organs. P. peruvianus showed a highly aggregated distribution on bracts, leaves, and twigs. We recommend abinomial sampling of 200 leaves and an action threshold of 55% infested leaves for integrated pest management purposes on urban landscapes and enumerative sampling for ornamental nursery management and additional biological studies.

  12. Phenotypic variation and identification of Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Watson, Gillian W; Sun, Yang; Tan, Yongan; Xiao, Liubin; Bai, Lixin

    2014-05-23

    Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an invasive mealybug that seriously damages cotton and other important crops. In previous studies in China, the presence of two submedian longitudinal lines of pigmented spots on the dorsum of adult females frequently has been used to identify this species. However, the present study records the occasional absence of pigmented spots in a sample from Guangxi province, China. Specimens without pigmented spots showed all the molecular and morphological characters that separate P. solenopsis from the similar species P. solani Ferris, especially the distribution of multilocular disc pores. In different geographic populations of P. solenopsis in China, mitochondrial COI and nuclear 28SrDNA genes are very similar (99.8-100%), indicating that they are conspecific. For COI, the genetic distance between P. solenopsis and P. solani is more than 3%. A map of the distribution of P. solenopsis in China is given. To help identify both pigmented and non-pigmented P. solenopsis accurately, an identification key to the 16 species of Phenacoccus found in China is provided. The key also identifies five potentially invasive Phenacoccus species not yet established in China, in case they get introduced there.

  13. Ultralow oxygen treatment for control of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) on grape benchgrafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yong-Biao; Bettiga, Larry J; Daane, Kent M

    2010-04-01

    Controlled atmosphere treatments with ultralow oxygen (ULO treatments) were developed successfully for control of vine mealybug, Planococcusflcus Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on dormant grape (Vitis spp.) benchgrafts. At 30 ppm oxygen, 3-d ULO treatment at 25 degrees C and 4-d ULO treatment at 150C achieved complete control of all life stages of P. ficus. At a much lower oxygen level (<1 ppm), the two ULO treatments with the same exposure periods of 3 d at 25 degrees C and 4 d at 15 degrees C were tested on six table and wine grape cultivars grafted on rootstocks along with P. ficus. The benchgrafts were then potted in a greenhouse, together with untreated controls, to determine treatment effects on rootstock viability. Both ULO treatments achieved complete control of P. ficus and did not have any negative effects on vine growth, compared with the control. Results indicate that ULO treatments can be used to control P. ficus on dormant grape benchgrafts. The advantages of the ULO treatments are also discussed with respect to hot water treatments.

  14. Laboratory Evaluation of Different Insecticides against Hibiscus Mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Samman; Hussain, Mubashar; Shafqat, Shama; Faheem Malik, Muhammad; Abbas, Zaheer; Noureen, Nadia; Ul Ane, Noor

    2016-01-01

    Hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is the major pest of many vegetables, fruits, crops, and ornamental plants causing losses to the farmers and its control has been an issue of significance in the pest management. This study was aimed at evaluating different concentrations (0.06%, 0.1%, and 0.14%) of Telsta, Advantage, Talstar, Imidacloprid, and their mixtures against hibiscus mealybug in the Laboratory of Systematics and Pest Management at University of Gujrat, Pakistan. The toxic effect was evaluated in the laboratory bioassay after 24 and 48 h of the application of insecticides. The highest mortality (95.83%) was shown by Talstar and Talstar + Imidacloprid at the concentration of 0.14% after 48 h followed by Advantage + Talstar with 87.50% mortality at 0.14% concentration after 48 h of application. The study also showed that the least effective treatment observed was Advantage + Telsta with no mortality after 24 h and 25% mortality after 48 h at 0.14% concentration. The study revealed that the concentration 0.14% was highly effective in lowering the mealybug population and insecticide mixtures were effective in reducing mealybug density. The study emphasizes the use of such insecticide mixtures to develop better management strategy for mealybug populations attacking ornamental plants. However effects of such insecticide mixtures on other organisms and biological control agents should be checked under field conditions.

  15. Infectivity and transmission of Xylellua fastidiosa by Philaenus spumarius (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae) in Apulia, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saponari, Maria; Loconsole, Giuliana; Cornara, Daniele; Yokomi, Raymond K; De Stradis, Angelo; Boscia, Donato; Bosco, Domenico; Martelli, Giovanni P; Krugner, Rodrigo; Porcelli, Francesco

    2014-08-01

    Discovery of Xylella fastidiosa from olive trees with "Olive quick decline syndrome" in October 2013 on the west coast of the Salento Peninsula prompted an immediate search for insect vectors of the bacterium. The dominant xylem-fluid feeding hemipteran collected in olive orchards during a 3-mo survey was the meadow spittlebug, Philaenus spumarius (L.) (Hemiptera: Aphrophoridae). Adult P. spumarius, collected in November 2013 from ground vegetation in X. fastidiosa-infected olive orchards, were 67% (40 out of 60) positive for X. fastidiosa by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Euscelis lineolatus Brullé were also collected but tested negative for the pathogen. Transmission tests with P. spumarius collected from the Salento area were, therefore, conducted. After a 96-h inoculation access period with 8 to 10 insects per plant and a 30-d incubation period, PCR results showed P. spumarius transmitted X. fastidiosa to two of five periwinkle plants but not to the seven olive plants. Sequences of PCR products from infected periwinkle were identical with those from X. fastidiosa-infected field trees. These data showed P. spumarius as a vector of X. fastidiosa strain infecting olives trees in the Salento Peninsula, Italy. PMID:25195417

  16. Vineyard Colonization by Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) Induced by Stinging Nettle Cut Along Surrounding Ditches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, N; Pozzebon, A; Duso, C; Reggiani, N; Pavan, F

    2016-02-01

    Stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) is the most important host plant for both phytoplasma associated with Bois noir disease of the grapevine and its vector Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). Vector abundance in vineyards is favored by stinging nettle growing in surrounding areas. Nettle control by herbicides or cutting can reduce vector population in vineyards. However, chemical weeding can cause environmental problems. Many authors suggest that stinging nettle control applied during H. obsoletus flight could force adults to migrate into vineyards. We evaluate if cutting of nettle growing along ditches during adult flight favors vineyard colonization by H. obsoletus. Three different weed management regimes ("no cuts," "one cut" just before the beginning of adult flight, and "frequent cuts" over the whole vegetative season) were applied to the herbaceous vegetation in ditches bordering two vineyards. The flight dynamics of H. obsoletus were recorded by placing yellow sticky traps on the vegetation along the ditches and at different positions in the vineyards. Frequent stinging nettle cuts (compared with a single cut) in surrounding areas favored the dispersion of vectors inside the vineyards. Stinging nettle control should be based on an integration of a single herbicide application before H. obsoletus emergence followed by frequent cuts to minimize negative side effects of chemical weeding. In organic viticulture, a frequent-cuts strategy should avoid cuts during H. obsoletus flight period, at least in the first year of adoption. PMID:26352752

  17. Plant Essential Oils Synergize and Antagonize Toxicity of Different Conventional Insecticides against Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Faraone

    Full Text Available Plant-derived products can play an important role in pest management programs. Essential oils from Lavandula angustifolia (lavender and Thymus vulgaris (thyme and their main constituents, linalool and thymol, respectively, were evaluated for insecticidal activity and synergistic action in combination with insecticides against green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The essential oils and their main constituents exerted similar insecticidal activity when aphids were exposed by direct sprays, but were non-toxic by exposure to treated leaf discs. In synergism experiments, the toxicity of imidacloprid was synergized 16- to 20-fold by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, but far less synergism occurred with linalool and thymol, indicating that secondary constituents of the oils were probably responsible for the observed synergism. In contrast to results with imidacloprid, the insecticidal activity of spirotetramat was antagonized by L. angustifolia and T. vulgaris essential oils, and linalool and thymol. Our results demonstrate the potential of plant essential oils as synergists of insecticides, but show that antagonistic action against certain insecticides may occur.

  18. Gut Content Analysis of a Phloem-Feeding Insect, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, W Rodney; Horton, David R; Unruh, Thomas R; Garczynski, Stephen F

    2016-08-01

    Potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Šulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae), is a key pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L., Solanales: Solanaceae) and a vector of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum," the pathogen associated with zebra chip disease. In addition to its presence on cultivated crops, the psyllid regularly occurs on numerous uncultivated annual and perennial species within the Solanaceae. A better understanding of landscape-level ecology of B. cockerelli would substantially improve our ability to predict which potato fields are most likely to be colonized by infected psyllids. We developed three PCR-based methods of gut content analysis to identify what plant species B. cockerelli had previously fed upon. These methods included-1) sequencing PCR amplicons of regions of plant-derived internal transcribed spacer (ITS) or the chloroplast trnL gene from psyllids, 2) high-resolution melting analysis of ITS or trnL real-time PCR products, and 3) restriction enzyme digestion of trnL PCR product. Each method was used to test whether we could identify psyllids that had been reared continuously on potato versus psyllids reared continuously on the perennial nightshade, Solanum dulcamara. All three methods of gut content analysis correctly identified psyllids from potato and psyllids from S. dulcamara Our study is the first to demonstrate that plant DNA can be detected in a phloem-feeding insect. Gut content analysis, in combination with other landscape ecology approaches, could help elucidate patterns in landscape-level movements and host plant associations of B. cockerelli. PMID:27271944

  19. Spatial Distribution of Adults of Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) in Guava Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcelino, M C S; Barbosa, J C

    2016-04-01

    The psyllid Triozoida limbata (Enderlein) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a major pest in guava, feeding primarily on new shoots. Despite its importance, there are no studies on the spatial distribution of T. limbata on guava. Such studies are needed to establish sequential sampling plans for decision making in pest control. Thus, an experiment was carried out in a 9-year-old commercial guava orchard divided into 100 sampling units or plots. Double-sided yellow sticky traps were placed on one plant per plot (sample unit) to capture and monitor T. limbata adults from April 2011 to May 2012. To determine the insect distribution in the area, we calculated the variance-to-mean ratio index (I), the Morisita index (I δ ), Green's coefficient (Cx), and the k exponent of the negative binomial distribution. Most of the samples showed that the adults had a moderate to highly aggregated distribution. Statistical models were also used to study the pest spatial distribution by fitting the number of adults captured to the Poisson and negative binomial distributions. The negative binomial distribution model best fitted the data of the number of adult psyllids captured by the traps, which is consistent with an aggregated distribution. PMID:26597967

  20. Anagrus turpanicus sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae) from China, an egg parasitoid of Arboridia kakogowana (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Triapitsyn, Serguei V

    2016-01-01

    A new Palaearctic species of Anagrus Haliday (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), A. turpanicus Triapitsyn & Hu sp. n., is described and illustrated from Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region of China. It was reared from parasitized eggs of the leafhopper Arboridia kakogowana (Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (Fig. 10) on cultivated table grapes from Turpan, which had been previously misidentified there as Erythroneura apicalis (Nawa) (e.g., Wang et al. 2004, 2011; Luan et al. 2006). This leafhopper has been an important economic pest in Turpan area since 1998, causing serious damage to the cultivated grapevines (Wang et al. 2004; Luan et al. 2006). Wang et al. (2011) reported that the mite Leptus sp. (Erythraeidae) and several unidentified spider species were the main natural enemies of Erythroneura apicalis in and around Turpan. This is the first record of A. kakogowana from China; it was not included in the key to the Chinese species of the genus Arboridia Zachvatkin by Song & Li (2015). Arboridia kakogowana is native to the eastern Palaearctic region (Japan, Korea, and Far East of Russia), and has been recently recorded as an invasive pest of cultivated grapes in southern Russia (Gnezdilov et al. 2008).

  1. Relative Infestation Level and Sensitivity of Grapevine Cultivars to the Leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornasiero, D; Pavan, F; Pozzebon, A; Picotti, P; Duso, C

    2016-02-01

    The leafhopper Empoasca vitis (Göthe) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) feeds on veins of grapevine leaves, mainly on the phloem, causing physiological injury, color change and drying of leaf margins, yield and sugar content reduction. The relative infestation level (i.e., the probability that a plant is attacked by herbivores) of E. vitis on different grapevine cultivars and their sensitivity (i.e., the incidence of symptoms expression in response to herbivore feeding or other stimuli) to this pest were studied over four years in two vineyards located in northeastern Italy. Some cultivars (e.g., Carménère and Sauvignon Blanc) were usually more infested than others (e.g., Cabernet Sauvignon and Pinot Gris), although some differences were observed among years and sites. The sensitivity varied among cultivars, i.e., some of them showed more symptoms than expected on the basis of infestation levels (e.g., Carménère and Merlot), in contrast with others (e.g., Rhine Riesling and Chardonnay). Information obtained can be used within the framework of integrated pest management in vineyards. Action thresholds should differ on the basis of sensitivity. Sampling must first be carried out on the most susceptible cultivar and, if the action threshold is exceeded, it should be extended to the remaining cultivars based on their decreasing relative infestation level.

  2. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadreza Lashkari

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae, vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB, is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida. The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1, Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1, and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6, to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran—Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida—Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan—Punjab were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks’ lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P < 0.0001. The body length (BL, circumanal ring length (CL, antenna length (AL, forewing length (WL and Rs vein length of forewing (RL were the most important characters separating the populations. The cluster analysis showed that the Iran and Florida populations are distinct from each other but separate from the Pakistan population. Thus, three subgroups can be morphologically discriminated within D. citri species in this study, (1 Iran, (2 USA (Florida and (3 Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  3. Exposure to Guava Affects Citrus Olfactory Cues and Attractiveness to Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barman, Jagadish Chandra; Campbell, Stuart A; Zeng, Xinnian

    2016-06-01

    Intercropping can reduce agricultural pest incidence, and represents an important sustainable alternative to conventional pest control methods. Understanding the ecological mechanisms for intercropping could help optimize its use, particularly in tropical systems which present a large number of intercropping possibilities. Citrus is threatened worldwide by greening disease (huanglongbing, HLB) vectored by the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Control of HLB and citrus psyllid can be partially achieved through intercropping with guava, Psidium guajava L., but the mechanisms remain unclear. We tested the hypothesis that guava olfactory cues affect psyllid behavior by altering the attractiveness of citrus through plant-plant interactions. In choice and no-choice cage experiments, psyllid settlement was reduced on citrus shoots that had been exposed to guava shoot odors for at least 2 h. In Y-tube olfactometer experiments, psyllids oriented to odors of unexposed, compared with guava-exposed, citrus shoots. These behavioral results indicate that a mechanism for the success of guava intercropping for sustainable, ecological disease management may be the indirect effect of guava on citrus attractiveness.

  4. Species clarification of Isaria isolates used as biocontrol agents against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallou, Adrien; Serna-Domínguez, María G; Berlanga-Padilla, Angélica M; Ayala-Zermeño, Miguel A; Mellín-Rosas, Marco A; Montesinos-Matías, Roberto; Arredondo-Bernal, Hugo C

    2016-03-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi belonging to the genus Isaria (Hypocreales: Cordycipitaceae) are promising candidates for microbial control of insect pests. Currently, the Mexican government is developing a biological control program based on extensive application of Isaria isolates against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae), a vector of citrus huanglongbing disease. Previous research identified three promising Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307; tentatively identified as Isaria fumosorosea) from Mexico. The goal of this work was to obtain a complete morphological and molecular characterization of these isolates. Comparative analysis of morphology established that the isolates showed similar characteristics to Isaria javanica. Multi-gene analysis confirmed the morphological identification by including the three isolates within the I. javanica clade. Additionally, this work demonstrated the misidentifications of three other Isaria isolates (CHE-CNRCB 310 and 324: I. javanica, formerly I. fumosorosea; CHE-CNRCB 393: I. fumosorosea, formerly Isaria farinosa), underlying the need for a full and correct characterization of an isolate before developing a biological control program. Finally, the inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) genotyping method revealed that the CHE-CNRCB 303, 305, and 307 isolates belong to three different genotypes. This result indicates that ISSR markers could be used as a tool to monitor their presence in field conditions.

  5. Effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings from invasion by Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichinose, Katsuya; Bang, Doan V; Tuan, Do H; Dien, Le Q

    2010-02-01

    The application of insecticides to control Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is a principal component of the current management for citrus greening disease or Huanglongbing. It is recommended that growers apply systemic insecticides such as imidacloprid and thiamethoxam every 2 mo after seedling planting, but this practice renders the seedlings insecticide-free and vulnerable to psyllid infestation in the first 2 mo. We evaluated the risk of vector invasion during this period from field studies of the psyllid in five new king mandarin, Citrus nobilis Loureiro, orchards in the Mekong Delta region of Vietnam. The first psyllids were found after the first 2 wk, and 2 to 60% of the trees were finally infested by psyllids during the 2 mo. The risk of psyllid invasion could be significantly reduced if the insecticide were applied to seedlings before planting. Three systemics, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin, were examined in both a net house and in the field to assess how quickly they could be effective after application and how long their efficacy could continue. High psyllid mortality >80% was attained in 10 d after application, and this level was maintained for 90 d in the net house and for 60 d in the field. Based on these results, we propose the effective use of neonicotinoids for protection of citrus seedlings against invasive psyllids during the first 2 mo after planting.

  6. Morphometric comparisons of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) populations from Iran, USA and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkari, Mohammadreza; Hentz, Matthew G; Boykin, Laura M

    2015-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), vector of citrus greening disease pathogen, Huanglongbing (HLB), is considered the most serious pest of citrus in the world. Prior molecular based studies have hypothesized a link between the D. citri in Iran and the USA (Florida). The purpose of this study was to collect morphometric data from D. citri populations from Iran (mtCOI haplotype-1), Florida (mtCOI haplotype-1), and Pakistan (mtCOI haplotype-6), to determine whether different mtCOI haplotypes have a relationship to a specific morphometric variation. 240 samples from 6 ACP populations (Iran-Jiroft, Chabahar; Florida-Ft. Pierce, Palm Beach Gardens, Port St. Lucie; and Pakistan-Punjab) were collected for comparison. Measurements of 20 morphological characters were selected, measured and analysed using ANOVA and MANOVA. The results indicate differences among the 6 ACP populations (Wilks' lambda = 0.0376, F = 7.29, P citri species in this study, (1) Iran, (2) USA (Florida) and (3) Pakistan population. Morphometric comparisons provided further resolution to the mtCOI haplotypes and distinguished the Florida and Iranian populations.

  7. Characterizing Damage of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiman, Nik G; Parker, Joyce E; Rodriguez-Saona, Cesar; Walton, Vaughn M

    2015-06-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a severe economic pest of growing importance in the United States, Canada, and Europe. While feeding damage from H. halys has been characterized in tree fruit, vegetables, and agronomic crops, less is known about the impacts of stink bugs on small fruits such as blueberries. In this study, we examined H. halys feeding on two representative early and late ripening blueberry cultivars in Oregon and New Jersey. This research examined how different densities of H. halys confined on blueberry clusters for week-long periods affected fruit quality at harvest. After fruit were ripe, we stained and quantified the number of salivary sheaths on berries as an indication of feeding pressure. Feeding by H. halys damaged the fruits by causing increased levels of external discoloration, and internal damage in the form of tissue necrosis. Exposure of berries to H. halys was also associated with decreasing berry weights and lower soluble solids in fruits. However, the different cultivars did not respond consistently to feeding pressure from H. halys. Weekly variability in feeding pressure of two of the cultivars as quantified by the number of stylet sheaths per berry was largely accounted for by environmental variables. We conclude that H. halys does have potential to severely damage blueberries and may become an important economic pest. Characterization of damage is important because correct identification of insect damage is key for successful management. PMID:26470241

  8. Life History of the Camelthorn Gall Leafhopper, Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Hemiptera, Cicadellidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Rakitov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The world’s only member of Hemiptera Auchenorrhyncha known to form true galls, the leafhopper Scenergates viridis (Vilbaste (Cicadellidae, transforms leaves of camelthorn (Alhagi maurorum Medikus, Fabaceae into pod-like chambers, up to 35 mm long, inside which individual leafhoppers develop, mate, and lay eggs. At the study site 40 km SE of Bukhara (Uzbekistan, two generations develop annually. First-instar nymphs cause young leaves to fold along the midrib. The subsequent development takes place inside the tightly closed growing gall, plugged at both ends with a mixture of leafhopper excrement, brochosomes, and crushed exuviae. These plugs act as mechanical barriers and sticky traps for intruders. The inner surface of the gall, lined with brochosomes and wax platelets, is hydrophobic. Adult males emerge from their galls and squeeze into female galls. Fertilized females insert an average of 146 eggs under the gall’s inner epidermis and remain inside, possibly protecting the brood, until they die. The walls of the galls containing eggs are approximately three times thicker than regular leaves. The galls are subject to predation by Gelechiidae caterpillars; the eggs of the leafhopper are parasitized by two species of Trichogrammatidae and one Mymaridae (Hymenoptera, and its larvae by one species of Pipunculidae (Diptera.

  9. Molecular Characterization and Expression Profiles of Polygalacturonase Genes in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Zhang

    Full Text Available Polygalacturonase (PG is an enzyme in the salivary glands of piercing-sucking mirid bugs (Hemiptera: Miridae that plays a key role in plant feeding and injury. By constructing a full-length cDNA library, we cloned and characterized 14 PG genes from the salivary glands of Apolygus lucorum, a pestiferous mirid bug in cotton, fruit trees and other crops in China. BLAST search analysis showed that the amino acid sequences deduced from transcripts of the PG genes were closely related to PGs from other mirid bugs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the PGs of mirid bugs had six main branches, PG1-PG6 (Genbank accession numbers: KF881899~KF881912. We investigated the mRNA expression patterns of the A. lucorum PG genes using real-time PCR. All 14 PGs were expressed significantly higher in the salivary glands than in other tissues (head, thorax, abdomen, leg and wing. For eggs and nymphs, the expression levels of these PGs were much higher in the 5th instar stage than in the egg, and 1st and 3rd instar stages. The PG expression levels in 1-day-old adults were very low, and increased in 5, 20 and 30-day-old adults. Additionally, PG expression levels were generally similar between males and females. The possible physiological functions of PGs in A. lucorum were discussed.

  10. Life table parameters of three Mirid Bug (Adelphocoris species (Hemiptera: Miridae under contrasted relative humidity regimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera: Miridae is a group of important insect pests of Bt cotton in China. The three dominant species are A. lineolatus, A. suturalis, and A. fasciaticollis, and these species have different population dynamics. The causal factors for the differences in population dynamics have not been determined; one hypothesis is that humidity may be important for the growth of Adelphocoris populations. In the laboratory, the demographic parameters of the three Adelphocoris species were compared when the mirid bugs were subjected to various levels of relative humidity (40, 50, 60, 70 and 80% RH. Middle to high levels of RH (60, 70 and 80% were associated with higher egg and nymph survival rates and increased adult longevity and female fecundity. Lower humidity levels (40 and 50% RH had negative effects on the survival of nymphs, adult longevity and fecundity. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm, the net reproductive rate (R0 and the finite rate of increase (λ for each Adelphocoris species increased with increasing RH. Significant positive relationships were found between RH and the life table parameters, rm, R0 and λ for the three Adelphocoris species. These results will help to better understand the phenology of the three Adelphocoris species, and the information can be used in population growth models to optimize pest forecasting and management strategies for these key pests.

  11. Species Composition and Abundance of Stink Bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in Minnesota Field Corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Robert L; Pahs, Tiffany

    2015-04-01

    In response to concerns of increasing significance of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) in northern states, a survey was conducted over 2 yr in Minnesota to characterize the Pentatomidae associated with field corn, Zea mays L. Halyomorpha halys (Stål), an exotic species, was not detected in this survey, despite continued detection of this species as an invader of human-made structures in Minnesota. Five species of Pentatomidae (four herbivorous; one predatory) were collected from corn. Across years, Euschistus variolarius (Palisot de Beauvois) and Euschistus servus euschistoides (Vollenhoven) had the greatest relative abundances and frequencies of detection. In 2012, the abundance of herbivorous species exceeded 25 nymphs and adults per 100 plants (i.e., an economic threshold) in 0.48% of fields. However, the abundance of herbivorous species did not reach economic levels in any fields sampled in 2013. The frequency of detection of herbivorous species and ratio of nymphs to adults was highest during reproductive growth stages of corn. The predator species, Podisus maculiventris (Say), was detected in 0 to 0.32% of fields. These results provide baseline information on the species composition and abundance of Pentatomidae in Minnesota field corn, which will be necessary for documentation of changes to this fauna as a result of the invasion of H. halys and to determine if some native species continue to increase in abundance in field crops. PMID:26313176

  12. The Damage Capacity of Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Adults on Brachiaria ruziziensis Pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Teixeira Resende

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the damage caused by adult Mahanarva spectabilis (Distant, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on Brachiaria ruziziensis (Germain & Evard under field conditions. A total of 0, 4, 8, 12, or 16 M. spectabilis adults per plot were maintained for 6 days. Thereafter, the insects were removed from the plant, and the following parameters were evaluated: chlorophyll content, damage score, dry as well as fresh weights, percentage of shoots’ dry matter, and the forage’s ability to regrow. The chlorophyll content was significantly reduced; the damage score and percentage of dry matter in plants increased depending on the increased insect infestation density after 6 days of exposure. In contrast, no change was observed on the B. ruziziensis fresh and dry weights as well as the regrowth capacity depending on the M. spectabilis infestation densities. Attacks by 8 adult M. spectabilis per clump of B. ruziziensis with an average of 80 tillers for 6 days were sufficient to reduce the chlorophyll content and the functional plant loss index. This density can be a reference for spittlebug integrated management in Brachiaria.

  13. The cephalic morphology of the Gondwanan key taxon Hackeriella (Coleorrhyncha, Hemiptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Rico; Wipfler, Benjamin; Friedemann, Katrin; Pohl, Hans; Weirauch, Christiane; Hartung, Viktor; Beutel, Rolf G

    2013-07-01

    External and internal head structures of Coleorrhyncha, a key-taxon within the Hemiptera, are described in detail and documented using modern techniques. The main focus is on Hackeriella veitchi, but two additional representatives of the Gondwanan relict group were also examined, and also head structures of Enicocephalidae, a member of a potentially basal heteropteran lineage. Features were compared to those documented in literature for the Sternorrhyncha, Auchenorrhyncha, and Heteroptera. Coleorrhyncha are characterized by highly modified head structures and correspondingly an entire series of autapomorphies, such as for instance a strongly flattened head capsule with fenestrations. However, they also display features that are likely plesiomorphic compared to members of other hemipteran groups. These include the almost complete tentorium and the lack of the gula. The sistergroup relationship between Coleorrhyncha and Heteroptera is well supported by cephalic features. Potential synapomorphies are the presence of a distinct mandibular sulcus, the reduced number of antennomeres, the absence of clasping organs in the labial groove, coiled accessory salivary ducts, the presence of a small cervical muscle M1a (M. pronotopostoccipitalis medialis), the presence of a second mandibular promotor M14 (M. zygomaticus mandibulae), the presence of M28 (M. verticopharyngalis), and M30 (M. frontobuccalis posterior). PMID:23583344

  14. [Characterization of the behavioral and vibrational signals in Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) during courtship and copulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, R Daniel

    2014-03-01

    Euthyrhynchus floridanus (Linnaeus) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) is a neotropical species belonging to the family Pentatomidae with over 4 000 species described, and is distributed from Florida to Brazil. This study describes the sexual behavior and reported for the first time the production of substrate vibrations by males and females during copulatory behavior and mating. Courtship and copulatory behavior, as well as the diverse signals, were recorded with a phonographic cartridge connected to a video camera. Female vibrations were reproduced in the absence of females and the responses by males were recorded. At least three types of substrate vibrations were distinguished in males and one in females, and these signals were characterized by their low frequency, varying from 127 to 180Hz. The sounds of E. floridianus males were significantly different in frequency, duration and number of pulses, both in courtship and in copulation, for the purring and drumming sounds. The production of sounds in this species is associated principally with mechanical, stimulatory behavior during courtship and copulation. Patterns of behavior and their relation to substrate vibrations suggest that these signals are important for the males in the context of mate location and sexual selection. PMID:24912346

  15. Gammaproteobacteria as essential primary symbionts in the striped shield bug, Graphosoma Lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamipour, Naeime; Mehrabadi, Mohammad; Fathipour, Yaghoub

    2016-01-01

    Many members of suborder Heteroptra harbor heritable symbiotic bacteria. Here we characterize the gut symbiotic bacterium in Graphosoma lineatum (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) by using molecular phylogeny, real-time PCR analysis as well as light and electron microscopy observations. The microscopy observations revealed the presence of a large number of rod-shaped bacterial cells in the crypts. A very high prevalence (98 to 100%) of the symbiont infection was found in the insect populations that strongly supports an intimate association between these two organisms. Real-time PCR analysis also showed that the Gammaproteobacteria dominated the crypts. The sequences of 16sr RNA and groEL genes of symbiont showed high levels of similarity (93 to 95%) to Pantoea agglomeranse and Erwinia herbicola Gammaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses placed G. lineatum symbiont in a well-defined branch, divergent from other stink bug bacterial symbionts. Co-evolutionary analysis showed lack of host-symbiont phylogenetic congruence. Surface sterilization of eggs resulted in increased pre-adult stage in the offspring (aposymbionts) in comparison to the normal. Also, fecundity, longevity, and adult stage were significantly decreased in the aposymbionts. Therefore, it seems that the symbiont might play a vital function in the host biology, in which host optimal development depends on the symbiont. PMID:27609055

  16. Host suitability and gas exchange response of grapevines to potato leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, William O; Miranda, Daniel; Culler, Lauren E; Alexander, Laurie C

    2011-08-01

    Although potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), is highly polyphagous, classic host studies do not recognize grapevines (Vitis spp.), as suitable hosts. Recently, injury has been reported and reproduction documented within grape vineyards, suggesting a host expansion for the leafhopper. To document this apparent expansion in host use, we determined whether grape plants were suitable hosts for potato leafhopper reproduction, measured the consequence of feeding injury on gas exchange rates of grape leaves, and compared the susceptibility to feeding injury among cultivars. We found that potato leafhopper adults survived equally well on grape (Vitis vinifera L.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), and fava bean (Vicia faba L.). The total number of offspring was greater on fava bean but did not differ between alfalfa and grape. Injury to grapevines was assessed by measuring gas exchange responses of leaves in field cages and in greenhouse tests. We found marginally significant declines in photosynthesis and transpiration rates in the field (9.6 and 13.2%, respectively), and much stronger effects in greenhouse tests (ranging between 22 and 52%). Our results verify that Vitis is a suitable host, and that potato leafhopper is capable of injuring its gas exchange physiology. We discuss possible explanations for the host expansion, and its potential to damage commercial grapevines. PMID:21882698

  17. Harmonic radar tagging for tracking movement of Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkay, Grant L; Reay-Jones, Francis P F; Greene, Jeremy K

    2013-10-01

    Harmonic radar tagging was investigated as a method for monitoring the movement of the southern green stink bug, Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Because adhesive toxicity and tag weight limit the use of this technology, initial efforts focused on selection of the optimal adhesive and design of harmonic radar tags to reduce impact on the movement of stink bugs. A design consisting of a 6-cm-long 0.10-mm-thick silver-plated copper monopole on the anode terminal of a three-contact Schottky barrier diode attached with Gorilla super glue provided a compromise between unimpaired movement and tracking range, adding an additional 8% to the weight of the stink bug while not significantly (P > 0.05) reducing walking or flying mobility in the laboratory. Recovery of tagged stink bugs in cotton, Gossypium hirsutum (L.), and fallow fields ranged from 10 to 75% after 24 h, whereas marked stink bugs were recovered at rates of 0-35% by using sweep net or drop cloth sampling. The distance dispersed in the field was not impacted (P > 0.05) by crop, tagged status, or gender of the insect. Future research should examine possible improvements to the harmonic radar transceiver and the wire antenna to decrease encumbrance.

  18. Rapid molecular identification of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Mexican 'Hass' avocado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugman-Jones, Paul F; Morse, Joseph G; Stouthamer, Richard

    2009-10-01

    'Hass' avocado, Persea americana Mill., fruit imported into California from Mexico are infested with high levels of armored scale insects (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), constituting several species. The paucity and delicate nature of morphological characters traditionally used to diagnose armored scales often require careful preparation of slide-mounted specimens and expert knowledge of the group, for their accurate identification. Here, we present a simple, quick, and accurate means to identify armored scales on Mexican avocados, based on amplification of the internal transcribed spacer two of ribosomal DNA, by using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). This region seems to show a high level of intraspecific conformity among scale specimens originating from different localities. A suite of species-specific reverse PCR primers are combined in a single reaction, with a universal forward primer, and produce a PCR product of a unique size, that after standard gel electrophoresis, allows the direct diagnosis of six diaspidid species: Abgrallaspis aguacatae Evans, Watson & Miller; Hemiberlesia lataniae (Signoret); Hemiberlesia sp. near latania; Hemiberlesia rapax (Comstock); Acutaspis albopicta (Cockerell); and Pinnaspis strachani (Cooley). Two additional species, Diaspis miranda (Cockerell) and Diaspis sp. near miranda, also are separated from the others by using this method and are subsequently diagnosed by secondary digestion of the PCR product with the restriction endonuclease smaI.

  19. Extensive Mitochondrial Heteroplasmy in Natural Populations of a Resurging Human Pest, the Bed Bug (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robison, G A; Balvin, O; Schal, C; Vargo, E L; Booth, W

    2015-07-01

    Homoplasmy, the occurrence of a single mitochondrial DNA haplotype within an individual, has been the accepted condition across most organisms in the animal kingdom. In recent years, a number of exceptions to this rule have been reported, largely due to the ease with which single nucleotide polymorphisms can be detected. Evidence of heteroplasmy-two or more mitochondrial variants within a single individual-has now been documented in a number of invertebrates; however, when present, heteroplasmy usually occurs at low frequencies both within individuals and within populations. The implications of heteroplasmy may be far reaching, both to the individual in relation to its health and fitness, and when considering the evolutionary dynamics of populations. We present novel evidence for frequent mtDNA heteroplasmy in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Our findings show that heteroplasmy is common, with 5 of 29 (17%) populations screened exhibiting two mitochondrial variants in a ∼1:2 ratio within each individual. We hypothesize that the mechanism underlying heteroplasmy in bed bugs is paternal leakage because some haplotypes were shared among unrelated populations and no evidence for nuclear mitochondrial DNA sequences was detected. PMID:26335484

  20. The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida species subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Mario Calderon-Fernandez

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The cuticular hydrocarbons of the Triatoma sordida subcomplex (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae were ana-lysed by gas chromatography and their structures identified by mass spectrometry. They comprised mostly n-alkanes and methyl-branched alkanes with one-four methyl substitutions. n-alkanes consisted of a homologous series from C21-C33 and represented 33-45% of the hydrocarbon fraction; n-C29 was the major component. Methyl-branched alkanes showed alkyl chains from C24-C43. High molecular weight dimethyl and trimethylalkanes (from C35-C39 represented most of the methyl-branched fraction. A few tetramethylalkanes were also detected, comprising mostly even-numbered chains. Several components such as odd-numbered 3-methylalkanes, dimethylalkanes and trimethylalkanes of C37 and C39 showed patterns of variation that allowed the differentiation of the species and populations studied. Triatoma guasayana and Triatoma patagonica showed the most distinct hydrocarbon patterns within the subcomplex. The T. sordida populations from Brazil and Argentina showed significantly different hydrocarbon profiles that posed concerns regarding the homogeneity of the species. Triatoma garciabesi had a more complex hydrocarbon pattern, but it shared some similarity with T. sordida. The quantitative and qualitative variations in the cuticular hydrocarbons may help to elucidate the relationships between species and populations of this insect group.

