WorldWideScience

Sample records for bellyache bush jatropha

  1. Possibilidades terapêuticas e risco toxicológico de Jatropha gossypiifolia L.: uma revisão narrativa Therapeutic possibilities and toxicological risk of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.: a narrative review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Mariz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, popularmente conhecida como pião-roxo, entre tantos outros nomes, é um bom exemplo do tênue limiar que separa o efeito terapêutico do tóxico. Apesar de ser classicamente conhecida como planta tóxica possui usos na medicina popular. Alguns desses efeitos têm sido comprovados em estudos experimentais, como os de antimicrobiano, antineoplásico, cicatrizante e hipotensor, sendo possivelmente explicados pela presença de substâncias como alcalóides, terpenóides, flavonóides, lignanas e taninos. Esta revisão aborda aspectos importantes, com ênfase na toxicidade crônica dessa espécie, de modo a servir de fonte de informação aos interessados em avaliar a relação risco/benefício do uso terapêutico de Jatropha gossypiifolia L.The species Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, popularly known as bellyache bush, among several other names, is an important example of the tenuous threshold that separates the therapeutic from the toxic effect. Although traditionally known as a toxic plant, it has been used in folk medicine. Some of its effects have been proved by experimental studies as antimicrobial, antineoplastic, healing and hypotensive, likely explained by the presence of substances such as alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, lignans and tannins. This review deals with important aspects, focusing on the chronic toxicity of this species, in order to serve as an information source for those interested in evaluating the risk-benefit ratio of the therapeutic use of Jatropha gossypiifolia L.

  2. Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae: A Review of Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology of This Medicinal Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Félix-Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha gossypiifolia L. (Euphorbiaceae, widely known as “bellyache bush,” is a medicinal plant largely used throughout Africa and America. Several human and veterinary uses in traditional medicine are described for different parts and preparations based on this plant. However, critical reviews discussing emphatically its medicinal value are missing. This review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the traditional uses, as well as the phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity data of J. gossypiifolia species, in view of discussing its medicinal value and potential application in complementary and alternative medicine. Pharmacological studies have demonstrated significant action of different extracts and/or isolated compounds as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiarrheal, antihypertensive, and anticancer agents, among others, supporting some of its popular uses. No clinical trial has been detected to date. Further studies are necessary to assay important folk uses, as well as to find new bioactive molecules with pharmacological relevance based on the popular claims. Toxicological studies associated with phytochemical analysis are important to understand the eventual toxic effects that could reduce its medicinal value. The present review provides insights for future research aiming for both ethnopharmacological validation of its popular use and its exploration as a new source of herbal drugs and/or bioactive natural products.

  3. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravi, Devendra Kumar; Mazumdar, Purabi; Alam, Shamsher; Goud, Vaibhav V; Sahoo, Lingaraj

    2015-01-01

    The seed oil of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) as a source of biodiesel fuel is gaining worldwide importance. Commercial-scale exploration of Jatropha has not succeeded due to low and unstable seed yield in semiarid lands unsuitable for the food production and infestation to diseases. Genetic engineering is promising to improve various agronomic traits in Jatropha and to understand the molecular functions of key Jatropha genes for molecular breeding. We describe a protocol routinely followed in our laboratory for stable and efficient Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Jatropha using cotyledonary leaf as explants. The 4-day-old explants are infected with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain EHA105 harboring pBI121 plant binary vector, which contains nptII as plant selectable marker and gus as reporter. The putative transformed plants are selected on kanamycin, and stable integration of transgene(s) is confirmed by histochemical GUS assay, polymerase chain reaction, and Southern hybridization.

  4. Reidid Venemaale / Jason Bush

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bush, Jason

    2008-01-01

    Korruptsioonist Venemaal Samara piirkonnas, ettevõtte-vaenulikest ülevõtmiskatsetest ja riigiametnike osast selles, Venemaa presidendi algatusest korruptsiooni väljajuurimisel. Vt. samas Jason Bush. BP rasked ajad Venemaal

  5. Bush and the Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mommaerts, C.; Barre, N.; Riche, P.

    2001-01-01

    Facing the increase of the energy demand, Bush the President of the USA, decided to give a new impetus to the nuclear industry. These papers present the economic and the political analysis of this policy from the french point of view showing the anxiety facing the environmental impacts. (A.L.B.)

  6. Non-food applications of Jatropha protein

    OpenAIRE

    Lestari, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha press cake and leaves are the potential sources of protein. Jatropha proteins can be extracted from Jatropha seed press cake or leaves, with or without detoxification to remove the toxic phorbol esters...

  7. Bush telegraph readings in writing

    CERN Document Server

    Strongman, Luke

    2015-01-01

    A ""bush telegraph"" is an antipodean slang noun phrase for a ""grapevine"" or an informal network of communication. The title of this book on English language use comes from the fact that the book is written from the southern hemisphere (where the idea of a ""bush telegraph"" is more widely-known) and because the concept of a ""bush telegraph"" describes what the book provides - a discussion of salient points in English language use and tertiary teaching across branches of interrelated interests. Each chapter of Bush Telegraph describes aspects of English writing culture. Separately and toget

  8. Non-food applications of Jatropha protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore how to gain more value per hectare Jatropha curcas by utilizing Jatropha protein for various applications. Specifically, this research investigated the extractability and functional properties of Jatropha protein for non-food/technical applications. Jatropha

  9. Pollen viability and germination in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this work is to assess pollen viability using the staining technique and in vitro germination with different concentrations of sucrose in Jatropha ribifolia and Jatropha mollissima, contributing to the knowledge of the reproductive biology and subsidizing their conservation, management and utilization. Pollen viability ...

  10. Bush and the Energy; Bush et l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mommaerts, C.; Barre, N.; Riche, P

    2001-07-01

    Facing the increase of the energy demand, Bush the President of the USA, decided to give a new impetus to the nuclear industry. These papers present the economic and the political analysis of this policy from the french point of view showing the anxiety facing the environmental impacts. (A.L.B.)

  11. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koperski, J.; Bywater, J.

    1985-01-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty Ltd during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish

  12. Radionuclide analysis of bush food

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koperski, J; Bywater, J [Ranger Uranium Mines Proprietary Ltd., Chatswood (Australia)

    1985-04-01

    A model diet for an Aboriginal adult living entirely on bush foods collected from the Alligator Rivers Region of the Northern Territory has been established. Results of investigations of the specific activities of thorium-230, radium-226, lead-210 and polonium-210 in 123 samples of bush foods collected by Ranger Uranium Mines Pty. Ltd. during pre-production and production periods are presented. For all the investigated bush food items, excluding freshwater mussels (Velesunio angasi), no systematic differences were found between the specific activities of the radionuclides monitored in food items sampled during preproduction and production periods. Preliminary estimates of annual effective dose equivalent (DE) rates for stochastic effects on an adult living entirely on the model bush diet are presented. Of the four radionuclides monitored the major contributor to the effective DE rates appears to be lead-210 followed by radium-226. Among the selected nine components of the diet the major contributor to the effective DE rates appear to be mussels, water lilies and fish.

  13. Domestication and Breeding of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Juan M; Melchinger, Albrecht E

    2016-12-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) has a high, untapped potential to contribute towards sustainable production of food and bioenergy, rehabilitation of degraded land, and reduction of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Tremendous progress in jatropha domestication and breeding has been achieved during the past decade. This review: (i) summarizes current knowledge about the domestication and breeding of jatropha; (ii) identifies and prioritizes areas for further research; and (iii) proposes strategies to exploit the full genetic potential of this plant species. Altogether, the outlook is promising for accelerating the domestication of jatropha by applying modern scientific methods and novel technologies developed in plant breeding. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Jatropha potential on marginal land in Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wendimu, Mengistu Assefa

    narrative. But both the availability and suitability of “marginal” land for commercial level jatropha production is not well understood/examined, especially in Africa. Using a case study of large-scale jatropha plantation in Ethiopia, this paper examines the process of land identification for jatropha....... The increasing trend of land acquisition for biofuels has led to the widespread debate about food versus biofuel because of the perceived competition for land and water. To avoid the food versus fuel debate, the use of “marginal” land for biofuel feedstock production (jatropha) has emerged as a dominant...... investments, and the agronomic performance of large-scale jatropha plantation on so-called marginal land. Although it has been argued that jatropha can be grown well on marginal land without irrigation, and thus does not compete for land and water or displace food production from agricultural land, this study...

  15. Vannevar Bush: Fifty Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1995-12-01

    It is ironic that the 50th anniversary year of Vannevar Bush's Report to President Truman entitled "Science the Endless Frontier", which put into motion the eminently successful current system of education of scientists in this country occurs at a time when serious questions are being asked about the usefulness of that very system. Bush viewed his proposal to establish a national research foundation (later to be called the National Science Foundation) as a "social compact." Judgment of scientific merit would be delegated to expert peers in return for scientific progress, which would ultimately benefit the nation in terms of scientific needs--military security, economic productivity, and enhanced quality of life. Bush wanted the funding of basic research intertwined with training, and preferred to use universities for this purpose rather than industrial or national labs. Bush viewed college and university scientists as teachers and investigators. He believed university-based research would uniquely encourage and engage the next generation of scientists as no other institutional arrangement could. Bush did not trust industry's commitment to basic research, an instinct that proved prophetic. The academic reserve of scientists (PhD's in training and postdoctoral students) that existed before World War II, and upon which the United States could draw for its needs, which were primarily associated with defense efforts, was probably one of the defining factors in Bush's suggested strategy. Currently, that reserve of talent has gotten so large that it is the obvious throttle in the pipeline slowing the continued development of the university research enterprise. Since 1977, the rate at which we have trained new scientists exceeds an average of 4% annually. Since 1987, the "science work force"--PhD's--has grown at three times the rate of the general labor supply. Temporary positions for postdoctoral scientists have grown even faster (over 5% per year since 1989). To compound

  16. How Bush Was 'Churchilled' in Iraq

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Porch, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    .... Since it took office, the Bush administration has argued that the United States should return to strategies of preemption, unilateralism, and hegemony that characterized American national security...

  17. Control of Butterfly Bush with Postemergence Herbicides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfly bush (Buddleja davidii) is classified as invasive in several parts of the United States. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of four herbicides and two application methods on postemergence butterfly bush control. The four herbicides included: Roundup (glyphosate)...

  18. Biotechnologizing Jatropha for local sustainable development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puente, D.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores whether and how the biotechnologization process that the fuel-plant Jatropha curcas is undergoing might strengthen local sustainable development. It focuses on the ongoing efforts of the multi-stakeholder network Gota Verde to harness Jatropha within local small-scale

  19. Isolation and characterization of Jatropha oildegradation by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and also retarded bacterial growth probably due to the toxicity of the fatty acids on the cells. The consequence of this study is the benefit of reduced environmental problems from Jatropha oil contamination as well as obtained useful gaseous biofuels. Key words: Jatropha oil, anaerobic biodegradation, phylogenetic tree, ...

  20. Energy from seed shells of Jatropha curcas; Energie aus Samenschalen von Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kratzeisen, Martin [Hohenheim Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Agrartechnik in den Tropen und Subtropen; Mueller, Joachim

    2009-07-01

    The seed shells of the oleiferous fruit Jatropha curcas is a promising fuel in tropical and subtropical countries. The thermal energy can be applied in many ways for example for drying Jatropha nuts or processing biodiesel from Jatropha oil. The calorific value of the shells is between 16-17 MJ/kg and thus similar to wood, which is a main energy source in developing countries until now. (orig.)

  1. Engineering the Jatropha Hype in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraya A. Afiff

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the actors, social networks, and narratives at national and global levels that have been contributing to creating a hype about Jatropha as a biofuel crop in Indonesia. Widespread concerns about climate change and the 2005–2006 rise of world crude oil prices had created the important momentum for promoting Jatropha based biofuel around the world. What have been the drivers behind this hype and which narratives have been spread? The paper discusses the difference between hypes and boom-and-bust patterns, and argues that the latter is not applicable to Jatropha, because a market for Jatropha products has not been developed yet. In terms of the actors’ contributions to this hype, the paper highlights the important role of engineers in mobilizing public support for Jatropha activities. Drawing on the results from interviews and secondary analysis, the paper reports how they have spread the news and claims through the Internet, creating public expectations about the potentials of the crop. Those narratives include one specifically Indonesian argument for supporting Jatropha cultivation appealing to the collective memory about Jatropha during the Japanese occupation period in Indonesia.

  2. The Bush Administration's Policy on Haitian Migration

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Baptista, A. L

    1995-01-01

    ... (notably the French and U S Ambassador). Aristide was allowed to leave for exile, setting up a long-running crisis that spanned both the latter half of the Bush Administration and part of the Clinton Administration's tenure The purpose...

  3. HVDC wall bushing performance in wet weather

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambeth, P.J.

    1990-01-01

    There is a history of flashovers of wall bushings in rain, even when they are relatively clean. These flashovers appear to be associated generally with a non- uniform rain distribution because of the shielding effect of the valve hall. This paper reports that a study has been made of this problem involving the development of laboratory test techniques to simulate the critical conditions, and also verification that the rapid flashover clean fog test can be used for evaluating a polluted DC bushing. Using these techniques a conventional bushing has been assessed and a method of improving its performance has been found by fitting it with supplementary silicone-rubber sheds, (booster sheds). The effects of various numbers of such sheds on the bushing have been measured, as have the effects of modifications to the booster shed

  4. Bush favours research at Pentagon and NIH

    CERN Multimedia

    MacIlwain, C

    2001-01-01

    The first budget from George W. Bush increases funding for military research and the NIH, while environmental work is drastically cut. The rest of civilian science funding is essentially frozen (1 page).

  5. Fungal cultures of tar bush and creosote bush for production of two phenolic antioxidants (pyrocatechol and gallic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, J; Gutiérrez-Sanchez, G; Rodríguez-Herrera, R; Aguilar, C N

    2009-01-01

    'Tar bush' and 'creosote bush' were substrates of fungal cultivation for tannase production and gallic acid and pyrocatechol accumulation. Aspergillus niger GH1 grew similarly on both plant materials under solid state culture conditions, reaching maximal levels after 4 d. Fungal strain degraded all tannin content of creosote bush after 4 d of fermentation and >75 % of tar bush after 5 d. Higher level of tannase activity was detected in tar bush fermentation. Biotransformation of tannins to gallic acid was high (93 % in creosote bush and 89 % in tar bush). Pyrocatechol was released poorly. Kinetic parameters of tannin conversion were calculated.

  6. Plant regeneration and genetic transformation in Jatropha

    KAUST Repository

    Sujatha, M.

    2012-07-01

    Jatropha curcas, a non-edible oil bearing species with multiple uses, and considerable economic potential is emerging as a potential biofuel plant. The limited knowledge of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a biofuel crop. Hence, genetic improvement of Jatropha is essential by conventional and modern biotechnological tools to use as a viable alternative source of bio-diesel. Realising its potential as a bio-energy crop, in vitro regeneration methods have been established to meet the demand of large scale supply of superior clones, and also as a prelude for genetic improvement of the species through transgenic approaches. In this chapter, an overview of in vitro tissue culture and genetic transformation of Jatropha is discussed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights are reserved.

  7. Plant regeneration and genetic transformation in Jatropha

    KAUST Repository

    Sujatha, M.; Nithianantham, S.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a non-edible oil bearing species with multiple uses, and considerable economic potential is emerging as a potential biofuel plant. The limited knowledge of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability

  8. Shoot allometry of Jatropha curcas | Ghezehei | Southern Forests: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha), potentially a multipurpose tree and biofuel source, owing to insufficient knowledge about the species. Use of allometry as a non-destructive method of monitoring growth and biomass attributes of Jatropha was investigated. The objectives ...

  9. Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enhancing Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) Cultivation and Seed Yield among ... Journal of Agricultural Research and Development ... Jatropha curcas yields substantial quantity of seed oil and is growing in importance as a source of biodiesel.

  10. Jatropha seed protein functional properties for technical applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha press cake, by-product after oil expression from Jatropha seeds, contains 24–28% protein on dry basis. Objectives of this research were to investigate functional properties, such as solubility, emulsifying, foaming, film forming, and adhesive properties, of Jatropha press cake proteins and

  11. Valorization of jatropha fruit biomass for energy applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.

    2015-01-01

    Valorization of Jatropha fruit biomass for

    energy applications

    Ahmad Marasabessy

    Thesis Abstract

    Our research objectives were to develop sustainable technologies of Jatropha oil extraction and Jatropha

  12. Opportunities and challenges for the international trade of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-02-18

    Feb 18, 2009 ... analyze socio-technological experiments of Jatropha cultivation in India, as a case-study because this country is currently the world ... trees such as Jatropha curcas, that can grow on barren, eroded lands under harsh climatic .... Jatropha biodiesel production projects (Figure 1). In this perspective, the ...

  13. Tree or shrub Jatropha curcas L.: Biofuel and Potential Herb

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kumar, V.; Tripathi, Abishek; Tak, P. K.; Chouhan, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 2 (2016), s. 89-101 ISSN 0976-3015 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Jatropha curcas * Biodiesel * Jatropha * Nursery propagation * Seed production * Physical characters * Multipurpose * Crop improvement * Jatropha based on agroforestry Subject RIV: GK - Forestry

  14. Electrical bushing for a superconductor element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirebeau, Pierre; Lallouet, Nicolas; Delplace, Sebastien; Lapierre, Regis

    2010-05-04

    The invention relates to an electrical bushing serving to make a connection at ambient temperature to a superconductor element situated in an enclosure at cryogenic temperature. The electrical bushing passes successively through an enclosure at intermediate temperature between ambient temperature and cryogenic temperature, and an enclosure at ambient temperature, and it comprises a central electrical conductor surrounded by an electrically insulating sheath. According to the invention, an electrically conductive screen connected to ground potential surrounds the insulating sheath over a section that extends from the end of the bushing that is in contact with the enclosure at cryogenic temperature at least as far as the junction between the enclosure at intermediate temperature and the enclosure at ambient temperature. The invention is more particularly applicable to making a connection to a superconductor cable.

  15. George W. Bush in Political Time: The Janus Presidency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magliocca, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    This essay places George W. Bush's presidency and the Bush administration in some historical context by applying the model of “political time” developed in recent books by Stephen Skowronek (2008) and Keith Whittington (2007). My thesis is that Bush's political failure during his second term was

  16. ACHP | News | Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search skip specific nav links Home arrow News arrow Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget Laura Bush Announces Preserve America Grants Budget First Preserve America Communities Also Announced ) Jan. 15, 2004, Washington, DC—Mrs. Laura Bush announced today that the President's budget for FY 2005

  17. Characteristics and composition of Jatropha gossypiifoliaand Jatropha curcas L. oils and application for biodiesel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de Oliveira, Jefferson S.; Leite, Polyanna M.; de Souza, Lincoln B.; Mello, Vinicius M.; Rubim, Joel C.; Suarez, Paulo A.Z. [Laboratorio de Materiais e Combustiveis, Instituto de Quimica, Universidade de Brasilia, C.P. 4478, 70919-970 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Silva, Eid C.; Meneghetti, Simoni M.P. [Instituto de Quimica e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, Av. Lourival de Melo Mota, s/n, Cidade Universitaria, 57072-970 Maceio-AL (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    In this work two genus of the Jatropha family: the Jatropha gossypiifolia (JG) and Jatropha curcas L. (JC) were studied in order to delimitate their potential as raw material for biodiesel production. The oil content in wild seeds and some physical-chemical properties of the oils and the biodiesel obtained from them were evaluated. The studied physical-chemical properties of the JC and JG biodiesel are in acceptable range for use as biodiesel in diesel engines, showing a promising economic exploitation of these raw materials in semi-arid regions. However, further agronomic studies are needed in order to improve the seed production and the crude oil properties. (author)

  18. Bush and Gore Focus on Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joiner, Lottie L.

    2000-01-01

    In the 2000 presidential race, education seems a top priority for Vice-President Al Gore and Texas Governor George W. Bush. Although both candidates are promising billions of federal-aid dollars to raise standards, many believe they are ignoring factors such as student motivation and funding inequities. (MLH)

  19. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  20. The Invasive Buddleja Daviddi (Butterfly Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous, multi-stemmed shrub that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from China in the late 1800s, B. davidii has become...

  1. Bush skazal ne sovsem to, tshto skazal

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    USA abivälisminister Euroopa ja Euraasia küsimustes Daniel Fried teatas, et NATO riigid toetavad Gruusia, Moldova ja Aserbaidžaani territoriaalset terviklikkust, kuid ei luba neil seda taastada relva abil. Abiminister selgitab, mida pidas USA president George W. Bush silmas, kui ta avaldas Riia tippkohtumisel toetust Gruusiale tema püüdlustes liituda NATO-ga

  2. Development of ceramic roller bush for diesel fuel injection pump; Nenryo funsha pump yo ceramics sei roller bush no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noda, K; Kamiya, S; Fujimura, M; Tsuzuki, M [Toyota Motor Corp., Aichi (Japan); Taniguchi, K [Denso Corp., Aichi (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Silicon nitride ceramics have been applied to roller bush for diesel fuel injection pump in order to improve the seizure resistance. It was found that ceramic roller bush made it possible to improve the seizure load by more than three times as compared to conventional metal roller bush when the kerosene was used as lubricant The ceramic roller bush proved to be durable under engine operating conditions. 6 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Development of a compact bushing for NBI

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Esch, H. P. L.; Simonin, A.; Grand, C.; Lepetit, B.; Lemoine, D.; Márquez-Mijares, M.; Minea, T.; Caillault, L.; Seznec, B.; Jager, T.; Odic, E.; Kirkpatrick, M. J.; Teste, Ph.; Dessante, Ph.; Almaksour, K.

    2017-08-01

    Research into a novel type of compact bushing is being conducted through the HVIV (High Voltage holding In Vacuum) partnership between CEA-Cadarache1, GeePs-Centralesupélec4, LPGP3 and LCAR2. The bushing aims to concentrate the high electric field inside its interior, rather than in the vacuum tank. Hence the field emission current is also concentrated inside the bushing and it can be attempted to suppress this so-called dark current by conditioning the internal surfaces and by adding gas. LCAR have performed theoretical quantum mechanical studies of electron field emission and the role of adsorbates in changing the work function. LPGP studied the ionization of gas due to field emission current and the behavior of micro particles exposed to emissive electron current in the vacuum gap under high electric fields. Experiments at Geeps have clarified the role of surface conditioning in reducing the dark current. Geeps also found that adding low pressure nitrogen gas to the vacuum is much more effective than helium in reducing the field emission. An interesting observation is the growth of carbon structures after exposure of an electrode to the electric field. Finally, IRFM have performed experiments on a single stage test bushing that features a 36 cm high porcelain insulator and two cylindrical electrode surfaces in vacuum or low-pressure gas. Using 0.1 Pa N2 gas, the voltage holding exceeded 185 kV over a 40 mm "vacuum" gap without dark current. Above this voltage, exterior breakdowns occurred over the insulator, which was in air. The project will finish with the fabrication of a 2-stage compact bushing, capable to withstand 400 kV.

  4. Degradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters derived from Jatropha oil cake and their tumor-promoting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Motoyuki; Hasegawa, Go; Yasuhara, Tadashi; Ishihara, Yoko

    2015-04-01

    Large amount of oil cake is generated during biodiesel production from Jatropha seeds. Although Jatropha oil cake is rich in plant nutrients, presence of toxic phorbol esters restricts the usage of oil cake as a fertilizer. The objective of this study is to evaluate the components and tumor promoting activity of phorbol esters in Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil and plants grown in the treated soil. Contents and their biological activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in soil and plants were sequentially analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and in vitro cell transformation assay, respectively. Disappearance of Jatropha phorbol-ester-specific peaks were followed with HPLC during incubation of Jatropha oil cake with soil for five weeks. Along with the degradation of Jatropha phorbol ester in soil, tumor-promoting activity in the sample was also attenuated and ultimately disappeared. Jatropha phorbol esters and tumor promoting activity were not detected from mustard spinach grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil. In addition, the esterase KM109 degrades DHPB (see definition below; Jatropha phorbol ester) and reduced its tumor-promoting activity. From these data, we conclude: (1) components and tumor promoting activity of Jatropha phorbol esters in the oil cake disappeared completely by incubation with soil for five-week, (2) Jatropha phorbol esters did not transfer into plants grown in the Jatropha oil cake-supplemented soil, and (3) DHPB can be degraded by esterase from soil bacterium. These observations are useful for utilization of Jatropha oil cake as a fertilizer. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Toxicity studies of detoxified Jatropha meal (Jatropha curcas) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, K D; Darukeshwara, J; Rathina Raj, K; Narasimhamurthy, K; Saibaba, P; Bhagya, S

    2008-12-01

    Jatropha curcas, a tropical plant introduced in many Asian and African countries is presently used as a source of biodiesel. The cake after oil extraction is rich in protein and is a potential source of livestock feed. In view of the high toxic nature of whole as well as dehulled seed meal due to the presence of toxic phorbol esters and lectin, the meal was subjected to alkali and heat treatments to deactivate the phorbol ester as well as lectin content. After treatment, the phorbol ester content was reduced up to 89% in whole and dehulled seed meal. Toxicity studies were conducted on male growing rats by feeding treated as well as untreated meal through dietary source. All rats irrespective of treatment had reduced appetite and diet intake was low accompanied by diarrhoea. The rats also exhibited reduced motor activity. The rats fed with treated meals exhibited delayed mortality compared to untreated meal fed rats (p0.02). There were significant changes both in terms of food intake and gain in body weight. Gross examination of vital organs indicated atrophy compared to control casein fed rats. However, histopathological examination of various vital organs did not reveal any treatment related microscopic changes suggesting that the mortality of rats occurred due to lack of food intake, diarrhoea and emaciation. Further studies are in progress for complete detoxification of J. curcas meal for use in livestock feed.

  6. RNAi Mediated curcin precursor gene silencing in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patade, Vikas Yadav; Khatri, Deepti; Kumar, Kamal; Grover, Atul; Kumari, Maya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Kumar, Devender; Nasim, Mohammed

    2014-07-01

    Curcin, a type I ribosomal inhibiting protein-RIP, encoded by curcin precursor gene, is a phytotoxin present in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Here, we report designing of RNAi construct for the curcin precursor gene and further its genetic transformation of Jatropha to reduce its transcript expression. Curcin precursor gene was first cloned from Jatropha strain DARL-2 and part of the gene sequence was cloned in sense and antisense orientation separated by an intron sequence in plant expression binary vector pRI101 AN. The construction of the RNAi vector was confirmed by double digestion and nucleotide sequencing. The vector was then mobilized into Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV 3101 and used for tissue culture independent in planta transformation protocol optimized for Jatropha. Germinating seeds were injured with a needle before infection with Agrobacterium and then transferred to sterilized sand medium. The seedlings were grown for 90 days and genomic DNA was isolated from leaves for transgenic confirmation based on real time PCR with NPT II specific dual labeled probe. Result of the transgenic confirmation analysis revealed presence of the gene silencing construct in ten out of 30 tested seedlings. Further, quantitative transcript expression analysis of the curcin precursor gene revealed reduction in the transcript abundance by more than 98% to undetectable level. The transgenic plants are being grown in containment for further studies on reduction in curcin protein content in Jatropha seeds.

  7. Elecciones en Estados Unidos: Bush contra Kerry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Valverde Loya

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In November 2004, presidential elections took place in the United States. President George W. Bush, a Republican, confronted Democratic candidate John F. Kerry. A very close race was expected, focusing on the economic situation of the country and national security, but it was the latter the one which prevailed during the campaign, even as significant participation was motivated by the issue of “moral values”. It was thought that due to the closeness of the contest, any of the sides could appeal to judicial tribunals, just like four years before. At the end, President Bush achieved a clear victory; both in the popular vote and the electoral college, and his party increased its majorities in both chambers of Congress.

  8. Development of Bushing Compounds for Tracked Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-10-01

    unwanted stepchild - part of called anti patented NBR -12 formulation the family (system), but devoid of needed indicated that service life could be...as Development and Engineering Center’s long. Bushings currently used in the M I track Rubber and Coated Fabrics Research Group assembly typically fail...formulations of should be improved. Numerous selected candidate natural rubber , propylene formulations-based on natural rubber , oxide, and silicone

  9. A revision of Jatropha (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welzen, van P.C.; Sweet, F.S.T.; Fernández-Casas, F.J.

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha, a widespread, species rich genus, ranges from the Americas and Caribbean to Africa and India. In Malesia five species occur, all of which were introduced and originated in Central and South America. The five species are revised and an identification key, nomenclature, descriptions,

  10. Stagnating Jatropha Biofuel Development in Southwest China: An Institutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Li

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel from jatropha has been considered as a promising alternative to fossil fuels for some time. Consequently, China started promoting jatropha as one of the options to meet its ever-increasing energy consumption, and the Chinese biodiesel industry also gained interest. However, the excitement of the biofuel industry in jatropha faded after it did not bring about the expected results. This article investigates the stagnation in jatropha development and production for biodiesel in China, using two detailed case studies of jatropha biofuel production in southeast China. It is found that the underdeveloped biodiesel policy and regulation, such as a rather late formulation of standards for biodiesel (especially the B5 and the absence of mandatory targets, is an important reason for hampering jatropha development. Besides that, lack of financial support undermined sustained jatropha planting at the farm level and lack of sustained commitment from state-owned enterprises or private companies over a long time span further contributed to jatropha project’s failure. Better implementation of the rule of law, mandatory blending requirements, hazard insurance, as well as continuous financial support, might improve the continuation of jatropha plantation schemes.

  11. Remarks by president Bush and president Ilves, June 24, 2007 / George W. Bush, Toomas Hendrik Ilves

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bush, George W., 1946-

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide president George W. Bush ja Eesti president Toomas Hendrik Ilves annavad lühiülevaateValge Maja ovaalkabinetis peetud kõnelusest, mille põhiteemadeks olid olukord Afganistanis ja Iraagis, viisavabadus ning küberrünnakud. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  12. Induced Mutation on Jatropha (Jatropha Curcas L.) for Improvement of Agronomic Characters Variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ita-Dwimahyani; Ishak

    2004-01-01

    Induced mutation can be used for improving quality in term of seed production, oil content in seed and early maturity of Jatropha with the aim for bio d iesel in Indonesia. The doses of 10, 15, 20, and 25 Gy of gamma applied to cuttings was able to increase genetic variability in vegetatively propagated plants of Jatropha at M1V1 (mutant-1 vegetative-1) generation. Selection for desirable trait will be done at M1V2 (mutant-1 and vegetative-2) generation until homogenous plants obtained. Gamma rays at dose of 20 to 25 Gy damaged several genes controlling growth and development on Jatropha which was shown by dwarf and poor plant growth compared to control (plant without irradiation). Irradiation with the dose of 10 Gy raised genetic variability on plant development which was identified with early maturity. 100 seeds weight was 30% over control, and the number of branch growth was good. (author)

  13. Screening of antioxidants as stabilisers for Jatropha curcas L. oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Subroto, Erna; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero Jan; Broekhuis, Antonius Augustinus

    The effect of antioxidants on the oxidation stability of oils extracted from Jatropha curcas seeds was measured by the accelerated oxidation test specified in EN 14112 using commercial Rancimat 873 equipment. To find the appropriate antioxidant for jatropha oil, fourteen different antioxidants were

  14. Carbon storage in Jatropha curcas trees in Northern Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hellings, B.F.; Romijn, H.A.; Franken, Y.J.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the carbon sequestration capacity of Jatropha curcas, a tropical tree-like shrub that is widely cultivated for the production of oilseeds for biodiesel and biokerosene. It applies a destructive research approach on fifteen Jatropha trees of different ages growing in the field

  15. Jatropha: A Promising Crop for Africa's Biofuel Production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, J.A.J. van; Smeets, E.M.W.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha has often been proposed as a miracle crop for the production of oil, because of the high yields and low requirements in terms of land quality, climate and crop management. A large number of companies have started with jatropha production in Africa which is projected to increase rapidly.

  16. Opportunities and challenges for the international trade of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    technological experiments of Jatropha cultivation in India, as a case-study because this country is currently the world leader in cultivating Jatropha on industrial scale and it has similar edapho-climatic conditions and cultural characteristics with some ...

  17. Analysis of organogenic competence of cotyledons of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of organogenic competence of cotyledons of Jatropha curcas and their in vitro histological behavior. ARC Nogueira, AA Soares, AB Ibrahim, FAP Campos. Abstract. Using cut pieces cotyledons from germinating zygotic embryos of Jatropha curcas, we monitored the series of anatomical events leading to the ...

  18. Americium/curium bushing melter drain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.E.; Hardy, B.J.; Smith, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    Americium and curium were produced in the past at the Savannah River Site (SRS) for research, medical, and radiological applications. They have been stored in a nitric acid solution in an SRS reprocessing facility for a number of years. Vitrification of the americium/curium (Am/Cm) solution will allow the material to be safely stored or transported to the DOE Oak Ridge Reservation. Oak Ridge is responsible for marketing radionuclides for research and medical applications. The bushing melter technology being used in the Am/Cm vitrification research work is also under consideration for the stabilization of other actinides such as neptunium and plutonium. A series of melter drain tests were conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center to determine the relationship between the drain tube assembly operating variables and the resulting pour initiation times, glass flowrates, drain tube temperatures, and stop pour times. Performance criteria such as ability to start and stop pours in a controlled manner were also evaluated. The tests were also intended to provide support of oil modeling of drain tube performance predictions and thermal modeling of the drain tube and drain tube heater assembly. These drain tests were instrumental in the design of subsequent melter drain tube and drain tube heaters for the Am/Cm bushing melter, and therefore in the success of the Am/Cm vitrification and plutonium immobilization programs

  19. Rhetorical and Linguistic Analysis of Bush's Second Inaugural Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sameer, Imad Hayif

    2017-01-01

    This study attempts to analyze Bush's second inaugural speech. It aims at investigating the use of linguistic strategies in it. It resorts to two models which are Aristotle's model while the second is that of Atkinson's (1984) to draw the attention towards linguistic strategies. The analysis shows that Bush's second inaugural speech is successful…

  20. 'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    'Shakespeare in the bush' and encountering the other in the hermeneutical dialectic of belonging and distanciation 'Shakespeare in the Bush' is an account of an anthropologist's hermeneutical experience among the Tiv people of Nigeria that serves as an illustration o f a hermeneutical circle which results in transforming ...

  1. Injection molding of bushes made of tribological PEEK composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Polyetheretherketone (PEEK composites have been extensively studied because of the excellent tribological behavior among plastics. However, laboratory specimens and tests are generally discussed, whereas application studies on industrial components are infrequent. In this paper, an injection molded bush made of tribological PEEK was analyzed to correlate wear behavior and molded material structure. Bushes were tested under unlubricated sliding conditions by means of a short wear test. Surface analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and optical microscopy were used to evaluate the distribution of the different composite fillers (polytetrafluoroethylene, PTFE, graphite particles and carbon microfibers and their effect on the final bush behavior. A significant lack of homogeneity was observed in the molded bush and black bands appeared on the shaft surface after testing due to the sliding. The bush geometry and the injection molding process should be optimized to allow the best tribological behavior of the molded material under working conditions.

  2. Not quite the end for Jatropha? : a case study of the financial viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bryant, S.T.; Romijn, H.A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the case study is to assess the financial viability of biodiesel production from Jatropha under real-life conditions, in contrast to the more generalised studies currently available. This assessment is modelled from the data of a Jatropha oil producer with a social entrepreneurial

  3. Shape and size of jatropha beans (Jatropha curcas L. during drying at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdiney Cambuy Siqueira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to study the physical properties of the jatropha beans over the drying under six air conditions, based on measurements of roundness, sphericity, volume, superficial area, projected area and surface/volume ratio. Jatropha beans with moisture content around 0.61 (decimal d.b. were subjected to thin-layer drying in oven with forced-air circulation under six temperature conditions (36, 45, 60, 75, 90 and 105 °C and relative humidity of 31.7; 19.6; 9.4; 4.8; 2.6 and 1.5% respectively, until reaching the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d. b.. The results showed that the necessary time for jatropha beans to reach the moisture content of 0.11 ± 0.006 (decimal d.b. were 1.5; 2.25; 3.0; 4.75; 6.75 and 12.0 h for the drying temperatures of 105, 90, 75, 60, 45 and 36 °C, respectively; and the reduction in the moisture content as well as the drying conditions promoted changes in the shape and reduced the size of the jatropha beans.

  4. Climatic growing conditions of Jatropha curcas L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maes, W.H.; Achten, W.M.J.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Trabucco, A. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); International Water Management Institute (IWMI), P.O. Box 2075, Colombo (Sri Lanka)

    2009-10-15

    The massive investment in new jatropha plantations worldwide is not sufficiently based on a profound scientific knowledge of its ecology. In this article, we define the climatic conditions in its area of natural distribution by combining the locations of herbarium specimens with corresponding climatic information, and compare these conditions with those in 83 jatropha plantations worldwide. Most specimens (87%) were found in tropical savannah and monsoon climates (A{sub m}, A{sub w}) and in temperate climates without dry season and with hot summer (C{sub fa}), while very few were found in semi-arid (B{sub S}) and none in arid climates (B{sub W}). Ninety-five percent of the specimens grew in areas with a mean annual rainfall above 944 mm year{sup -1} and an average minimum temperature of the coldest month (T{sub min}) above 10.5 C. The mean annual temperature range was 19.3-27.2 C. The climatic conditions at the plantations were different from those of the natural distribution specimens for all studied climatic variables, except average maximum temperature in the warmest month. Roughly 40% of the plantations were situated in regions with a drier climate than in 95% of the area of the herbarium specimens, and 28% of the plantations were situated in areas with T{sub min} below 10.5 C. The observed precipitation preferences indicate that jatropha is not common in regions with arid and semi-arid climates. Plantations in arid and semi-arid areas hold the risk of low productivity or irrigation requirement. Plantations in regions with frost risk hold the risk of damage due to frost. (author)

  5. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1) is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1) was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha. PMID:27168978

  6. Ectopic expression of Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1 caused early flowering in Arabidopsis, but not in Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyong Tang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a promising feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits a low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. APETALA1 (AP1 is a floral meristem and organ identity gene in higher plants. The flower meristem identity genes of Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an AP1 homolog (JcAP1 was isolated from Jatropha. An amino acid sequence analysis of JcAP1 revealed a high similarity to the AP1 proteins of other perennial plants. JcAP1 was expressed in inflorescence buds, flower buds, sepals and petals. The highest expression level was observed during the early developmental stage of the flower buds. The overexpression of JcAP1 using the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV 35S promoter resulted in extremely early flowering and abnormal flowers in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Several flowering genes downstream of AP1 were up-regulated in the JcAP1-overexpressing transgenic plant lines. Furthermore, JcAP1 overexpression rescued the phenotype caused by the Arabidopsis AP1 loss-of-function mutant ap1-11. Therefore, JcAP1 is an ortholog of AtAP1, which plays a similar role in the regulation of flowering in Arabidopsis. However, the overexpression of JcAP1 in Jatropha using the same promoter resulted in little variation in the flowering time and floral organs, indicating that JcAP1 may be insufficient to regulate flowering by itself in Jatropha. This study helps to elucidate the function of JcAP1 and contributes to the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of flower development in Jatropha.

  7. Development of bushing material with higher corrosion and wear resistance; Taishoku taimamosei dogokin bush zairyo no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kira, T; Yokota, H; Kamiya, S [Taiho Kogyo Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Recent diesel engines require a higher performance and a longer life. Due to higher cylinder pressure, the operating load and temperature of piston pin bushings become higher. Therefore, higher load capacity, higher wear resistance and higher corrosion resistance are required for piston pin bushings. For this reason, we have studied the effect of components added to copper alloy upon the corrosion resistance and the effect of hard particles dispersed in copper matrix upon the wear resistance and the influence of hard particles on the machinablity of materials. Based on the experimental results, we have developed a new bushing material improving wear and corrosion resistance. 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. In-situ Alkaline Transesterification of Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil for Production of Biodiesel and Nontoxic Jatropha Seed Cake

    OpenAIRE

    Nazir, Novizar; Mangunwidjaja, Djumali; Setyaningsih, Dwi; Yuliani, Sri; Yarmo, Mohd. Ambar; Salimon, Jumat; Ramli, Nazaruddin

    2014-01-01

    The production of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) by direct in situ alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of the triglycerides (TG) in Jatropha curcas seeds was examined. The experimental results showed that the amount of Jatropha curcas seed oil dissolved in methanol was approximately 83% of the total oil and the conversion of this oil could achieve 98% under the following conditions: less than 2% moisture content in Jatropha curcas seed flours, 0.3–0.335 mm particle size, 0.08 mol/L NaOH co...

  9. Greaseless Bushings for Hydropower Applications: Program, Testing, and Results

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, John

    1999-01-01

    ...) bushings at its hydropower and navigation facilities. Products of this type currently on the market, however, were not specifically developed for the high-load, low-speed oscillating operating conditions typical for power-generation machinery...

  10. Bush asub uue Iraagi-poliitikaga vigu parandama / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush tutvustas uut Iraagi-strateegiat. Iraaki saadetakse paarkümmend tuhat USA sõdurit, küsitluse andmeil on 61% ameeriklastest lisasõdurite saatmise vastu. Lisa: USA plaanid Iraagis ja Iraagiga

  11. Bush moves to bolster U.S. industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that President Bush, in an election campaign appearance in Oklahoma City, the his administration is taking several steps to help the U.S. oil industry. Bush the, I known full well how difficult times have been in the past few years in this state for the oil and gas business. Our domestic oil and gas industry is important to our national economy. It's important, it's vital, to our national security. Bush vowed to work with Congress for passage of an omnibus energy policy bill and to get the oil industry some relief from the alternative minimum tax. The AMT, as applied to the energy industry, is hurting our economy and helping no one, Bush the. It is unfair to independent producers. And it's costing us jobs

  12. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    OF BUSH TEA AND SPECIAL TEA USING DIFFERENT SELECTED. EXTRACTION ... 3,3'digallate and caffeine). Tea leaves have ..... Effects of solvent extraction on phenolic content and ... Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition,.

  13. Allergenic sesquiterpene lactones from cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii Cass.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, Evy; Gade Hyldgaard, Mette; Andersen, Klaus E.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Australian cushion bush (Leucophyta brownii) of the Compositae family of plants has become a popular pot and container plant. The plant produces the sesquiterpene lactone allergen calocephalin. OBJECTIVES: To assess the sensitizing potential of sesquiterpene lactones from cushion ...

  14. Baltic leaders jockey with Bush to get their message across

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    USA president George Bush lubas pärast kõnelemist Mart Laari ning Vaira Vike-Freibergaga arutada kohtumisel president Vladimir Putiniga suhteid Venemaa ja Balti riikide vahel. Lisa: Vladimir Putini arvamus Molotovi-Ribbentropi pakti kohta

  15. Bush Pledges Increased Science Research and Education Funding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Mohi

    2006-02-01

    In his 31 January State of the Union address, U.S. President George W. Bush announced two new initiatives aimed at galvanizing scientific research and education. For the American Competitiveness Initiative, Bush proposes to ``double the federal commitment to the most critical basic research programs in the physical sciences in the next 10 years. . .[and to] make permanent the research and development tax credit to encourage bolder private-sector initiative in technology.''

  16. Contributions on Computer Aided Manufacturing of Drill-Jig Bushings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Cojocaru

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the steps for computer aided manufacturing (CAMof the bushings technological class parts: design of the part in CADsoftware; generation of the parametrical link with MSExcel files; extract of the useful information for the technological design (mass, volume, surfaces; setting of the CNC lathe and necessary tools; programming of the CNC code for manufacturing. Given the large variety of the bushingsshapes and dimensions, the application focused on the jig bushings used in drilling processes.

  17. Bush jätkab maailma dirigeerimist / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2004-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush peab oma tagasivalimise kindlustajaks elluviidud välispoliitikat. Autori hinnangul on Bush varasematest presidentidest jõulisemalt muutmas USA-d kapitalismi lipulaevaks, Bushi USA vastandab end euroopalikule mudelile, kus riik tagab kodanikele turvatunde. Kavandatavatest muudatustest USA sisepoliitikas. Vt. samas: Arko Olesk. Verine aasta Iraagi sõjas; Aivar Reinap. USA majandus mustas augus; Andres Keil. Tsivilisatsiooni häirekell

  18. Insulation design of cryogenic bushing for superconducting electric power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koo, J.Y., E-mail: koojy@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Y.J.; Shin, W.J.; Kim, Y.H. [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.T. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Daejin University, Pocheon 487-711 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, B.W. [Department of Electronics, Electrical, Control and Instrumentation Engineering, Hanyang University, Ansan 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, S.H., E-mail: k720lsh@kins.re.kr [Expert Group Electric and Control Department, Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. ► We focused on the comparative study of breakdown characteristics of different electrode materials. ► Puncture and creepage breakdown characteristics were analyzed based on the withstand voltage. ► We obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing. ► We obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic environment. -- Abstract: Recently, the superconductivity projects to develop commercial superconducting devices for extra high voltage transmission lines have been undergoing in many countries. One of the critical components to be developed for high voltage superconducting devices, including superconducting transformers, cables, and fault current limiters, is a high voltage bushing, to supply high current to devices without insulating difficulties, that is designed for cryogenic environments. Unfortunately, suitable bushings for HTS equipment were not fully developed for some cryogenic insulation issues. Such high voltage bushings would need to provide electrical insulation capabilities from room temperature to cryogenic temperatures. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushings were discussed and test results of specimen were introduced in detail. First, the dielectric strength of three kinds of metals has been measured with uniform and non-uniform electrodes by withstand voltage of impulse and AC breakdown test in LN{sub 2}. Second, puncture breakdown voltage of glass fiber reinforced plastics (GFRPs) plates has been analyzed with non-uniform electrodes. Finally, creepage discharge voltages were measured according to the configuration of non-uniform and uniform electrode on the FRP plate. From the test results, we obtained the basic design factors of extra high voltage condenser bushing, which could be used in cryogenic

  19. The Bush administration climate proposal: rhetoric and reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanchard, O.

    2003-03-01

    This paper examines the Bush administration proposal and subsequent actions in terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It has four sections. Section one describes the main features of the Bush Administration climate proposal. Section 2 identifies the main underlying factors that shape this proposal. Section 3 rebuts the Administration critique in deciding to reject the Kyoto protocol. Section 4 explores the prospects of the US climate mitigation actions over the next few years. (A.L.B.)

  20. Jatropha curcas improvement Induced mutation: Thies University Senegal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diédhiou, Ibrahima

    2011-06-01

    The objectives are: 1. to collect accessions of Jatropha curcas in Senegal and establish the genetic variability of this collection. 2. to improve the oil yield of Jatropha curcas by using radiation induced mutation methods to produce highly productive genotypes adapted to local conditions. The choice of Jatropha Curcas is explained by: * Intensive cultivation of Jatropha curcas initiated in many countries of West Africa to produce biodiesel. *There is a craze of private companies to promote this new agricultural value chain. * Jobs and substantial revenues are expected for the rural. *Unfortunately, there is little reliable knowledge to support this dynamic development. Also, the preliminary results showed a high variability of agro-morphological traits in local accessions which could affect negatively the profitability.

  1. Jatropha curcas seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, F.; Jamil, A.; Bhatti, H.N.; Rashid, U.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to explore the utility of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) seed oil for bio diesel production. The preliminarily evaluated Jatropha oil was transmethylated under optimized set of reaction conditions: methanol/oil molar ratio (6:1), sodium methoxide catalyst concentration (1.00%), temperature (65 deg. C) and mixing intensity (600 rpm) providing 94.00% yield of Jatropha oil methyl esters (JOMEs)/biodiesel. The gas chromatographic (GC) analysis showed that JOMEs mainly comprised of six fatty acids: linoleic (49.75%), stearic (16.80%), oleic (13.00%), palmitic (12.15%), arachidic (5.01%) and gadoleic (2.00%) acids. 1H-NMR spectrum of JOMEs was also recorded. The thermal stability of the JOMEs produced was assessed by thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The fuel properties of the biodiesel produced were found to be within the standards specifications of ASTM D 6751 and EN 14214. (author)

  2. Nutrient allocation among stem, leaf and inflorescence of jatropha plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosiane L. S. de Lima

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTInformation on the partitioning of nutrients among various organs in jatropha plants, as a complementary tool for the recommendation of fertilization, is still not available. This study aimed to evaluate the contents of macro and micronutrients in stems, leaves and inflorescences of jatropha branches at the beginning of flowering. At the beginning of flowering, adult jatropha plants were sampled and divided into five compartments: inflorescences, leaves from vegetative branches, leaves from flowering branches, stems from vegetative branches and stems from flowering branches. Jatropha inflorescences are a drain of nutrients. Leaves are important sources of nutrients demanded by the inflorescences at the beginning of flowering. The higher allocation of nutrients in the inflorescences suggests the need for preventive/corrective fertilizations, which must be performed at least 30 days before flowering, providing plants with nutrients in adequate amounts for a good yield.

  3. The next generation feedstock of biofuel: Jatropha or Chlorella as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Otoigiakih

    Promising energy crops such as Jatropha curcas Linnaeus (JCL), which are planted on marginal lands, or microalgae such as .... been found in damp tropical regions such as North. Vietnam and ..... Based on the remote sensing data on land.

  4. Hybrid neural network bushing model for vehicle dynamics simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Jeong Hyun; Lee, Seung Kyu; Yoo, Wan Suk

    2008-01-01

    Although the linear model was widely used for the bushing model in vehicle suspension systems, it could not express the nonlinear characteristics of bushing in terms of the amplitude and the frequency. An artificial neural network model was suggested to consider the hysteretic responses of bushings. This model, however, often diverges due to the uncertainties of the neural network under the unexpected excitation inputs. In this paper, a hybrid neural network bushing model combining linear and neural network is suggested. A linear model was employed to represent linear stiffness and damping effects, and the artificial neural network algorithm was adopted to take into account the hysteretic responses. A rubber test was performed to capture bushing characteristics, where sine excitation with different frequencies and amplitudes is applied. Random test results were used to update the weighting factors of the neural network model. It is proven that the proposed model has more robust characteristics than a simple neural network model under step excitation input. A full car simulation was carried out to verify the proposed bushing models. It was shown that the hybrid model results are almost identical to the linear model under several maneuvers

  5. Modelling of HVDC wall bushing flashover in nonuniform rain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizk, F.A.M.; Kamel, S.I.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the first mathematical model to provide necessary and sufficient conditions for flashover of an HVDC wall bushing under nonuniform rain. The suggested mechanism is initiated by streamer bridging of the dry zone enhanced by nonuniform voltage distribution along the bushing and within the dry zone. Fast voltage collapse across the dry zone die to energy stored in the bushing stray capacitance to ground leads to impulsive stressing of the wet part of the bushing. The nonuniform distribution of the impulse stress and the process of streamer bridging, fast voltage collapse as well as subsequent recharging of the bushing capacitances can lead to continued discharge propagation and flashover of the complete bushing. The findings of the model have been satisfactorily compared with previous experiments and field observations and can, for the first time, account for the following aspects of the flashover mechanism: critical dry zone length, polarity effect, specific leakage path, wet layer conductance per unit leakage length as well as the DC system voltage

  6. Bush blasts 'filth' on TV, school condom handouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-12-18

    President Bush complained yesterday about the "filth and indecent material" that Americans are exposed to through televised trials. Mr. Bush also criticized programs to combat AIDS that give condoms to teenagers and clean needles to drug addicts. He said such efforts undermine traditional values. He expressed hope that Earvin "Magic" Johnson's revelation that he is HIV positive "will teach people that wayward lifestyles or just kind of unsafe sex at random is not the way it ought to work." Mr. Bush made the comments in a series of satellite television interviews with ABC affiliates in major cities. In an apparent reaction to graphic testimony at the recent Palm Beach rape trial of William Kennedy Smith, Mr. Bush said, "I think the American people have a right to be protected against some of these excesses." Mr. Smith, a nephew of Sen. Edward M. Kennedy, D-Mass., was acquitted last week. The Cable News Network and Court TV provided virtually gavel-to-gavel coverage. Mr. Bush took a dim view of a plan to distribute condoms to juniors and seniors in Philadelphia city high schools as part of a program to combat acquired immune deficiency syndrome. "This is a disease that can be controlled for the most part by individual behavior," Mr. Bush said. "Indeed, I must tell you I'm worried about it. I'm worried about so much filth and indecent material coming in through the airwaves and through these trials into people's homes," he said. full text

  7. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E Box 2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Verchot, L. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Head Quarters, United Nations Avenue, P.O. Box 30677, Nairobi (Kenya); Franken, Y.J. [FACT Foundation, Horsten 1, 5612 AX Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mathijs, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Willem de Croylaan 42 Box 2424, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, V.P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India)

    2008-12-15

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  8. Jatropha bio-diesel production and use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, W.M.J.; Aerts, R.; Muys, B.; Verchot, L.; Franken, Y.J.; Mathijs, E.; Singh, V.P.

    2008-01-01

    The interest in using Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) as a feedstock for the production of bio-diesel is rapidly growing. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider JCL as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, JCL is still a wild plant of which basic agronomic properties are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Gray literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields, further fueling the Jatropha bio-diesel hype. In this paper, we give an overview of the currently available information on the different process steps of the production process of bio-diesel from JCL, being cultivation and production of seeds, extraction of the oil, conversion to and the use of the bio-diesel and the by-products. Based on this collection of data and information the best available practice, the shortcomings and the potential environmental risks and benefits are discussed for each production step. The review concludes with a call for general precaution and for science to be applied. (author)

  9. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Kofi Ackom

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Growing Jatropha curcas for energy applications in has been established through several initiatives in Senegal. The government of Senegal launched the National Jatropha Programme (NJP in 2006 with the goal of planting 321,000 ha of Jatropha curcas, with an average of 1000 hectares (ha in each rural locality. This paper reviews existing policies with relevance to Jatropha curcas L production in Senegal. It assesses the NJP implementation, identifies potential gaps and provides recommendations with regards to planning, institutional management, regulation, and implementation. The potential of Jatropha and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having the largest suitability of land areas equating to almost thirty times (30 the original estimations in the NJP followed by Pongamia and sunflower with 6,796,000 ha and 5,298,900 ha respectively. Recommendations are provided suggesting, scientifically sound analysis from agro-environmental mapping to inform on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal.

  10. Removal of Cd (II) from water using the waste of jatropha fruit ( Jatropha curcas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nacke, Herbert; Gonçalves, Affonso Celso; Coelho, Gustavo Ferreira; Schwantes, Daniel; Campagnolo, Marcelo Angelo; Leismann, Eduardo Ariel Völz; Junior, Élio Conradi; Miola, Alisson Junior

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the removal of Cd (II) from water using three biosorbents originated from the biomass of jatropha (bark, endosperm, and endosperm + tegument). For that, batch tests were performed to verify the effect of solution pH, adsorbent mass, contact time, initial concentration of Cd (II), and the temperature of the process. The adsorption process was evaluated by the studies of kinetics, isotherms, and thermodynamics. The ideal conditions of solution pH were 5.5 and 8 g L-1 of adsorbent mass of biosorbents by solution volume, with an equilibrium time of 60 min. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity for bark, endosperm, and bark + endosperm of jatropha was, respectively, 29.665, 19.562, and 34.674 mg g-1, predominating chemisorption in monolayers. The biosorbents presented potential for the remediation of waters contaminated with Cd (II).

  11. Environmental impacts of Jatropha curcas biodiesel in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gmünder, Simon; Singh, Reena; Pfister, Stephan; Adheloya, Alok; Zah, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    In the context of energy security, rural development and climate change, India actively promotes the cultivation of Jatropha curcas, a biodiesel feedstock which has been identified as suitable for achieving the Indian target of 20% biofuel blending by 2017. In this paper, we present results concerning the range of environmental impacts of different Jatropha curcas cultivation systems. Moreover, nine agronomic trials in Andhra Pradesh are analysed, in which the yield was measured as a function of different inputs such as water, fertilizer, pesticides, and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Further, the environmental impact of the whole Jatropha curcas biodiesel value chain is benchmarked with fossil diesel, following the ISO 14040/44 life cycle assessment procedure. Overall, this study shows that the use of Jatropha curcas biodiesel generally reduces the global warming potential and the nonrenewable energy demand as compared to fossil diesel. On the other hand, the environmental impacts on acidification, ecotoxicity, eutrophication, and water depletion all showed increases. Key for reducing the environmental impact of Jatropha curcas biodiesel is the resource efficiency during crop cultivation (especially mineral fertilizer application) and the optimal site selection of the Jatropha curcas plantations.

  12. Occular and dermal toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Roach, Joy S; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2013-08-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are a promising feedstock for biodiesel production. However, Jatropha seed oil and other plant parts are toxic due to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). The ever-increasing cultivation of toxic genotype of J. curcas runs the risk of increased human exposure to Jatropha products. In the present study, effects of J. curcas oil (from both toxic and nontoxic genotypes), purified PEs-rich extract and purified PEs (factors C1, C2, C(3mixture), (C4+C5)) on reconstituted human epithelium (RHE) and human corneal epithelium (HCE) were evaluated in vitro. The PEs were purified from toxic Jatropha oil. In both RHE and HCE, the topical application of PEs containing samples produced severe cellular alterations such as marked oedema, presence of less viable cell layers, necrosis and/or partial tissue disintegration in epithelium and increased inflammatory response (interleukin-1α and prostaglandin E2). When compared to toxic oil, histological alterations and inflammatory response were less evident (PJatropha PEs are toxic towards RHE and HCE models, which represents dermal and occular toxicity respectively. Data obtained from this study would aid in the development of safety procedures for Jatropha biodiesel industries. It is advised to use protective gloves and glasses when handling PEs containing Jatropha products. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Temperature Dependence on The Synthesis of Jatropha Biolubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resul, Muhammad Faiz M Gunam; Ghazi, Tinia Idaty Mohd; Idris, Azni

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as lubricant feedstock. The synthesis of jatropha biolubricant was performed by transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethyl-ol-propane (TMP) with sodium methoxide (NaOCH3) catalyst. The effects of temperature on the synthesis were studied at a range between 120 deg. C and 200 deg. C with pressure kept at 10mbar. The conversion of JME to jatropha biolubricant was found to be the highest (47%) at 200 deg. C. However, it was suggested that the optimum temperature of the reaction is at 150 deg. C due to insignificant improvement in biolubricant production. To maintain forward reaction, the excess amount of JME was maintained at 3.9:1 ratios to TMP. Kinetic study was done and compared. The synthesis was found to follow a second order reaction with overall rate constant of 1.49 x 10-1 (%wt/wt.min.deg. C)-1. The estimated activation energy was 3.94 kJ/mol. Pour point for jatropha biolubricant was at -3 deg. C and Viscosity Index (VI) ranged from 178 to 183. The basic properties of jatropha biolubricant, pour point and viscosities are found comparable to other plant based biolubricant, namely palm oil and soybean based biolubricant.

  14. Jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer in lettuce cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R. Mantovani

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In biodiesel production, vegetable press cake is obtained as waste, and a suitable destination for jatropha press cake would be the use in agriculture as organic fertilizer. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of jatropha press cake on soil fertility attributes and on lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots. The experiment was conducted in pots in a greenhouse, in a randomized block design with eight treatments and five replicates. The treatments consisted of doses of jatropha press cake equivalent to 0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 8.0, 16.0 and 32.0 t ha-1. Portions of 5.5 dm3 of soil received limestone, phosphate fertilizer and the doses of jatropha press cake, and remained incubated for 30 days. After incubation, soil samples were collected, each pot received one lettuce seedling and the experiment was carried out for 45 days. The organic fertilization with jatropha press cake increased the contents of nutrients in the soil, especially K+, but caused increment in soil acidity and electrical conductivity. The use of jatropha press cake as organic fertilizer decreased lettuce production and accumulation of nutrients in the shoots.

  15. Critical review of jatropha biodiesel promotion policies in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Sunil; Chaube, Alok; Jain, Shashi Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha, a non-edible oil seed yielding plant has been identified by the Government of India to produce biodiesel under National Biodiesel Mission. Failure of phase-I of National Biodiesel Mission and likely failure of phase-II requires critical analysis of policy frameworks related to its long term sustainability. Indian biofuel promotion policies like Biodiesel Purchase Policy and National Biofuel Policy have failed to yield any visible results. No tangible ground work is visible as of now to ensure success of various government plans and policies related to adoption of jatropha biodiesel. It is clearly evident that some serious bottlenecks are delaying the adoption of jatropha biodiesel. Present work identifies important policy bottlenecks like availability of land, non-remunerative pricing policy and state fear relating to loss of revenue in the case of zero duty regimes. This paper attempts to explore and critically analyze present policies and possible options taking into account the recent Indian experiences for successful adoption of jatropha biodiesel. - Highlights: ► Wrong waste land estimates for jatropha has failed Biodiesel Mission. ► No redressal of technological problems with biodiesel usage. ► Present estimated costing of jatropha biodiesel is Rs. 46.45 per liter. ► Promotion of any biofuel needs central government assistance to the states. ► Targets under National Biofuel Policy are also unlikely to be met.

  16. Temperature dependence on the synthesis of Jatropha bio lubricant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunam Resul, M.F.M.; Tinia Idaty Mohd Ghazi; Idris, A.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Jatropha oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as lubricant feedstock. The synthesis of jatropha bio lubricant was performed by transesterification of jatropha methyl ester (JME) with trimethyl-ol-propane (TMP) with sodium methoxide (NaOCH 3 ) catalyst. The effects of temperature on the synthesis were studied at a range between 120 degree Celsius and 200 degree Celsius with pressure kept at 10 mbar. The conversion of JME to jatropha bio lubricant was found to be the highest (47 %) at 200 degree Celsius. However, it was suggested that the optimum temperature of the reaction is at 150 degree Celsius due to insignificant improvement in bio lubricant production. To maintain forward reaction, the excess amount of JME was maintained at 3.9:1 ratios to TMP. Kinetic study was done and compared. The synthesis was found to follow a second order reaction with overall rate constant of 1.49 x 10 -1 (% wt/ wt.min.degree Celsius) -1 . The estimated activation energy was 3.94 kJ/mol. Pour point for jatropha bio lubricant was at -3 degree Celsius and Viscosity Index (VI) ranged from 178 to 183. The basic properties of jatropha bio lubricant, pour point and viscosities are found comparable to other plant based bio lubricant, namely palm oil and soybean based bio lubricant. (author)

  17. Pengembangan Produksi Biogas Dari Limbah Pembuatan Biodiesel Jarak Pagar (Jatropha Curcas Seed Cake)

    OpenAIRE

    Yufidani, Y; Jos, Bakti; Sumardiono, Siswo

    2013-01-01

    Biogas is a fermentation process using anaerobic bacteria to convert organic compounds into gas with high composition of methane. Use of jatropha curcas as a biodiesel's resources remains a problems, seed cake of jatropha curcas contains phorbol esters that is toxic. This research focused on getting an optimum yield of biogas production from jatropha curcas seed cake using additive material to reach optimum C/N ratio. Optimum C/N ratio on biogas production was range 20-30, but jatropha curcas...

  18. Determination of vibration properties of Jatropha curcas for mechanical harvesting operations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Rokli Hizra Ramli; Mohd Noor Abdul Ghani; Mohd Hudzari Razali; Fazlil Ilahi Abdul Wahab; Norhayati Ngah

    2012-01-01

    Jatropha curcas has been considered as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Today, Jatropha curcas planthas been widely planted for its fruits in order to produce biodiesel. Jatropha curcas is a species of Euphorbiaceae. The plantis a perennial shrub, which can grow approximately five to eight meters in height and it can be grown anywhere and eitherfrom seed or cutting. It seems that jatropha has a great potential to replace the fuel derived from petroleum as well as oil palm.Unfor...

  19. Effects of gamma irradiation on the performance of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) accessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surahman, M.; Santosa, E.; Agusta, H.; Aisyah, S. I.; Nisya, F. N.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to assess the effects of mutation by using gamma ray on the performance of jatropha plants. The study was conducted at PAIR BATAN. Jatropha seeds obtained from the collection farm of SBRC LPPM IPB and PT Indocement Tunggal Prakarsa Tbk in Gunung Putri, Bogor, were irradiated. The irradiated seeds were grown in Jonggol Trial Farm of IPB. Gamma irradiation was conducted by using a GCM 4000A device. Treatments consisted of irradiation doses, irradiation methods, and accessions. Irradiation doses given were 175, 200, 225 Gy, and no irradiation (control). Irradiation methods consisted of acute, intermittent, and split-dose. Accessions used in this study were Dompu, Medan, Bima, Lombok, ITP II, IP2P, and Thailand. Results of the study were analysed until 5 months after planting showed that gamma ray mutation gave stimulating and inhibiting effects on similar traits. Irradiation dose of 225 Gy was good to be given in acute, intermittent, and split-dose methods. Irradiation effects were found to be significant in jatropha accessions. Effects of irradiation on production will be published soon.

  20. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) Grown in Southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia, Teresa; Barreca, Davide; Panuccio, Maria Rosaria

    2017-03-18

    Jatropha ( Jatropha curcas L.) is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C -glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products.

  1. Assessment of Antioxidant and Cytoprotective Potential of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas Grown in Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Papalia

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. is a plant native of Central and South America, but widely distributed in the wild or semi-cultivated areas in Africa, India, and South East Asia. Although studies are available in literature on the polyphenolic content and bioactivity of Jatropha curcas L., no information is currently available on plants grown in pedoclimatic and soil conditions different from the autochthon regions. The aim of the present work was to characterize the antioxidant system developed by the plant under a new growing condition and to evaluate the polyphenol amount in a methanolic extract of leaves. Along with these analyses we have also tested the antioxidant and cytoprotective activities on lymphocytes. RP-HPLC-DAD analysis of flavonoids revealed a chromatographic profile dominated by the presence of flavone C-glucosydes. Vitexin is the most abundant identified compound followed by vicenin-2, stellarin-2, rhoifolin, and traces of isovitexin and isorhoifolin. Methanolic extract had high scavenging activity in all antioxidant assays tested and cytoprotective activity on lymphocytes exposed to tertz-buthylhydroperoxide. The results highlighted a well-defined mechanism of adaptation of the plant and a significant content of secondary metabolites with antioxidant properties, which are of interest for their potential uses, especially as a rich source of biologically active products.

  2. Performance of jatropha oil blends in a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forson, F.K.; Oduro, E.K.; Hammond-Donkoh, E. [Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi (Ghana). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-06-01

    Results are presented on tests on a single-cylinder direct-injection engine operating on diesel fuel, jatropha oil, and blends of diesel and jatropha oil in proportions of 97.4%/2.6%; 80%120%; and 50%150% by volume. The results covered a range of operating loads on the engine. Values are given for the chemical and physical properties of the fuels, brake specific fuel consumption, brake power, brake thermal efficiency, engine torque, and the concentrations of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen in the exhaust gases. Carbon dioxide emissions were similar for all fuels, the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend was observed to be the lower net contributor to the atmospheric level. The trend of carbon monoxide emissions was similar for the fuels but diesel fuel showed slightly lower emissions to the atmosphere. The test showed that jatropha oil could be conveniently used as a diesel substitute in a diesel engine. The test further showed increases in brake thermal efficiency, brake power and reduction of specific fuel consumption for jatropha oil and its blends with diesel generally, but the most significant conclusion from the study is that the 97.4% diesel/2.6% jatropha fuel blend produced maximum values of the brake power and brake thermal efficiency as well as minimum values of the specific fuel consumption. The 97.4%12.6% fuel blend yielded the highest cetane number and even better engine performance than the diesel fuel suggesting that jatropha oil can be used as an ignition- accelerator additive for diesel fuel. (author)

  3. Design, Fabrication, and Optimization of Jatropha Sheller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard P. TING

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A study designed, fabricated, and optimized performance of a jatropha sheller, consisting of mainframe, rotary cylinder, stationary cylinder, transmission system. Evaluation and optimization considered moisture content, clearance, and roller speed as independent parameters while the responses comprised of recovery, bulk density factor, shelling capacity, energy utilization of sheller, whole kernel recovery, oil recovery, and energy utilization by extruder.Moisture content failed to affect the response variables. The clearance affected response variables except energy utilization of the extruder. Roller speed affected shelling capacity, whole kernel recovery, and energy utilization of the extruder. Optimization resulted in operating conditions of 9.5%wb moisture content, clearance of 6 mm, and roller speed of 750 rpm.

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY OF CELL CULTURE JATROPHA CURCAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KOMAR RUSLAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family which has potential economically. This plant has been reported to contain toxic compounds such as curcin and phorbol ester and its derivatives. These compounds may become a problem if J. curcas will be explored as a source of biofuel. In order to provide safety plants, the research on the study of phytochemical and initiation of cell and organ culture have been carried out. J curcas which has been collected from different regions in Indonesia showed to contain relatively the same profile of chemical contents. Dominant compounds that were detected by GCMS are hidrocarbon such as 2-heptenal, decadienal, hexsadecane, pentadecane, cyclooctane etc, fatty acid such as oktadecanoate acid, etthyl linoleate, ethyl stearate, heksadecanoate acid and steroid such as stigmasterol, fucosterol, sitosterol. No phorbol ester and its derivatives have been detected yet by the GCMS method. Callus and suspension cultures of J. curcas have been established to be used for further investigation.

  5. Simulation of Bimetallic Bush Hot Rolling Bonding Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional model of bimetallic bush was established including the drive roller and the core roller. The model adopted the appropriate interface assumptions. Based on the bonding properties of bimetallic bush the hot rolling process was analyzed. The optimum reduction ratio of 28% is obtained by using the finite element simulation software MARC on the assumption of the bonding conditions. The stress-strain distribution of three dimensions was research assumptions to interface deformation of rolling. At the same time, based on the numerical simulation, the minimum reduction ratio 20% is obtained by using a double metal composite bush rolling new technology from the experiment research. The simulation error is not more than 8%.

  6. The George W. Bush administration: a new environment?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalonick, M.C.

    2004-05-01

    Bush rejection of the Kyoto protocol and refusal to regulate carbon dioxide emissions was one of many moves that has been unpopular with American environmentalists. In the last four years, they have criticized Bush and his administration for pushing changes to clean air law, forestry policy and endangered species laws. The administration has also come under fire for proposals to drill for oil in sensitive lands. These groups have found some potent allies in Congress, including some moderate Republicans, and in the states. Supporters of Bush environmental initiatives, including most Republican congressional leaders, industry groups and conservative organizations, have called his policy balanced and say that he brings a ''common sense'' approach to industry regulation. These two sides have found little in common in the last four years, and have compromised on almost nothing. As a result, the environment, once a bi-partisan issue, has become more and more a polarizing one. (author)

  7. Experimental determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from jatropha seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I.O.; Jonah, S.A.; Omede, M.O.

    2010-01-01

    The thermal neutron technique was used for the determination of hydrogen content of oil extract from Jatropha seeds. The experimental arrangement consists of a source holder, Am-Be neutron source embedded in paraffin wax and 3 He detector was used to measure reflection coefficient as a function of hydrogen content of various hydrocarbon materials used as calibration standards. The hydrogen content which is an important property of fuel oils was determined for jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel using their measured values of neutron reflection coefficients and calibration data. The result obtained showed that the hydrogen content of Jatropha oil exceeds that of the synthetic diesel, thus indicating its suitability as a fuel oil for powering diesel engines. The results obtained also indicated that hydrogen content of jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture increases as the volumetric concentration of jatropha oil in the mixture increases, indicating that jatropha oil can serve as a suitable additive to synthetic diesel oil.

  8. Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, V; Banyr, J

    1980-11-15

    The bushing described is characterized by a hollow with a joining member provided inside of at least one of the bushing's electrically conductive core soldered or embedded into a bore in the insulator. Thus, the concentration is limited of the material of the electrically conductive core in the area of the soldered or embedded joint of the support of the electrically conductive core and the insulator, and the resulting force effect is reduced of the difference in thermal dilatations of the materials of the electrically conductive core and the insulator.

  9. Radiation resistant electrical bushing for high pressures and temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, V.; Banyr, J.

    1980-01-01

    The bushing described is characterized by a hollow with a joining member provided inside of at least one of the bushing's electrically conductive core soldered or embedded into a bore in the insulator. Thus, the concentration is limited of the material of the electrically conductive core in the area of the soldered or embedded joint of the support of the electrically conductive core and the insulator, and the resulting force effect is reduced of the difference in thermal dilatations of the materials of the electrically conductive core and the insulator. (J.B.)

  10. Over-expression of CYP78A98, a cytochrome P450 gene from Jatropha curcas L., increases seed size of transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yinshuai Tian

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The results indicated that CYP78A98 played a role in Jatropha seed size control. This may help us to better understand the genetic regulation of Jatropha seed development, and accelerate the breeding progress of Jatropha.

  11. Termination for a superconducting power transmission line including a horizontal cryogenic bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minati, Kurt F.; Morgan, Gerry H.; McNerney, Andrew J.; Schauer, Felix

    1984-01-01

    A termination for a superconducting power transmission line is disclosed which is comprised of a standard air entrance insulated vertical bushing with an elbow, a horizontal cryogenic bushing linking the pressurized cryogenic cable environment to the ambient temperature bushing and a stress cone which terminates the cable outer shield and transforms the large radial voltage gradient in the cable dielectric into a much lower radial voltage gradient in the high density helium coolant at the cold end of the cryogenic bushing.

  12. Field distribution on an HVDC wall bushing during laboratory rain tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampe, W.; Wikstrom, D.; Jacobson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that an efficient counter-measure to suppress flashovers across HVDC wall bushings is to make their surfaces hydrophobic. This laboratory investigation reports the measured electric field along such a bushing under different environmental conditions. A significantly reduced radial field strength has been found for the hydrophobic bushing. Moreover, the total field strength distribution becomes almost independent of the prevailing dry zone. The flashover voltage for bushings with a hydrophobic surface is therefore significantly increased

  13. Local Perceptions about the Effects of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas and Castor (Ricinus communis Plantations on Households in Ghana and Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joleen A. Timko

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel plantations have been hyped as a means to reinvigorate Africa’s rural areas. Yet there is still apprehension about the negative environmental and social impacts of large-scale commercial biofuel production around rising food prices, land grabbing, ecological damage, and disruption of rural livelihoods. Given the extent of Jatropha curcas production in Ghana and Ethiopia and Castor bean (Ricinus communis in Ethiopia, this paper presents the results of a study that assessed the socio-economic implications of industrial Jatropha plantations on local livelihoods in Ghana, and of industrial Jatropha and Castor plantations on local livelihoods in Ethiopia. This study used primary data collected from 234 households in Ghana and 165 in Ethiopia. The cultivation of Jatropha and Castor has had several important effects on local livelihoods in the study sites, most notably decreases in household landholdings due to the arrival of industrial Jatropha or Castor plantations; and the resulting changes these plantations have caused in household socio-economic status, food security, fallow periods, and fodder availability. We consider how a lack of meaningful consultation between local people, their traditional authorities and the biofuel company managers, along with shortcomings in each country’s broader land acquisition process and poor land use information, may have contributed to these overall negative effects on local livelihoods. We conclude by suggesting several ways that emerging biofuel industries could be improved from the perspective of local people and their livelihoods.

  14. Study of oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Biofuel Research Laboratory, Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand- 247667 (India)

    2011-07-01

    Biodiesel production is undergoing rapid technological reforms in industries and academia. This has become more obvious and relevant since the recent increase in the petroleum prices and the growing awareness relating to the environmental consequences of the fuel overdependency. However, the possibilities of production of biodiesel from edible oil resources in India is almost impossible, as primary need is to first meet the demand of edible oil that is already imported therefore it is essential to explore non-edible seed oils, like Jatropha curcas and Pongamia as biodiesel raw materials. The oxidation stability of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas oil is very poor. Therefore the aim of the present paper is to study the oxidation stability of Jatropha curcas biodiesel/ diesel blend. Also the effectiveness of various antioxidants is checked with respect to various blends of biodiesel with diesel.

  15. Analysis of national Jatropha biodiesel programme in Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dafrallah, Touria; Ackom, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    and other biodiesel crop options, based on findings from an agro-environmental mapping exercise have been shown. Findings show that prior policies in agricultural and energy sectors had been instrumental in developing the NJP. It highlights significant challenges in the value chain, the implementation...... of NJP and on the importance of using empirical assessment of evidence to inform on the biodiesel crop type compared to a focus on only one crop, Jatropha. Agro-environmental mapping was identified as useful technique prior to biodiesel cultivation. The work reported here indicates Jatropha having...... on the suitability of areas for Jatropha cultivation and on environmentally, socially and culturally sensitive areas. Policy options have been suggested for environmentally benigned sustained biodiesel activities in Senegal....

  16. Northward extension of the known range of the Bush Pipit Anthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary. The Bush Pipit Anthus caffer is a partly nomadic African species whose movements coincide with the onset of rains. Across the continent, the distribution and geographic extent of the five Bush Pipit subspecies are poorly known. In Kenya, the documented range of the Bush Pipit is along the Tanzanian border in ...

  17. Potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri A. Gani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traumatic ulcer is a lesion in oral mucosa as a result of physical and mechanical trauma, as well as changes in salivary pH. Jatropha multifida sap can act as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and re-epithelialization, and can also trigger the healing process of ulcers. Purpose: Research was aimed to determine the potential of Jatropha multifida sap against traumatic ulcer base on clinical and histopathological healing process. Method: This research was conducted laboratory experimental model, with rats (Rattus norvegicus as the subject as well as Jatropha multifida sap for ulcer healing. Those subjects were divided into four groups: two treatment groups administrated with pellet and Jatropha multifida sap, one group as the positive control group administrated with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, and one group as the negative control group administrated with 0.9% NaCl. Ulcer manipulation was used 30% H2O2, and evaluation of ulcer healing was used clinical and histopathological approach. Result: Clinically, the healing process of ulcers in the treatment group with Jatropha multifida sap was faster than that in the positive control group with 0.1% triamcinolone acetonide, indicated with the reduction of the ulcer size until the missing of the ulcers started from the third day to the seventh one (p≤0.05. Histopathologically inflammatory cells (lymphocytes, and plasma cells declined started from the third day, and the formation of collagen and re-epithelialization then occurred. On the seventh day, the epithelial cells thickened, and the inflammatory cells infiltrated. Statistically, those groups were significant (p≤0.05. Conclusion: Jatropha multifida sap has a significant potential to cure traumatic ulcers on oral mucosa clinically and histopathologically.

  18. Jatropha curcas: sources of bioenergy for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengar, R. S.; Chaudhary, R.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Bio-fuels are renewable sources of energy derived from biological raw material. Two sources of biofuels, ethanol and bio-diesel, are gaining worldwide acceptance as one of the solutions for the problems of environmental degradation, energy security, restricting imports, rural employment, agricultural economy, owing to reduce dependence on oil import; savings in foreign exchange and reduced vehicular pollution. Two major biofuels for the transport sector, bio-ethanol and bio-diesel, are becoming popular in many countries across the world. Jatropha curcas L. commonly known as physic nut, Ratanjot, purgative nut or nut. Jatropha curcas L. has unique pride among the various plants because of its multiple uses like ethnomedical value, nutritional value, ornamental value, carbon sequestration potential, comparatively better fuel properties, etc., are worthy to mention. Jatropha curcas, an oil bearing, drought hardy shrub with ecological advantages has already being successfully grown and harvested as a bio fuel in countries. By the use of tissue culture technique Jatropha can be grow at higher level. By the development of tissue culture, technology for rapid multiplication of disease-free planting material has greatly facilitated mass production of quality seed with high content of bio-diesel in Jatropha. In recent years this plant has received extensive attention of many scientists in view of its great economic importance, medicinal significant and for its seed oil as commercial source of fuel. The superior quality oil can be extracted from the seeds. The oil can be used as a mixed fuel for diesel/gasoline engines. National networks namely 'national network on jatropha and karanja' constituted by involving state agricultural universities and institutions, such as CSIR, ICFRE, ICAR, CFTRI, TERI, and IIT Delhi

  19. The Gore/Bush Records on Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    Compares the records of presidential candidates George W. Bush and Al Gore on higher education issues and, specifically, those of interest to the Black community. Concludes that Al Gore's record makes him an overall better choice in the 2000 campaign. (DB)

  20. Bush kutsub ühte hoidma / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2004-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush kutsus liitlasriike hoidma oma väeüksusi Iraagis. Hispaania tulevane peaminister Jose Luis Rodriquez Zapatero lubas Hispaania sõjaväelased Iraagist ära tuua, kui operatsioonide juhtimine ei lähe USA-lt üle ÜRO-le. Vt. samas: Rumsfeld: hispaanlaste asemele tulevad teised

  1. BUDDLEJA DAVIDII (BUTTERFLY BUSH): A GROWING THREAT TO RIPARIA?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii, an Asian shrub or small tree (family Buddlejaceae; commonly referred to as Butterfly bush) is found in the United States, New Zealand, Australia, and Europe as a popular ornamental and an aggressive invasive that has become widespread in floodplains, riverbeds, ...

  2. Oliver Stone : "Bush oli paadialune!" / Oliver Stone ; interv. Margit Tõnson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stone, Oliver

    2008-01-01

    Kreekas, Thessaloniki filmifestivalil antud intervjuu. Festivalil linastus režissööri mängufilm "W", mille peaosas George Bush jun. (mängib Josh Brolin). Lisaks filmist : ""W" - ümbersündinud mehe kentsakas portree"

  3. Bush annab kinga kindralitele Iraagis, vahetub ka luurejuht / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2007-01-01

    Vaatlejate hinnangul esitab president Bush uue Iraagi-strateegia, mis näeb ette lisaks kuni 20 000 sõjaväelase Iraaki saatmist ning muudatusi sõjalises juhtkonnas. Ametist lahkuvad Iraagis vägesid juhatav kindral George Casey ning Iraagi ja Afganistani operatsioonide üldjuht John Abizaid

  4. Response of total phenolic content and antioxidant activities of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The positive health benefits associated with tea are made possible by the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in tea. The total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of bush tea (Athrixia phylicoides DC.) and special tea (Monsonia burkeana) were studied. The extractions were done in triplicate using cold ...

  5. Age determination in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus cepapi cepapi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tooth eruption and wear, measurements of skulls, eye-lens mass determination and different aspects of phallic morphology were used in an attempt at age classification in the bush squirrel, Paraxerus c. cepapi. The first method proved the most practical and allowed for three immature and three adult age classes.

  6. Boumediene v. Bush: Guantanamo Detainees' Right to Habeas Corpus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Garcia, Michael J

    2008-01-01

    In the consolidated cases of Boumediene v. Bush and Al Odah v. United States, decided June 12, 2008, the Supreme Court held in a 5-4 opinion that aliens designated as enemy combatants and detained at the U.S...

  7. The Invasive Shrub, Buddleja davidii (Butterfl y Bush)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddleja davidii Franchet (Synonym. Buddleia davidii; common name Butterfly bush) is a perennial, semi-deciduous shrub or small multi-stemmed tree that is resident in gardens and disturbed areas in temperate locations worldwide. Since its introduction to the United Kingdom from c...

  8. Budgets come first as Bush chooses NASA head

    CERN Multimedia

    Schrope, M

    2001-01-01

    President Bush has nominated a budget expert with no aerospace or scientific background as the agency's administrator. Sean O'Keefe, formerly scrutinized overspending in the International Space Station programme. If appointed, he will have to implement reforms he himself recommended (1/2 page).

  9. Characterizing parameters of Jatropha curcas cell cultures for microgravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendrame, Wagner A.; Pinares, Ania

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) is a tropical perennial species identified as a potential biofuel crop. The oil is of excellent quality and it has been successfully tested as biodiesel and in jet fuel mixes. However, studies on breeding and genetic improvement of jatropha are limited. Space offers a unique environment for experiments aiming at the assessment of mutations and differential gene expression of crops and in vitro cultures of plants are convenient for studies of genetic variation as affected by microgravity. However, before microgravity studies can be successfully performed, pre-flight experiments are necessary to characterize plant material and validate flight hardware environmental conditions. Such preliminary studies set the ground for subsequent spaceflight experiments. The objectives of this study were to compare the in vitro growth of cultures from three explant sources (cotyledon, leaf, and stem sections) of three jatropha accessions (Brazil, India, and Tanzania) outside and inside the petriGAP, a modified group activation pack (GAP) flight hardware to fit petri dishes. In vitro jatropha cell cultures were established in petri dishes containing a modified MS medium and maintained in a plant growth chamber at 25 ± 2 °C in the dark. Parameters evaluated were surface area of the explant tissue (A), fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) for a period of 12 weeks. Growth was observed for cultures from all accessions at week 12, including subsequent plantlet regeneration. For all accessions differences in A, FW and DW were observed for inside vs. outside the PetriGAPs. Growth parameters were affected by accession (genotype), explant type, and environment. The type of explant influenced the type of cell growth and subsequent plantlet regeneration capacity. However, overall cell growth showed no abnormalities. The present study demonstrated that jatropha in vitro cell cultures are suitable for growth inside PetriGAPs for a period of 12 weeks. The parameters

  10. Evolution of the Jatropha Biofuel Niche in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bolwig, Simon

    spanning the period 1995–2004 and including detailed company case studies. Relating to the MLP framework the factors analysed influencing internal niche processes are alignment of expectations, network formation, and learning and knowledge sharing, while those relating to the GVC framework are value chain......, which contributed to the collapse of the jatropha sector in Ghana and thus to the failure to capitalise on the initially high expectations of biofuel production. We also found a low level of learning and knowledgesharing between jatropha niche actors in Ghana, which, alongside weak public R&D support...

  11. Jatropha curcas, a biofuel crop: functional genomics for understanding metabolic pathways and genetic improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Laimer, Margit

    2013-10-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently attracting much attention as an oilseed crop for biofuel, as Jatropha can grow under climate and soil conditions that are unsuitable for food production. However, little is known about Jatropha, and there are a number of challenges to be overcome. In fact, Jatropha has not really been domesticated; most of the Jatropha accessions are toxic, which renders the seedcake unsuitable for use as animal feed. The seeds of Jatropha contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids, which negatively impact the biofuel quality. Fruiting of Jatropha is fairly continuous, thus increasing costs of harvesting. Therefore, before starting any improvement program using conventional or molecular breeding techniques, understanding gene function and the genome scale of Jatropha are prerequisites. This review presents currently available and relevant information on the latest technologies (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics) to decipher important metabolic pathways within Jatropha, such as oil and toxin synthesis. Further, it discusses future directions for biotechnological approaches in Jatropha breeding and improvement. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology Journal published by Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Jatropha Developments in Mozambique: Analysis of Structural Conditions Influencing Niche-Regime Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Slingerland

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This article investigates the transition dynamics related to Jatropha developments in Mozambique. The analysis focuses on how structural conditions (infrastructure, institutions, interaction and collaboration and capabilities and resources enable or constrain interactions between niche-level Jatropha experiments and incumbent energy, agriculture and rural development regimes in Mozambique. Investors in agro-industrial Jatropha projects focused on establishing projects in areas with relatively good infrastructure, rather than in remote rural areas. Furthermore, they predominantly focused on Jatropha production instead of investing in the entire Jatropha value chain, which turned out to be a challenge in itself, as growing a productive Jatropha crop was much more complex than initially anticipated. The development of institutions that could nurture and protect Jatropha projects from the prevailing regimes lagged behind Jatropha project establishment, leading to an insecure investment climate. Strong inter-ministerial collaboration and organized civil society interaction and representation contrasted with non-organized private sector and rather isolated smallholder Jatropha projects. The global financial crisis and limited adaptive capacity reduced the time and space for experimentation and learning to overcome disappointing crop performance. Together, this hampered Jatropha’s potential to challenge the energy, agricultural and rural development regimes. Nevertheless, the Jatropha experience did initiate the development of policy and regulation and stimulated interaction and collaboration between specific groups of stakeholders, which could provide the basis to capture future biofuel momentum in Mozambique.

  13. An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aston Philander, Lisa

    2011-11-18

    This descriptive ethnobiological research is the first documentation of the materials utilized in the pharmacopeia of a novel group of herbalists, Rasta bush doctors, found in the botanically diverse Western Cape of South Africa. This article suggests that medicinal plants used by bush doctors unite the disparate ethnomedicines found in South Africa. Ethnospecies name and parts used were recorded during detailed inventories of 39 bush doctors. Collection of voucher specimens for botanical identification occurred in 15 locations. Herbal remedies were classified into use categories and were compared to historical ethnobotanical literature to ascertain previous cultural affiliations. There were 205 ethnospecies found in the Rastafari ethnobiology, 181 were used medicinally. Ethnospecies belong to 71 plant families and 71% belonged to six plant families: Rutaceae (13), Asteraceae (13), Apiaceae (9), Lamiaceae (8), Fabaceae (8), and Euphorbiaceae (7). The majority of remedies (49%) were foliage. Medicinal plants treated over 30 ailments including: gastrointestinal symptoms (11%), urogential complaints (11%), skin ailments (9%), and cardiovascular diseases (8%). Bush doctors appropriated remedies traditionally important to Zulu, KhoiSan, European and Xhosa healing traditions. Novel plants and plant utilization were noted for 22 plant species. Use of previously undocumented plant materials as medicinals denote distinct local knowledge including novel Rastafarian utilization of herbs for spiritual and ritual purposes. The range of the largely herbaceous pharmacopeia is narrow compared to the region's highly biodiverse materials and historical records of medicinal use. Bush doctors' experimentation with known herbal remedies illustrates a striking level of cross-cultural adaptation. This syncretic pharmacopeia reflects the cultural diversity of Southern Africa, drawing upon recent invasive species, European influence and traditional herbs used by the KhoiSan, Zulu and Xhosa

  14. Bush doctrine in the Middle East; The US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the George W. Bush presidency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukáš Hoder

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused at the most important elements of the US foreign policy towards the Middle East during the administration of George W. Bush (2001 – 2009. The text has two parts. The first part shows three important influences on creation and formulation of the US foreign policy towards the region. At the first place it was an effort to preserve unipolar character of the international system, hegemonic possition of the USA and its dominance in all regions. The second source was specific decision-making process set up by president Bush and the third source of the Bush strategy was a partial transformation of the US longtime policy towards the Middle East. The second part of the article discuss results of the Bush doctrine in the region. The text is focused at five most important consequences of the US foreign policy, which are the fight against proliferation of weapons of mass destruction, the pursuit of the democratization throughout the region, the Israel-Palestinian conflict, regional “cold war” between Iran and Saudi Arabia and finally the struggle to stabilize the post-conflict Iraq.

  15. Identification of a novel ga-related bush mutant in pumpkin (cucurbita moschata duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.; Cao, J.

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata Duchesne) bush mutant plants were characterized by short stems. The sensitivity of pumpkin bush mutant plants to exogenous hormones was identified in this study. Results revealed that internode elongation of bush mutant plants could respond to gibberellins (GA4+7 and GA3), but not to indole acetic acid (IAA) and brassinosteroids (BR); by contrast, the mutant phenotype of bush mutant plants could not be fully rescued by GA4+7 and GA3. The internode of bush mutant plants yielded a lower KS expression level than that of vine plants. Therefore, pumpkin bush mutant plants were designated as GA-related mutant plants eliciting a partial response to GAs; the action of IAA and BR might not be involved in the internode growth of pumpkin bush mutant plants, specifically Cucurbita moschata Duch. (author)

  16. Jatropha seed cake valorization for non-food applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herman Hidayat, Herman

    2014-01-01

    Biomassa wordt momenteel op grote schaal ingezet voor de productie van biobrandstoffen als bio ethanol en biodiesel. Een aantrekkelijke bron voor biodiesel is de olie in de nootjes van de Jatropha curcas L. (JCL) struik. Deze olie is niet eetbaar en als zodanig is het gebruik van de olie als

  17. Use of Jatropha curcas hull biomass for bioactive compost production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, D.K. [Division of Environmental Sciences, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India); Pandey, A.K.; Lata [Division of Microbiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2009-01-15

    The paper deals with utilization of biomass of Jatropha hulls for production of bioactive compost. In the process of Jatropha oil extraction, a large amount of hull waste is generated. It has been found that the direct incorporation of hull into soil is considerably inefficient in providing value addition to soil due to its unfavorable physicochemical characteristics (high pH, EC and phenolic content). An alternative to this problem is the bioconversion of Jatropha hulls using effective lignocellulolytic fungal consortium, which can reduce the phytotoxicity of the degraded material. Inoculation with the fungal consortium resulted in better compost of jatropha hulls within 1 month, but it takes nearly 4 months for complete compost maturation as evident from the results of phytotoxicity test. Such compost can be applied to the acidic soil as a remedial organic manure to help maintaining sustainability of the agro-ecosystem. Likewise, high levels of cellulolytic enzymes observed during bioconversion indicate possible use of fungi for ethanol production from fermentation of hulls. (author)

  18. Performance of Diesel Engine Using Blended Crude Jatropha Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Kamarul Azhar; Mohd Sazali, Nor Shahida Akma; Mohd Ali, Mas Fauzi; Alimin, Ahmad Jais; Khir, Saffiah Abdullah

    2010-06-01

    Vegetable oil presents a very promising alternative to diesel oil since it is renewable and has similar properties to the diesel. In view of this, crude jatropha oil is selected and its viscosity is reduced by blending it with diesel. Since jatropha oil has properties which are similar to mineral diesel, it can be used in compression ignition engines without any engine modification. This paper presents the results of investigation carried out on a four-cylinder, four strokes and indirect-injection diesel engine. The engine, operated using composition blends of crude jatropha oil and diesel, were compared with mineral diesel. An experimental investigation has been carried out to analyze the performance characteristics of a compression ignition engine from the blended fuel (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). A naturally aspirated four-stroke indirect injection diesel engine was tested at full load conditions, speeds between 1000 and 3500 rpm with intervals of 500 rpm. Results obtained from the measures of torque, power, specific fuel consumptions, thermal efficiency and brake mean effective pressure are nearly the same between blended and diesel fuel. An overall graph shows that the performance of relevant parameters from blended fuel is most likely similar to the performance produced from diesel. The experimental results proved that the use of crude jatropha oil in compression ignition engines is a viable alternative to diesel.

  19. Prospects and constraints on utilization of Jatropha curcas seeds in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prospects and constraints on utilization of Jatropha curcas seeds in animal feedstuff. ... Biochemical indices measured on treated JSM based diets were comparable with those obtained on the conventional diet (p > 0.05) except for blood cholesterol level (p < 0.05) which was elevated with increasing treated JSM in diets.

  20. Efficacy of Jatropha, Annona and Parthenium biowash on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... rot in chickpea) and Macrophomina phaseolina (causes charcoal rot in sorghum). ... crude biowash was also passed through C18 solid phase extraction cartridges and ... When the organic fraction of Jatropha biowash was further fractionated by ... Hence, it was concluded that one of these three bands could be the active

  1. Extraction and analysis of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil | Shivani ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, extraction of Jatropha oil from seeds was optimized using organic solvents. The effects of parameters on the oil extraction namely type of organic solvents and different techniques were also investigated to optimize the processing conditions for achieving maximum oil yield. The acid value and antioxidant ...

  2. Toxicological effect of consumption of extract of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The leaves of J. tanjorensis are locally consumed as vegetable added to daily foods and has also served a medicinal purpose, however, it toxicological effects is yet to be fully evaluated in our environment. Aim: The present research was to assess the effects of the extract of the leaf of Jatropha tanjorensis on ...

  3. Effects of Growth Hormones on Sprouting and Rooting of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL HORSFALL

    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to assess the effect of growth hormone on sprouting and rooting ability of Jatropha curcas (L). Stem cuttings from mature plants were treated with two types of growth hormones: Naphthalene Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid while the untreated cuttings were used as control.

  4. Genetic relationships and diversity of Jatropha curcas accessions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study has been undertaken to assess the extent of genetic diversity in a representative set of 16 accessions of Jatropha curcas. Inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis was used to establish the genetic relationship among the accessions. From the eight ISSR primers used, the number of amplicons per primers ...

  5. Jatropha Curcas Seed Oil Linn ( Euphor Biaceae ): Contraceptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was obvious that J. curcas seed oil is a volatile oil. It was also observed that tragacanth formed more stable primary emulsions than acacia gum. It was concluded that Jatropha curcas seed oil has significant contraceptive activity and it could be formulated into stable oral emulsion at doses not exceeding 0.5g/kg. Nig.

  6. Larvicidal efficacy of Jatropha curca L. ( Euphorbiaceae ) leaf and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this context, the purpose of the present search was to explore the larvicidal properties of Jatropha curcas L. leaf and seed extracts against Culex pipiens L. The larvicidal activity was evaluated in eight different provenances recently introduced in Tunisia (Tanzania (ARU), Mozambique (MOZ), Surinam (SUR) and Brazil ...

  7. New microsatellite markers classifying nontoxic and toxic Jatropha ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-03

    Currently, the only way to iden- tify the high and low ... Materials and methods. More co-dominant ... (http://www/ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/projects/dbEST/) available as on April 3, 2009. .... lar characterization of Jatropha genetic resources through inter-.

  8. Genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas L. populations in Kenya using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jatropha curcas L is an economically potential tree species gaining interest globally because of its feasible contribution towards production of commercial biofuel. Little is known however, of its genetic variation patterns within Kenyan accessions for maximum exploitation. Eight populations covering most of its distribution ...

  9. Acute poisoning in children from Jatropha curcas seeds ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semi-evergreen shrub, Jatropha curcas is native to Central and South America, but now occurs worldwide. Four children suffered severe symptoms of abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting after ingesting the seeds of J. curcas. These cases support the listing of J. curcas as a noxious weed. As a result of this, and a few ...

  10. Density of Jatropha curcas Seed Oil and its Methyl Esters: Measurement and Estimations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veny, Harumi; Baroutian, Saeid; Aroua, Mohamed Kheireddine; Hasan, Masitah; Raman, Abdul Aziz; Sulaiman, Nik Meriam Nik

    2009-04-01

    Density data as a function of temperature have been measured for Jatropha curcas seed oil, as well as biodiesel jatropha methyl esters at temperatures from above their melting points to 90 ° C. The data obtained were used to validate the method proposed by Spencer and Danner using a modified Rackett equation. The experimental and estimated density values using the modified Rackett equation gave almost identical values with average absolute percent deviations less than 0.03% for the jatropha oil and 0.04% for the jatropha methyl esters. The Janarthanan empirical equation was also employed to predict jatropha biodiesel densities. This equation performed equally well with average absolute percent deviations within 0.05%. Two simple linear equations for densities of jatropha oil and its methyl esters are also proposed in this study.

  11. Biology and biotechnological advances in Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Reddy, Muppala P.

    2009-10-31

    Increasing global demand for energy, the impending depletion of fossil fuels, and concern over global climate change have lead to a resurgence in the development of alternative energy sources. Bio-fuels and bio-energy encompass a wide range of alternative sources of energy of biological origin, and offer excellent, environmentally friendly opportunities to address these issues. The recognition that Jatropha oil can yield high quality biodiesel has led to a surge of interest in Jatropha across the globe, more so in view of the potential for avoiding the dilemma of food vs fuel. Hardiness, rapid growth, easy propagation, short gestation period, wide adaptation, and optimum plant size combine to make this species suitable for sustainable cultivation on wastelands. Besides biodiesel from the seed, the plant produces several useful products that also have commercial value. Large scale cultivation remains the single most important factor that will ultimately determine the success of Jatropha as a source of bio-fuel. The limited knowledge of the genetics of this species, low and inconsistent yields, the narrow genetic variability, and vulnerability to insects and diseases are major constraints in successful cultivation of Jatropha as a bio-fuel crop. Despite the optimal protein content and composition of the pressed cake, the presence of phorbol esters makes it unsuitable for consumption by livestock. A non-toxic variety with low or no phorbol ester content has been identified from Mexico, and the utility of pressed cake from this variety as livestock feed has been demonstrated successfully. In the absence of any morphological differences, identification of linked markers for toxic/non-toxic varieties will add value to the crop and facilitate further improvement. This chapter discusses current efforts towards assessing the diversity and phylogeny of Jatropha, identification of specific markers for toxic and non-toxic varieties, and aspects of micropropagation and genetic

  12. Beyond Bush: Environmental politics and prospects for US climate policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Paul G.

    2009-01-01

    The United States was a pioneer in domestic environmental lawmaking, and it was a leader in international environmental cooperation in the final decades of the last century. During the current decade, however, it has moved away from cooperating with other states in finding new ways to protect the global environment. While its early efforts to address climate change were no worse, and often better than, other developed countries, it has fallen far behind as a number of European states and the European Union have started to implement robust policies to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. This chapter recounts this evolution in US policy from environmental leader to environmental laggard. It summarizes the US climate change-related policies and diplomacy, recounting significant events during the presidential administrations of George HW Bush, Bill Clinton and George W Bush. It then extends this summary of events to assess the prospects for US climate policy in the near future

  13. Bushes of vibrational modes for Fermi-Pasta-Ulam chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chechin, G. M.; Novikova, N. V.; Abramenko, A. A.

    2002-06-01

    Some exact solutions and multimode invariant submanifolds were found for the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam (FPU)- β model by Poggi and Ruffo [Physica D 103 (1997) 251]. In the present paper we demonstrate how results of such a type can be obtained for an arbitraryN-particle chain with periodic boundary conditions with the aid of our group-theoretical approach [Physica D 117 (1998) 43] based on the concept of bushes of normal modes in mechanical systems with discrete symmetry. The integro-differential equation describing the FPU- α dynamics in the modal space is derived. The loss of stability of the bushes of modes for the FPU- α model, in particular, for the limiting case N→∞ for the dynamical regime with displacement pattern having period twice the lattice spacing ( π-mode) is studied. Our results for the FPU- α chain are compared with those by Poggi and Ruffo for the FPU- β chain.

  14. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667 (India)

    2010-12-15

    In view of the fast depletion of fossil fuel, the search for alternative fuels has become inevitable, looking at huge demand of diesel for transportation sector, captive power generation and agricultural sector, the biodiesel is being viewed a substitute of diesel. The vegetable oils, fats, grease are the source of feedstocks for the production of biodiesel. Significant work has been reported on the kinetics of transesterification of edible vegetable oils but little work is reported on non-edible oils. Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstocks for biodiesel production in India and limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high FFA containing oil. The present study reports a review of kinetics of biodiesel production. The paper also reveals the results of kinetics study of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at pre-determined optimum temperature of 65 and 50 C for esterification and transesterification process, respectively, under the optimum condition of methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and NaOH and 400 rpm of stirring. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. This is the first study of its kind dealing with simplified kinetics of two-step acid-base catalyzed transesterification process carried at optimum temperature of both the steps which took about 6 h for complete conversion of TG to ME. (author)

  15. Combustion Characteristics of CI Diesel Engine Fuelled With Blends of Jatropha Oil Biodiesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Manpreet; Yunus Sheikh, Mohd.; Singh, Dharmendra; Nageswara rao, P.

    2018-03-01

    Jatropha Curcas oil is a non-edible oil which is used for Jatropha biodiesel (JBD) production. Jatropha biodiesel is produced using transesterification technique and it is used as an alternative fuel in CI diesel engine without any hardware modification. Jatropha biodiesel is used in CI diesel engine with various volumetric concentrations (blends) such as JBD5, JBD15, JBD25, JBD35 and JBD45. The combustion parameters such as in-cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise, net heat release, cumulative heat release, mass fraction burned are analyzed and compared for all blends combustion data with mineral diesel fuel (D100).

  16. Explaining bioenergy: representations of jatropha in Kenya before and after disappointing results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsberger, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Proponents of Jatropha curcas portrayed the crop as a 'sustainable biofuel' that was less threatening to food security and forests than other energy crops, creating a reputation that helped jatropha projects to multiply quickly throughout the global South. However, many jatropha initiatives failed to thrive and ultimately collapsed. This paper investigates how actors involved with jatropha in Kenya explained their visions of bioenergy at two points in time. In 2009, when many activities were beginning, I interviewed small-scale farmers, NGO staff, researchers, donors, government officials and members of the private sector about their expectations of jatropha as an energy crop. In late 2013, after jatropha activities in the country had dwindled, I re-interviewed many of the same individuals about their current views and their explanations of the events that had transpired since the initial fieldwork. Synthesizing these two sets of representations provides insight into how biofuel projects have been constructed, negotiated and renegotiated. Early hopes for jatropha rested on the belief that it could achieve many goals simultaneously, but when it failed to meet expectations proponents chose between two strategies: (1) 'unbundling' these goals to pursue separately the various aspirations they had initially attached to jatropha; and (2) seeking a new means of achieving the same bundle of goals. Understanding the choices made by jatropha actors in Kenya contributes to knowledge on the political ecology of biofuels and responsible innovation, and may signal patterns to come as even greater expectations are attached to multi-use feedstocks in pursuit of the bioeconomy.

  17. Catalytic production of Jatropha biodiesel and hydrogen with magnetic carbonaceous acid and base synthesized from Jatropha hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Fan; Tian, Xiao-Fei; Fang, Zhen; Shah, Mazloom; Wang, Yi-Tong; Jiang, Wen; Yao, Min

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Jatropha seeds were extracted oil for biodiesel production and the hulls were carbonized to load active sites as magnetic carbonaceous solid acid and base catalysts. Crude Jatropha oil was esterified to decrease its acid value to 1.3 from 17.2 mg KOH/g by the solid acid, and subsequently transesterified to biodiesel (96.7% yield) catalyzed by the solid base. After 3 cycles and magnetically separated, the deactivated base was catalyzed the hydrothermal gasification of biodiesel by-product (crude glycerol) with gasification rate of 81% and 82% H_2 purity. - Highlights: • High acid value (AV) crude oil was extracted from Jatropha seeds with waste hulls produced. • Carbonizing the hulls and loading active sites produced magnetic carbonaceous acid and base. • The acid reduced AV of crude oil to 1.3 from 17.2 mg KOH/g and separated for 3 cycles. • The base achieved 97.5% biodiesel yield and magnetically separated for recycles. • After 3 cycles, the deactivated base catalyzed the hydrothermal gasification of glycerol. - Abstract: Magnetic carbonaceous solid acid (C-SO_3H@Fe/JHC) and base (Na_2SiO_3@Ni/JRC) catalysts were synthesized by loading active groups on the carbonaceous supporters derived from Jatropha-hull hydrolysate and hydrolysis residue. Characterization of their morphology, magnetic saturation, functional groups and total acid/base contents were performed by various techniques. Additional acidic functional groups that formed with Jatropha-hull hydrolysate contributed to the high acidity of C-SO_3H@Fe/JHC catalyst for the pretreatment (esterification) of crude Jatropha oil with high acid values (AV). The AV of esterified Jatropha oil dropped down from 17.2 to 1.3 mg KOH/g, achieving a high biodiesel yield of 96.7% after subsequent transesterification reaction with Na_2SiO_3@Ni/JRC base that was cycled at least 3 times with little loss of catalysis activity. Both solid acid and base catalysts were easily recovered by magnetic force

  18. Does the Bush Administration's climate policy mean climate protection?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, Odile; Perkaus, James F.

    2004-01-01

    The paper analyzes the two major components of the Bush Administration's climate policy, namely an emission intensity target and a technology strategy. The question is whether those components will generate net emission reductions that will contribute to the stabilization of the greenhouse gas concentration at a safe level in the long run. It comes out that the Bush Administration climate policy does not guarantee any meaningful contribution to climate protection. The lenient emission intensity target set by the Administration will most likely allow near term emissions to grow. In the long run, the Bush Administration places a big bet on future climate-friendly technological breakthroughs to cost-effectively compensate for the current and near term net emission increases. But the outcomes of those technological developments are uncertain in terms of emission reduction potential, cost, and timing. The way towards enhanced climate protection will most likely not come from the policies of the current Administration, but rather from the growing concern about the climate issue in Congress and at the state, corporate and civil society levels. These combined forces may raise the playing field at the federal level in the near future

  19. George Bush peab sõjalist jõudu viimaseks valikuks / George W. Bush ; interv. Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Bush, George W., 1946-

    2005-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Põhjarannik 7. mai 2005, lk. 2, Severnoje Poberezhje 7. mai, 2005, lk. 2. USA president George Bush andis 5. mail Valges Majas intervjuu kuuele Euroopa ajakirjanikule. 9. mai pidustustest Moskvas, USA-Läti, Venemaa-Balti riikide suhetest, demokraatiast Venemaal, Ameerika Ühendriikide ning Baltimaade viisarežiimist, vabaduse mõistestst, kinnipeetavate kohtlemisest Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis, relvade kasutamise vajadusest, terrorismist. Vt. samas: Kuidas usutlus võimalikuks sai

  20. Economic valuation of potential products from Jatropha seed in five selected countries: Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Mali, Indonesia, and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Zvinavashe, E.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, Jatropha seeds are mainly used to produce biodiesel, and a resultant press cakeis obtained as a by-product. Jatropha press cake fractionation and conversion into variouspotential products using biorefinery, could improve the economic value of Jatropha seed.The objectives of this study

  1. Overexpression of Jatropha Gibberellin 2-oxidase 6 (JcGA2ox6 Induces Dwarfism and Smaller Leaves, Flowers and Fruits in Arabidopsis and Jatropha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Xiong Hu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gibberellins (GAs are plant hormones that play fundamental roles in plant growth and development. Gibberellin 2-oxidase (GA2ox plays a direct role in determining the levels of bioactive GAs by catalyzing bioactive GAs or their immediate precursors to inactive forms. In this study, a GA2ox gene, designated JcGA2ox6, was isolated from Jatropha curcas. JcGA2ox6 is expressed in all tissues of adult Jatropha, with the highest expression level in male flowers and the lowest expression level in young leaves. Overexpression of JcGA2ox6 in Arabidopsis resulted in a typical dwarf phenotype, along with late flowering, smaller leaves and flowers, shorter siliques and smaller seeds. Similarly, when JcGA2ox6 was overexpressed in Jatropha, the transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype with dark-green leaves and smaller inflorescences, flowers, fruits and seeds. However, the flowering time of Jatropha was not affected by overexpression of JcGA2ox6, unlike that in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, the number of flowers per inflorescence, the weight of 10 seeds and the seed oil content were significantly decreased in transgenic Jatropha. The results indicated that overexpression of JcGA2ox6 had a great impact on the vegetative and reproductive growth of transgenic Jatropha. Furthermore, we found that the dwarf phenotype of transgenic Jatropha was caused by a decrease in endogenous bioactive GA4, which was correlated with the degree of dwarfism.