  1. Nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae en el oriente del Estado de México New records of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae in the east of Mexico State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Ruiz-Machuca

    Full Text Available El nopal tunero (Opuntia spp. se cultiva en todo el país, pero sólo en el Estado de México se concentra cerca de 35% de la producción nacional de tuna. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller, es la especie predominante en la obtención de tunas, pero se carece de información que identifiquen taxonómicamente algunas plagas del cultivo; tal es el caso de la chinche roja (Hemiptera: Miridae. se realizaron colectas sistemáticas de este insecto sobre nopales (Opuntia spp., en diferentes municipios del Estado de México en 2008 y se encontraron 20 nuevos registros de Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter.The prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. is cultivated throughout entire country, but 35% of the national production is found only within State of Mexico. Opuntia ficus-indica L. (Miller is the predominant species for obtaining prickly pears, but there is not any information available that would taxonomically identify some plagues particular to this crop; such is the case of red bug (Hemiptera: Miridae. Some of these insects were gathered from prickly pear nopal (Opuntia spp. in different municipalities of State of Mexico in 2008 and 20 new cases of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter were found.

  2. Famílias de Hymenoptera (Insecta como ferramenta avaliadora da conservação de restingas no extremo sul do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Maria Loyola Zardo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de estimar e comparar a diversidade e flutuação populacional das famílias de Hymenoptera em área de restinga foi realizado um levantamento faunístico em duas áreas de restinga com diferentes níveis de conservação. Foram coletados 5.518 himenópteros distribuídos em 30 famílias. Os picos populacionais na flutuação das famílias ocorreram no verão confirmando a alta correlação da temperatura com a distribuição das famílias. Constatou-se na restinga em sucessão maior riqueza, porém, com alta dominância, abrigando representantes dos três grupos ecológicos (antófilos, generalistas e parasitóides em alta abundância. A restinga preservada, com 17 famílias, verificou-se mais diversa e homogênea, onde verificou-se maior abundância dos parasitóides, devido à maior estabilidade do sistema. A riqueza de famílias de Hymenoptera em áreas de restinga pode ser utilizada como parâmetro indicativo de qualidade ambiental, para este tipo de bioma.Hymenoptera Families (Insecta as Evaluation Tool of the Conservation of Sandbanks in Southern BrazilAbstract. With aim to estimate and compare the diversity and population of the Hymenoptera families in a sandbank area was carried out a wildlife survey in two areas of sandbank with different levels of conservation. We collected 5 518 Hymenoptera distributed in 30 families. The peaks in the families fluctuation occurred in the summer confirmed the high correlation of temperature with the distribution of families. The sandbank in succession had the highest richness, however with high dominance, hosting representatives of the three ecological groups (anthophilous, generalists and parasitoids in high abundance. The sandbank preserved, with 17 families, was more diverse and homogeneous, where the parasitoids showed greater abundance due to greater system stability. The richness of Hymenoptera families in sandbanks can be used as a parameter indicative of environmental quality.

  3. Inundative field releases and evaluation of three predators for Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) management in three vegetable crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alvin M. Simmons; Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is a global pest on numerous crops, including vegetables. Weekly inundative releases of a coccineUid predator (Coccinella undecimpunctata L. [Coleoptera: Coccinellidae]), a common green lacewing predator (Chrysoperla carnea Stephen [Neuroptera: Chrysopidae]), and a mirid predator (Macrolophus caliginosus [Wagner] [Hemiptera: Miridae]) were independently made in three vegetable crops (cabbage [Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.],cucumber [Cucumis sativus L.], and squash [Cucurbita pepo L.]) for the management of the sweetpotato whitefly. Approximately 1 million to 2.5 million larvae or nymphs of each predator were released in the vegetable crops during 20 weeks. Whitefly populations were reduced by ≈ 25%-45% during most of the season in each crop where each predator was released. The effect of each predator was similar on whitefly population reduction. Late in the season (October) when whitefly populations were low, generally no benefit was obtained from releasing the predators. Numbers of predators recovered during sampling in all crops were greatest for C. carnea, but this corresponded with the fact that more individuals of this predator were released than any other predator in the experiment. These results help define the utility of these natural enemies for managing B. tabaci in vegetable crops.

  4. Performance of nymphs and adults of Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae on soybean pods at different developmental stages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Émerson D. M. Oliveira

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted in the laboratory to test the suitability of soybean [Glycine max (L. Merrill] pods at different phenological stages of development (R3-R8 on the performance of nymphs and adults of the small green stink bug Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Nymphs and adults showed better performance when fed on soybean pods during the pod-filling stage (R5-R6, compared to those fed on soybean pods at the remaining stages of development. When fed on soybean pods without seeds (R3-R4 no nymphs survived and no adults reproduced.Estudos foram conduzidos em laboratório para testar a adequabilidade de vagens de soja [Glycine max (L. Merrill] em diferentes fases fenológicas (R3-R8 na performance de ninfas e adultos do percevejo verde pequeno Piezodorus guildinii (Westwood (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae. Tanto ninfas como adultos mostraram uma melhor performance quando se alimentaram das vagens de soja na fase de enchimento de grãos (R5-R6, comparado com aqueles que se alimentaram de vagens de soja nas demais fases de desenvolvimento. Em vagens sem grãos (R3-R4 nenhuma ninfa sobreviveu e não houve reprodução.

  5. Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D. Oliveira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Population growth and within-plant distribution of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae on cotton. The striped mealybug, Ferrisia virgata (Cockerell (Hemiptera, Pseudococcidae, is a widely distributed and polyphagous pest species, which naturally occurs on cotton plants in Brazil. This study evaluated the establishment and population growth as well as the within-plant distribution of F. virgata on four cotton cultivars: CNPA 7H (white fibers, BRS Verde, BRS Safira, and BRS Rubi (colored fibers. The experiment was conducted in a complete randomized design with four treatments (cultivars and 18 replications of each. Thus, cotton plants of each cultivar were infested with 100 newly hatched nymphs of F. virgata. The number of adult female mealybugs and the total number of mealybugs per plant were quantified, respectively, at 25 and 50 days after infestation. The developmental and pre-reproductive periods were also determined. Furthermore, we verified the distribution of F. virgata on the plant parts at 25 and 50 days after infestation. Ferrisia virgata showed similar growth of 412-fold in the four cotton cultivars studied. Also, the nymphs were spread on infested leaves; the secondgeneration nymphs were spread and established in all plant parts. Our results characterize F. virgata as having much potential as an important cotton pest in Brazil.

  6. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae Regarding to host conditioning in citrus mealybug Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  7. Categorizing sugarcane cultivar resistance to the sugarcane aphid and yellow sugarcane aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbar, W; Showler, A T; Reagan, T E; White, W H

    2010-08-01

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) in Louisiana is colonized by two aphid species, the sugarcane aphid, Melanaphis sacchari (Zehntner), and the yellow sugarcane aphid, Sipha flava (Forbes) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The main problem associated with M. sacchari is transmission of sugarcane yellow leaf virus, a casual agent of yellow leaf disease whose absence has been added to certification standards for micropropagated sugarcane in Louisiana. Greenhouse studies were conducted to categorize dominant commercial sugarcane cultivars for their ability to tolerate aphid injury and to express antixenotic or antibiotic effects on both aphid species. Antixenosis tests showed no preference among cultivars by either aphid species. Loss of chlorophyll content in tolerance tests also did not show differences among cultivars for both aphid species. However, antibiosis tests revealed that life history parameters such as the duration of the reproductive period and fecundity of both aphid species were negatively affected on 'HoCP 91-555' compared with 'L 97-128'. Estimation of demographic statistics indicated that both aphid species exhibited a significantly lower intrinsic rate of increase (1.8-2.8-fold) and longer doubling time (1.7-3.1-fold) on HoCP 91-555 relative to L 97-128. From these tests, cultivars in the current study can be ranked from most to the least susceptible as L 97-128 > 'LCP 85-384' > 'HoCP 96-540' > 'Ho 95-988' > HoCP 91-555 for M. sacchari and L 97-128 > LCP 85-384 > HoCP 91-555 for S. flava. Therefore, antibiosis is an important category of resistance in sugarcane to both aphid species, and HoCP 91-555 might provide useful germplasm for developing aphid resistant cultivars. PMID:20857758

  8. Related but not alike: not all Hemiptera are attracted to yellow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin eFarnier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Most innate responses to color stimuli lead herbivorous insects to orient to green and yellow surfaces. Early research showed that aphid orientation to plants is influenced by foliar pigments and leads them to alight on leaves of a specific physiological state regardless of whether or not it is their actual host. In this study, we quantified the color preferences of four psyllids specialized on young to recently expanded leaves of different Eucalyptus hosts presenting distinct between (inter-specific and within canopy (ontogenic optical characteristics. Color preferences of Ctenarytaina eucalypti and C. bipartita were similar to those observed in aphids with more frequent selection of yellow and green stimuli, consistent with the coloration of their host leaves. However, attraction of Anoeconeossa bundoorensis and Glycaspis brimblecombei to a red stimulus contrasts strongly with the literature for hemipteran and herbivorous insects generally for which attraction to red is peculiar. Interestingly, both red-attracted species occur on the same host eucalypt, which expresses anthocyanic (red young leaves. Our experiments demonstrate that these two species are sensitive to long wavelength radiation. Behavioral work and modeling of putative aphid-like photoreceptors were conducted to investigate whether achromatic vision mediates perception of red. Our results do not provide strong evidence for an intensity-dependant type of attraction. Nevertheless, the current knowledge of photoreceptors in Hemiptera identifies the achromatic as the most likely mechanism for detecting long wavelengths. Thus, our findings highlight the need for physiological work with Psylloidea to dissect the mechanisms responsible for such atypical responses. We discuss the ecological implications of our work in relation to red foliar pigments in expanding leaves of perennial plants which differs greatly from the thoroughly studied aphid-autumnal leaves system involving senescing

  9. Sequencing and Characterization of the Invasive Sycamore Lace Bug Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae) Transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fengqi; Wang, Ran; Qu, Cheng; Fu, Ningning; Luo, Chen; Xu, Yihua

    2016-01-01

    The sycamore lace bug, Corythucha ciliata (Hemiptera: Tingidae), is an invasive forestry pest rapidly expanding in many countries. This pest poses a considerable threat to the urban forestry ecosystem, especially to Platanus spp. However, its molecular biology and biochemistry are poorly understood. This study reports the first C. ciliata transcriptome, encompassing three different life stages (Nymphs, adults female (AF) and adults male (AM)). In total, 26.53 GB of clean data and 60,879 unigenes were obtained from three RNA-seq libraries. These unigenes were annotated and classified by Nr (NCBI non-redundant protein sequences), Nt (NCBI non-redundant nucleotide sequences), Pfam (Protein family), KOG/COG (Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins), Swiss-Prot (A manually annotated and reviewed protein sequence database), and KO (KEGG Ortholog database). After all pairwise comparisons between these three different samples, a large number of differentially expressed genes were revealed. The dramatic differences in global gene expression profiles were found between distinct life stages (nymphs and AF, nymphs and AM) and sex difference (AF and AM), with some of the significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) being related to metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex difference. The different express of unigenes were validated through quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for 16 randomly selected unigenes. In addition, 17,462 potential simple sequence repeat molecular markers were identified in these transcriptome resources. These comprehensive C. ciliata transcriptomic information can be utilized to promote the development of environmentally friendly methodologies to disrupt the processes of metamorphosis, digestion, immune and sex differences.

  10. Seasonality and Distribution Pattern of Brown Marmorated Stink Bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in Virginia Vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, S; Kuhar, T P; Laub, C A; Pfeiffer, D G

    2015-08-01

    Brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a highly polyphagous invasive insect pest from eastern Asia that feeds on numerous fruit, vegetable, and field crops. Four commercial vineyards in Virginia were sampled in 2012 and 2013 to study the basic biology, seasonality, and distribution pattern of H. halys in vineyards. At each vineyard, two blocks were selected. Weekly 3-min timed count visual samplings were performed in border and interior sections from late May until mid-September. Overwintering adult bugs were first detected in vineyards in May; however, the timing of first detection differed among vineyards. Egg masses were found primarily in June and July, and were usually found on the lower surface of grape leaves, although they were occasionally on the upper leaf surface, on the berry, or on the rachis. All developmental stages of H. halys were found in vineyards, suggesting that grape can serve as a reproductive host for H. halys. Substantial variation in H. halys densities was found among vineyards and throughout the growing season. The first instars were found on egg masses and after molting, dispersed throughout the grape vines. The date on which the first egg mass was collected was considered as a biofix. Based on a degree-day model, there were sufficient degree-days for completion of a generation in Virginia vineyards. Significantly higher numbers of H. halys were collected in border sections compared with interior sections. These results are discussed in relation to the potential pest status of H. halys in vineyards and implications for possible control strategies. PMID:26470333

  11. Crop Loss Relationships and Economic Injury Levels for Ferrisia gilli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) Infesting Pistachio in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haviland, David R; Beede, Robert H; Daane, Kent M

    2015-12-01

    Ferrisia gilli Gullan (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is a new pest in California pistachios, Pistacea vera L. We conducted a 3-yr field study to determine the type and amount of damage caused by F. gilli. Using pesticides, we established gradients of F. gilli densities in a commercial pistachio orchard near Tipton, CA, from 2005 to 2007. Each year, mealybug densities on pistachio clusters were recorded from May through September and cumulative mealybug-days were determined. At harvest time, nut yield per tree (5% dried weight) was determined, and subsamples of nuts were evaluated for market quality. Linear regression analysis of cumulative mealybug-days against fruit yield and nut quality measurements showed no relationships in 2005 and 2006, when mealybug densities were moderate. However, in 2007, when mealybug densities were very high, there was a negative correlation with yield (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in total dry weight per tree of 0.105 kg) and percentage of split unstained nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there was a decrease in the percentage of split unstained of 0.560%), and a positive correlation between the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank nuts (for every 1,000 mealybug-days, there is an increase in the percentage of closed kernel and closed blank of 0.176 and 0.283%, respectively). The data were used to determine economic injury levels, showing that for each mealybug per cluster in May there was a 4.73% reduction in crop value associated with quality and a 0.866 kg reduction in yield per tree (4.75%).

  12. Factors affecting water strider (Hemiptera: Gerridae) mercury concentrations in lotic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, Timothy D; Kidd, Karen A; Cunjak, Richard A; Arp, Paul A

    2009-07-01

    Water striders (Hemiptera: Gerridae) have been considered as a potential sentinel for mercury (Hg) contamination of freshwater ecosystems, yet little is known about factors that control Hg concentrations in this invertebrate. Striders were collected from 80 streams and rivers in New Brunswick, Canada, in August and September of 2004 through 2007 to assess the influence of factors such as diet, water chemistry, and proximity to point sources on Hg concentrations in this organism. Higher than average Hg concentrations were observed in the southwest and Grand Lake regions of the province, the latter being the location of a coal-fired power plant that is a source of Hg (approximately 100 kg annually), with elevated Hg concentrations in the lichen Old Man's Beard (Usnea spp.) in its immediate vicinity. Across all streams, pH and total organic carbon of water were relatively weak predictors of strider Hg concentrations. Female striders that were larger in body size than males had significantly lower Hg concentrations within sites, suggestive of growth dilution. There was no relationship between percent aquatic carbon in the diet and Hg concentrations in striders. For those striders feeding solely on terrestrial carbon, Hg concentrations were higher in animals occupying a higher trophic level. Mercury concentrations were highly variable in striders collected monthly over two growing seasons, suggesting short-term changes in Hg availability. These measurements highlight the importance of considering both deposition and postdepositional processes in assessing Hg bioaccumulation in this species. They also suggest that striders may be more appropriate as a terrestrial rather than an aquatic Hg sentinel, underscoring the importance of understanding the origin of food for organisms used in contaminant studies. PMID:19215185

  13. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB. PMID:24772551

  14. Methyl salicylate attracts natural enemies and reduces populations of soybean aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in soybean agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinger, Rachel E; Hogg, David B; Gratton, Claudio

    2011-02-01

    Methyl salicylate, an herbivore-induced plant volatile, has been shown to attract natural enemies and affect herbivore behavior. In this study, methyl salicylate was examined for its attractiveness to natural enemies of the soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), and for its direct effects on soybean aphid population growth rates. Methyl salicylate lures were deployed in plots within organic soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] fields. Sticky card traps adjacent to and 1.5 m from the lure measured the relative abundance of natural enemies, and soybean aphid populations were monitored within treated and untreated plots. In addition, exclusion cage studies were conducted to determine methyl salicylate's effect on soybean aphid population growth rates in the absence of natural enemies. Significantly greater numbers of syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) and green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were caught on traps adjacent to the methyl salicylate lure, but no differences in abundance were found at traps 1.5 m from the lure. Furthermore, abundance of soybean aphids was significantly lower in methyl salicylate-treated plots. In exclusion cage studies, soybean aphid numbers were significantly reduced on treated soybean plants when all plants were open to natural enemies. When plants were caged, however, soybean aphid numbers and population growth rates did not differ between treated and untreated plants suggesting no effect of methyl salicylate on soybean aphid reproduction and implicating the role of natural enemies in depressing aphid populations. Although aphid populations were reduced locally around methyl salicylate lures, larger scale studies are needed to assess the technology at the whole-field scale.

  15. Relationship of soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) to soybean plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Takuji; Gratton, Claudio; Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Brewer, Michael J; Mueller, Emily E; Wyckhuys, Kris A G; Heimpel, George E; O'Neal, Matthew E

    2010-02-01

    In the north central United States, populations of the exotic soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), are highly variable across space, complicating effective aphid management. In this study we examined relationships of plant nutrients, landscape structure, and natural enemies with soybean aphid abundance across Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, representing the range of conditions where soybean aphid outbreaks have occurred since its introduction. We sampled soybean aphid and its natural enemies, quantified vegetation land cover and measured soybean nutrients (potassium [K] and nitrogen [N]) in 26 soybean sites in 2005 and 2006. Multiple regression models found that aphid abundance was negatively associated with leaf K content in 2005, whereas it was negatively associated with habitat diversity (Simpson's index) and positively associated with leaf N content in 2006. These variables accounted for 25 and 27% of aphid variability in 2005 and 2006, respectively, suggesting that other sources of variability are also important. In addition, K content of soybean plants decreased with increasing prevalence of corn-soybean cropland in 2005, suggesting that landscapes that have a high intensification of agriculture (as indexed by increasing corn and soybean) are more likely to have higher aphid numbers. Soybean aphid natural enemies, 26 species of predators and parasitoids, was positively related to aphid abundance; however, enemy-to-aphid abundance ratios were inversely related to aphid density, suggesting that soybean aphids are able to escape control by resident natural enemies. Overall, soybean aphid abundance was most associated with soybean leaf chemistry and landscape heterogeneity. Agronomic options that can ameliorate K deficiency and maintaining heterogeneity in the landscape may reduce aphid risk.

  16. Biology and harmfulness of Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae in Belgrade area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draga Graora

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Planococcus vovae (Nassonov (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is an important pest on plants of the family Cupressaceae. Its numerous populations have been present in recent years on Juniperus spp. in Belgrade. Feeding by sap-sucking on all aboveground plant organs, it causes growth stagnation, chlorosis, drying of needles and branches, and even of entire plants under heavy infestation. Additionally, the scale excretes large quantities of honeydew, on which sooty mold develops, reducing photosynthesis and causing faster plant deterioration. Throughout 2007 and 2008, P. vovae was recorded on Juniperus spp. in 12 localities in Belgrade, and on Thuja sp. in a single locality. The pest was found to develop three generations per year and overwinter on branches at the egg or second instar stages. The first generation adults were observed at the end of May, the second generation at the beginning of August, while the third generation was recorded at the beginning of October. Different overwintering modes, and variable oviposition, embryonic and larval development periods led to an overlapping of generations and continuous presence of all developmental stages on plants. In different localities the infestation of plants varied in abundance from a few individual specimens to very large colonies. The highest infestation intensity was recorded in the localities Bežanija, Dorćol and Voždovac. The predatory species Chrysoperla carnea (Stephens (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae and Nephus bipunctatus (Kugelann (Coleoptera: Coccinelidae were found in the scale colonies. Regarding N. bipunctatus, this was its first record as a new species in the Serbian fauna.

  17. Mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in vineyards using reservoir pheromone dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocco, Arturo; Lentini, Andrea; Serra, Giuseppe

    2014-10-15

    Mating disruption field experiments to control the vine mealybug, Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), were carried out in 2008 and 2009 in two commercial vineyards in Sardinia (Italy). The effectiveness of mating disruption was evaluated by testing reservoir dispensers loaded with 100 mg (62.5 g/ha) and 150 mg (93.8 g/ha) of the sex pheromone in 2008 and 2009, respectively. The number of males captured in pheromone traps, the P. ficus population density and age structure, the parasitism rate, the percentage of ovipositing females, and the crop damage were compared between disrupted and untreated plots. In both field trials, the number of males captured in mating disruption plots was significantly reduced by 86% and 95%, respectively. Mating disruption at the initial dose of 62.5 g/ha of active ingredient gave inconclusive results, whereas the dose of 93.8 g/ha significantly lowered the mealybug density and modified the age structure, which showed a lower percentage of ovipositing females and a higher proportion of preovipositing females. Mating disruption did not affect negatively the parasitism rate, which was higher in the disrupted than in the control plots (>1.5-fold). Crop damage at harvest was very low in both field trials and did not differ between treatments. Mating disruption was effective in wide plots protected with dispensers loaded with 150 mg of the sex pheromone, showing its potential to be included in the overall integrated control programs in Mediterranean wine-growing regions.

  18. Comparison of sex pheromone traps for monitoring pink hibiscus mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitullo, Justin; Wang, Shifa; Zhang, Aijun; Mannion, Catharine; Bergh, J Christopher

    2007-04-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is a highly polyphagous pest that invaded Florida in 2002 and has recently been reported from several locations in Louisiana. Although identification of its sex pheromone in 2004 improved monitoring capabilities tremendously, the effectiveness and efficiency of different pheromone trap designs for capturing males has not been evaluated. We deployed green Delta, Pherocon IlB, Pherocon V, Jackson, and Storgard Thinline traps in Homestead, FL, and compared the number of male M. hirsutus captured per trap, the number captured per unit of trapping surface area, the amount of extraneous material captured, and the time taken to count trapped mealybugs. Pheromone-baited traps with larger trapping surfaces (green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V) captured more males per trap than those with smaller surfaces (Jackson and Storgard Thinline), and fewest males were captured by Storgard Thinline traps. However, Jackson traps captured as many or more males per square centimeter of trapping surface as those with larger surfaces, and the time required to count males in Jackson traps was significantly less than in green Delta, Pherocon IIB, and Pherocon V traps. Although all trap designs accumulated some debris and nontarget insects, it was rated as light to moderate for all designs. Based on our measures of effectiveness and efficiency, the Jackson trap is most suitable for monitoring M. hirsutus populations. Additionally, unlike the other traps evaluated, which must be replaced entirely or inspected in the field and then redeployed, only the sticky liners of Jackson traps require replacement, enhancing the efficiency of trap servicing.

  19. Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Chong, Juang-Horng; Epsky, Nancy D; Mannion, Catharine M

    2008-12-01

    Effect of temperature on the life history of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) was investigated in the laboratory. P. marginatus was able to develop and complete its life cycle at 18, 20, 25, and 30 +/- 1 degrees C. At 15, 34, and 35 degrees C, the eggs hatched after 27.5, 5.9, and 5.5 d of incubation, respectively, but further development of the first-instar nymphs was arrested. No eggs hatched at 37 degrees C. The developmental time for egg to adult was the longest at 18 degrees C for both males and females. Approximately 80-90% of the eggs survived between 20 and 30 degrees C. The highest fecundity was at 25 degrees C with each female producing an average of 300 eggs. Adult longevity, and preoviposition and oviposition periods increased with decreasing temperature up to 25 degrees C. The proportion of females was approximately 42% at 25 degrees C and was between 70 and 80% at 18, 20, and 30 degrees C. Adult males and females required 303.0 and 294.1 degree-days (DD), respectively, to complete their development. The estimated minimum temperature thresholds for the adult males and females were 14.5 and 13.9 degrees C, respectively. For adult males, the estimated optimum and maximum temperature thresholds were 28.7 and 31.9 degrees C; and for adult females, they were 28.4 and 32.1 degrees C, respectively. The ability of P. marginatus to develop, survive, and reproduce successfully between 18 and 30 degrees C suggests that it has the capability to develop and establish in areas within this temperature range.

  20. Pheromone-based mating disruption of Planococcus ficus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Vaughn M; Daane, Kent M; Bentley, Walter J; Millar, Jocelyn G; Larsen, Thomas E; Malakar-Kuenen, Raksha

    2006-08-01

    Experiments were conducted to test a mating disruption program for the mealybug Planococcus ficus (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in California vineyards. The sprayable, microencapsulated formulation of the racemic sex pheromone lavandulyl senecioate was applied with an air-blast sprayer, using three and four applications in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Mating disruption was combined with an application of buprofezin (2004) in June. Compared with a no-pheromone control, there were significantly lower season-long trap catches of adult males, season-long mealybug densities (2003 only), and crop damage in mating disruption plots. The amount of mealybug reduction and mechanisms that resulted in lower crop damage in mating disruption plots is discussed. In samples taken during the growing season (April to September), mealybug density was only 12.0 +/- 15.6 and 31.1 +/- 11.6% lower in the mating disruption plots than in control plots in 2003 and 2004, respectively. In the mating disruption treatment, mealybug egg production was significantly lower (2003 only), as were the proportion of ovisacs and crawlers produced. There was no treatment impact on percentage of parasitism. Mealybug density influenced treatment impact. In 2004, vines were categorized as having low, medium, or high mealybug densities during a preapplication survey. After treatment application, mealybug density was reduced by 86.3 +/- 6.3% on vines in the low mealybug density category, but it was unchanged on vines in the high density category. Another factor that reduced treatment impact was the relatively short effective lifetime of the sprayable formulation.

  1. DNA barcoding of common soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-B; Deng, J; Zhang, J-T; Zhou, Q-S; Zhang, Y-Z; Wu, S-A

    2015-10-01

    The soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) are a group of sap-sucking plant parasites, many of which are notorious agricultural pests. The quarantine and economic importance of soft scales necessitates rapid and reliable identification of these taxa. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (barcoding region) and 28S rDNA were generated from 340 individuals of 36 common soft scales in China. Distance-based [(best match, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD)], tree-based (neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference), Klee diagrams, and general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) models were used to evaluate barcoding success rates in the data set. Best match showed that COI and 28S sequences could provide 100 and 95.52% correct identification, respectively. The average interspecific divergences were 19.81% for COI data and 20.38% for 28S data, and mean intraspecific divergences were 0.56 and 0.07%, respectively. For COI data, multiple methods (ABGD, Klee, and tree-based methods) resulted in general congruence with morphological identifications. However, GMYC analysis tended to provide more molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Twelve MOTUs derived from five morphospecies (Rhodococcus sariuoni, Pulvinaria vitis, Pulvinaria aurantii, Parasaissetia nigra, and Ceroplastes rubens) were observed using the GMYC approach. In addition, tree-based methods showed that 28S sequences could be used for species-level identification (except for Ceroplastes ceriferus - Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus), even with low genetic variation (<1%). This report demonstrates the robustness of DNA barcoding for species discrimination of soft scales with two molecular markers (COI and 28S) and provides a reliable barcode library and rapid diagnostic tool for common soft scales in China.

  2. Experimental Infection of Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera, Triatominae) with Mycobacterium leprae Indicates Potential for Leprosy Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Arthur da Silva; Dias, Felipe de Almeida; Ferreira, Jéssica da Silva; Fontes, Amanda Nogueira Brum; Rosa, Patricia Sammarco; Macedo, Rafael Enrique; Oliveira, José Henrique; Teixeira, Raquel Lima de Figueiredo; Pessolani, Maria Cristina Vidal; Moraes, Milton Ozório; Suffys, Philip Noel; Oliveira, Pedro L.; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Lara, Flavio Alves

    2016-01-01

    Leprosy is a chronic dermato-neurological disease caused by infection with Mycobacterium leprae. In 2013 almost 200,000 new cases of leprosy were detected around the world. Since the first symptoms take from years to decades to appear, the total number of asymptomatic patients is impossible to predict. Although leprosy is one of the oldest records of human disease, the mechanisms involved with its transmission and epidemiology are still not completely understood. In the present work, we experimentally investigated the hypothesis that the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus and the hemiptera Rhodnius prolixus act as leprosy vectors. By means of real-time PCR quantification of M. leprae 16SrRNA, we found that M. leprae remained viable inside the digestive tract of Rhodnius prolixus for 20 days after oral infection. In contrast, in the gut of both mosquito species tested, we were not able to detect M. leprae RNA after a similar period of time. Inside the kissing bug Rhodnius prolixus digestive tract, M. leprae was initially restricted to the anterior midgut, but gradually moved towards the hindgut, in a time course reminiscent of the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, a well-known pathogen transmitted by this insect. The maintenance of M. leprae infectivity inside the digestive tract of this kissing bug is further supported by successful mice footpad inoculation with feces collected 20 days after infection. We conclude that Rhodnius prolixus defecate infective M. leprae, justifying the evaluation of the presence of M. leprae among sylvatic and domestic kissing bugs in countries endemic for leprosy. PMID:27203082

  3. Resistance of Dusky Cotton Bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), to Conventional and Novel Chemistry Insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Saif; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem

    2016-02-01

    The dusky cotton bug, Oxycarenus hyalinipennis Costa (Lygaidae: Hemiptera), is polyphagous in nature and has become one of the severe sucking pests of cotton in Pakistan. O. hyalinipennis has the potential to develop resistance to a number of insecticides, and as a result, O. hyalinipennis outbreaks occur. There is no previous study from Pakistan regarding O. hyalinipennis resistance to insecticides. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the resistance of different field populations of O. hyalinipennis to conventional (bifenthrin, deltamethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, profenofos, triazophos) and novel chemistry (emamectin benzoate, spinosad, chlorfenapyr, imidacloprid, and nitenpyram) insecticides. Five populations of O. hyalinipennis, collected from Multan, Khanewal, Muzaffargarh, Lodhran, and Bahawalpur, were tested for resistance to selected insecticides by the leaf dip method. For three pyrethroids, the resistance ratios were in the range of 14- to 30-fold for bifenthrin, 2.14- to 8.41-fold for deltamethrin, and 9.12- to 16-fold for lambda-cyhalothrin, compared with the laboratory susceptible strain (Lab-PK). For two organophosphates, the range of resistance ratios was 12- to 14-fold for profenofos and 9.04- to 15-fold for triazophos. For five novel chemistry insecticides, the range of resistance ratios was 4.68- to 9.83-fold for emamectin benzoate, 6.38- to 17-fold for spinosad, 16- to 46-fold for chlorfenapyr, 11- to 22-fold for imidacloprid, and 1.32- to 11-fold for nitenpyram. Regular assessment of resistance to insecticides and integrated management plans like judicious use of insecticides and rotation of insecticides along with different modes of action are required to delay resistance development in O. hyalinipennis.

  4. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  5. Early-season host switching in Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera: Miridae of differing host breadth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongsheng Pan

    Full Text Available The mirid bugs Adelphocoris suturalis (Jakovlev, Adelphocoris lineolatus (Goeze and Adelphocoris fasciaticollis (Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae are common pests of several agricultural crops. These three species have vastly different geographical distributions, phenologies and abundances, all of which are linked to their reliance on local plants. Previous work has shown notable differences in Adelphocoris spp. host use for overwintering. In this study, we assessed the extent to which each of the Adelphocoris spp. relies on some of its major overwinter hosts for spring development. Over the course of four consecutive years (2009-2012, we conducted population surveys on 77 different plant species from 39 families. During the spring, A. fasciaticollis used the broadest range of hosts, as it was found on 35 plant species, followed by A. suturalis (15 species and A. lineolatus (7 species. Abundances of the species greatly differed between host plants, with A. fasciaticollis reaching the highest abundance on Chinese date (Ziziphus jujuba Mill., whereas both A. suturalis and A. lineolatus preferred alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.. The host breadths of the three Adelphocoris spp. differed greatly between subsequent spring and winter seasons. The generalist species exhibited the least host fidelity, with A. suturalis and A. lineolatus using 8 of 22 and 4 of 12 overwinter host species for spring development, respectively. By contrast, the comparative specialist A. fasciaticollis relied on 9 of its 11 overwinter plants as early-season hosts. We highlight important seasonal changes in host breadth and interspecific differences in the extent of host switching behavior between the winter and spring seasons. These findings benefit our understanding of the evolutionary interactions between mirid bugs and their host plants and can be used to guide early-season population management.