  2. Experience with on-line diagnostics for bushings and current transformers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusetti, R.

    2004-02-01

    The application of on-line diagnostic techniques is advocated as an alternative, under certain conditions, for the conventional off-line power factor test used to evaluate the condition of bushings and current transformers. Bushings which are tied to critical system apparatus or which cannot be readily removed from service are considered to be excellent candidates for on-line diagnostics. A case history involving 138-KV bushings is used to demonstrate the value of the on-line diagnostic system which, by taking into account power factor capacitance values along with the rate of change, not only detected the high power factor associated with the bushings, but allowed the high power factor bushings to continue operating with a known problem for over a year. With conventional testing, bushings that exhibited this level of power factor would typically be removed from service. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiu-Rong; Ding, Gui-Jie

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial pollination test and out

  4. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  5. Reproductive biology characteristic of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Rong Wang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas belongs to family of Euphorbiaceae, and is an important biological tree species for diesel production. The current descriptions of the phenotypic traits for male and female flowers are not comprehensive and there have been no reports about the process of J. curcas from pollen germination on stigma to pollen tubes conducting fertilization after entering the ovary and ovule. To assess this, experiments were undertaken to study the reproductive biology characteristic of J. curcas in Guiyang Guizhou Province, China. Floral structure and pollen germination process were described in detail and the breeding system was determined. The results showed that flower of J. curcas was both unisexual and monoecious, with a flowering phase between April-November. Both female and male flowers have five petals in contorted arrangement and five calyxes in imbricated arrangement. Female flower originated from bisexual flower finally formed unisexual flowers as the stamen ceased growth in different period. The pistil had 3-5 styles, connected at base and separated into 3-5 stigmas on the top. Each stigma had 2-4 lobes. The styles were hollow. The pollen germinated on the surface of the stigma, is then transported via the vascular tissues, which was arranged in bundles, and finally channeled through the micropyle to enter the blastula. The pollen tube was shaped in a long uneven cylinder. The top end of it became swollen and formed a small round hole for the purpose of releasing sperm nuclei while the pollen tube itself was growing and extending. Estimation of out-crossing index and artificial pollination experiments indicated that J. curcas was capable of both self-pollination and cross-pollination. The germination speed of the pollen on the stigma did not differ so much between the one by self-pollination and the one by cross-pollination, and the pollen from the two different sources could both reach the ovary within one day. Both artificial

  6. Genetic variability in Jatropha curcas L. from diallel crossing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, D O; Silva-Mann, R; Alvares-Carvalho, S V; Souza, E M S; Vasconcelos, M C; Blank, A F

    2017-05-18

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) presents high oilseed yield and low production cost. However, technical-scientific knowledge on this crop is still limited. This study aimed to evaluate and estimate the genetic variability of hybrids obtained from dialell crossing. Genetic variability was carried out using ISSR molecular markers. For genetic variability, nine primers were used, and six were selected with 80.7% polymorphism. Genetic similarity was obtained using the NTSYS pc. 2.1 software, and cluster analysis was obtained by the UPGMA method. Mean genetic similarity was 58.4% among hybrids; the most divergent pair was H1 and H10 and the most similar pair was H9 and H10. ISSR PCR markers provided a quick and highly informative system for DNA fingerprinting, and also allowed establishing genetic relationships of Jatropha hybrids.

  7. Improving Jatropha curcas seed protein recovery by using counter current multistage extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lestari, D.; Mulder, W.J.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas seed press cake contains 23 wt% proteins (dry basis). Due to the toxic compounds in Jatropha, we will use the proteins for non-food applications. Related to non-food applications, an efficient protein extraction to obtain a high protein recovery and high protein concentration with

  8. Identification of the mosquito biting deterrent constituents from the Indian folk remedy plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    An investigation of the Indian folk remedy plant, Jatropha curcas, was performed to specifically identify the constituents responsible for the mosquito biting deterrent activity of the oil as a whole. Jatropha curcas seed oil is burned in oil lamps in India and part of Africa to repel biting insect...

  9. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is natural sources of biodiesel. It has high potential economic values. Different parts of J. curcas have their own potencies, unfortunately these were not known by the farmers. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the additional values of Jatropha curcas L. by

  10. Determination of hydrogen content of Jatropha biodiesel oil using neutron reflection technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okunade, I. O.; Jonah, S. A.; Omede, M.

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel is an environmental-friendly alternative to fossil fuel and holds immense potential for the future energy needs of the country. Non-edible jatropha biodiesel oil has been identified as one of the suitable bio-fuel options. In this work, experimental measurements were performed to determine the total hydrogen content of jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel oil mixture. The work was carried out using a neutron reflection facility at the Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. Jatropha oil and jatropha-synthetic diesel mixture were subjected to experimental measurements for the purpose of determining bulk hydrogen content using neutron reflection facility that had been previously calibrated using various hydrocarbon materials of known hydrogen content. The hydrogen content of the sample were subsequently determined using their measured neutron reflection coefficient values and calibration data. In general, results obtained indicate high hydrogen content range of 10.68-12.16wt% for jatropha oil and the various jatropha-synthetic diesel mixtures. The implication of this is that jatropha oil or jatrophal-synthetic diesel mixture can be used as alternative fuel to mitigate high carbon monoxide emission.

  11. Effect of Magnetic Field on Diesel Engine Power Fuelled with Jatropha-Diesel Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukarni Sukarni

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha oil has characteristics very close to the diesel fuel, so it has good prospects as a substitute or as a mixture of diesel fuel. Previous research showed that jatropha oil usage in diesel engines caused power to decrease. It was probably owing to the higher viscosity of the Jatropha oil compared to that of diesel oil. Installing the magnetic field in the fuel line of a diesel engine fueled with jatropha-diesel oil is expected to reduce the viscosity of jatropha-diesel oil mixture, hence improve the combustion reaction process. This research aims to know the influence of the magnetic field strength in the fuel lines to the power of diesel engines fueled with a mixture of jatropha-diesel oil. The composition of Jatropha oil-diesel was 20% jatropha oil and 80% diesel oil. Magnetic field variations were 0.122, 0.245 and 0.368 Tesla. The results showed that the higher the strength of the magnetic field was, the higher the average diesel engine’s power would be.

  12. Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy : an assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van J.A.J.; Romijn, H.A.; Balkema, A.J.; Faaij, A.

    2014-01-01

    This is an assessment of key economic, environmental and social issues pertaining to jatropha biofuels, based on almost 150 studies covering 26 countries. The assessment aims to furnish a state-of-the-art overview and identify knowledge gaps. So far, total jatropha production has remained small.

  13. Global experience with jatropha cultivation for bioenergy: an assessment of socio-economic and environmental aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijck, Janske; Romijn, Henny; Balkema, Annelies; Faaij, André

    2014-01-01

    This is an assessment of key economic, environmental and social issues pertaining to jatropha biofuels, based on almost 150 studies covering 26 countries. The assessment aims to furnish a state-of-the-art overview and identify knowledge gaps. So far, total jatropha production has remained small.

  14. Performance of Jatropha Oil Blends in RD270 Two Cylinders Four ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance characteristics of RD270 two cylinder, four stroke diesel engine fuelled with jatropha oil and its blend with diesel are presented in this paper. The jatropha biodiesel was obtained from National Research Institutes for Chemical Technology, Zaria, Nigeria. The produced biodiesel was blended with neat ...

  15. Jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel CI engine for rural electrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijten, C.C.M.; Kerkhof, E.

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the first dual fuel measurements with pure jatropha oil and biogas, using a 12 kW diesel engine generator. Reference tests are done with pure jatropha oil and with diesel to characterize the engine’s thermal efficiency eta_t, volumetric efficiency eta_v and air excess ratio lambda

  16. Production and analysis of biodiesel from Jatropha curcas seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This present reported work was conducted to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed, followed with the production of biodiesel via transesterification of resultant oil. The effects of methanol-to-oil ratio 1:1, 2:1, 3:1, 4:1, 5:1 and 6:1, reaction time of 30, 60, 90, 120 and 180min, at constant operating temperature of 60oC were ...

  17. Physicochemical Properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas Seed Oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jumat Salimon; Rozaini Abdullah

    2008-01-01

    Jatropha curcas oil was extracted using n-hexane as solvent in the Soxhlet extraction method. The physicochemical properties of Malaysian Jatropha curcas oil were evaluated. The result showed that the Jatropha seeds consist of 60% (dry w/ w) crude oil. The physicochemical properties showed that the seed oil contained low moisture level of 0.02±0.01%, acid value (1.50±0.07%), iodine value (91.70±1.44 mg/ g), peroxide value (0.66±0.04 miliequivalence/ kg) and saponification value of 208.5±0.47 mg/ g respectively. Gas chromatography analysis showed that oleic acid (46.00±0.19%) appears as dominant fatty acid in seed oil followed by linoleic acid (31.96±0.19%) and palmitic acid (13.89±0.06%). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) results showed that the dominant triacylglycerols present were PLL (22.00%), POP(16.48%), 000(16.48%), 00L(16.23%) and OLL(13.00%). (author)

  18. Chromatography Analysis of Jatropha Curcas L Oil Raw and Refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250 °C and 260 °C respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  19. Chromatography analysis of Jatropha Curcas L oil raw and refined

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitue de Assuncao Nascimento, Juliano; Lafargue Perez, Francisco; Diaz Velazquez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    The chromatography of gases is one of the most versatile methods utilized in the chemical laboratory, which permits the determinations of the percentages and types of fatty acids present in vegetable oils. The objective of this work was to carry out a comparative study of the composition of the fatty acids, of the mechanically extracted oil from the seed of the Jatropha curcas L plant in the raw and refined state, using the data obtained by gas chromatography. The fatty acids of the oil were determined as methylic esteres. The analyst was carried out in a gas chromatographer, with a detector of ionization by way of flame (FID), Agilent 7890A (Agilent, USA) coupled to HP Pentium 4 computer, with a data processing program. The temperatures of the injector and of the detector were 250℃ and 260℃ respectively. The data obtained chromatographically of the oil of Jatropha curcas L, raw and refined indicates that the refinery process did not vary the composition of the fatty acid, because there are no significant differences between them. Also, the results obtained by other investigators, showed that the predominant fatty acids obtained from the oil of the Jatropha curcas L were palmitic and stearic in the saturated fatty acids, and oleic and linoleic in the unsaturated fatty acids

  20. Biodiesel production from Jatropha curcas: Integrated process optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huerga, Ignacio R.; Zanuttini, María Soledad; Gross, Martín S.; Querini, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The oil obtained from Jatropha curcas fruits has high variability in its properties. • A process for biodiesel production has been developed for small scale projects. • Oil neutralization with the glycerine phase has important advantages. • The glycerine phase and the meal are adequate to produce biogas. - Abstract: Energy obtained from renewable sources has increased its participation in the energy matrix worldwide, and it is expected to maintain this tendency. Both in large and small scales, there have been numerous developments and research with the aim of generating fuels and energy using different raw materials such as alternative crops, algae and lignocellulosic residues. In this work, Jatropha curcas plantation from the North West of Argentina was studied, with the objective of developing integrated processes for low and medium sizes farms. In these cases, glycerine purification and meal detoxification processes represent a very high cost, and usually are not included in the project. Consequently, alternative uses for these products are proposed. This study includes the evaluation of the Jatropha curcas crop during two years, evaluating the yields and oil properties. The solids left after the oil extraction were evaluated as solid fuels, the glycerine and the meal were used to generate biogas, and the oil was used to produce biodiesel. The oil pretreatment was carried out with the glycerine obtained in the biodiesel production process, thus neutralizing the free fatty acid, and decreasing the phosphorous and water content

  1. Inhibition of mild steel corrosion using Jatropha Curcas leaf extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OLORUNFEMI MICHAEL AJAYI

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha Curcas leaf was investigated as a green inhibitor on the degradation of mild steel in 4 M HCl and 4 M H2SO4 aqueous solutions using gasometric technique. Mild steel coupons of dimension 2 × 1.5 cm were immersed in test solutions of uninhibited acid and also those with extract concentrations of 4 ml, 6 ml, 8 ml and 10 ml at 30 oC, for up to 30 minutes. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was reduction in the corrosion rate. As the extract concentration increased from 4 ml to 10 ml at 30 minutes exposure, the volume of hydrogen gas evolved decreased from 19.1 cm3 to 11.2 cm3 in H2SO4 medium, while it reduced to 5 cm3 from 9 cm3 in HCl medium. Also, the metal surface-phytoconstituent interaction mechanism showed that 6 minutes is the best exposure time for the adsorption of the extract in both acidic media. The Jatropha Curcas leaf extract was adsorbed on the mild steel surface to inhibit corrosion, while the experimental data obtained at 30 minutes exposure in both acidic media were well fitted with the Langmuir adsorption isotherm. Hence, Jatropha Curcas leaf extract is a good and safe inhibitor in both acidic solutions.

  2. Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in Seawater using Jatropha Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olawale Olamide

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The present work investigate the inhibition of Jatropha Stem Extract (JSE in sea water using mild steel coupons of dimension 5 × 5 × 0.5 cm. The cupons were immersed in test solutions of sea water and varied concentrations of extracts of 0.1g/l to 0.9g/l was used. The functional groups of the compounds was analyzed using an FTIR. The results showed that as the concentration of the extract increases, there was a reduction in the corrosion rates. Furthermore, as the extract concentrations increased from 0.1g/l to 0.4g/l at 48hrs exposure time, the weight loss decreased by 14.3% in the medium. However, the Jatropha Stem Extract was absorbed on the substrate surface to inhibit corrosion, the morphology of phases formed from the scanning Electron Microscopy examination confirmed this trend. Hence, JSE is a good and safe inhibitor in sea water solution. The FT-IR results also indicates the presence of active corrosion inhibitor present in the Jatropha Stem.

  3. Visualization of Oil Body Distribution in Jatropha curcas L. by Four-Wave Mixing Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Makiko; Uchiyama, Susumu; Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Kajiyama, Sin'ichiro; Itoh, Kazuyoshi; Fukui, Kiichi

    2013-06-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha) is a superior oil crop for biofuel production. To improve the oil yield of jatropha by breeding, the development of effective and reliable tools to evaluate the oil production efficiency is essential. The characteristics of the jatropha kernel, which contains a large amount of oil, are not fully understood yet. Here, we demonstrate the application of four-wave mixing (FWM) microscopy to visualize the distribution of oil bodies in a jatropha kernel without staining. FWM microscopy enables us to visualize the size and morphology of oil bodies and to determine the oil content in the kernel to be 33.2%. The signal obtained from FWM microscopy comprises both of stimulated parametric emission (SPE) and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals. In the present situation, where a very short pump pulse is employed, the SPE signal is believed to dominate the FWM signal.

  4. Jatropha. A Smallholder Bioenergy Crop. The Potential for Pro-Poor Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brittaine, R.; Lutaladio, NeBambi

    2010-01-01

    A review is given of the information currently available on jatropha as a bioenergy crop, starting with the papers presented to the April 2008 IFAD/FAO International Consultation on Pro-Poor Jatropha Development held in Rome, Italy (IFAD 2008). This information has been supplemented by consulting various reports, conference papers, and both published and unpublished scientific papers. Based on the output of the International Consultation, the aim of this report is to identify the jatropha production systems that are most sustainable and viable and that can contribute to rural development and alleviate poverty. It also points out the critical areas of needed research, trusting that this information will be useful for decision-makers as well as for those actively involved in jatropha production. This introductory chapter offers general background on liquid biofuels, energy poverty and global jatropha production trends.

  5. Emissions of Jatropha oil-derived biodiesel blend fuels during combustion in a swirl burner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norwazan, A. R.; Mohd. Jaafar, M. N.; Sapee, S.; Farouk, Hazir

    2018-03-01

    Experimental works on combustion of jatropha oil biodiesel blends of fuel with high swirling flow in swirl burner have been studied in various blends percentage. Jatropha oil biodiesel was produced using a two-step of esterification-transesterification process. The paper focuses on the emissions of biodiesel blends fuel using jatropha oil in lean through to rich air/fuel mixture combustion in swirl burner. The emissions performances were evaluated by using axial swirler amongst jatropha oil blends fuel including diesel fuel as baseline. The results show that the B25 has good emissions even though it has a higher emission of NOx than diesel fuel, while it emits as low as 42% of CO, 33% of SO2 and 50% of UHC emissions with high swirl number. These are due to the higher oxygen content in jatropha oil biodiesel.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Japanese Bush Warbler [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Japanese Bush Warbler Cettia diphone Chordata/Vertebrata/Aves Cettia_diphone_L.png Cettia_diphone..._NL.png Cettia_diphone_S.png Cettia_diphone_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone...&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NL http://bioscie...ncedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/tax...onomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Cettia+diphone&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=26 ...

  7. The Bush Doctrine: The Foreign Policy of Republican Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Michael W. Doyle, ‘‘Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs,’’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 12, No. 3, Summer, 1983, pp. 205–235 and ‘‘Kant...Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs, Part 2,’’ Philosophy and Public Affairs, Autumn, 1983, pp. 323–353, as well as Doyle, Ways of War and Peace (New...so-called libertarians and OWENS 41 George Bush, Graduation Speech at the US Air Force Academy, June 2, 2004, http:// www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases

  8. Prototype high voltage bushing: Configuration to its operational demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Sharma, D. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Parmar, D.; Tyagi, H.; Joshi, K.; Shishangiya, H.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India)

    2016-12-15

    High Voltage Bushing (HVB) is the key component of Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) system of ITER as it provides access to high voltage electrical, hydraulic, gas and diagnostic feedlines to the beam source with isolation from grounded vessel. HVB also provides primary vacuum confinement for the DNB system. Being Safety Important Class (SIC) component of ITER, it involves several configurational, technological and operational challenges. To ensure its operational performance & reliability, particularly electrostatic behavior, half scale down Prototype High Voltage Bushing (PHVB) is designed considering same design criteria of DNB HVB. Design optimization has been carried out followed by finite element (FE) analysis to obtain DNB HVB equivalent electric stress on different parts of PHVB, taking into account all design, manufacturing & space constraints. PHVB was tested up to 60 kV without breakdown, which validates its design for the envisaged operation of 50 kV DC. This paper presents the design of PHVB, FEA validation, manufacturing constraints, experimental layout with interfacing auxiliary systems and operational results related to functional performance.

  9. Economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titov, V.N.

    2009-01-01

    The results of calculations of the economic efficiency of the use of the bush vegetation from slopes of the ameliorative canals for fuel and energy purposes has been presented. The two variants of disposal of bushes are considered burning and conversion into fuel chips. (authors)

  10. 77 FR 27253 - Proposed Collection, Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation AGENCY: Institute of Museum and Library Services, National... evaluate and make improvements to the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian (LB21) Grant Program. The... proposes clearance of the Laura Bush 21st Century Librarian Grant Program Evaluation. The 60-day Notice for...

  11. Morphological Characterization of African Bush Mango trees (Irvingia species) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbe, R.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2013-01-01

    The variation of the morphological characters of bitter and sweet African bush mango trees (Irvingia species) was investigated in the Dahomey Gap which is the West African savannah woodland area separating the Upper and the Lower Guinean rain forest blocks. African bush mangoes have been rated as

  12. Fatigue Analysis of an Outer Bearing Bush of a Kaplan Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doina Frunzaverde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the fatigue analysis of an outer bearing bush of aKaplan turbine. This outer bush, together with an inner one, bear thepin lever - trunion - blade subassembly of the runner blade operatingmechanism. For modeling and simulation, SolidWorks software is used.

  13. Assessing the Debt: George W. Bush's Legacy and the Future of Public Education under Barack Obama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Alex; Taylor, Kendall

    2010-01-01

    This article utilizes Gloria Ladson-Billings' notion of educational debt in order to explore the historical, economic, and cultural politics of education reform under George W. Bush and Barack Obama. It tracks the No Child Left Behind Act across a number of fields in order to claim that Bush's expansion of the educational debt should be understood…

  14. Naine kohtub Hundiga - püüne peal / Kaja Kann, Bush Hartshorn

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kann, Kaja, 1973-

    2006-01-01

    Kanuti Gildi saalis etendub 26.-28. veebr. Kaja Kanni ja Bush Hartshorni lavaduett "Naine ja Hunt". Autorid räägivad, kuidas nad käisid Pärnumaa laantes oma lavaloole õiget tunnetust otsimas. Lisatud andmed Bush Hartshorni kohta

  15. The economics of landscape restoration: Benefits of controlling bush encroachment and invasive plant species in South Africa and Namibia

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Stafford, William

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Bush encroachment and alien plant invasions alter the composition and/or balance of species in natural ecosystems and impact biodiversity, land productivity and water availability. Therefore, the appropriate control and management of bush...

  16. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Ju; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment

  17. Electrical insulation design and evaluation of 60 kV prototype condenser cone bushing for the superconducting equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Ju, E-mail: shinwooju@hanyang.ac.kr; Lee, Jong-Geon; Hwang, Jae-Sang; Seong, Jae-Kyu; Lee, Bang-Wook, E-mail: bangwook@hanyang.ac.kr

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •The optimum design of condenser cone cryogenic bushing was investigated. •Multi-layer aluminum foils in the bushing insulation body was designed and analyzed. •The optimum electric field distribution was selected by simulation. •The 60 kV FRP condenser cone cryogenic bushing was fabricated and tested. •BIL test corresponding to IEC 60137 was successfully performed for the bushing. -- Abstract: A cryogenic bushing is an essential component to be developed for commercial applications of high voltage (HV) superconducting devices. Due to the steep temperature gradient of the ambient of cryogenic bushing, general gas bushing adopting SF6 gas as an insulating media could not be directly used due to the freezing of SF6 gas. Therefore, condenser type bushing with special material considering cryogenic environment would be better choice for superconducting equipment. Considering these circumstance, we focused on the design of condenser bushing made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP). In case of the design of the condenser bushing, it is very important to reduce the electric field intensification on the mounted flange part of the cryostat, which is the most vulnerable part of bushings. In this paper, design factors of cryogenic bushing were analyzed, and finally 60 kV condenser bushing was fabricated and tested. In order to achieve optimal electric field configuration, the configuration of condenser cone was determined using 2D electric field simulation results. Based on the experimental and the analytical works, 60 kV FRP condenser bushing was fabricated. Finally, the fabricated condenser bushing has been tested by applying lightning impulse and AC overvoltage test. From the test results, it was possible to get satisfactory results which confirm the design of cryogenic bushing in cryogenic environment.

  18. Jatropha Suppliers as Contributors to the Sustainability of the Production of Bioelectricity in Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn A. Muñoz Mayorga

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The “Jatropha for Galápagos” (JFG project in Ecuador aims to progressively replace diesel with jatropha oil in the generation of electricity in The Galápagos Islands. Thus, understanding and motivating the participation of jatropha suppliers is a priority for the sustainability of JFG. For this reason, the factors influencing their decision-making to participate in the project have been identified and analyzed using a binomial logit model. The results show that factors found to positively influence the likelihood of participation include, amongst others, the supplier’s experience within the project, their participation in local organizations, and the degree of satisfaction with the price of jatropha oil. In addition, children from producer families’ collaboration in the harvest of jatropha increases the overall likelihood of participation within the project. Similarly, the distance to the collection center positively influences the chances of participation. Conversely, those suppliers with higher wages and those who declared that jatropha harvest starts in April have a reduced likelihood of participating in the project. The findings obtained from this project can help decision-makers develop new measures to improve the sustainability of the project through initiatives to motivate the participation of jatropha suppliers in the program.

  19. Does epigenetic polymorphism contribute to phenotypic variances in Jatropha curcas L.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bui Ha TN

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a growing interest in Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha as a biodiesel feedstock plant. Variations in its morphology and seed productivity have been well documented. However, there is the lack of systematic comparative evaluation of distinct collections under same climate and agronomic practices. With the several reports on low genetic diversity in jatropha collections, there is uncertainty on genetic contribution to jatropha morphology. Result In this study, five populations of jatropha plants collected from China (CN, Indonesia (MD, Suriname (SU, Tanzania (AF and India (TN were planted in one farm under the same agronomic practices. Their agronomic traits (branching pattern, height, diameter of canopy, time to first flowering, dormancy, accumulated seed yield and oil content were observed and tracked for two years. Significant variations were found for all the agronomic traits studied. Genetic diversity and epigenetic diversity were evaluated using florescence Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (fAFLP and methylation sensitive florescence AFLP (MfAFLP methods. Very low level of genetic diversity was detected (polymorphic band Conclusion Our study confirmed climate and practice independent differences in agronomic performance among jatropha collections. Such agronomic trait variations, however, were matched by very low genetic diversity and medium level but significant epigenetic diversity. Significant difference in inner cytosine and double cytosine methylation at CCGG sites was also found among populations. Most epigenetic differential markers can be inherited as epialleles following Mendelian segregation. These results suggest possible involvement of epigenetics in jatropha development.

  20. An ortholog of LEAFY in Jatropha curcas regulates flowering time and floral organ development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingyong; Tao, Yan-Bin; Fu, Qiantang; Song, Yaling; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-11-21

    Jatropha curcas seeds are an excellent biofuel feedstock, but seed yields of Jatropha are limited by its poor flowering and fruiting ability. Thus, identifying genes controlling flowering is critical for genetic improvement of seed yield. We isolated the JcLFY, a Jatropha ortholog of Arabidopsis thaliana LEAFY (LFY), and identified JcLFY function by overexpressing it in Arabidopsis and Jatropha. JcLFY is expressed in Jatropha inflorescence buds, flower buds, and carpels, with highest expression in the early developmental stage of flower buds. JcLFY overexpression induced early flowering, solitary flowers, and terminal flowers in Arabidopsis, and also rescued the delayed flowering phenotype of lfy-15, a LFY loss-of-function Arabidopsis mutant. Microarray and qPCR analysis revealed several flower identity and flower organ development genes were upregulated in JcLFY-overexpressing Arabidopsis. JcLFY overexpression in Jatropha also induced early flowering. Significant changes in inflorescence structure, floral organs, and fruit shape occurred in JcLFY co-suppressed plants in which expression of several flower identity and floral organ development genes were changed. This suggests JcLFY is involved in regulating flower identity, floral organ patterns, and fruit shape, although JcLFY function in Jatropha floral meristem determination is not as strong as that of Arabidopsis.

  1. Enriching Genomic Resources and Marker Development from Transcript Sequences of Jatropha curcas for Microgravity Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Wenlan; Paudel, Dev

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is an economically important species with a great potential for biodiesel production. To enrich the jatropha genomic databases and resources for microgravity studies, we sequenced and annotated the transcriptome of jatropha and developed SSR and SNP markers from the transcriptome sequences. In total 1,714,433 raw reads with an average length of 441.2 nucleotides were generated. De novo assembling and clustering resulted in 115,611 uniquely assembled sequences (UASs) including 21,418 full-length cDNAs and 23,264 new jatropha transcript sequences. The whole set of UASs were fully annotated, out of which 59,903 (51.81%) were assigned with gene ontology (GO) term, 12,584 (10.88%) had orthologs in Eukaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG), and 8,822 (7.63%) were mapped to 317 pathways in six different categories in Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) database, and it contained 3,588 putative transcription factors. From the UASs, 9,798 SSRs were discovered with AG/CT as the most frequent (45.8%) SSR motif type. Further 38,693 SNPs were detected and 7,584 remained after filtering. This UAS set has enriched the current jatropha genomic databases and provided a large number of genetic markers, which can facilitate jatropha genetic improvement and many other genetic and biological studies. PMID:28154822

  2. Jatropha in Mexico: Environmental and Social Impacts of an Incipient Biofuel Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Skutsch

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies from Mexico are presented in which the impacts of the recent introduction of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production are examined. In Chiapas and Michoacan, local social and environmental impacts were assessed using interviews with key informants and questionnaires directed at three groups of stakeholders: jatropha cultivators, farmers in the same areas who are not cultivating jatropha, and laborers on jatropha farms. Results show that the farmers are primarily motivated to participate by the subsidies offered in a government program in the first 2 years, rather than any proven economic benefit. Our farm budget study indicated that profits would be marginal for these farmers. However, no cases of land alienation were involved, and impacts on food security and deforestation are currently not significant. Employment opportunities for landless laborers have increased in areas where jatropha is now grown. The program is only in its third year currently, so these outcomes would need to be reexamined as it develops. In Yucatan, production is mainly in the hands of commercial companies, using estates formerly under low-intensity grazing and secondary forest. A carbon balance analysis indicated that there may be a significant loss of carbon stocks associated with jatropha plantation establishment on these estates. Depending on the maturity of the forest regrowth and the intensity of jatropha production, the carbon payback period varies from 2 to 14 years, although, in some scenarios, the carbon debt may never be recovered.

  3. Jatropha curcas, L. Pruning Residues for Energy: Characteristics of an Untapped By-Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Pari

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha (Jatropha curcas, L. is an energy crop mainly cultivated for the oil-seed, and the oil is usually used as bio-fuel. However, few studies have reported information about the utilization of the wood as a fuel for boiler heating systems. With 2500 jatropha trees per hectare, it is possible to produce about 3 t·ha−1·y−1 of woody biomass from pruning. In addition, jatropha trees are commonly cut down to a height of 45 cm once every 10 years, with a production of 80 t·ha−1 of dry matter of woody biomass. The use of this biomass has not yet been investigated. During the European project JatroMed, woody biomass from jatropha pruning was collected in Morocco. Chemical and physical characteristics of the wood were conducted according to UNI EN ISO standards. The following jatropha wood characteristics have been analyzed: Moisture and ash contents, the ash melting point, heating value, and concentrations of C, H, N, and S. This research focused on the evaluation of the potential use of jatropha pruning for energy production, and the results represent critical data that is useful for future studies and business potential.

  4. Engineering low phorbol ester Jatropha curcas seed by intercepting casbene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Ng, Ailing; Xie, Lifen; Mao, Huizhu; Qiu, Chengxiang; Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Yin, Zhongchao; Hong, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Casbene is a precursor to phorbol esters and down-regulating casbene synthase effectively reduces phorbol ester biosynthesis. Seed-specific reduction of phorbol ester (PE) helps develop Jatropha seed cake for animal nutrition. Phorbol esters (PEs) are diterpenoids present in some Euphorbiaceae family members like Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a tropical shrub yielding high-quality oil suitable as feedstock for biodiesel and bio jet fuel. Jatropha seed contains up to 40 % of oil and can produce oil together with cake containing high-quality proteins. However, skin-irritating and cancer-promoting PEs make Jatropha cake meal unsuitable for animal nutrition and also raise some safety and environmental concerns on its planting and processing. Two casbene synthase gene (JcCASA163 and JcCASD168) homologues were cloned from Jatropha genome and both genes were highly expressed during seed development. In vitro functional analysis proved casbene synthase activity of JcCASA163 in converting geranylgeranyl diphosphate into casbene which has been speculated to be the precursor to PEs. A seed-specific promoter driving inverted repeats for RNAi interference targeting at either JcCASA163 or both genes could effectively down-regulate casbene synthase gene expression with concurrent marked reduction of PE level (by as much as 85 %) in seeds with no pleiotropic effects observed. Such engineered low PE in seed was heritable and co-segregated with the transgene. Our work implicated casbene synthase in Jatropha PE biosynthesis and provided evidence for casbene being the precursor for PEs. The success in reducing seed PE content through down-regulation of casbene synthase demonstrates the feasibility of intercepting PE biosynthesis in Jatropha seed to help address safety concerns on Jatropha plantation and seed processing and facilitate use of its seed protein for animal nutrition.

  5. Life cycle assessment of small-scale high-input Jatropha biodiesel production in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, Krishan K.; Pragya, Namita; Sahoo, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → NEB and NER of high input Jatropha biodiesel system was higher than those of low input. → These values further increase on including the energy content of the co-products, and in the further years. → Maximum energy use was during oil extraction, followed by oil processing and fertilizer use. → Allocation of resources at right time and with proper care increase the overall system productivity. -- Abstract: In the current scenario of depleting energy resources, increasing food insecurity and global warming, Jatropha has emerged as a promising energy crop for India. The aim of this study is to examine the life cycle energy balance for Jatropha biodiesel production and greenhouse gas emissions from post-energy use and end combustion of biodiesel, over a period of 5 years. It's a case specific study for a small scale, high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Most of the existing studies have considered low input Jatropha biodiesel system and have used NEB (Net energy balance i.e. difference of energy output and energy input) and NER (Net energy ratio i.e. ratio of energy output to energy input) as indicators for estimating the viability of the systems. Although, many of them have shown these indicators to be positive, yet the values are very less. The results of this study, when compared with two previous studies of Jatropha, show that the values for these indicators can be increased to a much greater extent, if we use a high input Jatropha biodiesel system. Further, when compared to a study done on palm oil and Coconut oil, it was found even if the NEB and NER of biodiesel from Jatropha were lesser in comparison to those of Palm oil and Coconut oil, yet, when energy content of the co-products were also considered, Jatropha had the highest value for both the indicators in comparison to the rest two.

  6. Impacts of Jatropha-based biodiesel production on above and below-ground carbon stocks: A case study from Mozambique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vang Rasmussen, Laura; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Bech Bruun, Thilde

    2012-01-01

    The need to mitigate climate change makes production of liquid biofuels a high priority. Substituting fossil fuels by biodiesel produced from Jatropha curcas has gained widespread attention as Jatropha cultivation is claimed to offer green house gas emission reductions. Farmers respond worldwide to this increasing demand by converting forests into Jatropha, but whether Jatropha-based biodiesel offers carbon savings depends on the carbon emissions that occur when land use is changed to Jatropha. This paper provides an impact assessment of a small-scale Jatropha project in Cabo Delgado, Mozambique. The paper outlines the estimated impacts on above and below-ground carbon stocks when land use is changed to increase Jatropha production. The results show that expansion of Jatropha production will most likely lead to the conversion of miombo forest areas to Jatropha, which implies a reduction in above and below-ground carbon stocks. The carbon debts created by the land use change can be repaid by replacing fossil fuels with Jatropha-based biodiesel. A repayment time of almost two centuries is found with optimistic estimates of the carbon debt, while the use of pessimistic values results in a repayment time that approaches the millennium. - Highlights: ► Demands for biofuels make production of Jatropha-based biodiesel a priority. ► Farmers in Northern Mozambique are likely to convert un-logged miombo to Jatropha. ► Converting miombo to Jatropha creates reductions in above and below-ground carbon. ► It takes 187–966 years to repay emissions from above and below-ground carbon stocks.

  7. Transcriptome of the inflorescence meristems of the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas treated with cytokinin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Bang-Zhen; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Ni, Jun; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-11-17

    Jatropha curcas, whose seed content is approximately 30-40% oil, is an ideal feedstock for producing biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha plants have a low number of female flowers, which results in low seed yield that cannot meet the needs of the biofuel industry. Thus, increasing the number of female flowers is critical for the improvement of Jatropha seed yield. Our previous findings showed that cytokinin treatment can increase the flower number and female to male ratio and also induce bisexual flowers in Jatropha. The mechanisms underlying the influence of cytokinin on Jatropha flower development and sex determination, however, have not been clarified. This study examined the transcriptional levels of genes involved in the response to cytokinin in Jatropha inflorescence meristems at different time points after cytokinin treatment by 454 sequencing, which gave rise to a total of 294.6 Mb of transcript sequences. Up-regulated and down-regulated annotated and novel genes were identified, and the expression levels of the genes of interest were confirmed by qRT-PCR. The identified transcripts include those encoding genes involved in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and signaling of cytokinin and other plant hormones, flower development and cell division, which may be related to phenotypic changes of Jatropha in response to cytokinin treatment. Our analysis indicated that Jatropha orthologs of the floral organ identity genes known as ABCE model genes, JcAP1,2, JcPI, JcAG, and JcSEP1,2,3, were all significantly repressed, with an exception of one B-function gene JcAP3 that was shown to be up-regulated by BA treatment, indicating different mechanisms to be involved in the floral organ development of unisexual flowers of Jatropha and bisexual flowers of Arabidopsis. Several cell division-related genes, including JcCycA3;2, JcCycD3;1, JcCycD3;2 and JcTSO1, were up-regulated, which may contribute to the increased flower number after cytokinin treatment. This study

  8. Activities of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in various bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Rajesh, Sanjay K; Kumar, Vikas; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2012-04-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds contain 30-35% oil, which can be converted to high quality biodiesel. However, Jatropha oil is toxic, ascribed to the presence of phorbol esters (PEs). In this study, isolated phorbol ester rich fraction (PEEF) was used to evaluate the activity of PEs using three aquatic species based bioassays (snail (Physa fontinalis), brine shrimp (Artemeia salina), daphnia (Daphnia magna)) and microorganisms. In all the bioassays tested, increase in concentration of PEs increased mortality with an EC(50) (48 h) of 0.33, 26.48 and 0.95 mg L(-1) PEs for snail, artemia and daphnia, respectively. The sensitivity of various microorganisms for PEs was also tested. Among the bacterial species tested, Streptococcus pyogenes and Proteus mirabilis were highly susceptible with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 215 mg L(-1) PEs; and Pseudomonas putida were also sensitive with MIC of 251 mg L(-1) PEs. Similarly, Fusarium species of fungi exhibited EC(50) of 58 mg L(-1) PEs, while Aspergillus niger and Curvularia lunata had EC(50) of 70 mg L(-1). The snail bioassay was most sensitive with 100% snail mortality at 1 μg of PEs mL(-1). In conclusion, snail bioassay could be used to monitor PEs in Jatropha derived products such as oil, biodiesel, fatty acid distillate, kernel meal, cake, glycerol or for contamination in soil or other environmental matrices. In addition, PEs with molluscicidal/antimicrobial activities could be utilized for agricultural and pharmaceutical applications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications.

  10. Castor and jatropha oils: production strategies – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lago Regina C.A.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Brazilian bioenergy matrix is based on four platforms: ethanol, energy forests, residues and co-products and biodiesel. The food-energy dichotomy in the use of edible oils is one factor which has stimulated the search for non-edible oleaginous energy crops, such as many native palms. By the year 2000 Brazil had an annual deficit of 80 thousand tons of castor oil, making necessary to import oil from China and India. After a strong debate the National Program on Biodiesel Production (NPBP was launched by December 2004. After an initial excessive enthusiasm, small producers being focused in the program, a more mature and realistic planning is undertaken. Production in semi arid lands is being stimulated, mainly castor (Ricinus communis and Jatropha (Jatropha curcas. Apart from belonging to the same botanical family (Euphorbiaceae, both plants are well resistant to poor soils. Castor plant is well adapted to practically the whole country, except for some extreme areas (too low water availability or too much rain. Castor keeps being an alternative for the semi arid region but much more technology is requested to make it largely exploited. Following the petroleum crisis of 1980’s an ambitious research program on Jatropha curcas was initiated, later on discontinued and presently retaken by Embrapa and some Universities. Progress is slower than in the case of Ricinus communis. The first agronomical observations confirmed low productivity, problems with pests and diseases, high harvesting costs etc. Some strategic factors should be considered for the production of castor and Jatropha oils: 1. Production of raw materials; 2. Production of oils; 3. Detoxification and value aggregation to the extraction cakes and residues. Regarding raw material production, it is necessary a strong, long term research program on genetic breeding (short cycle varieties, with high productivity and allowing a sole harvesting, soil fertility, pest control, domestication

  11. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath

    2016-02-01

    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift.

  12. High Throughput Phenotyping of Blueberry Bush Morphological Traits Using Unmanned Aerial Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Patrick

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenotyping morphological traits of blueberry bushes in the field is important for selecting genotypes that are easily harvested by mechanical harvesters. Morphological data can also be used to assess the effects of crop treatments such as plant growth regulators, fertilizers, and environmental conditions. This paper investigates the feasibility and accuracy of an inexpensive unmanned aerial system in determining the morphological characteristics of blueberry bushes. Color images collected by a quadcopter are processed into three-dimensional point clouds via structure from motion algorithms. Bush height, extents, canopy area, and volume, in addition to crown diameter and width, are derived and referenced to ground truth. In an experimental farm, twenty-five bushes were imaged by a quadcopter. Height and width dimensions achieved a mean absolute error of 9.85 cm before and 5.82 cm after systematic under-estimation correction. Strong correlation was found between manual and image derived bush volumes and their traditional growth indices. Hedgerows of three Southern Highbush varieties were imaged at a commercial farm to extract five morphological features (base angle, blockiness, crown percent height, crown ratio, and vegetation ratio associated with cultivation and machine harvestability. The bushes were found to be partially separable by multivariate analysis. The methodology developed from this study is not only valuable for plant breeders to screen genotypes with bush morphological traits that are suitable for machine harvest, but can also aid producers in crop management such as pruning and plot layout organization.

  13. Low-Cost Production of Composite Bushings for Jet Engine Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The objectives of this research program were to reduce the manufacturing costs of variable stator vane bushings by 1) eliminating the expensive carbon fiber braiding operation, 2) replacing the batch mode impregnation, B-stage, and cutting operations with a continuous process, and 3) reducing the molding cycle and machining operations with injection molding to achieve near-net shapes. Braided bushings were successfully fabricated with both AMB-17XLD and AMB-TPD resin systems. The composite bushings achieved high glass transition temperature after post-cure (+300 C) and comparable weight loss to the PNM-15 bushings. ANM-17XLD bushings made with "batch-mode" molding compound (at 0.5 in. fiber length) achieved a +300 lb-force flange break strength which was superior to the continuous braided-fiber reinforced bushing. The non-MDA resin technology developed in this contract appears attractive for bushing applications that do not exceed a 300 C use temperature. Two thermoplastic polyimide resins were synthesized in order to generate injection molding compound powders. Excellent processing results were obtained at injection temperatures in excess of 300 C. Micro-tensile specimens were produced from each resin type and the Tg measurements (by TMA) for these samples were equivalent to AURUM(R). Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) conducted at 10 C/min showed that the non-MDA AMB-type polyimide thermoplastics had comparable weight loss to PMR-15 up to 500 C.

  14. Rain and contamination tests on HVDC wall bushings with and without RTV coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, H.M.; Hall, J.F.; Nellis, C.L.; Low, S.S.; Lorden, D.J.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper results of tests made to determine the ability of room temperature vulcanized (RTV) silicone rubber coatings to improve the performance of HVDC wall bushings are described. The behavior of uncoated full scale ± 500 kV wall bushings is first determined in wetting conditions consisting of nonuniform rain and fog with various amounts of pre-deposited surface contamination. Parameters affecting flashover performance, such as polarity, rain conductivity, and contamination severity are discussed. Results of nonuniform rain tests on an RTV coated wall bushing are reported

  15. Planting Jatropha curcas on Constrained Land: Emission and Effects from Land Use Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firdaus, M. S.; Husni, M. H. A.

    2012-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess carbon emission and carbon loss caused from land use change (LUC) of converting a wasteland into a Jatropha curcas plantation. The study was conducted for 12 months at a newly established Jatropha curcas plantation in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) flux, changes of soil total carbon and plant biomass loss and growth were made on the wasteland and on the established plantation to determine the effects of land preparation (i.e., tilling) and removal of the wasteland's native vegetation. Overall soil CO2 flux showed no significant difference (P Jatropha curcas to recover the biomass carbon stock lost during land conversion. As far as the present study is concerned, converting wasteland to Jatropha curcas showed no adverse effects on the loss of carbon from soil and biomass and did not exacerbate soil respiration. PMID:22545018

  16. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Campos, Maira R.; Peralta-González, Fanny; Castellanos-Ruelas, Arturo; Chel-Guerrero, Luis A.; Betancur-Ancona, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%). Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides' inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry. PMID:24224169

  17. Extraction of Jatropha curcas proteins and application in polyketone-based wood adhesives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamarneh, A. I.; Heeres, H. J.; Broekhuis, A. A.; Picchioni, F.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha proteins were successfully extracted from the corresponding seeds using the principle of isoelectric precipitation. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), elemental analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze the obtained

  18. Biotechnological approaches for the genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A biodiesel plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Singh, Amritpal S.; Kumari, Swati; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2015-01-01

    . In this review, an effort is made to project the current biotechnology and molecular biology tools employed in the direction of, evaluating the genetic diversity and phylogeny revelation of Jatropha spp., identification of genetic markers for desirable traits

  19. The rise and fall of foreign private investment in the jatropha biofuel value chain in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard, Ivan; Bolwig, Simon

    2018-01-01

    The article draws on the multi-level perspective (MLP) and global value chain (GVC) frameworks to analyse the drivers and trajectories of foreign private investment in biofuel production in Ghana. It is based on a narrative of the evolution of a niche for jatropha production in Ghana in the period...... a new agriculture-based value chain for global biofuel markets, i.e. high volume requirements, high capital needs, and market risks contributed to the collapse of the jatropha sector in Ghana. A low level of learning and knowledge sharing between jatropha actors in Ghana, alongside weak public R......&D support, reduced access to technical and managerial information. Confirming previous GVC research on biofuels, policy and NGOs had a stronger influence on the jatropha value chain than in typical agricultural chains. Moreover, global drivers and the strategies and capabilities of foreign investors can...

  20. In vitro regeneration from petiole explants of non-toxic Jatropha curcas

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Vijay Anand, K.G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas, a multipurpose shrub has acquired significant economic potential as biodiesel plant. The seeds or pressed cake is toxic due to the presence of toxic substances and is not useful as food/fodder despite having the best protein

  1. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two

  2. Status of jatropha cultivation for biodiesel production in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, N.A.; Usmani, J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Pakistan is highly dependent on imported fuels. Sustainable production of biodiesel presents an opportunity to reduce reliance on imported oil, save foreign-exchange reserves, reduce poverty and unemployment, stimulate rural development in areas with acute poverty and enhance access to renewable commercial energy. We are an agriculture-based economy; therefore, production of Bio diesel by utilizing agro-base cultivation will strengthen our agricultural sector and empower the farmers. Moreover, the country has immense potential to attain energy-security through domestic cultivation and processing of bio fuel crops. Some details of the processing plant and manufacturing are also given. This paper describes and delineates the present status of Jatropha cultivation in Pakistan. An attempt is made to project the future of bio diesel, through Jatropha seeds and simultaneous efforts to cultivate other bio diesel- producing seeds to make its cost as low as possible. This paper can also be taken as a base to predict the minimum time required to produce 5-10% replacement of mineral diesel by biodiesel. (author)

  3. Biodegradation of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Makkar, Harinder Ps; Becker, Klaus

    2010-09-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is generated as a by-product during biodiesel production. Seed cake containing toxic phorbol esters (PEs) is currently used as a fertiliser and thus it is of eco-toxicological concern. In the present study the fate of PEs in soil was studied. Two approaches for the incorporation of PEs in soil were used. In the first, silica was bound to PEs, and in the second, seedcake was used. At day 0, the concentration of PEs in soil was 2.6 and 0.37 mg g(-1) for approach 1 and 2 respectively. PEs from silica bound PEs were completely degraded after 19, 12, 12 days (at 130 g kg(-1) moisture) and after 17, 9, 9 days (at 230 g kg(-1) moisture) at room temperature, 32 degrees C and 42 degrees C respectively. Similarly at these temperatures PEs from seed cake were degraded after 21, 17 and 17 days (at 130 g kg(-1) moisture) and after 23, 17, and 15 days (at 230 g kg(-1) moisture). Increase in temperature and moisture increased rate of PEs degradation. Using the snail (Physa fontinalis) bioassay, mortality by PE-amended soil extracts decreased with the decrease in PE concentration in soil. Jatropha PEs are biodegradable. The degraded products are innocuous. Copyright 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staubmann, R; Foidl, G; Foidl, N; Gübitz, G M; Lafferty, R M; Arbizu, V M; Steiner, W

    1997-01-01

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m3 m"3 d"1 was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m~3 d"1. However, the UASB reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane.

  5. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staubmann, R.; Guebitz, G.M.; Lafferty, R.M. [Graz Technical Univ. (Austria)] [and others

    1997-12-31

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. However, the UAS reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Isolation and Identification of miRNAs in Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun Ming; Liu, Peng; Sun, Fei; Li, Lei; Liu, Peng; Ye, Jian; Yue, Gen Hua

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that play crucial regulatory roles by targeting mRNAs for silencing. To identify miRNAs in Jatropha curcas L, a bioenergy crop, cDNA clones from two small RNA libraries of leaves and seeds were sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatic tools. Fifty-two putative miRNAs were found from the two libraries, among them six were identical to known miRNAs and 46 were novel. Differential expression patterns of 15 miRNAs in root, stem, leave, fruit and seed were detected using quantitative real-time PCR. Ten miRNAs were highly expressed in fruit or seed, implying that they may be involved in seed development or fatty acids synthesis in seed. Moreover, 28 targets of the isolated miRNAs were predicted from a jatropha cDNA library database. The miRNA target genes were predicted to encode a broad range of proteins. Sixteen targets had clear BLASTX hits to the Uniprot database and were associated with genes belonging to the three major gene ontology categories of biological process, cellular component, and molecular function. Four targets were identified for JcumiR004. By silencing JcumiR004 primary miRNA, expressions of the four target genes were up-regulated and oil composition were modulated significantly, indicating diverse functions of JcumiR004. PMID:22419887

  7. Combining Ability for Germination Traits in Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. M. Aminul Islam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six parents of Jatropha curcas were crossed in half diallel fashion, and the F1s were evaluated to determine the combining ability for nine germination parameters. The ratio between general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA variances indicated preponderance of additive gene action for all the characters except germination percentage, time of 50% germination, seedling length, and seedling vigor index. The parents P1 and P2 were the best general combiner for most of the characters studied. The cross P1×P5 was the best specific combiner for speed of emergence, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index, and seedling vigor index, the cross P2×P5 for mean germination time, time of 50% germination, and seedling length, and the cross P4×P5 for number of days to first germination. The germination percentage varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination (98.96% was observed in hybrid P2×P4, and none of the hybrids or parents showed 100% germination. The highest germination index (GI and seedling vigor index (SVI were found in hybrid P1×P5 and P2×P5, respectively. The results of this study provide clue for the improvement of Jatropha variety through breeding program.

  8. Biology and genetic improvement of Jatropha curcas L.: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakara, B.N.; Upadhyaya, H.D.; Gowda, C.L. Laxmipathi [Global Theme on Crop Improvement, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India); Wani, S.P. [Global Theme of Agroecosystems, International Crops Research Institute for the Semi Arid Tropics, Patancheru - 502 324, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh (India)

    2010-03-15

    Bio-diesel is a fast-developing alternative fuel in many developed and developing countries of the world. The bio-diesel production from vegetable oils during 2004-2005 was estimated 2.36 million tonnes globally. Of this, EU countries accounted for about 82% and USA about 6%. Global bio-diesel production is set to reach some 24 billion litres by 2017. Shortage of edible oil for human consumption in developing countries does not favour its use for bio-diesel production. Hence non-edible oil from crops like Jatropha (Jatrophacurcas) and Pongamia (Pongamiapinnata) is favoured for bio-diesel production and the trend is expected to continue. Especially J. curcas has gained attention in tropical and sub-tropical countries and has spread beyond its centre of origin, because of its hardiness, easy propagation, drought endurance, high oil content, rapid growth, adaptation to wide agro-climatic conditions, and multiple uses of plant as a whole. The full potential of J. curcas has not been realized due to several technological and economic reasons. One of the major reasons is the lack of high yielding varieties with high oil content. In this review, we attempt to discuss the currently available information on Jatropha species identity, taxonomy and description, distribution and ecological requirements of the species, possibilities of exploitation of genetic potentiality, exploitation of existing diversity for yield and oil content by direct selection, hybridization and creation of diversity by mutation, and biotechnological interventions. (author)

  9. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    OpenAIRE

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu; Sendilvelan Subramanian; Nagarajan Govindan; Sampath Santhanam

    2017-01-01

    The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The ex...

  10. Response of Jatropha curcas L. to water deficit: Yield, water use efficiency and oilseed characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Kheira, Abdrabbo A. [Water Management Research Institute, National Water Research Center, Delta Barrage, P.O. Box 13621/5 (Egypt); Atta, Nahed M.M. [Oil and Fat Research Department, Food Technology Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Giza (Egypt)

    2009-10-15

    Field experiment was carried out at Enshas Experiment Station; Jatropha was transplanted and treated after the second year of the transplanting by different amounts of water stress, viz. 125%, 100%, 75% and 50% of potential evapotranspiration (ETp). The study aims to ensure the multiple benefits of Jatropha and its suitability under Egypt's climate in unused lands under scarce water conditions. The results revealed that the average water consumption rate of Jatropha is 6 L week{sup -1} throughout the growing season, which means that Jatropha can survive and produce full yield with high quality seeds under minimum water requirements compared to other crops. The yield of extracted oil was 85.5, 175.2, 90.5 and 66.5 kg ha{sup -1} at 125%, 100%, 75% and 50% of ETp, respectively. The lowest values of total lipid (oil) (25% and 24.5% of Jatropha seeds) were recorded with Jatropha trees that were irrigated by 125% and 50% of ETp, respectively. On the other hand, the treatment that was irrigated by 100% of ETp (control) recorded the highest value of total oil in the seeds (29.93%). The results also revealed that there are no significant differences among the values of the determined oil characteristics due to different water stress ratios. From the results, it could be concluded that the highest characteristics of Jatropha seed oil were recorded with 100% of ETp. In addition water stress had no significant effect on the fatty acid composition of Jatropha seed oil. (author)

  11. Isolation and characterization of an ubiquitin extension protein gene (JcUEP) promoter from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan-Bin; He, Liang-Liang; Niu, Long-Jian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-04-01

    The JcUEP promoter is active constitutively in the bio-fuel plant Jatropha curcas , and is an alternative to the widely used CaMV35S promoter for driving constitutive overexpression of transgenes in Jatropha. Well-characterized promoters are required for transgenic breeding of Jatropha curcas, a biofuel feedstock with great potential for production of bio-diesel and bio-jet fuel. In this study, an ubiquitin extension protein gene from Jatropha, designated JcUEP, was identified to be ubiquitously expressed. Thus, we isolated a 1.2 kb fragment of the 5' flanking region of JcUEP and evaluated its activity as a constitutive promoter in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. As expected, histochemical GUS assay showed that the JcUEP promoter was active in all Arabidopsis and Jatropha tissues tested. We also compared the activity of the JcUEP promoter with that of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter, a well-characterized constitutive promoter conferring strong transgene expression in dicot species, in various tissues of Jatropha. In a fluorometric GUS assay, the two promoters showed similar activities in stems, mature leaves and female flowers; while the CaMV35S promoter was more effective than the JcUEP promoter in other tissues, especially young leaves and inflorescences. In addition, the JcUEP promoter retained its activity under stress conditions in low temperature, high salt, dehydration and exogenous ABA treatments. These results suggest that the plant-derived JcUEP promoter could be an alternative to the CaMV35S promoter for driving constitutive overexpression of transgenes in Jatropha and other plants.

  12. PEMANFAATAN BUNGKIL BIJI JARAK PAGAR (JATROPHA CURCAS TERFERMENTASI SEBAGAI PAKAN AYAM KAMPUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumiati

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas meal (JCM is very potential as protein source for poultry. The JCM contained high crude protein, i.e. 56,4-63,8% (without hull and 22,39-31,41% (hulled JCM. JCM serves as a highly nutritious and economic protein supplement in animal feed, if the toxins and antinutrients contained in the JCM are removed. The toxic compounds isolated from jatropha seed include curcin, phorbolesters, and the antinutrients include antitrypsins, tannin, saponin, phytic acid, and high fiber. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of feeding fermented JCM on the performances of kampong chickens. In this study, tempeh fungi (fungi using in fermenting soybean used to ferment the JCM. Two hundred kampung chickens were used in this experiment and reared from day old up to 10 weeks of age. The data analyzed with a Completely Randomized Design with 5 treatment diets and 4 replications, with 10 birds in each replicate. The experimental diets were: T0 (the control diet, without Jatropha curcas meal, T1 (the diet contained 5% untreated Jatropha curcas meal, T2 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + cellulase 200 ml/ton of feed, T3 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + 1000 FTU phytase, and T4 (the diet contained 5% fermented Jatropha curcas meal + cellulase 200 ml/ton + 1000 FTU phytase. The results showed that there were no significant difference on the parameters observed due to the treatments. Feeding fermented Jatropha curcas meal supplemented with cellulase + phytase(T4 yielded the final body weight and feed conversion ratio similar to those the control (T0 diet. There was no mortality observed in all treatments. Using JCM 5% in the diet is safe for the kampong chickens

  13. Jatropha Oil Derived Sophorolipids: Production and Characterization as Laundry Detergent Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi-Navare, Kasturi; Khanvilkar, Poonam; Prabhune, Asmita

    2013-01-01

    Sophorolipids (SLs) are glycolipidic biosurfactants suitable for various biological and physicochemical applications. The nonedible Jatropha oil has been checked as the alternative raw material for SL synthesis using C. bombicola (ATCC22214). This is useful towards lowering the SL production cost. Through optimization of fermentation parameters and use of resting cell method, the yield 15.25 g/L could be achieved for Jatropha oil derived SL (SLJO) with 1% v/v oil feeding. The synthesized SL d...

  14. Characterization of Jatropha curcas L. Protein Cast Films with respect to Packaging Relevant Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Gofferje

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing research ongoing towards the substitution of petrochemical based plastics by more sustainable raw materials, especially in the field of bioplastics. Proteins of different types such as whey, casein, gelatine, or zein show potential beyond the food and feed industry as, for instance, the application in packaging. Protein based coatings provide different packaging relevant properties such as barrier against permanent gases, certain water vapour barrier, and mechanical resistance. The aim of this study was to explore the potential for packaging applications of proteins from Jatropha curcas L. and to compare the performance with literature data on cast films from whey protein isolate. As a by-product from oil extraction, high amounts of Jatropha meal are obtained requiring a concept for its sustainable utilization. Jatropha seed cake includes up to 40% (w/w of protein which is currently not utilized. The present study provides new data on the potential of Jatropha protein for packaging applications. It was shown that Jatropha protein cast films show suitable barrier and mechanical properties depending on the extraction and purification method as well as on the plasticiser content. Based on these findings Jatropha proteins own potential to be utilized as coating material for food packaging applications.

  15. Genetic Tracing of Jatropha curcas L. from Its Mesoamerican Origin to the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Harada, Kyuya; Yamasaki, Masanori; Sakai, Hiroe; Wada, Naoki; Alipour, Atefeh; Sasai, Tomohiro; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ando, Takayuki; Tomemori, Hisashi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Quintero, Victor P.; Zamarripa, Alfredo; Santos, Primitivo; Hegazy, Adel; Ali, Abdalla M.; Fukui, Kiichi

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a shrub species of the family Euphorbiaceae, has been recognized as a promising biofuel plant for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, recent attempts at commercial cultivation in Africa and Asia have failed because of low productivity. It is important to elucidate genetic diversity and relationship in worldwide Jatropha genetic resources for breeding of better commercial cultivars. Here, genetic diversity was analyzed by using 246 accessions from Mesoamerica, Africa and Asia, based on 59 simple sequence repeat markers and eight retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism markers. We found that central Chiapas of Mexico possesses the most diverse genetic resources, and the Chiapas Central Depression could be the center of origin. We identified three genetic groups in Mesoamerica, whose distribution revealed a distinct geographic cline. One of them consists mainly of accessions from central Chiapas. This suggests that it represents the original genetic group. We found two Veracruz accessions in another group, whose ancestors might be shipped from Port of Veracruz to the Old World, to be the source of all African and Asian Jatropha. Our results suggest the human selection that caused low productivity in Africa and Asia, and also breeding strategies to improve African and Asian Jatropha. Cultivars improved in the productivity will contribute to expand mass commercial cultivation of Jatropha in Africa and Asia to increase biofuel production, and finally will support in the battle against the climate change. PMID:28936216

  16. Synergistic effect of metal deactivator and antioxidant on oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarin, Amit [Department of Applied Sciences, Amritsar College of Engineering and Technology, Amritsar 143001 (India); Arora, Rajneesh; Singh, N.P. [Punjab Technical University, Jalandhar (India); Sarin, Rakesh; Malhotra, R.K. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India); Sharma, Meeta [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., R and D Centre, Sector-13, Faridabad 121007 (India); University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110403 (India); Khan, Arif Ali [University School of Basic and Applied Sciences, Guru Gobind Singh Indraprastha University, Kashmere Gate, Delhi 110403 (India)

    2010-05-15

    Biodiesel is relatively unstable on storage and European biodiesel standard EN-14214 calls for determining oxidation stability at 110 C with a minimum induction time of 6 h by the Rancimat method (EN-14112). According to proposed National Mission on biodiesel in India, we have undertaken studies on stability of biodiesel from tree borne non-edible oil seeds Jatropha. Neat Jatropha biodiesel exhibited oxidation stability of 3.95 h. It is found possible to meet the desired EN specification for neat Jatropha biodiesel and metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel by using antioxidants; it will have a cost implication, as antioxidants are costly chemicals. Research was conducted to increase the oxidation stability of metal contaminated Jatropha biodiesel by doping metal deactivator with antioxidant, with varying concentrations in order to meet the aforementioned standard required for oxidation stability. It was found that usage of antioxidant can be reduced by 30-50%, therefore the cost, even if very small amount of metal deactivator is doped in Jatropha biodiesel to meet EN-14112 specification. (author)

  17. Three TFL1 homologues regulate floral initiation in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Luo, Li; Chen, Jianghua; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2017-01-01

    Recent research revealed that TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1) homologues are involved in the critical developmental process of floral initiation in several plant species. In this study, the functions of three putative TFL1 homologues (JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c) in the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas were analysed using the transgenic approach. JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c, but not JcTFL1a, could complement the TFL1 function and rescue early flowering and determinate inflorescence phenotype in tfl1-14 Arabidopsis mutant, thus suggesting that JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c may be homologues of TFL1. Transgenic Jatropha overexpressing JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b or JcTFL1c showed late flowering, whereas only JcTFL1b and JcTFL1c overexpression delayed flowering in transgenic Arabidopsis. JcTFL1b-RNAi transgenic Jatropha consistently exhibited moderately early flowering phenotype. JcFT and JcAP1 were significantly downregulated in transgenic Jatropha overexpressing JcTFL1a, JcTFL1b or JcTFL1c, which suggested that the late flowering phenotype of these transgenic Jatropha may result from the repressed expression of JcFT and JcAP1. Our results indicate that these three JcTFL1 genes play redundant roles in repressing flowering in Jatropha. PMID:28225036

  18. Life cycle assessment of village electrification based on straight jatropha oil in Chhattisgarh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gmuender, Simon Michael; Zah, Rainer; Widmer, Rolf [Technology and Society Lab, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Testing and Research (EMPA), Ueberlandstr. 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Bhatacharjee, Somnath [Winrock India International, New Delhi (India); Classen, Mischa [First Climate AG, Zuerich (Switzerland); Mukherjee, Prodyut [Sir Dorabji Tata Trust and Allied Trusts, New Delhi (India)

    2010-03-15

    A decentralized power generation plant fuelled by straight jatropha oil was implemented in 2006 in Ranidhera, Chhattisgarh, India. The goal of this study was to assess the environmental sustainability of that electrification project in order to provide a scientific basis for policy decisions on electrifying remote villages. A full Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was conducted on jatropha-based rural electrification and then compared with other electrification approaches such as photovoltaic (PV), grid connection and a diesel-fuelled power generator. In summary, the jatropha-based electrification in Ranidhera reduces greenhouse gas emissions over the full life cycle by a factor of 7 compared to a diesel generator or grid connection. The environmental performance is only slightly improved, mainly due to the high air pollution from pre-heating the jatropha seeds. With additional measures oil extraction and overall efficiency could be further improved. However, environmental benefits can only be achieved if jatropha is cultivated on marginal land and land use competition can be excluded. Under these conditions, jatropha-based electricity generation might be a useful alternative to other renewable electrification options, as the technology is very sturdy and can be maintained even in remote and highly under-developed regions. (author)

  19. Genetic Tracing of Jatropha curcas L. from Its Mesoamerican Origin to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiyan Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha, a shrub species of the family Euphorbiaceae, has been recognized as a promising biofuel plant for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, recent attempts at commercial cultivation in Africa and Asia have failed because of low productivity. It is important to elucidate genetic diversity and relationship in worldwide Jatropha genetic resources for breeding of better commercial cultivars. Here, genetic diversity was analyzed by using 246 accessions from Mesoamerica, Africa and Asia, based on 59 simple sequence repeat markers and eight retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism markers. We found that central Chiapas of Mexico possesses the most diverse genetic resources, and the Chiapas Central Depression could be the center of origin. We identified three genetic groups in Mesoamerica, whose distribution revealed a distinct geographic cline. One of them consists mainly of accessions from central Chiapas. This suggests that it represents the original genetic group. We found two Veracruz accessions in another group, whose ancestors might be shipped from Port of Veracruz to the Old World, to be the source of all African and Asian Jatropha. Our results suggest the human selection that caused low productivity in Africa and Asia, and also breeding strategies to improve African and Asian Jatropha. Cultivars improved in the productivity will contribute to expand mass commercial cultivation of Jatropha in Africa and Asia to increase biofuel production, and finally will support in the battle against the climate change.

  20. Genetic Diversity in Jatropha curcas L. Assessed with SSR and SNP Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan M. Montes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha is an undomesticated plant that has recently received great attention for its utilization in biofuel production, rehabilitation of wasteland, and rural development. Knowledge of genetic diversity and marker-trait associations is urgently needed for the design of breeding strategies. The main goal of this study was to assess the genetic structure and diversity in jatropha germplasm with co-dominant markers (Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP in a diverse, worldwide, germplasm panel of 70 accessions. We found a high level of homozygosis in the germplasm that does not correspond to the purely outcrossing mating system assumed to be present in jatropha. We hypothesize that the prevalent mating system of jatropha comprise a high level of self-fertilization and that the outcrossing rate is low. Genetic diversity in accessions from Central America and Mexico was higher than in accession from Africa, Asia, and South America. We identified makers associated with the presence of phorbol esters. We think that the utilization of molecular markers in breeding of jatropha will significantly accelerate the development of improved cultivars.

  1. Genetic Tracing of Jatropha curcas L. from Its Mesoamerican Origin to the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Haiyan; Tsuchimoto, Suguru; Harada, Kyuya; Yamasaki, Masanori; Sakai, Hiroe; Wada, Naoki; Alipour, Atefeh; Sasai, Tomohiro; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsujimoto, Hisashi; Ando, Takayuki; Tomemori, Hisashi; Sato, Shusei; Hirakawa, Hideki; Quintero, Victor P; Zamarripa, Alfredo; Santos, Primitivo; Hegazy, Adel; Ali, Abdalla M; Fukui, Kiichi

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a shrub species of the family Euphorbiaceae, has been recognized as a promising biofuel plant for reducing greenhouse gas emissions. However, recent attempts at commercial cultivation in Africa and Asia have failed because of low productivity. It is important to elucidate genetic diversity and relationship in worldwide Jatropha genetic resources for breeding of better commercial cultivars. Here, genetic diversity was analyzed by using 246 accessions from Mesoamerica, Africa and Asia, based on 59 simple sequence repeat markers and eight retrotransposon-based insertion polymorphism markers. We found that central Chiapas of Mexico possesses the most diverse genetic resources, and the Chiapas Central Depression could be the center of origin. We identified three genetic groups in Mesoamerica, whose distribution revealed a distinct geographic cline. One of them consists mainly of accessions from central Chiapas. This suggests that it represents the original genetic group. We found two Veracruz accessions in another group, whose ancestors might be shipped from Port of Veracruz to the Old World, to be the source of all African and Asian Jatropha. Our results suggest the human selection that caused low productivity in Africa and Asia, and also breeding strategies to improve African and Asian Jatropha. Cultivars improved in the productivity will contribute to expand mass commercial cultivation of Jatropha in Africa and Asia to increase biofuel production, and finally will support in the battle against the climate change.

  2. Phytochemical screening and quantification of flavonoids from leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okorie, N A

    2009-01-01

    The Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) herb is found in SouthWest, Nigeria and other parts of West Africa, and is claimed to possess anti-hypertensive property. The phytochemical screening and flavonoid quantification of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas Linn were studied. The phytochemical screening of the methanolic leaf extract of J. curcas L. was carried using acceptable and standard methods. The flavonoid contents of the leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L. were determined using thin layer chromatography (TLC), infrared spectroscopy (IRS) and a reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The phytochemical screening of the methanolic extract of the leaves of the plant shows the presence of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, cyanogenic glycosides, phlobatannins, tannins, flavonoids and saponins. To quantify the flavonoid contents of leaf extract of Jatropha curcas L, extracts from the plant samples where examined in a C-18 column with UV detection and isocratic elution with acetonitrile; water (45:55). Levels of flavonoids (flavones) in leaves ranged from 6:90 to 8:85 mg/g dry weight. Results indicate that the methanolic extract of the leaves of Jatropha curcas L. contains useful active ingredients which may serve as potential drug for the treatment of diseases. In addition, a combination of TLC, IRS and HPLC can be used to analyse and quantify the flavonoids present in the leaves of Jatropha curcas L.

  3. The Effects of Biofuel Feedstock Production on Farmers’ Livelihoods in Ghana: The Case of Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Acheampong

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The widespread acquisition of land for large-scale/commercial production of biofuel crops in Ghana has raised concerns from civil society organizations, local communities and other parties, regarding the impact of these investments on local livelihoods. This paper assessed the effect of large-scale acquisition of land for production of Jatropha curcas on farmers’ livelihoods in Ghana. The study was conducted in 11 communities spanning the major agro-ecological zones and political divisions across Ghana. Methods of data collection included questionnaire survey, interviews and focus group discussions. Results show that several households have lost their land to Jatropha plantations leading, in some cases, to violent conflicts between biofuel investors, traditional authorities and the local communities. Most people reported that, contrary to the belief that Jatropha does well on marginal lands, the lands acquired by the Jatropha Companies were productive lands. Loss of rights over land has affected households’ food production and security, as many households have resorted to reducing the area they have under cultivation, leading to shortening fallow periods and declining crop yields. In addition, although the cultivation of Jatropha led to the creation of jobs in the communities where they were started, such jobs were merely transient. The paper contends that, even though the impact of Jatropha feedstock production on local livelihoods in Ghana is largely negative, the burgeoning industry could be developed in ways that could support local livelihoods.

  4. Conductive core of radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing, especially for nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zajic, V

    1981-09-01

    A radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing was developed featuring a conductive core consisting of a hollow moulding. At the point of attachment to the bushing insulator the core moulding is widened, thus forming a ring support of a diameter larger by at least 10% than the diameter of the conductive core cylindrical section. On the outer side of the pressure body the core cavity is narrowed and tightly closed with the conductor. On the side facing the medium of higher pressure, the conductive core is provided with a thread. Core manufacture and connection of the conductor to the bushing is very simple. The bushing can be used for an environment with pressures exceeding 10 MPa.

  5. Conductive core of radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing, especially for nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zajic, V.

    1981-01-01

    A radiation-resistant high-pressure electric bushing was developed featuring a conductive core consisting of a hollow moulding. At the point of attachment to the bushing insulator the core moulding is widened, thus forming a ring support of a diameter larger by at least 10% than the diameter of the conductive core cylindrical section. On the outer side of the pressure body the core cavity is narrowed and tightly closed with the conductor. On the side facing the medium of higher pressure, the conductive core is provided with a thread. Core manufacture and connection of the conductor to the bushing is very simple. The bushing can be used for an environment with pressures exceeding 10 MPa. (J.B.)

  6. Energy and Climate Change. The Policy of the Bush Administration and the American Public Debate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noel, Pierre; Reiner, David

    2008-01-01

    In its oil and energy security policy, the Bush Administration has shown a willingness to serve industrial and regional interests while relying on rhetoric of crisis - energy crisis and national security crisis. The 'Bush energy plan' of stimulating internal energy production by weakening environmental and other regulations has failed politically. In climate change policy, the Bush Administration decided not to sign the Kyoto protocol as well as not to regulate greenhouse gas emissions in the U.S. This policy has had far reaching adverse consequences for the Bush Administration, in both domestic and foreign politics. The Administration has failed at making its technology-only approach accepted as a credible alternative to regulating emissions

  7. Design of Hydraulic Bushing and Vehicle Testing for Reducing the Judder Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Youngman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Generally, judder vibration is a low-frequency vibration phenomenon caused by a braking force imbalance that occurs when a vehicle is lightly decelerated within a range of 0.1 to 0.2g at a speed of 120 to 60 km/h. This comes from the change in the brake disk thickness (DTV, which is mainly caused by the side run-out (SRO and thermal deformation. The adoption of hydro-bushing in the low arm G bushings of the vehicle front suspension has been done in order to provide great damping in a particular frequency range (<20Hz in order to prevent this judder vibration from being transmitted to the body. The hydro bushing was formulated using a lumped parameter model. The fluid passage between the two chambers was modelled as a nonlinear element such as an orifice, and its important parameters (resistance, compliance were measured using a simplified experimental setup. The main design parameters are the ratio of the cross-sectional area of the chamber to the fluid passage, the length of the fluid passage, etc., and their optimal design is such that the loss angle is greater than 45 ° in the target frequency range of 10 to 20 Hz. The hydro bushing designed for reducing the judder vibration was prepared for the actual vehicle application test and applied to the actual vehicle test. In this study, the proposed hydro bushing was applied to the G bushing of the low arm of the front suspension system of the vehicle. The loss angle of the manufactured hydro bushing was measured using acceleration signals before and after passing through the bushing. The actual vehicle test was performed on the noise dynamometer for the performance analysis of the judder vibration reduction.

  8. Simulation of Stress Distribution in a Thick- Walled Bushing Produced by Die-Casting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pisarek B.P.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallographic investigations and a computer simulation of stresses in a gravity die-casting bushing were performed. Simulation of the casting process, solidification of the thick-walled bushing and calculations of the stress was performed using MAGMA5.3 software. The size variability of phases κII affecting the formation of phase stresses σf, depending on the location of the metallographic test area, was identified. The distribution of thermal σt and shrinkage stresses σs, depending on the location of the control point SC in the bushing's volume, was estimated. Probably the nature of these stresses will change slightly even after machining. This can cause variations in operating characteristics (friction coefficient, wear. Due to the strong inhomogeneity of the stress distribution in the bushing's casting, it is necessary to perform further tests of the possibility to conduct thermal treatment guaranteeing homogenization of the internal stresses in the casting, as well as to introduce changes in the bushing' s construction and the casting technology. The paper presents the continuation of the results of research aimed at identifying the causes of defects in the thick-walled bushing, die-casting made of CuAl10Fe5Ni5Cr aluminium bronze.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy balances of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eshton, Bilha; Katima, Jamidu H.Y.; Kituyi, Evans

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates GHG emissions and energy balances (i.e. net energy value (NEV), net renewable energy value (NREV) and net energy ratio (NER)) of jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel in Tanzania by using life cycle assessment (LCA) approach. The functional unit (FU) was defined as 1 tonne (t) of combusted jatropha biodiesel. The findings of the study prove wrong the notion that biofuels are carbon neutral, thus can mitigate climate change. A net GHG equivalent emission of about 848 kg t −1 was observed. The processes which account significantly to GHG emissions are the end use of biodiesel (about 82%) followed by farming of jatropha for about 13%. Sensitivity analysis indicates that replacing diesel with biodiesel in irrigation of jatropha farms decreases the net GHG emissions by 7.7% while avoiding irrigation may reduce net GHG emissions by 12%. About 22.0 GJ of energy is consumed to produce 1 t of biodiesel. Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process (about 64.7%) followed by jatropha farming for about 30.4% of total energy. The NEV is 19.2 GJ t −1 , indicating significant energy gain of jatropha biodiesel. The NREV is 23.1 GJ t −1 while NER is 2.3; the two values indicate that large amount of fossil energy is used to produce biodiesel. The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the bioenergy sector. -- Highlights: • Production and use of jatropha biodiesel in Tanzania result into positive net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. • The net GHG emission is highly influenced by end use of biodiesel in a diesel engine followed by soil N 2 O emissions during farming of Jatropha. • Jatropha biodiesel results into significant net energy gain; however its production requires large quantity of fossil energy input. • Biodiesel conversion found to be a major energy consuming process followed by jatropha farming. • The results of the study are meant to inform stakeholders and policy makers in the

  10. Broiler performance fed jatropha curcas seed meal detoxified by fermentation, physic and chemical treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Wina

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of jatropha seed meal as a feed ingredient is limited by the presence of several anti nutritive and toxic compounds in the seed meal. The aim of this research is to evaluate feeding of jatropha seed meal detoxified using fermentation by two fungi and rumen microbes (as biological detoxification and using a combination of chemical and physical treatments on broiler performance. One hundred seventy five chicks (7 days old were used and were divided into 5 treatments in 7 replications and each replication in one cage consisted of 5 chicks. R1 was control feed (K without jatropha seed meal., 2 R2 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Neurosphora sitophila (FNS, R3 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by Aspergillus oryzae (FAS, R4 was feed with 4% of Jatropha seed meal fermented by rumen microbes and R5 with 4% of Jatropha seed meal treated by autoclaved, refluxed by hexane and soaked in methanol (OEHM. Treated feed was given for 14 days at the end of the feeding treatment, two chickens from each replication were slaughtered and organ weights were recorded. Body weight of chicken and feed conversion ratio were calculated. The rest of the chicken was fed commercial feed for the next 7 days (recovery periode. Chicken mortality was almost 0% but 1 chicken from FAS treatment died at the recovery period. Feed consumption was lower at fermented jatropha seed meal than control (K or OEHM, resulted in lower body weight of chicken. The abdomen fat weight and organ weights especially pancreas or spleen resulted from treatment with jatropha were much lower than that of K. In the recovery period, body weight of chicken in the OEHM treatment was almost similar from that of control chicken. In conclusion, biological detoxification on BBJ was able to reduce chicken mortality but could not improve the daily gain higher than control treatment. The best method to detoxify jatropha seed meal was the combination of physical and

  11. Determination of the Economic Viability & Technical Feasibility of Commercial Jatropha Curcas Production for Generation of Jatropha oil as Bio-Fuel Feedstock from Wasteland: Final Technical Report on Life Cycle Impact Assessment of Jatropha Cultivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghosh, Arup [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Chikara, Jitendra [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States); Wheeler, Candace [General Motors LLC, Detroit, MI (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Ever since it was demonstrated that Jatropha seed oil could be converted into a world class biodiesel and could run in unmodified stationary and mobile diesel engines with simultaneous reduction in emissions, it caught the attention of the world. The capability to grow this crop on wastelands added to its attractiveness. However, the single biggest challenge came in the form of the availability of adequate feed stock in the form of the Jatropha fruit. Adequacy of feed stock can only be possible if large plantations are cultivated and produce enough fruit. The people, world over, jumped into Jatropha cultivation without heeding to the need to first ensure quality germplasm and understand the agronomic requirements of the plants. As a result many plantations failed to give the required yield. CSIR-CSMCRI had been researching Jatropha and had an end-to-end approach, i.e., it developed the best technology to prepare biodiesel and also worked towards the practical problems that it envisaged to be important for raising Jatropha productivity. It focused only on cultivation on wastelands as this was the only practical strategy, given the limited arable land India has and the risk of food security for the burgeoning population. While working in this direction, the Institute zeroed-in on a few germplasm, which gave consistently higher seed yield over several years. These germplasm were clonally propagated in large numbers to be raised in experimental plantations at different geographical locations in India. Many agronomic practices were developed as a part of these different projects. It was at this juncture that General Motors and the U.S. Department of Energy joined hands with CSIR-CSMCRI to further the work on Jatropha. A center of expertise for Jatropha was established and work was initiated to further refine the understanding regarding the best practices. Efforts were to be made to generate primary data, hitherto unavailable for wastelands, on which life cycle

  12. SPRERI experience on holistic approach to utilize all parts of Jatropha curcas fruit for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, R.N.; Vyas, D.K.; Srivastava, N.S.L.; Narra, Madhuri [Thermochemical Conversion Division, Sardar Patel Renewable Energy Research Institute, Vallabh Vidyanagar 388 120, Gujarat (India)

    2008-08-15

    Freshly harvested Jatropha dried fruit contains about 35-40% shell and 60-65% seed (by weight). The fruits are 2.5 cm long, ovoid, black and have 2-3 halves. It has nearly 400-425 fruits per kg and 1580-1600 seed per kg weight. Weight of 100 seeds is about 63 g. Jatropha shells are available after de-shelling of the Jatropha fruit while Jatropha seed husks are available after decortications of Jatropha seed for oil extraction. Seed contains about 40-42% husk/hull and 58-60% kernels. The kernels have about 50% oil. If the oil is extracted by solvent method the oil recovery is more than 95% but in mechanical expeller the oil recovery is about 85% only. If 100 kg of seed is expelled by expeller it will give about 28-30 kg oil. While lot of emphasis is being given on use of bio-diesel, which is only about 17-18% of the dry fruit, not much attention is being given to utilize other components of fruit for energy purposes. At SPRERI holistic approach has been taken to utilize all components of the Jatropha fruit - shell for combustion, hull/husk for gasification, oil and bio-diesel for running CI engines, cake for production of biogas and spent slurry as manure and it has been found that all components of the Jatropha curcas fruit can be utilized efficiently for energy purposes. This paper gives detailed information on the use of different components of J. curcas fruit for energy purposes. (author)

  13. Environmental Factors in the Growth of Jatropha at Potorono Village, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurcholis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas is a perennial crop that has been known by Indonesian people for more than seven decades as a plant that produces renewable biofuel. In the present decade, plants producing biofuel are expected to be developed to overcome the lowering nonrenewable fuel reserves. There is a myth that jatropha can grow well on marginal lands and draught condition, perform well on non-fertile soils, no need for agronomic management and is resistant to plant pests and diseases. This study was conducted to identify the environmental factors that influenced the growth of jatropha on the marginal land at Potorono village, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. Jatropha has been planted by local people at the village road sides and on the marginal land field at the local governmental land in this village. They grew jatropha on these areas with the purpose of preventing competition of area utilization with food crops. The results showed that the growth of jatropha was restricted by low content of organic matter, plant nutrition and poor soil drainage. Applications of manure and macro nutrients (N, P and K to this crop were able to increase crop performance. The number of shoots, flowers and fruit bunches increased by manure and nutrients treatments. Field observation showed that there were several plant pests, such as Aspidiotus sp., Paracoccus marginatus, Poliphagotarsonemus latus, Selenothrips rubrocinctus, Chrysochoris javanus, Valanga nigricornis, Chloracris prasina, and Helicoverpa armigera that attacked plant leaves and fruits. There were plant leaf necrotic symptoms that caused by plant pathogens were also observed. The diseases are bacterial leaf spot (Xanthomonas ricinicola, cercospora leaf spot (Cercospora ricinella and rust (Phakopsora jatrophicola. Thus, jatropha is like any other plants that need a good agro-ecological condition to grow well and produce high yield.

  14. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA) were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV), Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya) contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a) primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b) primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully. PMID:21812981

  15. Biotechnological approaches to determine the impact of viruses in the energy crop plant Jatropha curcas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maghuly Fatemeh

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Geminiviruses infect a wide range of plant species including Jatropha and cassava both belonging to family Euphorbiaceae. Cassava is traditionally an important food crop in Sub - Saharan countries, while Jatropha is considered as valuable biofuel plant with great perspectives in the future. Results A total of 127 Jatropha samples from Ethiopia and Kenya and 124 cassava samples from Kenya were tested by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA for RNA viruses and polymerase chain reaction for geminiviruses. Jatropha samples from 4 different districts in Kenya and Ethiopia (analyzed by ELISA were negative for all three RNA viruses tested: Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV, Cassava common mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Three cassava samples from Busia district (Kenya contained CBSV. Efforts to develop diagnostic approaches allowing reliable pathogen detection in Jatropha, involved the amplification and sequencing of the entire DNA A molecules of 40 Kenyan isolates belonging to African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV and East African cassava mosaic virus - Uganda. This information enabled the design of novel primers to address different questions: a primers amplifying longer sequences led to a phylogenetic tree of isolates, allowing some predictions on the evolutionary aspects of Begomoviruses in Jatrophia; b primers amplifying shorter sequences represent a reliable diagnostic tool. This is the first report of the two Begomoviruses in J. curcas. Two cassava samples were co - infected with cassava mosaic geminivirus and CBSV. A Defective DNA A of ACMV was found for the first time in Jatropha. Conclusion Cassava geminiviruses occurring in Jatropha might be spread wider than anticipated. If not taken care of, this virus infection might negatively impact large scale plantations for biofuel production. Being hosts for similar pathogens, the planting vicinity of the two crop plants needs to be handled carefully.

  16. Cytotoxic diterpenoids from Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus CY Yang Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, JieQing; Yang, YuanFeng; Xia, JianJun; Li, XuYang; Li, ZhongRong; Zhou, Lin; Qiu, MingHua

    2015-09-01

    An investigation of phytochemicals from the roots of Jatropha curcas cv. nigroviensrugosus resulted in the isolation of twenty diterpenoids, including lathyranlactone, an unusual diterpenoid lactone possessing a 5/13/3 tricyclic skeleton, jatrocurcasenones A-E and jatrophodiones B-E, as well as 10 known analogues. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against the HL-60, SMMC-772, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480 human tumor cell lines using the MTS viability assay. Four of the known analogues showed cytotoxic activity in these cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 2.0 to 23.0 μM. Moreover, the assessment of their cytotoxic structure-activity relationships showed the epoxy ring between C-5 and C-6 and the hydroxyl group at C-2 were the key functionalities for cytotoxicity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Plasma application for detoxification of Jatropha phorbol esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongmany, S; Matsuura, H; Furuta, M; Okuda, S; Imamura, K; Maeda, Y

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma generated by helium gas at high voltage and input power of about 50 W was first applied to detoxification of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters (J. PEs) as well as standard phorbol ester (4β-12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate, TPA) in water and methanol. Plasma irradiation on the solution sample was conducted for 15 min. In aqueous solution, only 16% of TPA was degraded and complete degradation of J. PEs was observed. On the contrary, complete degradation of both TPA and J. PEs in methanol was achieved by the same plasma irradiation condition. Hydroxyl radical (.OH) generated by plasma irradiation of the solution is expected as the main radical inducing the degradation of PEs.

  18. Jatropha curcas – Analysis of Gross Calorific Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juraj Ružbarský

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years biofuels have obtained a considerable interest, due to the implementation of ruling and gradual replacement of fossil fuels. One of production steps at gaining the oil is a pressing process. Wastes come into being from this process. These wastes are used as feed, fertilizer prospectively as fuel. A contemporary scientific literature pays attention namely to one of prospective produces which is a produce of the tropical and subtropical zones Jatropa curcas. Tests were performed at Jatropha Curcas seeds of a brown colour (that means gnaw. The aim of a research is an analysis of Jatropa curcas seed from the utilization point of view of the gross calorific value. The basic instrument to evaluate the gross calorific value of each variant of the experiment was a calorimeter PARR 6200 and digital scales for accurate laboratory weighing.

  19. Grow tubes change microclimate and bush architecture but have little effect on bush biomass allocation at the end of the establishment year in blueberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microclimate variables were integrated over a six-month period during which blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum cv. Liberty) bushes were grown in 51-cm high, 20-cm diameter round grow tubes (opaque or translucent) on a sawdust mulch-covered raised bed with the mulch incorporated into tilled soil. Grow t...

  20. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Marigorta, A.M.; Suárez-Medina, J.; Vera-Castellano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas. ► A 95% of the inefficiencies are located in the transesterification reactor. ► Exergetic efficiency of the steam generator amounts 37.6%. ► Chemical reactions cause most of the irreversibilities of the process. ► Exergetic efficiency of the overall process is over 63%. -- Abstract: As fossil fuels are depleting day by day, it is necessary to find an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is considered as an environmentally friendly renewable diesel fuel alternative. The interest in using Jatropha curcas as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel is rapidly growing. On the one hand, J. curcas’ oil does not compete with the food sector due to its toxic nature and to the fact that it must be cultivated in marginal/poor soil. On the other, its price is low and stable. In the last decade, the investigation on biodiesel production was centered on the choice of the suitable raw material and on the optimization of the process operation conditions. Nowadays, research is focused on the improvement of the energetic performance and on diminishing the inefficiencies in the different process components. The method of exergy analysis is well suited for furthering this goal, for it is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. In this work, we identify the location, magnitude and sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a biodiesel production process from J. curcas by means of an exergy analysis. The thermodynamic properties were calculated from existing databases or estimated when necessary. The higher exergy destruction takes places in the transesterification reactor due to chemical reactions. Almost 95% of the exergy of the fuel is destroyed in this reactor. The exergetic efficiency of the overall process is 63%.

  1. Induced variation in Jatropha curcas L.: status and scope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gour, V.K.; Sahu, Mamta; Prajapati, Vinod

    2006-01-01

    Full text: Jatropha curcas L. rich in reduced hydrocarbon, has become an important candidate for quality oil due to its convertibility in to bio-diesel and, suitability to sustain better in minimal resources makes it suitable for plantation in wastelands. It continued to evolve in varied agro-climatic niche through adaptation, natural selection and mutation in allogamous mode without directed selection across globe. Jatropha mission is one of the most promising and challenging ventures of the millennium to improve and make it economically viable as alternate crop for biofuel. The large collection of germplasm and its evaluation to reveal narrow phenotypic variability and scattered economic traits is an obvious challenge for the breeders to provide high yielding variety and suitability to varied environment. The basic objective is to induce variability and know the spectrum of variation to isolate traits of economic importance viz. floral changes with high proportion of pistillate flowers, tolerant to temporal changes, high capsule fertility, dwarfing, male sterility and high quality oil. The seeds of two provenances were induced with 60, 120, 180 and 240 Gy at BARC, Mumbai in the year 2004. The nursery was raised in the month of March 2004 and transplanted treatment wise to raise the M1 population. The M1 population across provenances and treatment exhibited plants with morphological variation and also through chimera. The major variations observed are for stem and foliage colour, narrow leaves, leaves without lobes, wavy margin and red petiole. The variation for proportion of male Vs female flowers and a plant with profuse flowering are desirable types. The spontaneous mutants isolated across 536 accessions raised in field gene bank exhibits variation for height (dwarf), stem succulence, hermaphrodites, dark green foliage and stem, leaves without lobes, branching from cotyledonary nodes (tri and tetra). The possibility of direct and indirect use of economic

  2. Economic and social sustainability performance of jatropha projects: results from field surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, H.A.; Heijnen, S.; Rom Colthoff, J.; Jong, de B.; Eijck, van J.A.J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel

  3. Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, Henny; Heijnen, Sanne; Rom Colthoff, Jouke; de Jong, Boris; van Eijck, Janske

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel

  4. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montes Osorio, L.R.; Torres Salvador, A.F.; Jongschaap, R.E.E.; Azurdia, C.; Berduo, J.; Trindade, L.M.; Visser, R.G.F.; Loo, van E.N.

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions

  5. Determinación de las propiedades físicas y carga crítica del aceite vegetal Jatropha curcas L // Determination of physical properties and critical load of Jatropha curcas L vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calixto Rodríguez-Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En el trabajo se determinaron las propiedades físicas y la carga critica del aceite de Jatropha curcas L, obtenido de las plantas cultivadas en la provincia de Guantánamo en Cuba. Estas propiedades fueron comparadas con las propiedades de otros aceites vegetales (aceite ricino, aceite de girasol, aceite de colza y aceite de soya usados como biolubricantes. Los resultados mostraron que las propiedades físicas del aceite de Jatropha curcas L fueron similares a la mayoría de los aceites vegetales. La carga crítica del aceite de la Jatropha curcas L ocupa una posición intermedia entre el aceite ricino y los aceites de girasol, colza y soya, lo cual permite asegurar que el aceite de Jatropha curcas L es un buen candidato para como biolubricante.Palabras claves: biolubricantes, aceites vegetales, Jatropha curcas L, propiedades físicas, carga crítica._______________________________________________________________________________AbstractIn this paper the physical properties and the critical load of the Jatropha curcas L oil, plantations located in Guantanamo province, Cuba were determined. These properties together with other vegetable oils (castor, sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils used as biolubricant were compared. These results have showed that the physical properties of the Jatropha curcas L oil were similar to most of vegetable oils.The critical load of Jatropha curcas oil has an intermediate position just castor oil and sunflower, rapeseed and soybean oils. Jatropha curcas oil has good potential as the renewable energy as well as biolubricant feedstock.Key words: biolubricants, vegetable oils, Jatropha curcas L, physical properties, critical load.

  6. Mining whole genomes and transcriptomes of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) for NBS-LRR genes and defense response associated transcription factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sood, Archit; Jaiswal, Varun; Chanumolu, Sree Krishna; Malhotra, Nikhil; Pal, Tarun; Chauhan, Rajinder Singh

    2014-11-01

    Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) and Castor bean (Ricinus communis) are oilseed crops of family Euphorbiaceae with the potential of producing high quality biodiesel and having industrial value. Both the bioenergy plants are becoming susceptible to various biotic stresses directly affecting the oil quality and content. No report exists as of today on analysis of Nucleotide Binding Site-Leucine Rich Repeat (NBS-LRR) gene repertoire and defense response transcription factors in both the plant species. In silico analysis of whole genomes and transcriptomes identified 47 new NBS-LRR genes in both the species and 122 and 318 defense response related transcription factors in Jatropha and Castor bean, respectively. The identified NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors were mapped onto the respective genomes. Common and unique NBS-LRR genes and defense related transcription factors were identified in both the plant species. All NBS-LRR genes in both the species were characterized into Toll/interleukin-1 receptor NBS-LRRs (TNLs) and coiled-coil NBS-LRRs (CNLs), position on contigs, gene clusters and motifs and domains distribution. Transcript abundance or expression values were measured for all NBS-LRR genes and defense response transcription factors, suggesting their functional role. The current study provides a repertoire of NBS-LRR genes and transcription factors which can be used in not only dissecting the molecular basis of disease resistance phenotype but also in developing disease resistant genotypes in Jatropha and Castor bean through transgenic or molecular breeding approaches.

  7. Development of marker-free transgenic Jatropha plants with increased levels of seed oleic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Jing

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Jatropha curcas is recognized as a new energy crop due to the presence of the high amount of oil in its seeds that can be converted into biodiesel. The quality and performance of the biodiesel depends on the chemical composition of the fatty acids present in the oil. The fatty acids profile of the oil has a direct impact on ignition quality, heat of combustion and oxidative stability. An ideal biodiesel composition should have more monounsaturated fatty acids and less polyunsaturated acids. Jatropha seed oil contains 30% to 50% polyunsaturated fatty acids (mainly linoleic acid which negatively impacts the oxidative stability and causes high rate of nitrogen oxides emission. Results The enzyme 1-acyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine delta 12-desaturase (FAD2 is the key enzyme responsible for the production of linoleic acid in plants. We identified three putative delta 12 fatty acid desaturase genes in Jatropha (JcFAD2s through genome-wide analysis and downregulated the expression of one of these genes, JcFAD2-1, in a seed-specific manner by RNA interference technology. The resulting JcFAD2-1 RNA interference transgenic plants showed a dramatic increase of oleic acid (> 78% and a corresponding reduction in polyunsaturated fatty acids (Jatropha had around 37% oleic acid and 41% polyunsaturated fatty acids. This indicates that FAD2-1 is the major enzyme responsible for converting oleic acid to linoleic acid in Jatropha. Due to the changes in the fatty acids profile, the oil of the JcFAD2-1 RNA interference seed was estimated to yield a cetane number as high as 60.2, which is similar to the required cetane number for conventional premium diesel fuels (60 in Europe. The presence of high seed oleic acid did not have a negative impact on other Jatropha agronomic traits based on our preliminary data of the original plants under greenhouse conditions. Further, we developed a marker-free system to generate the transgenic Jatropha

  8. Influence of injection timing on performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganapathy, T.; Gakkhar, R.P.; Murugesan, K.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The effect of injection timing, load and speed on BSFC, BTE, peak pressure, HRR, CO, HC, NO and smoke were investigated. → Advanced injection timing caused reduced BSFC, CO, HC, smoke and increased BTE, P max , HRR max and NO for Jatropha biodiesel. → At 15 N m, 1800 rpm and 340 CAD, reduction in BSFC, CO, HC and smoke were 5.1%, 2.5%, 1.2% and 1.5% for Jatropha biodiesel. → Increase in BTE, P max , HRR max and NO at 15 N m, 1800 rpm and 340 CAD were 5.3%, 1.8%, 26% and 20% for Jatropha biodiesel. → Optimal injection timing for Jatropha biodiesel with minimum BSFC, CO, HC, smoke and maximum BTE, P max , HRR is 340 CAD. -- Abstract: The study of effect of injection timing along with engine operating parameters in Jatropha biodiesel engine is important as they significantly affect its performance and emissions. The present paper focuses on the experimental investigation of the influence of injection timing, load torque and engine speed on the performance, combustion and emission characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel engine. For this purpose, the experiments were conducted using full factorial design consisting of (3 3 ) with 27 runs for each fuel, diesel and Jatropha biodiesel. The effect of variation of above three parameters on brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake thermal efficiency (BTE), peak cylinder pressure (P max ), maximum heat release rate (HRR max ), CO, HC, NO emissions and smoke density were investigated. It has been observed that advance in injection timing from factory settings caused reduction in BSFC, CO, HC and smoke levels and increase in BTE, P max , HRR max and NO emission with Jatropha biodiesel operation. However, retarded injection timing caused effects in the other way. At 15 N m load torque, 1800 rpm engine speed and 340 crank angle degree (CAD) injection timing, the percentage reduction in BSFC, CO, HC and smoke levels were 5.1%, 2.5%, 1.2% and 1.5% respectively. Similarly the percentage increase in BTE, P

  9. Molecular markers to assess genetic diversity and mutant identifications in Jatropha curcas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Yie Min Kwan; Fatin Mastura Derani; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas (Linnaeus) belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family, is a multipurpose use, drought resistant and perennial plant. It is an economic important crop, which generates wide interest in understanding the genetic diversity of the species towards selection and breeding of superior genotypes. Jatropha accessions are closely related family species. Thus, better understanding of the effectiveness of the different DNA-based markers is an important step towards plant germplasm characterization and evaluation. It is becoming a prerequisite for more effective application of marker techniques in breeding programs. Inter-simple sequence repeats (ISSRs) has shown rapid, simple, reproducible and inexpensive means in molecular taxonomy, conservation breeding and genetic diversity analysis. These markers were used to understand diversity and differentiate amongst accessions of Jatropha population and mutant lines generated by acute gamma radiation. The ISSR for marker applications are essential to facilitate management, conservation and genetic improvement programs towards improvement of bio-diesel production and medication substances. A total of 62 ISSR primers were optimized for polymorphism evaluations on five foreign accessions (Africa, India, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand), nine local accessions and two mutants of Jatropha. Optimization was resulted 54 ISSR primers affirmative for the polymorphism evaluation study, which encountered 12 ISSR primers, showed significance polymorphism amongst the accessions and mutants. Marker derived from ISSR profiling is a powerful method for identification and molecular classification of Jatropha from accession to generated mutant varieties. (author)

  10. A New Jatropha curcas Variety (JO S2 with Improved Seed Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengxin Yi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available One key reason for the failure of Jatropha plantation is the use of non-improved planting materials. We present in this paper a Jatropha variety (JO S2 through selective breeding with much better seed productivity than wild accessions as proven by field trials in Singapore and India. In a single farm trial in Singapore for two years, a comparison was conducted with accessions from China, India, Indonesia and Africa. It was found that all traits studied like seed yield, seed kernel content, seed oil content, fatty acid composition, phosphorus content and PE content differed significantly among and within the wild accessions. Overall, JO S2 was the best performer with the highest seed yield, high oil content and low phosphorus content. On two sites in Tamil Nadu, Southern India, this Jatropha variety produced up to 2.95 ton/ha of dry seeds in the first year and up to 4.25 ton/ha of dry seeds in the second year, much better than the local variety control. We attribute its higher seed productivity to early flowering, better self-branching, more flower/fruiting bunches, more fruits per bunch and importantly, better uniformity among plants. This exemplifies that breeding has improved Jatropha seed productivity which will lead to better economics for Jatropha plantation.

  11. An analytical and experimental study of performance on jatropha biodiesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganapathy Thirunavukkarasu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel plays a major role as one of the alternative fuel options in direct injection diesel engines for more than a decade. Though many feed stocks are employed for making biodiesel worldwide, biodiesel derived from domestically available non-edible feed stocks such as Jatropha curcas L. is the most promising alternative engine fuel option especially in developing countries. Since experimental analysis of the engine is pricey as well as more time consuming and laborious, a theoretical thermodynamic model is necessary to analyze the performance characteristics of jatropha biodiesel fueled diesel engine. There were many experimental studies of jatropha biodiesel fueled diesel engine reported in the literature, yet theoretical study of this biodiesel run diesel engine is scarce. This work presents a theoretical thermodynamic study of single cylinder four stroke direct injection diesel engine fueled with biodiesel derived from jatropha oil. The two zone thermodynamic model developed in the present study computes the in-cylinder pressure and temperature histories in addition to various performance parameters. The results of the model are validated with experimental values for a reasonable agreement. The variation of cylinder pressure with crank angle for various models are also compared and presented. The effects of injection timing, relative air fuel ratio and compression ratio on the engine performance characteristics for diesel and jatropha biodiesel fuels are then investigated and presented in the paper.

  12. Enhancing mobility and poverty eradication through use of biodiesel from Jatropha

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ntional Council for Science and Technology

    2008-01-01

    Kenya spends about 40% of it's foreign exchange earnings on imported petroleum products strengthening it's need to venture into cheaper and cleaner biofuel. The raise in commodity price since 2000 is mainly attributed to increase in crude oil prices. High prices in petroleum fuels threaten sustainable mobility and economic stability of many developing countries. Diesel demand in Kenya currently stands at 2.8 million litres annually. This diesel is mostly used for commercial;l transport and public service vehicle due to collapse of railway systems in Kenya. Bio fuels such as bio diesel can be produced from oily seeds in Kenya. It is produced from plants such as Jatropha (Jatropha Curcasl), caster, sunflower and croton micaucuptus. Bio diesel as vehicle oil has a potential better mobility of proving a better mobility solution by reducing the country's dependency on expensive fossils oil import. In Kenya production of oil from plant products is cheaper than imported diesel. However, Kenyan government has no policy on bio fuel usage in vehicles. Jatropha plantation quickly restores ecosystem and bi diversity when used for forestation or ref forestation, hence improving environment. Jatropha satillites all conditions set down under Kyoto convention as a positive carbon dioxide sinker. Among the social and environmental benefits from Jatropha plantation are jobs creation and poverty eradication in the rural areas. Due to biodiesel low toxicity in gas emission, engine combustion it is recommended for pubic transport in municipality towns(author)

  13. Pioneering in Marginal Fields: Jatropha for Carbon Credits and Restoring Degraded Land in Eastern Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loes Willemijn van Rooijen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights the role of a national Non-Governmental Organization (NGO in Indonesia as “pioneer” actor in the jatropha global production network, linking solutions for local problems with narratives concerning global concerns. Analysis of previous activities of the NGO positions their jatropha project as one period in a sequence of donor-funded appropriate technology programs. On the island of Flores in Eastern Indonesia the NGO aimed to establish community based jatropha cultivation exclusively on “degraded land”, avoiding threats to food cultivation, and responding to local problems of land degradation and water resources depletion. In contrast with investors interested in jatropha based biofuel production for export, the NGO aimed at developing biofuel for local needs, including jatropha based electricity generation in the regional state-owned power plant. Anticipating progress in international and national regulations concerning the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM the 2008 project’s design included carbon credit income as a main source of future project financing. Using methods of socio-legal studies and political ecology, this study indicates that when the economic feasibility of a project is based on the future financial value of a legally constructed commodity like carbon credits, the sustainability of the project outcome can be questionable. The author recommends precaution when it comes to including anticipated income from carbon credits in calculating the economic viability of a project, as price developments can fluctuate when political support and regulations change.

  14. Application of desirability function for optimizing the performance characteristics of carbonitrided bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boby John

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a product is generally characterized by more than one response variable. Hence the management often faces the problem of simultaneous optimization of many response variables. This study was undertaken to simultaneously optimize the surface hardness and case depth of carbonitrided bushes. Even though lots of literature has been published on various methodologies for tackling the multi-response optimization problem, the simultaneous optimization of heat treated properties of carbonitrided bushes are not reported yet. In this research the effect of four factors and two interactions on surface hardness and case depth of carbontirded bushes were studied using design of experiments. Based on the experimental results, the expected values of the heat treated properties of the bushes were estimated for all possible combination of factors. Then the best combination which, simultaneously optimized the response variables, was arrived at using desirability function. The study showed that the optimum combination obtained through desirability function approach not only minimized the variation around the targets of surface hardness and case depth but also was superior to the ones obtained by optimizing the response variables separately. Moreover this study provides a useful and effective approach to design the production process to manufacture bushes with customer specified surface hardness and case depth targets.

  15. Pauvreté et politique sociale : le bilan des années Bush  Poverty and Public Policy: An Assessment of the Bush Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taoufik Djebali

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuf jours après son investiture, G. W. Bush lançait son programme relatif aux Faith-Based Initiatives (FBI, une partie prenante de son « conservatisme compatissant ». Les FBI constituent une rupture avec la tradition monétariste reaganienne, même si elles s’appuient sur le rejet de l’État et la réduction du budget social. Le rôle des FBI est d’aider les organisations caritatives, notamment religieuses, à s’investir davantage dans le travail social.  Le bilan de la politique sociale de G. Bush est plutôt mitigé. La pauvreté a fortement augmenté et les promesses budgétaires en faveur des Faith-Based Organizations n’ont pas été tenues. Pire, les accusations contre les dérives des FBI fusent. L’administration Bush est accusée d’avoir utilisé les FBI et l’argent public pour obtenir des gains politiques et mettre en place un système de financement occulte en faveur des républicains et leurs alliés.Nine days after he was sworn in, Bush launched his social program, the Faith-Based Initiatives (FBI, a major component of his “compassionate conservatism.” The FBI constituted a break with the Reagan monetarist tradition, even if they are motivated by the withdrawal of the State and the reduction of the social budget. The role of the FBI is to help charities, in particular religious organizations, to invest more in social work. On the whole, the social policy implemented during the Bush years is evaluated negatively. Poverty increased rapidly and the financial promises in favor of the Faith-Based Organizations were not kept. Worse, new revelations have been disclosed. The Bush administration is accused of having used the FBI and public money to make political gains and set up an obscure funding system that benefited the Republicans and their political allies.

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in Indian Locomotives (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2009-03-01

    With India's transportation sector relying heavily on imported petroleum-based fuels, the Planning Commission of India and the Indian government recommended the increased use of blended biodiesel in transportation fleets, identifying Jatropha as a potentially important biomass feedstock. The Indian Oil Corporation and Indian Railways are collaborating to increase the use of biodiesel blends in Indian locomotives with blends of up to B20, aiming to reduce GHG emissions and decrease petroleum consumption. To help evaluate the potential for Jatropha-based biodiesel in achieving sustainability and energy security goals, this study examines the life cycle, net GHG emission, net energy ratio, and petroleum displacement impacts of integrating Jatropha-based biodiesel into locomotive operations in India. In addition, this study identifies the parameters that have the greatest impact on the sustainability of the system.