  6. Warm-Season (C4) Turfgrass Genotypes Resistant to Spittlebugs (Hemiptera: Cercopidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, M R; Valério, J R; Matta, F P; Souza, F H D; Vigna, B B Z; Fávero, A P; Barioni, W; Inácio, G R

    2016-08-01

    Screening for resistance to insect pests is one of the early stages of grass breeding programs. Pasture spittlebugs are sap-sucking insects that potentially cause severe damage to turfgrasses, including the loss of functional quality and perenniallity. The Brazilian flora has a large number of grass species with wide morphological variability and adaptability to different soil and climate conditions that can potentially be used as lawns. However, no study has screened turfgrass genotypes for resistance to spittlebug attack. In this study, we evaluated the intra- and interspecific variability of 35 turfgrass genotypes in the genera Paspalum, Axonopus, and Zoysia for resistance to the pasture spittlebugs, Deois flavopicta (Stal) and Notozulia entreriana (Berg) (Hemiptera: Cercopidae), as measured by damage scores, densities of nymphs and adults, and level of antibiosis resistance. Genotypes were grouped into three groups using cluster analysis and principal component analysis: GroupI had genotypes associated with low damage scores and high density of adult spittlebugs; GroupII had genotypes with intermediate damage scores and low density of nymphs and adults; and GroupIII was formed by genotypes with high damage scores and high nymph density. Intra- and interspecific genotypic variability was related to antibiosis resistance and morphological variation among genotypes with some indicating nonpreference resistance and others indicating tolerance resistance. Our results indicate that besides antibiosis resistance studies, it is essential to evaluate the morphological variability of grass genotypes when screening for resistance to insects. Further studies are needed to elucidate the intraspecific variability of Paspalum notatum Flüggé genotypes for resistance to spittlebug attack. PMID:27329631

  7. The Effect of Temperature Increases on an Ant-Hemiptera-Plant Interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagata, Katayo; Gibb, Heloise

    2016-01-01

    Global temperature increases are significantly altering species distributions and the structure of ecological communities. However, the impact of temperature increases on multi- species interactions is poorly understood. We used an ant-Hemiptera-plant interaction to examine the potential outcomes of predicted temperature increases for each partner and for the availability of honeydew, a keystone resource in many forest ecosystems. We re-created this interaction in growth cabinets using predicted mean summer temperatures for Melbourne, Australia, for the years 2011 (23°C), 2050 (25°C) and 2100 (29°C), respectively, under an unmitigated greenhouse gas emission scenario. Plant growth and ant foraging activities increased, while scale insect growth, abundance and size, honeydew standing crop per tree and harvesting by ants decreased at 29°C, relative to lower temperatures (23 and 25°C). This led to decreased scale insect infestations of plants and reduced honeydew standing crop per tree at the highest temperature. At all temperatures, honeydew standing crop was lower when ants harvested the honeydew from scale insects, but the impact of ant harvesting was particularly significant at 29°C, where combined effects of temperature and ants reduced honeydew standing crop to below detectable levels. Although temperature increases in the next 35 years will have limited effects on this system, by the end of this century, warmer temperatures may cause the availability of honeydew to decline. Decline of honeydew may have far-reaching trophic effects on honeydew and ant-mediated interactions. However, field-based studies that consider the full complexity of ecosystems may be required to elucidate these impacts. PMID:27434232

  8. Utilizing immunomarking techniques to track Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) movement and distribution within a peach orchard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaauw, Brett R; Jones, Vincent P; Nielsen, Anne L

    2016-01-01

    In this study we focus on the invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), which has a strong dispersal capacity and has had a significant impact on several cropping systems, including peach (Prunus persica (L.)). Management of H. halys has relied on intensive insecticide use, and thus a better understanding of its dispersal behavior may assist in developing improved management strategies. In order to investigate H. halys movement and distribution patterns within a peach orchard we applied ecologically safe, food protein markers to the trees along the orchard border (chicken egg albumin in the form of liquid egg whites) and to the trees within the orchard interior (bovine casein in the form of cow's milk). We used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) to assess whether collected H. halys were "marked" with either of the two protein markers, revealing where in the orchard the bugs had visited. From the density data we determined that H. halys is a perimeter-driven pest in peaches, with a significantly higher density of bugs collected along the orchard border. Interestingly, this trend is primarily driven by the distribution of male bugs. The protein marking data revealed that a small proportion of male H. halys move equally between the orchard border and interior, while a small proportion of females move predominately to the border after visiting the interior. The verification of a strong edge-effect, although potentially sex-specific, implies that H. halys displays a dispersal behavior that may also be exploited for management, which may help growers more efficiently and more effectively manage H. halys. PMID:27190711

  9. Biology of the Huanglongbing vector Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) on different host plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, G R; Diniz, A J F; Parra, J R P

    2014-04-01

    Although many studies have been conducted on the development and reproductive potential of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, 1908 (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in different host species, few have evaluated these parameters on different varieties of the same host species. This study evaluated the influence of five commercial varieties of citrus (Citrus spp. L.)--Hamlin, Natal, Pêra, Ponkan, and Valencia-and orange jasmine [Murraya exotica (L.) Jack] on the development of D. citri. Survival rates for the egg stage were highest on orange jasmine (85.7%) and on Valencia (83.3%). The lowest viability of the nymphal stage was also observed on Hamlin, averaging 57.4%. Values for total viability ranged from 65.9 to 32.6%, and were highest on Valencia. The longest egg-adult development time was on Natal, with a mean of 18.4 d; the shortest total development time was on orange jasmine, with a mean of 17.3 d. Based on the fertility life table, the net reproductive rate (Ro) of D. citri was 2.5 times higher when reared on Valencia than on Hamlin. The other parameters (duration of each generation [T], finite rate of increase [lambda], and innate capacity to increase in number [r(m)]) also demonstrated that Valencia is best suited to this insect. The results obtained for the biological parameters and the fertility life table indicate that Valencia and orange jasmine were the most suitable hosts, whereas Hamlin was least suitable for the development of D. citri. These results provide information for the installation of new citrus groves, especially in the choice of varieties to be planted and the location of different varieties within the groves, with a view toward the management of Huanglongbing or HLB.

  10. Influence of posttreatment temperature on the toxicity of insecticides against Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Salyani, Masoud; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2009-04-01

    The psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is one of the most important pests of citrus worldwide because it efficiently vectors three bacteria in the genus Candidatus Liberibacter that cause the devastating citrus greening disease (huanglongbing). Current management practices for this insect pest rely on multiple sprays of foliar insecticides and one or two applications of soil systemic insecticides per season. Effective psyllid and disease management in Florida requires insecticide applications throughout the entire season over wide ranging temperature and environmental conditions. Using a petri dish bioassay technique, the effect of posttreatment temperature (range, 17-37 degrees C) on the toxicity of selected organophosphate (chlorpyrifos and dimethoate), carbamate (carbaryl), avermectin (abamectin), pyrethroid (bifenthrin, zeta-cypermethrin, fenpropathrin, and lambda-cyhalothrin), and neonicotinoid (acetamiprid, imidacloprid, and thiamethoxam) insecticides was evaluated against adult D. citri. The toxicity of both organophosphates showed a positive temperature correlation within the 17-37 degrees C range. Similarly, carbaryl (carbamate) and abamectin (avermectin) exhibited increased toxicity with increasing temperature from 17 to 37 degrees C, with abamectin showing higher overall temperature-dependent toxicity against D. citri adults than carbaryl. With the exception of bifenthrin, which showed a positive temperature-dependent toxicity correlation between 27 and 37 degrees C, all other pyrethroids tested exhibited a negative correlation over the temperature range examined. The toxicity of fenpropathrin and lambda-cyhalothrin dramatically decreased with increasing temperature from 17 to 37 degrees C. The neonicotinoids imidacloprid and thiamethoxam exhibited a mixed response to increasing temperature, whereas acetamiprid showed a positive temperature correlation. However, all three neonicotinoids showed positive temperature-dependent toxicity

  11. Dispersion patterns and sampling plans for Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sétamou, Mamoudou; Flores, Daniel; French, J Victor; Hall, David G

    2008-08-01

    The abundance and spatial dispersion of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) were studied in 34 grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macfad.) and six sweet orange [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] orchards from March to August 2006 when the pest is more abundant in southern Texas. Although flush shoot infestation levels did not vary with host plant species, densities of D. citri eggs, nymphs, and adults were significantly higher on sweet orange than on grapefruit. D. citri immatures also were found in significantly higher numbers in the southeastern quadrant of trees than other parts of the canopy. The spatial distribution of D. citri nymphs and adults was analyzed using Iowa's patchiness regression and Taylor's power law. Taylor's power law fitted the data better than Iowa's model. Based on both regression models, the field dispersion patterns of D. citri nymphs and adults were aggregated among flush shoots in individual trees as indicated by the regression slopes that were significantly >1. For the average density of each life stage obtained during our surveys, the minimum number of flush shoots per tree needed to estimate D. citri densities varied from eight for eggs to four flush shoots for adults. Projections indicated that a sampling plan consisting of 10 trees and eight flush shoots per tree would provide density estimates of the three developmental stages of D. citri acceptable enough for population studies and management decisions. A presence-absence sampling plan with a fixed precision level was developed and can be used to provide a quick estimation of D. citri populations in citrus orchards.

  12. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Ming-Long; Zhang, Qi-Lin; Guo, Zhong-Long; Wang, Juan; Shen, Yu-Ying

    2015-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species) is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae), an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN) which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp). The control regions (CRs) among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp), making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp) within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68%) of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%), and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea)))). PMID:26042898

  13. DNA barcoding of common soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, X-B; Deng, J; Zhang, J-T; Zhou, Q-S; Zhang, Y-Z; Wu, S-A

    2015-10-01

    The soft scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae) are a group of sap-sucking plant parasites, many of which are notorious agricultural pests. The quarantine and economic importance of soft scales necessitates rapid and reliable identification of these taxa. Nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene (barcoding region) and 28S rDNA were generated from 340 individuals of 36 common soft scales in China. Distance-based [(best match, Automated Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD)], tree-based (neighbor-joining, Bayesian inference), Klee diagrams, and general mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC) models were used to evaluate barcoding success rates in the data set. Best match showed that COI and 28S sequences could provide 100 and 95.52% correct identification, respectively. The average interspecific divergences were 19.81% for COI data and 20.38% for 28S data, and mean intraspecific divergences were 0.56 and 0.07%, respectively. For COI data, multiple methods (ABGD, Klee, and tree-based methods) resulted in general congruence with morphological identifications. However, GMYC analysis tended to provide more molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs). Twelve MOTUs derived from five morphospecies (Rhodococcus sariuoni, Pulvinaria vitis, Pulvinaria aurantii, Parasaissetia nigra, and Ceroplastes rubens) were observed using the GMYC approach. In addition, tree-based methods showed that 28S sequences could be used for species-level identification (except for Ceroplastes ceriferus - Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus), even with low genetic variation (<1%). This report demonstrates the robustness of DNA barcoding for species discrimination of soft scales with two molecular markers (COI and 28S) and provides a reliable barcode library and rapid diagnostic tool for common soft scales in China. PMID:25989705

  14. The Complete Mitochondrial Genome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae and Phylogenetic Analysis of Pentatomomorpha.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Long Yuan

    Full Text Available Insect mitochondrial genome (mitogenome are the most extensively used genetic information for molecular evolution, phylogenetics and population genetics. Pentatomomorpha (>14,000 species is the second largest infraorder of Heteroptera and of great economic importance. To better understand the diversity and phylogeny within Pentatomomorpha, we sequenced and annotated the complete mitogenome of Corizus tetraspilus (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae, an important pest of alfalfa in China. We analyzed the main features of the C. tetraspilus mitogenome, and provided a comparative analysis with four other Coreoidea species. Our results reveal that gene content, gene arrangement, nucleotide composition, codon usage, rRNA structures and sequences of mitochondrial transcription termination factor are conserved in Coreoidea. Comparative analysis shows that different protein-coding genes have been subject to different evolutionary rates correlated with the G+C content. All the transfer RNA genes found in Coreoidea have the typical clover leaf secondary structure, except for trnS1 (AGN which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU arm and possesses a unusual anticodon stem (9 bp vs. the normal 5 bp. The control regions (CRs among Coreoidea are highly variable in size, of which the CR of C. tetraspilus is the smallest (440 bp, making the C. tetraspilus mitogenome the smallest (14,989 bp within all completely sequenced Coreoidea mitogenomes. No conserved motifs are found in the CRs of Coreoidea. In addition, the A+T content (60.68% of the CR of C. tetraspilus is much lower than that of the entire mitogenome (74.88%, and is lowest among Coreoidea. Phylogenetic analyses based on mitogenomic data support the monophyly of each superfamily within Pentatomomorpha, and recognize a phylogenetic relationship of (Aradoidea + (Pentatomoidea + (Lygaeoidea + (Pyrrhocoroidea + Coreoidea.

  15. POPULATION FLUCTUATION OF Empoasca sp. (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE IN A PHYSIC NUT CROP IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denisar Paggioli de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPhysic nut (Jatropha curcas L. is an oilseed, semi-evergreen shrub or small tree of the Euphorbiaceae family, whose seeds contain oil that can be processed into a high quality biofuel. However, there have been reports of arthropods feeding from its leaves, including the green leafhopper Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. The large numbers of this insect, observed in certain periods of the year in many regions of Brazil, are causing damage to the oilseed crops. This study aims at evaluating the fluctuation in green leafhopper population in a physic nut crop in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, to assess possible correlations with rainfall, maximum, average and minimum temperatures. This evaluation was conducted between March 2011 and July 2012. The largest Empoasca sp. populations were recorded in May and June, 2011, and between February and May, 2012. No significant correlation was observed between the weather parameters analyzed and the fluctuation in the Hemiptera population, but there was a trend toward higher population density during the warmer and rainier months.RESUMENEl piñón manso (Jatropha curcas L. es una oleaginosa de la familia Euphorbiaceae que se destaca por la producción de semillas cuyo aceite tiene características deseables para la producción de biocombustibles. Sin embargo, hay informes de algunos artrópodos que usan la planta como fuente de alimento, incluyendo la cigarrita verde Empoasca sp. (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae. La alta incidencia de este insecto se comprueba en varias regiones del Brasil, en ciertas épocas del año, causando lesiones a esta oleaginosa. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la fluctuación de la cigarrita verde en una plantación de piñón manso en Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, y la búsqueda de posibles correlaciones con las precipitaciones y las temperaturas máximas, medias y mínimas. Esta evaluación se realizó entre los meses de marzo 2011 hasta julio 2012. Poblaciones mayores

  16. Evaluating the suitability of Laricobius nigrinus Fender (Coleoptera: Derodontidae), a biological control agent for hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, Ashley B.

    2005-01-01

    Hemlock woolly adelgid (HWA), Adelges tsugae Annand (Hemiptera: Adelgidae), is an introduced pest injurious to hemlock trees (Tsuga spp.) in the eastern United States. HWA currently infests hemlock in over 50% of its geographic range and has the potential to spread throughout its entire range. Since HWA populations in the eastern United States are not regulated effectively by natural enemies (Wallace and Hain 2000), classical biological control is the most promising option for controlling t...

  17. Complete Genome Sequences of the Obligate Symbionts “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” from the Pestiferous Leafhopper Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbà, Simona; Kube, Michael; Marzachì, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Two bacterial symbionts of the European pest leafhopper, Macrosteles quadripunctulatus (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), were fully sequenced. “Candidatus Sulcia muelleri” and “Ca. Nasuia deltocephalinicola” represent two of the smallest known bacterial genomes at 190 kb and 112 kb, respectively. Genome sequences are nearly identical to strains reported from the closely related host species, M. quadrilineatus. PMID:26798106

  18. Stone Lakes Virus (Family Togaviridae, Genus Alphavirus), a Variant of Fort Morgan Virus Isolated From Swallow Bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) West of the Continental Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M. Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K.

    2009-01-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV)...

  19. Primer registro de Acerophagus griseus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae como parasitoide de Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae en el Alto Valle de Río Negro, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. AQUINO

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Se cita por primera vez la presencia de Acerophagus griseus (De Santis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae como parasitoide de ninfas y adultos de Pseudococcus viburni (Signoret (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae y se registra la zona de Alto Valle de Río Negro como nuevo registro de distribución en Argentina. Se brinda una diagnosis y se ilustran los caracteres morfológicos de A. griseus.

  20. Triatoma boliviana sp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) de los valles subandinos de La Paz - Bolivia, similar a Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Avandano, Eddy; Chávez Espada, Tamara; Sossa Gil, Dino; Aranda Asturizaga, Roberto; Vargas Mamani, Benigno; Vidaurre Pietro, Pablo

    2007-01-01

    Triatoma bolivianasp. n. (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) from Sub Andean valleys of La Paz - Bolivia, related to Triatoma nigromaculata Stål, 1859. We present the description of Triatoma boliviana sp. n. based on morphological external characters of 3 males and 3 females following the keys of Lent and Wygodzinsky (1979) and Carcavallo et al. (1997). The new species are very similar to Triatoma nigromaculata and was captured in Sub Andean valleys from Muñecas Province, Department of La Pa...

  1. Rôle des ennemis naturels dans la lutte biologique contre le puceron cendré, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera aphididae) en vergers de pommiers

    OpenAIRE

    Dib, Hazem

    2010-01-01

    In the current political and social context (reduced use of pesticides), there is a need for the development of alternative solutions to control the rosy apple aphid, Dysaphis plantaginea Passerini (Hemiptera : Aphididae), especially in organic farming. One of these alternatives is the increased and improved use of natural enemies against this pest. In this thesis, we provided some elements of responses regarding this problem in term of research study and technical application. Based on weekl...

  2. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Kondo, Takumasa; Muñoz, Jazmín Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of avocado, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) were collected in the State of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. The study was conducted for one year, during October 2008–October 2009. As a result of this study, 34 scale insect species in seven families (Coccidae, Diaspididae, Kerriidae, Margarodidae, Monophlebidae, Pseudococcidae and Putoidae) were collected. Together with previous records, the number of scale insects collected on avocado in Colombia increa...

  3. An independently evolved mutualism among ants (Myrmicinae Pheidole terramorium and Paratrechina longicornis), sea hibiscus (Hibiscus tiliaceus) and Hemiptera: an invader-invader mutualism and invasion meltdown

    OpenAIRE

    Thayer, Lesley K

    2011-01-01

     The role of mutualisms among invasive species in facilitating invasions remains relatively unexplored. Yet such interactions have high potential to alter intact community composition and function due to their positive fitness effects on the species involved. The following study explores an interaction that evolved independently among naturalized hibiscus and invasive ants and Hemiptera that colonized the island of Mo’orea, French Polynesia centuries apart.  For this study, a geographic surve...

  4. Hallazgo de Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae en el estado brasileño de "Rio Grande do Sul" Finding of Triatoma platensis Neiva, 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae in the Brazilian State of "Rio Grande do Sul"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Salvatella

    1991-02-01

    Full Text Available Triatoma platensis Neiva 1913 (Hemiptera, Triatominae, especie ornitófila, con área de dispersión conocida en Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay y Uruguay es notificada en un primer registro para Brasil. Hallada en el municipio de Uruguaiana (Río Grande do Sul en nidos de Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae donde cohabitaba con cricétidos de la especie Orizomys flavescens. Ningún ejemplar de los siete colectados se presentó infectado por Trypanosoma cruzi.Triatoma platensis, an ornitophilic species, found in Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay is reported for the first time in Brazil. It was found in the county of Uruguaiana (Rio Grande do Sul in nests of Anumbius annumbi (Vieillot, 1817 (Passeriformes, Furnariidae where it cohabited with cricetids belonging to the species Orizomys flavescens. None of the seven individuals collected were infected by Trypanosoma cruzi.

  5. NUEVO REGISTRO DE Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae EN GUAYABO Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae EN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA NEW REGISTRATION OF Greenidea ficicola Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae IN GUAVA Psidium guajava (Myrtaceae IN ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Darío David Giraldo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Se encuentra por primera vez en el departamento de Antioquia (Colombia y asociado al guayabo (Psidium guajava L., la especie Greenidea ficicola Takahashi ( Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae colectada durante muestreos intensivos realizados durante el primer semestre de 2008 en el Valle de Aburrá y municipios aledaños. Dicha especie de áfido también fue colectada en falso laurel (Ficus benjamina. Dada la importancia que tienen los frutos de guayabo en la alimentación humana y de los animales domésticos en Colombia, es necesario registrar esta especie con el fin de tomar medidas en lo referente a programas de muestreo de sus poblaciones, estudio de su ciclo de vida y determinar los posibles controladores biológicos, que conduzcan al mejor conocimiento de este insecto y faciliten la toma de medidas de contención a su dispersión en el país.It is founded for the first time, the species of aphid Greenidea ficicola, Takahashi (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Aphididae in the Antioquia Department (Colombia associated to guava plants (Psidium guajava L.. The species was collected during intensive sampling done during the first semester of 2008, in the Aburra Valley and near municipalities. The species of aphid was also collected on "false laurel" (Ficus benjamina. Due to the importance of guava as food for humans as well as wild and domestic animals, it is considered important to report this species so that contention measures can be taken specially related with more sampling, life cycle and potential biological control agents to get to know better this pest and control its spread in the country.

  6. First report of Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Costa, V A; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2016-02-01

    Lecanodiaspis dendrobii Douglas, 1892 (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Lecanodiaspididae) and the associated parasitoid Cephaleta sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae) are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of this scale insect were collected on branches and stems of Acacia mangium Willd., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit (Fabaceae), Morus nigra L. (Moraceae), Citrus reticulata Blanco (Rutaceae), Tectona grandis L. f. (Verbenaceae), Anacardium occidentale (Anacardiaceae), Annona squamosa L. and Xylopia aromatica (Lam.) Mart. (Annonaceae), in three municipalities of the Roraima state. All plants here mentioned are recorded for the first time as a host for L. dendrobii. Morphological characters of L. dendrobii and symptoms presented by the host plants infested by this pest are included in this work. PMID:26871743

  7. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season. PMID:23448042

  8. A new species of the genus Eurhadina Haupt (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Korea, with a key to Korean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sumin; Lim, Jongok; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Eurhadina Haupt, 1929 belongs to the tribe Typhlocybini of subfamily Typhlocybinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae). Currently, genus Eurhadina includes 3 subgenera, Eurhadina Haupt 1929, Singhardina Mahmood 1967, Zhihadina Yang & Li 1991. A total of 20 valid species of subgenus Eurhadina have been described in the Nearctic and Palaearctic region and the subgenus Singhardina includes 57 species in the Oriental and Palaearctic region (Huang & Zhang 1999, Dworakowska 2002). The subgenus Zhihadina includes only 1 species from China (Yang & Lee, 1991). So far, four species of subgenus Eurhadina were recorded in the Korean Peninsula (Kwon & Huh 2001): Eurhadina (Eurhadina) betularia Anufriev, 1969, E. (E.) koreana Dworakowska, 1971, E. (E.) pulchella (Fallen, 1806), and E. (E.) wagneri Dworakowska, 1969. The majority of species belonging to the subgenus Eurhadina are difficult to distinguish by external appearance because the color patterns of the forewings are very similar among species. PMID:27394615

  9. Morphology of the European species of the aphid genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae) - A SEM comparative and integrative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanturski, Mariusz; Karcz, Jagna; Wieczorek, Karina

    2015-09-01

    Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods were used for the first time to elucidate the external morphology of the European species of the genus Eulachnus (Hemiptera: Aphididae: Lachninae), a representative genus of the conifer-feeding aphids tribe Eulachnini. We examined and compared the external morphology of apterous and alate viviparous females from the parthenogenetic generation as well as oviparous females and alate males belonging to the sexual generation. FE-SEM images based on HMDS and cryo-SEM preparation techniques revealed better image quality than the CPD technique in regard to surface tension and morphological signs of cell deteriorations (i.e., existence of depressions, drying artifacts and membrane blebs). Three morphologically different species groups "agilis", "brevipilosus" and "cembrae" were proposed due to the differences in head, antennae, legs and dorsal chaetotaxy as well as dorsal sclerotization. The most characteristic features and differences of representatives of these groups are presented and discussed.

  10. Differences in bacterial diversity of host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, R F; Nachappa, P; Tamborindeguy, C

    2011-04-01

    Host-associated differentiation (HAD) is the presence of genetically divergent, host-associated populations. It has been suggested that microbial symbionts of insect herbivores may play a role in HAD by allowing their insect hosts to use different plant species. The objective of this study was to document if host-associated populations of Phylloxera notabilis Pergande (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae) in pecan and water hickory corresponded with differences in the composition of their associated bacteria. To test this hypothesis, we characterized the symbionts present in P. notabilis associated with these two tree species through metagenomic analyses using 454 sequencing. Differences in bacterial diversity were found between P. notabilis populations associated with pecan and water hickory. The bacteria, Pantoea agglomerans and Serratia marcescens, were absent in the P. notabilis water hickory population, whereas both species accounted for more than 69.72% of bacterial abundance in the pecan population. PMID:21261774

  11. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C.; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species. PMID:27199595

  12. Description of a new soft scale insect of the genus Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Coccidae from Bogota, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotaka Tanaka

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new soft scale (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Coccidae species, Pulvinaria caballeroramosae Tanaka & Kondo, sp. n., is described from specimens collected on twigs of Ficus soatensis Dugand (Moraceae in Bogota, Colombia. The new species resembles P. drymiswinteri Kondo & Gullan, described from Chile on Drimys winteri J.R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Winteraceae, but differs in the distribution of preopercular pores on the dorsum, the presence of dorsal tubular ducts, dorsal microducts, and reticulation on the anal plates; and in its feeding habits, i.e., P. caballeroramosae feeds on the twigs whereas P. drymiswinteri feeds on the leaves of its host. A key to the Colombian species of Pulvinaria Targioni Tozzetti is provided.

  13. Evaluation of efficacy of 18 strains of entomopathogenic nematodes (Rhabditida) against Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under laboratory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa Negrisoli, Carla Ruth de Carvalho; Negrisoli Júnior, Aldomario Santo; Botton, Marcos; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Bernardi, Daniel

    2013-07-01

    Planococcus citri (Risso, 1813) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) is an important plant virus vector in grapevine crops in Brazil and other countries. The mealybug grows in roots and leaves of the grapes. Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are efficient control agents against insects associated to the soil and could be applied with the same equipment used for chemical insecticides. The aim of this study was to select effective EPNs for controlling P. citri females in laboratory conditions (25±1°C, UR 60±10%). We tested 17 native [Steinernema rarum (6 strains), Steinernema glaseri, Steinernema feltiae, Steinernema riobrave, Steinernema sp., Heterorhabditis bacteriophora (7 strains)] and only one exotic strain (Steinernema carpocapsae ALL). The bioassays were done on Petri dishes infested with females of P. citri, which were sprayed with EPNs juveniles. The strain with larger pathogenicity and virulence in laboratory was H. bacteriophora RS33 (from 69.0% to 92.2% of mortality), native of Rio Grande do Sul.

  14. Host plant preference of harlequin bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), and evaluation of a trap cropping strategy for its control in collard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, Anna K; Kuhar, Thomas P; Pfeiffer, Douglas G; Tholl, Dorothea B; Freeman, Joshua H; Doughty, Hélène B; Schultz, Peter B

    2013-02-01

    Harlequin bug, Murgantia histrionica (Hahn) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is a piercing-sucking pest of cole crops, causing cosmetic damage in low populations, while heavy pest pressure can kill plants or entire fields. Field studies were conducted to evaluate a trap crop for control of harlequin bug in collard. Field-cage choice tests found that potential trap crop plant species, mustard (Brassica juncea 'Southern Giant Curled'), rapeseed (B. napus 'Athena'), rapini (B. rapa), and arugula (Eruca satica) attracted more harlequin bugs than collard (B. oleracea 'Champion') and a nonbrassica control, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris'Bronco'). Mustard was the most consistently selected by harlequin bug over collard in choice tests, and was found to be an effective trap crop for reducing feeding injury on collard at two experimental sites. Augmentation of the mustard trap crop with a systemic, neonicotinoid insecticide provided no added control of harlequin bug for the 10 wk duration in the spring season.

  15. A new species of the genus Eurhadina Haupt (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae: Typhlocybinae) from Korea, with a key to Korean species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sumin; Lim, Jongok; Jung, Sunghoon

    2016-01-01

    The leafhopper genus Eurhadina Haupt, 1929 belongs to the tribe Typhlocybini of subfamily Typhlocybinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadellidae). Currently, genus Eurhadina includes 3 subgenera, Eurhadina Haupt 1929, Singhardina Mahmood 1967, Zhihadina Yang & Li 1991. A total of 20 valid species of subgenus Eurhadina have been described in the Nearctic and Palaearctic region and the subgenus Singhardina includes 57 species in the Oriental and Palaearctic region (Huang & Zhang 1999, Dworakowska 2002). The subgenus Zhihadina includes only 1 species from China (Yang & Lee, 1991). So far, four species of subgenus Eurhadina were recorded in the Korean Peninsula (Kwon & Huh 2001): Eurhadina (Eurhadina) betularia Anufriev, 1969, E. (E.) koreana Dworakowska, 1971, E. (E.) pulchella (Fallen, 1806), and E. (E.) wagneri Dworakowska, 1969. The majority of species belonging to the subgenus Eurhadina are difficult to distinguish by external appearance because the color patterns of the forewings are very similar among species.

  16. First Findings in the Route of the Maize Bushy Stunt Phytoplasma Within Its Vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J García; Ossamu Tanaka, F A; Spotti Lopes, J R

    2016-04-01

    In the pathosystem of Dalbulus madis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP), the interactions occurring during the passage, invasion, and multiplication of the phytoplasma inside the vector body have been generalized from other pathosystems, with a poor understanding of the specific interactions. With the aim to understand MBSP movement and potential specific interactions with its vector, D. maidis adults were dissected to obtain the intestine and salivary gland of both infected (acquisition access period=4 d; latent period=23 d) and noninfected individuals. The organs were processed for visualization with transmission electronic microscopy. Images of phytoplasma cells were observed in the alimentary canal, epithelium of the mesenteron, hemocele, and salivary gland of the vector, and were confirmed through observation of similar cells in maize roots with advanced disease symptoms. The study of the MBSP movement within its vector shows novel findings between the synergy of the MBSP phytoplasma and D. maidis.

  17. Predation potential of Chilocorus cacti (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) to the prickly pear cacti pest Dactylopius opuntiae (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores, A; Olvera, H; Rodríguez, S; Barranco, J

    2013-08-01

    Functional response of the predator Chilocorus cacti (Linnaeus) (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) on five densities of Dactylopius opuntiae (Cockerell) (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) female adults was assessed under laboratory conditions. The searching efficiency of C. cacti significantly decreased as prey density increased. The logistic regression for the predator had a negative and significant linear parameter indicating a type II functional response. Non-linear regression for Holling predator equation estimated a handling time of 1.79 ± 0.129 h and attack rate coefficient of 0.1003 ± 0.030. Most of this handling time was because the predator spent a lot of time removing the waxy coating that protects adult females of D. opuntiae. Chilocorus cacti consumes females of D. opuntiae in their reproductive stage; therefore, it could be an effective natural enemy to suppress or regulate low density populations of D. opuntiae, preventing them to reach high densities. PMID:23949861

  18. Three new species of mealybug (Hemiptera, Coccomorpha, Pseudococcidae) on persimmon fruit trees (Diospyros kaki) in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco da Silva, Vitor C; Kaydan, Mehmet Bora; Germain, Jean-François; Malausa, Thibaut; Botton, Marcos

    2016-01-01

    Brazil has the greatest insect diversity in the world; however, little is known about its scale insect species (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha). Mealybugs (Pseudococcidae) have been found in at least 50% of persimmon orchards Diospyros kaki L. in the southern part of the country. In this study three new mealybug species on persimmon trees located in the Serra Gaúcha Region, RS, Brazil, namely, Anisococcus granarae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n., Ferrisia kaki Kaydan & Pacheco da Silva, sp. n. and Pseudococcus rosangelae Pacheco da Silva & Kaydan, sp. n. are described. In addition, an identification key for the genera occurring on fruit orchards and vineyards in Brazil is provided, together with illustrations and molecular data for the new species.

  19. Coccophagus scutellaris (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae: A Highly Effective Biological Control Agent of Soft Scale Insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaaban Abd-Rabou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available About 953000 individuals of the cosmopolitan parasitoid, Coccophagus scutellaris (Dalman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae, were released and evaluated during 2009-2010 for the control of the following soft scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccidae infesting the following economic crops in Egypt: Ceroplastes rusci on citrus in Beni Seuf, Ceroplastes floridensis Comstock on citrus in Gharbiya, Coccus hesperidum L. on guava in Giza, Pulvinaria floccifera (Westwood on mango in Sharqiya, Pulvinaria psidii Maskell on mango in Ismailia, Saissetia coffeae (Walker on olive in Marsa Matruh, and Saissetia oleae (Oliver on olive in the Northern Coast. The population of C. scutellaris showed a significant correlation with the build up of the population of the soft scale insects population in all of the release sites studied. The maximum rate of parasitism of the other species of parasitoids associated with soft scale insects at the release sites decreased after the release of C. scutellaris.

  20. Nuclear rDNA-based molecular clock of the evolution of triatominae (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, vectors of Chagas disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bargues MD

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolutionary history and times of divergence of triatomine bug lineages are estimated from molecular clocks inferred from nucleotide sequences of the small subunit SSU (18S and the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA of these reduviids. The 18S rDNA molecular clock rate in Triatominae, and Prosorrhynchan Hemiptera in general, appears to be of 1.8% per 100 million years (my. The ITS-2 molecular clock rate in Triatominae is estimated to be around 0.4-1% per 1 my, indicating that ITS-2 evolves 23-55 times faster than 18S rDNA. Inferred chronological data about the evolution of Triatominae fit well with current hypotheses on their evolutionary histories, but suggest reconsideration of the current taxonomy of North American species complexes.

  1. Composição e preferência por microhábitat de imaturos de Odonata (Insecta em um trecho de baixada do Rio Ubatiba, Maricá-RJ, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana C. F. de Assis

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available No período de maio de 1999 a maio de 2000 foram efetuadas coletas de imaturos de Odonata (Insecta, em sete diferentes substratos, ao longo de 50 metros de um trecho do Rio Ubatiba, Maricá, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Um total de 1.279 larvas de Odonata foi coligido e identificado em 27 espécies de cinco famílias. Acanthagrion lancea (Selys, 1876, Hetaerina auripennis (Burmeister, 1839, Micrathyria hesperis Ris, 1911 e Telebasis filiola (Perty, 1834 foram as espécies mais numerosas. O substrato com o maior número de indivíduos foi "vegetação em áreas de remanso". Grande parte das espécies estudadas demonstrou preferência por algum dos substratos. Dythemis multipunctata Kirby,1894, Erythrodiplax sp., M. hesperis, T. filiola, A. lancea, Erythemis sp., Coryphaeschna adnexa (Hagen, 1861 e H. auripennis demonstraram preferência por substratos orgânicos, enquanto que Brechmorhoga sp., B. praeCOX (Hagen, 1869 e Progomphus complicatus (Selys, 1854, por inorgânicos.Composition and microhabitat preferences of Odonata (Insecta immatures in a lowland section of the Rio Ubatiba, Maricá-RJ, Brazil. Monthly sampling was held from May, 1999 to May, 2000 in the Rio Ubatiba, a lowland river situated at Maricá district, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Seven different substrates were collected along fifty meters. A total of 1,279 larvae of Odonata were collected and identified in 27 species, belonging to five families. The most numerous species were Acanthagrion lancea (Selys, 1876, Hetaerina auripennis (Burmeister, 1839, Micrathyria hesperis Ris, 1911 and Telebasis filiola (Perty, 1834. The greatest number of individuals were found in "riparian plants in depositional areas". In general, the species recorded showed habitat preferences: Dythemis multipunctata Kirby, 1894, Erythrodiplax sp., M. hesperis, T. filiola, A. lancea, Erythemis sp., Coryphaeschna adnexa (Hagen, 1861 and H. auripennis seem to prefer organic substrates and Brechmorhoga sp., B. prae

  2. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount. PMID:26470267

  3. Comparison of Relative Bias, Precision, and Efficiency of Sampling Methods for Natural Enemies of Soybean Aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bannerman, J A; Costamagna, A C; McCornack, B P; Ragsdale, D W

    2015-06-01

    Generalist natural enemies play an important role in controlling soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America. Several sampling methods are used to monitor natural enemy populations in soybean, but there has been little work investigating their relative bias, precision, and efficiency. We compare five sampling methods: quadrats, whole-plant counts, sweep-netting, walking transects, and yellow sticky cards to determine the most practical methods for sampling the three most prominent species, which included Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and Orius insidiosus (Say) (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae). We show an important time by sampling method interaction indicated by diverging community similarities within and between sampling methods as the growing season progressed. Similarly, correlations between sampling methods for the three most abundant species over multiple time periods indicated differences in relative bias between sampling methods and suggests that bias is not consistent throughout the growing season, particularly for sticky cards and whole-plant samples. Furthermore, we show that sticky cards produce strongly biased capture rates relative to the other four sampling methods. Precision and efficiency differed between sampling methods and sticky cards produced the most precise (but highly biased) results for adult natural enemies, while walking transects and whole-plant counts were the most efficient methods for detecting coccinellids and O. insidiosus, respectively. Based on bias, precision, and efficiency considerations, the most practical sampling methods for monitoring in soybean include walking transects for coccinellid detection and whole-plant counts for detection of small predators like O. insidiosus. Sweep-netting and quadrat samples are also useful for some applications, when efficiency is not paramount.