  17. Improvement of Protein Digestibility in Jatropha curcas Seed Cakes by Gamma Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudprasert, Wanwisa; Pakkong, Pannee; Thiengtham, Jamroen; Chandang, Pipatpong

    2011-06-01

    Full text: The effect of gamma radiation on protein digestibility of Jatropha curcas press cake was investigated using in vitro digestibility technique. Six varieties of Jatropha curcas seeds were subjected to cobalt-60 gamma radiation at doses of 10-100 kGy. All treated seeds were defatted by screw press. In vitro protein digest abilities in defatted seeds were assayed using trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) method, by which the contents of alpha amino induced from the function of enzymes were determined using L-alanine as a reference standard. It was found that irradiation treatment at 60 kGy significantly increased the protein digestibility by 15-92%. Also, the results showed that moisture, crude protein, fat and ash contents were unchanged by irradiation, whereas fiber was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). Therefore, irradiation could serve as a possible processing method for protein utilization improvement in defatted Jatropha curcas seeds before using as a protein supplement in animal feed

  18. Transcription profile data of phorbol esters biosynthetic genes during developmental stages in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Mardika, Rizal Kharisma; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Permatasari, Erlyta Vivi; Prasetyowati, Indah; Irawan, Mohammad Isa

    2018-06-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently known as an alternative source for biodiesel production. Beside its high free fatty acid content, J. curcas also contains typical diterpenoid-toxic compounds of Euphorbiaceae plant namely phorbol esters. This article present the transcription profile data of genes involved in the biosynthesis of phorbol esters at different developmental stages of leaves, fruit, and seed in Jatropha curcas . Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We used two genes including GGPPS (Geranylgeranyl diphospate synthase), which is responsible for the formation of common diterpenoid precursor (GGPP) and CS (Casbene Synthase), which functions in the synthesis of casbene. Meanwhile, J. curcas Actin ( ACT ) was used as internal standard. We demonstrated dynamic of GGPPS and CS expression among different stage of development of leaves, fruit and seed in Jatropha .

  19. CORROSION INHIBITIVE PROPERTIES OF EXTRACT OF JATROPHA CURCAS LEAVES ON MILD STEEL IN HYDROCHLORIC ACID ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Odusote

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha curcas leaves extract was tested as a green corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in aqueous hydrochloric acid solution using gravimetric and thermometric techniques. The results reveal that the inhibition efficiency vary with concentration of the leaf extract and the time of immersion. Maximum inhibition efficiency was found to be 95.92% in 2M HCl with 0.5 g/l concentration of the extract in gravimetric method, while 87.04% was obtained in thermometric method. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, tannins and phenol in the extract. The adsorption processes of the Jatropha curcas leaves extract onto the mild steel is consistent with the assumptions of Langmuir isotherm model and also found to be spontaneous. From the results, a physical adsorption mechanism is proposed for the adsorption of Jatropha curcas leaves extract onto mild steel surface.

  20. Integration of internet of things to reduce various losses of jatropha seed supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, S. P.; Anitha, J.; Vijayakumar, R.

    2017-06-01

    The evolution of bio fuel supply chain has revolutionized the organization by restructuring the practices of the traditional management. A flexible distribution system is becoming the need of our society. The main focus of this paper is to integrate IoT technologies into a cultivation, extraction and management of Jatropha seed. It was noticed that major set-back of farmers due to poor supply chain integration. The various losses like information about the Jatropha seed availability, the location of esterification plants and distribution details are identified through this IoT. This enables the farmers to reorganize the land resources, yield estimation and distribution functions. The wastage and the scarcity of energy can be tackled by using the smart phone technologies. This paper is proposes a conceptual frame work on various losses involved in the supply chain of Jatropha seed.

  1. [Efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhao-Yu; Lin, Jing-Ming; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2007-08-01

    To develop a new technique for efficient and rapid non-test tube cloning of the medicinal and energy- producing plant Jatropha curcas. Using the mini-stem fragment (2-3 cm) of Jatropha curcas with merely one axillary bud as the explant, the effect of an auxin IBA concentration on the plantlet regeneration was studied. When treated with 1 mg/LIBA for 1h, the explants showed the most rapid propagation. The mini-stem fragments high root regeneration ratio (96.7%), short root regeneration period (18.2-/+2.0 d), large number of new roots per explant (6.3-/+1.8), and long total root length (6.8-/+3.5 cm), demonstrating that this technique can be a simple and efficient method for rapid non-test tube cloning of Jatropha curcas of potential industrial value.

  2. Mutagenesis of Jatropha curcas - Exploring new traits in the breeding of a biofuel plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar Mohamad; Sobri Hussein; Abdul Rahim Harun

    2010-01-01

    Mutagenesis in plant species is considered effective in recovering and producing useful mutants as it leads to a high degree of chimerism and produces high degree of somaclonal variations for further selection in breeding programmes. Jatropha curcas is a species with many attributes and considerable potential, especially as bio diesel. Narrow genetic background of Jatropha spp. gives less selection to growers for better quality plant materials. In this study, a new method through nuclear technology was used to increase the genetic variability of Jatropha towards novel superior potential mutant lines. The objective of the study is to generate new mutant varieties of Jatropha curcas through the mutagenesis approach in getting new sustainable mutants for high oil yield and improved plant characteristics. Seeds of a Jatropha cultivar were from selected materials from Lembaga Kenaf and Tembakau Negara, Kelantan. Radiosensitivity test was done by irradiating a total of each 60 seeds at multiple doses (0 Gy, 20 Gy, 40 Gy, 60 Gy, 80 Gy, 100 Gy, 200 Gy, 300 Gy, 400 Gy, 600 Gy and 700 Gy). After getting the LD 50 , three doses i.e. 250 Gy, 300 Gy and 350 Gy were selected for mutagenesis, where a total of 1000 seeds were exposed to gamma radiation. The seeds were hardened and field planted at close distance of 1 m x 1 m. Pruning was conducted three times at two months interval prior to screening for early flowering, short stature and high branching mutant lines. Radiosensitivity of seeds to acute gamma irradiation revealed that the LD 50 was at 320 Gy. At nursery stage, somatic mutations related to chlorophyll changes were observed on leaves with certain shapes. Screening of Jatropha via seed mutagenesis bore 6 early flowering mutants, 7 dwarf mutants and, 17 high branching plants. In narrowing the mutant lines, cuttings from each selected trait were collected and re-planted for further evaluation. (author)

  3. Property modification of jatropha oil biodiesel by blending with other biodiesels or adding antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yi-Hung; Chen, Jhih-Hong; Luo, Yu-Min; Shang, Neng-Chou; Chang, Cheng-Hsin; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Chiang, Pen-Chi; Shie, Je-Lueng

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of biodiesel production from jatropha (Jatropha curcas) oil was investigated with respect to the biodiesel blending properties and its oxidation stability with antioxidants. The JME (jatropha oil methyl esters) had the cetane number of 54, cold filter plugging point of -2 o C, density of 881 kg/m 3 at 15 o C, ester content of 99.4 wt.%, iodine value of 96.55 g I 2 /100 g, kinematic viscosity of 4.33 mm 2 /s at 40 o C, and oxidation stability of 3.86 h. Furthermore, the JME was blended with palm oil biodiesel and soybean oil biodiesel at various weight ratios and evaluated for fuel properties as compared to the relevant specifications. In addition, several antioxidants at concentrations between 100 and 1000 ppm were studied for their potential to improve the oxidation stability of the JME. The relationship between the IP (induction period) in the measurement of the oxidation stability associated with the antioxidant consumption in the JME was described by first-order reaction rate kinetics. Moreover, the ln IP (natural logarithm of the IP) at various concentrations of pyrogallol showed a linear relationship with the test temperature. The oxidation stability at ambient temperatures was predicted on the basis of an extrapolation of the temperature-dependent relationship. -- Highlights: → Jatropha oil methyl esters had satisfactory biodiesel properties except for the oxidation stability. → The oxidation stability and cold filter plugging point of the jatropha-based biodiesel blends cannot meet the EN 14214 requirements simultaneously. → The addition of pyrogallol was recommended for the stabilization of the jatropha oil methyl esters with a concentration of 100-250 ppm.

  4. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Achten, Wouter M.J. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Almeida, Joana [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Grupo de Disciplinas da Ecologia da Hidrosfera, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Muys, Bart [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Forest, Nature and Landscape, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mathijs, Erik [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Division Agricultural and Food Economics, Celestijnenlaan 200 E-2411, BE-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Singh, Virendra P. [World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF) Regional Office for South Asia, CG Block, 1st Floor, National Agricultural Science Centre, Dev Prakash Shastri Marg, Pusa, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Tewari, Dina N. [Utthan NGO, Centre for Sustainable Development and Poverty Alleviation, 18-A, Auckland Road, Civil Lines, Allahabad 211 001 (India); Verchot, Louis V. [Centre for International Forestry Research, P.O. Box 0113 BOCBD, Bogor 16000 (Indonesia)

    2010-12-15

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH{sub 4} emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options. (author)

  5. Life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel as transportation fuel in rural India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Achten, Wouter M.J.; Almeida, Joana; Fobelets, Vincent; Bolle, Evelien; Mathijs, Erik; Singh, Virendra P.; Tewari, Dina N.; Verchot, Louis V.; Muys, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Since 2003 India has been actively promoting the cultivation of Jatropha on unproductive and degraded lands (wastelands) for the production of biodiesel suitable as transportation fuel. In this paper the life cycle energy balance, global warming potential, acidification potential, eutrophication potential and land use impact on ecosystem quality is evaluated for a small scale, low-input Jatropha biodiesel system established on wasteland in rural India. In addition to the life cycle assessment of the case at hand, the environmental performance of the same system expanded with a biogas installation digesting seed cake was quantified. The environmental impacts were compared to the life cycle impacts of a fossil fuel reference system delivering the same amount of products and functions as the Jatropha biodiesel system under research. The results show that the production and use of Jatropha biodiesel triggers an 82% decrease in non-renewable energy requirement (Net Energy Ratio, NER = 1.85) and a 55% reduction in global warming potential (GWP) compared to the reference fossil-fuel based system. However, there is an increase in acidification (49%) and eutrophication (430%) from the Jatropha system relative to the reference case. Although adding biogas production to the system boosts the energy efficiency of the system (NER = 3.40), the GWP reduction would not increase (51%) due to additional CH 4 emissions. For the land use impact, Jatropha improved the structural ecosystem quality when planted on wasteland, but reduced the functional ecosystem quality. Fertilizer application (mainly N) is an important contributor to most negative impact categories. Optimizing fertilization, agronomic practices and genetics are the major system improvement options.

  6. Methods and techniques for obtaining significant discharge measurements on high-voltage bushings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jolley, H E.W.

    1965-05-01

    Forms of discharge tests are described and compared. The use of the Arman and Starr discharge bridge with cathode-ray-tube display is shown to be practicable for bushing testing up to 600 kV. Spurious discharge effects and the precautions necessary to eliminate them are discussed. Consideration is given to calibration methods and to the errors to be expected with various practical circuits. The problem of establishing safe discharge limits for bushings is considered on the basis of a large number of test results and on service experience.

  7. Prosperity against ecology? The environment in the America of G.W. Bush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delbard, O.

    2006-03-01

    The author analysis replaces the Bush administration positions in their socio-cultural context and shows the two faces of the USA, the choice of the prosperity facing the ecology and in parallel a country of many free spaces with powerful groups for the environment preservation. After a presentation of the Bush policy in favor of the prosperity facing the environment, he shows the initiatives of movements in favor of the ecology and the environment, and concludes on the today mutations of the public opinion and some enterprises in theses domains. (A.L.B.)

  8. RECORDANDO LA ESTRATEGIA DE SEGURIDAD DE GEORGE W.BUSH EN LA ERA DE DONALD TRUMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Llanos Sierra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo analiza la estrategia de seguridad del presidente George W. Bush y su posible vinculación con el comportamiento internacional de Donald Trump, ahondando en las similitudes de ambos casos, tanto en sus objetivos como contexto internacional. Sobre la base del accionar de Trump durante los primeros meses de su mandato, este trabajo sugiere que el actual mandatario estadounidense está desarrollando, y consolidará, una estrategia de seguridad sustentada en principios, valores y objetivos comparables a aquellos defendidos por George W. Bush a inicios del presente siglo.

  9. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine: from toxicity problems to safe applications

    OpenAIRE

    Insanu, Muhamad

    2014-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. is natural sources of biodiesel. It has high potential economic values. Different parts of J. curcas have their own potencies, unfortunately these were not known by the farmers. The aim of this thesis is to give an overview of the additional values of Jatropha curcas L. by characterization of its natural products that can be used as a safe pharmaceutical product. In addition the detoxification of the plant cake allowing it to be used for animal stock has been researched. Th...

  10. Water requirement and use by Jatropha curcas in a semi-arid tropical location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kesava Rao, A.V.R.; Wani, Suhas P.; Singh, Piara; Srinivas, K.; Srinivasa Rao, Ch.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing emphasis on biofuel to meet the growing energy demand while reducing emissions of greenhouse gases, Jatropha curcas has attracted the attention of researchers, policy makers and industries as a good candidate for biodiesel. It is a non-edible oil crop, drought tolerant and could be grown on degraded lands in the tropics without competing for lands currently used for food production. J. curcas being a wild plant, much about its water requirement and production potential of promising clones in different agroclimatic conditions is not known. Water use assessment of J. curcas plantations in the semi-arid tropical location at ICRISAT, Patancheru indicated that crop evapotranspiration of J. curcas under no moisture stress varied from 1410 to 1538 mm per year during 2006–2009. Under field conditions the crop evapotranspiration varied from 614 to 930 mm depending on the atmospheric demand, rainfall and crop phenological stage. Patterns of soil-water depletion indicated that with growing plant age from two to five years, depth of soil-water extraction increased from 100 to 150 cm by fifth year. Monthly water use of Jatropha varied from 10–20 (leaf shedding period) to 140 mm depending on water availability and environmental demand. This study indicated that J. curcas has a good drought tolerance mechanism, however under favorable soil moisture conditions Jatropha could use large amounts of water for luxurious growth and high yield. These findings highlight the need to carefully identify suitable niche areas for Jatropha cultivation and assess the implications of large J. curcas plantations on water availability and use under different agroecosystems, particularly so in water scarce regions such as semi-arid and arid regions in the tropics. -- Highlights: ► Jatropha ET varied from 1410 to 1538 mm in optimal and 614 to 930 mm in field conditions. ► Depth of soil-water extraction increased from 100 to 150 cm by fifth year of age. ► Jatropha yields varied

  11. Current Strategies for the Detoxification of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Taisa G; Hadi, Sámed I I A; Costa Alves, Gabriel S; Mendonça, Simone; De Siqueira, Felix G; Miller, Robert N G

    2018-03-21

    Jatropha curcas is an important oilseed plant, with considerable potential in the development of biodiesel. Although Jatropha seed cake, the byproduct of oil extraction, is a residue rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and carbon, with high protein content suitable for application in animal feed, the presence of toxic phorbol esters limits its application in feed supplements and fertilizers. This review summarizes the current methods available for detoxification of this residue, based upon chemical, physical, biological, or combined processes. The advantages and disadvantages of each process are discussed, and future directions involving genomic and proteomic approaches for advancing our understanding of biodegradation processes involving microorganisms are highlighted.

  12. George W. Bush's Post-September 11 Rhetoric of Covenant Renewal: Upholding the Faith of the Greatest Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostdorff, Denise M.

    2003-01-01

    The appeal of Bush's post-September 11 discourse lies in its similarities with the Puritan rhetoric of covenant renewal by which ministers brought second- and third-generation Puritans into the church. Through this epideictic discourse, Bush implored younger Americans to uphold the national covenant of their "elders," the World War II generation,…

  13. Systematic notes on Asian birds. 1. A review of the russet bush-warbler Bradypterus seebohmi (Ogilvie-Grant, 1895)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dickinson, E.C.; Rasmussen, P.C.; Round, P.D.; Rozendaal, F.G.

    2000-01-01

    The bush-warbler Bradypterus mandelli (Brooks, 1875) was described from Sikkim, and numerous specimens from India were identified with it, but it was synonymised with the brown bush-warbler Bradypterus luteoventris (Hodgson, 1845) in 1881. In 1952, east Asian populations were grouped under the name

  14. "One More Time, Let Me Justify This War": An Analysis of President Bush's Declaration of Days of Thanksgiving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kevin T.

    President Bush's declaration of April 5-7, 1991 as National Days of Thanksgiving is a unique example of Presidential civil religious discourse: no other President has ever made such a declaration to thank God for a victory in war. Whether he intended to or not, President Bush engaged in a rhetorical form which allowed him to manipulate a very…

  15. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Findlater, K.M.; Kandlikar, M.

    2011-01-01

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. - Highlights: → Hardy biofuel crops like Jatropha replace edible feedstocks that use arable land. → In Rajasthan, Jatropha displaces grazing and forage on both public and private land. → As Jatropha plantations mature, the loss of grass becomes more pronounced. → Unconsidered impacts negate the benefits that the biodiesel program aims to create. → Local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making.

  16. Land use and second-generation biofuel feedstocks: The unconsidered impacts of Jatropha biodiesel in Rajasthan, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Findlater, K.M. [Institute for Resources Environment and Sustainability, University of British Columbia, 429-2202 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z4 (Canada); Kandlikar, M., E-mail: milind.k@ubc.ca [Liu Institute for Global Studies, University of British Columbia, 6476 NW Marine Drive, Vancouver, BC, V6T1Z2 (Canada)

    2011-06-15

    Governments around the world see biofuels as a common solution to the multiple policy challenges posed by energy insecurity, climate change and falling farmer incomes. The Indian government has enthusiastically adopted a second-generation feedstock - the oilseed-bearing shrub, Jatropha curcas - for an ambitious national biodiesel program. Studies estimating the production capacity and potential land use implications of this program have typically assumed that the 'waste land' slated for Jatropha production has no economic value and that no activities of note will be displaced by plantation development. Here we examine the specific local impacts of rapid Jatropha plantation development on rural livelihoods and land use in Rajasthan, India. We find that in Jhadol Tehsil, Jatropha is planted on both government and private land, and has typically displaced grazing and forage collection. For those at the socioeconomic margins, these unconsidered impacts counteract the very benefits that the biofuel programs aim to create. The Rajasthan case demonstrates that local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making for national targets and global biofuel promotion efforts. - Highlights: > Hardy biofuel crops like Jatropha replace edible feedstocks that use arable land. > In Rajasthan, Jatropha displaces grazing and forage on both public and private land. > As Jatropha plantations mature, the loss of grass becomes more pronounced. > Unconsidered impacts negate the benefits that the biodiesel program aims to create. > Local land-use impacts need to be integrated into decision-making.

  17. Feasibility study of utilizing jatropha curcas oil as bio-diesel in an oil firing burner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaiful, A. I. M.; Jaafar, M. N. Mohd; Sahar, A. M.

    2017-09-01

    Jatropha oil derived from the Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus is one of the high potential plants to be use as bio-diesel. The purpose of this research is to carry out a feasibility study of using jatropha oil as bio-diesel on oil firing burner system. Like other bio-diesels, jatropha oil can also be used in any combustion engine and the performance and emissions such as NOx, SO2, CO and CO2 as well as unburned hydocarbon (UHC) from the engine will vary depending on the bio-diesel blends. The properties of Conventional Diesel Fuel (CDF) obtained will be used as baseline and the jatropha oil properties will be compared as well as other bio-diesels. From several researches, the properties of jatropha oil was found to be quite similar with other bio-diesel such as palm oil, neem, keranja and pongamia bio-diesel and complying with the ASTM standard for bio-diesel. Still, there are factors and issues concerning the use of jatropha oil such as technology, economy, legislation and resource. Plus, there several challenges to the growth of bio-diesel industry development since the world right now do not totally depend on the bio-diesel.

  18. Kinetics study of Jatropha oil esterification with ethanol in the presence of tin (II) chloride catalyst for biodiesel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusumaningtyas, Ratna Dewi; Ratrianti, Naomi; Purnamasari, Indah; Budiman, Arief

    2017-01-01

    Jatropha oil is one of the promising feedstocks for biodiesel production. Jatropha oil is non-edible oil hence utilization of this oil would not compete with the needs of food. However, crude jatropha oil usually has high free fatty acid (FFA) content. Due to this fact, direct alkaline-catalyzed transesterification of crude jatropha oil for biodiesel production cannot be performed. FFA in crude jatropha oil will react with a base catalyst, resulting in soap as by product and hindering methyl ester (biodiesel) production. Therefore, prior to a transesterification reaction, it is crucial to run a pretreatment step of jatropha oil which can lower the FFA content in the oil. In this work, the pretreatment process was conducted through the esterification reaction of FFA contained in crude jatropha oil with ethanol over tin (II) chloride catalyst to reduce the acid value of the feedstock. The feedstock was Indonesia crude jatropha oil containing 12.03% of FFA. The esterification reaction was carried out in a batch reactor with a molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1:60 and total reaction time was 180 minutes. Tin (II) chloride catalyst was varied at 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% wt, whereas the effect of the reaction temperature was studied at 35, 34, 55, and 65 °C. The best reaction conversion was 71.55%, achieved at the following condition: a reaction temperature of 65 °C, catalyst concentration of 10% wt, the reaction time of 180 min, and the molar ratio of FFA to ethanol was 1:60. Kinetics study was also conducted in this work. It was found that esterification reaction of jatropha oil FFA with ethanol catalyzed by tin(II) chloride fitted the first-order pseudo-homogeneous kinetics model. It was also revealed that the frequency factor (A) and the activation energy (Ea) were 4.3864 × 106 min-1 and 56.2513 kJ/mole, respectively.

  19. Mould and mycotoxin exposure assessment of melon and bush mango seeds, two common soup thickeners consumed in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezekiel, Chibundu N; Sulyok, Michael; Somorin, Yinka; Odutayo, Foluke I; Nwabekee, Stella U; Balogun, Afeez T; Krska, Rudolf

    2016-11-21

    An examination of the mould and fungal metabolite pattern in melon and bush mango seeds locally produced in Nigeria was undertaken in order to understand the mycotoxicological risk posed to consumers of both of these important and commonly consumed soup thickeners. The variation in mycotoxin levels in graded categories of both foodstuffs were also determined. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, Mucorales and Trichoderma were the recovered fungi from the foodstuffs with Aspergillus species dominating (melon=97.8%; bush mango=89.9%). Among the Aspergillus species identified Aspergillus section Flavi dominated (melon: 72%; bush mango: 57%) and A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. parvisclerotigenus and A. tamarii were the recovered species. About 56% and 73% of the A. flavus isolates from melon and bush mango seed samples, respectively were aflatoxigenic. Thirty-four and 59 metabolites including notable mycotoxins were found in the melon and bush mango seeds respectively. Mean aflatoxin levels (μg/kg) in melon (aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 )=37.5 and total aflatoxins=142) and bush mango seeds (AFB 1 =68.1 and total aflatoxins=61.7) were higher than other mycotoxins, suggesting potential higher exposure for consumer populations. Significantly (p<0.05) higher levels of mycotoxins were found in hand-peeled melon and discoloured bush mango seeds than in machine-peeled melon and non-discoloured seeds except for HT-2 and T-2 toxins which occurred conversely. All melon and bush mango seeds exceeded the 2μg/kg AFB 1 limit whereas all melon and 55% of bush mango seeds exceeded the 4μg/kg total aflatoxin EU limit adopted in Nigeria. This is the first report of (1) mycotoxin co-occurrence in bush mango seeds, (2) cyclopiazonic acid, HT-2 toxin, moniliformin, mycophenolic acid, T-2 toxin and tenuazonic acid occurrence, and (3) mycotoxin exposure assessment of both foodstuffs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Epoxidación del aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L con ácido perfórmico

    OpenAIRE

    Lafargue Pérez, F.; Salazar Avila, O.; Díaz Velázquez, M.; Leiva Aguilar, I.; Sánchez Hechavarría, J.

    2015-01-01

    Para producir aceite base para lubricantes a partir del aceite vegetal de Jatropha curcas L con una buena estabilidad oxidativa, el aceite de Jatropha curcas L refinado fue modificado químicamente. La epoxidación fue realizada con perácido formado in situ, por reacción del ácido fórmico con peróxido de hidrógeno. Las propiedades físico- químicas del aceite de Jatropha curcas L epoxidado, tales como: índice de yodo, densidad, viscosidad dinámica y estabilidad oxidativa (prueba Rancimat) fueron...

  1. Mercury uptake and effects on growth in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrugo-Negrete, José; Durango-Hernández, José; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Enamorado-Montes, Germán; Díez, Sergi

    2016-10-01

    The use of metal-accumulating plants for the phytoremediation of contaminated soils is gaining more attention. Mercury (Hg)-contaminated soils from historical gold mines represent a potential risk to human health and the environment. Therefore, Jatropha curcas plant, that has shown its tolerance to these environments, is a species of particular interest to implement phytoremediation techniques in gold mining sites. In this work, the behavior of J. curcas was assessed in different hydroponic cultures fortified with Hg at concentrations of 5, 10, 20, 40, and 80μgHg/mL (T5, T10, T20, T40 and T80, respectively). After exposure, plant growth, net photosynthesis, leaf area, and Hg accumulation were determined and variables such as net Hg uptake, effective Hg accumulation, translocation and bioaccumulation factors were calculated. Accumulation of Hg in root and leaf tissues increased with respect to the Hg concentrations in the hydroponic culture, with statistically significant differences (p50% with treatment T5). Moreover, percentage of inhibition was even higher (>60%) with same treatment for net photosynthesis. Finally, it should be highlighted that for T40 and T80 treatments, plant growth and photosynthesis were almost completely depleted (88%-95%). Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Identifying MicroRNAs and Transcript Targets in Jatropha Seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Vanessa; Guzman, Frank; de Oliveira, Luiz F. V.; Loss-Morais, Guilherme; Körbes, Ana P.; Silva, Sérgio D. A.; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia M. A. N.; Margis, Rogério

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs, or miRNAs, are endogenously encoded small RNAs that play a key role in diverse plant biological processes. Jatropha curcas L. has received significant attention as a potential oilseed crop for the production of renewable oil. Here, a sRNA library of mature seeds and three mRNA libraries from three different seed development stages were generated by deep sequencing to identify and characterize the miRNAs and pre-miRNAs of J. curcas. Computational analysis was used for the identification of 180 conserved miRNAs and 41 precursors (pre-miRNAs) as well as 16 novel pre-miRNAs. The predicted miRNA target genes are involved in a broad range of physiological functions, including cellular structure, nuclear function, translation, transport, hormone synthesis, defense, and lipid metabolism. Some pre-miRNA and miRNA targets vary in abundance between the three stages of seed development. A search for sequences that produce siRNA was performed, and the results indicated that J. curcas siRNAs play a role in nuclear functions, transport, catalytic processes and disease resistance. This study presents the first large scale identification of J. curcas miRNAs and their targets in mature seeds based on deep sequencing, and it contributes to a functional understanding of these miRNAs. PMID:24551031

  3. Sustainable Energy Production from Jatropha Bio-Diesel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Amit Kumar; Krishna, Vijai

    2012-10-01

    The demand for petroleum has risen rapidly due to increasing industrialization and modernization of the world. This economic development has led to a huge demand for energy, where the major part of that energy is derived from fossil sources such as petroleum, coal and natural gas. Continued use of petroleum sourced fuels is now widely recognized as unsustainable because of depleting supplies. There is a growing interest in using Jatropha curcas L. oil as the feedstock for biodiesel production because it is non-edible and thus does not compromise the edible oils, which are mainly used for food consumption. Further, J. curcas L. seed has a high content of free fatty acids that is converted in to biodiesel by trans esterification with alcohol in the presence of a catalyst. The biodiesel produced has similar properties to that of petroleum-based diesel. Biodiesel fuel has better properties than petro diesel fuel; it is renewable, biodegradable, non-toxic, and essentially free of sulfur and aromatics. Biodiesel seems to be a realistic fuel for future. Biodiesel has the potential to economically, socially, and environmentally benefit communities as well as countries, and to contribute toward their sustainable development.

  4. Insecticidal activity of Jatropha curcas extracts against housefly, Musca domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin; Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Verma, Sharad; Malik, Anushree; Sharma, Satyawati

    2015-10-01

    The hexane and ether extracts of leaves, bark and roots of Jatropha curcas were screened for their toxicity against different developmental stages of housefly. The larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activities were analysed at various concentrations (0.78-7.86 mg/cm(2)) of hexane and ether extracts. The lethal concentration values (LC50) of hexane extract of J. curcas leaves were 3.0 and 0.27 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. Similarly, the ether extract of leaf showed the LC50 of 2.20 and 4.53 mg/cm(2) for adult and larval stages of housefly. Least toxicity was observed with hexane root extract of J. curcas with LC50 values of 14.18 and 14.26 mg/cm(2) for adult and larvae of housefly, respectively, after 48 h. The variation in LC50 against housefly pupae was found to be 8.88-13.10 mg/cm(2) at various J. curcas extract concentrations. The GC-MS analysis of J. curcas leaf extract revealed the presence of trans-phytol (60.81 %), squalene (28.58 %), phytol (2.52 %) and nonadecanone (1.06 %) as major components that could be attributed for insecticidal activity of J. curcas extracts.

  5. Irradiation sensibility of different provenances of Jatropha curcas L. seeds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Qing; Xu Congheng; Peng Daiping; Duan Zhubiao; Han Lei; Sun Qixiang; Peng Zhenhua

    2007-01-01

    The irradiation sensibility of 10 provenances of Jatropha curcas L. seeds to 60 Co γ-rays was studied. The results showed that the relationship between relative germination rate of the seeds and the doses of irradiation was negative correlation, and the difference of relative germination rate among different doses treatment was significant at 5% probability level or highly significant at 1% probability level. For seeds of different provenances, the correlation coefficient of linear regression was from -0.89--0.96, and the medial lethal doses (LD 50) of 10 provinces was from 127 Gy to 184 Gy. According to the LD 50, we could divided 10 provinces of J. curcas L. into sensitive provenance, transitional provenances and obtuse provenances. The provenances of Yuanjiang , Yunan (184 Gy) belonged to sensitive provenance; the provenances of Zhenfeng, Guizhou (127 Gy) and the provenances of Yuedong, Hainan (141 Gy) belonged to obtuse provenance; other 7 provenances belonged to transitional provenances. The results provided important experiment basis for germ plasma resources innovation of J. curcas L. (authors)

  6. Physiological quality and seed respiration of primed Jatropha curcas seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micheli Angelica Horbach

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Seed deterioration is a natural and irreversible process. Nevertheless, seed priming with water and antioxidants can minimize oxidative damage in oilseeds, resulting in attenuation of seed deterioration. The objective of this assay was to evaluate seed priming on respiratory activity of Jatropha curcas submitted to accelerated aging. Seeds from two provenances (Janauba and Pedro J. Caballero were submitted to three priming treatments (control, immersion in deionized water, and with 750 µmol L-1 of ascorbic acid and treated for accelerated aging at 41 °C for 72 h. The results showed that the priming of J. curcas seeds promoted tolerance to accelerated aging. Primed seeds, with ascorbic acid from Janauba and deionized water from Pedro J. Caballero, resulted in a higher percentage of normal seedlings, and increased germination speed index and seed respiration. The decline of physiological quality of J. curcas seeds after accelerated aging is directly associated with a reduction in respiratory activity that is related to seed moisture content.

  7. Production of Biodiesel from Jatropha Curcas using Nano Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. Bilal; Bahadar, Ali; Anjum, Waqas

    2009-09-01

    Biodiesel is proving to be a viable clean energy resource for conventional fuel as well as more exotic, value added jet fuel applications. Various non edible agriculture based sources are exploited to produce biodiesel with varying degrees of conversion and properties. Systematic studies carried out to date reveal that the oil extracted from Jatropha Curcas gives best results on yield basis (2800 kg oil/Hectare max). However the research is marred by the production of often undesirable and cumbersome byproducts, which needs multifarious purification steps with associated cost. Sponification step is a main hurdle in the old technology. We have made a paradigm shift by introducing nanomaterials which not only eliminate the cited side reactions/byproducts, but also yield higher conversion and lower costs. Typically we have reduced the reaction time from 90 min at 70° C to a gainful 5 min at ambient temperatures. The nanomaterial has been characterized by SEM and EDS (Electron Dispersion Scanning Analysis) which clearly shows bimodal distribution of the nonmaterial employed. Further characterization study was carried out by FTIR and the results are compared with petrodiesel and standard biodiesel in the important region of 2000-4000 cm-1. Perfect matching/finger printing was achieved. In this work we also report detailed comparative elemental and flash point analysis of the Biodiesel produced via various established roots.

  8. High genetic diversity of Jatropha curcas assessed by ISSR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, B G; Argollo, D M; Franco, M C; Nucci, S M; Siqueira, W J; de Laat, D M; Colombo, C A

    2017-05-31

    Jatropha curcas L. is a highly promising oilseed for sustainable production of biofuels and bio-kerosene due to its high oil content and excellent quality. However, it is a perennial and incipiently domesticated species with none stable cultivar created until now despite genetic breeding programs in progress in several countries. Knowledge of the genetic structure and diversity of the species is a necessary step for breeding programs. The molecular marker can be used as a tool for speed up the process. This study was carried out to assess genetic diversity of a germplasm bank represented by J. curcas accessions from different provenance beside interspecific hybrid and backcrosses generated by IAC breeding programs using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. The molecular study revealed 271 bands of which 98.9% were polymorphic with an average of 22.7 polymorphic bands per primer. Genetic diversity of the germplasm evaluated was slightly higher than other germplasm around the world and ranged from 0.55 to 0.86 with an average of 0.59 (Jaccard index). Cluster analysis (UPGMA) revealed no clear grouping as to the geographical origin of accessions, consistent with genetic structure analysis using the Structure software. For diversity analysis between groups, accessions were divided into eight groups by origin. Nei's genetic distance between groups was 0.14. The results showed the importance of Mexican accessions, congeneric wild species, and interspecific hybrids for conservation and development of new genotypes in breeding programs.

  9. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S.; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil. PMID:23844412

  10. Kinetics of acid base catalyzed transesterification of Jatropha curcas oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M P

    2010-10-01

    Out of various non-edible oil resources, Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) is considered as future feedstock for biodiesel production in India. Limited work is reported on the kinetics of transesterification of high free fatty acids containing oil. The present study reports the results of kinetic study of two-step acid base catalyzed transesterification process carried out at an optimum temperature of 65 °C and 50 °C for esterification and transesterification respectively under the optimum methanol to oil ratio of 3:7 (v/v), catalyst concentration 1% (w/w) for H₂SO₄ and NaOH. The yield of methyl ester (ME) has been used to study the effect of different parameters. The results indicate that both esterification and transesterification reaction are of first order with reaction rate constant of 0.0031 min⁻¹ and 0.008 min⁻¹ respectively. The maximum yield of 21.2% of ME during esterification and 90.1% from transesterification of pretreated JCO has been obtained. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Jatropha curcas L. root structure and growth in diverse soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés-Rodríguez, Ofelia Andrea; Sánchez-Sánchez, Odilón; Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo; Caplan, Joshua S; Danjon, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots). The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14 ± 5% (mean ± standard deviation). Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil.

  12. Jatropha curcas L. Root Structure and Growth in Diverse Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Unlike most biofuel species, Jatropha curcas has promise for use in marginal lands, but it may serve an additional role by stabilizing soils. We evaluated the growth and structural responsiveness of young J. curcas plants to diverse soil conditions. Soils included a sand, a sandy-loam, and a clay-loam from eastern Mexico. Growth and structural parameters were analyzed for shoots and roots, although the focus was the plasticity of the primary root system architecture (the taproot and four lateral roots. The sandy soil reduced the growth of both shoot and root systems significantly more than sandy-loam or clay-loam soils; there was particularly high plasticity in root and shoot thickness, as well as shoot length. However, the architecture of the primary root system did not vary with soil type; the departure of the primary root system from an index of perfect symmetry was 14±5% (mean ± standard deviation. Although J. curcas developed more extensively in the sandy-loam and clay-loam soils than in sandy soil, it maintained a consistent root to shoot ratio and root system architecture across all types of soil. This strong genetic determination would make the species useful for soil stabilization purposes, even while being cultivated primarily for seed oil.

  13. Evaluation and bioinduction of energy components of Jatropha curcas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus, G.D.P.S.; Jayabalan, M. [Research Centre in Bombay, V.H.N.S.N. College, Virudhunagar (India); Seiler, G.J. [USDA, ARS, Northern Crop Science Lab., Fargo, ND (United States)

    2002-09-01

    Jatropha curcas is a multipurpose species with many attributes and considerable potential. The oil from the seeds is potentially the most valuable end product. Nearly 40% of the land area in India is wasteland. However, a large number of latex bearing and oil yielding plants can grow under such unfavorable agroclimatic conditions. J. curcas, a Euphorbiaceae grows well under such adverse climatic conditions because of its low moisture demands, fertility requirements, and tolerance to high temperatures. The seed contains 19.0% oil, 4.7% polyphenol, and 3.9% hydrocarbon. This semi-drying oil could be an efficient substitute for diesel fuel. The gross heat value for the seed (0% moisture content) was 4980.3 cal/g (20.85 MJ/kg), oil was 9036.1 cal/g (37.83 MJ/kg), and hydrocarbon was 9704.4 cal/g (40.63 MJ/kg). The oil fraction consists of both saturated fatty acids, palmitic acid (14.1%), stearic acid (6.7%) and unsaturated fatty acids, oleic acid (47.0%), and linoleic acid (31.6%). Treatment of plants with growth regulators significantly influenced the production of hydrocarbons. Among the treatments, ethephon and morphactin induced the maximum production of hydrocarbon with 5.0% and 5.4%, respectively. (author)

  14. La politique commerciale de George W. Bush : rupture ou continuité ? American Trade Policy under George W. Bush: Continuity or Change?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Baptiste Velut

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cet article se propose de dresser un bilan critique de la politique commerciale du Président George W. Bush. Dans un premier temps, il compare les perspectives idéologiques et les ambitions politiques du leader républicain à celles de son prédécesseur démocrate, Bill Clinton, avant de mettre l’accent sur les nouvelles données du contexte politique et économique des années 2000. Ces éléments introductifs serviront de fondations, d’une part, pour l’étude de la gestion des relations commerciales entre les États-Unis et leurs principaux partenaires économiques, et d’autre part pour l’analyse de la stratégie de « libéralisation compétitive » adoptée par George W. Bush aux niveaux multilatéral, régional et bilatéral. L’objectif est double : déterminer les lignes de rupture et de continuité entre le président républicain et son prédécesseur ; et établir un bilan des principales initiatives commerciales lancées par l’administration Bush dans le but de mieux comprendre les nouveaux défis intérieurs et internationaux auxquels son successeur sera confronté.This article offers a critical assessment of American trade policy under George W. Bush. It begins by comparing his views and political ambitions with those of his Democratic predecessor, Bill Clinton, before highlighting the new political and economic context of the 2000s. These elements provide crucial background, first to study the evolution of America’s relations with its top trading partners and second to analyze the strategy of “competitive liberalization” undertaken by the administration at the multilateral, regional and bilateral levels. This article has two objectives: 1 determining trends of continuity and change between George W. Bush and his predecessor; 2 assessing the trade policy initiatives undertaken by the Republican administration in order to understand the domestic and international challenges with which the next President

  15. I'm Not Sure What George Bush Has to Do with Hitler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelskin, Alexis

    2005-01-01

    Alexis Pogorelskin, an associate professor at the University of Minnesota Duluth and chair of the History Department, recounts her experience in 2004 after making a controversial comment in her History of the Holocaust and 20th Century Russia class. Her comment was in reference to President Bush making no mention in the 2000 campaign about the…

  16. The political impact of WTO rules : steel tariffs and the Bush administration / William L Burns

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Burns, William L

    2004-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush kuulutas märtsis 2002 välja 30-protsendilise tolli kehtestamise suurele osale teraseimpordist eesmärgiga aidata Ameerika terasetööstusel kohaneda välismaise terase sisseveoga. Poliitiliselt mõjuvõimas Ühendriikide terasetööstus on tollide rakendamist nõudnud juba neli aastat

  17. The effect of gibberellins on sprouting of cuttings and quality of bush ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Total polyphenols were determined using Folin Ciocalteau method, total tannins were determined using the Vanillin HCL method and total antioxidants were determined using the trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay. The results of this study showed favourable response of bush tea growth to increased rates ...

  18. Self-orthogonal codes from some bush-type Hadamard matrices ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    By means of a construction method outlined by Harada and Tonchev, we determine some non-binary self-orthogonal codes obtained from the row span of orbit matrices of Bush-type Hadamard matrices that admit a xed-point-free and xed-block-free automorphism of prime order. We show that the code [20; 15; 4]5 obtained ...

  19. Superheroes and the Bush doctrine: narrative and politics in post­-9/11 discourse

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hassler-Forest, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Dan Hassler-Forest onderzocht de manier waarop de Amerikaanse politiek samenvloeit met populaire cultuur. De centrale figuur hierin is de superheld, die fungeert als een symbolische belichaming voor de conflicterende fantasieën die de jaren van het presidentschap van George W. Bush in de Verenigde

  20. Lizard community structure across a grassland - creosote bush ecotone in the Chihuahuan Desert

    OpenAIRE

    Menke, Sean B

    2003-01-01

    I investigated the distribution and abundance of lizard species (Aspidoscelis inornatus, Aspidoscelis tesselatus, Aspidoscelis tigris, Aspidoscelis uniparens, Cophosaurus texanus, Crotaphytus collaris, Eumeces obsoletus, Gambelia wislizenii, Holbrookia maculata, Phrynosoma cornutum, Sceloporus magister, and Uta stansburiana) across a desert grassland - creosote bush (Larrea tridentata) ecotone in Dona Ana County, New Mexico. The ecotonal area in the Jomada del Muerto basin has increased drama...

  1. An Associative Index Model for the Results List Based on Vannevar Bush's Selection Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Charles; Julien, Charles-Antoine; Leide, John E.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: We define the results list problem in information search and suggest the "associative index model", an ad-hoc, user-derived indexing solution based on Vannevar Bush's description of an associative indexing approach for his memex machine. We further define what selection means in indexing terms with reference to Charles…

  2. effect of bush burning on herbaceous plant diversity in lagos state

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    conducted to assess the effect of bush burning on plant species diversity. Three frequently burnt ... also believed to rid the grassland of parasitic insects and to prevent the encroachment of ..... The effect of smoke inhalation on lung function and ...

  3. A Functional Analysis of the 1988 Bush-Dukakis Presidential Debates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.; Brazeal, LeAnn M.

    2002-01-01

    Applies the Functional Theory of Political Campaign Discourse to the 1988 presidential debates between George Bush and Michael Dukakis. Challenges the notion that this campaign was mostly negative. Concludes that despite the belief that modern campaigns are devoid of substance, these debates stressed policy about twice as much as character. (SG)

  4. Bush jättis püüne Putinile / Toomas Alatalu

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Alatalu, Toomas, 1942-

    2007-01-01

    Politoloog tõdeb, et USA president George W. Bush lahkus enne lõppu Aasia-Vaikse ookeani majanduskoostöö organisatsiooni (APEC) tippkohtumiselt ja külastas Iraaki, et kinnitada maailmale Iraagi sõja vajalikkust. Vene president Vladimir Putin tugevdas Vene positsioone maailmas, andes krediiti Indoneesiale Vene laevade ja lennukite ostuks ning sõlmides uraaniostulepingu Austraaliaga

  5. Indigenous knowledge system of bush tea from the local people in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article provides a report on a survey conducted in selected villages of Thohoyandou and Nzhelele in Venda, Limpopo Province of South Africa by means of personal interviews. The aim of the survey was to gather indigenous knowledge and to validate the uses of bush tea as claimed by the local people. The interviews ...

  6. Sweet resin bush on the Santa Rita Experimental Range: An eradication effort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larry D. Howery; Bruce D. Munda; Dan G. Robinett; Harry H. Buck

    2003-01-01

    Sweet resin bush (Euryops subcarnosus DC ssp. vulgaris B. Nord; or, Euryops multifidis (L. f.) DC.), a South African shrub introduced to Arizona in the 1930s, was discovered on the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) in 1998. Due to the threat of spread of this invasive plant and its potential to cause adverse environmental and economic effects, and because it posed a...

  7. Obamas opgør med Bush låser ham i dronekrig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulrich, Philip Christian

    2013-01-01

    En helt central del af Obamas valgkamp i 2008 var et opgør med dele af Bush administrationens krig mod terror. Obama er dog blevet fanget i en kontroversiel dronepolitik på grund af hans manglende succes med de indenrigspolitiske aspekter af opgøret...

  8. Bush mõistis hukka moslemite vägivaldsed meeleavaldused / Kaarel Kaas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kaas, Kaarel, 1978-

    2006-01-01

    USA president Georg W. Bush ja välisminister Condoleezza Rice mõistavad hukka moslemite vägivaldsed meeleavaldused, kuid mitte nende ajendiks olnud Muhamedi pilavad karikatuurid ning leiavad, et Iraan ja Süüria kasutavad pilapiltide skandaali oma poliitiliste eesmärkide saavutamiseks

  9. Migration (Bush-falling) as a form of insurance for Cameroonians ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a livelihood strategy and in the eyes of most Cameroonians bush-falling remains a contestable and an inevitable pathway for those seeking to lead a better lifestyle. Migration among most Cameroonian families has become a form of insurance in which families pool their resources to support the migration of kin, mindful of ...

  10. Putin, Bush issue statement on advancing US-Russian human contacts

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    "In addition to interstate, bilateral, regional and global issues discussed by Russian President Vladimir Putin and US President George Bush during their Kremlin summit on 24 May, the two leaders considered issues related to people-to-people contacts, ties between cities, states and regions, institutions and organizations" (1 page).

  11. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jafalian, A.

    2003-01-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  12. Bush Offers "Blueprint" for NCLB: Partisan Split Expected as Strategies Diverge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, David J.

    2007-01-01

    This article reports how President Bush's new blueprint for the No Child Left Behind Act will create a partisan debate on educational strategies. In its plans for NCLB, the administration said it wants private and charter schools to create competition that would spur improvement in substandard schools. Democrats, however, have their own priorities…

  13. The floral hosts and distribution of a supposed creosote bush specialist, Colletes stepheni Timberlake (Hymenoptera: Colletidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colletes stepheni Timberlake, previously thought to be a narrow oligolege of Larrea (creosote bush) of limited distribution in the Sonoran Desert, is found to be a much more widely distributed psammophile of the Sonoran, Mojave and Great Basin Deserts that utilizes two unrelated plant pollen sources...

  14. 70 Bush Meat Trading in the Oban Hills Region of South-Eastern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    2008-03-01

    Mar 1, 2008 ... diversity of faunal species of the region can be found in ... B. The traditional inclination of rural people to bush ... (types and kinds) or species of animals involved in the .... Apes and/or. Prosimians, Reptiles; Rodents; birds, etc).

  15. Effets des extraits ou de la poudre de Spirulina platensis et Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    30 juin 2015 ... générale, les extraits ou la poudre de Spirulina platensis ont eu des ... Mots clés: Biostimulant, croissance, Spirulina platensis, Jatropha curcas, Solanum lycopersicum .... Le test de ..... in antioxidant metabolites, enzymes, and.

  16. Production of Itaconic Acid from Jatropha curcas Seed Cake by Aspergillus terreus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amina M. AHMED EL-IMAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Submerged substrate fermentation of Jatropha seed cake, a by-product of oil extraction from Jatropha curcas seed was carried out using Aspergillus terreus for the production of itaconic acid. The Jatropha seed cake was initially converted into fermentable sugars by dilute acid hydrolysis using 50% sulphuric acid. The rate of hydrolysis was 1.04 gL-1. The fermentation process was carried out at room temperature, agitation of 400 rpm and three physico-chemical parameters (pH, inoculum size and substrate concentration were varied. Itaconic acid and glucose assays were carried out by spectrophotometry and Dinitrosalicylic acid methods respectively daily. Maximum yield of itaconic acid was 48.70 gL-1 at 5 ml of inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and pH 1.5. The residual glucose concentration increased for the first two days of fermentation after which it began to decrease as the itaconic acid concentration increased. The least concentration of itaconic acid observed was 6.00 gL-1, obtained after 24 hours of fermentation with 4 ml inoculum size, 50 g substrate concentration and at pH 1.5. The findings of this work indicate that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a suitable substrate for itaconic acid production.

  17. First record of Ectomyelois muriscis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on physic nut (Jatropha curcas), a biofuel plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    The natural infestation of fruits and stems of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) by larvae of the pyralid moth Ectomyelois muriscis (Dyar) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) is reported for the first time. Populations of E. muriscis on J. curcas were observed in various parts of the state of Chiapas, souther...

  18. Synthesis and properties of highly branched Jatropha curcas L. oil derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Ardiyanti, Agnes R.; Schuur, Boelo; Manurung, Robert; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis and properties of a number of novel branched Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) derivatives containing vicinal di-ester units in the fatty acid chains are reported. Both the length (acetyl vs. hexanoyl) and the stereochemistry of the vicinal di-ester units (cis vs. trans) were varied. The

  19. Land clearing and greenhouse gas emissions from Jatropha biofuels on African Miombo Woodlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romijn, Henny A., E-mail: h.a.romijn@tue.nl [Technology and Development Studies, Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Innovation Sciences, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-10-15

    The paper investigates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use change associated with the introduction of large-scale Jatropha curcas cultivation on Miombo Woodland, using data from extant forestry and ecology studies about this ecosystem. Its results support the notion that Jatropha can help sequester atmospheric carbon when grown on complete wastelands and in severely degraded conditions. Conversely, when introduced on tropical woodlands with substantial biomass and medium/high organic soil carbon content, Jatropha will induce significant emissions that offset any GHG savings from the rest of the biofuel production chain. A carbon debt of more than 30 years is projected. On semi-degraded Miombo the overall GHG balance of Jatropha is found to hinge a lot on the extent of carbon depletion of the soil, more than on the state of the biomass. This finding points to the urgent need for detailed measurements of soil carbon in a range of Miombo sub-regions and similar tropical dryland ecosystems in Asia and Latin America. Efforts should be made to clarify concepts such as 'degraded lands' and 'wastelands' and to refine land allocation criteria and official GHG calculation methodologies for biofuels on that basis.

  20. Land clearing and greenhouse gas emissions from Jatropha biofuels on African Miombo Woodlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romijn, Henny A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper investigates greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use change associated with the introduction of large-scale Jatropha curcas cultivation on Miombo Woodland, using data from extant forestry and ecology studies about this ecosystem. Its results support the notion that Jatropha can help sequester atmospheric carbon when grown on complete wastelands and in severely degraded conditions. Conversely, when introduced on tropical woodlands with substantial biomass and medium/high organic soil carbon content, Jatropha will induce significant emissions that offset any GHG savings from the rest of the biofuel production chain. A carbon debt of more than 30 years is projected. On semi-degraded Miombo the overall GHG balance of Jatropha is found to hinge a lot on the extent of carbon depletion of the soil, more than on the state of the biomass. This finding points to the urgent need for detailed measurements of soil carbon in a range of Miombo sub-regions and similar tropical dryland ecosystems in Asia and Latin America. Efforts should be made to clarify concepts such as 'degraded lands' and 'wastelands' and to refine land allocation criteria and official GHG calculation methodologies for biofuels on that basis.

  1. Combustion of Pure, Hydrolyzed and Methyl Ester Formed of Jatropha Curcas Lin oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhaji Muhaji

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The density and viscosity of vegetable oil are higher than that of diesel oil. Thus its direct combustion in the diesel engine results many problems. This research was conducted to investigate the flame characteristics of combustion of jatropha curcas lin in pure, hydrolyzed and methyl ester form. The results indicated that the combustion of pure jatropha curcas lin occurs in three stages, hydrolyzed in two stages    and methyl ester in one stage. For pure jatropha curcas lin, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for  0.265 s.  It is followed by saturated fatty acid, burned for 0.389 s in the second stage. And, in the last stage is the burned of glycerol for 0.560 s. Meanwhile for hydrolyzed one, in the first stage, unsaturated fatty acid burned for 0.736 s, followed by saturated fatty acid, burned  for 0.326 s in the second stage. And the last, for methyl ester is the burned for 0.712 s. The highest burning rate was for methyl ester which was 0.003931cc/s. The energy releasing rate of methyl ester, which was for 13,628.67 kcal/(kg.s resembled that of diesel oil the most, while the lowest rate was for pure jatropha curcas lin which was 8,200.94 kcal/(kg.s. In addition, massive explosion occurred in the fuel containing unsaturated fatty acid and glycerol

  2. Loss of Genetic Diversity of Jatropha curcas L. through Domestication: Implications for Its Genetic Improvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanou, Haby; Angel Angulo-Escalante, Miguel; Martinez-Herrera, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. has been promoted as a “miracle” tree in many parts of the world, but recent studies have indicated very low levels of genetic diversity in various landraces. In this study, the genetic diversity of landrace collections of J. curcas was compared with the genetic diversity...

  3. Efficacy of jatropha curcas plant extract against the survival of salmonella enteritidis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction: The use of plant-derived antimicrobials has shown to be effective at inhibiting microbial growth. Although Jatropha curcas is known to possess antimicrobial properties, its efficacy against Salmonella Enteritidis has not yet been investigated. Purpose: The purpose of this study was...

  4. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, A.Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Van der Meer, T.H.

    2009-01-01

    Hoekstra, A.Y, Gerbens-Leenes, W. and Van der Meer, T.H., 2009. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 106 (42), E119

  5. Biodiesel synthesis from Jatropha curcas L. oil and ethanol in a continuous centrifugal contactor separator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abduh, Muhammad Yusuf; van Ulden, Wouter; Kalpoe, Vijay; van de Bovenkamp, Hendrik H.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    The synthesis of fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) from Jatropha curcas L. oil was studied in a batch reactor and a continuous centrifugal contactor separator (CCCS) using sodium ethoxide as the catalyst. The effect of relevant process variables like rotational speed, temperature, catalyst

  6. Response of jatropha on a clay soil to different concentrations of micronutrients

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years Jatropha curcas L. has emerged as a biofuel crop with potential for its production in marginal land with application of treated sewage water. Since this is a new crop for its profitable cultivation, additional research is needed to develop optimal management programs, including macro...

  7. Jatropha plantations for biodiesel in Tamil Nadu, India. Viability, livelihood trade-offs, and latent conflict

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza-Montobbio, Pere [Institute of Environmental Science and Technology, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), Barcelona (Spain); Lele, Sharachchandra [Centre for Environment and Development, Ashoka Trust for Research in Ecology and the Environment (ATREE), Bangalore (India)

    2010-12-15

    Researchers, policy makers and civil society organizations have been discussing the potential of biofuels as partial substitutes for fossil fuels and thereby as a simultaneous solution for climate change and rural poverty. Research has highlighted the ambiguity of these claims across various dimensions and scales, focusing on ethanol-producing or oilseed crops in agricultural lands or Jatropha-type crops on common lands. We studied the agronomic and economic viability and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas plantations on private farms in Tamil Nadu, India. We found that Jatropha yields are much lower than expected and its cultivation is currently unviable, and even its potential viability is strongly determined by water access. On the whole, the crop impoverishes farmers, particularly the poorer and socially backward farmers. Jatropha cultivation therefore not only fails to alleviate poverty, but its aggressive and misguided promotion will generate conflict between the state and the farmers, between different socio-economic classes and even within households. The water demands of the crop can potentially exacerbate the conflicts and competition over water access in Tamil Nadu villages. (author)

  8. Optimization of conditions for the extraction of phorbol esters from Jatropha oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devappa, Rakshit K.; Makkar, H.P.S.; Becker, K. [Institute for Animal Production in the Tropics and Subtropics (480b), University of Hohenheim, 70593 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    The production of Jatropha curcas seeds as a biodiesel feedstock is expected to reach 160 Mt by 2017. The present study aims at extracting phorbol esters (PEs) as a co-product from Jatropha oil before processing it to biodiesel. The conditions were optimized for extraction of PEs in organic solvents by using a magnetic stirrer and an Ultra turrax. The extent of reduction in PEs was >99.4% in methanol using any of the stirring tools. However, the extraction using Ultra turrax affected considerably the colour of the remaining oil. Therefore, further solvent:oil ratio, time and temperature were optimized using a magnetic stirrer to get PE rich fraction-I (48.4 mg PEs g{sup -1}) and virtually PE-free oil. PEs were 14 fold higher in this fraction than the control oil. PEs, extracted in methanol from the untreated Jatropha oil, at 1 mg L{sup -1} produced 100% mortality in snails (Physa fontinalis). The methanol extract from virtually PE-free oil when concentrated 20 and 25 time the untreated Jatropha oil (equivalent of 20 mg L{sup -1} and 25 mg L{sup -1} PEs in the control oil) was nontoxic to snails. PE rich fraction-I, obtained as a co-product, can be used in agricultural, medicinal and pharmaceutical applications and the remaining oil can be used for biodiesel preparation. The remaining oil will be friendly to the environment and workers. (author)

  9. Reply to Jongschaap et al.: The water footprint of Jatropha curcas under poor growing conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Y.; Gerbens-Leenes, Winnie; van der Meer, Theo H.

    2009-01-01

    The water footprint (WF) of a product refers to freshwater onsumed during production (1). We calculated bioenergy WFs assuming crop water requirements are met (2); Jongschaap et al. (3) correctly point out that this is not always true, giving an example for jatropha grown under poor, rainfed

  10. Rational use of Jatropha curcas L. in food and medicine : from toxicity problems to safe applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Insanu, Muhamad; Dimaki, Chryssa; Wilkins, Richard; Brooker, John; van der Linde, Piet; Kayser, Oliver

    Jatropha curcas L. has become an important plant for biorefinery and production of biodiesel. From its ethnobotanical use, the plant is known for several activities which are associated with high toxicity. The latest development in engineering technology enables detoxification of native oil and

  11. Transcriptome analysis of the oil-rich seed of the bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreira Raquel C

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To date, oil-rich plants are the main source of biodiesel products. Because concerns have been voiced about the impact of oil-crop cultivation on the price of food commodities, the interest in oil plants not used for food production and amenable to cultivation on non-agricultural land has soared. As a non-food, drought-resistant and oil-rich crop, Jatropha curcas L. fulfils many of the requirements for biofuel production. Results We have generated 13,249 expressed sequence tags (ESTs from developing and germinating Jatropha seeds. This strategy allowed us to detect most known genes related to lipid synthesis and degradation. We have also identified ESTs coding for proteins that may be involved in the toxicity of Jatropha seeds. Another unexpected finding is the high number of ESTs containing transposable element-related sequences in the developing seed library (800 when contrasted with those found in the germinating seed library (80. Conclusions The sequences generated in this work represent a considerable increase in the number of sequences deposited in public databases. These results can be used to produce genetically improved varieties of Jatropha with increased oil yields, different oil compositions and better agronomic characteristics.

  12. GENETIC DIVERGENCE AND MORPHO - AGRONOMIC PERFORMANCE OF JATROPHA CURCAS L. CLONES FOR SELECTION OF CLONAL VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ADRIANA QUEIROZ DE ALMEIDA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge about genetic diversity of jatropha crop is important for genetic conservation resources and breeding of this species. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic diversity and performance of jatropha clones through morphological characterization to selection of clonal varieties for biofuels production. The clones were obtained through shoot cuttings from previous selection in a population of half - sibs progenies. The morphoagronomic analyses of clones was carried out at 180 days after transplantation and were evaluated plant height, stem diameter, number of primary branches and number of secondary branches, number of bunches and number of fruits per plant. Evaluating clones performance, significant results were found for the number of secondary branches. About analysis of genetic diversity, the measures of dissimilarity genetic varied from 0.62 to 13.11, this way, the UFRBPR14 and UFRBPR15 clones were more divergent. The Tocher method was efficient to verify formation of four groups. The characteristics that most contributed to the divergence among clones were branches number, height and number of bunches, and, stem diameter had lower contribution. The jatropha clones differed only in the secondary branches number and multivariate analysis showed divergence among the jatropha clones with formation of four groups. Also, branches number, plant height and number of bunches were characteristic that contributed to genetic divergence.

  13. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, J.E.G. van; Heeres, H.J.

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  14. Preparation and properties of binderless boards from Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hidayat, H.; Keijsers, E.R.P.; Prijanto, U.; Dam, van J.E.G.; Heeres, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The potential of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake after oil extraction (expelling of seeds followed by hexane extraction) as a raw material for binderless boards was investigated. The composition of the de-oiled seed cake was investigated using a range of techniques (proximate-, ultimate analyses,

  15. A field assessment of the agronomic performance and water use of Jatropha curcas in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Everson, CS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Global attention on biofuels and the potential for Jatropha curcas to produce biodiesel from marginal land with low inputs has recently created world-wide interest in this species. This paper reports on the water dynamics and productivity of J...

  16. Life Cycle Assessment Comparing the Use of Jatropha Biodiesel in the Indian Road and Rail Sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G.

    2010-05-01

    This life cycle assessment of Jatropha biodiesel production and use evaluates the net greenhouse gas (GHG) emission (not considering land-use change), net energy value (NEV), and net petroleum consumption impacts of substituting Jatropha biodiesel for conventional petroleum diesel in India. Several blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are evaluated for the rail freight, rail passenger, road freight, and road-passenger transport sectors that currently rely heavily on petroleum diesel. For the base case, Jatropha cultivation, processing, and use conditions that were analyzed, the use of B20 results in a net reduction in GHG emissions and petroleum consumption of 14% and 17%, respectively, and a NEV increase of 58% compared with the use of 100% petroleum diesel. While the road-passenger transport sector provides the greatest sustainability benefits per 1000 gross tonne kilometers, the road freight sector eventually provides the greatest absolute benefits owing to substantially higher projected utilization by year 2020. Nevertheless, introduction of biodiesel to the rail sector might present the fewest logistic and capital expenditure challenges in the near term. Sensitivity analyses confirmed that the sustainability benefits are maintained under multiple plausible cultivation, processing, and distribution scenarios. However, the sustainability of any individual Jatropha plantation will depend on site-specific conditions.

  17. Effect of Jatropha curcas Peptide Fractions on the Angiotensin I-Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira R. Segura-Campos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is one of the most common worldwide diseases in humans. Angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE plays an important role in regulating blood pressure and hypertension. An evaluation was done on the effect of Alcalase hydrolysis of defatted Jatropha curcas kernel meal on ACE inhibitory activity in the resulting hydrolysate and its purified fractions. Alcalase exhibited broad specificity and produced a protein hydrolysate with a 21.35% degree of hydrolysis and 34.87% ACE inhibition. Ultrafiltration of the hydrolysate produced peptide fractions with increased biological activity (24.46–61.41%. Hydrophobic residues contributed substantially to the peptides’ inhibitory potency. The 5–10 and <1 kDa fractions were selected for further fractionation by gel filtration chromatography. ACE inhibitory activity (% ranged from 22.66 to 45.96% with the 5–10 kDa ultrafiltered fraction and from 36.91 to 55.83% with the <1 kDa ultrafiltered fraction. The highest ACE inhibitory activity was observed in F2 ( μg/mL from the 5–10 kDa fraction and F1 ( μg/mL from the <1 kDa fraction. ACE inhibitory fractions from Jatropha kernel have potential applications in alternative hypertension therapies, adding a new application for the Jatropha plant protein fraction and improving the financial viability and sustainability of a Jatropha-based biodiesel industry.

  18. Prospects for Jatropha biofuels in developing countries : an analysis for Tanzania with strategic niche management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, van J.A.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    2006-01-01

    The paper reports on recent research in Tanzania about the scope for developing biofuels from an oil-seed bearing plant called Jatropha Curcas Linnaeus. The plant is widely seen to have potential to help combat the greenhouse effect, help to stop local soil erosion, create additional income for the

  19. Planting Jatropha curcas on Constrained Land: Emission and Effects from Land Use Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Firdaus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out to assess carbon emission and carbon loss caused from land use change (LUC of converting a wasteland into a Jatropha curcas plantation. The study was conducted for 12 months at a newly established Jatropha curcas plantation in Port Dickson, Malaysia. Assessments of soil carbon dioxide (CO2 flux, changes of soil total carbon and plant biomass loss and growth were made on the wasteland and on the established plantation to determine the effects of land preparation (i.e., tilling and removal of the wasteland's native vegetation. Overall soil CO2 flux showed no significant difference (<0.05 between the two plots while no significant changes (<0.05 on soil total carbon at both plots were detected. It took 1.5 years for the growth of Jatropha curcas to recover the biomass carbon stock lost during land conversion. As far as the present study is concerned, converting wasteland to Jatropha curcas showed no adverse effects on the loss of carbon from soil and biomass and did not exacerbate soil respiration.

  20. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  1. Jatropha plantations for biodiesel in Tamil Nadu, India. Viability, livelihood trade-offs, and latent conflict

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ariza-Montobbio, Pere; Lele, Sharachchandra

    2010-01-01

    Researchers, policy makers and civil society organizations have been discussing the potential of biofuels as partial substitutes for fossil fuels and thereby as a simultaneous solution for climate change and rural poverty. Research has highlighted the ambiguity of these claims across various dimensions and scales, focusing on ethanol-producing or oilseed crops in agricultural lands or Jatropha-type crops on common lands. We studied the agronomic and economic viability and livelihood impacts of Jatropha curcas plantations on private farms in Tamil Nadu, India. We found that Jatropha yields are much lower than expected and its cultivation is currently unviable, and even its potential viability is strongly determined by water access. On the whole, the crop impoverishes farmers, particularly the poorer and socially backward farmers. Jatropha cultivation therefore not only fails to alleviate poverty, but its aggressive and misguided promotion will generate conflict between the state and the farmers, between different socio-economic classes and even within households. The water demands of the crop can potentially exacerbate the conflicts and competition over water access in Tamil Nadu villages. (author)

  2. Applicability of fiber model in seismic response analysis for center-clamp type bushings on transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyagawa, Yoshinori; Sato, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    A bushing is a device for insulation and support of a conductor. Especially it is called center-clamp type when it is connected with a metal holder through clamping force. As a consequence of damage of center-clamp type bushings in Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, refinement of the response analysis method and review of the seismic design procedure became necessary. In the present report, the fiber model, which can evaluate non-linear behavior in the section subjected to axial force and bending moment, was implemented to the CRIEPI's finite element analysis program 'Mastrd' considering following characteristics of center-clamp type bushings. a) The gasket section between a porcelain tube and a metal holder has a torus shape. b) Springs around the top of the bushing give clamping force, but they lock in excessive base rotation. c) The gasket does not resist against tension. d) Local resistance against compression due to bending increases in use of very thin gaskets. The developed program was verified through comparison with the shaking table test result for real bushings whose voltage classes were 154 kV and 275 kV. Deformation indices as rotation angle and base opening due to bending were influenced by damping conditions. Though there was not the condition which brought about remarkable underestimation, reduction of damping for a fiber model element was preferable for safety. On the other hand, bending moment was consistent with experimental results because it tended not to fluctuate in the non-linear region. (author)

  3. Biofuels from Jatropha curcas oil – Perspectives for tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Klaus

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Almost 40% of the world’s population of 6,7 billion people do not have access to affordable energy resources and drinking water of acceptable quality. But nothing is more important than the alleviation of hunger. The number of hungry people, according to the newest FAO statistics, has risen to close to one billion in 2008. Therefore, special attention needs to be given to research in food and agriculture. To this stock of global problems new challenges are added through the increase in human population of 80 million persons a year and the concomitant loss of large areas of former fertile agricultural land, mostly in the poorest countries. Jatropha curcas is the most primitive member of the large genus Euphorbiaceae. The name is derived from the Greek iatros (doctor and trophe (food. Jatropha curcas is a perennial plant, native and widely spread throughout the tropics. It is not grazed by animals, grows readily on degraded lands, is drought and to some extent disease resistant. It is a multipurpose plant. There are two genotypes of Jatropha curcas, a toxic and a non-toxic one. The latter genotype is found in Mexico only. Well developed dry seeds from Jatropha curcas weigh between 650- 750 mg and contain 30-35% of oil that is suitable for conversion into biodiesel of high quality by the conventional, proven processes. The kernel forms around 65% of the seeds. The de-oiled kernel meal has a crude protein content of between 58% and 60% and a favourable amino acid profile. Extracts of the toxic genotype provide chemicals with potential in medicinal, pharmaceutical and bio-pesticide application. In contrast to other fossil fuel alternatives, like biofuels from food crops such as maize, soybean, sugar cane and palm, bioenergy from Jatropha curcas grown on wasteland incurs no carbon debt and thus, offers immediate and sustained greenhouse gas advantages. Potential benefits of large scale Jatropha plantations on degraded land are expected to be

  4. A Study of the Use of Jatropha Oil Blends in Boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, C.R.

    2010-10-01

    Executive Summary: This project investigated the combustion performance of blends of unrefined Jatropha oil and its blends in laboratory boilers. Although a very limited amount of testing blends in distillate oil, ASTM No. 2 oil or heating oil was conducted, the primary interest was in testing the performance of blends with residual ASTM No. 6 oil. The basic idea is to provide a renewable fuel option to residual oil used in space heating and in industrial applications. The intent also was to explore the use of non-edible plant oil and one that might be potentially cheaper than biodiesel. The characteristics of No. 6 oil, such as high viscosity at ambient temperature, which requires it to be kept heated, make the blending with such oils feasible. Jatropha oil is one such oil and there is currently considerable interest building up in its use as a source for making biodiesel and jet fuel. A 10% blend of Jatropha oil with heating oil was burned using a standard burner in a residential boiler. Combustion performance was shown to be comparable with that of burning heating oil by itself with some noticeable differences. Typical heating oil has about 2000 ppm of sulfur, while the Jatropha oil has about 50 ppm leading to lower levels of sulphur dioxide emissions. Stack measurements also showed that the NOx emission was lower with the blend. We have previously reported similar reductions in NOx with blends of biodiesel in heating oil as well as slight reductions in PM2.5, particulates below 2.5 microns in size. Long term tests were not part of this project and hence deleterious effects on pumps, seals etc., if any, were not measured. The majority of the work involved testing blends of Jatropha oil with residual oil in a 1.5 million Btu/hr boiler with a burner modified to burn residual oil. Blends of 20 and 60% Jatropha oil and 100% Jatropha oil were burned in the combustion performance tests. The residual oil used had a sulfur content of over 2000 ppm and hence dramatic

  5. Role of biotechnological interventions in the improvement of castor (Ricinus communis L.) and Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sujatha, M; Reddy, T P; Mahasi, M J

    2008-01-01

    Castor and Jatropha belong to the Euphorbiaceae family. This review highlights the role of biotechnological tools in the genetic improvement of castor and jatropha. Castor is monotypic and breeding programmes have mostly relied on the variability available in the primary gene pool. The major constraints limiting profitable cultivation are: vulnerability to insect pests and diseases, and the press cake is toxic which restrict its use as cattle feed. Conventional breeding techniques have limited scope in improvement of resistance to biotic stresses and in quality improvement owing to low genetic variability for these traits. Genetic diversity was assessed using protein based markers while use of molecular markers is at infancy. In vitro studies in castor have been successful in shoot proliferation from meristematic explants, but not callus-mediated regeneration. Genetic transformation experiments have been initiated for development of insect resistant and ricin-free transgenics with very low transformation frequency. In tropical and subtropical countries jatropha is viewed as a potential biofuel crop. The limitations in available germplasm include; lack of knowledge of the genetic base, poor yields, low genetic diversity and vulnerability to a wide array of insects and diseases. Great scope exists for genetic improvement through conventional methods, induced mutations, interspecific hybridization and genetic transformation. Reliable and highly efficient tissue culture protocols for direct and callus-mediated shoot regeneration and somatic embryogenesis are established for jatropha which indicates potential for widening the genetic base through biotechnological tools. Assessment of genetic diversity using molecular markers disclosed low interaccessional variability in local Jatropha curcas germplasm. The current status and future prospects of in vitro regeneration, genetic transformation and the role of molecular tools in the genetic enhancement of the two

  6. Performance of Jatropha curcas: A biofuel crop in wasteland of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pandey, A.K.; Bhargava, Pankaj; Gupta, Nivedika; Sharma, Dhanshree [Non Wood Forest Produce Division, Tropical Forest Research Institute, P.O. RFRC, Jabalpur 482021 (India)

    2010-07-01

    In India vast tracts of land (20.17% of total geographical area) exists as wastelands accounting for about 63.85 million hectares. Wastelands are degraded lands that lack their life sustaining potential as a result of inherent or imposed disabilities such as by location, environment, chemical and physical properties of the soil or financial or management constraints. In recent years, the central government and many of the state governments have expressed their support for bringing wastelands, under cultivation. Jatropha curcas has been found most promising for this purpose due to the use of its seed oil as biodiesel and other favorable attributes like hardy nature, short gestation period and adaptability in a wide range of agro-climatic conditions etc. Jatropha plantation helps in restoration of vast stretches of wastelands into green oil fields and can address major issues of developing countries like energy security, environmental amelioration, rural employment generation and conservation of foreign exchange reserves. With the objective to evaluate the performance of Jatropha plants in wasteland conditions, Tropical Forest Research Institute, Jabalpur has initiated a study in 2006. Progeny trial was laid out in Barha (Jabalpur) locality comprising of 20 superior genotypes of Jatropha. Among them, Gessani Shivpuri 3, Gessani Shivpuri 2, Bilara Pohiri Shivpuri 2, Parsoria Damoh Sagar, Bizouli Janarpura Gwalior 3, Bizouli Janarpura Gwalior 2 and Dewari Sagar 1 genotype are performing better as compared to other genotypes. This information will be helpful in assessing of the potential of locally adapted accessions and provide baseline information for future Jatropha plantation and wasteland reclammation programmes.

  7. Performance and emission study of preheated Jatropha oil on medium capacity diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, Bhupendra Singh; Du Jun, Yong; Lee, Kum Bae [Division of Automobile and Mechanical Engineering, Kongju National University (Korea); Kumar, Naveen [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Bawana Road, Delhi 42 (India)

    2010-06-15

    Diesel engines have proved their utility in transport, agriculture and power sector. Environmental norms and scared fossil fuel have attracted the attention to switch the energy demand to alternative energy source. Oil derived from Jatropha curcas plant has been considered as a sustainable substitute to diesel fuel. However, use of straight vegetable oil has encountered problem due to its high viscosity. The aim of present work is to reduce the viscosity of oil by heating from exhaust gases before fed to the engine, the study of effects of FIT (fuel inlet temperature) on engine performance and emissions using a dual fuel engine test rig with an appropriately designed shell and tube heat exchanger (with exhaust bypass arrangement). Heat exchanger was operated in such a way that it could give desired FIT. Results show that BTE (brake thermal efficiency) of engine was lower and BSEC (brake specific energy consumption) was higher when the engine was fueled with Jatropha oil as compared to diesel fuel. Increase in fuel inlet temperature resulted in increase of BTE and reduction in BSEC. Emissions of NO{sub x} from Jatropha oil during the experimental range were lower than diesel fuel and it increases with increase in FIT. CO (carbon monoxide), HC (hydrocarbon), CO{sub 2} (carbon dioxide) emissions from Jatropha oil were found higher than diesel fuel. However, with increase in FIT, a downward trend was observed. Thus, by using heat exchanger preheated Jatropha oil can be a good substitute fuel for diesel engine in the near future. Optimal fuel inlet temperature was found to be 80 C considering the BTE, BSEC and gaseous emissions. (author)

  8. [Soil basal respiration and enzyme activities in the root-layer soil of tea bushes in a red soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shen; He, Zhenli; Zhang, Rongguang; Chen, Guochao; Huang, Changyong

    2003-02-01

    Soil basal respiration potential, metabolic quotient (qCO2), and activities of urease, invertase and acid phosphomonoesterase were investigated in the root-layer of 10-, 40-, and 90-yr-old tea bushes grown on the same type of red soil. The soil daily basal respiration potential ranged from 36.23 to 58.52 mg.kg-1.d-1, and the potentials in the root-layer of 40- or 90-yr-old were greater than that of 10-yr old tea bushes. The daily qCO2, ranging from 0.30 to 0.68, was in the reverse trend. The activities of test three enzymes changed differently with tea bushes' age. Urease activity in the root-layer of all age tea bushes ranged from 41.48 to 47.72 mg.kg-1.h-1 and slightly decreased with tea bushes' age. Invertase activity was 189.29-363.40 mg.kg-1.h-1 and decreased with tea bushes' age, but its activity in the root-layer of 10-year old tea bushes was significantly greater than that in the root-layer soil of 40- or 90-year old tea bushes. Acid phosphomonoesterase activity (444.22-828.32 mg.kg-1.h-1) increased significantly with tea bushes' age. Soil basal respiration potential, qCO2 and activities of 3 soil enzymes were closely related to soil pH, soil organic carbon, total nitrogen and C/N ratio, total soluble phenol, and microbial biomass carbon, respectively.

  9. Isolation and characterization of the Jatropha curcas APETALA1 (JcAP1) promoter conferring preferential expression in inflorescence buds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yan-Bin; He, Liang-Liang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2016-08-01

    The 1.5 kb JcAP1 promoter from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas is predominantly active in the inflorescence buds of transgenic plants, in which the -1313/-1057 region is essential for maintaining the activity. Arabidopsis thaliana APETALA1 (AP1) is a MADS-domain transcription factor gene that functions primarily in flower development. We isolated a homolog of AP1 from Jatropha curcas (designated JcAP1), which was shown to exhibit flower-specific expression in Jatropha. JcAP1 is first expressed in inflorescence buds and continues to be primarily expressed in the sepals. We isolated a 1.5 kb JcAP1 promoter and evaluated its activity in transgenic Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene. In transgenic Arabidopsis and Jatropha, the inflorescence buds exhibited notable GUS activity, whereas the sepals did not. Against expectations, the JcAP1 promoter was active in the anthers of Arabidopsis and Jatropha and was highly expressed in Jatropha seeds. An analysis of promoter deletions in transgenic Arabidopsis revealed that deletion of the -1313/-1057 region resulted in loss of JcAP1 promoter activity in the inflorescence buds and increased activity in the anthers. These results suggested that some regulatory sequences in the -1313/-1057 region are essential for maintaining promoter activity in inflorescence buds and can partly suppress activity in the anthers. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that other elements located upstream of the 1.5 kb JcAP1 promoter may be required for flower-specific activation. The JcAP1 promoter characterized in this study can be used to drive transgene expression in both the inflorescence buds and seeds of Jatropha.

  10. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P. [Alternate Hydro Energy Centre, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, Uttarakhand (India)

    2010-02-15

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels, which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country. Biodiesel, an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute for diesel has been getting the attention of researchers/scientists of all over the world. The R and D has indicated that up to B20, there is no need of modification and little work is available related to suitability and sustainability of biodiesel production from Jatropha as non-edible oil sources. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel atomization problems. The report is an attempt to present the prevailing fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resources for biodiesel production, processes for its production, purification, etc. Lastly, an introduction of stability of biodiesel will also be presented. (author)

  11. Prospects of biodiesel from Jatropha in India: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Siddharth; Sharma, M.P.

    2010-01-01

    The increasing industrialization and modernization of the world has to a steep rise for the demand of petroleum products. Economic development in developing countries has led to huge increase in the energy demand. In India, the energy demand is increasing at a rate of 6.5% per annum. The crude oil demand of the country is met by import of about 80%. Thus the energy security has become a key issue for the nation as a whole. Petroleum-based fuels are limited. The finite reserves are highly concentrated in certain regions of the world. Therefore, those countries not having these reserves are facing foreign exchange crises, mainly due to the import of crude oil. Hence it is necessary to look forward for alternative fuels, which can be produced from feedstocks available within the country. Biodiesel, an ecofriendly and renewable fuel substitute for diesel has been getting the attention of researchers/scientists of all over the world. The R and D has indicated that up to B20, there is no need of modification and little work is available related to suitability and sustainability of biodiesel production from Jatropha as non-edible oil sources. In addition, the use of vegetable oil as fuel is less polluting than petroleum fuels. The basic problem with biodiesel is that it is more prone to oxidation resulting in the increase in viscosity of biodiesel with respect to time which in turn leads to piston sticking, gum formation and fuel atomization problems. The report is an attempt to present the prevailing fossil fuel scenario with respect to petroleum diesel, fuel properties of biodiesel resources for biodiesel production, processes for its production, purification, etc. Lastly, an introduction of stability of biodiesel will also be presented. (author)

  12. Neotropical echinococcosis: second report of Echinococcus vogeli natural infection in its main definitive host, the bush dog (Speothos venaticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Pereira Soares, Manoel; Souza de Souza, Alex Junior; Pinheiro Malheiros, Andreza; Nunes, Heloisa Marceliano; Almeida Carneiro, Liliane; Alves, Max Moreira; Farias da Conceição, Bernardo; Gomes-Gouvêa, Michele Soares; Marins Póvoa, Marinete

    2014-04-01

    The bush dog (Speothos venaticus) acts as the natural definitive host in the life cycle of Echinococcus vogeli, the causative agent of polycystic hydatid disease, a zoonotic neglected disease in the South America. We report a case of natural infection by Echinococcus vogeli in a bush dog from the Brazilian Amazon, confirmed by the morphological and morphometric examination of adult parasites and their hooks obtained from the small intestine of the canid. Additionally, mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis corroborated these findings. This is the second report of natural infection by E. vogeli in a bush dog. © 2013.

  13. Riding the Hype: The Role of State-Owned Enterprise Elite Actors in the Promotion of Jatropha in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deasy Simandjuntak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Within a few years following its ambitious promotion in 2006, the development of jatropha in Indonesia came to a halt. Claimed as a potential solution to problems in energy and poverty, the introduction of jatropha in Indonesia’s energy policy had been triggered by the high oil prices in 2005. While studies by biofuel scholars have generally focused on what brought the end of the “miracle crop” hype by underlining various technical problems and the absence of market structure as the cause of its failure, few have examined jatropha as part of a policy-making trajectory, which began with, and was influenced by, the development narratives disseminated by individual actors. This article sheds light on the role of elite actors in the making of biofuel energy policy in Indonesia. Taking the case of the promotion of jatropha in 2005–2007, the article illustrates the role of the director of Indonesia’s leading sugar state-owned enterprise (SOE, Rajawali Nusantara Indonesia (RNI, whose decision in promoting jatropha became influential in forwarding its narratives into the national energy and development policy in 2006. In order to discover why a specific elite actor decided to promote jatropha, the article relies on data, including the SOE’s documents and interviews with key actor(s. The analysis is conducted using an actor-oriented approach, which underlines the discrepancy between the ideals and the operational practice of developmental goals.

  14. A multi-factor evaluation of Jatropha as a feedstock for biofuels: the case of sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael M. Jingura

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA is a geographical region consisting of 49 countries, out of which, 39 countries have experiences with the cultivation of Jatropha curcas L. Since the year 2000 Jatropha production escalated in the region and peaked in around 2007/2008. The major drivers of this trend were claims made about Jatropha including include its ability to grow on marginal lands, high seed and oil yields, and drought tolerant, amongst other attributes. However, the reality has shown that these attributes have not been realised.  The objective of the present paper is to analyse the performance of Jatropha as a biofuel feedstock in SSA based on agronomic, economic, social and environmental factors involved in its production. Evidences in SSA show that the major challenge with Jatropha cultivation has been low seed yields, ranging between 0.1 and 2 t/ha. This in turn has led to oil yields which are not sufficiently viable for use in production of biofuels such as biodiesel. There have also been reported challenges with production on wastelands, low use of inputs, unimproved planting materials and vulnerability to pests and diseases. These have negatively affected the performance of Jatropha causing the original claims made about this energy crop not materialised in the SSA.

  15. The Influence of Injection Timing on Performance Characteristics of Diesel Engine Using Jatropha Biodiesel with and without Partial Hydrogenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizqon Fajar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research has been conducted to investigate the effects of blend of hydrogenated and unhydrogenated Jatropha biodiesel with diesel fuel in volume ratio of 30:70 (B30 on combustion characteristics (BSFC, thermal efficiency and smoke emission of single cylinder diesel engine. In this experiment, engine speed was kept constant at 1,500, 2,500, and 3,500 rpm with maximum engine load at BMEP 5 bar and injection timings were varied. Experimental result showed that at engine speed 1,500 rpm, BSFC of B30 hydrogenated and unhydrogenated Jatropha biodiesel were higher than it of diesel fuel at all injection timings (10° to 18° BTDC. At the same condition, partial hydrogenated Jatropha biodiesel showed higher BSFC than unhydrogenated Jatropha biodiesel. However, the difference in BSFC became smaller for all fuels at engine speed 2,500 rpm and 3,500 rpm at all injection timing. Jatropha biodiesel with and without partial hydrogenation tend to have higher thermal efficiency compared with diesel fuel at all engine speed and injection timing. The best injection timings to operate B30 Jatropha biodiesel with and without hydrogenation were 14°, 18° and 24° BTDC at engine speed 1,500, 2,500, and 3,500 rpm respectively. This conclusion was deduced based on the minimum value of BSFC and the maximum value of thermal efficiency. Smoke emissions for all fuels were in the same level for all conditions.

  16. Amino Acid and Mineral Supplementation in Fermentation Process of Concentrate Protein of Jatropha Seed Cake (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titin Widiyastuti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to assess the optimization of fermentation process by adding a minerals and amino acids so that the potential of protein  of Concentrate Protein-Jatropha seed cake (CP-JSC can be optimally used as a substitute for soybean meal. The method used was completely randomized design. The treatment consisted of F1: Fermentation CP-BBJ + methionine-lysine (0.25%: 0.25%, F2: Fermentation CP-JSC + methionine-lysine (0.5%: 0.5%, F3: F1 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate, F4: F2 + 0.45% Dicalsium Phosphate. Each treatment was repeated four times, When treatment significantly continued by Least Significant Difference (LSD, variables observed are the levels of antinutrients (phorbolester, antitrypsin, the levels of nutrients (fat, protein, crude fiber, Ca, P and gross energy and amino acid. Results of analysis of variance showed that the addition of amino acids and minerals Ca, P in the fermentation process was highly significant effect on the levels of crude fiber and phosphorus (P 0.05. While the levels obtained phorbolester range of 0.055% - 0.08%. It was concluded that the optimization of fermentation can be done without adding the amino acid supplementation of minerals calcium and phosphorus. Supplementation significantly affect a significant increase or decrease in some nutrients (crude fiber, gross energy, phosphor and capable of suppressing a decrease in amino acids. Supplementation of amino acids Lysine and Methionin 0.05% is the best treatment.

  17. Genetic variability and divergence studies in seed traits and oil content of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) accessions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaushik, N.; Kumar, Krishan; Kumar, Sushil [CCS HAU, Regional Research Station, Bawal (Rewari) (India); Kaushik, Nutan; Roy, S. [The Energy Resource Institute, New Delhi (India)

    2007-07-15

    Variability in seed traits and oil content of 24 accessions of Jatropha curcas collected from different agroclimatic zones of Haryana state, India were assessed. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in seed size, 100-seed weight and oil content between accessions. Maximum seed weight was recorded in seeds collected from IC-520602 and the least weight was recorded in IC-520587. Oil variability ranged from 28.00% in IC-520589 to 38.80% in IC-520601. In general phenotypic coefficient of variation was higher than the genotypic coefficient of variation indicating the predominant role of environment. High heritability and genetic gain were recorded for oil content (99.00% and 18.90%) and seed weight (96.00% and 18.00%), respectively, indicating the additive gene action. Seed weight had positive correlation with seed length, breadth, thickness and oil content. On the basis of non-hierarchical Euclidian cluster analysis, six clusters were obtained with highest number of accession falling under cluster III. Maximum and minimum intra cluster distance was observed for cluster VI (2.499) and for cluster III (2.252), respectively. Whereas maximum inter-cluster distance was observed between cluster VI and IV (5.129) and minimum between cluster III and II (2.472). Among the six clusters formed cluster IV showed maximum cluster value for seed size whereas, cluster VI showed maximum value for oil content and seed weight. Thus on the basis of present finding it is suggested that the crossing between accessions of cluster IV and VI will result in wide spectrum of variability in subsequent generations. (author)

  18. Bush School Capstone course support : the regional impact of climate change on transportation infrastructure and decision making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The Master of Public Service and Administration program at Texas A&Ms Bush School of Government : and Public Service requires that all second year graduate students participate in a two semester Capstone : course. These courses represent the pract...

  19. Bush lubas al-Zarqawi järglase kinni püüda / Aadu Hiietamm

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hiietamm, Aadu, 1954-

    2006-01-01

    USA president George W. Bush teatas, et tapetud terrorivõrgustiku al Qaeda Iraagi haru liidri Abu Musab al-Zarqawi järglaseks nimetatud Abu Hamsa al-Muhajir on kuulutatud enim tagaotsitavaks terroristiks

  20. Some ecological side-effects of chemical and physical bush clearing in a southern African rangeland ecosystem

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haussmann, N. S.; Kalwij, Jesse; Bezuidenhout, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 102, JAN 2016 (2016), s. 234-239 ISSN 0254-6299 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : Acacia giraffae * bush encroachment * physical soil disturbance Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2016

  1. Potential treatments to reduce phorbol esters levels in jatropha seed cake for improving the value added product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadubthummarak, Umapron; Parkpian, Preeda; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Kongchum, Manoch; Delaune, R D

    2013-01-01

    Jatropha seed cake contains high amounts of protein and other nutrients, however it has a drawback due to toxic compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the methods applied to detoxify the main toxin, phorbol esters in jatropha seed cake, to a safe and acceptable level by maintaining the nutritional values. Phorbol esters are tetracyclic diterpenoids-polycyclic compounds that are known as tumor promoters and hence exhibited the toxicity within a broad range of species. Mismanagement of the jatropha waste from jatropha oil industries would lead to contamination of the environment, affecting living organisms and human health through the food chain, so several methods were tested for reducing the toxicity of the seed cake. The results from this investigation showed that heat treatments at either 120°C or 220°C for 1 hour and then mixing with adsorbing bentonite (10%), nanoparticles of zinc oxide (100 μg/g) plus NaHCO3 at 4%, followed by a 4-week incubation period yielded the best final product. The remaining phorbol esters concentration (0.05-0.04 mg/g) from this treatment was less than that reported for the nontoxic jatropha varieties (0.11-0.27 mg/g). Nutritional values of the seed cake after treatment remained at the same levels found in the control group and these values were crude protein (20.47-21.40 + 0.17-0.25%), crude lipid (14.27-14.68 + 0.13-0.14%) and crude fiber (27.33-29.67 + 0.58%). A cytotoxicity test conducted using L929 and normal human dermal fibroblast cell lines confirmed that most of the toxic compounds, especially phorbol esters, were shown as completely eliminated. The results suggested that the detoxification of phorbol esters residues in the jatropha seed cake was possible while it also retained nutritional values. Therefore, the methods to detoxify phorbol esters are necessary to minimize the toxicity of jatropha seed cake. Further, it is essential to reduce the possible environmental impacts that may be generated

  2. Optimization of Jatropha curcas pure vegetable oil production parameters for cooking energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Aboubakar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The extraction of vegetable oil from Jatropha from the Tanzanian variety with a fat content of 33.84 ± 2.58% and a moisture content of 5.4 ± 1.97%, was made using two methods: the traditional and the mechanical extraction method. The traditional consists in extracting the oil from the paste using boiling water as a solvent. While the mechanical consists of directly pressing the seeds of Jatropha using a ram press called Bielenberg press, to extract the oil contained in the seeds dried or heated before. The net yield of oil extraction by the traditional method was 22.02 ± 2.1%, with a oil cake percentage of 67.02 ± 3.3% and the ratio water/paste in mass adopted was 0.36. Mechanical extraction has an average raw yield of 26.15 ± 2.74%, with a recovery rate of 74.71%. After decanting for 10 days and filtration, the net yield was 15.39 ± 2.82% with a decantation and filtration rate of 58.67 ± 7.24%. The oil produced by traditional method has a water and volatile content of 1.01 ± 0.05% and a density of 0.884. The one produced by mechanical extraction has 0.19 ± 0.09% and a density of 0.891. The result of combustion test using two burners and one stove showed that the combustion rates were: 0.177 ± 0.034 g/min for the burner using one flame and 1.06 ± 0.04 g/min for the six flame burner and finally 3.07 ± 0, 4 g/min for the ten-flame stove. This ten-flame stove allowed 3 L of water to be boiled at 100 °C for 32 min, although during combustion it was observed a release of black fumes which indicates incomplete combustion with Jatropha in this Stove. The cost of the liter of Jatropha oil obtained is higher compared to fossil fuels such as petroleum (500 FCFA per liter and gas oil (624F CFA per liter. It would be possible to use vegetable oil from Jatropha as a cooking fuel. Keywords: Vegetable oil, Jatropha, Traditional extraction, Mechanical extraction, Bielenberg press

  3. Molecular cloning and expression of heteromeric ACCase subunit genes from Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Keyu; Chiam, Huihui; Tian, Dongsheng; Yin, Zhongchao

    2011-04-01

    Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase) catalyzes the biotin-dependent carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to produce malonyl-CoA, which is the essential first step in the biosynthesis of long-chain fatty acids. ACCase exists as a multi-subunit enzyme in most prokaryotes and the chloroplasts of most plants and algae, while it is present as a multi-domain enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum of most eukaryotes. The heteromeric ACCase of higher plants consists of four subunits: an α-subunit of carboxyltransferase (α-CT, encoded by accA gene), a biotin carboxyl carrier protein (BCCP, encoded by accB gene), a biotin carboxylase (BC, encoded by accC gene) and a β-subunit of carboxyltransferase (β-CT, encoded by accD gene). In this study, we cloned and characterized the genes accA, accB1, accC and accD that encode the subunits of heteromeric ACCase in Jatropha (Jatropha curcas), a potential biofuel plant. The full-length cDNAs of the four subunit genes were isolated from a Jatropha cDNA library and by using 5' RACE, whereas the genomic clones were obtained from a Jatropha BAC library. They encode a 771 amino acid (aa) α-CT, a 286-aa BCCP1, a 537-aa BC and a 494-aa β-CT, respectively. The single-copy accA, accB1 and accC genes are nuclear genes, while the accD gene is located in chloroplast genome. Jatropha α-CT, BCCP1, BC and β-CT show high identity to their homologues in other higher plants at amino acid level and contain all conserved domains for ACCase activity. The accA, accB1, accC and accD genes are temporally and spatially expressed in the leaves and endosperm of Jatropha plants, which are regulated by plant development and environmental factors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. In-vitro regeneration of castor bean (ricinus communis, L) and physic nut (jatropha curcas, L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afful, N. T.

    2008-06-01

    Investigations were conducted on in vitro regeneration of physic nut (Jatropha curcas, 1.) and castor bean (Ricinus communis, 1.) using zygotic embryo culture, shoot tip and meristem culture as well as somatic embryogenesis. Zygotic embryos from different stages of fruit maturity cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with benzylaminopurine (BAP), kinetin and 2-isopentyl (2iP) produced vigorous seedlings with roots. However the optimal concentration of cytokinin for seedling development depended on the type cytokinin as well as the maturity stage of the fruit. Embryos from yellow fruits of Jatropha had the highest germination (100%) on an MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L kinetin or 1 mg/L BAP while in Ricinus embryos from black fruits had the highest percentage germination (97%) on an MS medium modified with I mg/L 2iP or 0.5 or I mg/L BAP. Decrease in embryo viability especially in Jatropha as the seed matured may be due to high oil content in matured (black) fruit. Oil content in both Jatropha and Ricinus increased as the fruit matured from green to black and this may have effect on germination of zygotic embryos. In vitro culture response of shoot tip or meristem was significantly influenced by the concentration of growth regulators in the culture medium as well as the plant species. In both plant species, 2iP resulted in highest percentage shoot regeneration. The optimal concentration of 2iP was 0.5 mg/L for Ricinus shoot tip and 1.5 or 2.0 mg/L for Jatropha, indicating genotypic difference between the species. However excessive callus formation and browning in Ricinus led to the loss of all the regenerants. Shoot regeneration from meristem explants was also influenced by growth regulators with 2iP again being the best. Cultures of cotyledon and leaf lobe explants on MS medium supplemented with 2, 4-D and picloram resulted in callus induction with the exception of cotyledons obtained from black fruits. However transfer of calli onto fresh

  5. Persia lost : how the foreign policy hawks of the George W. Bush administration blocked rapprochement with Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Fagernes, Therese

    2011-01-01

    The presidency of George W. Bush was a period of controversy. The foreign policy that the administration implemented would be criticized both inside of the United States and across the world. The purpose of this thesis is to look at how the senior members of the Bush administration’s foreign policy team influenced the foreign policy process during President George Walker Bush’s first term. It will apply the interaction and bitter opposition between these individuals and the defining events th...

  6. Bush encroachment monitoring using multi-temporal Landsat data and random forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symeonakis, E.; Higginbottom, T.

    2014-11-01

    It is widely accepted that land degradation and desertification (LDD) are serious global threats to humans and the environment. Around a third of savannahs in Africa are affected by LDD processes that may lead to substantial declines in ecosystem functioning and services. Indirectly, LDD can be monitored using relevant indicators. The encroachment of woody plants into grasslands, and the subsequent conversion of savannahs and open woodlands into shrublands, has attracted a lot of attention over the last decades and has been identified as a potential indicator of LDD. Mapping bush encroachment over large areas can only effectively be done using Earth Observation (EO) data and techniques. However, the accurate assessment of large-scale savannah degradation through bush encroachment with satellite imagery remains a formidable task due to the fact that on the satellite data vegetation variability in response to highly variable rainfall patterns might obscure the underlying degradation processes. Here, we present a methodological framework for the monitoring of bush encroachment-related land degradation in a savannah environment in the Northwest Province of South Africa. We utilise multi-temporal Landsat TM and ETM+ (SLC-on) data from 1989 until 2009, mostly from the dry-season, and ancillary data in a GIS environment. We then use the machine learning classification approach of random forests to identify the extent of encroachment over the 20-year period. The results show that in the area of study, bush encroachment is as alarming as permanent vegetation loss. The classification of the year 2009 is validated yielding low commission and omission errors and high k-statistic values for the grasses and woody vegetation classes. Our approach is a step towards a rigorous and effective savannah degradation assessment.

  7. The Second Administration of George W. Bush and U.S.-Russia Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybalko Olga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to the analysis of changes in the U.S.-Russia relationships during the presidency of George W. Bush and to the detection of the origins of these changes. The attention is paid to conceptual foreign policy views of the most influential members of administration. The renewal of staff in U.S. administration was one of the important factors of toughening the Russian course of the American foreign policy. At the beginning of the second presidency of George Bush the ratio of forces in the American Congress changed. Opposition forces received the majority in the Congress. This circumstance became the other reason of change of the U.S.-Russia relationships. The bilateral relations during the specified period were complicated by aspiration of the USA to strengthen the influence on the territories of the Post-Soviet states. It caused discontent of Moscow. At the same time, some aspects of the Russian-Iranian nuclear cooperation caused criticism of Washington. The role of personal diplomacy is noted as a factor of forming bilateral relations. During the second term of the presidency of George W. Bush this factor didn't lose its value in comparison with the first term. The article gives the assessment of work of the Bush’s second administration at the Russian direction. The author notes the American focus on the strategy of “selective partnership” with Russia. The conclusion is drawn on George Bush's aspiration to preservation of balance in the U.S.-Russia relations under the conditions of increasing strains.

  8. New functionally dioecious bush tomato from northwestern Australia, Solanum ossicruentum , may utilize ?trample burr? dispersal

    OpenAIRE

    Martine, Christopher T.; Cantley, Jason T.; Frawley, Emma S.; Butler, Alice R.; Jordon-Thaden, Ingrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new Australian species of functionally dioecious bush tomato of Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum is described. Solanum ossicruentum Martine & J.Cantley, sp. nov., is thought to be allied with members of the problematic ?Dioicum Complex? lineage, but differs in its short silvery indumentum, long calyx lobes, larger stature, and an unusual fruit morphology that may represent ?trample burr? seed dispersal. The species occurs in a range extending from the eastern Kimberley in Western Aus...

  9. Active vibration reduction of rigid rotor by kinematic excitation of bushes of journal bearings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Ondrouch

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of active lateral vibration reduction of a symmetric, rigid rotor supported by journal bearings are given. They were obtained by computational modelling. Efficiency of the feedback P and PD controllers in the stable revolution interval was examined. The linearized rotor system model was used. The results of the theoretical analysis are assigned for a testing stand where the bearing bush motions are deactivated by piezoelectric actuators connected to the controllers.

  10. Bush püüdis leevendada tšehhide Vene-hirmu / Arko Olesk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Olesk, Arko, 1981-

    2007-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Postimees : na russkom jazõke, 6. juuni 2007, lk. 9. Prahat külastanud USA president George W. Bush kinnitas oma kõnes, et külm sõda on läbi ning Tšehhi ei pea valima USA ja Venemaa sõbraks olemise vahel, samas kritiseeris ta Venemaad demokraatia puudumise pärast. Vt. samas: Poola langetab raketikilbi otsuse pärast Bushi visiiti

  11. Characterization of Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wever, Diego-Armando Z.; Heeres, H.J.; Broekhuis, Antonius A.

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of Physic nut shells was done using the wet chemical analysis of wood components. The obtained fractions were analyzed using IR, NMR, GPC, ICP and MALDI-TOF mass spectroscopy. TGA was used to determine the fixed carbon (+ash) and water content of the shells. The results of wet chemical analysis of wood components offered a clear procedure to isolate the main components in Physic nut shells (a). The fractions obtained were: polar extract (b), non-polar extract (c), Acid Insoluble Lignin (d), Holocellulose (e), α-Cellulose (f). The total Lignin content present in the shells equaled 48.84%. IR and NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the non-polar extract is Lignin, which corresponds to the extractable Lignin (1.24%) in the Physic nut shells and the Acid Insoluble Lignin was 47.60%. Elemental analysis showed no Sulfur present in the investigated materials. Furthermore both 1 H and 13 C NMR of the non-polar extract showed the presence of aliphatic hydrocarbon chains. The α-Cellulose content (22.29%) and the Hemicelluloses content (23.84%) were in line with that of agricultural residues. The water content and the fixed carbon content (+ash [2.8%]) equal 5–6% and 35.6%, respectively. GPC showed that the polydispersity of the non-polar extract (3.6) lies between Alcell Lignin and Kraft Lignin. The polar extract contains a variety of metals, with especially a high amount of the alkali metals K and Na. The extraction with water is proposed to generate a fertilizer fraction and may be applied to reduce potential sintering issues during eventual combustion or gasification of the shells. -- Highlights: ► Physic nut shell is a potential source of value added chemicals due to its high lignin content (48.8 wt%). ► Lignin extracted from Jatropha curcas L. shells is rich in aliphatic linkages. ► Water extraction of the shells yields a potential fertilizer fraction rich in alkali metals and phosphorous. ► Pre-extraction is recommended to eliminate

  12. Toxicidade do pericarpo da Jatropha curcas em ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.R. Ferreira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas é uma planta cultivada para a produção de biocombustível. O pericarpo é um coproduto com potencial para alimentação animal, e a presença de componentes tóxicos, principalmente ésteres de forbol, pode limitar sua utilização. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar a toxicidade do pericarpo. Vinte ovinos foram distribuídos em quatro grupos - um grupo-controle, que não recebeu a planta, e três experimentais, que receberam o pericarpo nas concentrações de 15% (G15, 30% (G30 e 45% (G45, durante 23 dias. Após o 10º dia, a ingestão do pericarpo promoveu redução do consumo de alimento, diarreia, desidratação e caquexia. Todos os grupos tratados apresentaram redução na concentração de fosfatase alcalina. Animais do G30 apresentaram redução na concentração de ureia e proteínas totais e elevação de potássio e sódio. No G45, houve aumento de aspartato aminotransferase, albumina, creatinina bilirrubina indireta e total. A avaliação anatomo-histopatológica revelou ascite, hidropericárdio, congestão no trato gastrintestinal e nos pulmões, edema pulmonar, aderências à parede torácica, degeneração hepática centrolobular e das células tubulares renais, pneumonia linfo-histiocitica e enterite linfoplasmocitária e histiocítica. À análise fitoquímica, constatou-se 0,3845mg de ésteres de forbol/g de pericarpo. Conclui-se que o pericarpo de J. curcas é tóxico, não sendo recomendado para alimentação de ovinos.

  13. Creosote bush lignans for human disease treatment and prevention: Perspectives on combination therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Gnabre

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The medicinal properties of the most successful plant in the deserts of the western hemisphere, the creosote bush (Larrea tridentata, are evidenced by the long traditional usage of the plants by the Native Americans Indian tribes in Southwestern North America and the Amerindians from South America. The plant is rich in simple bisphenyl lignans and tricyclic lignans known as cyclolignans. These compounds are responsible for many of the pharmacological activities of extracts of the plants. Some of these activities, namely antiherpes, antioxidant, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory, were known a century ago. Only recently have further studies revealed other crucial activities of the same plant molecules as powerful agents against human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and symptoms of aging. Molecular mechanisms underlying the antiviral and anticancer activities have been elucidated and involve the inhibition of SP1 dependent gene transcription. This review summarizes the recent findings on creosote bush lignans. We introduce the concept of a cocktail of safe well-characterized natural products from the creosote bush that would represent a bridge between oriental herbal medicines and Western drug-based therapies.

  14. THE INFLUENCE OF BUSH FORMATION IN RED BEET ON SEED PRODUCTIVITY AND SOWING QUALITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Yusupova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available It is necessary not only to possess the technology to grow seeds but also to have knowledge of plant biology in particular crop, and sowing qualities of its seeds. The particular place where seeds are forming on the mother plant has much influence on qualities of sowing seed material. The influence of the development of red beet plant bush on seed productivity, monogermity and sowing qualities of seeds was estimated in Rostov oblast. The main stalk pruning and application of plant growth retardants had an effect on the structure of red beet bush. In variants given in seed plants, the third type of branching prevailed due to lack or oppression of main stalk. Consequently, the seed yield and proportion of single fruit formation rose. It was also shown that due to treatment of plants with growth retardant ‘Floron’ at the stage of waxen maturity significantly improved the seed germination as compared with control variant. As a result of the study it was shown that the mechanical pruning of main stalk and application of growth retardants had affected on the structure of seed red beet bush increasing the yield mono-seed compounds as well as had improved the yield and seed quality of monogerm red beet. 

  15. Green manure affects cut flower yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ rose bushes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elka Fabiana Aparecida Almeida

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Rose cultivation requires many inputs for satisfactory production, making the process expensive. Nowadays, alternative practices have been used for sustainable crop production. Green manure is an agricultural practice that aims to maintain or improve soil fertility, increasing its yielding capacity. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of green manure with legumes on the yield and quality of ‘Vegas’ roses. Grafted rose seedlings were cultivated in open field for 30 months. Legumes used as green manure and planted intercropped with rose bushes were forage peanut (Arachis pintoi and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis. Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan was grown in a separate area, cut, macerated, and applied in the rows between rose bushes every 3 months. Plants of control group received no green manure, only mineral fertilizer and cattle manure, as in all other treatments. The experimental design was randomized block with four treatments (three green manure species plus the control and seven replications. The highest yield and quality of flower stems in ‘Vegas’ occurred with addition of pigeon pea on the soil surface or chemically treated (control. Forage peanut and jack bean are not suitable for intercropping with ‘Vegas’ rose bushes due to possible nutrient and water competition.

  16. Construction of an ultrahigh-density genetic linkage map for Jatropha curcas L. and identification of QTL for fruit yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Shengkui; Wen, Mingfu; Lu, Cheng; Sun, Yufang; Zou, Meiling; Wang, Wenquan

    2018-01-01

    As an important biofuel plant, the demand for higher yield Jatropha curcas L. is rapidly increasing. However, genetic analysis of Jatropha and molecular breeding for higher yield have been hampered by the limited number of molecular markers available. An ultrahigh-density linkage map for a Jatropha mapping population of 153 individuals was constructed and covered 1380.58 cM of the Jatropha genome, with average marker density of 0.403 cM. The genetic linkage map consisted of 3422 SNP and indel markers, which clustered into 11 linkage groups. With this map, 13 repeatable QTLs (reQTLs) for fruit yield traits were identified. Ten reQTLs, qNF - 1 , qNF - 2a , qNF - 2b , qNF - 2c , qNF - 3 , qNF - 4 , qNF - 6 , qNF - 7a , qNF - 7b and qNF - 8, that control the number of fruits (NF) mapped to LGs 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8, whereas three reQTLs, qTWF - 1 , qTWF - 2 and qTWF - 3, that control the total weight of fruits (TWF) mapped to LGs 1, 2 and 3, respectively. It is interesting that there are two candidate critical genes, which may regulate Jatropha fruit yield. We also identified three pleiotropic reQTL pairs associated with both the NF and TWF traits. This study is the first to report an ultrahigh-density Jatropha genetic linkage map construction, and the markers used in this study showed great potential for QTL mapping. Thirteen fruit-yield reQTLs and two important candidate genes were identified based on this linkage map. This genetic linkage map will be a useful tool for the localization of other economically important QTLs and candidate genes for Jatropha .