  4. Nymphal and adult performance of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), as a potential alternative host for egg parasitoids multiplication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peres, Wilsimar A.A. [Universidade Federal do Parana, Curitiba, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Zoologia; Correa-Ferreira, Beatriz S. [EMBRAPA, Londrina, PR (Brazil). Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Soja

    2001-12-15

    This research aimed to evaluate the potential of Euschistus heros (Fabr.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) as host for multiplication of egg parasitoids, by determining the nymphal and adult performance of E. heros from laboratory and the field, comparing with Nezara viridula (L.) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), under mass conditions. One hundred eggs of E. heros and N. viridula were placed among the leaves of soybean plants contained in cages (50x50x70 cm) and observation were made until adult emergence. The nymphs fed on soybean pods, dry soybean and peanuts seeds. The number of nymphs that reached adulthood and the development time were calculated. The survivorship and reproduction performance of laboratory and field populations of E. heros and N. viridula were evaluated during 13 weeks in February-May 1999. The number of eggs produced by 100 pairs of stink bugs per cage containing the same diet was recorded. Nymphal development time of E. heros and N. viridula was 33.0 and 34.0 days and 65.0% and 71.3% of nymphs reached adulthood, respectively. Adults of E. heros reared under laboratory conditions produced 2.5 times more eggs (5547.0 eggs/cage) than those collected in the field (2262.7 eggs/cage). The adult field population of E. heros had reduced reproduction and longevity due to parasitism by Hexacladia smithii Ash. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae). The N. viridula adults collected in the field produced 1.7 times more eggs (6304.9 eggs/cage) than those reared in the laboratory (3609.2 eggs/cage). E. heros laboratory reared is a promising host for egg parasitoids multiplication when compared with N. viridula collected in the field. (author)

  5. Temperature-Dependent Fecundity and Life Table of the Fennel Aphid Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco S Ramalho

    Full Text Available Hyadaphis foeniculi (Passerini (Hemiptera: Aphididae is a cosmopolitan species and the main pest of fennel in northeastern Brazil. Understanding the relationship between temperature variations and the population growth rates of H. foeniculi is essential to predict the population dynamics of this aphid in the fennel crop. The aim of this study was to measure the effect of constant temperature on the adult prereproductive period and the life table fertility parameters (infinitesimal increase ratio (rm, gross reproduction rate (GRR, net reproduction rate (R0, finite increase ratio (λ, generation time (GT, the time required for the population to double in the number of individuals (DT, and the reproduction value (RVx of the fennel pest H. foeniculi. The values of lx (survival of nymphs at age x increased as the temperature rose from 15 to 28°C and fell at 30°C, whereas mx (number of nymphs produced by each nymph of age x increased from 15 to 25°C and fell at 28 and 30°C. The net reproduction rates (R0 of populations of H. foeniculi increased with temperature and ranged from 1.9 at 15°C to 12.23 at 28°C for each generation. The highest population increase occurred with the apterous aphids at 28°C. The rate of population increase per unit time (rm (day ranged from 0.0033 (15°C to 0.1995 (28°C. The highest values of rm were recorded at temperatures of 28°C and 30°C. The rm values were a good fit to the models tested, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The models tested (Davidson, Sharpe and DeMichele modified by Schoolfield et al., Logan et al., Lamb, and Briere et al. were very good fits for the rm values observed, with R2 > 0.91 and R2adj > 0.88. The only exception was the Davidson model. Of the parameters studied, the reproductive capacity was higher in the apterous aphids, with the unique exception of daily fecundity at 28°C, which was higher in the alate aphids of H. foeniculi. Parameters relating to the age-specific fertility table for

  6. Inventory and assessment of foliar natural enemies of the soybean aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in South Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesler, Louis S

    2014-06-01

    Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a major pest of soybean in northern production regions of North America, and insecticides have been the primary management approach while alternative methods are developed. Knowledge of arthropod natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is critical for developing biological control as a management tool. Soybean is a major field crop in South Dakota, but information about its natural enemies and their impact on soybean aphid is lacking. Thus, this study was conducted in field plots in eastern South Dakota during July and August of 2004 and 2005 to characterize foliar-dwelling, arthropod natural enemies of soybean aphid, and it used exclusion techniques to determine impact of natural enemies and ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) on soybean aphid densities. In open field plots, weekly soybean aphid densities reached a plateau of several hundred aphids per plant in 2004, and peaked at roughly 400 aphids per plant in 2005. Despite these densities, a relatively high frequency of aphid-infested plants lacked arthropod natural enemies. Lady beetles (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) were most abundant, peaking at 90 and 52% of all natural enemies sampled in respective years, and Harmonia axyridis Pallas was the most abundant lady beetle. Green lacewings (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae) were abundant in 2005, due mainly to large numbers of their eggs. Abundances of arachnids and coccinellid larvae correlated with soybean aphid densities each year, and chrysopid egg abundance was correlated with aphid density in 2005. Three-week cage treatments of artificially infested soybean plants in 2004 showed that noncaged plants had fewer soybean aphids than caged plants, but abundance of soybean aphid did not differ among open cages and ones that provided partial or total exclusion of natural enemies. In 2005, plants within open cages had fewer soybean aphids than those within cages that excluded natural enemies, and aphid

  7. Analysis of the Geographical Distribution of Gerridae (Hemiptera, Gerromorpha in the Andes of Southwestern Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Nancy Padilla Gil

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We present the geographical and altitudinal distribution of the Gerridae family on the western slopes of the Western Cordillera of Andes in southwestern Colombia. The specimens were captured in different water bodies, eight sampling sites, during 2009 and 2010. Taxonomic composition was analyzed with respect to geographical and altitudinal range, biomes and the similarity between areas. The geographical distribution of the Gerridae is related to geographic area, foothills and Plain Pacific, altitudinal range (0-2000 masl and features of type of biome. The communities of Gerridae from Pacific Plain are in the same zonobioma but differ in taxonomic composition due to differences in water bodies and microhabitats own. On the other hand we show the inverse relationship between altitude and species richness. ANÁLISIS DE LA DISTRIBUCIÓN GEOGRÁFICA DE LAS GERRIDAE (HEMIPTERA, GERROMORPHA EN LOS ANDES DEL SUROESTE DE COLOMBIA Se presentan la distribución geográfica y altitudinal las Gerridae en la vertiente occidental de la Cordillera Occidental, suroccidente de los Andes de Colombia. La captura de especimenes se realizó en cuerpos de agua en ocho sitios de muestreo, durante los años 2009 y 2010. Se analizó la composición taxonómica respecto al rango geográfico y altitudinal, los biomas y la similitud entre áreas. La distribución geográfica de las Gerridae esta relacionada con el área geográfica, rango altitudinal (0-2000m y tipo de bioma. Las especies de la Planicie del Pacífico a pesar de encontrarse en el mismo Zonobioma difieren en su composición taxonómica debido a diferencias en los cuerpos de agua y michohábitats característicos. Se evidencia la relación inversa entre la altitud y la riqueza de especies.

  8. Updated check-list of iberian-balearic Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Prieto, Francisca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The check-list of species in the Tribe Aphidini (Hemiptera, Aphididae: Aphidinae recorded to date from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Isles is presented, 139 species are listed. A list of the countries (Andorra, Spain and Portugal and provinces (Spanish or districts (Portuguese where each species and subspecies is known is also included. Five species are mentioned for the first time in Iberian-Balearic territory: Aphis callunae Theobald, A. comosa (Börner, A. lantanae Koch (with the subspecies A. lantanae coriaria Börner, A. erigerontis Holman and Schizaphis longicaudata Hille Ris Lambers. Nine species have been removed from the check-list: Aphis euphorbiae Kaltenbach, A. genistae Scopoli, A. pilosellae (Börner, A. salsolae (Börner, A. striata Hille Ris Lambers, Brachyunguis zygophylli (Nevsky, B. suaedus (Paik, Protaphis centaurea (Gómez-Menor and Schizaphis pilipes (Ossiannilsson. Aphis ruborum Börner & Schilder, 1931 is recognized as the valid name for Aphis ruborum Börner, 1932 syn. nov. and Rhopalosiphum oxyacanthae (Schrank for Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walker. Two new combinations are established: Xerobion blascoi comb. nov. for Aphis blascoi García Prieto & Sanchís Segovia and Xerobion brutii comb. nov. for Absinthaphis brutii Barbagallo. Five binomens have been re-established: A. althaeae (Nevsky, A. ballotae Passerini, A. longirostris (Börner, A. ononidis (Schouteden and A. picridis (Börner to replace A. davletshinae Hille Ris Lambers, A. balloticola Szelegiewicz, A. longirostrata Hille Ris Lambers, A. kaltenbachi Hille Ris Lambers and A. stroyani Szelegiewicz, respectively. The life cycle of Aphis stachydis Mordvilko is given and its males and oviparous females are described. Taxonomic

  9. Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt Spatial distribution of Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae and Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biotype B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae on Bt and non-Bt cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Rojas Rodrigues

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Distribuição espacial de Aphis gossypii (Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae e Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius biótipo B (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae em algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt. O estudo da distribuição espacial de adultos de Bemisia tabaci e de Aphis gossypii nas culturas do algodoeiro Bt e não-Bt é fundamental para a otimização de técnicas de amostragens, além de revelar diferenças de comportamento de espécies não-alvo dessa tecnologia Bt entre as duas cultivares. Nesse sentido, o experimento buscou investigar o padrão da distribuição espacial dessas espécies de insetos no algodoeiro convencional não-Bt e no cultivar Bt. As avaliações ocorreram em dois campos de 5.000 m² cada, nos quais se realizou 14 avaliações com contagem de adultos da mosca-branca e colônias de pulgões. Foram calculados os índices de agregação (razão variância/média, índice de Morisita e Expoente k da Distribuição Binomial Negativa e realizados os testes ajustes das classes numéricas de indivíduos encontradas e esperadas às distribuições teóricas de freqüência (Poisson, Binomial Negativa e Binomial Positiva. Todas as análises mostraram que, em ambas as cultivares, a distribuição espacial de B. tabaci ajustou-se a distribuição binomial negativa durante todo o período analisado, indicando que a cultivar transgênica não influenciou o padrão de distribuição agregada desse inseto. Já com relação às análises para A. gossypii, os índices de agregação apontaram distribuição agregada nas duas cultivares, mas as distribuições de freqüência permitiram concluir a ocorrência de distribuição agregada apenas no algodoeiro convencional, pois não houve nenhum ajuste para os dados na cultivar Bt. Isso indica que o algodão Bt alterou o padrão normal de dispersão dos pulgões no cultivo.The study of spatial distribution of the adults of Bemisia tabaci and the colonies of Aphis gossypii on Bt and non-Bt cotton crop is fundamental for

  10. Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enide Luciana Lima Belmont

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Leptohyphidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera do Estado do Amazonas, Brasil: novos registros, nova combinação, nova espécie e chave de identificação para estágios ninfais. Os seguintes gêneros de Leptohyphidae ocorrem no estado do Amazonas: Amanahyphes Salles & Molineri, Leptohyphes Eaton, Tricorythodes Ulmer e Tricorythopsis Traver. A distribuição das espécies de Leptohyphidae no Estado do Amazonas é apresentada. Uma espécie nova, Tricorythodes yapekuna sp. nov., é descrita e pode ser diferenciada de outros Tricorythodes pelas (1 garras tarsais com um par de dentículos submarginais e sem dentículos marginais; (2 palpo maxilar biarticulado; (3 brânquia opercular uniformemente preta com exceção da margem apical; (4 fórmula branquial 2/3/3/3/2; e (5 margem lateral do abdome expandida nos segmentos III_VI. Uma combinação nova, Tricorythopsis rondoniensis (Dias, Cruz & Ferreira, 2009 comb. nov., é proposta e constitui o primeiro registro dessa espécie para o Estado do Amazonas. Uma chave dicotômica ilustrada para identificar ninfas de gêneros e espécies ocorrentes no Amazonas também é apresentada.

  11. Controle químico da forma galícola da filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae na cultura da videira Chemical control of grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 leaf form (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae on vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available A filoxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae é considerada a principal praga da videira. O inseto se alimenta da parte aérea e raízes sendo que os maiores prejuízos são observados em raízes de Vitis vinifera cultivada como pé-franco. O dano nas folhas é importante em viveiros, quando o ataque ocorre nos ramos utilizados como porta-enxertos, resistentes à forma radícola. Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de selecionar inseticidas que possam ser empregados como substitutos aos fosforados e piretróides no manejo da forma galícola da filoxera. Os inseticidas imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, acephate, abamectin, deltamethrin e fenitrothion, foram avaliados em condições de campo, sob infestação natural, em plantas matrizes do porta-enxerto Paulsen 1103. Imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 40mL 100L-1 e thiamethoxam (Actara 250 WG, 30g 100L-1 reduziram as injúrias causadas pela forma galícola da filoxera nos ponteiros em nível superior a 90%, proporcionando controle superior aos inseticidas deltamethrin (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1 e fenitrothion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150 mL/100L considerados referência no controle do inseto. Os inseticidas acephate (Orthene 750 BR, 100g 100L-1 e abamectin (Vertimec 18 CE, 80mL 100L-1 não foram eficientes.Grape phylloxera Daktulosphaira vitifoliae (Fitch, 1856 (Hemiptera: Phylloxeridae is the main grape pest. Adults and nymphs feeds on leaves and roots but major damage is observed on roots of own rooted Vitis vinifera. Damage on leaves is important in root stock nurseries where chemical control is necessary. This study was conducted to evaluate insecticides to control the leaf form in a Paulsen 1103 nursery in field condictions. Imidacloprid (Provado 200 SC, 40mL 100L-1 and thiamethoxam (Actara 250 WG, 30g 100L-1 reduced foliar damage in more than 90%, providing better control than deltamethrin (Decis 25 CE, 40mL 100L-1 and fenitrothion (Sumithion 500 CE, 150mL 100L-1 current

  12. Efeito da cobertura vegetal sobre a pérola-da-terra (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira = Effect of cover crops on brazilian ground pearl (Hemiptera: Margarodidae in vineyards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Botton

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O uso da cobertura vegetal em vinhedos é uma prática empregada paraminimizar a erosão e melhorar as qualidades químicas e físicas do solo. Neste trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito de coberturas vegetais sobre a população da pérola-da-terra Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae na cultura da videira. No primeiro experimento, o vinhedo foi mantido sem cobertura vegetal por meio da aplicação trimestral do herbicida glifosato comparado com o uso de vegetação espontânea, durante o ano, de vegetação espontânea, no verão, e de aveia preta no inverno. No segundo experimento foi avaliado o efeito da mucuna-preta (Stizolobium aterrimum cultivada no vinhedo durante o verão comparado com a vegetação espontânea. No primeiro experimento, a população da pérolada-terra nas raízes de plantas de videira foi maior em áreas mantidas sem cobertura vegetal emostrou-se semelhante em áreas onde se manteve a vegetação espontânea, ao longo do ano, e com aveia preta no inverno e vegetação espontânea no verão. A infestação das plantas de videira em áreas onde foi empregada a mucuna-preta durante o verão foi equivalente à da vegetação espontânea. S. aterrimum foi registrada pela primeira vez como hospedeira de E. brasiliensis. The use of cover crops is an important strategy to reduce erosion and improve chemical and physical soil properties. In this work, we evaluate the effect of cover crops to reduce Brazilian ground pearl Eurhizococcus brasiliensis (Hemiptera: Margarodidae infestation in vineyards. In the first experiment, glyphosate was sprayed each three months to avoid cover crops. This treatment was compared with naturally occurring vegetation during the year and the use of Avena sativa in the winter. In a second experiment, Stizolobium aterrimum was cultivated during the summer compared with naturally occurringvegetation. Brazilian ground pearl population was higher in glyphosate sprayed areas than where cover

  13. Perdas causadas por Coccus viridis (Hemiptera: Coccidae em mudas de Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Lemes Fernandes

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Coccus viridis (Green danifica plantas jovens e adultas de Coffea arabica Linnaeu. No entanto, nada se sabe sobre a magnitude dos danos causados por esta praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo estudar as relações entre o ataque de C. viridis e as perdas causadas por este inseto a C. arabica. Este trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Federal de Viçosa. Foram utilizadas sementes da linhagem IAC 15 da variedade “Catuaí vermelho” de café (C. arabica. Para a confecção dos tratamentos esta praga foi criada em casa de vegetação separada do experimento. Os tratamentos foram: plantas infestadas e não infestadas por adultos e ninfas da cochonilha verde. As plantas foram nutridas com solução nutritiva. Durante 110 dias foram avaliados: números de adultos e de ninfas de primeiro, segundo e terceiro ínstares, área foliar, diâmetro do caule, altura das plantas em todas repetições. No final do experimento avaliou-se o peso das raízes, caule, folhas e total. Os pesos das raízes, matéria seca total, área foliar e diâmetro do caule de plantas não atacadas por C. viridis superaram em 1,31; 1,41; 1,50 e 8,93 vezes, respectivamente o peso de plantas atacadas. As variáveis selecionadas foram: diâmetro do caule (cm, área foliar (cm², peso de raízes (g, ninfas, adultos e total das cochonilhas. Concluindo que a planta de C. arabica é afetada de forma diferente entre seus órgãos e que a ninfa de terceiro ínstar e adultos são as fases que mais causam danos a C. arabica.Losses Caused by Coccus viridis (Green (Hemiptera: Coccidae on Seedlings of Coffea arabica L.Abstract. Coccus viridis (Green cause losses on seedling and old plants of Coffea arabica (Green. However, nothing is known about of the damages caused by this pest. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relations between atack of C. viridis and the losses caused by this insect. on C. arabica. This work was conduced in greenhouse at

  14. Effect of silicon application to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the population of Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalva Luiz de Queiroz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of silicon in forestry has increased recently as it is directly related to improved resistance to insect pests. The red gum lerp psyllid, Glycaspis brimblecombei, occurs in all eucalypt producing regions in Brazil. Two field experiments were conducted to study the effect of silicon applied to Eucalyptus camaldulensis on the psyllid population. In the first experiment, the applications were made via soil (calcium silicate and leaves (potassium silicate in a nine months old E. camaldulensis plantation. In the second experiment, we evaluated silicon on seedlings, incorporating it into the substrate (soil or applying it on leaves (foliar. Monthly, for 24 months, the number of psyllid eggs and immatures were counted on leaf samples. The plant height was measured at 9, 12, 16 and 24 months (experiment 1 and at 4, 8, 12 and 24 months (experiment 2 after application. The numbers of eggs and immatures were lower in periods of higher precipitation, indicating less psyllid attack during the rainy season. The psyllid population was lower in treatments with application of silicon both foliar and via soil compared to control. No significant differences were found in the height of E. camaldulensis plants. Efeito da aplicação de silício em Eucalyptus camaldulensis em população de Glycaspis brimblecombei (Hemiptera: Aphalaridae O uso do silício na área florestal tem aumentado recentemente, pois o elemento está relacionado a uma melhoria na resistência a insetos pragas. O psilídeo de concha, Glycaspis brimblecombei é encontrado em todas as regiões produtoras de eucalipto no Brasil. O efeito do silício aplicado em Eucalyptus camaldulensis, na população do psilídeo, foi estudado em dois ensaios. No primeiro experimento, as aplicações foram via solo (silicato de cálcio e foliar (silicato de potássio em uma plantação de nove meses. No segundo experimento, este mineral foi aplicado em mudas de eucalipto, no substrato ou sobre as folhas

  15. Sobre o condicionamento alimentar na cochonilha-branca, Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: pseudococcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenira Viana Costa Santa-Cecília

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante a técnica de "Electrical Penetration Graphs" (EPG das cochonilhas-farinhentas (Pseudococcidae provenientes de um hospedeiro de criação alternativo têm mostrado que esses insetos não atingem ou demoram cerca de 9 horas para alcançar a fase floemática. Por outro lado, aqueles provenientes do hospedeiro-fonte atingem a fase floemática mais rapidamente e apresentam maior frequência de alimentação nos vasos crivados. Esses resultados indicam a presença do fenômeno de condicionamento alimentar, ainda não demonstrado em cochonilhas. Assim, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar a existência desse fenômeno em Planococcus citri (Risso (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae. Foram realizados testes de livre escolha, monitoramento eletrônico (EPG e estudos de alguns parâmetros biológicos. Em todos os experimentos, o cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., os citros (Citrus sinensis L. e abóbora (Cucurbita maxima L. foram utilizados como substratos de criação (fonte da cochonilha, sendo os tratamentos constituídos pela combinação entre os hospedeiros-fonte e os hospedeiros receptores (café e citros. O teste de escolha entre cafeeiro e citros nas primeiras 72 horas mostrou que as cochonilhas criadas em cafeeiro apresentaram preferência pelo cafeeiro; aquelas originadas dos citros mostraram uma tendência, embora não significativa, em selecionar os citros em relação ao cafeeiro e aquelas criadas em abóbora não mostraram preferência por nenhum dos hospedeiros. Os estudos do comportamento alimentar mediante o monitoramento eletrônico (EPG mostraram que a fase floemática, considerada como a fase de aceitação do hospedeiro, foi mais frequente em cafeeiro, seja com cochonilhas oriundas deste substrato, seja de citros. Aqueles insetos mantidos em abóbora e transferidos para o cafeeiro ou citros apresentaram excepcionalmente ou não apresentaram nenhuma fase floemática, respectivamente. A

  16. Fumigation of bed bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae): effective application rates for sulfuryl fluoride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Thomas W; Aikins, Michael J; Thoms, Ellen; Demark, Joe; Wang, Changlu

    2014-08-01

    The bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), has resurged recently as a domestic pest in North America with very limited options for decisive control. We report efficacy studies with sulfuryl fluoride (SF) toward use as a structural fumigant to control bed bugs. Laboratory studies were conducted in which eggs, adults, and nymphs from a pesticide susceptible laboratory population were fumigated for 24 h using SF at 99.8% purity in airtight, 3.8-liter glass containers under two temperatures, 25 degrees C and 15 degrees C. Bed bugs were placed in separate ventilated glass vials and wrapped in mattress padding before fumigation. The gas concentration within each jar was determined using quantitative gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Dose-response trials using eggs of known age (48-96 h) were conducted at five or six target concentrations measured as concentration x time accumulated dosages (g-h/m3) and one untreated control at each temperature. Each target dose was replicated in four different fumigation containers (replicates), with at least 32 eggs per replicate. The number of hatched and unhatched eggs postfumigation, and number of live and dead nymphs that resulted from hatched eggs, were evaluated daily for at least 1 wk after egg hatch. The lethal accumulated dosage (LAD99) for bed bug eggs was 69.1 (95% fiducial limits [FLs] of 62.9-79.5) g-h/m3 at 25 degrees C and 149.3 (95% FLs of 134.4-177.9) g-h/m3 at 15 degrees C. Confirmatory trials with dosages of 1.5x the LAD99 were conducted at 25 degrees C and 1.5x the threshold mortality dose at 15 degrees C with at least 15 adults, 13 late-instar nymphs and 79 eggs of known age per replicate. At 25 degrees C, a target dosage of 103.7 g-h/m3 resulted in 100% mortality of adults and late-instar nymphs. Nymphs emerged and survived from two of 439 eggs treated with SF dosages that were 6-7 g-h/m3 less than the target dosage. No nymphs emerged from eggs fumigated with dosages > 97.9 g-h/m3 in the

  17. Phytoreovirus-like sequences isolated from salivary glands of the glassy-winged sharpshooter Homolodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The salivary glands of the Glassy-winged sharpshooter (GWSS), Homalodisca vitripennis Germar 1821, (syn. H. coagulata, Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were collected and used to produce a cDNA library. Examination by BLASTX analyses identified 2 viral sequences, one a 610-base pair fragment and a second 839-base pair fragment, both of which had significant homology to viruses within the genus Phytoreovirus. Resequencing of the fragments confirmed sequence validities. These sequences were used for in silico protein translation and BLASTP analysis confirming the established homology. While the GWSS is the primary vector of Pierce's disease of grapes, this is the first report that GWSS may be a vector of a phytoreoviruses. Phylogenetic and homology comparisons with BLASTX, BLASTP, and PAUP analyses indicated that the viral sequences isolated from GWSS were closely related to the viruses in the Family Reoviridae, Genus Phytoreovirus, specifically Rice Dwarf Phytoreovirus (RDV). RDV is the only plant reovirus that is not limited to the phloem. Phytoreoviruses are transmitted in a propagative manner by cicadellid leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), which acquire and transmit them during feeding. Phytoreoviruses have been reported from Agallian, Agalliopsis, Nephotettix, and Recilia, genera of leafhoppers, with evidence for transovarial transmission. The GWSS, although considered to feed primarily from the xylem, ingests from other plant tissues, such as the phloem and mesophyll during probing similar to other leafhoppers. The feeding behavior and wide host range of the GWSS provides an overlapping condition for these two organisms, leafhopper and virus. GWSS will feed from grasses as a transitory host, and on herbaceous and woody plants as primary hosts, which may favor the acquisition and transmission of Phytoreovirus by this leafhopper. Monitoring for an increase of Phytoreovirus spread in graminaceous crops that are in proximity to vineyards or tree crop orchards, where

  18. Heptageniidae (Insecta, Ephemeroptera of Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonsatien Boonsoong

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine genera and twenty-two species of heptageniid mayflies from Thailand are defined in this present work as well as one suggested further subgenus, Compsoneuria (Siamoneuria kovaci (species “incertae sedis” including some particular characters. Taxonomic remarks, diagnoses, line drawings of key characters, distribution, habitat and biological data, and a larval key to the genera and species are provided. The chorionic eggs of eight genera and eight species were observed and shown using a scanning electron microscope.

  19. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-04-19

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World.

  20. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use.

  1. Use of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) pigments in the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goche, D; Vigueras, A L; Portillo, L; Llanderal, C

    2012-06-01

    Carmines obtained from the dye of Dactylopius coccus Costa (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) were used for the detection of larvae and pupae of Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae) in broccoli inflorescences. Larvae were dyed with carmine II and red cochineal, while the majority of the dyes, with the exception of carmine III and the aqueous extract, were suitable to dye pupae. In the broccoli lumps exposed to the dyes, only the verge of the stems were actually dyed, right in the position where the incision took place, an appropriate characteristic for implementing this technique for commercial use. PMID:23950051

  2. First occurrence of Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) preying on defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in the state of Para, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The oil palm Elaeis guineensis is usually attacked by pests, particularly, defoliating caterpillars. Between 2004 and 2006 a stinkbug predator (Asopinae) was registered preying on caterpillars of Brassolis sophorae L., Opsiphanes invirae Hubner (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) and Sibine spp. (Lepidoptera: Limacodidae), reducing their populations in commercial oil palm plantations in the State of Para, Brazil. Specimens of the natural enemy were collected, mounted, and identified as Alcaeorrhynchus grandis (Dallas) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), corresponding to the first report of the occurrence of this stinkbug attacking defoliating caterpillars of oil palm in Brazil. (author)

  3. Control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) y estrategias reproductivas de su principal enemigo natural Aphytis chrysomphali (Mercet) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Desfilis, Mª Tatiana

    2007-01-01

    RESUMEN Esta tesis describe la situación del control biológico del piojo rojo de California, Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), por parasitoides en la Comunidad Valenciana El piojo rojo de California es una de las plagas más importantes de cítricos en España. Esta plaga, a pesar de todos los tratamientos químicos que se realizan para su control, se encuentra por encima del umbral económico de daños. En este trabajo se constata, tras un muestreo realizado a lo lar...

  4. A new mealybug in the genus Pseudococcus Westwood (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae) from North America, with a key to species of Pseudococcus from the New World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellenrieder, Natalia Von; Watson, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    A mealybug species that feeds on Agave spp., Pseudococcus variabilis sp. n. (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Pseudococcidae), is described from North America. Its entry into the United States was likely via the horticultural trade on its host plants in the genus Agave (Liliales: Agavaceae). Descriptions and illustrations of the adult female and male, diagnosis from congeners in the New World, and a molecular characterization based on COI are provided, as well as a key to adult females of all Pseudococcus species recorded from the New World. PMID:27394765

  5. Potential of Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana isolates and Neem oil to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to determine the efficiency of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarrhizium anisopliae and Beauveria bassiana to control the aphid Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt.) (Hemiptera:Aphididae) in kale Brassica oleracea var acephala D.C., as well as their compatibility with a neem oil formulation (NeemsetoR). Ten isolates of both fungi were tested and the most pathogenic ones were B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 with 90% and 4.4 days, and 64% and 3.8 days of mortality and median lethal time, respectively. Bioassays with neem at concentrations of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0% were done either by leaf discs dipping or spraying the aphids on the leaf discs. The neem spraying treatment at 2.0% provided 90% mortality. The use of B. bassiana isolate CG001 or M. anisopliae isolate CG30 with neem at 0.125, 0.25, and 0.5%, demonstrated that these isolates could have their spore viability or colony growth affected when exposed to neem concentrations higher than 0.25%. In absolute values, the isolates B. bassiana CG001 and M. anisopliae CG30 are the most virulent to L. erysimi, and could be utilized in the management of this pest. (author)

  6. Structure and Sensilla of the Mouthparts of the Spotted Lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae, a Polyphagous Invasive Planthopper.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Hao

    Full Text Available Mouthparts are among the most important sensory and feeding structures in insects and comparative morphological study may help explain differences in feeding behavior and diet breadth among species. The spotted lanternfly Lycorma delicatula (White (Hemiptera: Fulgoromorpha: Fulgoridae is a polyphagous agricultural pest originating in China, recently established and becoming widespread in Korea, and more recently introduced into eastern North America. It causes severe economic damage by sucking phloem sap and the sugary excrement produced by nymphs and adults serves as a medium for sooty mold. To facilitate future study of feeding mechanisms in this insect, the fine-structural morphology of mouthparts focusing on the distribution of sensilla located on the labium in adult L. delicatula was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The mouthparts consist of a small cone-shaped labrum, a tubular labium and a stylet fascicle consisting of two inner interlocked maxillary stylets partially surrounded by two shorter mandibular stylets similar to those found in other hemipteran insects. The five-segmented labium is unusual (most other Fulgoromorpha have four segments and is provided with several types of sensilla and cuticular processes situated on the apex of its distal labial segment. In general, nine types of sensilla were found on the mouthparts. Six types of sensilla and four types of cuticular processes are present on sensory fields of the labial apex. The proposed taxonomic and functional significance of the sensilla are discussed. Morphological similarities in the interlocking mechanism of the stylets suggest a relationship between Fulgoromorpha and Heteroptera.

  7. Phylogeny and niche conservatism in North and Central American triatomine bugs (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae, vectors of Chagas' disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos N Ibarra-Cerdeña

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios.

  8. Taxonomic status of the Bemisia tabaci complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae and reassessment of the number of its constituent species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wonhoon Lee

    Full Text Available Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most important insect pests in the world. In the present study, the taxonomic status of B. tabaci and the number of species composing the B. tabaci complex were determined based on 1059 COI sequences of B. tabaci and 509 COI sequences of 153 hemipteran species. The genetic divergence within B. tabaci was conspicuously higher (on average, 11.1% than interspecific genetic divergence within the respective genera of the 153 species (on average, 6.5%. This result indicates that B. tabaci is composed of multiple species that may belong to different genera or subfamilies. A phylogenetic tree constructed based on 212 COI sequences without duplications revealed that the B. tabaci complex is composed of a total of 31 putative species, including a new species, JpL. However, genetic divergence within six species (Asia II 1, Asia II 7, Australia, Mediterranean, New World, and Sub Saharan Africa 1 was higher than 3.5%, which has been used as a threshold of species boundaries within the B. tabaci complex. These results suggest that it is necessary to increase the threshold for species boundaries up to 4% to distinguish the constituent species in the B. tabaci complex.

  9. Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Maria Paleari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developmental biology, polymorphism and ecological aspects of Stiretrus decemguttatus (Hemiptera, Pentatomidae, an important predator of cassidine beetles. Stiretrus decemguttatus is an important predator of two species of cassidine beetles, Botanochara sedecimpustulata (Fabricius, 1781 and Zatrephina lineata (Fabricius, 1787 (Coleoptera, Cassidinae, on the Marajó Island, Brazil. It attacks individuals in all development stages, but preys preferentially on late-instar larvae. Its life cycle in the laboratory was 43.70 ± 1.09 days, with an egg incubation period of six days and duration from nymph and adult stages of 16.31 ± 0.11 and 22.10 ± 1.67 days, respectively. The duration of one generation (T was 12.65 days and the intrinsic population growth rate (r 0.25. These data reveal the adjustment of the life cycle of S. decemgutattus with those of the two preys, but suggest greater impact on Z. lineata. However, no preference over cassidine species was shown in the laboratory. Up to 17 different color patterns can be found in adults of S. decemguttatus, based on combinations of three basic sets of color markings. Some of them resemble the markings of chrysomelids associated with Ipomoea asarifolia (Convolvulaceae and are possibly a mimetic ring. Three color patterns were identified in nymphs, none of which was associated with any specific adult color pattern.