  17. Emission characteristics of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds and fish wastes in a diesel engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhaskar Kathirvelu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The concept of waste recycling and energy recovery plays a vital role for the development of any economy. The reuse of fish waste and use of wasteland for cultivation of jatropha seeds have led to resource conservation and their use as blend with diesel as an alternative fuel to diesel engines has contributed to pollution reduction. In this work, the results of using blends of biodiesel obtained from jatropha seeds, fish wastes and diesel in constant speed diesel engines are presented. The experimental results show that both the blends can be used as fuels for diesel engine without any major modification in the engines. It is also seen that the carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions are reduced at all loads for both the blends compared to diesel fuel while NOx emissions are observed to be slightly higher.

  18. Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplets using rhodium liquid as a homogeneous combustion catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanlohy, Hendry Y.; Wardana, I. N. G.; Hamidi, N.; Yuliati, L.

    2018-01-01

    Combustion characteristics of crude jatropha oil droplet at room temperature with and without catalyst have been studied experimentally. Its combustion characteristics have been observed by igniting the oil droplet on a junction of a thermocouple, and the combustion characteristics of oil droplets are observed using a high-speed camera. The results show that the uniqueness of crude jatropha oil as alternative fuel is evidenced by the different stages of combustion caused by thermal cracking in burning droplets. The results also show that the role of the catalyst is not only an accelerator agent, but there are other unique functions and roles as a stabilizer. Moreover, the results also found that the catalyst was able to shorten the ignition timing and burnout time. This phenomenon proves that the presence of catalysts alters and weakens the structure of the triglyceride geometry so that the viscosity and flash point is reduced, the fuel absorbs heat well and flammable.

  19. Thermophysical properties of biodiesel and related systems: (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for Jatropha curcas biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Juliana R.F.; Mazutti, Marcio A.; Voll, Fernando A.P.; Cardozo-Filho, Lúcio; Corazza, Marcos L.; Lanza, Marcelo; Priamo, Wagner L.; Vladimir Oliveira, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► (Liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for multicomponent Jatropha curcas FAME and FAEE. ► Tie-lines, solubility curves (binodal curves) with low deviations from mass balance. ► Experimental data correlated with the UNIQUAC model. -- Abstract: Reported in this study are (liquid + liquid) equilibrium data for binary, ternary, and quaternary systems formed by fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEE) of Jatropha curcas oil, water, glycerol, methanol, and ethanol at temperatures of (303.15, 318.15, and 333.15) K. In general, all the systems investigated resulted in good agreement between phase compositions of crunodes of tie-lines, solubility curves (binodal curves) and overall compositions, hence indicating low deviations from mass balance. Experimental results were correlated with the UNIQUAC model, showing low deviations among experimental and calculated values

  20. Assessing Jatropha Crop Production Alternatives in Abandoned Agricultural Arid Soils Using MCA and GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serafin Corral

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the assessment of various biofuel crop production alternatives on the island of Fuerteventura using Jatropha crops. It adopts an integrated approach by carrying out a multi-criteria assessment with the support of participatory techniques and geographical information systems. Sixteen production alternatives were analyzed for growing Jatropha, and the results suggest that the best alternative involves using typical torrifluvent soils irrigated with recycled urban wastewater using surface drip irrigation covering 100% evapotranspiration. It was also determined that a potential area of 2546 ha could be used for cultivation within a radius of 10 km from a wastewater treatment plant. This level of production would supply 27.56% of the biofuel needs of Fuerteventura, thereby contributing to the 2020 target of the European Commission regarding biofuels for land transport.

  1. Catalytic Activity of a Bifunctional Catalyst for Hydrotreatment of Jatropha curcas L. Seed Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. García-Dávila

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The hydrotreating process of vegetable oils (HPVO involves the transformation of vegetable oil triglycerides into straight chain alkanes, which are carried out by deoxygenation reactions, generating multiple hydrocarbon compounds, cuts similar to heavy vacuum oil. The HPVO is applied to Jatropha curcas oil on USY zeolite supported with gamma alumina and platinum deposition on the catalytic as hydrogenation component. The acid of additional activity of the supports allows the development of catalytic routes that the intervention of catalytic centers of different nature reaches the desired product. The products of the hydrotreating reaction with Jatropha curcas seed oil triglycerides were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and by mass spectroscopy to identify and analyze the generated intermediate and final hydrocarbon compounds.

  2. Bush animal attacks: management of complex injuries in a resource-limited setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Katrina B

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Though animal-related injuries and fatalities have been documented throughout the world, the variety of attacks by wild animals native to rural East Africa are less commonly described. Given the proximity of our northwestern Tanzania hospital to Lake Victoria, Lake Tanganyika, and the Serengeti National Park, and presentation of several patients attacked by bush animals and suffering a variety of complex injuries, we sought to report the pattern of attacks and surgical management in a resource-limited setting. Materials and methods Four patients who were admitted to the northwestern Tanzania tertiary referral hospital, Bugando Medical Centre (BMC, in 2010-2011 suffered attacks by different bush animals: hyena, elephant, crocodile, and vervet monkey. These patients were triaged as trauma patients in the Casualty Ward, then admitted for inpatient monitoring and treatment. Their outcomes were followed to discharge. Results The age and gender of the patients attacked was variable, though all but the pediatric patient were participating in food gathering or guarding activities in rural locations at the time of the attacks. All patients required surgical management of their injuries, which included debridement and closure of wounds, chest tube insertion, amputation, and external fixation of an extremity fracture. All patients survived and were discharged home. Discussion Though human injuries secondary to encounters with undomesticated animals such as cows, moose, and camel are reported, they often are indirect traumas resulting from road traffic collisions. Snake attacks are well documented and common. However, this series of unique bush animal attacks describes the initial and surgical management of human injuries in the resource-limited setting of the developing world. Conclusion Animal attacks are common throughout the world, but their pattern may vary in Africa throughout jungle and bush environmental settings. It is

  3. Isolation and functional characterization of JcFT, a FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) homologous gene from the biofuel plant Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoqiong; Luo, Li; Fu, Qiantang; Niu, Longjian; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2014-05-08

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.) is a potential feedstock for biofuel production because Jatropha oil is highly suitable for the production of the biodiesel and bio-jet fuels. However, Jatropha exhibits low seed yield as a result of unreliable and poor flowering. FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) -like genes are important flowering regulators in higher plants. To date, the flowering genes in Jatropha have not yet been identified or characterized. To better understand the genetic control of flowering in Jatropha, an FT homolog was isolated from Jatropha and designated as JcFT. Sequence analysis and phylogenetic relationship of JcFT revealed a high sequence similarity with the FT genes of Litchi chinensis, Populus nigra and other perennial plants. JcFT was expressed in all tissues of adult plants except young leaves, with the highest expression level in female flowers. Overexpression of JcFT in Arabidopsis and Jatropha using the constitutive promoter cauliflower mosaic virus 35S or the phloem-specific promoter Arabidopsis SUCROSE TRANSPORTER 2 promoter resulted in an extremely early flowering phenotype. Furthermore, several flowering genes downstream of JcFT were up-regulated in the JcFT-overexpression transgenic plant lines. JcFT may encode a florigen that acts as a key regulator in flowering pathway. This study is the first to functionally characterize a flowering gene, namely, JcFT, in the biofuel plant Jatropha.

  4. Method of phorbol ester degradation in Jatropha curcas L. seed cake using rice bran lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji; Wardhani, Avita Kusuma; Nadia, Lana Santika

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzymatic degradation of phorbol esters (PE) in the jatropha seed cake was developed using lipase. Cihera rice bran lipase had the highest ability to hydrolyze PE, and reduced PE to a safe level after 8 h of incubation. Enzymatic degradation may be a promising method for PE degradation. Copyright © 2013 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A new asymmetric diamide from the seed cake of Jatropha curcas L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Licheng; Han, Changri; Chen, Guangying; Song, Xiaoping; Chang, Yonghui; Zang, Wenxia

    2012-12-01

    A new asymmetric diamide (E)-N-(3-acetamidopropyl)-cinnamamide named curcamide (1) has been isolated from the ethanol extract of the seed cake of Jatropha curcas L. along with 7 known compounds identified as isoamericanin (2), isoprincepin (3), caffeoylaldehyde (4), isoferulaldehyde (5), glycerol monooleate (6), syringaldehyde (7), and β-ethyl-d-glucopyranoside (8). The synthesis and antibacterial activity of the new compound have been also studied. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Performance of mutagen treated Jatropha curcas (Petro-crop) on alkali soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, R.K.; Datta, S.K.; Mishra, P.N.

    1998-01-01

    Under the user land development programme, seeds of Jatropha curcas (Euphorbiaces) were treated with 6, 12, 18 and 24 krad of gamma rays and sown in randomised block design on different grades of alkali soils. Wide range of variability could be detected in mutagen treated population. Results indicate that suitable strains of J. curcas can be isolated through mutation breeding programme for utilisation of user land. (author)

  7. Conversion of Jatropha curcas oil into biodiesel using re-crystallized hydrotalcite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helwani, Z.; Aziz, N.; Bakar, M.Z.A.; Mukhtar, H.; Kim, J.; Othman, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: XRD pattern of a mixed oxide and re-crystallized hydrotalcite after contacting with carbonate solution. The sample re-crystallized despite being exposed to high temperature. The increased crystallinity at higher calcination temperature was due to aluminum progressively incorporated into the MgO network. At low temperature, aluminum diffused slowly and did not reach the crystallite core. XRD pattern of (a) mixed oxide at 450 °C, (b) hydrotalcite at 450 °C (c) hydrotalcite at 650 °C and (d) hydrotalcite at 850 °C. - Highlights: • Synthetic hydrotalcite (HT) was prepared from combustion method. • The sample was able to re-crystallize despite being exposed to high temperature. • HT catalyst promoted conversion of Jatropha curcas oil into biodiesel. • Conversion of 75.2% was achieved with promising conditions. - Abstract: Biodiesel production from biomass is considered renewable and the use of biomass offers huge opportunity in bio-based economy market. In this work, biodiesel was produced from Jatropha curcas oil using synthetic hydrotalcite (HT) catalyst. The catalyst was obtained through combustion, in which, saccharose was used as fuel. The highest conversion of jatropha oil to biodiesel at 75.2% was achieved using re-crystallized HT from its mixed oxides when reaction was carried out at 65 °C with a methanol:jatropha oil molar ratio of 12:1, a reaction time of 6 h and a catalyst loading of 4 wt.%. The HT calcined at 850 °C contained medium basic strength sites and suitable pore medium that favored the chemical reaction

  8. A Three-Dimensional Sustainability Evaluation of Jatropha Plantations in Yucatan, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio C. Sacramento Rivero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a unique sustainability analysis of one of the first attempts to establish a biodiesel industry in Mexico. From 2008, several companies established medium to large-sized Jatropha curcas plantations in Yucatan, hiring local peasants to carry out the agricultural work. After five years, the plantations were abandoned due to poor seed yields and a lack of key knowledge for large-scale cultivation. Based on a multidisciplinary approach, we performed a three-dimensional sustainability evaluation of the potential biodiesel production chain, which included household interviews, a socioeconomic survey, and a life-cycle assessment (LCA. We identified both negative and positive effects in the three dimensions analyzed. Socially and culturally, the local peasant families understood sustainability as their ability to preserve their traditional lifestyle, and associated environmental services with their sense of identity. They therefore considered the jatropha plantations to be positive for sustainability, since they brought income, even though some perceived damage to the natural resources of the surrounding areas. Economically, peasants’ annual household income increased by approximately $1080 USD due to the increased salaries paid by the jatropha companies. The LCA predicted large savings of greenhouse gas emissions (>50% compared to fossil diesel, but also potential negative impacts in some categories (human/ecological toxicity and eutrophication potentials associated with the use of mineral fertilizers, insecticides, and pesticides applied during the cultivation stage. Biodiesel production would be potentially energetically self-sufficient, in addition to producing a 40% energy surplus. Finally, even though the sustainability indicators suggested a positive overall assessment, the reality was that the jatropha projects failed because they were predicated on unrealistically optimistic projections and poor agronomic knowledge of the

  9. Esterification of jatropha oil via ultrasonic irradiation with auto-induced temperature-rise effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade-Tacca, Cesar Augusto; Chang, Chia-Chi; Chen, Yi-Hung; Manh, Do-Van; Chang, Ching-Yuan; Ji, Dar-Ren; Tseng, Jyi-Yeong; Shie, Je-Lueng

    2014-01-01

    Auto-induced temperature-rise effects of ultrasonic irradiation (UI) on the esterification performance of jatropha oil (JO) were studied. Comparisons with other methods of mechanical mixing (MM) and hand shaking mixing were made. Major system parameters examined include: esterification time (t E ), settling time (t S ) after esterification and temperature. Properties of acid value (AV), iodine value (IV), kinematic viscosity (KV) and density of JO and ester product were measured. The esterification conversion efficiencies (η) were determined and assessed. Sulfuric acid was used to catalyze the esterification using methyl alcohol. For esterification without temperature control, η at t E  = 10 and 30 min for UI of 56.73 and 83.23% are much higher than those for MM of 36.76 and 42.48%, respectively. At t E  = 10 min, the jatropha oil esters produced via UI and MM respectively possess AV of 15.82 and 23.12 mg KOH/g, IV of 111.49 and 113.22 g I 2 /100 g, KV of 22.41 and 22.51 mm 2 /s and density of 913.8 and 913.58 kg/m 3 , showing that UI is much better than MM in enhancing the reduction of AV. The t E exhibits more vigorous effect on AV for UI than MM. The UI offers auto-induced temperature-rise, improving the mixing and esterification extents. - Highlights: • Esterification of jatropha oil is pronounced under ultrasonic irradiation (UI). • UI can auto-induce temperature rise. • The induced temperature rise assists the mixing of UI in enhancing esterification. • UI offers better esterification than mechanical mixing with external heating. • An 83.23% reduction of FFA in jatropha-ester is achievable via UI in 30 min

  10. COMBUSTION CHARACTERISTICS OF DIESEL ENGINE OPERATING ON JATROPHA OIL METHYL ESTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doddayaraganalu Amasegoda Dhananjaya

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fuel crisis because of dramatic increase in vehicular population and environmental concerns have renewed interest of scientific community to look for alternative fuels of bio-origin such as vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be produced from forests, vegetable oil crops, and oil bearing biomass materials. Non-edible vegetable oils such as jatropha oil, linseed oil, mahua oil, rice bran oil, karanji oil, etc., are potentially effective diesel substitute. Vegetable oils have reasonable energy content. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or can be blended with diesel to form different blends. It can be used in diesel engines with very little or no engine modifications. This is because it has combustion characteristics similar to petroleum diesel. The current paper reports a study carried out to investigate the combustion, performance and emission characteristics of jatropha oil methyl ester and its blend B20 (80% petroleum diesel and 20% jatropha oil methyl ester and diesel fuel on a single-cylinder, four-stroke, direct injections, water cooled diesel engine. This study gives the comparative measures of brake thermal efficiency, brake specific energy consumption, smoke opacity, HC, NOx, ignition delay, cylinder peak pressure, and peak heat release rates. The engine performance in terms of higher thermal efficiency and lower emissions of blend B20 fuel operation was observed and compared with jatropha oil methyl ester and petroleum diesel fuel for injection timing of 20° bTDC, 23° bTDC and 26° bTDC at injection opening pressure of 220 bar.

  11. GC-MS analysis of hexane extract of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil

    OpenAIRE

    Warra, Aliyu A.; Abubakar, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    The spectral interpretation here was based on compounds identification. The following fatty acids were identified considering the peaks and library fragments; Oleic acid, Stearic acid, Palmitic acid Margaric acid, 6-Octadecenoic acid, Elaidic acid Erucic acid, Methyl ricinoleate, 11-octadecenoic acid,10-undecenoic acid. The results indicated that the Jatropha curcas L seed oil has potential in the production of cosmetics, perfumery and pharmaceuticals.The spectral interpretation here was ba...

  12. Chemical profiling of Jatropha tissues under different torrefaction conditions: application to biomass waste recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiji Watanabe

    Full Text Available Gradual depletion of the world petroleum reserves and the impact of environmental pollution highlight the importance of developing alternative energy resources such as plant biomass. To address these issues, intensive research has focused on the plant Jatropha curcas, which serves as a rich source of biodiesel because of its high seed oil content. However, producing biodiesel from Jatropha generates large amounts of biomass waste that are difficult to use. Therefore, the objective of our research was to analyze the effects of different conditions of torrefaction on Jatropha biomass. Six different types of Jatropha tissues (seed coat, kernel, stem, xylem, bark, and leaf were torrefied at four different temperature conditions (200°C, 250°C, 300°C, and 350°C, and changes in the metabolite composition of the torrefied products were determined by Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. Cellulose was gradually converted to oligosaccharides in the temperature range of 200°C-300°C and completely degraded at 350°C. Hemicellulose residues showed different degradation patterns depending on the tissue, whereas glucuronoxylan efficiently decomposed between 300°C and 350°C. Heat-induced depolymerization of starch to maltodextrin started between 200°C and 250°C, and oligomer sugar structure degradation occurred at higher temperatures. Lignin degraded at each temperature, e.g., syringyl (S degraded at lower temperatures than guaiacyl (G. Finally, the toxic compound phorbol ester degraded gradually starting at 235°C and efficiently just below 300°C. These results suggest that torrefaction is a feasible treatment for further processing of residual biomass to biorefinery stock or fertilizer.

  13. Techno-economics Analysis of Biodiesel Production From Palm, Jatropha Curcas and Calophyllum Inophyllum as Biofuel

    OpenAIRE

    Mahlia, T.M.I; Ong, H.C; Masjuki, H.H

    2012-01-01

    Transportation sector has a dominant role in global fuel consumption andgreenhouse gas emissions consequently. Biodiesel is a renewable energy that has great potential to serve as an alternative fuel to fossil diesel in diesel engine. Besides the technical barriers, there are several nontechnical limiting factors, which impede the development of biodiesel. Therefore, this study is focused on biodiesel production and techno-economic comparison among palm, jatropha curcas and calophyllum inophy...

  14. Total flavonoid content and formulation antioxidant cream stem of jatropha multifida l.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwi Franyoto, Yuvianti; Kusmita, Lia; Mutmainah; Demma Angrena, Riega

    2018-05-01

    Free radical induced oxidative stress that influences the occurrence of various degenerative diseases such as cancer, coronary heart disease and premature aging. Stems of Jatropha multifida L are known to contain flavanoid compounds have antioxidant activity. A study has been carried out to determine antioxidant potential of stems of Jatropha multifida L. Initially, material was macerated gradually with ethanol. The extract obtained was filtered and evaporated. Determination of total flavanoid contents (TFC) using spectrophotometric methods. The antioxidant potential of this extract was evaluated by 2, 2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. In the DPPH radical-scavenging activities, the extract had the antioxidant activity (IC50 = 72 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The results showed the extracts of Jatropha multifida L. could be considered as natural antioxidants and may be useful for curing diseases arising from oxidative deterioration. The formulation comprises with 5% of extract and was formulated using fusion method. The evaluation of the formulated cream showed good results and can be good potential for cosmetic product development.

  15. Evaluations of the nutritional value of Jatropha curcas protein isolate in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V; Makkar, H P S; Becker, K

    2012-12-01

    Jatropha curcas seeds are rich in oil and protein. The oil is used for biodiesel production. Jatropha seed cake (JSC) obtained after oil extraction is rich in protein; however, it is toxic (phorbol esters content 1.3 mg/g) and consists of 50-60% shells, which are indigestible. The principle of isoelectric precipitation was used to obtain Jatropha protein isolate (JPI) from JSC and it was detoxified (DJPI). Carp (n = 45, 20.3 ± 0.13 g) were randomly distributed into five groups with three replicates and for 12-week fed iso-nitrogenous diets (crude protein 38%): Control [fishmeal (FM)-based protein]; J(50) and J(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by DJPI); S(50) and S(75) (50% and 75% of FM protein replaced by soy protein isolate). Growth performance and nutrient utilisation parameters were highest in S(75) group and not significantly different to those in J(50) and S(50) groups but were significantly higher than those for all other groups. Similar trend was observed for protein and energy digestibilities of experimental diets, whereas opposite trend was observed for the feed to gain ratio. Activities of intestinal digestive enzymes did not different significantly between the five groups. In conclusion, DJPI is a good quality protein source for carp. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Trading in Discursive Commodities: Biofuel Brokers’ Roles in Perpetuating the Jatropha Hype in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline Vel

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Hypes about wonder crops raise critical questions about the actors and mechanisms that link optimistic narratives about the crops’ potentials to actual production in the field. Jatropha curcas has been such a wonder crop, with a wide discrepancy between plans and reality. While many studies focus on agronomic or technological explanations of discrepancy and how to decrease it, much less is known about the influence of specific actors on creating a gap between high expectations and actual production in the field. This paper highlights the role of commercial brokers, who link potential investors and their capital to land and labor in the production areas. How have such commercial brokers contributed to perpetuating the optimism regarding the potentials of Jatropha plantations? The article presents the results of ethnographic research in a case study of commercial biofuel brokers at work in Sumba, one of the marginal areas in Indonesia targeted by policy makers for Jatropha cultivation. The study indicates that these actors have assembled their own short-term projects, translated narratives about future potential activities into the objects of trade in the present and produced optimistic figures about their projects to attract investors. In the conclusion, the paper warns against the unintended effects of green biofuel policies and discourses, when the latter get translated into a business opportunity for short-term private benefits instead of for the social and environmental goals for which the policies were originally intended.

  17. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Soares de Oliveira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5 ufc Lactobacillus plantarum + 3.33 × 10(5 ufc Propionibacterium per g as fed. Twenty-four mini-silos (982 cm³ of polyvinyl chloride were created and opened after 60 days of fermentation at room temperature. The pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake (282 g of water/kg contained 0.424 mg of phorbol esters/g of dry matter. Ensiling reduced the phorbol esters in 47.4%, on average, regardless of the SC or MI. There was no interaction effect between SC and MI on effluent, gases or total dry matter losses. However, both losses were increased when SC were added, and it was higher with glycerin that than sucrose. The addition of MI reduced all fermentation losses. The process of ensiling, although partially to reduce the phorbol esters of pre-hydrated Jatropha curcas L. cake, is not indicated as a biodestoxification procedure.

  18. Breeding Jatropha curcas by genomic selection: A pilot assessment of the accuracy of predictive models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo Peixoto, Leonardo de; Laviola, Bruno Galvêas; Alves, Alexandre Alonso; Rosado, Tatiana Barbosa; Bhering, Leonardo Lopes

    2017-01-01

    Genomic wide selection is a promising approach for improving the selection accuracy in plant breeding, particularly in species with long life cycles, such as Jatropha. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for grain yield (GY) and the weight of 100 seeds (W100S) using restricted maximum likelihood (REML); to compare the performance of GWS methods to predict GY and W100S; and to estimate how many markers are needed to train the GWS model to obtain the maximum accuracy. Eight GWS models were compared in terms of predictive ability. The impact that the marker density had on the predictive ability was investigated using a varying number of markers, from 2 to 1,248. Because the genetic variance between evaluated genotypes was significant, it was possible to obtain selection gain. All of the GWS methods tested in this study can be used to predict GY and W100S in Jatropha. A training model fitted using 1,000 and 800 markers is sufficient to capture the maximum genetic variance and, consequently, maximum prediction ability of GY and W100S, respectively. This study demonstrated the applicability of genome-wide prediction to identify useful genetic sources of GY and W100S for Jatropha breeding. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the proposed approach to other complex traits.

  19. First report of a complete genome sequence for a begomovirus infecting Jatropha gossypifolia in the Americas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmonds-Gordon, R N; Collins-Fairclough, A M; Stewart, C S; Roye, M E

    2014-10-01

    Jatropha gossypifolia is a weed that is commonly found with yellow mosaic symptoms growing along the roadside and in close proximity to cultivated crops in many farming communities in Jamaica. For the first time, the complete genome sequence of a new begomovirus, designated jatropha mosaic virus-[Jamaica:Spanish Town:2004] (JMV-[JM:ST:04]), was determined from field-infected J. gossypifolia in the western hemisphere. DNA-A nucleotide sequence comparisons showed closest identity (84 %) to two tobacco-infecting viruses from Cuba, tobacco mottle leaf curl virus-[Cuba:Sancti Spiritus:03] (TbMoLCV-[CU:SS:03]) and tobacco leaf curl Cuba virus-[Cuba:Taguasco:2005] (TbLCuCUV-[CU:Tag:05]), and two weed-infecting viruses from Cuba and Jamaica, Rhynchosia rugose golden mosaic virus-[Cuba:Camaguey:171:2009] (RhRGMV- [CU:Cam:171:09]) and Wissadula golden mosaic St. Thomas virus-[Jamaica:Albion:2005] (WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05]). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that JMV-[JM:ST:04] is most closely related to tobacco and tomato viruses from Cuba and WGMSTV-[JM:Alb:05], a common malvaceous-weed-infecting virus from eastern Jamaica, and that it is distinct from begomoviruses infecting Jatropha species in India and Nigeria.

  20. An overview of palm, jatropha and algae as a potential biodiesel feedstock in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunus, S; Abdullah, N R; Rashid, A A; Mamat, R

    2013-01-01

    The high demand to replace petroleum fuel makes renewable and sustainable sources such as Palm oil, Jatropha oil and Algae a main focus feedstock for biodiesel production in Malaysia. There are many studies conducted on Palm oil and Jatropha oil, however, the use of Algae as an alternative fuel is still in its infancy. Malaysia already implemented B5 based Palm oil as a feedstock and this biodiesel has been proven safe and can be used without any engine modification. The use of biodiesel produced from these feedstock will also developed domestic economic and provide job opportunities especially in the rural area. In addition, biodiesel has many advantages especially when dealing with the emissions produce as compared to petroleum fuel such as; it can reduce unwanted gases and particulate matter harmful to the atmosphere and mankind. Thus, this paper gathered and examines the most prominent engine emission produced from Palm oil and Jatropha feedstock and also to observe the potential of Algae to be one of the sources of alternative fuel in Malaysia

  1. Transformation of Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA Gene into Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asri Pirade Paserang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Jatropha is one of the many biodiesel plants developed in tropical countries. Efforts to increase its productivity can be done using various methods of breeding. One of the breeding methods is the introduction of genes into the Jatropha plant. The aim of this study is to assess the success of genetic transformation using the Inhibitor of Meristem Activity (IMA gene in Jatropha curcas. The research procedures included inoculation of explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens, callus induction, screening test of selection media, regeneration, and gene expression analysis using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR. IMA is one of the genes that controls flowering genes and ovule development. It was first isolated from tomato plants and has been successfully overexpressed in these plants using the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV 35S promoter. In this experiment, plant transformation was performed on J. curcas as the target. Explant callus formation in both the control and treated samples was good, but shoot formation decreased dramatically in the treated explants. PCR analysis indicated that IMA genes can be inserted into J. curcas with the size of the IMA gene is 500 bp.

  2. In-nozzle flow and spray characteristics for mineral diesel, Karanja, and Jatropha biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, Avinash Kumar; Som, Sibendu; Shukla, Pravesh Chandra; Goyal, Harsh; Longman, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • In-nozzle flow characterization for biodiesel sprays. • Comparison of experimental spray parameters and nozzle hole simulations. • Effect of Karanja and Jatropha biodiesel on in-nozzle cavitation. • Cavitation formation investigation with diesel and biodiesels. • Nozzle hole outlet fuel velocity profile determination for test fuels. - Abstract: Superior spray behavior of fuels in internal combustion engines lead to improved combustion and emission characteristics therefore it is necessary to investigate fuel spray behavior of new alternative fuels. This study discusses the evolution of the in-nozzle orifice parameters of a numerical simulation and the evolution of spray parameters of fuel spray in a constant-volume spray chamber during an experiment. This study compares mineral diesel, biodiesels (Karanja-and Jatropha-based), and their blends with mineral diesel. The results show that mineral diesel provides superior atomization and evaporation behavior compared to the biodiesel test fuels. Karanja biodiesel provides superior atomization and evaporation characteristics compared to Jatropha biodiesel. The qualitative comparison of simulation and experimental results in tandem shows that nozzle-hole design is a critical parameter for obtaining optimum spray behavior in the engine combustion chamber

  3. Potential of Waste Water Use for Jatropha Cultivation in Arid Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folkard Asch

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water is crucial for socio-economic development and healthy ecosystems. With the actual population growth and in view of future water scarcity, development calls for improved sectorial allocation of groundwater and surface water for domestic, agricultural and industrial use. Instead of intensifying the pressure on water resources, leading to conflicts among users and excessive pressure on the environment, sewage effluents, after pre-treatment, provide an alternative nutrient-rich water source for agriculture in the vicinity of cities. Water scarcity often occurs in arid and semiarid regions affected by droughts and large climate variability and where the choice of crop to be grown is limited by the environmental factors. Jatropha has been introduced as a potential renewable energy resource since it is claimed to be drought resistant and can be grown on marginal sites. Sewage effluents provide a source for water and nutrients for cultivating jatropha, a combined plant production/effluent treatment system. Nevertheless, use of sewage effluents for irrigation in arid climates carries the risk of salinization. Thus, potential irrigation with sewage effluents needs to consider both the water requirement of the crop and those needed for controlling salinity build-up in the top soil. Using data from a case study in Southern Morocco, irrigation requirements were calculated using CROPWAT 8.0. We present here crop evapotranspiration during the growing period, required irrigation, the resulting nutrient input and the related risk of salinization from the irrigation of jatropha with sewage effluent.

  4. Leaf Protein Electrophoresis and Taxonomy of Species of Jatropha L. (Euphorbiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaniran Temitope OLADIPO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The systematic relationship existing among members of the all important genus Jatropha was studied using leaf protein electrophoresis. The aim was to identify possible taxonomic importance of the protein profile in the estimation and elucidation of the taxonomic affinity of the six species of Jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linn., J. podagrica Hook., J. gossypifolia Linn., J. mutifida Linn., J. tanjorensis Ellis & Saroja and J. integerrima Linn. found in Nigeria. The species were screened for total protein banding patterns using gel electrophoresis. Young leaves (0.8 g of the plants were washed with distilled water and macerated with sterile mortar and pestle in 0.8% Phosphate Buffer-Saline (PBS containing 0.4 M NaCl at pH 8.0. Results reveal that protein banding pattern was taxon specific. Generic band occurs at 8.3. The highest number of interspecific bands (4 exists between J. podagrica and J. multifida. Variations exist not only in the number of bands but also in the intensity of the bands. Sokal and Sneath coefficient of similarity ranges between 11.1-44.4 %. Single linkage Cluster Analysis (SLCA of the relative mobility values of the protein in the taxa shows partial agreement with current sub generic and sectional delimitation of the species based on morphology and anatomy of the species.

  5. Breeding Jatropha curcas by genomic selection: A pilot assessment of the accuracy of predictive models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Azevedo Peixoto

    Full Text Available Genomic wide selection is a promising approach for improving the selection accuracy in plant breeding, particularly in species with long life cycles, such as Jatropha. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic parameters for grain yield (GY and the weight of 100 seeds (W100S using restricted maximum likelihood (REML; to compare the performance of GWS methods to predict GY and W100S; and to estimate how many markers are needed to train the GWS model to obtain the maximum accuracy. Eight GWS models were compared in terms of predictive ability. The impact that the marker density had on the predictive ability was investigated using a varying number of markers, from 2 to 1,248. Because the genetic variance between evaluated genotypes was significant, it was possible to obtain selection gain. All of the GWS methods tested in this study can be used to predict GY and W100S in Jatropha. A training model fitted using 1,000 and 800 markers is sufficient to capture the maximum genetic variance and, consequently, maximum prediction ability of GY and W100S, respectively. This study demonstrated the applicability of genome-wide prediction to identify useful genetic sources of GY and W100S for Jatropha breeding. Further research is needed to confirm the applicability of the proposed approach to other complex traits.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF Jatropha curcas L SEED EXTRACT IN REGULATION EXPRESSION TUMOR MARKER OF TGF- β1 GENE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Wulandari

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The role of TGF-β1 is known as the main immunosuppresor associated with tumor, but on the other opinion, it is associated with proliferation and tumor invasion. The increase and decrease of the secretion of TGF-β is to regulate the proliferation, differentiation, and death of various cell types. Now we all know the extract of Jatropha curcas L seed serves as antitumor. Allegedly, it can regulate the expression of TGF-β1 in control of cell number. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of Jatropha seeds to the regulation of gene expression of TGF-β1 as a tumor marker. The method is performed by giving a dose groups the extract of jatropha seed (0, 5, 25, 50, 250 mg/BB in mice. Then measurement of mRNA expression (RT-PCR, the protein of TGF-β1 levels (ELISA, and qualitative observations of liver histology were done. The expression of TGF-β1 mRNA is significantly 4.39 to 7.34 times higher than (ANOVA, p 0.05 than the control. Histological observation of liver showed the extract of jatropha seed induces damage nucleus of hepatocytes cell and sinusoidal. The effects extract of jatropha seed increased the level of TGF-β1 mRNA but not followed by increasing protein of TGF-β1 levels, and it was stimulated necrosis and apoptosis of hepatocytes cell.

  7. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence spectra for the monitoring of Cd toxicity in a bio-energy crop (Jatropha curcas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Marise Conceição; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

    2013-10-05

    The vegetation of metal-contaminated soils using non-edible crops can be a safe and economical technique for Cd immobilization and the remediation of contaminated sites. Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) exhibits a relative tolerance to heavy metals and potential for biofuel production. The study was performed to monitor the Cd-induced alterations in jatropha plants by X-ray chlorophyll fluorescence. The Cd effects on photosynthetic pigments, the mineral composition of plants, defense enzyme activity and soluble proteins were also studied. Plants were grown for 20days in a nutrient solution with five Cd contents: 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40μmolL(-1); a control with no Cd addition was also monitored. The analysis of the chlorophyll fluorescence spectra allowed detecting alterations caused by Cd toxicity in the jatropha plants. The mineral composition of the plants was affected by the Cd doses; however, the Fe and Mg contents were not significantly reduced, which most likely improved the effects on the contents of the photosynthetic pigments. Because of its relative tolerance to Cd, Jatropha curcas may be a promising species to revegetate Cd-contaminated sites. Considering the long period needed to phytoremediate soils, the combination of remediation with bioenergy production could be an attractive option. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Economic Impact and Challenges of Jatropha curcas L. Projects in North-Western Province, Zambia: A Case of Solwezi District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chester Kalinda

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Forest products, wood and non-wood, remain vital among smallholder households in Zambia with charcoal being the most sought after product. This has led to increased exploitation of forest trees to meet the needs for fuel wood, among others. However, Jatropha curcas plant has been identified as a potential fuel source. In the early 2000s, profit-making organizations encouraged smallholder households to grow Jatropha for use as an alternative fuel source. This paper reports on a study conducted in Solwezi between 2011 and 2014 to evaluate the impact of Jatropha cultivation for biofuel production. A sample of 100 small-scale farmers involved in Jatropha cultivation and key informants were interviewed to evaluate the impact of growing Jatropha at the small-scale level. Results show that farmers lost out on time; income from sale of edible non-wood forest products; and experienced reduction in maize (Zea mays and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris production, worsening household economic conditions. Farmers attributed this loss to unclear policy alignment on biofuel production by government. We therefore recommend that project implementation should involve interactions of all legislative bodies and any other concerned stakeholders. There is also a need to promote the value chain, from production to marketing, which focuses on minimizing detrimental effects on the livelihood of small-scale farmers.

  9. PERSPECTIVES OF PHYTOSTABILIZATION BY JATROPHA CURCAS OF MINING RESIDUES FROM ABANDONED ZAIDA MINE (HIGH MOULOUYA, MOROCCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El himer, S.; Bouabdli, A.; Baghdad, B.; Saidi, N; Zouahri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: Mine of Zaida (High Moulouya, Morocco) has been object of multiple research works (Saidi et al. 2002, Saidi 2004, Bouabdli et al. 2004, Bouabdli et al. 2005, El Hachimi 2005, El Hachimi 2006, Baghdad et al. 2006, Baghdad 2008, 2011, Berrah El Kheir et al. 2008, Berrah El Kheir et al. 2010, El Himer et al. 2012) which demonstrated the impact of a large volume of materials issued of the mining activities on the different compartments of the ecosystem. In fact, these materials are a potential source of trace metals, which induces a major risk for living beings because of their mobility and bioavailability. Among the techniques that minimize this problem the phytostabilization can be cited ; this method appears to be safe, alternative and usable regardless the level of pollution. It consists in revegetation of soils polluted by species tolerant to trace elements. In this context, the use of shrubs is particularly interesting because their root systems are well developed and dense, limiting the runoff and leaching of trace metals to different compartments of ecosystem. In our study we were interested in the culture of Jatropha curcas ; it is a perennial shrub belonging to the Euphorbiaceae family, this plant has been the subject of several research projects on the one hand due to its economic interest and low operating cost (biofuel, fertilizer, traditional medicine, fight against erosion, insecticides, soap production, ...), on the other hand due to its low requirements (easy to cultivate, rapid growth, drought resistance) and tolerance to marginal lands. This travel proposes to study the growth and ability of Jatropha curcas to extract trace metals in various substrates from Zaida mine (High Moulouya, Morocco) in order to evaluate its potential of phytostabilization. The results indicate that Jatropha curcas shows proper installation despite the high levels of trace metals in experimental substrates. This plant is characterized by the ability to adapt and

  10. Synthesis of fatty acid methyl ester from crude jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linnaeus) oil using aluminium oxide modified Mg-Zn heterogeneous catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olutoye, M A; Hameed, B H

    2011-06-01

    The synthesis of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) as a substitute to petroleum diesel was investigated in this study from crude jatropha oil (CJO), a non-edible, low-cost alternative feedstock, using aluminium modified heterogeneous basic oxide (Mg-Zn) catalyst. The transesterification reaction with methanol to methyl esters yielded 94% in 6h with methanol-oil ratio of 11:1, catalyst loading of 8.68 wt.% at 182°C and the properties of CJO fuel produced were determine and found to be comparable to the standards according to ASTM. In the range of experimental parameters investigated, it showed that the catalyst is selective to production of methyl esters from oil with high free fatty acid (FFA) and water content of 7.23% and 3.28%, respectively in a single stage process. Thus, jatropha oil is a promising feedstock for methyl ester production and large scale cultivation will help to reduce the product cost. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Diagnose foliar em mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha Curcas L. produzidas com biossólido Foliar analysis of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. seedlings grown with biosolid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alirio C. D. Maldonado Reginaldo de Camargo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O uso do biossólido na agricultura tem-se mostrado a melhor alternativa ambiental e econômica para o destino do lodo de esgoto. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial nutricional do biossólido para produção de mudas de pinhão-manso em tubetes. O experimento foi realizado em casa de vegetação tendo, como substrato, esterco bovino, vermiculita e biossólido. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições em esquema fatorial 5 x 2, correspondendo às concentrações de biossólido no substrato (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40% e ao tratamento ou não das sementes de pinhão-manso com fungicida. Aos 60 dias foi realizada análise foliar. Relativo às concentrações de biossólido verificou-se efeito significativo para os macronutrientes N, P, Ca, Mg e S e micronutrientes B, Cu, Mn e Zn. O tratamento de sementes teve efeito significativo para o Zn. As folhas apresentaram concentração de macronutrientes com a seguinte ordem: N > K > Mg > Ca > P > S. O acúmulo de micronutrientes apresentou a seguinte ordem: Fé > Mn >Zn > B > Cu. Há grande contribuição do biossólido nos teores de nitrogênio, enxofre e micronutrientes foliares, em plantas de pinhão-manso.The use of biosolids in agriculture has proven to be the best alternative for the environmental and economic destination of sewage sludge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional potential of biosolids to produce jatropha seedlings in polytube. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using as substrate manure, biosolids and vermiculite. The experimental design was in randomized block with three replications in a 5 x 2 factorial, corresponding to the substrate concentrations in sewage sludge (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40%, and the treatment or not of the seeds of jatropha with fungicide. At 60 days, leaf analysis was performed. Regarding the biosolids concentrations, significant effect was verified for the macronutrients N, P, Ca, Mg and S

  12. Evaluation of effect of low opening operation on increasing wear of bearing bushings of guide vanes used in hydropower plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Sung; Kim, Se Na

    2012-01-01

    A guide vane plays a key role in controlling the flow rate of water supplied to the turbine of a hydropower plant. It has been reported that guide vane bearing bushings are subjected to considerable wear, which requires them to be maintained. An ancillary service such as frequency control and black start causes cyclic low opening operation of the guide vanes. It is empirically well known that such operation increases the wear rate of the guide vane bearing bushing. In this study, the effect of low opening operation on the increasing wear of the guide vane bearing bushing is quantitatively assessed via finite element flow analysis, finite element stress analysis, and relative wear evaluation. As a result of the assessment, it is identified that the pressure applied on the guide vane surface increases and the contact length between the outer surface of the guide vane stem and the inner surface of the bearing bushing decreases with a decrease in the opening of the guide vane. In addition, low opening of the guide vanes results in an increase in the relative wear owing to the generation of high contact pressure on the bearing bushing surfaces

  13. Production components and yield of bushing snap bean in conventional and organic production systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Renato Gomes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Production systems influence crops differently, mainly in terms of yield. However, there are few studies that have evaluated different bushing snap bean genotypes in different systems. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the production components and yield of bushing snap beans in conventional and organic production systems. The experimental design was a randomized complete block, in a factorial 6 × 2 arrangement, corresponding to six genotypes and two production systems, with three replications. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo®, Isla Macarrão Baixo®, Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo®, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli®, UEL 1, and UEL 2 were submitted to the following determinations: days to flowering; plant height; medium number of pods per plant; average pod mass, length, and diameter; and yield of commercial pods. A joint analysis of variance was conducted by applying the F test, with mean comparison performed using the Tukey’s test (p < 0.05. Anthesis of the genotypes Feltrin Vicenza Amarelo Baixo, UEL 2, Isla Macarrão Baixo, and Feltrin Macarrão Napoli is anticipated in the conventional production system. The genotype UEL 2 shows higher precocity in anthesis within the conventional system. The genotypes Isla Manteiga Baixo and UEL 1 produce more pods per plant in the conventional system. In the organic system, the genotype Feltrin Macarrão Napoli produces double the number of pods per plant compared with Isla Manteiga Baixo. The organic system leads to greater plant height and average mass, length, and diameter of pods in relation to the conventional system. The commercial pod yield of bushing snap bean is not altered by differences in the production system or genotype.

  14. Rose bush leaf and internode expansion dynamics: analysis and development of a model capturing interplant variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine eDemotes-Mainard

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Bush rose architecture, among other factors, such as plant health, determines plant visual quality. The commercial product is the individual plant and interplant variability may be high within a crop. Thus, both mean plant architecture and interplant variability should be studied. Expansion is an important feature of architecture, but it has been little studied at the level of individual organs in bush roses. We investigated the expansion kinetics of primary shoot organs, to develop a model reproducing the organ expansion of real crops from non destructive input variables. We took interplant variability in expansion kinetics and the model’s ability to simulate this variability into account. Changes in leaflet and internode dimensions over thermal time were recorded for primary shoot expansion, on 83 plants from three crops grown in different climatic conditions and densities. An empirical model was developed, to reproduce organ expansion kinetics for individual plants of a real crop of bush rose primary shoots. Leaflet or internode length was simulated as a logistic function of thermal time. The model was evaluated by cross-validation. We found that differences in leaflet or internode expansion kinetics between phytomer positions and between plants at a given phytomer position were due mostly to large differences in time of organ expansion and expansion rate, rather than differences in expansion duration. Thus, in the model, the parameters linked to expansion duration were predicted by values common to all plants, whereas variability in final size and organ expansion time was captured by input data. The model accurately simulated leaflet and internode expansion for individual plants (RMSEP = 7.3% and 10.2% of final length, respectively. Thus, this study defines the measurements required to simulate expansion and provides the first model simulating organ expansion in rosebush to capture interplant variability.

  15. Co-composting of physic nut (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake with rice straw and different animal dung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manab; Uppal, H S; Singh, Reena; Beri, Shanuja; Mohan, K S; Gupta, Vikas C; Adholeya, Alok

    2011-06-01

    To address the dispensing of this growing volume, a study on utilization of jatropha (Jatropha curcas) deoiled cake through compost production was carried out. The deoiled cake was composted with rice straw, four different animal dung (cow dung, buffalo dung, horse dung and goat dung) and hen droppings in different proportions followed by assessment, and comparison of biochemical characteristics among finished composts. Nutrient content in finished compost was within the desired level whereas metals such as copper, lead and nickel were much below the maximum allowable concentrations. Although a few finished material contained phorbol ester (0.12 mg/g), but it was far below the original level found in the deoiled cake. Such a study indicates that a huge volume of jatropha deoiled cake can be eliminated through composting. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita; Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  17. Evaluation of plant performance of Jatropha curcas L. under different agro-practices for optimizing biomass - A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behera, Soumit K.; Srivastava, Pankaj; Singh, Nandita [National Botanical Research Institute, CSIR, Rana Pratap Marg, Lucknow 226001, UP (India); Tripathi, Ritu; Singh, J.P. [Solar Energy Centre, Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Gwalpahari, Gurgaon (India)

    2010-01-15

    Jatropha curcas L., a multipurpose, drought resistant, perennial plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family has gained lot of importance for the production of biodiesel. The properties of the crop and its oil have persuaded investors, policy makers and clean development mechanism (CDM) project developers to consider Jatropha as a substitute for fossil fuels to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. However, basic agronomic properties of Jatropha are not thoroughly understood and the environmental effects have not been investigated yet. Grey literature reports are very optimistic on simultaneous wasteland reclamation capability and oil yields. Studies were undertaken at Solar Energy Centre, Gurgaon, India to evaluate the plant performance under different agro-practices with special reference to irrigation scheduling, VAM and biofertilizers' applications, plant spacing, pruning trials for maximizing tree architecture and higher biomass. Parallel experiments were undertaken to understand the scope of J. curcas for intercropping practices in the under storey of dominating monoculture tree stands (Prosopis, Acacia and Neem). (author)

  18. Production of additives from Jatropha Curcas L. methyl esther as a way to improve diesel engine performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silitonga, A.S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Medan State Polytechnic (Indonesia)], email: ardinsu@yahoo.co.id, email: a_atabani2@msn.com; Mahlia, T.M.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Syiah Kuala University, (Indonesia); Masjuki, H.H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Malaya (Malaysia); Ghofur, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia); Abdullahe [Department of Chemical Engineering, Lambung Mangkurat University (Indonesia)

    2011-07-01

    Nowadays we are searching for ideal alternative fuels in order to reduce harmful gas emissions and improve air quality. And many kinds of bio-diesel have been proposed. This paper introduces a bio-diesel converted from the oil of Jatropha curcas L. through a series of physical and chemical processes. This bio-diesel, which has a high cetane number, is better adapted than diesel or other, edible, vegetable oils to be an ideal alternative fuel. Moreover, the additive promotes the physico-chemical characteristics of Jatropha curcas methyl ester, further enhancing its desirability as a substitute for diesel oil. This paper analyzes and reports the results of a laboratory-scale investigation of the feasibility of blending diesel with an additive produced from Jatropha curcas methyl ester. It finds that this additive can improve engine performance and reduce exhaust emissions.

  19. The Relationship Between Morphological Symmetry and Immune Response in Wild-Caught Adult Bush-Crickets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Berggren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite interest in the relationship between fluctuating asymmetry (FA, immune response and ecological factors in insects, little data are available from wild populations. In this study we measured FA and immune response in 370 wild-caught male bush-crickets, Metrioptera roeseli, from 20 experimentally introduced populations in southern-central Sweden. Individuals with more-symmetric wings had a higher immune response as measured by the cellular encapsulation of a surgically-implanted nylon monofilament. However, we found no relationship between measures of FA in other organs (i.e. tibia and maxillary palp and immune response, suggesting that this pattern may reflect differing selection pressures.

  20. Oversimplifying Iraq's challenges: Bush's Fort Bragg speech and americans' declining support for the war

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos L. Yordan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo examina el porqué el presidente George W. Bush no pudo recolectar la ayuda de la ciudadanía americana para su estrategia para la estabilización y la transformación de Iraq. De hecho, esta estrategia ha sido afectada por el desplegar de los acontecimientos que sucedieron en Iraq, pero el problema principal reside en las posiciones que el presidente utilizó para simplificar los desafíos que el ejército americano y la diplomacia tenían que hacer frente en Iraq, buscando la aprobación de las criticas periodisticas, de los expertos gubernamentales y de los juristas. En más de una perspectiva la falta de aprobación del gobierno Bush en Iraq es una consecuencia de la carencia de la confianza que la opinión pública tuvo por su presidente y sus consejeros para lograr sus objetivos en Iraq. Para constatar esta tesis, el artículo analiza el discurso del presidente a la nación, difundida en horario de punta el 28 de julio de 2005, que demuestra que los americanos no estaban demasiado convencidos de la estrategia de Bush._____________ABSTRACT:This article puts in context why President of the United States of America George W. Bush has been unable to rally American support for his strategy to stabilize and transform Iraq. Since the summer of 2003, when Iraqis started to challenge the authority of the Anglo-American occupation, the White House has been on the defensive, while American support for post-war efforts has dwindled. While developments in Iraq have affected the strategy’s execution, the main problem is the president’s inclination to oversimplify the challenges American troops and diplomats are facing in Iraq, inviting criticism from journalists, experts on nation-building and lawmakers. In many ways, declining approval of Bush’s handling of Iraq results in the public’s lack of confidence that the president and his advisors will be able to accomplish its goals in Iraq. To test this argument, the article analyzes

  1. An improved method for RNA isolation and cDNA library construction from immature seeds of Jatropha curcas L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaur Jatinder

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA quality and quantity is sometimes unsuitable for cDNA library construction, from plant seeds rich in oil, polysaccharides and other secondary metabolites. Seeds of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L. are rich in fatty acids/lipids, storage proteins, polysaccharides, and a number of other secondary metabolites that could either bind and/or co-precipitate with RNA, making it unsuitable for downstream applications. Existing RNA isolation methods and commercial kits often fail to deliver high-quality total RNA from immature jatropha seeds for poly(A+ RNA purification and cDNA synthesis. Findings A protocol has been developed for isolating good quality total RNA from immature jatropha seeds, whereby a combination of the CTAB based RNA extraction method and a silica column of a commercial plant RNA extraction kit is used. The extraction time was reduced from two days to about 3 hours and the RNA was suitable for poly(A+ RNA purification, cDNA synthesis, cDNA library construction, RT-PCR, and Northern hybridization. Based on sequence information from selected clones and amplified PCR product, the cDNA library seems to be a good source of full-length jatropha genes. The method was equally effective for isolating RNA from mustard and rice seeds. Conclusions This is a simple CTAB + silica column method to extract high quality RNA from oil rich immature jatropha seeds that is suitable for several downstream applications. This method takes less time for RNA extraction and is equally effective for other tissues where the quality and quantity of RNA is highly interfered by the presence of fatty acids, polysaccharides and polyphenols.

  2. Existing landraces of Jatropha Curcas L. (physic nut) in Nepal and analysis of their bio-diesel content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ram Prasad

    2010-09-15

    The aim of this work was to find the existing landraces of Jatropha curcas in different agro ecological regions of Nepal and their Bio-Diesel content. More specifically, research efforts focused on (1) existing landraces (varieties) in all three topographic regions of Nepal (2) Bio-diesel content in those varieties (3) Bio-Diesel content in varieties from Laos (4) Constraints faced by the Nepalese Jatropha grower (5) Compare the quality of Bio-diesel between the Nepalese varieties and Laos varieties. To collect all the information, Seeds were collected from Nepal (Terai: Chitwan; Hill: Palpa and Syanja; Mountain: Tanahu and Gorkha) and Vientiane province from Laos.

  3. Effect of injection timing on combustion and performance of a direct injection diesel engine running on Jatropha methyl ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jindal, S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, College of Technology & Engineering, Maharana Pratap University of Agriculture and Technology, Udaipur 313001 (India)

    2011-07-01

    The present study aims at evaluation of effect of injection timing on the combustion, performance and emissions of a small power diesel engine, commonly used for agriculture purpose, running on pure biodiesel, prepared from Jatropha (Jatropha curcas) vegetable oil. The effect of varying injection timing was evaluated in terms of thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, power and mean effective pressure, exhaust temperature, cylinder pressure, rate of pressure rise and the heat release rate. It was found that retarding the injection timing by 3 degrees enhances the thermal efficiency by about 8 percent.

  4. Foreign direct investment in biofuels and sustainable development: the case of jatropha in the Boeny region, Madagascar

    OpenAIRE

    Nicotra, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    The past decade has seen the rapid spread of market-based approaches to address climate change mitigation, adaptation and poverty alleviation. In the first decade of the 21st century, the enthusiasm for pursuing mitigation through green alternatives to fossil fuels contributed to a spike in global investments in biofuel crops. The tropical plant jatropha (Jatropha curcas Linn.) was promoted as the ideal ‘green’ biofuel because of its multiple qualities. It was a non-food crop that was seen to...

  5. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Halvorsen, Kathleen E.; Eastmond-Spencer, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam R.

    2017-06-01

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.

  6. Sustainable Development for Whom and How? Exploring the Gaps between Popular Discourses and Ground Reality Using the Mexican Jatropha Biodiesel Case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Aparajita; Halvorsen, Kathleen E; Eastmond-Spencer, Amarella; Sweitz, Sam R

    2017-06-01

    In the last decade, jatropha-based bioenergy projects have gotten significant attention as a solution to various social, economic, and environmental problems. Jatropha's popularity stemmed out from different discourses, some real and some perceived, in scientific and non-scientific literature. These discourses positioned jatropha as a crop helpful in producing biodiesel and protecting sustainability by reducing greenhouse gas emissions compared to fossil fuels and increasing local, rural development by creating jobs. Consequently, many countries established national policies that incentivized the establishment of jatropha as a bioenergy feedstock crop. In this paper, we explore the case of jatropha bioenergy development in Yucatan, Mexico and argue that the popular discourse around jatropha as a sustainability and rural development tool is flawed. Analyzing our results from 70 semi-structured interviews with community members belonging to a region where plantation-scale jatropha projects were introduced, we found that these projects did not have many significant social sustainability benefits. We conclude from our case that by just adding bioenergy projects cannot help achieve social sustainability in rural areas alone. In ensuring social sustainability of bioenergy projects, future policymaking processes should have a more comprehensive understanding of the rural socioeconomic problems where such projects are promoted and use bioenergy projects as one of the many solutions to local problems rather than creating such policies based just on popular discourses.