  10. Testing Spirotetramat as an Alternative Solution to Abamectin for Cacopsylla pyri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) Control: Laboratory and Field Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civolani, Stefano; Boselli, Mauro; Butturini, Alda; Chicca, Milvia; Cassanelli, Stefano; Tommasini, Maria Grazia; Aschonitis, Vassilis; Fano, Elisa Anna

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the performance of the new insecticide "spirotetramat" as an alternative solution of "abamectin" for the control of Cacopsylla pyri L. (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in the context of an IPM program in European pear, Pyrus communis L.. Laboratory bioassays for the estimation of LC50 and LC90 of both insecticides were performed using four populations collected in Emilia-Romagna (Italy) orchards where different pest management strategies were used (organic, integrated, and conventional). The same populations were also analyzed for the main insecticide detoxifying activities in nymphs by spectrofluorimetric in vitro assays. The performance of the two insecticides was also tested on field on one population under integrated pest management conditions. The laboratory experiments showed that the LC90 of spirotetramat were lower than the highest field concentration allowed in Europe (172.80 mg AI liter(-1)) giving reassurance about the efficacy of the product. Concerning the abamectin, the laboratory bioassays did not show strong indications of resistance development of C. pyri populations of Emilia-Romagna. A similarity in enzyme detoxifying activity was observed in both insecticides indicating a general absence of a significant insecticide resistance. The field trial showed a high efficacy (>90 %) of spirotetramat on C. pyri already after 15 d from application, and it was significantly higher from abamectin. Overall, spirotetramat is one more choice for C. pyri control, as well as abamectin in order to minimize the risks of occurrence of insecticide resistance. PMID:26470374

  11. Diversity and localization of bacterial symbionts in three whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) from the east coast of the Adriatic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaljac, M; Zanić, K; Hrnčić, S; Radonjić, S; Perović, T; Ghanim, M

    2013-02-01

    Several whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are cosmopolitan phloem-feeders that cause serious damage in numerous agricultural crops. All whitefly species harbor a primary bacterial symbiont and a diverse array of secondary symbionts which may influence several aspects of the insect's biology. We surveyed infections by secondary symbionts in Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius), Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) and Siphoninus phillyreae (Haliday) from areas in the east cost of the Adriatic Sea. Both the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) B. tabaci genetic groups were detected in Montenegro, whereas only the MED was confirmed in Croatia. Trialeurodes vaporariorum and S. phillyreae were found in all areas surveyed. MEAM1 and MED exhibited similarity to previously reported infections, while populations of T. vaporariorum from Montenegro harbored Rickettsia, Wolbachia and Cardinium in addition to previously reported Hamiltonella and Arsenopnohus. Siphoninus phillyreae harbored Hamiltonella, Wolbachia, Cardinium and Arsenophonus, with the latter appearing in two alleles. Multiple infections of all symbionts were common in the three insect species tested, with some reaching near fixation. Florescent in situ hybridization showed new localization patterns for Hamiltonella in S. phillyreae, and the morphology of the bacteriosome differed from that observed in other whitefly species. Our results show new infections with bacterial symbionts in the whitefly species studied. Infections with the same symbionts in reproductively isolated whitefly species confirm complex relationships between whiteflies and bacterial symbionts, and suggest possible horizontal transfer of some of these bacteria.

  12. Nitrogen in Hydroponic Growing Medium of Tomato Affects the Demographic Parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, R S; Madadi, H; Hosseini, M; Delshad, M; Dashti, F

    2015-12-01

    We evaluated the effects of different nitrogen levels (380, 310, 240, and 174 ppm) on the life history parameters of Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on hydroponically cultured tomato plants. Our data show that there is a positive correlation between the nitrogen content and the demographic parameters, as the intrinsic rate of increase of T. vaporariorum was the lowest (0.059 ± 0.007 day(-1)) at 174 ppm and the highest (0.088 ± 0.005 day(-1)) at 380 ppm of nitrogen. The net reproduction rate (R 0), finite rate of increase (λ), and mean developmental time (T) were significantly influenced by the nitrogen levels. The mean longevity of males and females showed a positive relationship with the nitrogen level, ranging from 64.8 ± 3.96 to 76.3 ± 2.44 for males and 61.6 ± 5.35 to 71.2 ± 2.44 for females, observed in the lowest and highest nitrogen levels, respectively. The relationship between nitrogen fertilization and T. vaporariorum management on tomato crops is discussed.

  13. Energy allocation changes in overwintering adults of the common pistachio Psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, R; Izadi, H; Mahdian, K

    2012-12-01

    The common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt & Lauterer (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is known as the key pest of pistachio orchards in Iran. This pest passes the winter as adults. In this study, energy allocation changes in relation to ambient temperature were investigated in field-collected adults by measuring total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, sorbitol, myoinositol, glycogen, lipid, and protein contents. Glycogen content decreased with decrease in ambient temperature. The decrease in glycogen content was proportional to the increase in total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents. In January, with mean ambient temperature of 5.4°C, glycogen content was at the lowest level, whereas total body sugar, trehalose, glucose, and sorbitol were at the highest level. Total body sugar, trehalose, myoinositol, and sorbitol contents increased as temperature decreased from 22.7°C in October to 5.4°C in January. In conclusion, low molecular weight carbohydrates and polyols may play a role in winter survival and adaptation to cold of the common pistachio psylla by providing the required cryoprotection. Also, overwintering adults of the common pistachio psylla may store energy in the form of lipid for later utilization during the overwintering.

  14. Performance of Three Adelphocoris spp. (Hemiptera:Miridae) on Flowering and Non-lfowering Cotton and Alfalfa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen; PAN Hong-sheng; LIU Bing; LU Yan-hui; LIANG Ge-mei

    2014-01-01

    The genus Adelphocoris (Hemiptera:Miridae) is a group of key insect pests in cotton ifelds in China that includes three dominant species:A. suturalis (Jakovlev), A. lineolatus (Goeze) and A. fasciaticollis (Reuter). Previous ifeld surveys have found that adults of these Adelphocoris species usually move onto speciifc host plants when the plants enter the lfowering stage. To determine the potential trade-offs for this host-plant preference behavior, the performance of these three Adelphocoris spp. on lfowering and non-lfowering cotton and alfalfa were compared in the laboratory. The results showed that Adelphocoris spp. had signiifcantly higher nymphal developmental and survival rates, along with increased adult longevity and fecundity on lfowering cotton and alfalfa than on non-lfowering plants of either species. In addition, compared with cotton plants, alfalfa generally promoted better performance of these three Adelphocoris species, especially for A. lineolatus. Simple correlation analysis indicated that female adult longevity was positively correlated to male adult longevity and female fecundity, and female fecundity was positively correlated to nymphal development and survival rates. This study demonstrated a positive correlation between adult preference and offspring/adult performance for all three Adelphocoris species, with no evidence of any trade-offs for this preference for lfowering host plants. These ifndings support the hypothesis that hemimetabolous insects such as mirid bugs have positive adult preference-adult/nymphal performance relationships, which is likely due to the similar feeding habits and nutritional requirements of adults and nymphs.

  15. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Geisha distinctissima(Hemiptera: Flatidae) and comparison with other hemipteran insects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Song; Aiping Liang

    2009-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial genome (mitogenome) of Geisha distinctissima (Hemiptera: Flatidae) has been determined in this study. The genome is a circular molecule of 15,971 bp with a total A + T content of 75.1%. The gene content, order, and structure are consistent with the Drosophila yakuba genome structure and the hypothesized ancestral arthropod genome arrangement. All 13 protein-coding genes are observed to have a putative, inframe ATR methion-ine or ATT isoleucine codons as start signals. Canonical TAA and TAG termination codons are found in nine protein-coding genes, and the remaining four (coxl, atp6, cox3, and nad4) have incomplete termination codons. The anticodons of all transfer RNA (tRNAs) are identical to those observed in D. yakuba and Philaenus spumarius, and can be folded in the form of a typical clover-leaf structure except for tRNASer(AGN). The major non-coding region (the A + T-rich region or putative control region) between the small ribosomal subunit and the tRNAIle gene includes two sets of repeat regions. The first repeat region consists of a direct 152-bp repetitive unit located near the srRNA gene end, and the second repeat region is composed of a direct repeat unit of 19 bp located toward tRNAIle gene. Comparisons of gene variability across the order suggest that the gene content and arrangement of G. distinctissima mitogenome are similar to other hemipteran insects.

  16. Putting scales into evolutionary time: the divergence of major scale insect lineages (Hemiptera) predates the radiation of modern angiosperm hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vea, Isabelle M; Grimaldi, David A

    2016-01-01

    The radiation of flowering plants in the mid-Cretaceous transformed landscapes and is widely believed to have fuelled the radiations of major groups of phytophagous insects. An excellent group to test this assertion is the scale insects (Coccomorpha: Hemiptera), with some 8,000 described Recent species and probably the most diverse fossil record of any phytophagous insect group preserved in amber. We used here a total-evidence approach (by tip-dating) employing 174 morphological characters of 73 Recent and 43 fossil taxa (48 families) and DNA sequences of three gene regions, to obtain divergence time estimates and compare the chronology of the most diverse lineage of scale insects, the neococcoid families, with the timing of the main angiosperm radiation. An estimated origin of the Coccomorpha occurred at the beginning of the Triassic, about 245 Ma [228-273], and of the neococcoids 60 million years later [210-165 Ma]. A total-evidence approach allows the integration of extinct scale insects into a phylogenetic framework, resulting in slightly younger median estimates than analyses using Recent taxa, calibrated with fossil ages only. From these estimates, we hypothesise that most major lineages of coccoids shifted from gymnosperms onto angiosperms when the latter became diverse and abundant in the mid- to Late Cretaceous.

  17. The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae as a new menace to cotton in Egypt and its chemical control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Zahi El-Zahi Saber

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae is a polyphagous sap sucking insect with a wide geographical and host range causing severe losses in economically important crops. This study represents the first record of P. solenopsis as a new insect attacking cotton plants (Gossypium barbadense var. Giza 86 in Kafr El-Sheikh governorate, Egypt. The insect was noticed on cotton plants for the first time during its growing season of 2014. The mealybug specimens were collected from infested cotton plants and identified as P. solenopsis. In an attempt to control this pest, eight toxic materials viz., imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate, chlorpyrifos, methomyl, deltamethrin and mineral oil (KZ-oil, belonging to different chemical groups, were tested for their influence against P. solenopsis on cotton under field conditions. Methomyl, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam and chlorpyrifos showed the highest efficacy against P. solenopsis recording 92.3 to 80.4% reduction of the insect population. Flonicamid, emamectin-benzoate and KZ-oil failed to exhibit sufficient P. solenopsis control.

  18. Host instar susceptibility and selection and interspecific competition of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2010-10-01

    Three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff [Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae]) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied for their host instar susceptibility and sex ratio, host instar selection, and interspecific competition in the laboratory. All three parasitoids were able to develop in the second instars, third-instar females, and adult females of P. marginatus. No progeny emerged from first-instar mealybugs. The proportion of female emergence was increased with increasing host size. Parasitoids selected their host instars for oviposition when they had a choice. Between second- and third-instar hosts, A. papayae and P. mexicana had significantly higher parasitism in second-instar mealybugs, whereas A. loecki had higher parasitism in the third-instar mealybugs. When competed with either one or two parasitoid species, A. papayae was significantly more successful in second-instar hosts and A. loecki was significantly more successful in third-instar mealybugs. P. mexicana was significantly less competitive when with A. papayae in both second and third instars, with A. loecki in third instars and with both A. papayae and A. loecki in second and third instars. Overall, A. papayae provided a better control of the host, when present singly or with the other two parasitoids. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana and understanding the outcome of their recovery and establishment in field studies conducted in Florida.

  19. Present status of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in the Mariana Islands and its control by two fortuitously introduced natural enemies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, G V P; Muniappan, R; Cruz, Z T; Naz, F; Bamba, J P; Tenorio, J

    2009-08-01

    The mealybug Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), attacks ornamental and fruit crops in the Mariana Islands. Insecticides cannot penetrate the heavy layers of wax that protect the insect's body. We surveyed the mealybug's locally recruited natural enemies and their effects on its population on Guam, Rota, Saipan, and Tinian to assess the need for introduction of exotic natural enemies. We monitored population densities of M. hirsutus, those of its natural enemies, and parasitism rates for 3 yr, 2005-2007. Our surveys revealed the presence of two parasitoids, Anagyrus kamali Moursi (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) and Allotropa sp. near mecrida (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae), fortuitously introduced to the Mariana Islands with M. hirsutus. The predator Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) also was often found feeding on M. hirsutus. Population density of M. hirsutus was below the economic threshold at all locations. Rainfall seemed to affect mean numbers of M. hirsutus and mean numbers of eggs at some locations. On all four islands, the two parasitoids, complemented by the predator, were effectively controlling the M. hirsutus population. No evidence of hyperparasitism was recorded. Currently, economic damage by M. hirsutus is not a concern in the Mariana Islands, and additional parasitoids need not be introduced to control M. hirsutus.

  20. Characterization of microsatellite DNA libraries from three mealybug species and development of microsatellite markers for Pseudococcus viburni (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M C G; Zaviezo, T; Le Maguet, J; Herrbach, E; Malausa, T

    2014-04-01

    Mealybugs (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) are important pests for crops worldwide. Different species, cryptic taxa under the same species name or even populations within a species can differ in biological characteristics, such as phenology, resistance to insecticides, virus transmission and susceptibility to natural enemies. Therefore, their management efficacy depends on their accurate identification. Microsatellite genetic markers are efficient in revealing the fine-scale taxonomic status of insects, both at inter- and intra-specific level. Despite their potential uses, microsatellites have been developed only for one mealybug species so far. Hence, it is unclear whether microsatellites may be useful to assess mealybug population differentiation and structuring. In this work, we tested the feasibility of developing microsatellite markers in mealybugs by: (i) producing and characterizing microsatellite DNA libraries for three species: Pseudococcus viburni, Pseudococcus comstocki and Heliococcus bohemicus, and (ii) by developing and testing markers for Ps. viburni. The obtained libraries contained balanced percentages of dinucleotide (ranging from 15 to 25%) and trinucleotide (from 5 to 17%) motifs. The marker setup for Ps. viburni was successful, although 70% of the primers initially tested were discarded for a lack of polymorphism. Finally, 25 markers were combined in two multiplex polymerase chain reactions with 21 displaying no evidence of deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Ps. viburni markers were tested on one population from France and one from Chile. The markers revealed a significant genetic differentiation between the two populations with an Fst estimate of 0.266.

  1. Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three introduced parasitoids of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekare, Kaushalya G; Mannion, Catharine M; Epsky, Nancy D

    2012-10-01

    Developmental time, longevity, and lifetime fertility of three previously introduced parasitoids (Acerophagus papayae Noyes and Schauff, Anagyrus loecki Noyes and Menezes, and Pseudleptomastix mexicana Noyes and Schauff) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) of the mealybug Paracoccus marginatus Williams and Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were studied in the laboratory to understand the outcome of their recovery in field studies conducted in the United States. The developmental time of both male and female A. papayae and A. loecki was shorter than the developmental time of male and female P. mexicana. Male parasitoids of all three species had a shorter developmental time than their females. All parasitoids had a shorter developmental time in adult-female mealybugs than in second instars. Mating status (unmated and mated) had no effect on the male longevity. Unmated and mated females that were not allowed to oviposit had similar longevity and lived longer than those that were allowed to oviposit. Virgin females produced male only progeny with higher number of males from A. loecki or P. mexicana than from A. papayae. The number of females and the cumulative progeny was smaller for A. papayae than for A. loecki or P. mexicana. The progeny sex ratio (proportion of females) was not different among the parasitoids. A. papayae had the shortest reproductive period followed by A. loecki and P. mexicana, respectively. This information is important in evaluating the efficiency, recovery and establishment of A. papayae, A. loecki, and P. mexicana.

  2. Horizontal Transmission of "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" by Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae on Convolvulus and Ipomoea (Solanales: Convolvulaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenda L Torres

    Full Text Available "Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum" (Proteobacteria is an important pathogen of solanaceous crops (Solanales: Solanaceae in North America and New Zealand, and is the putative causal agent of zebra chip disease of potato. This phloem-limited pathogen is transmitted to potato and other solanaceous plants by the potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae. While some plants in the Convolvulaceae (Solanales are also known hosts for B. cockerelli, previous efforts to detect Liberibacter in Convolvulaceae have been unsuccessful. Moreover, studies to determine whether Liberibacter can be acquired from these plants by B. cockerelli are lacking. The goal of this study was to determine whether horizontal transmission of Liberibacter occurs among potato psyllids on two species of Convolvulaceae, sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas and field bindweed (Convolvulus arvensis, which grows abundantly in potato growing regions of the United States. Results indicated that uninfected psyllids acquired Liberibacter from both I. batatas and C. arvensis if infected psyllids were present on plants concurrently with the uninfected psyllids. Uninfected psyllids did not acquire Liberibacter from plants if the infected psyllids were removed from the plants before the uninfected psyllids were allowed access. In contrast with previous reports, PCR did detect the presence of Liberibacter DNA in some plants. However, visible amplicons were faint and did not correspond with acquisition of the pathogen by uninfected psyllids. None of the plants exhibited disease symptoms. Results indicate that horizontal transmission of Liberibacter among potato psyllids can occur on Convolvulaceae, and that the association between Liberibacter and Convolvulaceae merits additional attention.

  3. ASPECTOS BIOLÓGICOS DE Euborellia annulipes (DERMAPTERA: ANISOLABIDIDAE ALIMENTADA COM O PULGÃO Hyadaphis foeniculi (HEMIPTERA: APHIDIDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALDENI BARBOSA DA SILVA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of sweet herb of great economic importance for small farmers in the micro and Agrest Swamp of Paraíba and also in the state of Pernambuco. Among the natural enemies, the scissors Euborellia annulipes proves to be a voracious predator, that is, with high ability to attack and feed on different prey, particularly of eggs and immature stages of insects of Lepidoptera, Hemiptera, Coleoptera and Diptera. The objective of this research was to study the biological aspects of E. annulipes on H. foeniculi laboratory. The study was conducted at the Entomology Laboratory, Department of Plant Protection at the UFPB in a climatic chamber, at 25 ± 1 ºC, relative humidity of 70 ± 10% RH and 12 hours. Scissors were selected in adulthood from rearing on artificial diet in the laboratory. From these insects have made observations of posture, viability and morphology of eggs of E. annulipes. Fifty nymphs were selected for each stage of development (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 of the scissors and fed separately with aphids (1st-2nd, 3rd and 4th instar. There has been evaluation regarding the number and duration of instars. There are five instars to the nymphal stage of E. annulipes, the average incubation period was 12.9 days, pre-oviposition period of 18.2 days and 46.75 eggs per clutch, there was an increase of nymphal E. annulipes in that it offered up more aphids developed.

  4. The effects of host, geographic origin, and gender on the thermal requirements of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nava, Dori E; Gomez-Torres, Mariuxi L; Rodrigues, Marjorie D; Bento, José M S; Haddad, Marinéia L; Parra, José R P

    2010-04-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is the vector of the bacteria that causes citrus greening and is considered one of the world's most important citrus diseases. We examined how host, geographic region, and gender affect the thermal requirements of D. citri. The insects were reared in climatic chambers at constant temperatures of 18, 20, 22, 25, 28, 30, and 32 +/- 1 degrees C, 70 +/- 10% RH, and a 14 h photophase. Host plants for D. citri included orange (Citrus sinensis [Rutaceae]) varieties Pêra and Natal, the rootstock, Rungpur lime (C. limonia [Rutaceae]) and the natural host, Orange jessamine (Murraya paniculata [Rutaceae]). To study the influence of geographic origin on thermal requirements, we studied D. citri populations from Piracicaba, SP (warmer region) and Itapetininga, SP (cooler region). The duration and survival of the development stages and the duration of the total development (egg-adult) did not differ significantly on the different hosts, but it did vary with temperature. Nymphs of D. citri created on the different hosts have the same thermal requirements. The thermal requirements for this species collected from the two climate regions were identical; males and females also had the same thermal requirements.

  5. Incidence of invasive Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, Jawwad A; Rogers, Michael E; Hall, David G; Stansly, Philip A

    2009-02-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease "huanglongbing" or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) was imported from Asia and released in Florida in 1999-2001 to improve biological control of D. citri before citrus greening was detected in Florida in 2005. Florida citrus groves were surveyed during 2006-2007 for D. citri and T. radiata. Results showed that D. citri was established in all 28 citrus groves surveyed across 16 counties. Adult populations averaged 3.52, 1.27, and 1.66 individuals per "tap" sample at locations in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. A tap sample consisted of 22- by 28-cm white paper sheet (on a clipboard) held under branches selected at random that were tapped three times. Averages of 67, 44, and 45% citrus shoots infested with psyllid eggs or nymphs were obtained in the central, southwest, and eastern coastal regions, respectively. T. radiata was recovered from fourth- and fifth-instar psyllid nymphs at 26 of the 28 locations. However, apparent parasitism rates were variable and averaged citri and thereby reduce psyllid populations and spread of citrus greening disease.

  6. Review of the biology, ecology, and management of Halyomorpha halys (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) in China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Doo-Hyung; Short, Brent D; Joseph, Shimat V; Bergh, J Christopher; Leskey, Tracy C

    2013-08-01

    Native to China, Japan, Korea, and Taiwan, the brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) was first detected in the United States in the mid-1990s. Since establishing in the United States, this invasive species has caused significant economic losses in agriculture and created major nuisance problems for home and business owners, especially in the mid-Atlantic region. Basic and applied questions on H. halys have been addressed in its native range in Asia since the mid-1900s and the research outcomes have been published in at least 216 articles from China, Japan, and the Republic of Korea. In Asia, H. halys is described as an occasional or outbreak pest of a number of crops such as apple, pear, persimmon, and soybeans. This species is considered a nuisance pest as well, particularly in Japan. This review summarizes 100 articles primarily translated from Chinese, Japanese, and Korean to English. The content of this review focuses on the biology, ecology, and management of H. halys in Asia, with specific emphasis on nomenclature, life history, host range, damage, economic importance, sampling and monitoring tools, and management strategies. This information from the native range of H. halys provides greater context and understanding of its biology, ecology, and management in North America. PMID:23905725

  7. Characterization of antibiosis and antixenosis to the woolly poplar aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in the bark of different poplar genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pointeau, Sophie; Ameline, Arnaud; Sallé, Aurélien; Bankhead-Dronnet, Stéphanie; Lieutier, François

    2013-02-01

    The woolly poplar aphid, Phloeomyzus passerinii (Signoret) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a major pest of poplar plantations in the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. Aphids colonize poplar trunks and feed upon the cortical parenchyma. Despite the economic importance of poplar, little is known about the mechanisms involved in poplar resistance to this pest. However, Populus x canadensis Moench genotypes show various levels of resistance to P. passerinii. This study has investigated the type of poplar resistance (antibiosis or antixenosis) by assessing aphid settlement, physiology (survival, development, and reproduction), and stylet penetration behavior (electrical penetration graph) on three P. x canadensis genotypes; '1214' (susceptible), 'Brenta' (resistant), and '145/51' (intermediate). Because settlement was reduced, the highly resistant genotype Brenta exhibited surface antixenosis. In addition, nymphal survival was null on Brenta, and twice less adult aphid initiated a sustained intracellular phase in the cortical parenchyma of that genotype compared with the other two genotypes. Thus, Brenta also showed parenchyma-located antixenosis coupled with antibiosis characteristic. In contrast, P. passerinii had no difficulty to initiate a sustained ingestion in the cortical parenchyma of the intermediate genotype 145/51, but decreased fecundity and lower intrinsic rate of natural increase were clear expressions of antibiosis. PMID:23448064

  8. Employing immunomarkers to track dispersal and trophic relationships of a piercing-sucking predator, Podisus maculiventris (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jessica L; Hagler, James R; Kaplan, Ian

    2012-12-01

    Immunoproteins are markers that are useful for monitoring dispersal and/or pest consumption, but current application techniques are less effective for the large guild of piercing-sucking predators important in biocontrol. We quantified the use of protein immunomarks in tracking emigration of spined soldier bug, Podisus maculiventris Say (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and predation on the hornworm caterpillar, Manduca sexta L. (Lepidoptera: Sphingidae). An external protein mark was topically applied to adult P. maculiventris to assess persistence under field conditions for >2 wk. Internal marks were incorporated into the artificial diet of M. sexta to test retention of the internal mark in the prey and uptake of the mark by predators. External marks remained detectable in 100% of individuals after 3 d and >50% still tested positive at 12 d after application in the field. Internal diet-based marking was also effective in tracking feeding by P. maculiventris on M. sexta, especially using rabbit IgG that was far more persistent than chicken IgY. Nearly 90% of stink bugs fed caterpillars previously reared on protein-enriched diet retained their mark for 24 h. Surprisingly, diet concentration and time reared on diet had comparatively little impact on mark retention. Development on unmarked tomato leaves clearly diluted the initial diet mark, but plant-reared individuals that were marked were still successfully detected in 35 and 20% of the predators. PMID:23321101

  9. Within-plant distribution of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on various greenhouse plants with implications for control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandricic, S E; Mattson, N S; Wraight, S P; Sanderson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest in greenhouses of North America and the United Kingdom. Little nonanecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse crops. To help improve integrated pest management decisions for A. solani, the within-plant distribution of this pest was explored on a variety of common greenhouse plants in both the vegetative and flowering stage. This aphid generally was found on lower leaves of vegetative plants, but was found higher in the canopy on reproductive plants (on flowers, flower buds, or upper leaves). Aphid numbers were not consistently positively correlated with total leaf surface areas within plant strata across plant species. Thus, the observed differences in preferred feeding sites on vegetative versus flowering plants are possibly a response to differences in nutritional quality of the various host-plant tissues. Despite being anecdotally described as a "stem-feeding aphid," A. solani was rarely found feeding on stems at the population densities established in our tests, with the exception of racemes of scarlet sage (Salvia splendans). Although some previous reports suggested that A. solani prefers to feed on new growth of plants, our results indicate that mature leaves are preferred over growing tips and young leaves. The implications of the within-plant feeding preferences of A. solani populations with respect to both biological and chemical control are discussed.

  10. Slowing the Spread of Grapevine Leafroll-Associated Viruses in Commercial Vineyards With Insecticide Control of the Vector, Pseudococcus maritimus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallingford, A K; Fuchs, M F; Martinson, T; Hesler, S; Loeb, G M

    2015-01-01

    Vineyards were surveyed for grapevine leafroll-associated viruses and their insect vectors in New York State's Finger Lakes region in 2006-2008. Grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Erhorn) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), European Fruit Lecanium, Parthenolecanium corni (Bouche), and Cottony Maple Scale, Pulvinaria acericola (Walsh and Riley) (Hemiptera: Coccidae) were identified as vector species in this region. An increase in the incidence of Grapevine leafroll-associated virus 1 (GLRaV-1) and GLRaV-3 was observed in 8 of the 20 vineyards surveyed, which implies transmission by these insect vectors. Two of the vineyards for which a temporal increase in disease incidence was documented were then used to evaluate the efficacy of foliar applications of horticultural oil and two classes of insecticides for control of P. maritimus and for slowing virus spread over 2 years of vine protection. Delayed dormant applications of horticultural oil contributed to control of early season crawlers; however, this was not the case for control of summer populations. Applications of acetamiprid and spirotetramat achieved control in summer populations; however, spirotetramat outperformed acetamiprid in percent reduction of treated compared with control vines and in a side-by-side trial. Vines treated with spirotetramat had a lower percentage of new vines testing positive for GLRaV-1 than control vines after 2 years, while no other spray program altered the increase in incidence of GLRaV-1 or -3.

  11. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок брусники в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович; Морозов, О. В.

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) community at cowberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 3028 imagines of 45 carabid species have been collected. Activity density of carabid beetles was the highest from late May to early June. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) was the most abundant (87,39 %). Species richness of predator and...

  12. NÃO-PREFERÊNCIA PARA A OVIPOSIÇÃO DE PERCEVEJO-DE- RENDA Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae POR CULTIVARES DE MANDIOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley Nonato de Oliveira

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a não preferência para a oviposição de Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae importante inseto com potencial de causar danos econômicos em cultivares de mandioca. Compararam-se as cultivares Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 e IAC 576, essas com potencial produtivo para a região sul de Mato Grosso do Sul. Foram realizados ensaios de preferência para oviposição, com o teste sem chance de escolha, em condições de semi-campo. Um casal adulto de V. illudens foi liberado nas folhas de mandioca das respectivas cultivares. Permitiu-se a alimentação e oviposição desses insetos por 72 horas. Avaliou-se o número de ovos/fêmea/folha, o número de excrementos/casal/folha e o índice de preferência para oviposição. A cultivar M Ecu 72 revelou-se altamente resistente ao percevejo-de-renda. Esse estudo evidenciou que há mecanismos de resistência a V. illudens em cultivares de mandioca, o que justifica a realização de novos estudos sobre essas cultivares em programas de seleção, visando o controle dessa praga e identificação de tais mecanismos.Non-Preference for Oviposition Cassava Lace Bug Vatiga illudens (Hemiptera: Tingidae by Cassava CultivarsThe aim of this study was to evaluate the non-preference for oviposition Vatiga illudens (Drake, 1922 (Hemiptera: Tingidae in cassava cultivars. The following cultivars were compared: Kiriris, N-25, Fécula Branca, IAC 90, M Ecu 72 and IAC 576, preference tests for oviposition were conducted, with a choice test in semi-field conditions. An adult double V. illudens was released in the leaves of cassava of their cultivars. Allowed to feeding and oviposition of these insects for 72 hours. We evaluated the number of eggs / female / leaf, the number of droppings / couple / sheet and the preference index for oviposition. The cultivar M Ecu 72 demonstrated to be highly resistant to cassava lace bug. This study showed that there are

  13. Diversidade de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica no sul de Santa Catarina Diversity of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera, Heteroptera in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in southern Santa Catarina, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz A. Campos

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A composição e a variação sazonal da fauna de Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera foi avaliada entre setembro de 2005 e agosto de 2006 em três fragmentos de Mata Atlântica na região sul de Santa Catarina (Brasil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W e Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W. Foram realizadas coletas mensais ao longo de trilhas nas três áreas, utilizando guarda-chuva entomológico e rede de varredura para amostrar nas bordas de mata. Para um esforço amostral de 108 horas foram coletados 595 indivíduos, distribuídos em 4 famílias, 29 gêneros e 49 espécies. Pentatomidae foi a família mais abundante (82,69% seguida de Cydnidae (15,97%, Scutelleridae (0,84% e Tessaratomidae (0,50%. Pentatomidae também apresentou a maior riqueza com 37 espécies. As espécies mais abundantes foram Mormidea notulifera Stål, 1860, Oebalus ypsilongriseus (De Geer, 1773, Arvelius albopunctatus (De Geer, 1773, Edessa subrastrata Bergroth, 1891, Galgupha schulzii (Fabricius, 1781 e Agroecus scabricornis (Herrich-Schäffer, 1844. O período de maior captura foi entre o final da primavera e início do outono, representando 71,76% do total coletado. O Parque do Maracajá apresentou abundância e riqueza sgnificativamente maiores do que as demais áreas. Este estudo representa o primeiro inventário da diversidade de Pentatomoidea em habitats naturais no estado de Santa Catarina.The composition and the seasonal variation of Pentatomoidea (Hemiptera were evaluated between September 2005 and August 2006 in three fragments of Atlantic Forest in the southern region of the State of Santa Catarina (Brazil: Parque Ecológico José Milanese (Criciúma, 28º41'23''S, 49º25'55''W, Parque Ecológico de Maracajá (Maracajá, 28º52'51''S, 49º27'59''W and Balneário Morro dos Conventos (Araranguá, 28º56'05''S, 49º21'47''W

  14. Danos qualitativos e quantitativos de Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae em mudas de Pinus taeda Linnaeus (Pinaceae1 Qualitative and quantitative damage by Cinara atlantica (Wilson (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Pinus taeda Linnaeus seedlings (Pinaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheila R. M. Zaleski

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available O pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, é considerado atualmente uma das principais pragas dos reflorestamentos de pinus no Brasil. Como a informação sobre os danos causados por esta praga é restrita, esta pesquisa teve como objetivo caracterizar e quantificar os danos de C. atlantica em Pinus taeda. O experimento foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram testados três níveis de infestação com densidades populacionais de zero (testemunha protegida com inseticida 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 e 50 ± 2 afídeos por muda de P. taeda com idades de 90 e 150 dias. As mudas atacadas apresentaram redução no desenvolvimento, entortamento do fuste, superbrotação e presença abundante de fumagina devido ao desenvolvimento de fungo sobre o honeydew eliminado pelos afídeos. O diâmetro do colo diminuiu significativamente em 16,1% na densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos/planta, nas mudas com 90 dias, quando comparado à testemunha. Nas mudas com 150 dias não houve diferença significativa no diâmetro do colo entre as parcelas infestadas e a testemunha. Houve uma redução de 24,4% na altura das mudas de 90 dias com a densidade de 50 ± 2 afídeos e 32,6% nas mudas de 150 dias, com intensidade de 20 ± 2 afídeos.The giant conifer aphid, Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera, Aphididae, is one of the main insect pests on pine reforestation areas in Southern Brazil, nowadays. Since there is very few information about its damage, the objective of this study was to characterize and quantify the damage of C. atlantica on Pinus taeda. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, using a random design, with three infestation levels: 0 (control, 10 ± 2, 20 ± 2 and 50 ± 2 aphids on each P. taeda seedling of 90 and 150 days old, with 20 replicates/treatment. The main damage observed were stunting, twisting, oversprouting and large amount of sooty mold on honeydew

  15. Laboratory rearing technique of Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae Técnicas de criação, em latoratório, de Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Garcia

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to the importance of cercopids as pests in sugarcane and forage grass, researches have been conducted in order to address aspects related to the bioecology and control of these insects. The objective of this study was to develop a rearing technique for Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae on sugarcane, in the laboratory (25 ± 1ºC; 70 ± 10% RH; and 14-hour photophase. Adults were isolated in cylindrical cages containing one sugarcane plant, with a moistened cotton disc surrounding the base of the plant as a site for oviposition. Eggs were removed from the cotton disc by washing it in running water over sieves and maintained in Petri dishes on moistened filter paper until the nymphs hatched. The newly hatched nymphs were transferred to sugarcane roots and placed into boxes with lids, to keep a moistened and dark environment favoring their development and maintaining the root system, providing food access to the developing nymphs. This method allowed M. fimbriolata to be maintained in laboratory conditions throughout the year, which would certainly foster research on this insect.Devido à importância da cigarrinha como praga da cultura da cana-de-açúcar, diversos estudos tem sido conduzidos para elucidar aspectos relacionados à bioecologia e controle desses insetos. Esta pesquisa foi realizada com o objetivo de desenvolver uma técnica de criação para Mahanarva fimbriolata (Stål (Hemiptera: Cercopidae sobre cana-de-açúcar, em laboratório (25 ± 1ºC, UR de 70 ± 10% e fotofase de 14 horas. Adultos foram isolados em gaiolas cilíndricas, com uma planta de cana-de-açúcar, contendo um disco de algodão úmido, envolto à base, como local de oviposição. Os ovos foram retirados mediante lavagem em água corrente sobre peneiras e mantidos em placas de Petri sobre papel filtro umedecido até a eclosão das ninfas. Logo após, as ninfas foram transferidas para raízes da planta e acondicionadas em caixa com tampa, para

  16. Aspectos biológicos, morfológicos e comportamentais de Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae Biological, morphological and behavioral aspects of Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Cristina Gonçales Rocha

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo estudar os aspectos biológicos, morfológicos e comportamentais de uma linhagem unipariental de Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae, sob condições controladas (25±1oC, 70±10% de UR e 12 horas de fotofase, tendo abóboras híbridas "cabotiá" como hospedeiro. Ninfas recém-eclodidas foram transferidas da criação massal para abóboras "cabotiá", devidamente higienizadas, dispostas em câmaras climatizadas. O período médio para fixação das ninfas móveis foi de 2,4±0,33 horas. A duração média do 1° e 2° estádios, após a fixação das ninfas, foi de 8,3±0,06 e 19,4±0,11 dias, respectivamente, totalizando fase ninfal média de 27,9±0,11 dias. Das ninfas que atingiram a fase adulta, 36 fêmeas foram acompanhadas diariamente até o final do ciclo. A duração média dos períodos pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo foi de 17,3±0,18 e 68,2±4,33 dias, respectivamente. O número total médio de ninfas/fêmea foi 175,5±10,29 e o número médio de ninfas/fêmea/dia foi 2,7±0,11. A longevidade média das fêmeas foi 100,5±4,51 dias.The objective of this work was to study the biology, morphology and behavior of Aspidiotus nerii Bouché, 1833 (Hemiptera: Diaspididae under controlled conditions (25±1°C, 70±10% R.H. and 12 hours of photophase, using "cabotiá" cucumber pumpkins as hosts. Nymphs of the 1st stage obtained of mass rearing (mother culture were transfered to "cabotiá" pumpkins, properly cleaned and disposed in acclimatized cameras. The medium period for fixation of the nymphs was of 2.4±0.33 hours. The 1st and 2nd stages, after the fixation of the nymphs, lasted 8.3±0.06 and 19.4±0.11 days, respectively, totalizing a nymphal phase of 27.9±0.11 days. 36 females were observed daily until the end of the cycle. The pre-reproductive and reproductive periods lasted 17.3±0.18 and 68.2±4.33 days, respectively. The medium total number of nymphs/female was 175.5±10

  17. Material capturado e utilizado na alimentação de Polybia (Trichothorax) Sericea (Olivier, 1791) (Hymenoptera, Vespidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Lígia Letízio Machado; Nivar Gobbi; Valter Vieira Alves Junior

    1988-01-01

    As presas utilizadas por Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea compreendem 6 ordens de insetos (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera e Odonata) e 1 ordem de Arachnida (Araneae), com preferência por larvas de Lepidoptera. A média de proteína transportada é de 15,3 mg e o peso diário estimado é de 522,6 mg, o que indica mais de 12000 presas por ano.The prey items utilized by Polybia (Trichothorax) sericea comprise 6 orders of Insecta (Lepidoptera, Hymenoptera, Collembola, Hemiptera and Odon...

  18. Ocorrência de Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986(Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae em plantios experimentais de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh em Manaus (Amazonas, Brasil Occurrence of Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson, Brown & Burckhardt, 1986 (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae in experimental plantations of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh in Manaus (Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Luís Leitão Barbosa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O cultivo de camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh tem apresentado inúmeros problemas fitossanitários, dentre os quais, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, que constantemente é citada como praga secundária. Os objetivos deste estudo foram determinar o nível e a intensidade de infestação (% por T. cognata e estudar aspectos do ciclo biológico e do comportamento de T. cognata, em plantios experimentais de camu-camu. Foram selecionados, de forma aleatória, 17 e 14 exemplares nos plantios I e II, respectivamente. Para cada uma das variáveis estudadas, foram calculados a média aritmética, o desviopadrão, a variância e a amplitude de variação. Foi verificado um nível de infestação de 82% (plantio I e 57% (plantio II, uma intensidade de infestação de 94% (plantio I e 75% (plantio II e uma média de seis ninfas/folha em cada plantio, o que indica que T. cognata representa uma das pragas-chave dessa cultura. Foram observados adultos de Chrysoperla sp. (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae e ninfas de Reduviidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, que podem atuar como prováveis agentes de controle biológico de T. cognata.The cultivation of camu-camu Myrciaria dubia (H.B.K. Mc Vaugh has presented countless phytosanitary problems, among them, Tuthillia cognata Hodkinson et al. (Hemiptera: Homoptera, Psyllidae, which often is noticed as a secondary pest. This study aimed to determine the level and the intensity of infestation (% for T. cognata, as well as to study the biological cycle and behavioural aspects of T. cognata, in experimental plantation of camu-camu. 17 and 14 specimens from plantation I and II, respectively, were randomly selected. The arithmetic average, the standard deviation, the variance and the total amplitude were calculated for each studied variable. A level of infestation of 82% (plantation I and 57% (plantation II, an intensity of infestation of 94% (plantation I and 75% (plantation II and an

  19. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea V. Andorno; Silvia N. López; Eduardo N. Botto

    2007-01-01

    Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae) se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae) en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer) fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday,...

  20. Lethal and Inhibitory Activities of Plant-Derived Essential Oils Against Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Biotype B in Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanela, T L M; Baldin, E L L; Pannuti, L E R; Cruz, P L; Crotti, A E M; Takeara, R; Kato, M J

    2016-04-01

    The silverleaf whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is one of the most severe tomato pests in the world. The damage caused by this insect may compromise up to 100% of crop production, and management of this pest has relied on spraying of synthetic insecticides. However, due to the environmental issues associated with this practice, alternative methods such as the use of botanical pesticides are now used as a strategy of integrated pest management (IPM). We evaluated the effects of essential oils of five plant species on B. tabaci biotype B in tomato and demonstrate that the essential oils (0.5%) of Piper callosum (PC-EO), Adenocalymma alliaceum (AA-EO), Pelargonium graveolens (PG-EO), and Plectranthus neochilus (PN-EO) inhibit the settlement and oviposition of B. tabaci biotype B adults in tomato plants. In fumigation tests, A. alliaceum (AA-EO) at 0.4 μL/L of air after 72 h and 0.1 μL/L of air after 6 h was the most effective against nymphs and adults of B. tabaci biotype B, respectively. The major chemical constituents of PC-EO were identified as being safrole (29.3%), α-pinene (19.2%), and β-pinene (14.3%), whereas diallyl trisulfide (66.9%) and diallyl disulfide (23.3%) were the major compounds identified in AA-EO. This is the first report on the reduction of oviposition by the use of P. callosum (PC-EO) and A. alliaceum (AA-EO). In addition, the fumigant effect of A. alliaceum (AA-EO) on nymphs and adults has also been reported here for the first time. PMID:26712319

  1. Toxicity and Residual Activity of Insecticides Against Tamarixia triozae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a Parasitoid of Bactericera cockerelli (Hemiptera: Triozidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Cruz, Alfonso; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Lomeli-Flores, J Refugio; Ortega-Arenas, Laura D; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Pineda, Samuel

    2015-10-01

    Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc) (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is one of the most economically important pests of potato, tomato, and peppers in Central America, Mexico, the United States, and New Zealand. Its control is based on the use of insecticides; however, recently, the potential of the eulophid parasitoid Tamarixia triozae (Burks) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) for population regulation has been studied. Because T. triozae is likely to be exposed to insecticides on crops, the objective of this study was to explore the compatibility of eight insecticides with this parasitoid. The toxicity and residual activity (persistence) of spirotetramat, spiromesifen, beta-cyfluthrin, pymetrozine, azadirachtin, imidacloprid, abamectin, and spinosad against T. triozae adults were assessed using a method based on the residual contact activity of each insecticide on tomato leaf discs collected from treated plants growing under greenhouse conditions. All eight insecticides were toxic to T. triozae. Following the classification of the International Organization of Biological Control, the most toxic were abamectin and spinosad, which could be placed in toxicity categories 3 and 4, respectively. The least toxic were azadirachtin, pymetrozine, spirotetramat, spiromesifen, imidacloprid, and beta-cyfluthrin, which could be placed in toxicity category 2. In terms of persistence, by day 5, 6, 9, 11, 13, 24, and 41 after application, spirotetramat, azadirachtin, spiromesifen, pymetrozine, imidacloprid, beta-cyfluthrin, abamectin, and spinosad could be considered harmless, that is, placed in toxicity category 1 (<25% mortality of adults). The toxicity and residual activity of some of these insecticides allow them to be considered within integrated pest management programs that include T. triozae. PMID:26453717

  2. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  3. Population Fluctuation and Altitudinal Distribution of Tetraleurodes perseae (Nakahara) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in Avocado (Lauraceae) in Morelos, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Palacios, Daniel; Bautista-Martínez, Néstor; Lagunes-Tejeda, Ángel; Carrillo-Sánchez, José Luis; Nieto-Ángel, Daniel; García-Gutiérrez, Cipriano

    2016-01-01

    Although whiteflies Tetraleurodes perseae (Nakahara) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) are considered a secondary pest of avocado crops, their presence and the damages that they cause can decrease crop vigor and affect production. The objective of the present work was to determine the population fluctuation and altitudinal distribution of the T. perseae Nakahara whitefly in avocado trees, as well as to determine the number of possible generations in one year. The study was done in three orchards in Morelos state, located at different altitudes, from February 2014 to April 2015. Samplings were done every 21 days from 10 randomly chosen trees in each orchard. The samples were taken randomly from the middle stratus (1.6 m in height) of each tree; in buds or young leaves for the number of adults and leaves only for nymphs. Additionally, two yellow traps (7 × 14 cm) with glue were placed in each tree for adult samplings. Data were collected regarding vegetative budding, rainfall, relative humidity, and temperature. T. perseae was present in all three sampled orchards, with a greater presence in the lowest orchard, during the whole study period. In the orchard with the lowest altitudinal gradient (1,736 masl), 11 whitefly generations developed; 10 generations developed in the medium gradient orchard (1,934 masl); and 8 generations developed in the highest orchard (2,230 masl). The adults showed a positive relationship with regard to vegetative buds, while the nymphs had a negative relationship with regard to relative humidity. The rest of the parameters showed diverse effects on the species depending on the altitude of the orchard. PMID:27658809

  4. Morphological differences among egg nests and adult individuals of Cicadatra persica (Hemiptera, Cicadidae, distributed in Erneh, Syria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marah Dardar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is determining the different patterns of egg nests and the morphological differences between the specimens of Cicadatra persica Kirkalidy, 1909 (Hemiptera: Cicadidae distributed in fruit orchards in Erneh located on AL-Sheikh mountain southwest of Syria. The appearance of 80 egg nests was studied, and the results showed that there were two basic patterns of egg nests laid by C. persica, 90% of the egg nests were of the first pattern (consists of several adjacent slits, while 10% of them were of the second pattern (consists of several divergent slits. A random sample consisting of 300 specimens (150 males and 150 females were also studied concentrating on the differences in the color of the supra-antennal plate and in the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. The results showed that there were two basic patterns of individuals based on the differences in the color of supra-antennal plate. The first pattern (individuals with yellow supra-antennal plates, constituted more than 90%, and the second one (individuals with black supra-antennal plates constituted less than 10%. The results also showed that there were 27 different patterns based on the number of spurs on the tibia of the hind legs. One of them was a common pattern (2, 3 whose individuals have 2 spurs on the upper side of the tibia of the hind legs and 3 spurs on the lateral side of the tibia of the hind legs. The total percent of this common pattern was 76%. The other 26 patterns were different from each other, and the total percent of all these different patterns was 24%.

  5. Evaluation of six different groups of insecticides for the control of citrus psylla Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhmin Gul

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies on the efficacy of different insecticides against citrus psylla, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae were carried out at Agricultural Research Institute, Tarnab, Peshawar, Pakistan. Six insecticides viz. Actara 25 WG, (thiamethoxam Cascade 10 DC (Flufenoxuron, Match 050 EC (lufenuron, Thiodan 35 EC (endosulfan, Karate 2.5 EC (α-cyhalothrin, and Supracide 40 EC (methidathion, were tested for their effectiveness against D. citri. After first spray overall mean population of D. citri was 3.63, 4.75, 5.59, 6.66, 7.47, 8.11 per six inches tender shoot on Actara 25 WG, Cascade 10 DC, Match 050 EC, Thiodan 35 EC, Karate 2.5 EC and Supracide 40 EC treated plants respectively, while on control plants the population was 12.39. Similarly, after the second spray of each of the same insecticides the population of D. citri was 2.65, 4.23, 5.61, 6.41, 7.35 and 8.73 respectively. Where in controls there were 15.18 psyllids. Percent decrease of D. citri population in comparison to control after the first spray was highest in Actara 25 WG (72.20 followed by Cascade 10 DC (62.91, Match 050 EC (54.07, Thiodan 35 EC (47.61, Karate 2.5 EC (38.94 and Supracide 40 EC (35.74. After the second spray percent decrease over control recorded was highest in Actara 25 WG (83.54, followed by Cascade 10 DC (71.08, Match 050 EC (63.94, Thiodan 35 EC (60.79, Karate 2.5 EC (52.52 and Supracide 40 EC (45.62.

  6. The Effect of an Interspersed Refuge on Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), Their Natural Enemies, and Biological Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varenhorst, A J; O'Neal, M E

    2016-02-01

    Soybean production in the north central United States has relied heavily on the use of foliar and seed applied insecticides to manage Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae). An additional management strategy is the use soybean cultivars containing A. glycines resistance genes (Rag). Previous research has demonstrated that Rag cultivars are capable of preventing yield loss equivalent to the use of foliar and seed-applied insecticides.However, the presence of virulent biotypes in North America has raised concern for the durability of Rag genes. A resistance management program that includes a refuge for avirulent biotypes could limit the frequency at which virulent biotypes increase within North America. To what extent such a refuge reduces the effectiveness of aphid-resistant soybean is not clear. We conducted an experiment to determine whether a susceptible refuge mixed into resistant soybean (i.e., interspersed refuge or refuge-in-a-bag) affects the seasonal exposure of aphids, their natural enemies, biological control, and yield protection provided by aphid resistance. We compared three ratios of interspersed refuges (resistant: susceptible; 95:5, 90:10, 75:25) to plots grown with 100%susceptible or resistant soybean. We determined that an interspersed refuge of at least 25% susceptible seed would be necessary to effectively produce avirulent individuals. Interspersed refuges had negligible effects onyield and the natural enemy community. However, there was evidence that they increased the amount of biological control that occurred within a plot. We discuss the compatibility of interspersed refuges for A. glycines management and whether resistance management can prolong the durability of Rag genes.

  7. Impact of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and natural enemies on Myzus persicae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infestations in pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutard-Hunt, Caroline; Smart, Christine D; Thaler, Jennifer; Nault, Brian A

    2009-12-01

    Management of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in bell pepper, Capsicum annuum L., was explored through a combination of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and endemic biological control in New York in 2006 and 2007. We hypothesized that by using PGPR-treated peppers 1) M. persicae infestations would be reduced via induced resistance, 2) natural enemies would be lured to plants through the elicitation of volatile organic compounds, and 3) yield amount and quality would be improved. Pepper seed was planted in soil containing the PGPR formulation BioYield or untreated soil. Plants were transplanted to field plots and then treated with an insecticide regimen designed to remove or conserve populations of natural enemies. Apterous aphids and natural enemies were counted weekly on plants and pepper fruit were harvested, graded and weighed three times. PGPR did not directly or indirectly reduce aphid densities in either year. In 2006, there were more natural enemies in PGPR-treated plots than untreated ones, but this was probably a density-dependent response to aphid densities rather than a response of natural enemies to volatiles from PGPR-treated plants. For the first harvest date in 2006, yield of all fruit grades, especially the premium Fancy Grade, was 1.7-2.3 times greater in PGPR-treated plots than in untreated plots. However, no differences in yield were observed for the other two harvest dates or overall yield in 2006; no differences in yield among treatments were detected in 2007. Our results suggest that PGPR will not significantly impact M. persicae infestations or natural enemy populations but could enhance yield and quality of pepper fruit in some years.

  8. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudapati Sreedevi

    Full Text Available Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.. Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively. Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  9. Bioclimatic thresholds, thermal constants and survival of mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (hemiptera: pseudococcidae) in response to constant temperatures on hibiscus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, Gudapati; Prasad, Yenumula Gerard; Prabhakar, Mathyam; Rao, Gubbala Ramachandra; Vennila, Sengottaiyan; Venkateswarlu, Bandi

    2013-01-01

    Temperature-driven development and survival rates of the mealybug, Phenacoccussolenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) were examined at nine constant temperatures (15, 20, 25, 27, 30, 32, 35 and 40°C) on hibiscus (Hibiscusrosa -sinensis L.). Crawlers successfully completed development to adult stage between 15 and 35°C, although their survival was affected at low temperatures. Two linear and four nonlinear models were fitted to describe developmental rates of P. solenopsis as a function of temperature, and for estimating thermal constants and bioclimatic thresholds (lower, optimum and upper temperature thresholds for development: Tmin, Topt and Tmax, respectively). Estimated thresholds between the two linear models were statistically similar. Ikemoto and Takai's linear model permitted testing the equivalence of lower developmental thresholds for life stages of P. solenopsis reared on two hosts, hibiscus and cotton. Thermal constants required for completion of cumulative development of female and male nymphs and for the whole generation were significantly lower on hibiscus (222.2, 237.0, 308.6 degree-days, respectively) compared to cotton. Three nonlinear models performed better in describing the developmental rate for immature instars and cumulative life stages of female and male and for generation based on goodness-of-fit criteria. The simplified β type distribution function estimated Topt values closer to the observed maximum rates. Thermodynamic SSI model indicated no significant differences in the intrinsic optimum temperature estimates for different geographical populations of P. solenopsis. The estimated bioclimatic thresholds and the observed survival rates of P. solenopsis indicate the species to be high-temperature adaptive, and explained the field abundance of P. solenopsis on its host plants.

  10. Performance of the Striped Mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) under Variable Conditions of Temperature and Mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, M D; Barbosa, P R R; Silva-Torres, C S A; Torres, J B

    2014-02-01

    Mealybugs have strong associations with their host plants due to their limitations for dispersal. Thus, environmental conditions and host quality may impact the biological traits of mealybugs. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to report on the biology of a Brazilian population of the striped mealybug Ferrisia virgata Cockerell (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), which has recently been reported to infest cotton in Brazil. We evaluated the development and reproductive performance of F. virgata reared under different temperatures (25, 27, and 28°C) and mating status. The type of reproduction was also studied with insects reared on a factitious host and on cotton plants. Shorter development was obtained at 28°C as follows: nymphs generating males and females exhibited three and four instars with a mean duration of 19.1 and 20.5 days, respectively. The nymphal viability ranged from 77 to 96%, and was highest at 25°C. Females reared at 28°C initiated reproduction earlier (16.4 days), but the reproductive period was similar in all temperatures (∼16.2 days). Females produced more nymphs at 27 and 28°C (440 and 292 neonates) than at 25°C (277 neonates), although they lived longer at 25°C (63 days). Ferrisia virgata females exhibited only sexual reproduction. Thus, only mated females produced offspring, whereas unmated females died without reproducing. Therefore, the studied population of F. virgata exhibited only sexual reproduction with high survival and offspring production when fed cotton. Furthermore, pumpkin is a feasible host for mass rearing this mealybug species in the laboratory, an opening avenue for future studies.

  11. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato leaves infested with an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Juan; Lu, Yao-Bin; Huang, Fang; Li, Ming-Jiang

    2013-10-01

    Herbivore injury has indirect effects on the growth and performance of host plants through photosynthetic suppression. It causes uncertain reduction in photosynthesis, which likely depends on the degree of infestation. Rapid light curves provide detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport as well as the overall photosynthetic performance of a plant. We examined the effects of different intensities of infestation of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on the relative chlorophyll content and rapid light curves of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves using a chlorophyll meter and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement system, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. After 38 d of P. solenopsis feeding, relative chlorophyll content of tomato plants with initial high of P. solenopsis was reduced by 57.3%. Light utilization efficiency (α) for the initial high-density treatment was reduced by 42.4%. However, no significant difference between initial low-density treatment and uninfested control was found. The values of the maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance for initial high-density treatment were reduced by 82.0 and 69.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for low-density treatment were reduced by 55.9 and 58.1%, respectively. These data indicated that changes were induced by P. solenopsis feeding in the relative chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of infested tomato plants. The results indicating that low initial infestation by P. solenopsis caused no change in relative leaf chlorophyll content or light utilization efficiency could have been because the plants rapidly adapted to P. solenopsis feeding or because of compensatory photosynthesis.

  12. A new gall-inducing genus and species of Eriococcidae (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccoidea) on Sapindaceae from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Chris; Isaias, Rosy M S; Oliveira, D C

    2013-11-06

    A new gall-inducing genus and species of felt scales (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Eriococcidae) found on the leaves and twigs of Matayba guianensis (Sapindaceae) in Brazil is described: Bystracoccus Hodgson gen n. and B. mataybae Hodgson, Isaias & Oliveira sp. n.  This is the first record of an eriococcid inducing leaf and stem galls on Sapindaceae and is only the second example of a member of the Eriococcidae to induce stem galls in which the insects diapause during the dry (winter) season.  Only the adult female, second-instar female and crawler are known.  The species overwinters as the first-instar nymph in pit galls on the twigs but spends the rest of the year associated with two-chambered galls on the leaves.  It has recently become clear that South America has a rich felt-scale insect fauna many of which induce galls. It has proved very difficult to place this new genus in a family as it appears to fall between the Eriococcidae and Beesoniidae but is here placed in the eriococcids based on the similarity of the first-instar nymphs and the abundance of this family in the Neotropics.  However, the dorsum of the abdomen of the mature adult female becomes heavily sclerotised, forming a round plug-like structure that completely fills the gall orifice.  This structure shows remarkable morphological similarities to that of the beesoniid Danumococcus parashoreae Takagi & Hodgson found on Parashorea tomentella (Dipterocarpaceae) in Sabah, Malaysia, with which it is compared along with other eriococcid genera known from South America.

  13. Characterization and activity of entomopathogenic fungi isolates against “paraguay tea ampul” (Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Lizer & Trelles (Hemiptera: Psyllidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Andressa Formentini

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Paraguay tea is a native crop of southern Brazil and is also socioeconomically important in Paraguay and Argentina. One of the main pests of this crop is Gyropsylla spegazziniana (Hemiptera: Psyllidae. As there are no registered insecticides for this pest in Brazil, the use of entomopathogenic fungi is an alternative method for its control. This study aimed to evaluate and characterize isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Beauveria spp., Metarhizium anisopliae, Isaria spp. and Lecanicillium spp. on G. spegazziniana. For this purpose, 5th instar nymphs were transferred to Paraguay tea seedlings, followed by spraying of conidial suspensions (1 × 109 conidia mL-1 and then placing the seedlings in polyvinyl chloride (PVC cages and maintaining them in a temperature-controlled room (26 ± 1°C, 12h00 photophase, 60 ± 10% R.H.. Insect mortality was evaluated daily for 10 days, and the selected isolates were characterized according to their vegetative growth, conidial production in synthetic culture medium and rice and insecticidal activity as well as through molecular analyses, including sequencing the rDNA-ITS region and RAPD analysis. The genus Beauveria spp. was the most efficient, particularly the Unioeste 44 isolate, which caused the greatest total mortality of G. spegazziniana (81.7% and showed among the highest conidial production levels on rice, indicating a significant potential to be used in an integrated management program for this pest. Molecular analysis of the rDNA-ITS region allowed the isolates to be identified as B. bassiana and B. brongniartii, and RAPD markers were found to be associated with virulence.

  14. Genetic Variability of Stolbur Phytoplasma in Hyalesthes obsoletus (Hemiptera: Cixiidae) and its Main Host Plants in Vineyard Agroecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Lucia; Riolo, Paola; Murolo, Sergio; Romanazzi, Gianfranco; Nardi, Sandro; Isidoro, Nunzio

    2015-08-01

    Bois noir is an economically important grapevine yellows that is induced by 'Candidatus Phytoplasma solani' and principally vectored by the planthopper Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Hemiptera: Cixiidae). This study explores the 'Ca. P. solani' genetic variability associated to the nettle-H. obsoletus and bindweed-H. obsoletus systems in vineyard agroecosystems of the central-eastern Italy. Molecular characterization of 'Ca. P. solani' isolates was carried out using polymerase chain reaction/restriction fragment length polymorphism to investigate the nonribosomal vmp1 gene. Seven phytoplasma vmp-types were detected among the host plants- and insect-associated field-collected samples. The vmp1 gene showed the highest polymorphism in the bindweed-H. obsoletus system, according to restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, which is in agreement with nucleotide sequence analysis. Five vmp-types were associated with H. obsoletus from bindweed, of which one was solely restricted to planthoppers, with one genotype also in planthoppers from nettle. Type V12 was the most prevalent in both planthoppers and bindweed. H. obsoletus from nettle harbored three vmp-types, of which V3 was predominant. V3 was the only type detected for nettle. Our data demonstrate that planthoppers might have acquired some 'Ca. P. solani' profiles from other plant hosts before landing on nettle or bindweed. Overall, the different vmp1 gene rearrangements observed in these two plant hosts-H. obsoletus systems might represent different adaptations of the pathogen to the two host plants. Molecular information about the complex of vmp-types provides useful data for better understanding of Bois noir epidemiology in vineyard agroecosystem. PMID:26470289

  15. Evaluation of a method to quantify glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) egg maturation during a feeding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisterson, Mark S

    2014-02-01

    A method to improve an assay relating adult feeding to egg maturation by the glassy-winged sharpshooter (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) was evaluated. The assay consisted on confining females to cowpea stems and quantifying feeding and egg maturation. Feeding was quantified by measuring excreta production. The number of eggs matured during the assay was estimated by taking the difference between female egg load (number of mature eggs carried by a female) at end of the assay (determined by dissection) and mean egg load of a subset of females dissected at start of the assay. Estimates of the number of mature eggs produced by females using the aforementioned approach improve as variability in egg loads of females entering the assay declines. As egg loads of females are variable, a pretreatment designed to reduce variance in egg loads of females entering the assay was evaluated. To accomplish this, females were divided into two groups. The control group was placed directly into the assay. The pretreatment group was given an oviposition period on sorghum before the assay. An oviposition period on sorghum was expected to reduce variance in egg load among females, as previous research found that sorghum was suitable for oviposition but provided poor nutrition for egg maturation. Dissection of a subset of females from each group before the assay determined that the mean and variance in egg load of females receiving the pretreatment was significantly reduced compared with females in the control group. Analysis of results from the feeding assay found that there was a significant relationship between feeding and egg maturation for females receiving the pretreatment, but not for females in the control group. Thus, reducing the mean and variance in egg load of females entering feeding assays resulted in detection of a significant positive relationship between feeding and egg maturation that otherwise would not have been observed.

  16. Determination of biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) and insights into the taxonomic relationships of their hosts, Cylindropuntia spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathenge, C W; Holford, P; Hoffmann, J H; Zimmermann, H G; Spooner-Hart, R; Beattie, G A C

    2010-06-01

    Host specialization to form biotypes is common among phytophagous insects, and it has been hypothesised that biotypes of Dactylopius tomentosus L. (Hemiptera: Dactylopiidae) occur. D. tomentosus is an important biological control agent for Cylindropuntia cacti when they occur as weeds. Additionally, there is uncertainty surrounding the taxonomic status of some species of Cylindropuntia. This study aimed to confirm the existence of D. tomentosus biotypes and to assess whether host specialization can help to resolve this systematic uncertainty. For this study, the host specificity and performance of ten provenances of D. tomentosus collected from C. cholla, C. fulgida var. fulgida, C. imbricata, C. f. var. mamillata, C. rosea and C. tunicata and reared on C. cholla, C. fulgida var. fulgida, C. imbricata and C. rosea were investigated. Five life-history parameters were measured including: crawler development time and survival, female development time, and the weight and number of eggs produced by females. Results revealed significant variation in host specificity with provenances either thriving, surviving or dying on the different hosts, thus demonstrating the existence of biotypes. Also, host specificity was related to host species and not to the geographic locality from which either the host or provenance was sourced. These findings suggest that the characteristics of Cylindropuntia species may differ sufficiently, there by presenting different selection pressures that induce and sustain distinct biotypes of D. tomentosus. The observed host use patterns of the biotypes separated the plant species into two groups that accorded with known phylogenetic relationships among Cylindropuntia species, suggesting that biotypes can be used to elucidate their taxonomic relatedness. Besides advancing our knowledge of the ecology and evolution of D. tomentosus, these novel findings have important implications for the biological control of Cylindropuntia species. PMID:20003574

  17. Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertility life table of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae). The evaluation of the growth potential of Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson) is important for its use in biological control programs of aphids. This work aimed to evaluate the fertility life table of L. testaceipes in Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) and Aphis gossypii Glover. To determine the immature mortality, development and the sex ratio of the parasitoid, 12 females parasitoid, and 480 nymphs of each aphids were used. To evaluate the longevity and fertility 15 female parasitoid were used. Nymphs of each aphid (3 day old) were offered for each parasitoid female daily, until the female died, being 300 (first day); 250 (second day); 200 (third day); 150 (fourth day) and 50 nymphs in the other days. L. testaceipes showed immature mortality rates of 5.6 % in R. maidis and 9.2 % in A. gossypii. The development time of L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii was 10.2 and 10.1 days, and the sex ratio of 0.71 and 0.66, respectively. The female of L. testaceipes had a fecundity of 498.8 eggs in R. maidis and 327.8 eggs in A. gossypii. The growth parameters the L. testaceipes in R. maidis and A. gossypii were, respectively Ro= 205.38 and 164.08 females; rm= 0.449 and 0.431 females/females/day; λ= 1.57 and 1.54 females/day; T= 11.86 and 11.83 days and TD= 10.78 and 11.27 days. L. testaceipes showed great growth potential on both aphid hosts. R. maidis could be a suitable host for proposals of mass-rearing and open rearing system using L. testaceipes. (author)

  18. Insecticidal Potential of Clove Essential Oil and Its Constituents on Cacopsylla chinensis (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) in Laboratory and Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Liang; Liu, Qi-Zhi; Liu, Zhi-Long; Li, Peng; Wang, Jie-Wen

    2015-06-01

    Cacopsylla chinensis (Yang and Li) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of pear in China. As an alternative to conventional chemical pesticides, botanicals including essential oils and their constituents could provide an eco-friendly and nonhazardous control method. In this study, the essential oil of clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum) was obtained by hydrodistillation. Five constituents, accounting for 99.89% of the oil, were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and the major constituents were eugenol (88.61%) and eugenol acetate (8.89%), followed by β-caryophyllene (1.89%). In a laboratory bioassay, clove essential oil, commercial eugenol (99.00%) and β-caryophyllene (98.00%) exhibited strong contact toxicity against the summerform adults of C. chinensis with LD50 values of 0.730, 0.673, and 0.708 µg/adult, and against the nymphs with LD50 values of 1.795, 1.668, and 1.770 µg/nymph, respectively. In contrast, commercial eugenol acetate (98%) had LD50 values of 9.266 µg/adult and 9.942 µg/nymph. In a field trial, clove essential oil caused significant population reductions of 73.01% (4.80 mg/ml), 66.18% (2.40 mg/ml) and 46.56% (1.20 mg/ml), respectively. Our results demonstrated that clove essential oil and its constituents have potential as a source of natural insecticides. PMID:26470216

  19. The complete mitochondrial genome of the stalk-eyed bug Chauliops fallax Scott, and the monophyly of Malcidae (Hemiptera: Heteroptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teng Li

    Full Text Available Chauliops fallax Scott, 1874 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Malcidae: Chauliopinae is one of the most destructive insect pests of soybean and rice fields in Asia. Here we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome of this pest. This genome is 15,739 bp long, with an A+T content of 73.7%, containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and a control region. All genes were arranged in the same order as most of other Heteroptera. A remarkable strand bias was found for all nine protein coding genes (PCGs encoded by the majority strand were positive AT-skew and negative GC-skew, whereas the reverse were found in the remaining four PCGs encoded by the minority strand and two rRNA genes. The models of secondary structures for the two rRNA genes of sequenced true bugs and Lygaeoidea were predicted. 16S rRNA consisted of six domains (domain III is absent as in other known arthropod mitochondrial genomes and 45 helices, while three domains and 27 helices for 12S rRNA. The control region consists of five subregions: a microsatellite-like region, a tandem repeats region and other three motifs. The unusual intergenic spacer between tRNA-H and ND4 only found in the species of Lygaeoidea, not in other heteropteran species, may be the synapomorphy of this superfamily. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out based on all the 13 PCGs showed that Chauliopinae was the sister group of Malcinae and the monophyly of Lygaeoidea.

  20. Venoms of Heteropteran Insects: A Treasure Trove of Diverse Pharmacological Toolkits

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew A Walker; Christiane Weirauch; Fry, Bryan G; Glenn F. King

    2016-01-01

    The piercing-sucking mouthparts of the true bugs (Insecta: Hemiptera: Heteroptera) have allowed diversification from a plant-feeding ancestor into a wide range of trophic strategies that include predation and blood-feeding. Crucial to the success of each of these strategies is the injection of venom. Here we review the current state of knowledge with regard to heteropteran venoms. Predaceous species produce venoms that induce rapid paralysis and liquefaction. These venoms are powerfully insec...

  1. Common tachinid flies of China(Insecta: Diptera)as flower visitors and pollinators%中国常见的访花传粉寄蝇(昆虫纲:双翅目)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欣丽; 范宏烨; 王强; 崔乐; 张春田

    2012-01-01

    访花传粉是显花植物和动物(主要是昆虫、鸟类和蝙蝠)协同进化的结果,已知显花植物85%是由昆虫传媒授粉的.双翅目寄蝇科是一类重要的访花传粉昆虫,突颜寄蝇亚科和寄蝇族等成虫最常见于各类显花植物上.报告了我国常见的访花传粉寄蝇科4亚科18族54属119种物种名录,它们在农林牧业生产、植物保护、害虫生物控制及维护生态系统平衡稳定中意义重大,但还没有被认识和利用.%The flower visitors and pollinators are good examples of co-evolution as the results of biological interactions between animals (mainly insects, birds and bats) and flower plants ( = phanerogams). It is known that 85% flower plants are pollinated by the insects. The adults of Tachinidae (Insecta, Diptera) such as Phasiinae and Tachinini are important insects of flower visitors and pollinators and are seen commonly on different kinds of flowers and may function as pollinators for a wide diversity of plant taxa, but their importance in this respect has been largely unexplored. In this study, a checklist of the common Tachinidae of China as flower visitors and pollinators is reviewed by the observation of tachinid specimens, references, photos and collecting experiences, including 119 tachinid species of 54 genera, 18 tribes of 4 subfamilies. These tachinid flies play a significant role as natural enemies in the production of agriculture, forestry and animal husbandry on grasslands, plant protection, biological control of pests and the stability of terrestrial ecological communities. But they have not been fully unterstood and used.