  7. BUSH: A computer code for calculating steady state heat transfer in LWR rod bundles under accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.M.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code BUSH has been developed for the calculation of steady state heat transfer in a rod bundle. For a given power, flow and geometry it can calculate the temperatures in the rods, coolant and shroud assuming that at any axial level each rod can be described by one temperature and the coolant fluid is also radially uniform at this level. Heat transfer by convection and radiation are handled and the geometry is flexible enough to model nearly all types of envisaged shroud design for the SUPERSARA test series. The modular way in which BUSH has been written makes it suitable for future development, either within the present BUSH framework or as part of a more advanced code

  8. The Evolution of Missile Defense Plan from Bush to Obama. Implications for the National Security of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra-Laura BOSILCA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In 2011 Romania officially became part of the Obama administration’s missile defense system in Europe which has significantly changed the strategic military relations both in Europe and worldwide. The Bush approach has been revised and progress in several sections has been achieved, both strategically and technically. For Romania, the participation in the missile defence plan, ensures more solid security guarantees, especially in an unpredictable and risk-prone international environment where the U.S. reconsiders its presence in Europe under the pressure of the economic crisis and of a relative decline in power; it has also become a more visible actor – alongside Bulgaria – which were initially excluded by the Bush missile defence plan. This paper’s purpose is to review the main evolutions of the missile defense plan from the Bush to the Obama administration and to outline its implications on the national security of Romania.

  9. Neotropical Zoonotic Parasites in Bush Dogs (Speothos venaticus) from Upper Paraná Atlantic Forests in Misiones, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizcaychipi, Katherina A; Rinas, Miguel; Irazu, Lucia; Miyagi, Adriana; Argüelles, Carina F; DeMatteo, Karen E

    2016-10-01

    Wildlife remains an important source of zoonotic diseases for the most vulnerable groups of humans, primarily those living in rural areas or coexisting with forest. The Upper Paraná Atlantic forest of Misiones, Argentina is facing ongoing environmental and anthropogenic changes, which affect the local biodiversity, including the bush dog (Speothos venaticus), a small canid considered Near Threatened globally and Endangered locally. This project aimed to expand the knowledge of zoonotic parasites present in the bush dog and the potential implications for human health and conservation medicine. From May to August 2011, a detection dog located 34 scats that were genetically confirmed as bush dog and georeferenced to northern Misiones. Of these 34 scats, 27 had sufficient quantity that allowed processing for zoonotic parasites using morphological (sedimentation and flotation) and antigen (coproantigen technique) analyses. Within these 27 scats, we determined that the parasitic prevalence was 63.0% (n = 17) with 8 (47.1%) having mixed infections with 2-4 parasitic genera. No significant differences (p > 0.05) between sampling areas, sex, and parasite taxa were found. We were able to summarize the predominant nematodes (Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, and Lagochilascaris spp.), cestodes (Taenia spp. and Spirometra spp.), and apicomplexa (Cystoisospora caninum) found in these bush dogs. With the copro-ELISA technique, 14.8% (n = 4) of the samples were positive for Echinococcus spp. This study represents the first comprehensive study about parasitic fauna with zoonotic potential in the free-ranging bush dog. This information combined with the innovative set of techniques used to collect the samples constitute a valuable contribution that can be used in control programs, surveillance of zoonotic diseases, and wildlife conservation, both regionally and across the bush dog's broad distribution.

  10. Environmental geophysics at the Southern Bush River Peninsula, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davies, B.E.; Miller, S.F.; McGinnis, L.D. [and others

    1995-05-01

    Geophysical studies have been conducted at five sites in the southern Bush River Peninsula in the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The goals of the studies were to identify areas containing buried metallic objects and to provide diagnostic signatures of the hydrogeologic framework of the site. These studies indicate that, during the Pleistocene Epoch, alternating stands of high and low sea level resulted in a complex pattern of channel-fill deposits. Paleochannels of various sizes and orientations have been mapped throughout the study area by means of ground-penetrating radar and EM-31 techniques. The EM-31 paleochannel signatures are represented onshore either by conductivity highs or lows, depending on the depths and facies of the fill sequences. A companion study shows the features as conductivity highs where they extend offshore. This erosional and depositional system is environmentally significant because of the role it plays in the shallow groundwater flow regime beneath the site. Magnetic and electromagnetic anomalies outline surficial and buried debris throughout the areas surveyed. On the basis of geophysical measurements, large-scale (i.e., tens of feet) landfilling has not been found in the southern Bush River Peninsula, though smaller-scale dumping of metallic debris and/or munitions cannot be ruled out.

  11. Glaciations, gradients, and geography: multiple drivers of diversification of bush frogs in the Western Ghats Escarpment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Riya C.; Jayarajan, Aditi; Shanker, Kartik

    2016-01-01

    The historical processes underlying high diversity in tropical biodiversity hotspots like the Western Ghats of Peninsular India remain poorly understood. We sampled bush frogs on 13 massifs across the Western Ghats Escarpment and examined the relative influence of Quaternary glaciations, ecological gradients and geological processes on the spatial patterns of lineage and clade diversification. The results reveal a large in situ radiation (more than 60 lineages), exhibiting geographical structure and clade-level endemism, with two deeply divergent sister clades, North and South, highlighting the biogeographic significance of an ancient valley, the Palghat Gap. A majority of the bush frog sister lineages were isolated on adjacent massifs, and signatures of range stasis provide support for the dominance of geological processes in allopatric speciation. In situ diversification events within the montane zones (more than 1800 m) of the two highest massifs suggest a role for climate-mediated forest-grassland persistence. Independent transitions along elevational gradients among sub-clades during the Miocene point to diversification along the elevational gradient. The study highlights the evolutionary significance of massifs in the Western Ghats with the high elevations acting as centres of lineage diversification and the low- and mid-elevations of the southern regions, with deeply divergent lineages, serving as museums. PMID:27534957

  12. Auditory DUM neurons in a bush-cricket: A filter bank for carrier frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Paule Chloé; Seifert, Marvin; Stumpner, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    In bush-crickets the first stage of central auditory processing occurs in the prothoracic ganglion. About 15 to 50 different auditory dorsal unpaired median neurons (DUM neurons) exist but they have not been studied in any detail. These DUM neurons may be classified into seven different morphological types, although, there is only limited correlation between morphology and physiological responses. Ninety seven percent of the stained neurons were local, 3% were intersegmental. About 90% project nearly exclusively into the auditory neuropile, and 45% into restricted areas therein. Lateral extensions overlap with the axons of primary auditory sensory neurons close to their branching point. DUM neurons are typically tuned to frequencies covering the range between 2 and 50 kHz and thereby may establish a filter bank for carrier frequency. Less than 10% of DUM neurons have their branches in adjacent and more posterior regions of the auditory neuropile and are mostly tuned to low frequencies, less sensitive than the other types and respond to vibration. Thirty five percent of DUM show indications of inhibition, either through reduced responses at higher intensities, or by hyperpolarizing responses to sound. Most DUM neurons produce phasic spike responses preferably at higher intensities. Spikes may be elicited by intracellular current injection. Preliminary data suggest that auditory DUM neurons have GABA as transmitter and therefore may inhibit other auditory interneurons. From all known local auditory neurons, only DUM neurons have frequency specific responses which appear suited for local processing relevant for acoustic communication in bush crickets. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Fluid technologies: The Bush Pump, the LifeStraw and microworlds of humanitarian design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redfield, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Over the past decade, many ingenious, small-scale gadgets have appeared in response to problems of disaster and extreme poverty. Focusing on the LifeStraw, a water filtration device invented by the company Vestergaard Frandsen, I situate this wave of humanitarian design relative to Marianne de Laet and Annemarie Mol's classic article on the Zimbabwe Bush Pump. The LifeStraw shares the Bush Pump's principle of technical minimalism, as well as its ethical desire to improve the lives of communities. Unlike the pump, however, the straw defines itself through rather than against market logic, accepting the premise that one can 'do well while doing good'. Moreover, it does not share the assumed framework of de Laet and Mol's Zimbabwean socio-technical landscape: a postcolonial state happily en route to national self-definition. Nonetheless, it clearly embodies moral affect, if in the idiom of humanitarian concern rather than development. My aim is to open up three interrelated lines of inquiry for discussion. First, I consider aspects of a postcolonial condition at the micro-level of immediate needs, including assumptions about nation-state politics and markets. Second, I emphasize science and technology in the form of infrastructure, the material frontline of norms. Third, I return reflexively to love, and the complicated allure of engagement in academic work.

  14. MARIOLA: A model for calculating the response of mediterranean bush ecosystem to climatic variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uso-Domenech, J.L.; Ramo, M.P. [Department of Mathematics, Campus de Penyeta Roja, University Jaume I, Castellon (Spain); Villacampa-Esteve, Y. [Department of Analysis and Applied Mathematics, University of Alicante (Spain); Stuebing-Martinez, G. [Department of Botany, University of Valencia (Spain); Karjalainen, T. [Faculty of Forestry, University of Joensuu (Finland)

    1995-07-01

    The paper summarizes the bush ecosystem model developed for assessing the effects of climatic change on the behaviour of mediterranean bushes assuming that temperature, humidity and rain-fall are the basic dimensions of the niche occupied by shrub species. In this context, changes in the monthly weather pattern serve only to outline the growth conditions due to the nonlinearity of response of shrubs to climatic factors. The plant-soil-atmosphere system is described by means of ordinary non-linear differential equations for the state variables: green biomass, woody biomass, the residues of green and woody biomasses, faecal detritus of mammals on the soil, and the total organic matter of the soil. The behaviour of the flow variables is described by means of equations obtained from non-linear multiple regressions from the state variables and the input variables. The model has been applied with success to the behaviour of Cistus albidus in two zones of the Province of Alicante (Spain). The data base for the parametrical locations (zone 1) and validation (zone 2) is based upon measurements taken weekly over a 2-year period. The model is used to simulate the response of this shrub to a decreasing tendency in precipitation combined with a simultaneous rise in temperature. A period of 10 years is simulated and it is observed that plants with woody biomass smaller than 85 g die between the first and the third month and other plants` biomass decreases during this period, and strongly thereafter

  15. APPLIED BOTANY, I. PROTECTION OF TREES AND BUSHES IN THE INVESTMENT PROCESS IN URBAN AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Garczyńska

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Ecosystem services are the benefits resulting from resources and processes in nature. Trees and stand densities constitute a significant element of the landscape (both in urban and rural areas and serve a number of ecosystem functions, forming an inherent part of each group of benefits singled out on the basis of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment. In the thesis, selected ecosystem services of trees and stand densities were detailed - provisioning, regulatory, supporting and cultural functions. Diagnosis of services performed by trees and their valuation may contribute to taking increased care of them and protection during performing various investments, it is therefore appropriate to launch multifaceted ecological education to each person, particularly to those directly responsible for trees and bushes in towns and rural areas. In order to restrict construction stress to trees and bushes, environmental impact assessment has to be made as soon as the construction planning is being made (natural, cultural and landscape conditions should be provided additionally, it is advisable to conduct a dendrological inventory for planning purposes. Appropriate protection of trees and standing densities is also legally regulated by the Nature Conservation Act and the Construction Law. During the investment process, the trees and their settlement conditions should be adequately secured , so that it will not affect their viability. After completed investment, the condition of the tree stand should be monitored.

  16. Design optimization of the 100 kV HV bushing for ITER-DNB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Sejal, E-mail: sshah@iter-india.org [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Rajesh, S. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Microelectronics and Materials Physics Laboratories, P.O. Box 4500, FIN-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Srusti, B. [DesignTech Systems Ltd, Banjara Hills, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh 500034 (India); Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M.J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A.K. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382025, Gujarat (India); Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St. Paul lez Durance (France)

    2011-10-15

    The 100 kV bushing of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector is a cylindrical feedthrough which forms the interface between the gas insulated transmission line and the torus primary vacuum and provides all necessary services to the beam source. All conventions for safety, voltage holding requirement, vacuum compatibility and the choice of materials have been addressed in the design. Finite Element Analyses (FEAs) for the electrostatic and the structural configuration is carried out to validate the design of the High Voltage Bushing (HVB). Several iterations and optimizations of the stress shields are carried out to meet electrostatic criteria, especially at the triple point (the ceramic, metal and vacuum joint), which is critical for good voltage holding. Structural analyses is carried out to assess the stress distribution in the fiber reinforced plastic insulator, the alumina insulator and the integrated HVB for different load cases like operational orientation (horizontal), normal operation and accidental case. Design is further validated for seismic conditions for Seismic Loading-2 (SL-2).

  17. Design optimization of the 100 kV HV bushing for ITER-DNB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Sejal; Rajesh, S.; Srusti, B.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Singh, M.J.; Roopesh, G.; Chakraborty, A.K.; Schunke, B.; Hemsworth, R.; Chareyre, J.

    2011-01-01

    The 100 kV bushing of the Diagnostic Neutral Beam (DNB) injector is a cylindrical feedthrough which forms the interface between the gas insulated transmission line and the torus primary vacuum and provides all necessary services to the beam source. All conventions for safety, voltage holding requirement, vacuum compatibility and the choice of materials have been addressed in the design. Finite Element Analyses (FEAs) for the electrostatic and the structural configuration is carried out to validate the design of the High Voltage Bushing (HVB). Several iterations and optimizations of the stress shields are carried out to meet electrostatic criteria, especially at the triple point (the ceramic, metal and vacuum joint), which is critical for good voltage holding. Structural analyses is carried out to assess the stress distribution in the fiber reinforced plastic insulator, the alumina insulator and the integrated HVB for different load cases like operational orientation (horizontal), normal operation and accidental case. Design is further validated for seismic conditions for Seismic Loading-2 (SL-2).

  18. Effects of high fire frequency in creosote bush scrub vegetation of the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, M.L.

    2012-01-01

    Plant invasions can increase fire frequency in desert ecosystems where fires were historically infrequent. Although there are many resource management concerns associated with high frequency fire in deserts, fundamental effects on plant community characteristics remain largely unstudied. Here I describe the effects of fire frequency on creosote bush scrub vegetation in the Mojave Desert, USA. Biomass of the invasive annual grass Bromus rubens L. increased following fire, but did not increase further with additional fires. In contrast, density, cover and species richness of native perennial plants each decreased following fire and continued to decrease with subsequent fires, although not as dramatically as after the initial fire. Responses were similar 5 and 14 years post-fire, except that cover of Hymenoclea salsola Torr. & A. Gray and Achnatherum speciosa Trin. & Rupr. both increased in areas burnt once. These results suggest that control of B. rubens may be equally warranted after one, two or three fires, but revegetation of native perennial plants is most warranted following multiple fires. These results are valid within the scope of this study, which is defined as relatively short term vegetation responses (???14 years) to short fire return intervals (6.3 and 7.3 years for the two and three fire frequency levels) within creosote bush scrub of the Mojave Desert. ?? 2012 IAWF.

  19. Ilves ja Bush - üks rantšopidajast president kutsus teise külla / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    USA presidendi George W. Bushi kohtumisest president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesega. Kõne all oli viisavabadus ja NATO küberkaitsekeskuse loomine Eestisse. G.W. Bush avaldas kaastunnet Afganistanis hukkunud Eesti sõdurite omastele. Riigikogu liikmete Marko Mihkelsoni ja Sven Mikseri kommentaarid presidentide kohtumisele. Vt. samas: Esimene riigipea pärjaga. T.H. Ilves asetas pärja kommunismiohvrite mälestusmärgile, mille president G.W. Bush avas 12. juunil 2007. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  20. Application of jatropha oil and biogas in a dual fuel engine for rural electrification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerkhof, E.

    2008-06-15

    In this thesis, the technical feasibility of using jatropha oil and biogas for dual fuel generators is investigated. This technology could be used for electricity generation in rural areas in developing countries. The use of jatropha oil and biogas is considered a sustainable energy supply, when both fuels are produced locally. The local production of fuel and generation of electricity could result in economic development and poverty reduction. In order to investigate the technical feasibility, a parameter study is performed, an experimental set-up is constructed and experiments are carried out. Three performance parameters are investigated: thermal efficiency, because it is a direct measure for fuel efficiency; volumetric efficiency, because it is a measure for power output; and air-excess ratio, because it influences particulate emissions and HC emissions. The parameter study is conducted, to predict the effect of dual fuel operation, by deriving expressions for the performance parameters. The experiments are carried out to assess the effect of dual fuel operation on performance and to find the operation limits (smoke limit and knock limit). Experiments are carried out on a 12 kW diesel generator set. The jatropha oil that is used is pure oil. Biogas mainly consists of methane and carbon dioxide. Simulated, bottled, biogas of different quality is used (i.e. CH4/CO2 ratios). Pure methane is also tested as gaseous fuel. Gas is added to the inlet air with a venturi. The design of the venturi limited the gas flow; consequently the maximum heat release fraction of methane was 80% for pure methane and approximately 70% for biogas. Tests were performed at 6, 8 and 10 kW load. The engine showed a thermal efficiency characteristic for pure jatropha oil operation, which is expected for a diesel generator. The characteristic for jatropha oil did not deviate from that of diesel. At full load, thermal efficiency is approximately 32%. Under dual fuel operation, with biogas, at

  1. Experimental evaluation of C.I. engine performance using diesel blended with Jatropha biodiesel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Sunil [Mechanical Department, R. G. P. V. Bhopal (M.P.) (India); Chaube, Alok [Mechanical Department, Jabalpur Engineering College Jabalpur (M.P.) (India); Jain, Shashi Kumar [School of Energy and Environment Management, R.G.P.V. Bhopal (India)

    2012-07-01

    Costlier and depleting fossil fuels are prompting researchers to use edible as well as non-edible vegetable oils as promising alternative to petro-diesel. The higher viscosity of vegetable oils leads to problem in pumping, atomization and spray characteristics. The improper mixing of vegetable oils with air leads to incomplete combustion. The best way to use vegetable oils as fuel in compression ignition (CI) engines is to convert it into biodiesel. Biodiesel is a methyl or ethyl ester of fatty acids made from vegetable oils (both edible and non-edible) and animal fat. The main feedstock for biodiesel production can be non-edible oil obtained from Jatropha curcas plant. Jatropha curcas plant can be cultivated on different terrains in India under extreme climatic conditions. Biodiesel can be used in its pure form or as a blend with petro-diesel in different proportions. It is being used in CI engines because it has properties similar to petro-diesel. The aim of this paper is to analyze suitability of petro-diesel blended with biodiesel in varying proportions in CI engines. For this purpose, a stationary single-cylinder four-stroke CI engine was tested with diesel blended with Jatropha biodiesel in 0%, 5%, 20%, 50%, 80% and 100%. Comparative measures of specific fuel consumption (SFC), brake thermal efficiency, smoke opacity, HC, CO2, CO, O2, NOX have been presented and discussed. Engine performance in terms of comparable brake thermal efficiency and SFC with lower emissions (HC, CO2, CO) was observed with B20 fuel compared to petro-diesel. Volumetric efficiency showed almost no variation for all the blends. Important observations related to noise and vibrations during testing have also been discussed.

  2. Comparative exergy analyses of Jatropha curcas oil extraction methods: Solvent and mechanical extraction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Keat Teong, Lee; JitKang, Lim

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergy analysis detects locations of resource degradation within a process. ► Solvent extraction is six times exergetically destructive than mechanical extraction. ► Mechanical extraction of jatropha oil is 95.93% exergetically efficient. ► Solvent extraction of jatropha oil is 79.35% exergetically efficient. ► Exergy analysis of oil extraction processes allow room for improvements. - Abstract: Vegetable oil extraction processes are found to be energy intensive. Thermodynamically, any energy intensive process is considered to degrade the most useful part of energy that is available to produce work. This study uses literature values to compare the efficiencies and degradation of the useful energy within Jatropha curcas oil during oil extraction taking into account solvent and mechanical extraction methods. According to this study, J. curcas seeds on processing into J. curcas oil is upgraded with mechanical extraction but degraded with solvent extraction processes. For mechanical extraction, the total internal exergy destroyed is 3006 MJ which is about six times less than that for solvent extraction (18,072 MJ) for 1 ton J. curcas oil produced. The pretreatment processes of the J. curcas seeds recorded a total internal exergy destructions of 5768 MJ accounting for 24% of the total internal exergy destroyed for solvent extraction processes and 66% for mechanical extraction. The exergetic efficiencies recorded are 79.35% and 95.93% for solvent and mechanical extraction processes of J. curcas oil respectively. Hence, mechanical oil extraction processes are exergetically efficient than solvent extraction processes. Possible improvement methods are also elaborated in this study.

  3. Heterologous expression of two GPATs from Jatropha curcas alters seed oil levels in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Aparna; Khan, Kasim; Niranjan, Abhishek; Kumar, Vinod; Sane, Vidhu A

    2017-10-01

    Oils and fats are stored in endosperm during seed development in the form of triacylglycerols. Three acyltransferases: glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), lysophosphatidyl acyltransferase (LPAT) and diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) are involved in the storage lipid biosynthesis and catalyze the stepwise acylation of glycerol backbone. In this study two members of GPAT gene family (JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2) from Jatropha seeds were identified and characterized. Sequence analysis suggested that JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 are homologous to Arabidopsis acyltransferase-1 (ATS1) and AtGPAT9 respectively. The sub-cellular localization studies of these two GPATs showed that JcGPAT1 localizes into plastid whereas JcGPAT2 localizes in to endoplasmic reticulum. JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 expressed throughout the seed development with higher expression in fully matured seed compared to immature seed. The transcript levels of JcGPAT2 were higher in comparison to JcGPAT1 in different developmental stages of seed. Over-expression of JcGPAT1 and JcGPAT2 under constitutive and seed specific promoters in Arabidopsis thaliana increased total oil content. Transgenic seeds of JcGPAT2-OE lines accumulated 43-60% more oil than control seeds whereas seeds of Arabidopsis lines over-expressing plastidial GPAT lead to only 13-20% increase in oil content. Functional characterization of GPAT homologues of Jatropha in Arabidopsis suggested that these are involved in oil biosynthesis but might have specific roles in Jatropha. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Kajian Penanganan Bahan dan Metode Pengeringan terhadap Mutu Biji dan Minyak Jarak Pagar (Jatropha curcas L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verra Mellyana

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy is consumed in many sectors such as industry, transportation, and household. Most of the source of energy nowadays are obtained from fosil, which is predicted available for less than 10-15 upcoming years, and should be replaced by renewable energy. One of potential renewable energy to considered is Jatropha, a plant with seeds containing oil that can be processed into biodiesel. As a part of plant, fruit of Jatropha should be treated properly after harvest to maintain its oil in the seeds, so that good physical and chemical properties of the oil extracted from the seed can be obtained. This research is aim to develop method of handling of the harvested Jatropha fruits, including its drying, to maintain quality of the seeds and oil resulted from extraction. Different combinations of preparation (fresh, seed and steamed seed and drying (temperature of 50, 60, 70 oC and natural sun drying, have been investigated. The results showed that the best treatment was seed drying at 70 oC with the drying time of 4.83 hour, oil rate of 40.06%, and oil yield of 28.59%. Quality of the seeds which fulfilled Standard National Indonesia (SNI 01-1677-1989 were broken seed (0.57%, cracked seed (0.20 %, foreign object (0%, moisture content (6.08%. However, the highest oil extraction (40.06% was not satisfy SNI 01-1677-1989. This case, quality of castor oil which qualified SNI 01-1904-1990 were oil moisture content (0.23% and acid value (0.33 mg KOH/g, but refractive index (1.6209, iod number (54.31 and saponification number (67.30 were unqualified.

  5. Jatropha waste meal as an alternative energy source via pressurized pyrolysis: A study on temperature effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kongkasawan, Jinjuta; Nam, Hyungseok; Capareda, Sergio C.

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative energy source, Jatropha is a promising biomass resource due to its high content of oil contained in the seed. However, after the oil extraction process, more than 50% of initial weight remained as residue. This Jatropha de-oiled cake was considered a valuable feedstock for thermochemical conversion process due to its high volatile matter (73%) and energy content (20.5 MJ/kg). Pyrolysis turned biomass into solid product of biochar, liquid product (bio-oil and aqueous phase), and pyrolysis gas. The effects of pyrolysis temperature under the pressure of 0.69 MPa on the product yields and characteristics were investigated using a bench-scale batch reactor. The gross calorific value of pyrolytic oil was measured to be 35 MJ/kg with high carbon content (71%) and low oxygen content (10%). Phenols and hydrocarbons were the main compounds present in the pyrolytic oil. The heating value of the biochar was also high (28 MJ/kg), which was comparable to the fuel coke. More combustible gases were released at high pyrolysis temperature with methane as a main constituent. Pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, was determined to be an optimum condition for the mass and energy conversions with 89% of the mass and 77% of the energy recovered. - Highlights: • Pressurized pyrolysis of Jatropha wastes at different temperatures was studied. • Full analysis of biochar, bio-oil and pyro gas at different temperatures were done. • Highest aromatics (32%) and HHV (35 MJ/kg) found in bio-oil at 500 °C. • Large amount of paraffins (C 13 –C 16 range) was found in bio-oil.

  6. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rafael de C; Camillo, Julcéia; Scherwinski-Pereira, Jonny E

    2012-03-01

    Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the 1/2 MS medium (93.1%) than in WPM medium (76.2%), but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures.

  7. A method for seedling recovery in Jatropha curcas after cryogenic exposure of the seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael de C. Silva

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Actually, the germplasm of Jatropha spp. is conserved as whole plants in field collections. Under this storage method, the genetic resources are exposed to disease, pest and natural hazards such as human error, drought and weather damage. Besides, field genebanks are costly to maintain and with important requirements of trained personnel. Thus, the development of efficient techniques to ensure its safe conservation and regeneration is therefore of paramount importance. In this work we describe a method for Jatropha curcas seeds cryoexposure and seedling recovery after thawed. In a first experiment, an efficient protocol for in vitro plant recovery was carried out using zygotic embryo or seeds with or without coat. In a second experiment, desiccated seeds with or without coat were exposed to liquid nitrogen and evaluated after cryoexposure. Germination percentages were variable among treatments, and seeds demonstrated tolerance to liquid nitrogen exposure under certain conditions. Seeds of J. curcas presented up to 99.6% germination after seed coat removal. Seeds with coat cultured in vitro did not germinate, and were 60% contaminated. The germination of the zygotic embryos was significantly higher in the ½ MS medium (93.1% than in WPM medium (76.2%, but from zygotic embryo, abnormal seedlings reached up to 99%. Seeds with coat exposed to liquid nitrogen showed 60% germination in culture after coat removal with good plant growth, and seeds cryopreserved without coat presented 82% germination, but seedlings showed a reduced vigor and a significant increase in abnormal plants. Seeds cultured in vitro with coat did not germinate, independently of cryoexposure or not. This study reports the first successful in vitro seedling recovery methodology for Jatropha curcas seeds, after a cryopreservation treatment, and is recommended as an efficient procedure for in vitro plant recovery, when seeds are conserved in germplasm banks by low or cryotemperatures.

  8. AVALIAÇÃO PROSPECTIVA DO GÊNERO JATROPHA (Euphorbiaceae COM FOCO EM BIOTECNOLOGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sammy Aquino Pereira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Jatropha apresenta uma grande diversidade de espécies e potencial socioeconômico, mas existem poucas informações sobre o gênero e estas se encontram dispersas dificultando a tomada de decisão para a inovação. A prospecção científica e tecnológica se apresenta viável nesse processo por indicar temas de interesse para a pesquisa e tecnologia estratégica na tomada de decisão, como é o caso da biotecnologia que tem se destacado por suas aplicações na geração de novos produtos e/ou processos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar as potencialidades e a evolução científica e tecnológica sobre o gênero Jatropha com foco na biotecnologia como agente agregador na agricultura. Foi realizado um estudo bibliométrico, com a coleta de dados nas bases da Web of Science e Derwent Innovation Index. Os dados recuperados foram tratados em software específico e em seguida analisados. Os principais resultados denotam que o número de publicações científicas supera o depósito de patentes. A Índia é o país com o maior número de publicações, enquanto os Estados Unidos é o maior detentor de patentes. As palavras mais citadas pelos autores envolvem a espécie Jatropha curcas e a transformação de seu óleo em biodiesel, a maioria das patentes estão classificadas na Seção C12N e A01H.

  9. Avaliação fitoterápica da Jatropha gossypiifolia L. na cicatrização de suturas na parede abdominal ventral de ratos Phytotherapic evaluation of Jatropha gossypiifolia L. on rats ventral abdominal wall wound healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ulcijara Aquino

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A espécie vegetal Jatropha gossypiifolia L., conhecida também como pião roxo, é utilizada na medicina popular como cicatrizante, anti-hipertensivo, purgativo e diurético. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência da administração intraperitoneal da Jatropha gossypiifolia L., na cicatrização de suturas da parede abdominal ventral de ratos, observando-se os seus aspectos macroscópicos, tensiométricos e microscópicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados no procedimento 40 ratos da linhagem Wistar, machos, distribuídos em dois grupos de 20. Após incisão da parede e abertura da cavidade abdominal, foi instilado 1 ml/kg/peso de cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no grupo controle e no grupo Jatropha o extrato bruto etanólico da Jatropha gossypiifolia L., na concentração de 1 ml/kg/ peso. Realizou-se a sutura da parede abdominal com fio de polipropileno, com pontos separados. Os animais foram avaliados na sua evolução pós-operatória e mortos em dois subgrupos, no 3º e 7º dia. Analisou-se a parede abdominal ventral macroscopicamente, mediu-se a força de resistência a tensão e foram estudados os aspectos histológicos do reparo cicatricial. RESULTADOS: No exame macroscópico encontraram-se aderências mais intensas nos subgrupos Jatropha no 3º e 7º dia. A avaliação tensiométrica foi significantemente maior nos subgrupos Jatropha no 3º e 7º dia. A avaliação histológica comparativa entre os subgrupos demonstrou que o processo inflamatório agudo foi significantemente maior no subgrupo Jatropha no 3º e 7º dia; a neoformação capilar foi significantemente maior no 3º dia pós-operatório do subgrupo Jatropha sendo os outros parâmetros histológicos semelhantes. CONCLUSÃO: O uso do extrato bruto de Jatropha gossypiifolia L. intraperitoneal não demonstrou melhora significativa no processo de cicatrização da sutura da parede abdominal ventral de ratos com a dose e concentração utilizadas.INTRODUCTION: The Jatropha gossypiifolia

  10. Capacity of ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. cake to degrade forbol esters

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, André Soares de; Schwambach, Thiago Ivan; Sinhorin, Adilson Paulo; Oliveira, Márcia Rodrigues Carvalho; Alessi, Karine Claudia; Oliveira Filho, Francisco Antônio de; Pina, Douglas dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the capacity of the ensilage of Jatropha curcas L. expeller cake to reduce the phorbol esters and its effect on fermentative losses, by adding soluble carbohydrates or microbial inoculants. The design was completely randomized with four replications in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, with three sources of soluble carbohydrates (SC, control, 50 g sucrose/kg or 50 g crude glycerin/kg as fed) and two doses of microbial inoculants (MI, 0 or 5 × 10(5) ufc...

  11. Caracterización de la torta obtenida del prensado del fruto de Jatropha curcas

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Calle, Rosa M; Suárez-Hernández, J; Támbara-Hernández, Yanet

    2016-01-01

    Jatropha curcas posee un potencial considerable, que radica en su alto contenido de aceite para la producción de biodiesel. Se realizó un estudio con el objetivo de determinar algunos indicadores químicos de la torta obtenida del prensado del fruto de esta oleaginosa. Se obtuvieron los siguientes valores: humedad: 3,80 %; ceniza: 7,02 %; contenido de extractos en agua: 10,7 %; contenido de extractos en etanol: 6,3 %, lo que indicó que la cantidad de compuestos solubles en solventes polares fu...

  12. Biophysicochemical variability evaluation of jatropha curcas L. collections for biodiesel feedstock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaura, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    The seed oils of six Jatropha curcas biotypes were evaluated for their oil quality parameters and showed: oil content (38-41 %), acid value (0.14-6.94 mg/g), free fatty acid (0.07-3.47 %), iodine value (115.48-163.37 mg/g) and viscosity (0.6320-0.7431). Significant differences among biotypes were observed in oil yield and biochemical parameters. The variability among the biotypes indicate a good scope of genetic gain through selection. (author)

  13. Comparative evaluation of physicochemical properties of jatropha curcas seed oil for coolant-lubricant application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murad, Muhamad Nasir; Sharif, Safian; Rahim, Erween Abd.; Abdullah, Rozaini

    2017-09-01

    Increased attention to environmental issues due to industrial activities has forced the authorities raise awareness and implement regulations to reduce the use of mineral oil. Some vegetable oils unexplored or less explored, particularly the non-edible oils such as Jatropha curcas oil (JCO) and others. Physicochemical properties of JCO is compared with others edible oils, synthetic ester and fatty alcohol to obtain a viable alternative in metal cutting fluids. The oil was found to show the suitability of properties for coolant-lubricant applications in term of its physicochemical properties and better in flash point and viscosity value.

  14. Growth of jatropha seedlings in response to single superphosphate and rock-flour fertilization

    OpenAIRE

    Prates, Fabiano Barbosa de Souza; Lucas, Camila dos Santos Gonçalves; Sampaio, Regynaldo Arruda; Brandão Júnior, Delacyr da Silva; Fernandes, Luiz Arnaldo; Junio, Geraldo Ribeiro Zuba

    2012-01-01

    Pesquisas feitas com pó-de-rocha têm mostrado a potencialidade de alguns desses resíduos em promover o enriquecimento mineral de solos; prática definida como rochagem do solo. Ela visa aumentar a fertilidade do solo, proporcionar uma boa produtividade e maior sustentabilidade agrícola. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o crescimento de mudas de pinhão-manso (Jatropha curcas L.) em resposta a adubação do substrato com superfosfato simples e pó-de-rocha. O experimento foi instalado ...

  15. TDZ-Induced Plant Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: A Promising Biofuel Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish

    2018-03-23

    In recent years, Jatropha curcas has pronounced attention due to its capacity of production of biodiesel. Uniform large-scale propagation of J. curcas is one of the significant keys that will eventually decide victory. Direct regeneration is one of the methods which help in the production of uniform and homogenous plant, and TDZ plays an important role in the production of plantlets by direct organogenesis in several number of plant species including J. curcas. Measuring the economical importance of J. curcas and the role of TDZ in shoot regeneration, the present book chapter briefly reviews the impact of TDZ on shoot bud induction from various explants of J. curcas.

  16. TDZ-Induced Plant Regeneration in Jatropha curcas: A Promising Biofuel Plant

    KAUST Repository

    Kumar, Nitish; Bhatt, Vacha D.; Mastan, Shaik G.; Reddy, Muppala P.

    2018-01-01

    In recent years, Jatropha curcas has pronounced attention due to its capacity of production of biodiesel. Uniform large-scale propagation of J. curcas is one of the significant keys that will eventually decide victory. Direct regeneration is one of the methods which help in the production of uniform and homogenous plant, and TDZ plays an important role in the production of plantlets by direct organogenesis in several number of plant species including J. curcas. Measuring the economical importance of J. curcas and the role of TDZ in shoot regeneration, the present book chapter briefly reviews the impact of TDZ on shoot bud induction from various explants of J. curcas.

  17. ISOLATION AND PATHOGENICITY OF A POSSIBLE Pythium aphanidermatum IN Jatropha Curcas L. NON TOXIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Andrea Valdes Rodriguez

    2011-03-01

    A chromista, possible Pythium aphanidermatum, was isolated from severely damage seeds and seedlings recently started from Jatropha curcas L. non toxic seeds sown in the tropical area of Veracruz, Mexico. In order to study pathogenic Pythium aphanidermatum effects over pre-emergent and post-emergent stages, seeds and young seedlings were inoculated with the isolated pathogen, and the chromista showed possible pathogenic activity against pre-emergency and recently started post-emergency; however, statistically significant damaged was not found in older seedlings.   Â

  18. Jatropha oil in compression ignition engines. Effects on the engine, environment and Tanzania as supplying country

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabe, E.L.M.

    2006-05-01

    Energy from biomass and more specific, biodiesel, is one of the opportunities that could cover the future energy demand. This thesis investigates the possibilities for biofuels produced from Jatropha Curcas, a plant that grows in countries around the equator, including Tanzania, on which this thesis focuses. The energy crop has several advantages; it grows on degraded, dry, wasted and even salty land, which can be re-cultivated afterwards; it is toxic, which makes it preferable to other energy crops, because it does not compete with food crops; it gives seeds already after one year and the life-span of the plant is more than 50 years; it is good for the economics and employment of the country; etc. The oil that was gained by pressing the Jatropha seeds and part of it has had a chemical treatment called esterification, which results in the less viscous Jatropha Methyl Ester, a biodiesel. The fuels were tested in an engine set-up and compared to two reference fuels; fossil diesel and the well-known biodiesel Rape Methyl Ester. The engine in the set-up was originally a 6-cylinder II.6 DAF WS engine. It had been adjusted in order to make one measuring cylinder optically accessible. Hereby the combustion process could be filmed with a high speed camera. The experiment yielded the in-cylinder pressure as function of the crank angle, NO/NOx measurements, a photo diode signal that represents the amount of soot produced and from the pressure also heat release and in-cylinder temperature could be computed. The investigation of both the experiments and the broader literature study did not lead to any findings that could hamper the application of Jatropha oil or Methyl Ester in diesel engines. In the short term however, the use should be restricted to Tanzania. In the longer term there might be possibilities for export to Europe as well. This depends on whether European regulation will stimulate the use of bio-oil and bio-diesel or not

  19. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation as an elicitor of flavonoid production in callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvero-Bascos, E.M.; Ungson, L.B.

    2012-01-01

    Callus cultures of jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) grown in Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium supplemented with naphthalene-acetic acid (NAA, 20 microM) and 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin, 20 microM) were exposed to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation to investigate its potential as an abiotic elicitor of flavonoid production. Prior to irradiation, the levels of the flavonoids, apigenin, vitexin and isovitexin in the leaf and callus extracts were determined through high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitexin and isovitexin were the dominant flavonoids in the leaves while only apigenin was detected in the calli, suggesting a correlation between the degree of differentiation and biosynthesis of flavonoids in plant tissues. Irradiation of callus cultures for 7 d using two UV-B doses (12.6 and 25.3 kJ/sq m) induced synthesis of all three flavonoids (up to 780 micro g/g dw increase) to levels similar to or higher than those found in whole leaves. The combined levels of the three flavonoids in the cultures treated with the higher UV-B dose were 20-fold higher than the control and were comparable to concentrations found in leaves while a 10-fold increase in combined flavonoid levels was observed in calli irradiated with the lower UV-B dose. Furthermore, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analyses of DNA extracts from the leaves and calli revealed that UV-B irradiation enhanced flavonoid synthesis without altering DNA sequence. These results further support the supposed involvement of UV-B in the transcriptional regulation of the expression of flavonoid biosysnthetic genes. Overall, the findings showed that elicitation through UV-B irradiation is an effective strategy to induce flavonoid production in dedifferentiated J. curcas cultures that have lost their capacity to produce the flavonoids normally synthesized in intact organs. (author)

  20. The USA policy evolution in the Caspian sea from Clinton to Bush; L'evolution de la politique americaine dans la region de la mer Caspienne de Clinton a Bush

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jafalian, A

    2003-07-01

    The author analyzes the USA policy in the Caspian Sea area and its evolution with the election of Bush. If no major orientation appear, some sensible evolutions are presented concerning the pipelines management in this area. The author presents then, the new definition of the economical variables and the reinforcement of the security dimension of the USA policy. (A.L.B.)

  1. Dilute H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment to enhance enzymatic digestibility of Jatropha curcas fruit hull for ethanol fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Kootstra, Maarten; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2012-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of the Jatropha curcas fruit hull at high temperatures (140°C to 180°C) performed in a 110-mL stainless steel reactor was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of its lignocellulosic components. Carbohydrates accounted for 43% of the dry matter of

  2. Valorisation of Jatropha curcas: Solubilisation of proteins and sugars from the NaOH extracted de-oiled press cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kootstra, A.M.J.; Beeftink, H.H.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the possibilities for increasing the valorisation of de-oiled Jatropha press cake (DO-JPC). The studied raw material is the by-product of the alkaline protein extraction of the DO-JPC: NaOH Extracted DO-JPC (NEDO-JPC). Protein solubilisation of NEDO-JPC was performed

  3. Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Sorption of 4-Nitrophenol on Activated Kaolinitic Clay and Jatropha Curcas Activated Carbon from Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsudeen Olanrewaju Azeez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Adsorption behaviour of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas activated carbon was investigated. The kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas were activated with 1 M HNO3 and 0.5 M NaOH respectively and were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. The effects of processing parameters, such as initial 4-NP concentration, temperature, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process were investigated. The results obtained showed that Jatropha curcas activated carbon exhibited higher performance than activated kaolinitic clay for the removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The adsorption data were best fitted with Freundlich model. The experimental data of the two adsorbate-adsorbent systems fitted very well with the pseudo-second order kinetic model with r2 values of 0.999 respectively. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. The results revealed that the adsorption of 4-nitrophenol onto both adsorbents were exothermic processes and spontaneous for Jatropha curcas activated carbon but non spontaneous for activated kaolinitic clay.

  4. Phorbol Esters Isolated from Jatropha Meal Induced Apoptosis-Mediated Inhibition in Proliferation of Chang and Vero Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syahida Ahmad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The direct feeding of Jatropha meal containing phorbol esters (PEs indicated mild to severe toxicity symptoms in various organs of different animals. However, limited information is available on cellular and molecular mechanism of toxicity caused by PEs present in Jatropha meal. Thus, the present study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic and mode of action of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal using human hepatocyte (Chang and African green monkey kidney (Vero cell lines. The results showed that isolated PEs inhibited cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner in both cell lines with the CC50 of 125.9 and 110.3 μg/mL, respectively. These values were compatible to that of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA values as positive control i.e., 124.5 and 106.3 μg/mL respectively. Microscopic examination, flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation results confirmed cell death due to apoptosis upon treatment with PEs and PMA at CC50 concentration for 24 h in both cell lines. The Western blot analysis revealed the overexpression of PKC-δ and activation of caspase-3 proteins which could be involved in the mechanism of action of PEs and PMA. Consequently, the PEs isolated form Jatropha meal caused toxicity and induced apoptosis-mediated proliferation inhibition toward Chang and Vero cell lines involving over-expression of PKC-δ and caspase-3 as their mode of actions.

  5. Kinetics and thermodynamics of sorption of 4-nitrophenol on activated kaolinitic clay and jatropha curcas activated carbon from aqueous solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azeez, S.O.; Adekola, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption behaviour of 4-nitrophenol (4-NP) on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas activated carbon was investigated. The kaolinitic clay and Jatropha curcas were activated with 1 M HNO/sub 3/ and 0.5 M NaOH respectively and were characterized by XRF, XRD, BET, SEM and FTIR techniques. The effects of processing parameters, such as initial 4-NP concentration, temperature, pH, contact time and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption process were investigated. The results obtained showed that Jatropha curcas activated carbon exhibited higher performance than activated kaolinitic clay for the removal of 4-nitrophenol from aqueous solution. Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich models were used to describe the adsorption isotherms. The adsorption data were best fitted with Freundlich model. The experimental data of the two adsorbate-adsorbent systems fitted very well with the pseudosecond order kinetic model with r2 values of 0.999 respectively. Adsorption thermodynamic parameters were also estimated. The results revealed that the adsorption of 4-nitrophenol onto both adsorbents were exothermic processes and spontaneous for Jatropha curcas activated carbon but non spontaneous for activated kaolinitic clay. (author)

  6. Study of vegetative growth and phytochemical analysis of Jatropha curcas L. grown on the soil of Mount Amba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyembo, K.; Mbaya, N.; Luyindula, N.; Onyembe, P.M.L.; Bulubulu, O.; Muambi, N.

    2009-01-01

    Jatropha curcas L. plant species (Euphorbiaceae) easily fits with the agro-ecological conditions of Mount Amba (Kinshasa) and offers the first harvest after 13 or 14 months of culture. The fat content of seeds amounts to 49.7% and those of total nitrogen of limbs and seed cake are respectively 2.8% and 5.8%.

  7. The use of Jatropha curcas to achieve a self sufficient water distribution system: A case study in rural Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Alexandra

    The use of Jatropha curcas as a source of oil for fueling water pumps holds promise for rural communities struggling to achieve water security in arid climates. The potential for use in developing communities as an affordable, sustainable fuel source has been highly recommended for many reasons: it is easily propagated, drought resistant, grows rapidly, and has high-oil-content seeds, as well as medicinal and economic potential. This study uses a rural community in Senegal, West Africa, and calculates at what level of Jatropha curcas production the village is able to be self-sufficient in fueling their water system to meet drinking, sanitation and irrigation requirements. The current water distribution system was modelled to represent irrigation requirements for nine different Jatropha curcas cultivation and processing schemes. It was found that a combination of using recycled greywater for irrigation and a mechanical press to maximize oil recovered from the seeds of mature Jatropha curcas trees, would be able to operate the water system with no diesel required.

  8. Coconut oil extraction by the traditional Java method : An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Moeis, Maelita R.; Sanders, Johan P. M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w(-1) oil from

  9. Coconut oil extraction by the Java method: An investigation of its potential application in aqueous Jatropha oil extraction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, A.; Moeis, M.R.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Weusthuis, R.A.

    2010-01-01

    A traditional Java method of coconut oil extraction assisted by paddy crabs was investigated to find out if crabs or crab-derived components can be used to extract oil from Jatropha curcas seed kernels. Using the traditional Java method the addition of crab paste liberated 54% w w-1 oil from grated

  10. Thermal, Morphological and Physic-Mechanical Properties of Natural Rubber - CaCO3 Composites Using Jatropha Oil as Softener.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasruddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The urgency of green technology in rubber compounding has become a critical issue recently. In this research, the effect of using renewable resources in rubber compounding has been studied. Commercial Calcium Carbonate, Silica and Jatropha Oil were used in natural rubber composite. The research was designed by varying the types of commercial filler namely CaCO3 (47-51 phr, silica (47-51 phr and Jatropha Oil (4-6 phr in natural rubber composites (SIR-20. The formulas were intentionally designed for rubber tips vulcanizates. The samples were characterized by the determination of physic-mechanical, thermal (TGA and morphological (SEM properties. From the measured results, there is no significant effect on the tensile strength, specific gravity, and hardness on the loading of commercial CaCO3 and Silica in natural rubber composites using Jatropha Oil. However, a slight difference in elongation at break and abrasion resistance could be detected. Compared to the commercial rubber tips, the rubber tips produced in this research have higher tensile strength, elongation at break and abrasion resistance. Due to the usage of commercial CaCO3 and Silica, the SEM micrographs show rough surface because of the agglomeration. The thermogram shows clearly the compositional analysis of the rubber tips vulcanizates consist of Jatropha Oil and natural rubber, CaCO3, ash and other filler residues such as Silica.

  11. Innovative business models for sustainable biofuel production : the case of Tanzanian smallholder jatropha farmers in the global biofuel chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balkema, A.J.; Romijn, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the smallholder outgrower model for jatropha biofuel cultivation in Tanzania. This model is based on seed production by small farmers who sell to a processing company that presses the bio-oil from the seeds locally, either for the local market or for export. This model has been

  12. Economic and Social Sustainability Performance of Jatropha Projects: Results from Field Surveys in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Romijn

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results from comprehensive field surveys of jatropha projects in Mozambique, Tanzania and Mali in 2012. The article singles out the salient economic and social impact results and derives lessons. The results clearly demonstrate the weak business case for jatropha biofuel production at this time. Plantations were found to be unviable because of insurmountable up-front capital requirements in combination with slow and unreliable crop maturation, inefficient oil pressing owing to a lack of scale and experience, inadequate utilization of by-products, and competitively-priced fossil diesel and palm oil. For smallholders, jatropha only has limited value as a hedge crop in environmentally and economically disadvantaged areas. Better prospects have to wait for the advent of improved jatropha varieties. Social impacts from the perspective of project managers were rather mixed: overall, food security perceptions were positive and no massive forced human displacements were noted so far, though some disputes over land access and compensation were reported. Labor legislation was apparently respected on plantations, and positive gender effects, regional income/employment effects and better public facilities were also reported. The projects generated considerable employment, albeit mostly of a temporary nature, as lack of economic viability had caused many projects to close down again. When introducing next-generation biofuel projects, better monitoring by various actor groups is recommended, as well as long-term investment plans that include integral exit strategies.

  13. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) by Cupriavidus necator H16 from jatropha oil as carbon source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batcha, Abeed Fatima Mohidin; Prasad, D M Reddy; Khan, Maksudur R; Abdullah, Hamidah

    2014-05-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a biodegradable polymer that can be synthesized through bacterial fermentation. In this study, Cupriavidus necator H16 is used to synthesize PHB by using Jatropha oil as its sole carbon source. Different variables mainly jatropha oil and urea concentrations, and agitation rate were investigated to determine the optimum condition for microbial fermentation in batch culture. Based on the results, the highest cell dry weight and PHB concentrations of 20.1 and 15.5 g/L, respectively, were obtained when 20 g/L of jatropha oil was used. Ethanol was used as external stress factor and the addition of 1.5 % ethanol at 38 h had a positive effect with a high PHB yield of 0.987 g PHB/g jatropha oil. The kinetic studies for cell growth rate and PHB production were conducted and the data were fitted with Logistic and Leudeking–Piret models. The rate constants were evaluated and the theoretical values were in accordance with the experimental data obtained

  14. The potential of white-rot fungi to degrade phorbol esters of Jatropha curcas L. seed cake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barros, de C.R.M.; Ferreira, L.M.M.; Nunes, F.M.; Bezerra, R.M.F.; Dias, A.A.; Guedes, C.; Cone, J.W.; Marques, G.S.M.; Rodrigues, M.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    The potential of solid-state cultivation, with three white-rot fungi (Bjerkandera adusta, Ganoderma resinaceum and Phlebia rufa), to decrease phorbol esters concentration of Jatropha curcas L. was evaluated in this study. Incubation was conducted in 250¿mL Erlenmeyer flasks without agitation at 28°C

  15. Application of metal triflate catalysts for the trans-esterification of Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniel, Louis; Rasrendra, Carolus B.; Kloekhorst, Arjan; Broekhuis, Antonius A.; Manurung, Robert; Heeres, Hero J.

    This paper describes an experimental study on the application of metal triflate salts for the (trans-) esterification of fatty esters (triolein, methyl oleate, methyl linoleate), fatty acid (oleic acid), as well as Jatropha curcas L. oil with methanol and higher alcohols (ethanol, n-propanol,

  16. Candidates stick to party guns. In lieu of new healthcare plans, Bush, Gore follow party reform proposals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, J; Hallam, K

    2000-07-03

    As the Democratic and GOP nominating conventions approach next month, presumptive nominees Al Gore and George W. Bush are offering no new healthcare plans, both preferring to ride the healthcare waves already set in motion by their respective party's leadership. And the really interesting thing is, the plans aren't that different. Call it creeping incrementalism.

  17. President Bush : langenud nõuavad, et me jätkame võitlust! / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    Salt Lake Citys USA sõjaveteranidele peetud kõnes ütles USA president George W. Bush, et tuleb jõuda eesmärgile, mille eest USA sõdurid oma elu andsid. Samas toimus sõjavastaste demonstratsioon

  18. Relações Brasil e Estados Unidos no período Bush: expectativas e frustrações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virgílio Caixeta Arraes

    2012-09-01

    The article deals with the political and economic relationship between Brazil and United States during the George W Bush mandate (2001-2008. It  discusses the failed attempt to establish a hemispheric free trade agreement, due to the American protectionism, and to expand the use of biofuel. Finally, it also discusses the creation of the Fourth Fleet.

  19. Livelihoods, economic contribution and sustainability of the bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) value chain from three provinces of Gabon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iponga, D.M.; Yobo, C.M.; Ingram, V.J.; Bengone, N.N.; Ngoye, A.

    2018-01-01

    In the Congo Basin, the economic, social and environmental value of non-timber forest products (NTFPs), such as bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis) is widely acknowledged. However, knowledge of the volumes traded, extent and distribution of revenues along the value chain is limited while little is

  20. Agro-climatic zoning of Jatropha curcas as a subside for crop planning and implementation in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Eliane S M; Sentelhas, Paulo C

    2014-11-01

    As jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) is a recent crop in Brazil, the studies for defining its suitability for different regions are not yet available, even considering the promises about this plant as of high potential for marginal zones where poor soils and dry climate occur. Based on that, the present study had as objective to characterize the climatic conditions of jatropha's center of origin in Central America for establishing its climatic requirements and to develop the agro-climatic zoning for this crop for some Brazilian regions where, according to the literature, it would be suitable. For classifying the climatic conditions of the jatropha's center of origin, climate data from 123 weather stations located in Mexico (93) and in Guatemala (30) were used. These data were input for Thornthwaite and Mather's climatological water balance for determining the annual water deficiency (WD) and water surplus (WS) of each location, considering a soil water-holding capacity (SWHC) of 100 mm. Mean annual temperature (T m), WD, and WS data were organized in histograms for defining the limits of suitability for jatropha cultivation. The results showed that the suitable range of T m for jatropha cultivation is between 23 and 27 °C. T m between 15 and 22.9 °C and between 27.1 and 28 °C were classified as marginal by thermal deficiency and excess, respectively. T m below 15 °C and above 28 °C were considered as unsuitable for jatropha cultivation, respectively, by risk of frosts and physiological disturbs. For WD, suitability for rain-fed jatropha cultivation was considered when its value is below 360 mm, while between 361 and 720 mm is considered as marginal and over 720 mm unsuitable. The same order of suitability was also defined for WS, with the following limits: suitable for WS up to 1,200 mm; marginal for WS between 1,201 and 2,400 mm, and unsuitable for WS above 2,400 mm. For the crop zoning, the criteria previously defined were applied to 1,814 climate stations in