  2. Description of female nymphal instars and adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) based on specimens from Crete and mainland Greece, with a discussion on geographical variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, Francesco; Pellizzari, Giuseppina

    2014-10-22

    The first-instar nymph, second- and third-instar female nymphs and the adult female of Kermes echinatus Balachowsky (Hemiptera, Coccoidea, Kermesidae) are described and illustrated; micrographs of morphological details are also provided. The species was collected on the island of Crete (Greece) and on mainland Greece, new localities for this species, and are compared with Israeli specimens from where it was originally described.

  3. The jumping plant-louse Diaphorina teucrii sp. nov. (Hemiptera, Liviidae) associated with Teucrium (Lamiaceae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia dorchinae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) from the Negev desert, Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burckhardt, Daniel; Yefremova, Zoya; Yegorenkova, Ekaterina

    2015-01-01

    Adults and immatures of Diaphorina teucrii sp. nov. (Hemiptera, Liviidae, Euphyllurinae) and adults of Tamarixia dorchinae sp. nov. (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae, Tetrastichinae) from Israel are described, diagnosed and illustrated. D. teucrii sp. nov. develops on Teucrium capitatum (Lamiaceae), representing a family which was previously not recorded as a psyllid host from Israel, and is parasitised by Tamarixia dorchinae sp. nov. Identification keys are provided for the Diaphorina and Tamarixia species occurring in Israel. PMID:25781261

  4. Factors affecting the biological control of California red scale Aonidiella aurantii (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) by Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) in eastern Spain citrus: host size, ant activity, and adult parasitoid food sources

    OpenAIRE

    PEKAS, APOSTOLOS

    2011-01-01

    California red scale (CRS), Aonidiella aurantii (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Diaspididae), one of the most important pests of citrus worldwide, began to cause damages in eastern Spain in 1986. The main biological control agents of A. aurantii in this zone are the native parasitoid A. chrysomphali (Mercet) and the introduced A. melinus DeBach (both Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). Nevertheless, the control they exert is insufficient. In order to improve the biological control of A. aurantii we studied seve...

  5. Asociaciones áfido-parasitoide (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos en Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina Aphid-parasitoid associations (Hemiptera: Aphididae; Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops in Los Cardales, Buenos Aires, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea V. Andorno

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Diez especies de áfidos (Hemiptera: Aphididae se hallaron parasitados por siete especies de parasitoides (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae en cultivos hortícolas orgánicos. Myzus persicae (Sulzer fue el áfido más frecuentemente encontrado sobre una amplia variedad de cultivos, y con mayor diversidad de parasitoides asociados. Aphidius colemani Viereck fue el afidiino más usual, que ataca varias especies de áfidos. Ocho asociaciones tritróficas, involucrando Aphidius matricariae Haliday, han sido registradas por primera vez para la Argentina.Ten aphid species (Hemiptera: Aphididae were found parasitized by seven aphid parasitoid species (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae on organic vegetable crops. Myzus persicae (Sulzer was the most frequent aphid found on a wide variety of crops, with the largest parasitoid diversity associated. Aphidius colemani Viereck was the most frequent aphidiine attacking several species of aphids. Eight tritrophic associations involving Aphidius matricariae Haliday are reported for the first time for Argentina.

  6. Primer registro de Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en crías experimentales de dos especies plaga del maíz: Delphacodes kuscheli y D. haywardi (Hemiptera: Delphacidae en la Argentina First record of Conidiobolus coronatus (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in experimental breeding of two pest species of corn: Delphacodes kuscheli and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae in Argentine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Toledo

    Full Text Available Se investigó la ocurrencia natural del hongo entomopatógeno Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales en adultos de Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah y D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, criados sobre Hordeum vulgare L. bajo condiciones de invernadero. Los insectos muertos, por una sospechada infección fúngica, fueron recolectados, esterilizados superficialmente, y examinados en el laboratorio. Conidiobolus coronatus fue aislado en cultivos puros, descrito morfológicamente y depositado en colecciones micológicas. Este trabajo presenta el primer registro de C. coronatus contra insectos perjudiciales en la Argentina.The natural occurrence of the entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Costantin Batko (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales in adults of Delphacodes kuscheli Fennah and D. haywardi Muir (Hemiptera: Delphacidae, reared on Hordeum vulgare L. under greenhouse conditions, was investigated. Dead insects, suspected of fungal infection, were collected, surface sterilized, and examined in the laboratory. Conidiobolus coronatus was isolated in pure cultures, described morphologically, and deposited in mycological collections. This paper presents the first record of C. coronatus against harmful insects in Argentina.

  7. Primer registro del Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae como huésped nativo primario de Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae First record of Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae as primary native host of Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Cimicidae: Hemiptera: Heteroptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L Carpintero

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta como huésped primario nativo de la chinche Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae al Calancate Común Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Su presencia en la provincia del Chaco constituye además un nuevo registro distribucional de esta chinche en la República Argentina. Se agrega una breve discusión acerca de la taxonomía de la misma y se comparan algunos parámetros poblacionales con los de otras especies de cimícidos. Finalmente, se discuten las vías de infestación posibles en el estado actual de conocimiento, incluyendo otras aves (Furnariidae y murciélagos (Chiroptera.The primary natural host of cimicid bug Ornithocoris toledoi Pinto (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cimicidae is presented as Blue-Crowned Parrot Aratinga a. acuticaudata (Aves: Psittacidae. Its presence in the Chaco province is also a new distributional record of this bug in Argentina. A brief discussion about the taxonomy is also given and some population parameters are compared with those of other bug species. Finally, we discuss possible infestation ways in the current state of knowledge, including other birds (Furnariidae and bats (Chiroptera.

  8. Effect of trap color and orientation on the capture of Aphelinus mali (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a parasitoid of woolly apple aphid (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Elizabeth H

    2012-08-01

    The factors affecting trap capture of adult Aphelinus mali (Haldeman) (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) were studied in 2010-2011 in eastern Washington apple (Malus spp.) orchards infested with its host woolly apple aphid, Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). The initial study of white sticky cards indicated that traps stapled to the trunk in a vertical orientation had the highest capture. A factorial experiment of three colors (clear, white, and yellow) by three orientations (trunk, scaffold, and hanging) indicated that yellow traps and traps on trunks caught higher numbers ofA. mali. For this reason, the recommended trap for this natural enemy is a yellow trap stapled to the trunk. Having a readily available and effective sampling method for this species may be helpful in implementing biological control programs and assessing the impact of different spray regimes. PMID:22928315

  9. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California. PMID:26470214

  10. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method to distinguish three mealybug groups within the Planococcus citri-P. minor species complex (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rung, A; Miller, D R; Scheffer, S J

    2009-02-01

    The mealybug species Planococcus citri (Risso) and Planococcus minor (Maskell) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) have special significance to U.S. quarantine and U.S. agriculture. Commonly intercepted at U.S. ports-of-entry, they are difficult to identify based on morphological characters. This study presents a molecular method for distinguishing P. citri, P. minor, and a genetically distinct group that is morphologically identical to P. citri, from Hawaii. This method uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction fragment polymorphism analysis (RFLP) using the restriction enzymes BspH1, BsmH1, and HpH1. The resulting band patterns can be visualized in a 2% agarose gel and are sufficient to differentiate between the three entities mentioned above. PCR-RFLP diagnostics can be used for all life stages and is cheaper and faster than DNA sequencing.

  11. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided.

  12. First report of Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green, 1908) (Hemiptera: Coccoidea: Pseudococcidae) and the associated parasitoid Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsaro Júnior, A L; Peronti, A L B G; Penteado-Dias, A M; Morais, E G F; Pereira, P R V S

    2013-05-01

    The pink hibiscus mealybug (PHM), Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) and the associated hymenopterous parasitoid, Anagyrus kamali Moursi, 1948 (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), are reported for the first time in Brazil. Specimens of the PHM were collected on nine hosts plants, Annona muricata L. (Anonnaceae), Glycine max (L.) Merr. (Fabaceae), Centrolobium paraensis Tul. (Fabaceae), Inga edulis Mart. (Fabaceae), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (Malvaceae), Psidium guajava L. (Myrtaceae), Averrhoa carambola L. (Oxalidaceae), Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Rutaceae) and Solanum lycopersicum L. (Solanaceae), in four municipalities in the north-northeast of the state of Roraima. The plants C. paraensis, I. edulis and C. sinensis are recorded for the first time as a hosts for PHM. Characteristic injuries observed on the host plants infested by PHM and suggestions for its management are presented.

  13. Host Range Testing of Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) for Use in Classical Biological Control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bistline-East, Allison; Pandey, Raju; Kececi, Mehmet; Hoddle, Mark S

    2015-06-01

    Host range tests for Diaphorencyrtus aligarhensis (Shafee, Alam, & Agarwal) (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), an endoparasitoid of Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from Punjab Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species representing four psyllid families were exposed to mated D. aligarhensis females in four different treatment types: 1) short sequential no-choice treatments, 2) prolonged sequential no-choice treatments, 3) prolonged no-choice static treatments, and 4) choice treatments. Selection of nontarget psyllid species was based on phylogenetic proximity to D. citri, likelihood of being encountered by D. aligarhensis in the prospective release areas in California, and psyllid species in biological control of invasive weeds. D. aligarhensis exhibited high host affinity to D. citri, and only parasitized one nontarget species, the pestiferous potato psyllid, Bactericera cockerelli (Sulc), at low levels (citri. Results presented here suggest D. aligarhensis poses minimal risk to nontarget psyllid species in California.

  14. Description of a new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Encyrtidae), a promising biological control agent of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshkumar, A; Noyes, J S; Poorani, J; Chong, J H

    2013-01-01

    Anagyrus amnestos sp. n. (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a promising parasitoid of the invasive Madeira mealybug, Phenacoccus madeirensis Green (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), is described based on material collected from India. This parasitoid was identified as Anagyrus sp. nov. nr. sinope Noyes & Menezes in recent literature, and was initially collected in Georgia, USA. It was found to be a specific parasitoid of the Madeira mealybug and its biological attributes and potential as a biological control agent of this pest were studied. In what appears to be a case of fortuitous introduction, we detected this parasitoid in large numbers on Madeira mealybugs from the southern Indian state of Karnataka, where the mealybug is a recently introduced invasive pest. In view of its economic importance as a potential biological control agent of the Madeira mealybug, it is formally described and illustrated here. Comparative accounts of the new species vis-a-vis its close relatives in India and the Americas are provided. PMID:26176096

  15. Infestação de Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae em Plantas de Euterpe oleracea Martius (Arecaceae no Estado do Acre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Santos

    2015-04-01

    Abstract. The açai palm (Euterpe oleracea Martius is a native palm tree from the Amazon region floodplains and may be indicated as the most economically profitable species of this genus. Its fruit pulp is extracted and widely consumed by the population of northern Brazil in several ways. With the expansion of the planted area many factors may affect the production and limit the cultivation, highlighting the occurrence of insect pests that cause losses in production. This report presents the first occurrence of the leafhopper Aetalion reticulatum (Linnaeus (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Aethalionidae in E. oleracea plants. The occurrence of this insect associated with açai palms in Rio Branco, Acre, increases the list of hosts for this leafhopper in Brazil and reinforces the need for studies of population dynamics, survey of natural enemies, levels of damage and control methods in order to anticipate population outbreaks of this pest in commercial plantations of açai palms in the State.

  16. A study of the super-abundant Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) species complex (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in cassava Mosaic disease pandemic areas in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tajebe, Lensa Sefera

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a cryptic species complex comprising at least 35 morphologically indistinguishable species that exhibit high genetic variation. B. tabaci is the vector of cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs) causing cassava mosaic disease (CMD) to cassava...... (Manihot esculenta Crantz) – one of the most important food security crops in sub-Saharan Africa. After the outbreak and spread of a severe form of CMD from Uganda to several East and African countries, the production of cassava has been impaired causing severe yield loss resulting in food shortages...... the use of field survey and molecular approaches aimed to fill the knowledge gap to this effect and sought (i) to assess the genetic diversity and distribution of cassava-associated B. tabaci in CMD pandemicaffected areas in Tanzania and to establish the association of a distinct B. tabaci genotype...

  17. Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp. Red gum lerp psyllid Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psylidae biology in Eucalyptus spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cristina Firmino-Winckler

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biologia do psilídeo-de-concha Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em Eucalyptus spp.. Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore também conhecido por psilídeo-de-concha, se caracteriza por ser uma espécie específica ao gênero Eucalyptus L'Her. Este trabalho teve por objetivo determinar o ciclo biológico de G. brimblecombei em Eucalyptus spp. O trabalho foi conduzido em câmara climatizada (BOD, sob a temperatura de 26 °C e fotofase de 12 horas. As espécies de Eucalyptus utilizadas para o experimento foram: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora e um híbrido de E. grandis x E. urophylla ('urograndis'. Inicialmente foram utilizados 100 repetições (ninfas tratamento (espécies de Eucalyptus. As avaliações foram diárias. Os parâmetros biológicos avaliados foram a duração e viabilidade do estágio ninfal, longevidade dos adultos, número de posturas/fêmea, duração do período embrionário, número e viabilidade ovos, longevidade dos adultos e duração do ciclo total. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que salvo C. citriodora que apresentou ser letal ao desenvolvimento ninfal de G. brimblecombei as demais espécies de Eucalyptus testadas oferecem condições ao desenvolvimento biológico deste psilídeo, sendo que neste trabalho E. camaldulensis mostrou-se a mais adequada.Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore, also known as red gum lerp psyllid, is characterized to be specific to the genus Eucalyptus. This work aimed to evaluate G. brimblecombei biological cycle in Eucalyptus spp. The work was accomplished in acclimatized chamber (BOD, with temperature of 26 °C and photophase of 12 hours. Eucalyptus species used in this study were: Eucalyptus camaldulensis, E. tereticornis, E. urophylla, E. grandis, Corymbia citriodora and E grandis x E. urophylla hybrid ('urograndis'. Initially 100 replications (nymphs per treatment (Eucalyptus species were prepared. The evaluations were daily and

  18. Milkweed (Gentianales: Apocynaceae): a farmscape resource for increasing parasitism of stink bugs (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and providing nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, P G; Carpenter, J E

    2014-04-01

    In peanut-cotton farmscapes in Georgia, the stink bugs Nezara viridula (L.) and Chinavia hilaris (Say) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and the leaffooted bug, Leptoglossus phyllopus (L.) (Hemiptera: Coreidae), disperse at crop-to-crop interfaces to feed on bolls in cotton. The main objective of this study was to determine whether insecticide-free tropical milkweed (Asclepias curassavica L.), a nectar-producing plant, can increase parasitism of these bugs by Trichopoda pennipes (F.) (Diptera: Tachinidae) and provide nectar to monarch butterflies and insect pollinators in these farmscapes. Peanut-cotton plots with and without flowering milkweed plants were established in 2009 and 2010. Adult T. pennipes, monarch butterflies, honey bees, and native insect pollinators readily fed on floral nectar of milkweed. Monarch larvae feeding on milkweed vegetation successfully developed into pupae. In 2009, N. viridula was the primary host of T. pennipes in cotton, and parasitism of this pest by the parasitoid was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (61.6%) than in control cotton (13.3%). In 2010, parasitism of N. viridula, C. hilaris, and L. phyllopus by T. pennipes was significantly higher in milkweed cotton (24.0%) than in control cotton (1.1%). For both years of the study, these treatment differences were not owing to a response by the parasitoid to differences in host density, because density of hosts was not significantly different between treatments. In conclusion, incorporation of milkweed in peanut-cotton plots increased stink bug parasitism in cotton and provided nectar to insect pollinators and monarch butterflies. PMID:24763094

  19. Occurrence of Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae, in the county of Lages-SC, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda N. Lázzari

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A population survey of the giant conifer aphid Cinara spp. was carried out in two areas of Pinus elliottii using yellow pan traps, during two years, from July 1997 to June 1999. During the collection period, the predominant species was Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919, representing 99% of the collected species. A few specimens of Cinara maritimae (Dufour, 1833 and only one winged female of Cinara fresai Blanchard, 1939 were collected. The population of C. pinivora was statistically higher in the area with 4.5 year-old trees than in the 1.5 year-old ones. The highest population peaks were registered in July 1997 and in August 1998. An unexpected high number of winged parthenogenetic females was collected in December 1998. C. fresai Blanchard, 1939 is recorded for the first time for Brazil.Ocorrência de Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae em Pinus spp. (Pinaceae, em Lages-SC, Brasil O levantamento populacional do pulgão-gigante-do-pinus, Cinara spp. foi desenvolvido em duas áreas de plantio de Pinus elliottii utilizando armadilhas-amarelas-de-água, durante dois anos, de julho de 1997 a junho de 1999. Durante o período de coletas, a espécie predominante foi Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919, representando 99% de todas as espécies coletadas. Alguns espécimes de Cinara maritimae (Dufour, 1833 e apenas uma fêmea alada de Cinara fresai Blanchard, 1939 foram coletados, sendo este o primeiro registro de C. fresai no Brasil. A população de C. pinivora foi estatisticamente superior na área com árvores de 4,5 anos em relação à de 2,5 anos de idade. Os picos populacionais foram registrados em julho de 1997 e em agosto de 1998. Um inesperado número de fêmeas partenogenéticas aladas foi coletado em dezembro de 1998.

  20. Development and consumption capacity of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae fed with Cinara spp. (Hemiptera, Aphididae under three temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane T. Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The giant conifer aphids Cinara pinivora (Wilson, 1919 and Cinara atlantica (Wilson, 1919 (Hemiptera: Aphididae are pests on Pinus spp. (Pinaceae in the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Larvae of Chrysoperla externa (Hagen, 1861 (Neuroptera, Chrysopidae were observed feeding voraciously on these aphid colonies. In order to evaluate their potential as biological control agents, some biological parameters and their consumption capacity were studied in laboratory. Ten larvae were isolated in plastic vials and fed with aphids of small size (nymphs of 1st and 2nd instars and 10 with aphids of medium size (nymphs of 3rd and 4th instars, maintained at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, under 12:12 h photoperiod and 70 ± 10% RH, and observed daily. The egg incubation period was nine days at 20ºC and four days at 25ºC. The mean larval development period for C. externa was 59.5 days; 22.3 days and 10.9 days, respectively at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC. The pupal stage last 23.2 at 20ºC and 11.1 days at 25ºC. Unfortunately, data of egg and pupal development at 15ºC are not available because the rearing chamber overheated. The mortality rate from egg to adult was 46.2% 46.6% and 20.2% at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. The average aphid consumption of each C. externa larva to complete its development was 499.1; 341.7 and 215.1 small aphids, and 126.4; 105.6 and 67.0 medium aphids, at 15ºC, 20ºC and 25ºC, respectively. About 80% of the total food consumption was by the 3rd instar larvae. Although the development was faster and viability higher at 25ºC than at the other two temperatures, the consumption was the highest at 15ºC because the larval period was much longer. Therefore, the larvae of C. externa can be regarded as potential biological control agents of Cinara spp. throughout the year and even in cool areas of Southern Brazil during some periods o the year.

  1. Fumigant Toxicity of Petroselinum Crispum L. (Apiaceae Essential Oil on Trialeurodes Vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae Adults Under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoodi Leila

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae is one of the most harmful, world-wide known pests of greenhouse crops and ornamental plants. This insect feeds on plant sap, produces honeydew, and transmits plant viruses, while causing quantitative and qualitative damage to plants. For controlling this pest in greenhouses, plant essential oils are used as an alternative to chemical insecticidal. So in this study, fumigant toxicity of Petroselinum crispum L. (Apiaceae plant oil on the abovementioned adult pest was investigated. Dry seeds were ground and subjected to hydrodistillation using a modified Clevenger-type apparatus and the resulting oil contained myristicin (42.65%, β-phellandrene (21.83%, p-1,3,8-menthatriene (9.97%, and β-myrcene (4.25%. All bioassay tests were conducted at 27±2°C, 65±5% relative humidity (RH and at a photoperiod of 16 : 8 h (light : dark. This research was performed in a completely randomised design with six treatments (five different concentrations of essential oils plus the control. Each concentration included three replicates and each replicate consisted of 20 adult pests. The results showed that the aforementioned essential oil showed significant mortality of adults 24 h after exposure. The value LC50 of the mentioned plant oil on T. vaporariorum was 2.41 μl/l air. And mortality percentage showed higher sensitivity of T. vaporariorum against the application of the essential oil. The value LT50 estimated for T. vaporariorum in a concentration of 2.41 μl/l air was 8.17 h. The fumigant toxicity of this essential oil had an ordered relationship with the concentration and time exposure. The results of this research showed that the mentioned plant oil had appropriate insecticidal effects on these greenhouse pests. The findings showed that P. crispum oil had a high impact on the above-mentioned pest, and its use is suggested because of its high potential fumigant toxicity. The oil of P. crispum may be

  2. Bionomics of the apefly, Spalgis epius (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae, predatory on the papaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intawat Burikam

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the life history, growth ratio and feeding potential of the hemipterophagous butterfly or the apefly,Spalgis epius (Westwood (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae: Miletinae, a promising augmentative biological control agent of thepapaya mealybug, Paracoccus marginatus Williams & Granara de Willink (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae, which is an invasivealien species detected in 2008 in Thailand. The investigation was carried out under laboratory conditions at 25-30ºC and 40-60% RH using papaya mealybug reared on Thai pumpkin as its prey. The mean duration of the egg, larval and pupal stageswere 3.54±0.50, 12.01±2.40, and 10.32±0.88 days, respectively, and the mean duration from egg to adult emergence was 25.87±3.78 days. The geometric growth ratio of successive larval instars using the head capsule width as a parameter was 1.65 andconformed to Dyar’s Law. As for the predatory potential of S. epius, the total number of papaya mealybug consumed duringthe larval stage were 4,115.75±553.28 eggs, 281.25±45.08 nymphs and 77.50±16.52 female adults. The instar-specific preyconsumption from the first to fifth larval instars in the order of eggs, nymphs and female adults were 170.00±26.32, 4.25±1.71and 2.00±0.82; 654.00±67.97, 35.35±12.48 and 10.25±4.29; 1,376.75±130.95, 93.25±11.70 and 23.50±3.94; 1,426.50±252.93,110.75±15.60 and 31.00±5.25; and 31.00±5.25, 37.75±3.59 and 10.75±2.22, respectively. These findings warrant furtherinvestigation into the amenability and suitability of the entomophagous apefly, S. epius, for as an integrated pest managementstrategy for the augmentative biological control of the papaya mealybug in Thailand.

  3. Biologia de Neotrioza tavaresi Crawford, 1925 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae, galhador da folha do araçazeiro (Psidium cattleianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. A. Butignol

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Biology of the leaf gall inducer Neotrioza tavaresi Crawford, 1925 (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on strawberry guava tree (Psidium cattleianum. A field study was conducted in Curitiba region, State of Paraná, southern Brazil, to describe the life cycle of Neotrioza tavaresi Crawford, 1925, a leaf galling insect in strawberry guava trees (Psidium cattleianum. Three cycles were observed (1997, 1998, 1999 during regular field trips and the insects were observed in Piraquara municipality, where 15 samples with 50 infested leaves were sampled in the 1997-98 cycle. Galls were dissected for detailed studies. Neotrioza tavaresi has a univoltine cycle in which adult individuals were found inside the galls from August onwards. The sexually mature insects with sex ratio 1, emerged from the galls after their dehiscence caused by feeding of the adult insects on the gall walls. Adult emergence started in early October and ended by early December, with its peak in November. Copulation took place as soon as adults exit the gall and egg laying started the next day. Females had more than 100 ovarioles containing 218.7±44.7 (n=50 fully formed eggs. This indicated the short sexual adult life-span (aprox. 5-7 days of the species, also characterized by a concentrated oviposition. Adult individuals fed and laid their eggs on younger shoots of the plant. The bottoms of the yellowish eggs were inserted into the leaf tissue, mainly on its adaxial edge (78.1%. The nymphs hatched and, as they fed on the adaxial side of expanding leaves, modified the cell growth pattern and the round-shape galls developed on the adaxial side with one insect inside. The gall wall showed distinct layers, with the inner one suppliyng the food to the insects, and the outer layer supplying gall protection. Nymphs went through five instars and the exuviae remained stuck on a ball of wax inside the gall. All parasitoids found were Hymenoptera belonging to Chalcidoidea: Eulophidae (1 sp, Pteromalidae (2

  4. Quantifying dispersal of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) by immunomarking and potential impact of unmanaged groves on commercial citrus management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boina, Dhana Raj; Meyer, Wendy L; Onagbola, Ebenezer O; Stelinski, Lukasz L

    2009-08-01

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) is an important pest of citrus. It is an efficient vector of three bacterial pathogens that are the presumptive causal agents of huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening disease. The movement patterns and dispersal capabilities of D. citri require study to better understand the spread of HLB and to improve management strategies for D. citri. A recently developed immunomarking technique that uses crude food proteins (chicken egg albumin, bovine casein, and soy protein) was evaluated for marking and tracking movement of D. citri in Florida citrus groves. In general, both egg and milk protein markers exhibited longer residual activity (35 d) than the soy protein marker (20 d) when applied to citrus leaves with a residual activity order of egg > milk > soy protein. However, residues of all three protein markers decreased with a simulated rain; this was more pronounced for soy protein than for egg and milk proteins. Temperature did not significantly affect acquisition of markers by adult D. citri. Egg, milk, and soy protein markers were detected on >90% of adult D. citri for up to 10, 10, and 5 d, respectively, after field application. Addition of tetrasodium ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (water softener) and/or Silwet L-77 (wetting agent) to marker solutions did not affect longevity of detection. Each of the protein markers was detected on > or =80% of exposed D. citri for up to 30 d after direct application to adults. A field study was conducted to measure movement of D. citri between replicated pairs of 0.4 ha managed and unmanaged citrus plots separated by 60-100 m. Approximately 70% of captured D. citri were found marked 3 d after application of proteins in the field. Using two marker proteins, it was determined that D. citri moved bi-directionally between managed and unmanaged (abandoned) groves within 3 d with a greater number of D. citri adults moving from unmanaged into managed plots than from managed into

  5. Preference black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, to genotypes of cowpea = Preferência do pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae, a genótipos de feijão-caupi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Silva Lima

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cowpea is widely distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, being attacked by various insects, among these, the black aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. The aim of this study was to evaluate the preference of black aphid, to different cowpea genotypes. Two experiments were conducted in cages (3.0 x 1.6 x 2.0 m, with free choice and no-choice, a randomized block and completely randomized design, respectively, with four replications. The experimental unit consisted of one plant per plastic pot. The followed 15 cowpea genotypes were evaluated in the study: BRS Guariba, Pretinho Precoce 1, Apiaú, Sempre Verde, Cara-preta, BRS Mazagão, BRS Cauamé, BR 17 Gurguéia, Iracema, BRS Aracê, BRS Itaim, BRS Xiquexique, BRS Marataoã, BRS Tumucumaque and BRS Juruá. In the free-choice test, a potted plant infested with aphids was placed in the center of the cage with 15 pots of each genotype randomly distributed in a circle. After 24, 48 and 96 h were counted the number of adults and nymphs per plant. In the no-choice test, five females adult were placed in plants trapped in cages attached to the plants, being counted after 96 h, the number of live and dead females, and the number of nymphs. Cowpea genotypes BRS Cauamé, BRS Guariba e BRS Aracê showed feeding non-preference resistance and negatively interfere with the nymph’s production per female of A. craccivora. The genotypes Apiaú, BR 17 Gurguéia e BRS Mazagão are succeptible to A. craccivora. = O feijão-caupi está amplamente distribuído nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais do mundo, sendo atacado por diversos insetos, dentre esses, o pulgão-preto, Aphis craccivora Koch (Hemiptera: Aphididae. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a preferência de pulgão-preto a genótipos de feijão-caupi a partir de testes com e sem chance de escolha. Foram realizados experimentos em gaiolas (3,0 x 1,6 x 2,0 m, com e sem chance de escolha, utilizando delineamento

  6. Longevidade e parâmetros reprodutivos de Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae sobre berinjela em diferentes temperaturas Longevity and reproductive parameters of Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on eggplant at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Doniseti Michelotto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O afídeo Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae é uma das principais pragas de diversas culturas em condições de campo ou em cultivo protegido. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes temperaturas na longevidade e nos aspectos reprodutivos de M. persicae sobre berinjela (Solanum melongena L.. O experimento foi conduzido sob condições controladas de temperatura (15, 20, 25 e 30°C, umidade relativa do ar (70 ± 10% e fotofase (12 horas. As unidades experimentais consistiram de placas de Petri contendo ágar-água solidificado (1%. Nestas placas, os afídeos foram mantidos individualmente sobre os discos foliares de berinjela (3 cm de diâmetro em uma das temperaturas (tratamentos, com 25 repetições. Foram determinadas as curvas mais ajustadas aos parâmetros biológicos de M. persicae, suas equações de regressão e os respectivos coeficientes de determinação (R². A temperatura influenciou todos os parâmetros avaliados. As durações dos períodos pré-reprodutivo e reprodutivo de M. persicae variaram de 0,46 dia (25°C a 1,12 dia (15°C e de 3,89 dias (25°C a 19,11 dias (15°C, respectivamente. A fecundidade total e diária foi de 17,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,38 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 25°C; 43,63 ninfas/fêmea e 4,34 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 20°C; 60,65 ninfas/fêmea e 3,15 ninfas/fêmea/dia a 15°C. A 30°C, não houve reprodução. A duração do período pós-reprodutivo variou de 0,89 dia (25°C a 3,72 dias (15°C. A longevidade do afídeo diminuiu com o aumento da temperatura, de 23,95 dias (15°C para 5,06 dias (25°C. Temperaturas entre 15 e 20°C são mais favoráveis a M. persicae.The aphid Myzus persicae (Sulzer, 1776 (Hemiptera: Aphididae is one of the main pests in a number of crops both under field and protected conditions. The objective of this work was to study the effect of temperature on longevity and reproductive parameters of M. persicae on eggplant (Solanum melongena L.. The experiment

  7. Analysis of the genetic diversity in Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae by RAPD markers Análise da diversidade genética de Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker (Hemiptera, Aphididae por meio de marcadores RAPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Lopes-da-Silva

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of host-races within aphids may constitute an obstacle to pest management by means of plant resistance. There are examples of host-races within cereals aphids, but their occurrence in Rose Grain Aphid, Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849, has not been reported yet. In this work, RAPD markers were used to assess effects of the hosts and geographic distance on the genetic diversity of M. dirhodum lineages. Twenty-three clones were collected on oats and wheat in twelve localitites of southern Brazil. From twenty-seven primers tested, only four primers showed polymorphisms. Fourteen different genotypes were revealed by cluster analysis. Five genotypes were collected only on wheat; seven only on oats and two were collected in both hosts. Genetic and geographical distances among all clonal lineages were not correlated. Analysis of molecular variance showed that some molecular markers are not randomly distributed among clonal lineages collected on oats and on wheat. These results suggest the existence of host-races within M. dirhodum, which should be further investigated using a combination of ecological and genetic data.A emergência de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos pode constituir um obstáculo ao manejo de pragas por meio de plantas resistentes. Existem exemplos de raças hospedeiro-especialistas em afídeos de cereais, embora a ocorrência de raça hospedeiro-especialista no pulgão-verde-pálido-do-trigo Metopolophium dirhodum (Walker, 1849 (Hemiptera, Aphididae não tenha sido relatada ainda. Marcadores RAPD foram utilizados para avaliar os efeitos da distância geográfica e do hospedeiro sobre a diversidade genética de linhas clonais de M. dirhodum. Vinte e três clones foram coletados em aveia e trigo em doze localidades do sul do Brasil. De vinte e sete iniciadores usados para a análise, apenas quatro iniciadores mostraram polimorfismos. A análise de agrupamento por similaridade genética revelou haver quatorze

  8. Структура комплексов жужелиц (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) плантационных посадок голубики высокорослой в условиях Беларуси в первые годы после закладки

    OpenAIRE

    Буга, С. В.; О.Р. Александрович

    2013-01-01

    Species composition and ecological structure of carabid beetles (Insecta: Coleoptera: Carabidae) communities at highbush blueberry plantations were studied in SW Belarus in the first years after planting. Terrestrial invertebrates were sampled by pitfall traps. A total of 623 imagines of 51 carabid species have been collected. Field and meadow mesophilous and mesokserophilous species are formed main part of whole carabid complex. Poecilus versicolor (Sturm, 1824) and Agonum sexpunctatum (...

  9. The significance of cytogenetics for the study of karyotype evolution and taxonomy of water bugs (Heteroptera, Belostomatidae) native to Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriela, Chirino Mónica; Papeschi, Alba Graciela; Bressa, María José

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Male meiosis behaviour and heterochromatin characterization of three big water bug species were studied. Belostoma dentatum (Mayr, 1863), Belostoma elongatum Montandon, 1908 and Belostoma gestroi Montandon, 1903 possess 2n = 26 + X1X2Y (male). In these species, male meiosis is similar to that previously observed in Belostoma Latreille, 1807. In general, autosomal bivalents show a single chiasma terminally located and divide reductionally at anaphase I. On the other hand, sex chromosomes are achiasmatic, behave as univalents and segregate their chromatids equationally at anaphase I. The analysis of heterochromatin distribution and composition revealed a C-positive block at the terminal region of all autosomes in Belostoma dentatum, a C-positive block at the terminal region and C-positive interstitial dots on all autosomes in Belostoma elongatum, and a little C-positive band at the terminal region of autosomes in Belostoma gestroi. A C-positive band on one bivalent was DAPI negative/CMA3 positive in the three species. The CMA3-bright band, enriched in GC base pairs, was coincident with a NOR detected by FISH. The results obtained support the hypothesis that all species of Belostoma with multiple sex chromosome systems preserve NORs in autosomal bivalents. The karyotype analyses allow the cytogenetic characterization and identification of these species belonging to a difficult taxonomic group. Besides, the cytogenetic characterization will be useful in discussions about evolutionary trends of the genome organization and karyotype evolution in this genus. PMID:24260694

  10. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  11. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  12. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A.

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93–100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  13. An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla N. Oliveira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available An experimental test of rainfall as a control agent of Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae on seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei is one the greatest threats to eucalyptus plantations in Brazil. The effects of rainfall to reduce the abundance of lerp of Glycaspis brimblecombei on experimentally infested seedlings of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were assessed. The number of lerps on the adaxial and abaxial surfaces of every leaf of 60 seedlings was recorded, before and after submission to the following treatments: "artificial rain", "leaf wetting" and control. A drastic reduction in lerp abundance per plant was observed after the treatments "leaf wetting" and artificial rain (F = 53.630; p Teste experimental da chuva como agente de controle de Glycaspis brimblecombei Moore (Hemiptera, Psyllidae em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehn (Myrtaceae. Glycaspis brimblecombei é uma das maiores ameaças das plantações de eucalipto do Brasil. Foram avaliados os efeitos da água na redução da abundância de conchas desse inseto em mudas de Eucalyptus camaldulensis infestadas experimentalmente. Foi quantificado o número de conchas nas superfícies adaxial e abaxial de todas as folhas de 60 mudas, antes e após a aplicação dos seguintes tratamentos: "chuva artificial", "molhamento das folhas" e controle. Foi observada uma drástica redução na abundância de conchas nos tratamentos "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" (F = 53,630; p < 0,001, o que não ocorreu para o tratamento controle ao longo do experimento (F = 1,450; p = 0,232. Ao final do experimento, a abundância de conchas foi significativamente menor no tratamento "chuva artificial" e "molhamento das folhas" do que no tratamento controle. Dessa forma, dois dias de chuva mostraram ser eficientes para diminuir mais que 50% da população de conchas, com quase 100% de eficiência após 5 dias de experimento. Nossos resultados

  14. Two-Spotted Ladybeetle Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae): A Commercially Available Predator to Control Asian Citrus Psyllid Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Azhar A; Qureshi, Jawwad A; Afzal, Muhammad; Stansly, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) is an economically important pest of citrus because it serves as a vector of the causal pathogens of huanglongbing (HLB) also known as citrus greening disease. The increased use of insecticides for control of D. citri negatively impacts several natural enemies including some effective ladybeetle species which are not available commercially. The two-spotted ladybeetle, Adalia bipunctata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) is found in some crop and forest ecosystems of Asia, Europe and North America and available commercially. It is known to attack aphids and mealybugs but there are no published records of feeding on psyllids. We evaluated suitability and preference of A. bipunctata for nymphs of D. citri compared to corn leaf aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis (Hemiptera: Aphididae) a global pest of cereal crops and prey for many predaceous insects. We also compared development and reproduction of A. bipunctata on these two species with frozen eggs of the Mediterranean flour moth Ephestia kuehniella (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) at 25°C. Initially, more D. citri than R. maidis nymphs were consumed in the no-choice tests although final consumption by larva and adult of A. bipunctata did not differ in the choice and no-choice tests. Larval development was prolonged by one day on D. citri compared to R. maidis nymphs but did not differ between either of these diets and E. kuehniella. Larval survival to adult averaged 93-100% and was not impacted by diet. Adult life span did not differ between diets although those on D. citri and R. maidis nymphs weighed less and produced fewer but more fertile eggs than on E. kuehniella eggs. Significant reduction of D. citri nymphs averaging 54% was observed in colonies caged with adult A. bipunctata on field planted citrus. R° (net reproductive rate) was least for beetles fed R. maidis, but otherwise there were no significant differences in demographic parameters. Successful

  15. Embryology of Triatoma infestans (KLUG, (Hemiptera, Reduviidae, a Chagas' disease vector Embriología del Triatoma infestans, vector de la enfermedad de Chagas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Fichera

    1992-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reports the embryogenesis of T. infestans (Hemiptera, Reduviidae. Morphological parameters of growth sequences from oviposition until hatching (12-14 d 28ºC were established. Five periods, as percent of time of development (TD, were characterized from oviposition until hatching. The most important morphological features were: 1 formation of blastoderm within 7% of TD; 2 germ band and gastrulation within 30% of TD; 3 nerve cord, limb budding, thoracic and abdominal segmentation and formation of body cavity within 50% of TD; 4 nervous system and blastokinesis end, and development of embryonic cuticle within 65% of TD; 5 differentiation of the mouth parts, fat body, and Malphigian tubules during final stage and completion of embryo at day 12 to day 14 around hatching. These signals were chosen as appropriate morphological parameters which should enable the evaluation of embryologic modifications due to the action/s of different insecticidesEn este estudio se caracterizó el desarrollo embrionario del T. infestans (Hemiptera Reduviidae. Se establecieron parámetros morfológicos secuenciales de crecimiento desde la oviposición hasta la eclosión, (12-14 d 28ºC. Cinco períodos de crecimiento fueron determinados y expresados como fracciones porcentuales del tiempo total del desarrollo (TD hasta la eclosión. Los eventos morfológicos mas importantes fueron: 1 La formación del blastodermo hasta el 7% del TD; 2 La aparición de la banda germinativa y su gastrulación transcurridos un 30% del TD; 3 El comienzo de la formación del cordón nervioso, de las extremidades, la segmentación torácica y abdominal y la formación del mixocele cuando la embriogénesis alcanzó el 50% del TD; 4 La terminación de la blastoquinesis, el desarrollo completo del sistema nervioso y la aparición de la cutícula embrionaria hasta el 65% del TD; 5 En la etapa final de la embriogenesis se observó la diferenciación del aparato mandibular, el cuerpo graso

  16. The suitability of biotypes Q and B of Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) at different nymphal instars as hosts for Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhang, Youjun; Xie, Wen; Wu, Qingjun; Wang, Shaoli

    2016-01-01

    Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) is a solitary endoparasitoid that is commercially reared and released for augmentative biological control of whiteflies infesting greenhouse crops. In most areas in China, the invasive and destructive whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) biotype Q has replaced B. tabaci biotype B and has become dominant between the two. A better understanding of the suitability of different nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B as hosts for E. formosa is needed to improve the use of this parasitoid for biological control. Parasitism of the four nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotypes Q and B by the commercial strain of E. formosa mass reared on Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was assessed in the laboratory. The results indicated that E. formosa parasitized and successfully developed on all instars of both biotypes but performed best on the 3rd instar of B. tabaci biotype B and on the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th instars of B. tabaci biotype Q. The host-feeding rate of the adult parasitoid was generally higher on nymphal instars of B. tabaci biotype Q than on the corresponding nymphal instars of biotype B and was significantly higher on the 2nd and 3rd instars. For both whitefly biotypes, the parasitoid's immature developmental period was the longest on the 1st instar, intermediate on the 2nd and 3rd instars, and the shortest on the 4th instar. The parasitoid emergence rate was significantly lower on the 1st instar than on the other three instars and did not significantly differ between B. tabaci biotype B and biotype Q. Offspring longevity was greater on the 3rd and 4th instars than on the 1st instar and did not significantly differ between the two B. tabaci biotypes. The results indicate that commercially-produced E. formosa can parasitize all instars of B. tabaci biotypes B and Q, making this parasitoid a promising tool for the management of the two biotypes of B. tabaci present in

  17. Determinación de la capacidad de transmisión de fitoplasmas en dos morfoespecies de la familia Cicadellidae (Hemiptera: Auchenorryncha) de Bogotá D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Perilla Henao, Laura Margarita

    2013-01-01

    Los fitoplasmas son bacterias fitopatógenas que carecen de pared celular, especializadas en la colonización intracelular del floema de plantas, son transmitidos por insectos vectores del suborden Auchenorryncha (Hemiptera) y están entre los seres vivos con menor tamaño. Los fitoplasmas forman un grupo monofilético en la clase Mollicutes que causan alteraciones morfológicas y fisiológicas en plantas ornamentales, hortícolas, maderables, frutales y cultivos en todo el mundo. No existen métodos...

  18. First record of the leafhopper genus Varicopsella Hamilton, 1980 (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Macropsinae) in China, with descriptions of a new subgenus and new species, a checklist, and a key to species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hu; Dai, Ren-Huai; Li, Zi-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A new monobasic leafhopper subgenus, Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) Li, Dai, and Li, subgen. nov., of the subfamily Macropsinae (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Membracoidea: Cicadellidae) is proposed to accommodate Varicopsella (Multispinulosa) hamiltoni Li, Dai, and Li, sp. nov.from Guangxi province of China. The new subgenus and new species are described and illustrated. They can be distinguished mainly by characteristics of the fore wings with two anteapical cells; weak dorsoventrally flattened body; aedeagal shaft with paired apical processes on ventral margin; and the shape of the dorsal connective. An updated checklist and an illustrated key for identification of the species of Varicopsella along with geographical distributions of the species are given.

  19. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae. Correlation with fine structural organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PY Scaraffia

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Activities of hexokinase (HK, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH, fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK, glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AAT, malate dehydrogenase (MDH and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler and Triatoma infestans (Klug (Hemiptera: Reduviidae, insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes.

  20. Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Alcantra

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl on colored cotton plants infested or not with Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera, Aphididae. The aphid Aphis gossypii is an insect pest that causes damage mainly at the beginning of the cotton plant development. The effect of resistance inductors silicon and acibenzolar-s-methyl (ASM on the development of colored cotton plants were researched in the presence and absence of A. gossypii. Three colored cotton cultivars were sown in pots and individually infested with 25 apterous aphids, 13 days after the application of the inductors. Fifteen days after plant emergence, the silicon was applied at a dosage equivalent to 3 t/ha and acibenzolar-s-methyl in 0.2% solution of the product BION 500®. After 21 days of infestation the following parameters were evaluated: plant height, stem diameter, dry matter of aerial part and root, and total number of aphids replaced. It was verified that the plant height was reduced in the presence of aphids and all variables were negatively affected by the application of ASM. However, silicon did not affect plant development.

  1. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarije Buitenhuis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available (1 Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers’ options to control this pest; (2 This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa were determined; (3 Mineral oil (0.1% v/v and insecticidal soap (0.5% + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4 Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  2. Ultrastructure of Wax-Producing Structures on the Integument of the Melaleuca Psyllid Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), with Honeydew Excretion Behavior in Males and Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, El-Desouky; Hentz, Matthew; Hall, David G; Shatters, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    The melaleuca psyllid, Boreioglycaspis melaleucae (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), was introduced to Florida as a biological control agent against Melaleuca quinquenervia, an invasive evergreen tree that has invaded large areas of Florida Everglades. Colonies of B. melaleucae nymphs are normally covered by white waxy secretions, and nymphs of various instars produce long bundles of white waxy filaments extending laterally and posteriorly from their abdomen. Scanning electron microscopy of 'naturally waxed' and 'dewaxed' nymphs (cleaned from wax) revealed two types of wax pore plates located dorsally and laterally on the integument of posterior abdominal segments starting with the 4th segment. Type-1 wax pore plates, with raised rim, peripheral groove, slits and pits, produce long ribbons and filaments of waxy secretions that are wound together forming long wax bundles, whereas type-2 wax pore plates, with slits only, produce shorter wax curls. Additionally, in both nymphs and adult females, the circumanal ring contained ornate rows of wax pores that produce wax filaments covering their honeydew excretions. Video recordings with stereomicroscopy showed that adult females produce whitish honeydew balls, powerfully propelled away from their body, probably to get these sticky excretions away from their eggs and newly hatched nymphs. Adult males, however, produce clear droplets of honeydew immediately behind them, simply by bending the posterior end of the abdomen downward. The possible role(s) of waxy secretions by nymphs and adults of B. melaleucae in reducing contamination of their colonies with honeydew, among other possibilities, are discussed.

  3. Traps and trap placement may affect location of brown marmorated stink bug (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) and increase injury to tomato fruits in home gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Chris; Martinson, Holly M; Raupp, Michael J

    2014-04-01

    The invasive brown marmorated stink bug, Halyomorpha halys (Stål) (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), is an important pest of field crops, fruit orchards, commercial vegetables, ornamental plants, and home vegetable gardens. Pheromone-baited traps designed to attract, trap, and kill H. halys are marketed for use in home gardens to reduce damage to plants. To test this assertion, we conducted the following experiment: One group of 15 gardeners placed stink bug traps at the end of a row of tomatoes, Solanum lycopersicum (L.), in their vegetable garden and another group of 14 placed no traps in their garden and served as controls. Gardeners with traps were no more or less likely to have H. halys on tomato plants than those without traps, but the abundance of H. halys on tomato fruits was marginally greater in gardens with traps. However, tomato fruits grown in gardens with traps sustained significantly more injury than tomato fruits grown in gardens without traps. Furthermore, tomato fruits on plants near the trap housed more H. halys than tomato fruits on plants at the end of a row away from the trap. Traps may be useful in identifying gardens where H. halys is likely to be found and ones in which stink bug injury to tomatoes is likely. We found no evidence that stink bug traps protected tomatoes from H. halys, and it appears that the addition of traps to gardens may increase injury to tomato fruits. PMID:24517877

  4. Eficiência da Armadilha “R. Bianco” para Captura do Percevejo Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas (Hemiptera: Coreidae, na Cultura do Milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliton Barreto

    2016-08-01

    Abstract. Maize is the cereal with the highest consumption in both industrialized as fresh nowadays. It is the grain with higher volume production, Brazil is the third largest producer, need special attention focused on the monitoring and control of invaders who risk their productivity. Among the pests that can affect the productivity highlight the insects (Hemiptera: Heteroptera, more specifically the bedbugs corn (Leptoglossus zonatus Dallas, which has been an important pest for corn crops. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of homemade traps R. Bianco in control of this insect. The experiments were conducted in Sitio Nossa Senhora Aparecida, in the municipality of Sinop, MT. Traps were divided into 10 open and 10 closed which were evaluated with and without baits by 20 days. The design was completely randomized (DIC in a 2x2x2 factorial with eight treatments and five repetitions. Traps without baits showed greater efficiency, with an average higher in catching the bugs regarding the traps with bait. The trap closed as compared with the open, demonstrated greater efficacy in retaining the insect. The effect of edge was little representative in this experiment. Therefore, the presence of bait did not influence the insect attraction and treatments submitted to the bait without test showed higher quantities and more efficient insect capture. Leading us to believe the attraction effect of salt by bedbug and the location of each trap had little influence in the capture of insects.

  5. The Effect of Combinations of Food Insects for Continuous Rearing of the Wing Polymorphic Water Strider Limnogonus Fossarum fossarum (Hemiptera: Gerridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirooka, Y; Hagizuka, C; Ohshima, I

    2016-01-01

    The water strider Limnogonus fossarum fossarum (F.) (Hemiptera: Gerridae) shows a macropterous, micropterous, and apterous polymorphism. Although a long photoperiod condition induces winged morphs, preliminary studies have revealed that crossing between winged morphs increased the proportion of macropterous individuals, suggesting that the genetic factors also affect wing-morph determination in this species. Assessing the genetic backgrounds of wing polymorphism requires constant and repeatable methods for rearing. This study attempts to establish a continuous rearing method for L. f. fossarum under constant diet conditions. Initially, we maintain the water striders with two Drosophila species as a food, but viability until adulthood is less than 20%. We then add the storage pest Plodia interpunctella (Hübner), which are readily reared in the laboratory, to the diets. As a result, nymphs fed on P. interpunctella (even only until the second instar) show significantly higher viability and shorter developmental period than nymphs fed on Drosophila alone. Moreover, feeding on D. melanogaster (Meigen) reared on cholesterol-enriched medium instead of a normal medium significantly increases viability in the next generation. This means that only the two food-insect species are enough for establishing a substantial number of individuals in segregating generations (F2 and backcross), limiting DNA and RNA contaminations from food insects with genome information. Thus, the present rearing method opens the way to elucidating the genetic backgrounds of the wing polymorphism in L. f. fossarum.

  6. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Brownbridge, Michael; Brommit, Angela; Saito, Taro; Murphy, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    (1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers' options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa) were determined; (3) Mineral oil (0.1% v/v) and insecticidal soap (0.5%) + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L) were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4) Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies. PMID:27681741

  7. Parasitoides de Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, 1856 (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae en cultivos de fríjol en García Rovira, Santander

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Arnoldo Granadillo-Cuello

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The whitefly complex is one of the main entomological problems of this country, due to the large number of hosts and for their wide distribution. Two species of this complex are Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes vaporariorum; the latter has been identified as a pest of tomatoes, beans and snuff in the sampling area. Objective: Determine the species of parasitoids associated with Trialeurodes vaporariorum bean crop in four municipalities of the Province of Garcia Rovira, in the department of Santander. Methods: This investigation was conducted in the municipalities of Enciso, Málaga, Concepción and El Cerrito. Stages random sampling with a sample size of 50 leaflets per culture was grown. The parasitoids were collected through cameras recovery. The measures were, Total nymphs parasitized nymphs emerged parasitoids emerged parasitoids no, emerged nymphs. Results: Two species of the order Hymenoptera, identified as Encarsia pergandiella and Amitus fuscipennis recovered. The results indicate that parasitism levels range from 3% to 20% Amitus fuscipennis (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae was present in 96.48% of the samples. Conclusions. Amitus fuscipennis is the most abundant parasitoid of Trialeurodes vaporariorum in natural conditions in the Province of Garcia Rovira Encarcia pergandiella is less abundant due to its little adaptation to the conditions of the study area.

  8. The integrated use of chemical insecticides and the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae(Nematoda: Steinernematidae), for the control of sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Andrew G. S. Cuthbertson; James J. Mathers; Phil Northing; Anthony J. Prickett; Keith F. A. Waiters

    2008-01-01

    The integration of chemical insecticides and infective juveniles of the entomopathogenic nematode Steinernema carpocapsae (Wesier) (Nematoda:Steinernematidae), to control second instars of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) was investigated. Using a sand bioassay, the effects of direct exposure of S. carpocapsae for 24 h to field rate dilutions of four insecticides (spiromesifen, thiacloprid, imidaeloprid and pymetrozine) on infectivity to Galleria rnellonella larvae were tested. Although all chemicals tested, except spiromesifen, produced acceptable nematode infectivity rates, they were all significantly less than the water control. The effect of insecticide treatment (dry residues of spiromesifen, thiacloprid and pymetrozine and soil drench of imidacloprid) on the efficacy of the nematode against B. tabaci was also investigated. Nematodes in combination with thiacloprid and spiromesifen gave higher B.tabaci mortality (86.5% and 94.3% respectively) compared to using nematodes alone (75.2%) on tomato plants. There was no significant difference in B. tabaci mortality when using the chemicals imidacloprid, pymetrozine and spiromesifen in conjunction with nematodes compared to using the chemicals alone. However, using thiaeloprid in combination with the nematodes produced significantly higher B. tabaci mortality than using the chemical alone. The integration of S. carpocapsae and these chemical agents into current integrated pest management programmes for the control of B. tabaci is discussed.

  9. Atração e desenvolvimento de Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae em cultivares de abóbora e moranga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baldin Edson Luiz Lopes

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available As plantas da família Cucurbitaceae são seriamente prejudicadas pelo ataque de insetos, sendo que os danos ocorrem desde a germinação até a colheita e podem ser observados em todas as partes da planta. Dentre os insetos sugadores que atacam a abóbora (Cucurbita moschata e a moranga (C. maxima, as formas jovens e adultas do percevejo Leptoglossus gonagra (Fabr. (Hemiptera: Coreidae merecem destaque por sugarem a seiva das folhas, ramos e frutos novos, nos quais causam necroses, reduzindo a produção. Visando comparar a atratividade de plântulas de cultivares de abóbora e moranga a adultos deste percevejo e os efeitos desses materiais sobre a biologia de ninfas dessa espécie, realizaram-se ensaios sob condições de laboratório. Em teste de atratividade, o cultivar de abóbora BRA015113 destacou-se como o menos atrativo em relação ao cultivar de moranga Exposição, enquanto que o cultivar de abóbora BRA003531 foi o mais atrativo. Todos os cultivares provocaram 100% de mortalidade das ninfas, indicando a presença de componentes antibióticos, adversos ao desenvolvimento de L. gonagra.

  10. Comparative study of enzymes in testes and ovaries from adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). correlation with fine structural organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scaraffia, P Y; Maldonado, C; Aoki, A; De Burgos, N M

    2001-01-01

    Activities of hexokinase (HK), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH), fructose-6-phosphate kinase (F6PK), glutamate dehydrogenase (GlutDH), aspartate aminotransferase (AAT), malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) were determined in tissue extracts of testes and ovaries of adult Dipetalogaster maximus (Uhler) and Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), insect vectors of Chagas disease. The fine structure organization of the same organs were studied by electron microscopy. Results allow the following inferences: in testes from both species, most of the glucose would be utilized through the glycolytic pathway. Amino acid catabolism for energy purposes appears to be unimportant. The number of mitochondria and the development of the rough endoplasmic reticulum in cells of the spermatogenic line indicate the occurrence of active oxidative metabolism and protein synthesis; in ovaries, levels of G6PDH indicate the existence of an active pentose pathway which would supply the NADPH required for fat and ecdysteroid synthesis. Amino acid catabolism appears to be relatively more important in ovary than in testis. Fat and glycogen are stored in follicular cells of D. maximus; oocytes of both species contain numerous fat droplets. Abundant mitocondria are present in follicular cells and oocytes. A well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes are also conspicuous in these cells. The malate/aspartate H-transfer system seemed to be relatively more important than the glycerophosphate shuttle in ovaries as well in testes. PMID:11759815

  11. Variation in social and sexual behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bugs (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae): the role of toxic and non-toxic food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burdfield-Steel, Emily R; Dougherty, Liam R; Smith, Lynsey A; Collins, Laura A; Shuker, David M

    2013-10-01

    Understanding variation in social behaviour both within and among species continues to be a challenge. Evolutionary or ecological theory typically predicts the optimal behaviour for an animal under a given set of circumstances, yet the real world presents much greater variation in behaviour than predicted. This variation is apparent in many social and sexual interactions, including mate choice, and has led to a renewed focus on individual variation in behaviour. Here we explore within and among species variation in social behaviour in four species of aposematic seed bug (Lygaeidae: Hemiptera). These species are Müllerian mimics, with characteristic warning colouration advertising their chemical toxicity. We examine the role of diet in generating variation in two key behaviours: social aggregation of nymphs and mate choice. We test how behaviour varies with exposure to either milkweed (a source of defensive compounds) or sunflower (that provides no defence). We show that although the four species vary in their food preferences, and diet influences their life-history (as highlighted by body size), social aggregation and mate choice is relatively unaffected by diet. We discuss our findings in terms of the evolution of aposematism, the importance of automimicry, and the role of diet in generating behavioural variation.

  12. Stone Lakes virus (family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus), a variant of Fort Morgan virus isolated from swallow bugs (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) west of the Continental Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brault, Aaron C; Armijos, M Veronica; Wheeler, Sarah; Wright, Stan; Fang, Ying; Langevin, Stanley; Reisen, William K

    2009-09-01

    Multiple isolates of an alphaviruses within the western equine encephalomyelitis-serocomplex that were related closely to Ft. Morgan and its variant Buggy Creek virus were made from swallow bugs, Oeciacus vicarius Horvath (Hemiptera: Cimicidae), collected from cliff swallow (Petrochelidon pyrrhonota) nests at the Stone Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Sacramento County, CA, during the summers of 2005 and 2006. This virus (hereafter Stone Lakes virus, family Togaviridae, genus Alphavirus, STLV) was the first record of this viral group west of the Continental Divide. STLV replicated well in Vero and other vertebrate cell cultures but failed to replicate in C6/36 cells or infect Culex tarsalis Coquillett mosquitoes. STLV failed to produce elevated viremias in adult chickens or house sparrows and was weakly immunogenic. In addition, STLV was not isolated from cliff swallow nestlings nor was antibody detected in adults collected at mist nets. We suggest that STL and related swallow bug viruses may be primarily infections of cimicids that are maintained and amplified either by vertical or nonviremic transmission and that cliff swallows may primarily be important as a bloodmeal source for the bugs rather than as an amplification host for the viruses. PMID:19769055

  13. Functional Response of Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) to Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae): Effects of Vermicompost and Host Plant Cultivar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mottaghinia, L; Hassanpour, M; Razmjou, J; Hosseini, M; Chamani, E

    2016-02-01

    Interactions between natural enemies and herbivores may be affected by application of fertilizers and different cultivars. We investigated the functional response of the predatory gall midge, Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rondani (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) larvae to the nymphs of the melon aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), reared on two commonly grown cucumber cultivars in Iran (Khasib and Karim) treated with different vermicompost/soil ratios (0:100, 10:90, 20:80, and 30:70%). Based on logistic regression analysis, A. aphidimyza revealed a type II functional response to the aphid in all treatments. Attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza larvae on different vermicompost/soil ratios ranged from 0.076 to 0.140 h(-1) and 0.969 to 1.164 h on Khasib and from 0.092 to 0.123 h(-1) and 0.905 to 1.229 h on Karim, respectively. Furthermore, increasing the density of the melon aphid on both cultivars amended with vermicompost/soil ratios resulted in increased prey consumption by the predator. Density of trichomes increased when plants received higher concentrations of vermicompost. So, trichomes may be responsible for different attack rates and handling times of A. aphidimyza on both cultivars. PMID:26563403

  14. Host range testing of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan for classical biological control of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae: Euphyllurinae: Diaphorinini) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoddle, Mark S; Pandey, Raju

    2014-02-01

    ABSTRACT Tests evaluating the host range of Tamarixia radiata (Waterson) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the pestiferous Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae), sourced from the Punjab of Pakistan, were conducted in quarantine at the University of California, Riverside, CA. Seven nontarget psyllid species (five native and two self-introduced species) representing five families were exposed to T radiata under the following three different exposure scenarios: 1) sequential no-choice tests, 2) static no-choice tests, and 3) choice tests. Nontarget species were selected for testing based on the following criteria: 1) taxonomic relatedness to the target, D. citri; 2) native psyllids inhabiting native host plants related to citrus that could release volatiles attractive to T. radiata; 3) native psyllids with a high probability of occurrence in native vegetation surrounding commercial citrus groves that could be encountered by T. radiata emigrating from D. citri-infested citrus orchards; 4) a common native pest psyllid species; and 5) a beneficial psyllid attacking a noxious weed. The results of host range testing were unambiguous; T radiata exhibited a narrow host range and high host specificity, with just one species of nontarget psyllid, the abundant native pest Bactericera cockerelli Sulc, being parasitized at low levels (citri poses negligible environmental risk. PMID:24665694

  15. How to Start with a Clean Crop: Biopesticide Dips Reduce Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) on Greenhouse Poinsettia Propagative Cuttings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitenhuis, Rosemarije; Brownbridge, Michael; Brommit, Angela; Saito, Taro; Murphy, Graeme

    2016-09-26

    (1) Global movement of propagative plant material is a major pathway for introduction of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) into poinsettia greenhouses. Starting a poinsettia crop with high pest numbers disrupts otherwise successful biological control programs and widespread resistance of B. tabaci against pesticides is limiting growers' options to control this pest; (2) This study investigated the use of several biopesticides (mineral oil, insecticidal soap, Beauveria bassiana, Isaria fumosorosea, Steinernema feltiae) and combinations of these products as immersion treatments (cutting dips) to control B. tabaci on poinsettia cuttings. In addition, phytotoxicity risks of these treatments on poinsettia cuttings, and effects of treatment residues on mortality of commercial whitefly parasitoids (Eretmocerus eremicus and Encarsia formosa) were determined; (3) Mineral oil (0.1% v/v) and insecticidal soap (0.5%) + B. bassiana (1.25 g/L) were the most effective treatments; only 31% and 29%, respectively, of the treated B. tabaci survived on infested poinsettia cuttings and B. tabaci populations were lowest in these treatments after eight weeks. Phytotoxicity risks of these treatments were acceptable, and dip residues had little effect on survival of either parasitoid, and are considered highly compatible; (4) Use of poinsettia cutting dips will allow growers to knock-down B. tabaci populations to a point where they can be managed successfully thereafter with existing biocontrol strategies.

  16. Additions to the fauna of parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea and coccoids (Hemiptera: Coccoidea from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India, with illustrations and diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gupta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available An illustrated account with diagnostic details of the reared and collected species of insect parasitoids along with scale insects and mealybugs from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is presented. Twenty eight species of insect pests and parasitoids under two major orders Hemiptera and Hymenoptera are documented, of which 16 species are reported for the first time from these islands specifically from South and Middle Andamans. The parasitic wasps reared and collected belong to six families-Encyrtidae, Eulophidae, Chalcididae, Eucharitidae, Aphelinidae, and Pteromalidae, including 16 species under 12 genera. The majority of the species are primary or secondary parasitoids attacking many insect groups. The scale insects and mealybugs documented belong to four families-Coccidae, Pseudococcidae, Diaspididae, and Cerococcidae, including 12 species under 11 genera. Information on the species distribution, host association, and brief taxonomical description of each species along with illustrations is provided for easy identification. Illustrations include habitus photographs of 16 species of parasitic wasps and 12 species of scales and mealybugs.

  17. Two new species of Anagyrus (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) from Argentina, parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), with taxonomic notes on some congeneric taxa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triapitsyn, Serguei V; Logarzo, Guillermo A; Aguirre, María B; Aquino, Daniel A

    2014-09-15

    Two new species of Anagyrus Howard (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae) are described from Argentina, A. cachamai Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Córdoba, Salta and Tucumán Provinces) and A. quilmes Triapitsyn, Logarzo & Aguirre sp. n. (Catamarca, Salta and Tucumán). Both new species are parasitoids of Hypogeococcus spp. (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). Anagyrus cachamai is a parasitoid of H. pungens Granara de Willink on Alternanthera paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. (Amaranthaceae), and also of a Hypogeococcus sp. on Cleistocactus baumannii and Hypogeococcus sp. on C. smaragdiflorus (Cactaceae). Anagyrus quilmes is a parasitoid of H. pungens on A. paronychioides, A. pungens and Gomphrena sp. Other biological traits of the new species are also reported. These parasitoids may be of importance as potential candidate biological control agents against a Hypogeococcus sp., commonly called the Harrisia cactus mealybug and identified as H. pungens, but possibly not belonging to that species. This mealybug threatens the native cacti in some Caribbean islands and Florida, USA, and is devastating the native columnar cacti in Puerto Rico. Illustrations and taxonomic notes on the type specimens of some other, little known described species of Anagyrus from Argentina and Chile are provided, and a key to females of the 14 species of Anagyrus known from Argentina is given. Anagyrus nigriceps (De Santis) syn. n. is synonymized under A. bellator (De Santis). Lectotypes are designated for Paranusia bifasciata Brèthes, Philoponectroma pectinatum Brèthes, and Protanagyrus aciculatus Blanchard. 

  18. Sensitivity of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) to several new insecticides in China: effects of insecticide type and whitefly species, strain, and stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen; Liu, Yang; Wang, Shaoli; Wu, Qingjun; Pan, Huipeng; Yang, Xin; Guo, Litao; Zhang, Youjun

    2014-01-01

    Whitefly biotypes B and Q are the two most damaging members of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) species complex. Control of B. tabaci (and especially of Q) has been impaired by resistance to commonly used insecticides. To find new insecticides for B. tabaci management in China, we investigated the sensitivity of eggs, larvae, and adults of laboratory strains of B and Q (named Lab-B and Lab-Q) and field strains of Q to several insecticides. For eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci and for six insecticides (cyantraniliprole, chlorantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, buprofezin, acetamiprid, and thiamethoxam), LC50 values were higher for Lab-Q than for Lab-B; avermectin LC50 values, however, were low for adults of both Lab-Q and Lab-B. Based on the laboratory results, insecticides were selected to test against eggs, larvae, and adults of four field strains of B. tabaci Q. Although the field strains differed in their sensitivity to the insecticides, the eggs and larvae of all strains were highly sensitive to cyantraniliprole, and the adults of all strains were highly sensitive to avermectin. The eggs, larvae, and adults of B. tabaci Q were generally more resistant than those of B. tabaci B to the tested insecticides. B. tabaci Q eggs and larvae were sensitive to cyantraniliprole and pyriproxyfen, whereas B. tabaci Q adults were sensitive to avermectin. Field trials should be conducted with cyantraniliprole, pyriproxyfen, and avermectin for control of B. tabaci Q and B in China.

  19. Up-regulation of carbon metabolism-related glyoxylate cycle and toxin production in Beauveria bassiana JEF-007 during infection of bean bug, Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi-Ting; Lee, Se Jin; Nai, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sihyeon; Kim, Jae Su

    2016-10-01

    Beauveria bassiana (Bb) is used as an environment-friendly biopesticide. However, the molecular mechanisms of Bb-host interactions are not well understood. Herein, RNA isolated from B. bassiana (Bb JEF-007) and Riptortus pedestris (Hemiptera: Alydidae) infected with this strain were firstly subjected to high-throughput next generation sequencing (NGS) to analyze and compare transcriptomes. Due to lack of fungal and host genome information, fungal transcriptome was processed to partially exclude non-infection specific genes and host-flora. Differentially Expressed Gene (DEG) analysis showed that 2381 genes were up-regulated and 2303 genes were down-regulated upon infection. Most DEGs were classified into the categories of single-organism, cellular and metabolism processes by Gene Ontology analysis. Most DEGs were involved in metabolic pathways based on Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway mapping. Carbon metabolism-related enzymes in the glyoxylate cycle were significantly up-regulated, suggesting a possible role for them in Bb growth in the host. Additionally, transcript levels of several fungal genes were dramatically increased after infection, such as cytotoxic lectin-like protein, bacterial-like toxin, proteins related to cell wall formation, hyphal growth, nutrient uptake, and halogenated compound synthesis. This work provides insight into how entomopathogenic B. bassiana grows in agriculturally harmful bean bug at 6 d post infection. PMID:27647240

  20. FLUTUAÇÃO POPULACIONAL DE Triozoida limbata ENDERLEIN (HEMIPTERA: TRIOZIDAE E DE Scymnus spp. (COLEOPTERA: COCCINELLIDAE EM POMAR DE GOIABA (Psidium guajava L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Teixeira Duarte

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the contribution of the natural biological control of the coccinellid predator Scymnus spp. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae on Triozoida limbata Enderlein (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Triozidae, the aim of this research was to study the populational fluctuation of these arthropods in semi-organic orchard of guava and correlate the populational density of this pest with meteorological elements. We used yellow stick traps for monitoring adult of T. limbata and Scymnus spp., spaced approximately 30 m from each other at a height of 1.5 m above the ground, inside random plants. These traps were maintained in the field for 15 days and replaced by new traps, without interruption, totaling 23 samples. We calculated the Pearson correlation coefficients (r to correlate the populational density of T. limbata with populational fluctuation of Scymnus spp., and meteorological elements. We also made histograms with information about the populational fluctuation of the specimens sampled and temperature (°C and precipitation (mm values. The highest densities of adults of T. limbata occurred almost between spring and summer seasons. The populational density of Scymnus spp. was positively correlated with populational density of T. limbata. There was no correlation between the populational fluctuation of T. limbata with meteorological elements.